WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously validated technique

  1. Ultrasonic techniques validation on shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, J.; Gonzalez, E.

    1998-01-01

    Due to the results obtained in several international RRT during the 80's, it has been necessary to prove the effectiveness of the NDT techniques. For this reason it has been imperative to verify the goodness of the Inspection Procedure over different mock-ups, representative of the inspection area and with real defects. Prior to the revision of the inspection procedure and with the aim of updating the techniques used, it is a good practice to perform different scans on the mock-ups until the validation is achieved. It is at this point, where all the parameters of the inspection at hands are defined; transducer, step, scan direction,... and what it's more important, it will be demonstrated that the technique to be used for the area required to inspection is suitable to evaluate the degradation phenomena that could appear. (Author)

  2. MCNP HPGe detector benchmark with previously validated Cyltran model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, I D; Russ, W R; Bronson, F

    2009-05-01

    An exact copy of the detector model generated for Cyltran was reproduced as an MCNP input file and the detection efficiency was calculated similarly with the methodology used in previous experimental measurements and simulation of a 280 cm(3) HPGe detector. Below 1000 keV the MCNP data correlated to the Cyltran results within 0.5% while above this energy the difference between MCNP and Cyltran increased to about 6% at 4800 keV, depending on the electron cut-off energy.

  3. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency. The... the original data submitter, the applicant may cite the study only in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  4. Uranium Detection - Technique Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colletti, Lisa Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Garduno, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Lujan, Elmer J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Mechler-Hickson, Alexandra Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); May, Iain [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division; Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-04-14

    As a LANL activity for DOE/NNSA in support of SHINE Medical Technologies™ ‘Accelerator Technology’ we have been investigating the application of UV-vis spectroscopy for uranium analysis in solution. While the technique has been developed specifically for sulfate solutions, the proposed SHINE target solutions, it can be adapted to a range of different solution matrixes. The FY15 work scope incorporated technical development that would improve accuracy, specificity, linearity & range, precision & ruggedness, and comparative analysis. Significant progress was achieved throughout FY 15 addressing these technical challenges, as is summarized in this report. In addition, comparative analysis of unknown samples using the Davies-Gray titration technique highlighted the importance of controlling temperature during analysis (impacting both technique accuracy and linearity/range). To fully understand the impact of temperature, additional experimentation and data analyses were performed during FY16. The results from this FY15/FY16 work were presented in a detailed presentation, LA-UR-16-21310, and an update of this presentation is included with this short report summarizing the key findings. The technique is based on analysis of the most intense U(VI) absorbance band in the visible region of the uranium spectra in 1 M H2SO4, at λmax = 419.5 nm.

  5. Validation of the Online version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire for schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel ENGEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the validity of the web-based version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online for schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of elementary school. Methods Participants were 312 schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years of a public school from the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Validity was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, as well as by agreement rates (match, omission, and intrusion rates of food items reported by children on the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online, using direct observation of foods/beverages eaten during school meals (mid-morning snack or afternoon snack on the previous day as the reference. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of participants’ characteristics on omission and intrusion rates. Results The results showed adequate sensitivity (67.7% and specificity (95.2%. There were low omission and intrusion rates of 22.8% and 29.5%, respectively when all food items were analyzed. Pizza/hamburger showed the highest omission rate, whereas milk and milk products showed the highest intrusion rate. The participants who attended school in the afternoon shift presented a higher probability of intrusion compared to their peers who attended school in the morning. Conclusion The Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online possessed satisfactory validity for the assessment of food intake at the group level in schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of public school.

  6. Validation of SWAT+ at field level and comparison with previous SWAT models in simulating hydrologic quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, J.; White, M. J.; Bieger, K.; Yen, H.; Arnold, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been adopted by many researches to assess water quantity and quality in watersheds around the world. As the demand increases in facilitating model support, maintenance, and future development, the SWAT source code and data have undergone major modifications over the past few years. To make the model more flexible in terms of interactions of spatial units and processes occurring in watersheds, a completely revised version of SWAT (SWAT+) was developed to improve SWAT's ability in water resource modelling and management. There are only several applications of SWAT+ in large watersheds, however, no study pays attention to validate the new model at field level and assess its performance. To test the basic hydrologic function of SWAT+, it was implemented in five field cases across five states in the U.S. and compared the SWAT+ created results with that from the previous models at the same fields. Additionally, an automatic calibration tool was used to test which model is easier to be calibrated well in a limited number of parameter adjustments. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of SWAT+ in simulating stream flow on field level at different geographical locations. The results demonstrate that SWAT+ demonstrated similar performance with previous SWAT model, but the flexibility offered by SWAT+ via the connection of different spatial objects can result in a more accurate simulation of hydrological processes in spatial, especially for watershed with artificial facilities. Autocalibration shows that SWAT+ is much easier to obtain a satisfied result compared with the previous SWAT. Although many capabilities have already been enhanced in SWAT+, there exist inaccuracies in simulation. This insufficiency will be improved with advancements in scientific knowledge on hydrologic process in specific watersheds. Currently, SWAT+ is prerelease, and any errors are being addressed.

  7. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis; Zygomalas, Apollon; Papas, Theofanis; Maras, Dimitris; Pavlidis, Polyvios; Andrikopoulou, Maria; Tsanis, Antonis; Alivizatos, Vasileios; Bessias, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates

  8. Insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotsikoris, Ioannis, E-mail: gkotsikoris@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Zygomalas, Apollon, E-mail: azygomalas@upatras.gr [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Patras (Greece); Papas, Theofanis, E-mail: pfanis@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Maras, Dimitris, E-mail: dimmaras@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Pavlidis, Polyvios, E-mail: polpavlidis@yahoo.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Andrikopoulou, Maria, E-mail: madric@gmail.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Tsanis, Antonis, E-mail: atsanis@gmail.com [Department of Interventional Radiology, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece); Alivizatos, Vasileios, E-mail: valiviz@hol.gr [Department of General Surgery and Artificial Nutrition Unit, “Agios Andreas” General Hospital of Patras (Greece); Bessias, Nikolaos, E-mail: bessias@otenet.gr [Department of Vascular Surgery, “Erythros Stauros” General Hospital (Greece)

    2012-09-15

    Introduction: Central venous catheter placement is an effective alternative vascular access for dialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the insertion of central venous catheters for hemodialysis using angiographic techniques in patients with previous multiple catheterizations in terms of efficacy of the procedure and early complications. Materials and methods: Between 2008 and 2010, the vascular access team of our hospital placed 409 central venous catheters in patients with chronic renal failure. The procedure was performed using the Seldinger blind technique. In 18 (4.4%) cases it was impossible to advance the guidewire, and so the patients were transported to the angiography suite. Results: Using the angiographic technique, the guidewire was advanced in order to position the central venous catheter. The latter was inserted into the subclavian vein in 12 (66.6%) cases, into the internal jugular vein in 4 (22.2%) and into the femoral vein in 2 (11.1%) cases. There was only one complicated case with severe arrhythmia in 1 (5.5%) patient. Conclusion: Our results suggest that insertion of central venous catheters using angiographic techniques in hemodialysis patients with previous multiple catheterizations is a safe and effective procedure with few complications and high success rates.

  9. Technique for sparing previously irradiated critical normal structures in salvage proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W; Wolanski, Mark R; Simmons, Joseph W; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Cranial reirradiation is clinically appropriate in some cases but cumulative radiation dose to critical normal structures remains a practical concern. The authors developed a simple technique in 3D conformal proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to block organs at risk (OAR) while minimizing underdosing of adjacent target brain tissue. Two clinical cases illustrate the use of proton therapy to provide salvage CSI when a previously irradiated OAR required sparing from additional radiation dose. The prior radiation plan was coregistered to the treatment planning CT to create a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) around the OAR. Right and left lateral cranial whole brain proton apertures were created with a small block over the PRV. Then right and left lateral “inverse apertures” were generated, creating an aperture opening in the shape of the area previously blocked and blocking the area previously open. The inverse aperture opening was made one millimeter smaller than the original block to minimize the risk of dose overlap. The inverse apertures were used to irradiate the target volume lateral to the PRV, selecting a proton beam range to abut the 50% isodose line against either lateral edge of the PRV. Together, the 4 cranial proton fields created a region of complete dose avoidance around the OAR. Comparative photon treatment plans were generated with opposed lateral X-ray fields with custom blocks and coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy optimized to avoid the PRV. Cumulative dose volume histograms were evaluated. Treatment plans were developed and successfully implemented to provide sparing of previously irradiated critical normal structures while treating target brain lateral to these structures. The absence of dose overlapping during irradiation through the inverse apertures was confirmed by film. Compared to the lateral X-ray and IMRT treatment plans, the proton CSI technique improved coverage of target brain tissue while providing the least

  10. Validation of an online replanning technique for prostate adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Cheng; Chen Guangpei; Ahunbay, Ergun; Wang Dian; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-06-21

    We have previously developed an online adaptive replanning technique to rapidly adapt the original plan according to daily CT. This paper reports the quality assurance (QA) developments in its clinical implementation for prostate cancer patients. A series of pre-clinical validation tests were carried out to verify the overall accuracy and consistency of the online replanning procedure. These tests include (a) phantom measurements of 22 individual patient adaptive plans to verify their accuracy and deliverability and (b) efficiency and applicability of the online replanning process. A four-step QA procedure was established to ensure the safe and accurate delivery of an adaptive plan, including (1) offline phantom measurement of the original plan, (2) online independent monitor unit (MU) calculation for a redundancy check, (3) online verification of plan-data transfer using an in-house software and (4) offline validation of actually delivered beam parameters. The pre-clinical validations demonstrate that the newly implemented online replanning technique is dosimetrically accurate and practically efficient. The four-step QA procedure is capable of identifying possible errors in the process of online adaptive radiotherapy and to ensure the safe and accurate delivery of the adaptive plans. Based on the success of this work, the online replanning technique has been used in the clinic to correct for interfractional changes during the prostate radiation therapy.

  11. Validation of an online replanning technique for prostate adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Cheng; Chen Guangpei; Ahunbay, Ergun; Wang Dian; Lawton, Colleen; Li, X Allen

    2011-01-01

    We have previously developed an online adaptive replanning technique to rapidly adapt the original plan according to daily CT. This paper reports the quality assurance (QA) developments in its clinical implementation for prostate cancer patients. A series of pre-clinical validation tests were carried out to verify the overall accuracy and consistency of the online replanning procedure. These tests include (a) phantom measurements of 22 individual patient adaptive plans to verify their accuracy and deliverability and (b) efficiency and applicability of the online replanning process. A four-step QA procedure was established to ensure the safe and accurate delivery of an adaptive plan, including (1) offline phantom measurement of the original plan, (2) online independent monitor unit (MU) calculation for a redundancy check, (3) online verification of plan-data transfer using an in-house software and (4) offline validation of actually delivered beam parameters. The pre-clinical validations demonstrate that the newly implemented online replanning technique is dosimetrically accurate and practically efficient. The four-step QA procedure is capable of identifying possible errors in the process of online adaptive radiotherapy and to ensure the safe and accurate delivery of the adaptive plans. Based on the success of this work, the online replanning technique has been used in the clinic to correct for interfractional changes during the prostate radiation therapy.

  12. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  13. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this announcement is to effect the valid publication of the following effectively published new names and new combinations under the procedure described in the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision). Authors and other individuals wishing to have new names and/or combinations included in future lists should send three copies of the pertinent reprint or photocopies thereof, or an electronic copy of the published paper, to the IJSEM Editorial Office for confirmation that all of the other requirements for valid publication have been met. It is also a requirement of IJSEM and the ICSP that authors of new species, new subspecies and new combinations provide evidence that types are deposited in two recognized culture collections in two different countries (i.e. documents certifying deposition and availability of type strains). It should be noted that the date of valid publication of these new names and combinations is the date of publication of this list, not the date of the original publication of the names and combinations. The authors of the new names and combinations are as given below, and these authors' names will be included in the author index of the present issue and in the volume author index. Inclusion of a name on these lists validates the publication of the name and thereby makes it available in bacteriological nomenclature. The inclusion of a name on this list is not to be construed as taxonomic acceptance of the taxon to which the name is applied. Indeed, some of these names may, in time, be shown to be synonyms, or the organisms may be transferred to another genus, thus necessitating the creation of a new combination.

  14. Mean-Variance-Validation Technique for Sequential Kriging Metamodels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Ho Sung

    2010-01-01

    The rigorous validation of the accuracy of metamodels is an important topic in research on metamodel techniques. Although a leave-k-out cross-validation technique involves a considerably high computational cost, it cannot be used to measure the fidelity of metamodels. Recently, the mean 0 validation technique has been proposed to quantitatively determine the accuracy of metamodels. However, the use of mean 0 validation criterion may lead to premature termination of a sampling process even if the kriging model is inaccurate. In this study, we propose a new validation technique based on the mean and variance of the response evaluated when sequential sampling method, such as maximum entropy sampling, is used. The proposed validation technique is more efficient and accurate than the leave-k-out cross-validation technique, because instead of performing numerical integration, the kriging model is explicitly integrated to accurately evaluate the mean and variance of the response evaluated. The error in the proposed validation technique resembles a root mean squared error, thus it can be used to determine a stop criterion for sequential sampling of metamodels

  15. Immediate breast reconstruction after skin- or nipple-sparing mastectomy for previously augmented patients: a personal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgarello, Marzia; Rochira, Dario; Barone-Adesi, Liliana; Farallo, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Breast reconstruction for previously augmented patients differs from breast reconstruction for nonaugmented patients. Many surgeons regard conservation therapy as not feasible for these patients because of implant complications, whether radiotherapy-induced or not. Despite this, most authors agree that mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction is the most suitable choice, ensuring both a good cosmetic result and a low complication rate. Implant retention or removal remains a controversial topic in addition to the best available surgical technique. This study reviewed the authors' experience with immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) with anatomically definitive implants. The retrospective records of 12 patients were examined (group A). These patients were among 254 patients who underwent SSM or NSM for breast carcinoma. The control group comprised 12 of the 254 patients submitted to SSM or NSM (group B) who best matched the 12 patients in the studied group. All of them underwent immediate breast reconstruction, with an anatomically definitive implant placed in a submuscular-subfascial pocket. The demographic, technical, and oncologic data of the two groups were compared as well as the aesthetic outcomes using the Breast Q score. The proportion of complications, the type of implant, the axillary lymph node procedure, and the histology were compared between the two groups using Fisher's exact test. Student's t test was used to compare the scores for the procedure-specific modules of the breast Q questionnaire in the two groups. A validated patient satisfaction score was obtained using the breast Q questionnaire after breast reconstruction. The demographic, technical, and oncologic characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. The previously augmented patients reported a significantly higher level of satisfaction with their breast than the control patients. The scores

  16. Determination of sulfate in thorium salts using gravimetric technique with previous thorium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.M. da; Pires, M.A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. A simple analytical method to analyze sulfates in thorium salt, is presented. The method is based on the thorium separation as hydroxide. The gravimetric technique is used to analyze the sulfate in the filtered as barium sulfate. Using this method, the sulfate separation from thorium has been reach 99,9% yield, and 0,1% precision. This method is applied to thorium salts specifically thorium sulfate, carbonate and nitrate. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  17. A Validation Study of the Impression Replica Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerström, Sofia; Wiking-Lima de Faria, Johanna; Braian, Michael; Ameri, Arman; Ahlgren, Camilla

    2018-04-17

    To validate the well-known and often-used impression replica technique for measuring fit between a preparation and a crown in vitro. The validation consisted of three steps. First, a measuring instrument was validated to elucidate its accuracy. Second, a specimen consisting of male and female counterparts was created and validated by the measuring instrument. Calculations were made for the exact values of three gaps between the male and female. Finally, impression replicas were produced of the specimen gaps and sectioned into four pieces. The replicas were then measured with the use of a light microscope. The values received from measuring the specimen were then compared with the values received from the impression replicas, and the technique was thereby validated. The impression replica technique overvalued all measured gaps. Depending on location of the three measuring sites, the difference between the specimen and the impression replicas varied from 47 to 130 μm. The impression replica technique overestimates gaps within the range of 2% to 11%. The validation of the replica technique enables the method to be used as a reference when testing other methods for evaluating fit in dentistry. © 2018 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Intralesional Osteophyte Regrowth Following Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation after Previous Treatment with Marrow Stimulation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Marco Kawamura; Minas, Tom; von Keudell, Arvind; Sodha, Sonal; Bryant, Tim; Gomoll, Andreas H

    2017-04-01

    Objective Bone marrow stimulation surgeries are frequent in the treatment of cartilage lesions. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) may be performed after failed microfracture surgery. Alterations to subchondral bone as intralesional osteophytes are commonly seen after previous microfracture and removed during ACI. There have been no reports on potential recurrence. Our purpose was to evaluate the incidence of intralesional osteophyte development in 2 cohorts: existing intralesional osteophytes and without intralesional osteophytes at the time of ACI. Study Design We identified 87 patients (157 lesions) with intralesional osteophytes among a cohort of 497 ACI patients. Osteophyte regrowth was analyzed on magnetic resonance imaging and categorized as small or large (less or more than 50% of the cartilage thickness). Twenty patients (24 defects) without intralesional osteophytes at the time of ACI acted as control. Results Osteophyte regrowth was observed in 39.5% of lesions (34.4% of small osteophytes and 5.1% of large osteophytes). In subgroup analyses, regrowth was observed in 45.8% of periosteal-covered defects and in 18.9% of collagen membrane-covered defects. Large osteophyte regrowth occurred in less than 5% in either group. Periosteal defects showed a significantly higher incidence for regrowth of small osteophytes. In the control group, intralesional osteophytes developed in 16.7% of the lesions. Conclusions Even though intralesional osteophytes may regrow after removal during ACI, most of them are small. Small osteophyte regrowth occurs almost twice in periosteum-covered ACI. Large osteophytes occur only in 5% of patients. Intralesional osteophyte formation is not significantly different in preexisting intralesional osteophytes and control groups.

  19. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2016-02-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. PMID:26590280

  1. Technique for unit testing of safety software verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Duo; Zhang Liangju; Feng Junting

    2008-01-01

    The key issue arising from digitalization of the reactor protection system for nuclear power plant is how to carry out verification and validation (V and V), to demonstrate and confirm the software that performs reactor safety functions is safe and reliable. One of the most important processes for software V and V is unit testing, which verifies and validates the software coding based on concept design for consistency, correctness and completeness during software development. The paper shows a preliminary study on the technique for unit testing of safety software V and V, focusing on such aspects as how to confirm test completeness, how to establish test platform, how to develop test cases and how to carry out unit testing. The technique discussed here was successfully used in the work of unit testing on safety software of a digital reactor protection system. (authors)

  2. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Darvishi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS, biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI’s ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  3. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-10-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) is a new modelling method comprising of multiple interacting agent. They have been used in the different areas; for instance, geographic information system (GIS), biology, economics, social science and computer science. The emergence of ABM toolkits in GIS software libraries (e.g. ESRI's ArcGIS, OpenMap, GeoTools, etc) for geospatial modelling is an indication of the growing interest of users to use of special capabilities of ABMS. Since ABMS is inherently similar to human cognition, therefore it could be built easily and applicable to wide range applications than a traditional simulation. But a key challenge about ABMS is difficulty in their validation and verification. Because of frequent emergence patterns, strong dynamics in the system and the complex nature of ABMS, it is hard to validate and verify ABMS by conventional validation methods. Therefore, attempt to find appropriate validation techniques for ABM seems to be necessary. In this paper, after reviewing on Principles and Concepts of ABM for and its applications, the validation techniques and challenges of ABM validation are discussed.

  4. Towards Model Validation and Verification with SAT Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gogolla, Martin

    2010-01-01

    After sketching how system development and the UML (Unified Modeling Language) and the OCL (Object Constraint Language) are related, validation and verification with the tool USE (UML-based Specification Environment) is demonstrated. As a more efficient alternative for verification tasks, two approaches using SAT-based techniques are put forward: First, a direct encoding of UML and OCL with Boolean variables and propositional formulas, and second, an encoding employing an...

  5. Validation of the actuator line/Navier Stokes technique using mexico measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments in Control......This paper concerns the contribution of DTU MEK in the international research collaboration project (MexNext) within the framework of IEA Annex 29 to validate aerodynamic models or CFD codes using the existing measurements made in the previous EU funded projectMEXICO (Model Experiments...... in Controlled Conditions). The Actuator Line/Navier Stokes (AL/NS) technique developed at DTU is validated against the detailed MEXICO measurements. The AL/NS computations without the DNW wind tunnel with speeds of 10m/s, 15m/s and 24m/s. Comparisons of blade loading between computations and measurements show...

  6. Validation of radioisotopic labelling techniques in gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, R.; Stanghellini, V.; Raiti, C.; Calamelli, R.; Salgemini, R.; Barbara, L.; Zarabini, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several techniques are currently employed to label solid and liquid foods with gamma-emitting radioisotopes in order to carry out gamma-camera gastric emptying studies. The present study describes an in vitro technique for evaluating the labelling stability of some of the most commonly employed radiomarkers of both the solid and liquid phases. Technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ( 99m Tc-SC) in vivo and in vitro labelled liver of chickens and other animal species appears to be almost ideal marker of the solid phase (97% of radioactivity still bound to the solid phase after incubation in gastric juice for 90 minutes). On the contrary, 51 CrCl 3 -beef ground meat (81%) and 99m Tc-SC egg white (69%) are unsatisfactory markers of the solid phase. Likewise, 99m Tc-DTPA and 111 In-DTPA cannot be considered satisfactory fluid-phase agents, because of the high proportion of radioactivity that leaves the liquid phase to become bound to the solid phase (respectively 76% and 49% after 90 minutes of incubation). This validation technique appears to be simple, feasible and reprodicible, and can be applied in any Nuclear Medicine Department to evaluate the validity of the labelling procedures, in order to improve the accuracy of the results of radioisotopic gastric emptying studies

  7. Validation of keypad user identity using a novel biometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabham, N J; White, N M

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents initial work on the development of a keypad incorporating sensors to enable the biometric identity validation of the person using the keypad. The technique reported here is covert and non-intrusive and in use, requires no additional actions on the part of the user. Test systems have been developed using commercially available keypads, modified with mass-produced force sensors to facilitate measurement of key-press dynamics. Measurements are accomplished using a DAQ module attached to a PC running custom software to extract the biometric data and perform the validation. The design of the test system and the results from initial trials are presented. For a system designed for a false rejection ratio of 0%, a false acceptance rate of around 15% can be achieved

  8. Validation Techniques for Sensor Data in Mobile Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miguel Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications have become a must in every user’s smart device, and many of these applications make use of the device sensors’ to achieve its goal. Nevertheless, it remains fairly unknown to the user to which extent the data the applications use can be relied upon and, therefore, to which extent the output of a given application is trustworthy or not. To help developers and researchers and to provide a common ground of data validation algorithms and techniques, this paper presents a review of the most commonly used data validation algorithms, along with its usage scenarios, and proposes a classification for these algorithms. This paper also discusses the process of achieving statistical significance and trust for the desired output.

  9. Survey and assessment of conventional software verification and validation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Groundwater, E.; Mirsky, S.M.

    1993-02-01

    Reliable software is required for nuclear power plant applications. Verification and validation (V ampersand V) techniques may be applied during software development to help eliminate errors that can inhibit the proper operation of digital systems and that may cause safety problems. EPRI and the NRC are cosponsoring this investigation to determine the best strategies for V ampersand V of expert system software. The strategy used for a particular system will depend on the complexity of the software and the level of integrity required. This report covers the first task in the investigation of reviewing methods for V ampersand V of conventional software systems and evaluating them for use with expert systems

  10. Technique Triangulation for Validation in Directed Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine M. Humble PhD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Division of labor in wedding planning varies for first-time marriages, with three types of couples—traditional, transitional, and egalitarian—identified, but nothing is known about wedding planning for remarrying individuals. Using semistructured interviews, the author interviewed 14 couples in which at least one person had remarried and used directed content analysis to investigate the extent to which the aforementioned typology could be transferred to this different context. In this paper she describes how a triangulation of analytic techniques provided validation for couple classifications and also helped with moving beyond “blind spots” in data analysis. Analytic approaches were the constant comparative technique, rank order comparison, and visual representation of coding, using MAXQDA 2007's tool called TextPortraits.

  11. Using of Structural Equation Modeling Techniques in Cognitive Levels Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Curkovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When constructing knowledge tests, cognitive level is usually one of the dimensions comprising the test specifications with each item assigned to measure a particular level. Recently used taxonomies of the cognitive levels most often represent some modification of the original Bloom’s taxonomy. There are many concerns in current literature about existence of predefined cognitive levels. The aim of this article is to investigate can structural equation modeling techniques confirm existence of different cognitive levels. For the purpose of the research, a Croatian final high-school Mathematics exam was used (N = 9626. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural regression modeling were used to test three different models. Structural equation modeling techniques did not support existence of different cognitive levels in this case. There is more than one possible explanation for that finding. Some other techniques that take into account nonlinear behaviour of the items as well as qualitative techniques might be more useful for the purpose of the cognitive levels validation. Furthermore, it seems that cognitive levels were not efficient descriptors of the items and so improvements are needed in describing the cognitive skills measured by items.

  12. Validation of transport models using additive flux minimization technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Hakim, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    A new additive flux minimization technique is proposed for carrying out the verification and validation (V and V) of anomalous transport models. In this approach, the plasma profiles are computed in time dependent predictive simulations in which an additional effective diffusivity is varied. The goal is to obtain an optimal match between the computed and experimental profile. This new technique has several advantages over traditional V and V methods for transport models in tokamaks and takes advantage of uncertainty quantification methods developed by the applied math community. As a demonstration of its efficiency, the technique is applied to the hypothesis that the paleoclassical density transport dominates in the plasma edge region in DIII-D tokamak discharges. A simplified version of the paleoclassical model that utilizes the Spitzer resistivity for the parallel neoclassical resistivity and neglects the trapped particle effects is tested in this paper. It is shown that a contribution to density transport, in addition to the paleoclassical density transport, is needed in order to describe the experimental profiles. It is found that more additional diffusivity is needed at the top of the H-mode pedestal, and almost no additional diffusivity is needed at the pedestal bottom. The implementation of this V and V technique uses the FACETS::Core transport solver and the DAKOTA toolkit for design optimization and uncertainty quantification. The FACETS::Core solver is used for advancing the plasma density profiles. The DAKOTA toolkit is used for the optimization of plasma profiles and the computation of the additional diffusivity that is required for the predicted density profile to match the experimental profile.

  13. Validation of transport models using additive flux minimization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S. E.; Groebner, R. J.; Hakim, A.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.

    2013-01-01

    A new additive flux minimization technique is proposed for carrying out the verification and validation (V and V) of anomalous transport models. In this approach, the plasma profiles are computed in time dependent predictive simulations in which an additional effective diffusivity is varied. The goal is to obtain an optimal match between the computed and experimental profile. This new technique has several advantages over traditional V and V methods for transport models in tokamaks and takes advantage of uncertainty quantification methods developed by the applied math community. As a demonstration of its efficiency, the technique is applied to the hypothesis that the paleoclassical density transport dominates in the plasma edge region in DIII-D tokamak discharges. A simplified version of the paleoclassical model that utilizes the Spitzer resistivity for the parallel neoclassical resistivity and neglects the trapped particle effects is tested in this paper. It is shown that a contribution to density transport, in addition to the paleoclassical density transport, is needed in order to describe the experimental profiles. It is found that more additional diffusivity is needed at the top of the H-mode pedestal, and almost no additional diffusivity is needed at the pedestal bottom. The implementation of this V and V technique uses the FACETS::Core transport solver and the DAKOTA toolkit for design optimization and uncertainty quantification. The FACETS::Core solver is used for advancing the plasma density profiles. The DAKOTA toolkit is used for the optimization of plasma profiles and the computation of the additional diffusivity that is required for the predicted density profile to match the experimental profile

  14. [Estimating child mortality using the previous child technique, with data from health centers and household surveys: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A; Hill, A G

    1988-01-01

    2 trials of the previous child or preceding birth technique in Bamako, Mali, and Lima, Peru, gave very promising results for measurement of infant and early child mortality using data on survivorship of the 2 most recent births. In the Peruvian study, another technique was tested in which each woman was asked about her last 3 births. The preceding birth technique described by Brass and Macrae has rapidly been adopted as a simple means of estimating recent trends in early childhood mortality. The questions formulated and the analysis of results are direct when the mothers are visited at the time of birth or soon after. Several technical aspects of the method believed to introduce unforeseen biases have now been studied and found to be relatively unimportant. But the problems arising when the data come from a nonrepresentative fraction of the total fertile-aged population have not been resolved. The analysis based on data from 5 maternity centers including 1 hospital in Bamako, Mali, indicated some practical problems and the information obtained showed the kinds of subtle biases that can result from the effects of selection. The study in Lima tested 2 abbreviated methods for obtaining recent early childhood mortality estimates in countries with deficient vital registration. The basic idea was that a few simple questions added to household surveys on immunization or diarrheal disease control for example could produce improved child mortality estimates. The mortality estimates in Peru were based on 2 distinct sources of information in the questionnaire. All women were asked their total number of live born children and the number still alive at the time of the interview. The proportion of deaths was converted into a measure of child survival using a life table. Then each woman was asked for a brief history of the 3 most recent live births. Dates of birth and death were noted in month and year of occurrence. The interviews took only slightly longer than the basic survey

  15. Validation of the Berlese-funnel technique for thrips extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteels, H; Witters, J; De Bondt, G; Desamblanx, J

    2009-01-01

    In order to get the accreditation EN ISO/IEC 17025 for Thrips palmi the Berlese-funnel technique, which is used for the isolation of quarantine insects out of plant material, was validated. Following parameters were investigated: cleaning of the funnel, temperature during isolation, detection limit and duration of the isolation period. Thrips fuscipennis was collected from heavily infected rosehip and used as target organism. Besides orchids, artificially contaminated maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) were used for the validation. Results showed that thrips and other organisms can be present alive or dead in the funnel after removing the treated plants and can contaminate the next sample or isolate. Cleaning of the funnel with a vacuum cleaner and compressed-air apparatus is necessary before running a new extraction. Contamination of the recipient is also possible from the environment. This can be avoided by closing the opening between the funnel and the recipient. To reach an optimal temperature for isolation of the thrips a 60 Watt bulb is necessary. The results showed that the maximum temperature doesn't reach a temperature above 51 degrees C, the average temperatures were situated between 35, 74 degrees C and 39, 38 degrees C. A 40 Watt bulb doesn't create enough heat to guarantee an efficient isolation of the thrips; the average temperature was 34, 74 degrees C and the maximum temperature 36, 80 degrees C. Based on the results we can conclude that an isolation time of 20 hours is necessary to obtain accurate data. Dependent on the number of thrips in the artificially infected samples 87 to 95% is isolated after 20 hours. The detection limit is 1 thrips with a probability of 95% being isolated after 20 hours.

  16. The validity and reliability of iridology in the diagnosis of previous acute appendicitis as evi-denced by appendectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iridology is defined as a photographic science that identifies pathological and functional changes within organs via biomicroscopic iris assessment for aberrant lines, spots, and discolourations. According to iridology, the iris does not reflect changes  during  anaesthesia,  due  to  the  drugs inhibitory  effects  on  nerves  impulses,  and  in cases of organ removal, it reflects the pre-surgical condition.The profession of Homoeopathy is frequently associated with iridology and in a recent survey (2009  investigating  the  perceptions  of  Masters of  Technology  graduates  in  Homoeopathy  of University of Johannesburg, iridology was highly regarded as a potential additional skill requirement for assessing the health status of the patient.This  study  investigated  the  reliability  of iridology  in  the  diagnosis  of  previous  acute appendicitis, as evidenced by appendectomy. A total of 60 participants took part in the study. Thirty of the 60 participants had an appendectomy due to acute appendicitis, and 30 had had no prior history  of  appendicitis.  Each  participant’s  right iris  was  documented  by  photography  with  the use  of  a  non-mydriatic  retinal  camera  that  was reset for photographing the iris. The photographs were then randomized by an external person and no identifying data made available to the three raters.  The  raters  included  the  researcher,  who had little experience in iridology and two highly experienced  practising  iridologists.  Data  was obtained  from  the  analyses  of  the  photographs wherein  the  presence  or  absence  of  lesions (implying acute appendicitis was indicated by the raters. None of the three raters was able to show a significant  success  rate  in  identifying  correctly the  people  with  a  previous  history  of  acute appendicitis and resultant appendectomies

  17. Validating database constraints and updates using automated reasoning techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, Remco; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach to the validation of formal specifications of integrity constraints. The validation problem of fornmal specifications consists of assuring whether the formal specification corresponds with what the domain specialist intends. This is distinct from the

  18. Estimation of Resting Energy Expenditure: Validation of Previous and New Predictive Equations in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar-Tek, Nilüfer; Ağagündüz, Duygu; Çelik, Bülent; Bozbulut, Rukiye

    2017-08-01

    Accurate estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) in childrenand adolescents is important to establish estimated energy requirements. The aim of the present study was to measure REE in obese children and adolescents by indirect calorimetry method, compare these values with REE values estimated by equations, and develop the most appropriate equation for this group. One hundred and three obese children and adolescents (57 males, 46 females) between 7 and 17 years (10.6 ± 2.19 years) were recruited for the study. REE measurements of subjects were made with indirect calorimetry (COSMED, FitMatePro, Rome, Italy) and body compositions were analyzed. In females, the percentage of accurate prediction varied from 32.6 (World Health Organization [WHO]) to 43.5 (Molnar and Lazzer). The bias for equations was -0.2% (Kim), 3.7% (Molnar), and 22.6% (Derumeaux-Burel). Kim's (266 kcal/d), Schmelzle's (267 kcal/d), and Henry's equations (268 kcal/d) had the lowest root mean square error (RMSE; respectively 266, 267, 268 kcal/d). The equation that has the highest RMSE values among female subjects was the Derumeaux-Burel equation (394 kcal/d). In males, when the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had the lowest accurate prediction value (12.3%), the highest values were found using Schmelzle's (42.1%), Henry's (43.9%), and Müller's equations (fat-free mass, FFM; 45.6%). When Kim and Müller had the smallest bias (-0.6%, 9.9%), Schmelzle's equation had the smallest RMSE (331 kcal/d). The new specific equation based on FFM was generated as follows: REE = 451.722 + (23.202 * FFM). According to Bland-Altman plots, it has been found out that the new equations are distributed randomly in both males and females. Previously developed predictive equations mostly provided unaccurate and biased estimates of REE. However, the new predictive equations allow clinicians to estimate REE in an obese children and adolescents with sufficient and acceptable accuracy.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN A PREVIOUSLY UNAFFECTED AREA BY CONVENTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND CELL-BLOCK FIXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanne Rotti ABRANTES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the report of a second case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in São Bento da Lagoa, Itaipuaçu, in the municipality of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological survey was carried out, through active search, totaling 145 dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and rapid chromatographic immunoassay based on dual-path platform (DPP(r were used to perform the serological examinations. The parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous fragments was performed by parasitological culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. In the serological assessment, 21 dogs were seropositive by IFA, 17 by ELISA, and 11 by DPP(r, with sensitivity of 66.7%, 66.7% and 50%, and specificity of 87.2%, 90.2% and 94%, respectively for each technique. The immunohistochemistry of bone marrow using the cell-block technique presented the best results, with six positive dogs found, three of which tested negative by the other parasitological techniques. Leishmania sp. was isolated by parasitological culture in three dogs. The detection of autochthonous Leishmania infantum in Itaipuaçu, and the high prevalence of seropositive dogs confirm the circulation of this parasite in the study area and alert for the risk of expansion in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  20. Natural resource validation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. The authors provide an objective overview of resource valuation techniques and describe their potential role in environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities at federal facilities. This handbook considers five general classes of valuation techniques: (1) market-based techniques, which rely on historical information on market prices and transactions to determine resource values; (2) nonmarket techniques that rely on indirect estimates of resource values; (3) nonmarket techniques that are based on direct estimates of resource values; (4) cross-cutting valuation techniques, which combine elements of one or more of these methods; and (5) ecological valuation techniques used in the emerging field of ecological economics. The various valuation techniques under consideration are described by highlighting their applicability in environmental management and regulation. The handbook also addresses key unresolved issues in the application of valuation techniques generally, including discounting future values, incorporating environmental equity concerns, and concerns over the uncertainties in the measurement of natural resource values and environmental risk.

  1. Urban roughness mapping validation techniques and some first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, M; Mestayer, PG

    1998-01-01

    Because of measuring problems related to evaluation of urban roughness parameters, a new approach using a roughness mapping tool has been tested: evaluation of roughness length z(o) and zero displacement z(d) from cadastral databases. Special attention needs to be given to the validation of the

  2. Experimental validation of waveform relaxation technique for power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two systems are considered: a HVDC controller tested with a detailed model of the converters, and a TCSC based damping controller tested with a low frequency model of a power system. The results are validated with those obtained using simulated models of the controllers. We also present results of an experiment in ...

  3. Implementation and Validation of Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Robotic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Aarshay Jain; Deepansh Jagotra; Vijayant Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this study is implementation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technique for developing an inverse kinematics solution for the Raven-IITM surgical research robot [1]. First, the kinematic model of the Raven-IITM robot was analysed along with the proposed analytical solution [2] for inverse kinematics problem. Next, The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques was implemented. The training data for the same was careful selected by keeping manipulability constraints in mind...

  4. Calibration and validation of full-field techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalmann R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We review basic metrological terms related to the use of measurement equipment for verification of numerical model calculations. We address three challenges that are faced when performing measurements in experimental mechanics with optical techniques: the calibration of a measuring instrument that (i measures strain values, (ii provides full-field data, and (iii is dynamic.

  5. CAVEAT: an assistance project for software validation using formal techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotin, A.; Antoine, C.; Baudin, P.; Collart, J.M.; Raguideau, J.; Zylberajch, C.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the CAVEAT project is to provide a tool for the validation of industrial C language softwares. It allows the user to go inside the program and have a good comprehension of it. It allows also the possibility to realize refined verifications of the consistency between the specifications and the program by translating the properties into a more suitable language. It calculates automatically the conditions to demonstrate, and offers an assistance to perform interactive demonstrations. The principal application of this tool is the safety of systems during the verification/certification phase or during the developing phase where it can works as an intelligent debugging system. (J.S.). 5 refs., 1 fig

  6. Fuel reprocessing data validation using the isotope correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.; Bucher, R.G.; Pond, R.B.; Cornella, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Isotope Correlation Technique (ICT), in conjunction with the gravimetric (Pu/U ratio) method for mass determination, provides an independent verification of the input accountancy at the dissolver or accountancy stage of the reprocessing plant. The Isotope Correlation Technique has been applied to many classes of domestic and international reactor systems (light-water, heavy-water, and graphite reactors) operating in a variety of modes (power, research, and production reactors), and for a variety of reprocessing fuel cycle management strategies. Analysis of reprocessing operations data based on isotopic correlations derived for assemblies in a PWR environment and fuel management scheme, yielded differences between the measurement-derived and ICT-derived plutonium mass determinations of (- 0.02 ± 0.23)% for the measured U-235 and (+ 0.50 ± 0.31)% for the measured Pu-239, for a core campaign. The ICT analyses has been implemented for the plutonium isotopics in a depleted uranium assembly in a heavy-water, enriched uranium system and for the uranium isotopes in the fuel assemblies in light-water, highly-enriched systems

  7. Limits of validity of photon-in-cell simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, A. J. W.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison is made between two reduced models for studying laser propagation in underdense plasma; namely, photon kinetic theory and the slowly varying envelope approximation. Photon kinetic theory is a wave-kinetic description of the electromagnetic field where the motion of quasiparticles in photon coordinate-wave number phase space is described by the ray-tracing equations. Numerically, the photon kinetic theory is implemented with standard particle-in-cell techniques, which results in a so-called photon-in-cell code. For all the examples presented in this paper, the slowly varying envelope approximation is accurate and therefore discrepancies indicate the failure of photon kinetic approximation for these cases. Possible remedies for this failure are discussed at the end of the paper

  8. Experimental validation of incomplete data CT image reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, J.W.; Hsiao, M.L.; Tam, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray CT inspection of large metal parts is often limited by x-ray penetration problems along many of the ray paths required for a complete CT data set. In addition, because of the complex geometry of many industrial parts, manipulation difficulties often prevent scanning over some range of angles. CT images reconstructed from these incomplete data sets contain a variety of artifacts which limit their usefulness in part quality determination. Over the past several years, the authors' company has developed 2 new methods of incorporating a priori information about the parts under inspection to significantly improve incomplete data CT image quality. This work reviews the methods which were developed and presents experimental results which confirm the effectiveness of the techniques. The new methods for dealing with incomplete CT data sets rely on a priori information from part blueprints (in electronic form), outer boundary information from touch sensors, estimates of part outer boundaries from available x-ray data, and linear x-ray attenuation coefficients of the part. The two methods make use of this information in different fashions. The relative performance of the two methods in detecting various flaw types is compared. Methods for accurately registering a priori information with x-ray data are also described. These results are critical to a new industrial x-ray inspection cell built for inspection of large aircraft engine parts

  9. Validation of New Crack Monitoring Technique for Victoria Class High-Pressure Air Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada Recherche et développement pour la défense Canada Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria ...Validation of new crack monitoring technique for Victoria class high-pressure air bottles Ian Thompson John R. MacKay Defence Research and Development...Canada Scientific Report DRDC-RDDC-2014-R81 June 2014 © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (Department of National Defence), 2014 © Sa Majesté

  10. Physical validation issue of the NEPTUNE two-phase modelling: validation plan to be adopted, experimental programs to be set up and associated instrumentation techniques developed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre Peturaud; Eric Hervieu

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A long-term joint development program for the next generation of nuclear reactors simulation tools has been launched in 2001 by EDF (Electricite de France) and CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique). The NEPTUNE Project constitutes the Thermal-Hydraulics part of this comprehensive program. Along with the underway development of this new two-phase flow software platform, the physical validation of the involved modelling is a crucial issue, whatever the modelling scale is, and the present paper deals with this issue. After a brief recall about the NEPTUNE platform, the general validation strategy to be adopted is first of all clarified by means of three major features: (i) physical validation in close connection with the concerned industrial applications, (ii) involving (as far as possible) a two-step process successively focusing on dominant separate models and assessing the whole modelling capability, (iii) thanks to the use of relevant data with respect to the validation aims. Based on this general validation process, a four-step generic work approach has been defined; it includes: (i) a thorough analysis of the concerned industrial applications to identify the key physical phenomena involved and associated dominant basic models, (ii) an assessment of these models against the available validation pieces of information, to specify the additional validation needs and define dedicated validation plans, (iii) an inventory and assessment of existing validation data (with respect to the requirements specified in the previous task) to identify the actual needs for new validation data, (iv) the specification of the new experimental programs to be set up to provide the needed new data. This work approach has been applied to the NEPTUNE software, focusing on 8 high priority industrial applications, and it has resulted in the definition of (i) the validation plan and experimental programs to be set up for the open medium 3D modelling

  11. Evolutionary Analysis Predicts Sensitive Positions of MMP20 and Validates Newly- and Previously-Identified MMP20 Mutations Causing Amelogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasse, Barbara; Prasad, Megana; Delgado, Sidney; Huckert, Mathilde; Kawczynski, Marzena; Garret-Bernardin, Annelyse; Lopez-Cazaux, Serena; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Manière, Marie-Cécile; Stoetzel, Corinne; Bloch-Zupan, Agnès; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) designates a group of genetic diseases characterized by a large range of enamel disorders causing important social and health problems. These defects can result from mutations in enamel matrix proteins or protease encoding genes. A range of mutations in the enamel cleavage enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-20 gene ( MMP20 ) produce enamel defects of varying severity. To address how various alterations produce a range of AI phenotypes, we performed a targeted analysis to find MMP20 mutations in French patients diagnosed with non-syndromic AI. Genomic DNA was isolated from saliva and MMP20 exons and exon-intron boundaries sequenced. We identified several homozygous or heterozygous mutations, putatively involved in the AI phenotypes. To validate missense mutations and predict sensitive positions in the MMP20 sequence, we evolutionarily compared 75 sequences extracted from the public databases using the Datamonkey webserver. These sequences were representative of mammalian lineages, covering more than 150 million years of evolution. This analysis allowed us to find 324 sensitive positions (out of the 483 MMP20 residues), pinpoint functionally important domains, and build an evolutionary chart of important conserved MMP20 regions. This is an efficient tool to identify new- and previously-identified mutations. We thus identified six functional MMP20 mutations in unrelated families, finding two novel mutated sites. The genotypes and phenotypes of these six mutations are described and compared. To date, 13 MMP20 mutations causing AI have been reported, making these genotypes and associated hypomature enamel phenotypes the most frequent in AI.

  12. Validity of a cross-specialty test in basic laparoscopic techniques (TABLT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Bjerrum, Flemming; Strandbygaard, Jeanett

    2015-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to establish validity evidence for the Training and Assessment of Basic Laparoscopic Techniques (TABLT) test, a tablet-based training system. METHODS: Laparoscopic surgeons and trainees were recruited from departments of general surgery, gynaecology and urology. Participants...... included novice, intermediate and experienced surgeons. All participants performed the TABLT test. Performance scores were calculated based on time taken and errors made. Evidence of validity was explored using a contemporary framework of validity. RESULTS: Some 60 individuals participated. The TABLT...... was shown to be reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0·99 (P value of 0·73 (P 

  13. Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Peter; Josephson, Malin; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Kjellberg, Katarina

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol, developed in an iterative process involving practicing ergonomists, for assessment of working technique during cash register work for the purpose of preventing upper extremity symptoms. Two ergonomists independently assessed 17 15-min videos of cash register work on two occasions each, as a basis for examining reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing these assessments with meticulous video-based analyses by researchers. Intra-observer reliability was acceptable (i.e. proportional agreement >0.7 and kappa >0.4) for 10/10 questions. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable for only 3/10 questions. An acceptable inter-observer reliability combined with an acceptable criterion validity was obtained only for one working technique aspect, 'Quality of movements'. Thus, major elements of the cashiers' working technique could not be assessed with an acceptable accuracy from short periods of observations by one observer, such as often desired by practitioners. Practitioner Summary: We examined an observation protocol for assessing working technique in cash register work. It was feasible in use, but inter-observer reliability and criterion validity were generally not acceptable when working technique aspects were assessed from short periods of work. We recommend the protocol to be used for educational purposes only.

  14. Evolutionary Analysis Predicts Sensitive Positions of MMP20 and Validates Newly- and Previously-Identified MMP20 Mutations Causing Amelogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gasse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI designates a group of genetic diseases characterized by a large range of enamel disorders causing important social and health problems. These defects can result from mutations in enamel matrix proteins or protease encoding genes. A range of mutations in the enamel cleavage enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-20 gene (MMP20 produce enamel defects of varying severity. To address how various alterations produce a range of AI phenotypes, we performed a targeted analysis to find MMP20 mutations in French patients diagnosed with non-syndromic AI. Genomic DNA was isolated from saliva and MMP20 exons and exon-intron boundaries sequenced. We identified several homozygous or heterozygous mutations, putatively involved in the AI phenotypes. To validate missense mutations and predict sensitive positions in the MMP20 sequence, we evolutionarily compared 75 sequences extracted from the public databases using the Datamonkey webserver. These sequences were representative of mammalian lineages, covering more than 150 million years of evolution. This analysis allowed us to find 324 sensitive positions (out of the 483 MMP20 residues, pinpoint functionally important domains, and build an evolutionary chart of important conserved MMP20 regions. This is an efficient tool to identify new- and previously-identified mutations. We thus identified six functional MMP20 mutations in unrelated families, finding two novel mutated sites. The genotypes and phenotypes of these six mutations are described and compared. To date, 13 MMP20 mutations causing AI have been reported, making these genotypes and associated hypomature enamel phenotypes the most frequent in AI.

  15. An automated patient recognition method based on an image-matching technique using previous chest radiographs in the picture archiving and communication system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Junji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Kondo, Keisuke; Doi, Kunio

    2001-01-01

    An automated patient recognition method for correcting 'wrong' chest radiographs being stored in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) environment has been developed. The method is based on an image-matching technique that uses previous chest radiographs. For identification of a 'wrong' patient, the correlation value was determined for a previous image of a patient and a new, current image of the presumed corresponding patient. The current image was shifted horizontally and vertically and rotated, so that we could determine the best match between the two images. The results indicated that the correlation values between the current and previous images for the same, 'correct' patients were generally greater than those for different, 'wrong' patients. Although the two histograms for the same patient and for different patients overlapped at correlation values greater than 0.80, most parts of the histograms were separated. The correlation value was compared with a threshold value that was determined based on an analysis of the histograms of correlation values obtained for the same patient and for different patients. If the current image is considered potentially to belong to a 'wrong' patient, then a warning sign with the probability for a 'wrong' patient is provided to alert radiology personnel. Our results indicate that at least half of the 'wrong' images in our database can be identified correctly with the method described in this study. The overall performance in terms of a receiver operating characteristic curve showed a high performance of the system. The results also indicate that some readings of 'wrong' images for a given patient in the PACS environment can be prevented by use of the method we developed. Therefore an automated warning system for patient recognition would be useful in correcting 'wrong' images being stored in the PACS environment

  16. Validation of a technique of measurement in vivo of 131I in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villella, A.M.; Puerta Yepes, N.; Gossio, S.; Papadopulos, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Total Body Counter (TBC) Laboratory of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, following the institutional initiative of quality assurance in its measurement techniques, has been involved in an accreditation process based on the ISO/IEC 17205:2005 norm. In vivo measurement of 131 I in thyroid has been selected as the first technique in this process, and it is described in this paper. The TBC Laboratory uses for this technique a gamma spectrometry system with a NaI(Tl) detector, calibrated with a neck simulator of the IRD and a certified plane source of 131 I with thyroid form. It has been carried out a validation plan that has permitted the characterization of the 131 I measurement technique, and its uncertainty evaluation. Measurement parameters that affect the uncertainty are discussed and recommendations for the technique optimization are proposed. (authors) [es

  17. Site characterization and validation - equipment design and techniques used in single borehole hydraulic testing, simulated drift experiment and crosshole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.C.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the equipment and techniques used to investigate the variation of hydrogeological parameters within a fractured crystalline rock mass. The testing program was performed during stage 3 of the site characterization and validation programme at the Stripa mine in Sweden. This programme used a multidisciplinary approach, combining geophysical, geological and hydrogeological methods, to determine how groundwater moved through the rock mass. The hydrogeological work package involved three components. Firstly, novel single borehole techniques (focused packer testing) were used to determine the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and head along individual boreholes. Secondly, water was abstracted from boreholes which were drilled to simulate a tunnel (simulated drift experiment). Locations and magnitudes of flows were measured together with pressure responses at various points in the SCV rock mass. Thirdly, small scale crosshole tests, involving detailed interference testing, were used to determine the variability of hydrogeological parameters within previously identified, significant flow zones. (au)

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Surrogate Glasses Aimed to Validate Nuclear Forensic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    the glass formed during a nuclear event, trinitite [14]. The SiO2 composition is generally greater than 50% for trinitite and can vary appreciably...CHARACTERIZATION OF SURROGATE GLASSES AIMED TO VALIDATE NUCLEAR FORENSIC TECHNIQUES by Ken G. Foos December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Claudia...December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SURROGATE GLASSES AIMED TO

  19. New continuous air pumping technique to improve clinical outcomes of descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in asian patients with previous ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Min Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcomes of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK with the use of continuous air pumping technique in Asian eyes with previous Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. METHODS: The DSAEK procedure was modified in that complete air retention of the anterior chamber was maintained for 10 min using continuous air pumping at 30 mm Hg. The primary outcome measurement was graft survival, and postoperative clinical features including, rate of graft detachment, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP, surgical time and cup/disc ratio were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 13 eyes of 13 patients which underwent modified DSAEK and 6 eyes of 6 patients which underwent conventional DSAEK were included. There was a significant difference in graft survival curves between two groups (P = 0.029; the 1-year graft survival rates were estimated as 100% and 66.7% for patients with modified DSAEK and those with traditional DSAEK, respectively. The rate of graft detachment were 0% and 33.3% for the modified DSAEK and conventional DSAEK groups, respectively (P = 0.088. The significantly lowered surgical time for air tamponade was noted in the modified DSAEK group compared to that in the conventional DSAEK group [median (IQR: 10.0 (10.0, 10.0 min vs. 24.5 (22.0, 27.0 min; P<0.001] Postoperatively, patients in the modified DSAEK group had significantly lower IOP as compared to the conventional DSAEK group [12.0 (11.0, 15.0 mm Hg vs. 16.0 (15.0, 18.0 mm Hg; P = 0.047]. Modified DSAEK patients had higher endothelial cell counts as compared to conventional DSAEK patients [2148.0 (1964.0, 2218.0 vs. 1529.0 (713.0, 2014.0], but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.072. CONCLUSIONS: New continuous air pumping technique in DSAEK can be performed safely and effectively in patients with prior GDDs placement who have corneal failure.

  20. Study on rapid valid acidity evaluation of apple by fiber optic diffuse reflectance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yande; Ying, Yibin; Fu, Xiaping; Jiang, Xuesong

    2004-03-01

    Some issues related to nondestructive evaluation of valid acidity in intact apples by means of Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) (800-2631nm) method were addressed. A relationship was established between the diffuse reflectance spectra recorded with a bifurcated optic fiber and the valid acidity. The data were analyzed by multivariate calibration analysis such as partial least squares (PLS) analysis and principal component regression (PCR) technique. A total of 120 Fuji apples were tested and 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. The influence of data preprocessing and different spectra treatments were also investigated. Models based on smoothing spectra were slightly worse than models based on derivative spectra and the best result was obtained when the segment length was 5 and the gap size was 10. Depending on data preprocessing and multivariate calibration technique, the best prediction model had a correlation efficient (0.871), a low RMSEP (0.0677), a low RMSEC (0.056) and a small difference between RMSEP and RMSEC by PLS analysis. The results point out the feasibility of FTNIR spectral analysis to predict the fruit valid acidity non-destructively. The ratio of data standard deviation to the root mean square error of prediction (SDR) is better to be less than 3 in calibration models, however, the results cannot meet the demand of actual application. Therefore, further study is required for better calibration and prediction.

  1. Validation of a new technique to detect Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in bovine feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Sandra Valéria; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Suzuki, Celso Tetsuo Nagase; Dos Santos, Bianca Martins; de Aquino, Monally Conceição Costa; de Paula Ribeiro, Rafaela Silva; de Assunção, Danilla Mendes; Casemiro, Pamella Almeida Freire; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2016-11-01

    Due to its important zoonotic potential, cryptosporidiosis arouses strong interest in the scientific community, because, it was initially considered a rare and opportunistic disease. The parasitological diagnosis of the causative agent of this disease, the protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., requires the use of specific techniques of concentration and permanent staining, which are laborious and costly, and are difficult to use in routine laboratory tests. In view of the above, we conducted the feasibility, development, evaluation and intralaboratory validation of a new parasitological technique for analysis in optical microscopy of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, called TF-Test Coccidia, using fecal samples from calves from the city of Araçatuba, São Paulo. To confirm the aforementioned parasite and prove the diagnostic efficiency of the new technique, we used two established methodologies in the scientific literature: parasite concentration by centrifugal sedimentation and negative staining with malachite green (CSN-Malachite) and Nested-PCR. We observed good effectiveness of the TF-Test Coccidia technique, being statistically equivalent to CSN-Malachite. Thus, we verified the effectiveness of the TF-Test Coccidia parasitological technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and observed good concentration and morphology of the parasite, with a low amount of debris in the fecal smear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Further validation of the HPCD-technique for the evaluation of PAH microbial availability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doick, Kieron J.; Clasper, Paula J.; Urmann, Karina; Semple, Kirk T.

    2006-01-01

    There is currently considerable scientific interest in finding a chemical technique capable of predicting bioavailability; non-exhaustive extraction techniques (NEETs) offer such potential. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD), a NEET, is further validated through the investigation of concentration ranges, differing soil types, and the presence of co-contaminants. This is the first study to demonstrate the utility of the HPCD-extraction technique to predict the microbial availability to phenanthrene across a wide concentration range and independent of soil-contaminant contact time (123 d). The efficacy of the HPCD-extraction technique for the estimation of PAH microbial availability in soil is demonstrated in the presence of co-contaminants that have been aged for the duration of the experiment together in the soil. Desorption dynamics are compared in co-contaminant and single-PAH contaminated spiked soils to demonstrate the occurrence of competitive displacement. Overall, a single HPCD-extraction technique proved accurate and reproducible for the estimation of PAH bioavailability from soil. - HPCD extractions can determine the microbial availability of PAHs in mixtures and over a range of concentrations

  3. Validation of a residue method to determine pesticide residues in cucumber by using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysoyu, D.; Tiryaki, O.; Secer, E.; Aydin, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a multi-residue method using ethyl acetate for extraction and gel permeation chromatography for clean-up was validated to determine chlorpyrifos, malathion and dichlorvos in cucumber by gas chromatography. For this purpose, homogenized cucumber samples were fortified with pesticides at 0.02 0.2, 0.8 and 1 mg/kg levels. The efficiency and repeatability of the method in extraction and cleanup steps were performed using 1 4C-carbaryl by radioisotope tracer technique. 1 4C-carbaryl recoveries after the extraction and cleanup steps were between 92.63-111.73 % with a repeatability of 4.85% (CV) and 74.83-102.22 % with a repeatability of 7.19% (CV), respectively. The homogeneity of analytical samples and the stability of pesticides during homogenization were determined using radio tracer technique and chromatographic methods, respectively.

  4. Validation of the ELISA technique for diagnosis of trypanosomiasis in cattle in Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuna, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    ELISA, developed in ILRAD for diagnosis of T. congolense, T. brucei and T. vivax in cattle, has not been validated in Uganda. This study was undertaken to validate the technique. Negative reference sera were collected from 44 cattle in Kapchorwa, a tsetse-free area. The cattle were free of the three trypanosome species T. congolense, T. brucei and T. vivax by the haematocrit buffy coat technique (BCT). But by ELISA, three were positive for T. vivax, one for both T. congolense and T. vivax and one for T. congolense. Sera were collected from the same 44 cattle 10 weeks later. The cattle were again free of T. congolense, T. brucei and T. vivax, both by BCT and by mouse inoculations. Two cattle out of 450 screened at a centre 5 km away had T. vivax by BCT. The ELISA results for the second set of sera were quite similar to the results obtained from the first set of sera. The calculated optical density (D) cut off point was 50 for both T. brucei and T. vivax, but it was 60 for T. congolense. Sera from 5 cattle which had T. theileri and two which had microfilaria were all negative for antigenaemia by ELISA. Positive reference sera were collected form 40 cattle in a high tsetse challenge area. Using the haematocrit buffy coat technique, 5 had T. vivax, two had T. brucei and one had T. congolense. Checked by ELISA for antigenaemia, only 4 cattle were free of all the three trypanosome species, T. congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei. All the 40 cattle were treated with Diminazene aceturate at the rate of 7 mg/kg body weight. Two weeks later, the ELISA test showed that 10 cattle were free of any antigenaemia. Those still positive for antigenaemia had lower OD readings. The ELISA technique is valid. It is much more sensitive compared to parasitological tests. It is specific since none of the 7 cattle with either T. theileri or microfilaria gave positive results by ELISA. The technique would be very useful for epizootiological studies. (author)

  5. MO-B-BRB-02: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: IMRT Technique Validation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceberg, S.

    2016-01-01

    Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. The potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced considerably in the last decade by the development of improved 3D dosimeters (e.g., radiochromic plastics, radiochromic gel dosimeters and normoxic polymer gel systems) and by improved readout protocols using optical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In this session, established users of some current 3D chemical dosimeters will briefly review the current status of 3D dosimetry, describe several dosimeters and their appropriate imaging for dose readout, present workflow procedures required for good dosimetry, and analyze some limitations for applications in select settings. We will review the application of 3D dosimetry to various clinical situations describing how 3D approaches can complement other dose delivery validation approaches already available in the clinic. The applications presented will be selected to inform attendees of the unique features provided by full 3D techniques. Learning Objectives: L. John Schreiner: Background and Motivation Understand recent developments enabling clinically practical 3D dosimetry, Appreciate 3D dosimetry workflow and dosimetry procedures, and Observe select examples from the clinic. Sofie Ceberg: Application to dynamic radiotherapy Observe full dosimetry under dynamic radiotherapy during respiratory motion, and Understand how the measurement of high resolution dose data in an

  6. MO-B-BRB-03: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: Validating Special Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. The potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced considerably in the last decade by the development of improved 3D dosimeters (e.g., radiochromic plastics, radiochromic gel dosimeters and normoxic polymer gel systems) and by improved readout protocols using optical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In this session, established users of some current 3D chemical dosimeters will briefly review the current status of 3D dosimetry, describe several dosimeters and their appropriate imaging for dose readout, present workflow procedures required for good dosimetry, and analyze some limitations for applications in select settings. We will review the application of 3D dosimetry to various clinical situations describing how 3D approaches can complement other dose delivery validation approaches already available in the clinic. The applications presented will be selected to inform attendees of the unique features provided by full 3D techniques. Learning Objectives: L. John Schreiner: Background and Motivation Understand recent developments enabling clinically practical 3D dosimetry, Appreciate 3D dosimetry workflow and dosimetry procedures, and Observe select examples from the clinic. Sofie Ceberg: Application to dynamic radiotherapy Observe full dosimetry under dynamic radiotherapy during respiratory motion, and Understand how the measurement of high resolution dose data in an

  7. MO-B-BRB-03: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: Validating Special Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juang, T. [Stanford Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. The potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced considerably in the last decade by the development of improved 3D dosimeters (e.g., radiochromic plastics, radiochromic gel dosimeters and normoxic polymer gel systems) and by improved readout protocols using optical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In this session, established users of some current 3D chemical dosimeters will briefly review the current status of 3D dosimetry, describe several dosimeters and their appropriate imaging for dose readout, present workflow procedures required for good dosimetry, and analyze some limitations for applications in select settings. We will review the application of 3D dosimetry to various clinical situations describing how 3D approaches can complement other dose delivery validation approaches already available in the clinic. The applications presented will be selected to inform attendees of the unique features provided by full 3D techniques. Learning Objectives: L. John Schreiner: Background and Motivation Understand recent developments enabling clinically practical 3D dosimetry, Appreciate 3D dosimetry workflow and dosimetry procedures, and Observe select examples from the clinic. Sofie Ceberg: Application to dynamic radiotherapy Observe full dosimetry under dynamic radiotherapy during respiratory motion, and Understand how the measurement of high resolution dose data in an

  8. MO-B-BRB-02: 3D Dosimetry in the Clinic: IMRT Technique Validation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceberg, S. [Lund University (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    Full three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry using volumetric chemical dosimeters probed by 3D imaging systems has long been a promising technique for the radiation therapy clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for dose measurements in the volume irradiated using complex conformal delivery techniques such as IMRT and VMAT. To date true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community; it has been confined to centres of specialized expertise especially for quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. The potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced considerably in the last decade by the development of improved 3D dosimeters (e.g., radiochromic plastics, radiochromic gel dosimeters and normoxic polymer gel systems) and by improved readout protocols using optical computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In this session, established users of some current 3D chemical dosimeters will briefly review the current status of 3D dosimetry, describe several dosimeters and their appropriate imaging for dose readout, present workflow procedures required for good dosimetry, and analyze some limitations for applications in select settings. We will review the application of 3D dosimetry to various clinical situations describing how 3D approaches can complement other dose delivery validation approaches already available in the clinic. The applications presented will be selected to inform attendees of the unique features provided by full 3D techniques. Learning Objectives: L. John Schreiner: Background and Motivation Understand recent developments enabling clinically practical 3D dosimetry, Appreciate 3D dosimetry workflow and dosimetry procedures, and Observe select examples from the clinic. Sofie Ceberg: Application to dynamic radiotherapy Observe full dosimetry under dynamic radiotherapy during respiratory motion, and Understand how the measurement of high resolution dose data in an

  9. Validity of photo-identification technique to analyze natural markings in Melanophryniscus montevidensis (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Elgue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual identification is useful for answering a variety of biological questions about animal life histories. Most of the techniques used to mark amphibians are invasive and can cause negative effects, compromising individual survivorship and biasing studies. Photo-identification consists in the identification of specimens based on photographic records of unique color-design patterns. This technique has been used with success in several amphibian species. Melanophryniscus montevidensis is an endangered anuran species inhabiting the Uruguayan Atlantic coast. The general pattern of coloration is black with red and yellow blotches on the belly. In this study, we validated the technique of photo-identification assisted by software for individual recognition in M. montevidensis using natural markings. Field trips were performed over 16 months during which, the ventral color pattern of specimens was photographed. The photos were edited and analyzed with the Wild-ID 1.0 software for photographic reconnaissance. An efficiency of 100% was obtained in the visual recognition and 90% in the detection of recaptures using the software. The use of photo-identification using natural marks is an effective technique in this species, because the color pattern of the belly was highly variable among individuals and remained unchanged in individuals over the 16 month period. In this evaluation the use of software for photo-identification was necessary for the treatment of large databases.

  10. Validity of proxy data obtained by different psychological autopsy information reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L; Zhang, J

    2010-01-01

    Two informants were interviewed for each of 416 living controls (individuals sampled from the normal population) interviewed in a Chinese case-control psychological autopsy study. The validity of proxy data, obtained using seven psychological autopsy information reconstruction techniques (types 1, 2 and A - E), was evaluated, with living controls' self reports used as the gold-standard. Proxy data for reconstruction technique types 1, 2 and D on the Impulsivity Inventory Scale (total impulsivity score) were no different from the living controls' self report gold standard, whereas data for types A and E were smaller than data from living controls. On the 'acceptance or resignation' sub-scale of the avoidance coping dimension of the Moos Coping Response Inventory, information obtained by reconstruction technique types 1 and D was not significantly different from the living controls' self reports, whereas proxy data from types 2, A and E were smaller than those from the living controls. No statistically significant differences were identified for other proxy data obtained by reconstruction technique types 1, 2, A, D and E. These results indicate that using a second informant does not significantly enhance information reconstruction for the target.

  11. RTL validation methodology on high complexity wireless microcontroller using OVM technique for fast time to market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nurul Zhafirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased demand in internet of thing (IOT application based has inadvertently forced the move towards higher complexity of integrated circuit supporting SoC. Such spontaneous increased in complexity poses unequivocal complicated validation strategies. Hence, the complexity allows researchers to come out with various exceptional methodologies in order to overcome this problem. This in essence brings about the discovery of dynamic verification, formal verification and hybrid techniques. In reserve, it is very important to discover bugs at infancy of verification process in (SoC in order to reduce time consuming and fast time to market for the system. Ergo, in this paper we are focusing on the methodology of verification that can be done at Register Transfer Level of SoC based on the AMBA bus design. On top of that, the discovery of others verification method called Open Verification Methodology (OVM brings out an easier way in RTL validation methodology neither as the replacement for the traditional method yet as an effort for fast time to market for the system. Thus, the method called OVM is proposed in this paper as the verification method for larger design to avert the disclosure of the bottleneck in validation platform.

  12. RTL validation methodology on high complexity wireless microcontroller using OVM technique for fast time to market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhafirah Muhammad, Nurul; Harun, A.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.; Murad, S. A. Z.; Mohyar, S. N.; Isa, M. N.; Jambek, AB

    2017-11-01

    Increased demand in internet of thing (IOT) application based has inadvertently forced the move towards higher complexity of integrated circuit supporting SoC. Such spontaneous increased in complexity poses unequivocal complicated validation strategies. Hence, the complexity allows researchers to come out with various exceptional methodologies in order to overcome this problem. This in essence brings about the discovery of dynamic verification, formal verification and hybrid techniques. In reserve, it is very important to discover bugs at infancy of verification process in (SoC) in order to reduce time consuming and fast time to market for the system. Ergo, in this paper we are focusing on the methodology of verification that can be done at Register Transfer Level of SoC based on the AMBA bus design. On top of that, the discovery of others verification method called Open Verification Methodology (OVM) brings out an easier way in RTL validation methodology neither as the replacement for the traditional method yet as an effort for fast time to market for the system. Thus, the method called OVM is proposed in this paper as the verification method for larger design to avert the disclosure of the bottleneck in validation platform.

  13. Modelling, analysis and validation of microwave techniques for the characterisation of metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaimalebbe, Aslam

    In the last decade, the study of nanoparticle (NP) systems has become a large and interesting research area due to their novel properties and functionalities, which are different from those of the bulk materials, and also their potential applications in different fields. It is vital to understand the behaviour and properties of nano-materials aiming at implementing nanotechnology, controlling their behaviour and designing new material systems with superior performance. Physical characterisation of NPs falls into two main categories, property and structure analysis, where the properties of the NPs cannot be studied without the knowledge of size and structure. The direct measurement of the electrical properties of metal NPs presents a key challenge and necessitates the use of innovative experimental techniques. There have been numerous reports of two/four point resistance measurements of NPs films and also electrical conductivity of NPs films using the interdigitated microarray (IDA) electrode. However, using microwave techniques such as open ended coaxial probe (OCP) and microwave dielectric resonator (DR) for electrical characterisation of metallic NPs are much more accurate and effective compared to other traditional techniques. This is because they are inexpensive, convenient, non-destructive, contactless, hazardless (i.e. at low power) and require no special sample preparation. This research is the first attempt to determine the microwave properties of Pt and Au NP films, which were appealing materials for nano-scale electronics, using the aforementioned microwave techniques. The ease of synthesis, relatively cheap, unique catalytic activities and control over the size and the shape were the main considerations in choosing Pt and Au NPs for the present study. The initial phase of this research was to implement and validate the aperture admittance model for the OCP measurement through experiments and 3D full wave simulation using the commercially available Ansoft

  14. Validity of the Consensual Assessment Technique--Evidence with Three Groups of Judges and an Elementary School Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2012-01-01

    As one of the most widely used creativity assessment tools, the Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT) has been praised as a valid tool to assess creativity. In Amabile's (1982) seminal work, the inter-rater reliability was defined as construct validity of the CAT. During the past three decades, researchers followed this definition and…

  15. Electron sterilization validation techniques using the controlled depth of sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleghorn, D.A.; Nablo, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical products, especially parenteral drugs, cannot be sterilized with gamma rays or high energy electrons due to the concomitant product degradation. In view of the well-controlled electron energy spectrum available in modern electron processors, it is practical to deliver sterilizing doses over depths considerably less than those defining the thickness of blister-pack constructions or pharmaceutical containers. Because bremsstrahlung and X-ray production are minimized at these low electron energies and in these low Z materials, very high electron: penetrating X-ray dose ratios are possible for the application of the technique. Thin film dosimetric techniques have been developed utilizing radiochromic film in the 10-60 g/m 2 range for determining the surface dose distribution in occluded surface areas where direct electron illumination is not possible. Procedures for validation of the process using dried spore inoculum on the product as well as in good geometry are employed to determine the process lethality and its dependence on product surface geometry. Applications of the process to labile pharmaceuticals in glass and polystyrene syringes are reviewed. It has been applied to the sterilization of commercial sterile products since 1987, and the advantages and the natural limitations of the technique are discussed. (author)

  16. Validation of a large-scale audit technique for CT dose optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T. J.; Davis, A. W.; Moore, C. S.; Beavis, A. W.; Saunderson, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    The expansion and increasing availability of computed tomography (CT) imaging means that there is a greater need for the development of efficient optimisation strategies that are able to inform clinical practice, without placing a significant burden on limited departmental resources. One of the most fundamental aspects to any optimisation programme is the collection of patient dose information, which can be compared with appropriate diagnostic reference levels. This study has investigated the implementation of a large-scale audit technique, which utilises data that already exist in the radiology information system, to determine typical doses for a range of examinations on four CT scanners. This method has been validated against what is considered the 'gold standard' technique for patient dose audits, and it has been demonstrated that results equivalent to the 'standard-sized patient' can be inferred from this much larger data set. This is particularly valuable where CT optimisation is concerned as it is considered a 'high dose' technique, and hence close monitoring of patient dose is particularly important. (authors)

  17. Validation of a simple isotopic technique for the measurement of global and separated renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chachati, A.; Meyers, A.; Rigo, P.; Godon, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Schlegel and Gates described an isotopic method for the measurement of global and separated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) based on the determination by scintillation camera of the fraction of the injected dose (99mTc-DTPA-[ 131 I]hippuran) present in the kidneys 1-3 min after its administration. This method requires counting of the injected dose and attenuation correction, but no blood or urine sampling. We validated this technique by the simultaneous infusion of inulin and para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) in patients with various levels of renal function (anuric to normal). To better define individual renal function we studied 9 kidneys in patients either nephrectomized or with a nephrostomy enabling separated function measurement. A good correlation between inulin, PAH clearance, and isotopic GFR-ERPF measurement for both global and separate renal function was observed

  18. Models of signal validation using artificial intelligence techniques applied to a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mauro V.; Schirru, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    This work presents two models of signal validation in which the analytical redundancy of the monitored signals from a nuclear plant is made by neural networks. In one model the analytical redundancy is made by only one neural network while in the other it is done by several neural networks, each one working in a specific part of the entire operation region of the plant. Four cluster techniques were tested to separate the entire operation region in several specific regions. An additional information of systems' reliability is supplied by a fuzzy inference system. The models were implemented in C language and tested with signals acquired from Angra I nuclear power plant, from its start to 100% of power. (author)

  19. Effect of six different cooking techniques in the nutritional composition of two fish species previously selected as optimal for renal patient's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Benefits of fish consumption are widely known, but there is little information about nutrient values of raw and cooked fish. The aim was to study the impact that six cooking techniques have on the nutritional composition of two fish species with low content of adverse nutrients in renal diet. Raw and steamed, foiled with aluminum, foiled with banana leaf, gas oven-baked, microwave oven-coked and fried lightly samples were chemically analyzed to determine their protein, phosphorus and lipid content. Crevalle jack: all methods increased lipid and protein content and fatty acids (FA) varied in all cooking methods. Phosphorus decreased in the steamed and microwave oven-cooked samples. Red drum: foiled and fried lightly increased lipid content compared to the raw sample. FA concentration changed in all cooking methods. Protein increased with every technique and phosphorus decreased in the steamed and gas oven-baked samples. Renal patients should preferably consume crevalle jack steamed or microwave oven-cooked and red drum steamed or gas oven-baked.

  20. Validation of a dose-point kernel convolution technique for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giap, H.B.; Macey, D.J.; Bayouth, J.E.; Boyer, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a dose-point kernel convolution technique that provides a three-dimensional (3D) distribution of absorbed dose from a 3D distribution of the radionuclide 131 I. A dose-point kernel for the penetrating radiations was calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation and cast in a 3D rectangular matrix. This matrix was convolved with the 3D activity map furnished by quantitative single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) to provide a 3D distribution of absorbed dose. The convolution calculation was performed using a 3D fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique, which takes less than 40 s for a 128 x 128 x 16 matrix on an Intel 486 DX2 (66 MHz) personal computer. The calculated photon absorbed dose was compared with values measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDS) inserted along the diameter of a 22 cm diameter annular source of 131 I. The mean and standard deviation of the percentage difference between the measurements and the calculations were equal to -1% and 3.6% respectively. This convolution method was also used to calculate the 3D dose distribution in an Alderson abdominal phantom containing a liver, a spleen, and a spherical tumour volume loaded with various concentrations of 131 I. By averaging the dose calculated throughout the liver, spleen, and tumour the dose-point kernel approach was compared with values derived using the MIRD formalism, and found to agree to better than 15%. (author)

  1. The validation of the Z-Scan technique for the determination of plasma glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sarah I.; Silva, Elaine A. O.; Costa, Simone S.; Sonego, Denise R. N.; Hallack, Maira L.; Coppini, Ornela L.; Rowies, Fernanda; Azzalis, Ligia A.; Junqueira, Virginia B. C.; Pereira, Edimar C.; Rocha, Katya C.; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Glucose is the main energy source for the human body. The concentration of blood glucose is regulated by several hormones including both antagonists: insulin and glucagon. The quantification of glucose in the blood is used for diagnosing metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, such as diabetes, idiopathic hypoglycemia and pancreatic diseases. Currently, the methodology used for this determination is the enzymatic colorimetric with spectrophotometric. This study aimed to validate the use of measurements of nonlinear optical properties of plasma glucose via the Z-Scan technique. For this we used samples of calibrator patterns that simulate commercial samples of patients (ELITech ©). Besides calibrators, serum glucose levels within acceptable reference values (normal control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) and also overestimated (pathological control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) were used in the methodology proposal. Calibrator dilutions were performed and determined by the Z-Scan technique for the preparation of calibration curve. In conclusion, Z-Scan method can be used to determinate glucose levels in biological samples with enzymatic colorimetric reaction and also to apply the same quality control parameters used in biochemistry clinical.

  2. Validation of variance reduction techniques in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Marrero, J. P.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Gomez Facenda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear medical imaging systems is a widely used method for reproducing their operation in a real clinical environment, There are several Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) systems in Cuba. For this reason it is clearly necessary to introduce a reliable and fast simulation platform in order to obtain consistent image data. This data will reproduce the original measurements conditions. In order to fulfill these requirements Monte Carlo platform GAMOS (Geant4 Medicine Oriented Architecture for Applications) have been used. Due to the very size and complex configuration of parallel hole collimators in real clinical SPECT systems, Monte Carlo simulation usually consumes excessively high time and computing resources. main goal of the present work is to optimize the efficiency of calculation by means of new GAMOS functionality. There were developed and validated two GAMOS variance reduction techniques to speed up calculations. These procedures focus and limit transport of gamma quanta inside the collimator. The obtained results were asses experimentally in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system. Main quality control parameters, such as sensitivity and spatial resolution were determined. Differences of 4.6% sensitivity and 8.7% spatial resolution were reported against manufacturer values. Simulation time was decreased up to 650 times. Using these techniques it was possible to perform several studies in almost 8 hours each. (Author)

  3. Maternal perception of fever in children by tactile technique how valid it is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalil, J.; Bashir, F.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the validity of tactile technique as a tool for fever assessment in children by mothers. Study Design: A cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the department of Paediatrics, Combined Military Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, from September 2007 to September 2009. Patients and Methods: Convenient sampling technique was employed. Three hundred and ninety three children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years, brought to hospital by mothers with history of prolonged fever (7 days or more) perceived by tactile technique. Children were not supposed to be necessarily febrile at the time of enrollment. A six hourly temperature recording was done. Moreover, whenever mothers felt that their child is febrile by using tactile method of their choice, axillary thermometry was done irrespective of the number of recordings. Standard mercury thermometry by axillary technique (without adding a degree to measured value) was chosen. Reading of more than 99.50 Fahrenheit (37.50 centigrade) was labeled as fever. Cases that remained fever free for five days were labeled afebrile and discharged. Mothers were advised to watch for fever for one week at home and to report back immediately if they felt that their child has fever, confirmed by a single tactile measurement. Those who reported back were readmitted and subjected to the same method of monitoring and recording as was applied on first admission. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Descriptive statistics were applied to calculate the frequencies, means and standard deviations. Results: Among the 392 children 58.4% were males and 41.4% were females. The mean age was 24.4 +-14.39 months. Majority had a history of fever of 5 to 24 days (70.2%). In only 184 (46.93%) patients fever was confirmed. In 208 (53.08%) patients no fever was recorded and were discharged. Twenty one patients reported back with fever. However, fever was confirmed in only 11 patients. In summary, a total of 195 (49

  4. Validation of an Improved Computer-Assisted Technique for Mining Free-Text Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duz, Marco; Marshall, John F; Parkin, Tim

    2017-06-29

    The use of electronic medical records (EMRs) offers opportunity for clinical epidemiological research. With large EMR databases, automated analysis processes are necessary but require thorough validation before they can be routinely used. The aim of this study was to validate a computer-assisted technique using commercially available content analysis software (SimStat-WordStat v.6 (SS/WS), Provalis Research) for mining free-text EMRs. The dataset used for the validation process included life-long EMRs from 335 patients (17,563 rows of data), selected at random from a larger dataset (141,543 patients, ~2.6 million rows of data) and obtained from 10 equine veterinary practices in the United Kingdom. The ability of the computer-assisted technique to detect rows of data (cases) of colic, renal failure, right dorsal colitis, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use in the population was compared with manual classification. The first step of the computer-assisted analysis process was the definition of inclusion dictionaries to identify cases, including terms identifying a condition of interest. Words in inclusion dictionaries were selected from the list of all words in the dataset obtained in SS/WS. The second step consisted of defining an exclusion dictionary, including combinations of words to remove cases erroneously classified by the inclusion dictionary alone. The third step was the definition of a reinclusion dictionary to reinclude cases that had been erroneously classified by the exclusion dictionary. Finally, cases obtained by the exclusion dictionary were removed from cases obtained by the inclusion dictionary, and cases from the reinclusion dictionary were subsequently reincluded using Rv3.0.2 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). Manual analysis was performed as a separate process by a single experienced clinician reading through the dataset once and classifying each row of data based on the interpretation of the free

  5. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  6. Development and Validation of a Hypersonic Vehicle Design Tool Based On Waverider Design Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasque, Nastassja

    Methodologies for a tool capable of assisting design initiatives for practical waverider based hypersonic vehicles were developed and validated. The design space for vehicle surfaces was formed using an algorithm that coupled directional derivatives with the conservation laws to determine a flow field defined by a set of post-shock streamlines. The design space is used to construct an ideal waverider with a sharp leading edge. A blunting method was developed to modify the ideal shapes to a more practical geometry for real-world application. Empirical and analytical relations were then systematically applied to the resulting geometries to determine local pressure, skin-friction and heat flux. For the ideal portion of the geometry, flat plate relations for compressible flow were applied. For the blunted portion of the geometry modified Newtonian theory, Fay-Riddell theory and Modified Reynolds analogy were applied. The design and analysis methods were validated using analytical solutions as well as empirical and numerical data. The streamline solution for the flow field generation technique was compared with a Taylor-Maccoll solution and showed very good agreement. The relationship between the local Stanton number and skin friction coefficient with local Reynolds number along the ideal portion of the body showed good agreement with experimental data. In addition, an automated grid generation routine was formulated to construct a structured mesh around resulting geometries in preparation for Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis. The overall analysis of the waverider body using the tool was then compared to CFD studies. The CFD flow field showed very good agreement with the design space. However, the distribution of the surface properties was near CFD results but did not have great agreement.

  7. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) for Breast Cancer (BC) - Validation Protocol of the Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blidaru, A.; Bordea, C.I.; Condrea, Ileana; Albert, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The sentinel ganglion concept originates in the assumption according to which the primary tumor drains into a specific ganglionar area and then runs through the lymphatic nodes in an orderly, sequential mode. When neoplastic dissemination along the lymphatic pathway occurs, there is an initial invasion of a specific lymph node (rarely more than one) located on the drainage route. That firstly lymph node has been identified as the sentinel node, which mirrors the regional ganglionar status. In order to establish the indication for lymphadenectomy and avoid the situations in which such a surgical procedure would be of no use (N-), the only correct method consists in the identification and biopsy of the sentinel node. Radioactive tracing and/or use of vital staining enable the identification of the regional ganglionar group towards which the primary lesion is draining. The technique of sentinel lymph node identification and biopsy by means of radioactive tracing includes: - pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy, - identification of the sentinel lymph node and its excisional biopsy, - intra-operative histopathological examination and immunohistochemical stains of the sentinel lymph node. Regional lymphadenectomy serves two major purposes: - diagnosis (axillary lymph node invasion represents an important prognostic factor) and therapeutic (to ensure local control of the disease). Regional lymph node invasion in breast cancer is directly related to the primary tumour size. In the less advanced stages (T1), as there is rarely invasion of the axillary lymph nodes, lymphadenectomy can be avoided in most cases. The paper presents the refinement of the technique, the validation of the method for the identification and biopsy of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using Tc99 and the intra-operative use of NEOPROBE 2000 gamma camera at the 'Prof. Dr. Alexandru Trestioreanu' Oncological Institute in Bucharest. 93 patients with primary breast cancer (T1, T2, N0

  9. Radiological findings for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity. Validation of digital and manual measurement techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engesaeter, Ingvild Oevsteboe [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Laborie, Lene Bjerke; Rosendahl, Karen [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); Lehmann, Trude Gundersen; Fevang, Jonas; Engesaeter, Lars Birger [University of Bergen, Department of Surgical Sciences, Bergen (Norway); Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bergen (Norway); Sera, Francesco [University College London Institute of Child Health, Medical Research Council Centre of Epidemiology for Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Pedersen, Douglas; Morcuende, Jose [University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States); Lie, Stein Atle [Uni Health, Uni Research, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    To report on intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-method reliability and agreement for radiological measurements used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, as obtained by a manual and a digital measurement technique. Pelvic radiographs from 95 participants (56 females) in a follow-up hip study of 18- to 19-year-old patients were included. Eleven radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia (Sharp's, Wiberg's, and Ogata's angles; acetabular roof angle of Toennis; articulo-trochanteric distance; acetabular depth-width ratio; femoral head extrusion index; maximum teardrop width; and the joint space width in three different locations) were validated. Three observers measured the radiographs using both a digital measurement program and manually in AgfaWeb1000. Inter-method and inter- and intra-observer agreement were analyzed using the mean differences between the readings/readers, establishing the 95% limits of agreement. We also calculated the minimum detectable change and the intra-class correlation coefficient. Large variations among different radiological measurements were demonstrated. However, the variation was not related to the use of either the manual or digital measurement technique. For measurements with greater absolute values (Sharp's angle, femoral head extrusion index, and acetabular depth-width ratio) the inter- and intra-observer and inter-method agreements were better as compared to measurements with lower absolute values (acetabular roof angle, teardrop and joint space width). The inter- and intra-observer variation differs notably across different radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, a fact that should be taken into account in clinical practice. The agreement between the manual and digital methods is good. (orig.)

  10. Radiological findings for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity. Validation of digital and manual measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesæter, Ingvild Øvstebø; Laborie, Lene Bjerke; Lehmann, Trude Gundersen; Sera, Francesco; Fevang, Jonas; Pedersen, Douglas; Morcuende, José; Lie, Stein Atle; Engesæter, Lars Birger; Rosendahl, Karen

    2012-07-01

    To report on intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-method reliability and agreement for radiological measurements used in the diagnosis of hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, as obtained by a manual and a digital measurement technique. Pelvic radiographs from 95 participants (56 females) in a follow-up hip study of 18- to 19-year-old patients were included. Eleven radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia (Sharp's, Wiberg's, and Ogata's angles; acetabular roof angle of Tönnis; articulo-trochanteric distance; acetabular depth-width ratio; femoral head extrusion index; maximum teardrop width; and the joint space width in three different locations) were validated. Three observers measured the radiographs using both a digital measurement program and manually in AgfaWeb1000. Inter-method and inter- and intra-observer agreement were analyzed using the mean differences between the readings/readers, establishing the 95% limits of agreement. We also calculated the minimum detectable change and the intra-class correlation coefficient. Large variations among different radiological measurements were demonstrated. However, the variation was not related to the use of either the manual or digital measurement technique. For measurements with greater absolute values (Sharp's angle, femoral head extrusion index, and acetabular depth-width ratio) the inter- and intra-observer and inter-method agreements were better as compared to measurements with lower absolute values (acetabular roof angle, teardrop and joint space width). The inter- and intra-observer variation differs notably across different radiological measurements relevant for hip dysplasia at skeletal maturity, a fact that should be taken into account in clinical practice. The agreement between the manual and digital methods is good.

  11. Validation of the L.A.L. technique (gel cloth) in radiodiagnosis and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morote, M.; Otero, M.; Chavez, G.

    1999-01-01

    Based on the validation of the LAL technique (gel cloth), real endotoxin limits (EL), expressed in endotoxin units per milliliter (EU/mL), as well as maximum dilution volume (MDV) were determined in seven radiodiagnosis agents (RDA): medronate, pentetate, sulfur colloid, albumin macroaggregated, succimer, disofenin, and pyrophosphates, which showed M.D.V. values of: 1:80; 1:16; 1:128; 1:64; 1:4; 1:128; 1:64 and EL of 20 EU/mL; 4 EU/mL; 32 EU/mL; 16 EU/mL; 1 EU/mL and 16 EU/mL, respectively. Radioisotope Tc-99m presents a MDV of 1:1 and an EL below 0,25 EU/mL. Clear interference in the acidity of sulfur colloid (pH below 2) was also found against pyrotell reaction, even in the sixth dilution of the product. M.D.V. results also showed that dilutions are even 100 times smaller than the theoretical values

  12. Gastric emptying of liquid meals: validation of the gamma camera technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawaetz, Otto; Dige-Petersen, Harriet

    1989-05-01

    To assess the extent of errors and to provide correction factors for gamma camera gastric emptying studies of liquid meals labelled with radionuclides (/sup 99/Tc/sup m/ or /sup 113/In/sup m/), phantom studies were performed with different gastric emptying procedures, gamma cameras and data handling systems. To validate the overall accuracy of the method, 24 combined aspiration and gamma camera gastric emptying studies were carried out in three normal volunteers. Gastric meal volume was underestimated due to scattered radiation from the stomach. The underestimation was 7-20% varying with the size of the gastric region of interest (ROI), the energy of the nuclide and the fraction of meal in the stomach. The overestimation, due to scattered radiation from the gut, was negligible (1-3%) for any of the procedures. The gamma camera technique eliminated much of the error due to variations of stomach geometry and produced accurate quantitative gastric emptying data comparable to those obtained by evacuation (P > 0.10), when the entire field maximum 1-min count achieved within the first 20 min of a study was taken as representing the original volume of the meal ingested, and when corrections for area related errors due to scattered radiation from the stomach were performed. (author).

  13. Development and validation of the European Cluster Assimilation Techniques run libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facskó, G.; Gordeev, E.; Palmroth, M.; Honkonen, I.; Janhunen, P.; Sergeev, V.; Kauristie, K.; Milan, S.

    2012-04-01

    The European Commission funded the European Cluster Assimilation Techniques (ECLAT) project as a collaboration of five leader European universities and research institutes. A main contribution of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) is to provide a wide range global MHD runs with the Grand Unified Magnetosphere Ionosphere Coupling simulation (GUMICS). The runs are divided in two categories: Synthetic runs investigating the extent of solar wind drivers that can influence magnetospheric dynamics, as well as dynamic runs using measured solar wind data as input. Here we consider the first set of runs with synthetic solar wind input. The solar wind density, velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field had different magnitudes and orientations; furthermore two F10.7 flux values were selected for solar radiation minimum and maximum values. The solar wind parameter values were constant such that a constant stable solution was archived. All configurations were run several times with three different (-15°, 0°, +15°) tilt angles in the GSE X-Z plane. The result of the 192 simulations named so called "synthetic run library" were visualized and uploaded to the homepage of the FMI after validation. Here we present details of these runs.

  14. Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D

    2007-11-04

    Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.

  15. Are we really measuring what we say we're measuring? Using video techniques to supplement traditional construct validation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Podsakoff, Philip M; Mackenzie, Scott B; Klinger, Ryan L

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have persuasively argued that the most important evidence to consider when assessing construct validity is whether variations in the construct of interest cause corresponding variations in the measures of the focal construct. Unfortunately, the literature provides little practical guidance on how researchers can go about testing this. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe how researchers can use video techniques to test whether their scales measure what they purport to measure. First, we discuss how researchers can develop valid manipulations of the focal construct that they hope to measure. Next, we explain how to design a study to use this manipulation to test the validity of the scale. Finally, comparing and contrasting traditional and contemporary perspectives on validation, we discuss the advantages and limitations of video-based validation procedures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Specification and Preliminary Validation of IAT (Integrated Analysis Techniques) Methods: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    conceptual framwork , and preliminary validation of IAT concepts. Planned work for FY85, including more extensive validation, is also described. 20...Developments: Required Capabilities .... ......... 10 2-1 IAT Conceptual Framework - FY85 (FEO) ..... ........... 11 2-2 Recursive Nature of Decomposition...approach: 1) Identify needs & requirements for IAT. 2) Develop IAT conceptual framework. 3) Validate IAT methods. 4) Develop applications materials. To

  17. TCV software test and validation tools and technique. [Terminal Configured Vehicle program for commercial transport aircraft operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straeter, T. A.; Williams, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes techniques for testing and validating software for the TCV (Terminal Configured Vehicle) program which is intended to solve problems associated with operating a commercial transport aircraft in the terminal area. The TCV research test bed is a Boeing 737 specially configured with digital computer systems to carry out automatic navigation, guidance, flight controls, and electronic displays research. The techniques developed for time and cost reduction include automatic documentation aids, an automatic software configuration, and an all software generation and validation system.

  18. Analytical techniques and method validation for the measurement of selected semivolatile and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagen, William K; Lindstrom, Kent R; Thompson, Kathy L; Flaherty, John M

    2004-09-01

    The widespread use of semi- and nonvolatile organofluorochemicals in industrial facilities, concern about their persistence, and relatively recent advancements in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) technology have led to the development of new analytical methods to assess potential worker exposure to airborne organofluorochemicals. Techniques were evaluated for the determination of 19 organofluorochemicals and for total fluorine in ambient air samples. Due to the potential biphasic nature of most of these fluorochemicals when airborne, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) versatile sampler (OVS) tubes were used to simultaneously trap fluorochemical particulates and vapors from workplace air. Analytical methods were developed for OVS air samples to quantitatively analyze for total fluorine using oxygen bomb combustion/ion selective electrode and for 17 organofluorochemicals using LC/MS and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The experimental design for this validation was based on the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Guidelines for Air Sampling and Analytical Method Development and Evaluation, with some revisions of the experimental design. The study design incorporated experiments to determine analytical recovery and stability, sampler capacity, the effect of some environmental parameters on recoveries, storage stability, limits of detection, precision, and accuracy. Fluorochemical mixtures were spiked onto each OVS tube over a range of 0.06-6 microg for each of 12 compounds analyzed by LC/MS and 0.3-30 microg for 5 compounds analyzed by GC/MS. These ranges allowed reliable quantitation at 0.001-0.1 mg/m3 in general for LC/MS analytes and 0.005-0.5 mg/m3 for GC/MS analytes when 60 L of air are sampled. The organofluorochemical exposure guideline (EG) is currently 0.1 mg/m3 for many analytes, with one exception being ammonium perfluorooctanoate (EG is 0.01 mg/m3). Total fluorine results may be used

  19. Validation of gamma-ray detection techniques for safeguards monitoring at natural uranium conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, S.A., E-mail: dewjisa@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335 (United States); Lee, D.L.; Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335 (United States); Hertel, N.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335 (United States); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States); Chapman, J.A.; McElroy, R.D.; Cleveland, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS-6335, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6335 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Recent IAEA circulars and policy papers have sought to implement safeguards when any purified aqueous uranium solution or uranium oxides suitable for isotopic enrichment or fuel fabrication exists. Under the revised policy, IAEA Policy Paper 18, the starting point for nuclear material under safeguards was reinterpreted, suggesting that purified uranium compounds should be subject to safeguards procedures no later than the first point in the conversion process. In response to this technical need, a combination of simulation models and experimental measurements were employed to develop and validate concepts of nondestructive assay monitoring systems in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). In particular, uranyl nitrate (UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) solution exiting solvent extraction was identified as a key measurement point (KMP), where gamma-ray spectroscopy was selected as the process monitoring tool. The Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was employed to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in an NUCP. Nondestructive assay techniques using gamma-ray spectroscopy were evaluated to determine their viability as a technical means for drawing safeguards conclusions at NUCPs, and if the IAEA detection requirements of 1 significant quantity (SQ) can be met in a timely way. This work investigated gamma-ray signatures of uranyl nitrate circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluated various gamma-ray detector sensitivities to uranyl nitrate. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the uranyl nitrate gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and high-purity germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10–90 g U/L of natural uranyl nitrate are presented. A range of

  20. Novel experimental measuring techniques required to provide data for CFD validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, H.-M.

    2008-01-01

    CFD code validation requires experimental data that characterize the distributions of parameters within large flow domains. On the other hand, the development of geometry-independent closure relations for CFD codes have to rely on instrumentation and experimental techniques appropriate for the phenomena that are to be modelled, which usually requires high spatial and time resolution. The paper reports about the use of wire-mesh sensors to study turbulent mixing processes in single-phase flow as well as to characterize the dynamics of the gas-liquid interface in a vertical pipe flow. Experiments at a pipe of a nominal diameter of 200 mm are taken as the basis for the development and test of closure relations describing bubble coalescence and break-up, interfacial momentum transfer and turbulence modulation for a multi-bubble-class model. This is done by measuring the evolution of the flow structure along the pipe. The transferability of the extended CFD code to more complicated 3D flow situations is assessed against measured data from tests involving two-phase flow around an asymmetric obstacle placed in a vertical pipe. The obstacle, a half-moon-shaped diaphragm, is movable in the direction of the pipe axis; this allows the 3D gas fraction field to be recorded without changing the sensor position. In the outlook, the pressure chamber of TOPFLOW is presented, which will be used as the containment for a test facility, in which experiments can be conducted in pressure equilibrium with the inner atmosphere of the tank. In this way, flow structures can be observed by optical means through large-scale windows even at pressures of up to 5 MPa. The so-called 'Diving Chamber' technology will be used for Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) tests. Finally, some important trends in instrumentation for multi-phase flows will be given. This includes the state-of-art of X-ray and gamma tomography, new multi-component wire-mesh sensors, and a discussion of the potential of other non

  1. Novel experimental measuring techniques required to provide data for CFD validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    CFD code validation requires experimental data that characterize distributions of parameters within large flow domains. On the other hand, the development of geometry-independent closure relations for CFD codes have to rely on instrumentation and experimental techniques appropriate for the phenomena that are to be modelled, which usually requires high spatial and time resolution. The presentation reports about the use of wire-mesh sensors to study turbulent mixing processes in the single-phase flow as well as to characterize the dynamics of the gas-liquid interface in a vertical pipe flow. Experiments at a pipe of a nominal diameter of 200 mm are taken as the basis for the development and test of closure relations describing bubble coalescence and break-up, interfacial momentum transfer and turbulence modulation for a multi-bubble-class model. This is done by measuring the evolution of the flow structure along the pipe. The transferability of the extended CFD code to more complicated 3D flow situations is assessed against measured data from tests involving two-phase flow around an asymmetric obstacle placed in a vertical pipe. The obstacle, a half-moon-shaped diaphragm, is movable in the direction of the pipe axis; this allows the 3D gas fraction field to be recorded without changing the sensor position. In the outlook, the pressure chamber of TOPFLOW is presented, which will be used as the containment for a test facility, in which experiments can be conducted in pressure equilibrium with the inner atmosphere of the tank. In this way, flow structures can be observed by optical means through large-scale windows even at pressures of up to 5 MPa. The so-called 'Diving Chamber' technology will be used for Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) tests. Finally, some important trends in instrumentation for multi-phase flows will be given. This includes the state-of-art of X-ray and gamma tomography, new multi-component wire-mesh sensors, and a discussion of the potential of

  2. Airfoil shape optimization using non-traditional optimization technique and its validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mukesh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is one of the computer-based solution methods which is more widely employed in aerospace engineering. The computational power and time required to carry out the analysis increase as the fidelity of the analysis increases. Aerodynamic shape optimization has become a vital part of aircraft design in the recent years. Generally if we want to optimize an airfoil we have to describe the airfoil and for that, we need to have at least hundred points of x and y co-ordinates. It is really difficult to optimize airfoils with this large number of co-ordinates. Nowadays many different schemes of parameter sets are used to describe general airfoil such as B-spline, and PARSEC. The main goal of these parameterization schemes is to reduce the number of needed parameters as few as possible while controlling the important aerodynamic features effectively. Here the work has been done on the PARSEC geometry representation method. The objective of this work is to introduce the knowledge of describing general airfoil using twelve parameters by representing its shape as a polynomial function. And also we have introduced the concept of Genetic Algorithm to optimize the aerodynamic characteristics of a general airfoil for specific conditions. A MATLAB program has been developed to implement PARSEC, Panel Technique, and Genetic Algorithm. This program has been tested for a standard NACA 2411 airfoil and optimized to improve its coefficient of lift. Pressure distribution and co-efficient of lift for airfoil geometries have been calculated using the Panel method. The optimized airfoil has improved co-efficient of lift compared to the original one. The optimized airfoil is validated using wind tunnel data.

  3. Validation of the FFM PD count technique for screening personality pathology in later middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Joke; Rossi, Gina; De Clercq, Barbara; Dierckx, Eva; Bastiaansen, Leen

    2013-01-01

    Research on the applicability of the five factor model (FFM) to capture personality pathology coincided with the development of a FFM personality disorder (PD) count technique, which has been validated in adolescent, young, and middle-aged samples. This study extends the literature by validating this technique in an older sample. Five alternative FFM PD counts based upon the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) are computed and evaluated in terms of both convergent and divergent validity with the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders Questionnaire (shortly ADP-IV; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth edition). For the best working count for each PD normative data are presented, from which cut-off scores are derived. The validity of these cut-offs and their usefulness as a screening tool is tested against both a categorical (i.e., the DSM-IV - Text Revision), and a dimensional (i.e., the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology; DAPP) measure of personality pathology. All but the Antisocial and Obsessive-Compulsive counts exhibited adequate convergent and divergent validity, supporting the use of this method in older adults. Using the ADP-IV and the DAPP - Short Form as validation criteria, results corroborate the use of the FFM PD count technique to screen for PDs in older adults, in particular for the Paranoid, Borderline, Histrionic, Avoidant, and Dependent PDs. Given the age-neutrality of the NEO PI-R and the considerable lack of valid personality assessment tools, current findings appear to be promising for the assessment of pathology in older adults.

  4. Optimization of coronary optical coherence tomography imaging using the attenuation-compensated technique: a validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Jing Chun; Foin, Nicolas; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Fam, Jiang Ming; Wong, Philip; Low, Fatt Hoe; Leo, Hwa Liang; Mari, Jean-Martial; Joner, Michael; Girard, Michael J A; Virmani, Renu; Bezerra, HG.; Costa, MA.; Guagliumi, G.; Rollins, AM.; Simon, D.; Gutiérrez-Chico, JL.; Alegría-Barrero, E.; Teijeiro-Mestre, R.; Chan, PH.; Tsujioka, H.; de Silva, R.; Otsuka, F.; Joner, M.; Prati, F.; Virmani, R.; Narula, J.; Members, WC.; Levine, GN.; Bates, ER.; Blankenship, JC.; Bailey, SR.; Bittl, JA.; Prati, F.; Guagliumi, G.; Mintz, G.S.; Costa, Marco; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Roleder, T.; Jąkała, J.; Kałuża, GL.; Partyka, Ł.; Proniewska, K.; Pociask, E.; Girard, MJA.; Strouthidis, NG.; Ethier, CR.; Mari, JM.; Mari, JM.; Strouthidis, NG.; Park, SC.; Girard, MJA.; van der Lee, R.; Foin, N.; Otsuka, F.; Wong, P.K.; Mari, J-M.; Joner, M.; Nakano, M.; Vorpahl, M.; Otsuka, F.; Taniwaki, M.; Yazdani, SK.; Finn, AV.; Nakano, M.; Yahagi, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Taniwaki, M.; Otsuka, F.; Ladich, ER.; Girard, MJ.; Ang, M.; Chung, CW.; Farook, M.; Strouthidis, N.; Mehta, JS.; Foin, N.; Mari, JM.; Nijjer, S.; Sen, S.; Petraco, R.; Ghione, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, JU.; Virmani, R.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Burke, AP.; Farb, A.; Schwartz, S.M.; Yahagi, K.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Otsuka, F.; Finn, AV.; Davis, HR.; Joner, M.; Kume, T.; Akasaka, T.; Kawamoto, T.; Watanabe, N.; Toyota, E.; Neishi, Y.; Rieber, J.; Meissner, O.; Babaryka, G.; Reim, S.; Oswald, M.E.; Koenig, A.S.; Tearney, G. J.; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Adriaenssens, T.; Barlis, P.; Bezerra, HG.; Yabushita, H.; Bouma, BE.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; Guo, J.; Sun, L.; Chen, Y.D.; Tian, F.; Liu, HB.; Chen, L.; Kawasaki, M.; Bouma, BE.; Bressner, J. E.; Houser, S. L.; Nadkarni, S. K.; MacNeill, BD.; Jansen, CHP.; Onthank, DC.; Cuello, F.; Botnar, RM.; Wiethoff, AJ.; Warley, A.; von Birgelen, C.; Hartmann, A. M.; Kubo, T.; Akasaka, T.; Shite, J.; Suzuki, T.; Uemura, S.; Yu, B.; Habara, M.; Nasu, K.; Terashima, M.; Kaneda, H.; Yokota, D.; Ko, E.; Virmani, R.; Burke, AP.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Farb, A.; Takarada, S.; Imanishi, T.; Kubo, T.; Tanimoto, T.; Kitabata, H.; Nakamura, N.; Hattori, K.; Ozaki, Y.; Ismail, TF.; Okumura, M.; Naruse, H.; Kan, S.; Nishio, R.; Shinke, T.; Otake, H.; Nakagawa, M.; Nagoshi, R.; Inoue, T.; Sinclair, H.D.; Bourantas, C.; Bagnall, A.; Mintz, G.S.; Kunadian, V.; Tearney, G. J.; Yabushita, H.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; van Soest, G.; Goderie, T.; Regar, E.; Koljenović, S.; Leenders, GL. van; Gonzalo, N.; Xu, C.; Schmitt, JM.; Carlier, SG.; Virmani, R.; van der Meer, FJ; Faber, D.J.; Sassoon, DMB.; Aalders, M.C.; Pasterkamp, G.; Leeuwen, TG. van; Schmitt, JM.; Knuttel, A.; Yadlowsky, M.; Eckhaus, MA.; Karamata, B.; Laubscher, M.; Leutenegger, M.; Bourquin, S.; Lasser, T.; Lambelet, P.; Vermeer, K.A.; Mo, J.; Weda, J.J.A.; Lemij, H.G.; Boer, JF. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To optimize conventional coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) images using the attenuation-compensated technique to improve identification of plaques and the external elastic lamina (EEL) contour. METHOD The attenuation-compensated technique was optimized via manipulating contrast

  5. Validating competencies for an undergraduate training program in rural medicine using the Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Eneline Ah; Braga, Taciana D; Heráclio, Sandra A; Pessoa, Bruno Henrique S

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, half the population lives in rural or remote areas; however, less than 25% of doctors work in such regions. Despite the continental dimensions of Brazil and its enormous cultural diversity, only some medical schools in this country offer students the opportunity to acquire work experience focused on medicine in rural or remote areas. The objective of the present study was to develop a framework of competencies for a longitudinal medical training program in rural medicine as an integrated part of medical training in Brazil. Two rounds of a modified version of the Delphi technique were conducted. Initially, a structured questionnaire was elaborated, based on a literature review. This questionnaire was submitted to the opinion of 20 panelists affiliated with the Rural Medicine Working Party of the Brazilian Society of Family and Community Medicine. The panelists were asked to evaluate the relevance of the competencies using a five-point Likert-type scale. In this study, the consensus criterion for a competency to be included in the framework was it being deemed 'very important' or 'indispensable' by a simple majority of the participants, while the criterion for excluding a competency was that a simple majority of the panel members considered that it 'should not be included' or was 'of little importance'. When a consensus was not reached regarding a given competency, it was submitted to a second round to enable the panelists to re-evaluate the now dichotomized questions. Compliance in responding to the questionnaire was better among the panelists predominantly involved in teaching activities (85%; n=12) compared to those working principally in patient care (45%; n=8). The questionnaire consisted of 26 core competencies and 165 secondary competencies. After evaluation by the specialists, all the 26 core competencies were classified as relevant, with none being excluded and only eight secondary competencies failing to achieve a consensus. No new competencies

  6. A Community Based Study to Test the Reliability and Validity of Physical Activity Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity (PA is protective against non-communicable diseases and it can reduce premature mortality. However, it is difficult to assess the frequency, duration, type and intensity of PA. The global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ has been developed by World Health Organization with the aim of having valid and reliable estimates of PA. The primary aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the GPAQ instrument and the secondary aim is to validate it against International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and against an objective measure of PA (i.e., using pedometers in both rural and peri-urban areas of North India. Methods: A total of 262 subjects were recruited by random selection from Ballabgarh Block of Haryana State in India. For test retest repeatability of GPAQ and IPAQ, the instruments were administered on two occasions separated by at least 3 days. For concurrent validity, both questionnaires were administered in random order and for criterion validity step counters were used. Spearman′s correlation coefficient, intra-class correlation (ICC and Cohen′s kappa was used in the analysis. Results: For GPAQ validity, the spearman′s Rho ranged from 0.40 to 0.59 and ICC ranged from 0.43 to 0.81 while for IPAQ validity, spearman correlation coefficient ranged from 0.42 to 0.43 and ICC ranged from 0.56 to 0.68. The observed concurrent validity coefficients suggested that both the questionnaires had reasonable agreement (Spearman Rho of >0.90; P < 0.0001; ICC: 0.76-0.91, P < 0.05. Conclusions: GPAQ is similar to IPAQ in measuring PA and can be used for measurement of PA in community settings.

  7. Use of the FDA nozzle model to illustrate validation techniques in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariharan, Prasanna; D'Souza, Gavin A; Horner, Marc; Morrison, Tina M; Malinauskas, Richard A; Myers, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    A "credible" computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has the potential to provide a meaningful evaluation of safety in medical devices. One major challenge in establishing "model credibility" is to determine the required degree of similarity between the model and experimental results for the model to be considered sufficiently validated. This study proposes a "threshold-based" validation approach that provides a well-defined acceptance criteria, which is a function of how close the simulation and experimental results are to the safety threshold, for establishing the model validity. The validation criteria developed following the threshold approach is not only a function of Comparison Error, E (which is the difference between experiments and simulations) but also takes in to account the risk to patient safety because of E. The method is applicable for scenarios in which a safety threshold can be clearly defined (e.g., the viscous shear-stress threshold for hemolysis in blood contacting devices). The applicability of the new validation approach was tested on the FDA nozzle geometry. The context of use (COU) was to evaluate if the instantaneous viscous shear stress in the nozzle geometry at Reynolds numbers (Re) of 3500 and 6500 was below the commonly accepted threshold for hemolysis. The CFD results ("S") of velocity and viscous shear stress were compared with inter-laboratory experimental measurements ("D"). The uncertainties in the CFD and experimental results due to input parameter uncertainties were quantified following the ASME V&V 20 standard. The CFD models for both Re = 3500 and 6500 could not be sufficiently validated by performing a direct comparison between CFD and experimental results using the Student's t-test. However, following the threshold-based approach, a Student's t-test comparing |S-D| and |Threshold-S| showed that relative to the threshold, the CFD and experimental datasets for Re = 3500 were statistically similar and the model could be

  8. Survey of Verification and Validation Techniques for Small Satellite Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current trends and practices in small-satellite software verification and validation. This document is not intended to promote a specific software assurance method. Rather, it seeks to present an unbiased survey of software assurance methods used to verify and validate small satellite software and to make mention of the benefits and value of each approach. These methods include simulation and testing, verification and validation with model-based design, formal methods, and fault-tolerant software design with run-time monitoring. Although the literature reveals that simulation and testing has by far the longest legacy, model-based design methods are proving to be useful for software verification and validation. Some work in formal methods, though not widely used for any satellites, may offer new ways to improve small satellite software verification and validation. These methods need to be further advanced to deal with the state explosion problem and to make them more usable by small-satellite software engineers to be regularly applied to software verification. Last, it is explained how run-time monitoring, combined with fault-tolerant software design methods, provides an important means to detect and correct software errors that escape the verification process or those errors that are produced after launch through the effects of ionizing radiation.

  9. Model-based wear measurements in total knee arthroplasty : development and validation of novel radiographic techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJsseldijk, van E.A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to develop novel model-based mJSW measurement methods using a 3D reconstruction and compare the accuracy and precision of these methods to conventional mJSW measurement. This thesis contributed to the development, validation and clinical application of model-based

  10. Development and validation of three-dimensional CFD techniques for reactor safety applications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Palazzo, Simone; Papukchiev, Angel; Scheurer Martina

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal of the project RS 1506 ''Development and Validation of Three Dimensional CFD Methods for Reactor Safety Applications'' is the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for the simulation of three -dimensional thermo-hydraulic heat and fluid flow phenomena in nuclear reactors. For this purpose a wide spectrum of validation and test cases was selected covering fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the downcomer and in the core of pressurized water reactors. In addition, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the CFD code ANSYS CFX was further developed and validated. The first choice were UPTF experiments where turbulent single- and two-phase flows were investigated in a 1:1 scaled model of a German KONVOI reactor. The scope of the CFD calculations covers thermal mixing and stratification including condensation in single- and two-phase flows. In the complex core region, the flow in a fuel assembly with spacer grid was simulated as defined in the OECD/NEA Benchmark MATIS-H. Good agreement are achieved when the geometrical and physical boundary conditions were reproduced as realistic as possible. This includes, in particular, the consideration of heat transfer to walls. The influence of wall modelling on CFD results was investigated on the TALL-3D T01 experiment. In this case, the dynamic three dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena were simulated in a Generation IV liquid metal cooled reactor. Concurrently to the validation work, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the ANSYS CFX software was optimized and expanded for two-phase flows. Different coupling approaches were investigated, in order to overcome the large difference between CPU-time requirements of system and CFD codes. Finally, the coupled simulation system was validated by applying it to the simulation of the PSI double T-junction experiment, the LBE-flow in the MYRRA Spallation experiment and a demonstration test case simulating a pump trip

  11. Attributes of low involvement products: A comparison of five elicitation techniques and a test of their nomological validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Grunert, Klaus G.

    attributes, which are important to consumers, is the critical first step in the majority of consumer behavior studies. 2. A number of techniques, ranging from the complicated elicitation of idiosyncratic attributes, to simpler techniques, as picking from a pre-specified list of attributes, has been developed...... negatively to the abstraction level and the number of attributes involved in the choice task. 4. The purpose of the study presented in this paper is to: (a) compare different elicitation techniques on a number of different criteria, such as: importance to consumers, ability to discriminate between brands......, predictive ability, time use, and number of attributes elicited; and to (b) test the nomological validity of the basic assumptions regarding attributes and consumer choices for a low involvement product (veg oil). 5. The study presented is part of the project Rape seed oil for human consumption. Although...

  12. Conceptual dissonance: evaluating the efficacy of natural language processing techniques for validating translational knowledge constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O; Kwok, Alan; Dhaval, Rakesh; Borlawsky, Tara B

    2009-03-01

    The conduct of large-scale translational studies presents significant challenges related to the storage, management and analysis of integrative data sets. Ideally, the application of methodologies such as conceptual knowledge discovery in databases (CKDD) provides a means for moving beyond intuitive hypothesis discovery and testing in such data sets, and towards the high-throughput generation and evaluation of knowledge-anchored relationships between complex bio-molecular and phenotypic variables. However, the induction of such high-throughput hypotheses is non-trivial, and requires correspondingly high-throughput validation methodologies. In this manuscript, we describe an evaluation of the efficacy of a natural language processing-based approach to validating such hypotheses. As part of this evaluation, we will examine a phenomenon that we have labeled as "Conceptual Dissonance" in which conceptual knowledge derived from two or more sources of comparable scope and granularity cannot be readily integrated or compared using conventional methods and automated tools.

  13. Development and Validation of a Technique for Detection of Stress and Pregnancy in Large Whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    humpback whales, blue whales, and possibly insular false killer whales). 2 2) The second objective is to complete the biological validation using...identification using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Briefly, pooled blubber extract from animals of known gender will be serially diluted 1...progesterone in captive female false killer whales, pseudorca crassidens. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 115:323-332. Atkinson, S., Crocker, D., Houser, D

  14. SU-F-BRE-07: Experimental Validation of a Lung SBRT Technique Using a Novel, True Volumetric Plenoptic-Plastic-Scintillator Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, M; Rilling, M; Gingras, L; Beaulieu, L; Archambault, L; Beddar, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Lung SBRT is being used by an increasing number of clinics, including our center which recently treated its first patient. In order to validate this technique, the 3D dose distribution of the SBRT plan was measured using a previously developed 3D detector based on plenoptic camera and plastic scintillator technology. The excellent agreement between the detector measurement and the expected dose from the treatment planning system Pinnacle 3 shows great promise and amply justify the development of the technique. Methods: The SBRT treatment comprised 8 non-coplanar 6MV photon fields with a mean field size of 12 cm 2 at isocentre and a total prescription dose of 12Gy per fraction for a total of 48Gy. The 3D detector was composed of a 10×10×10 cm 2 EJ-260 water-equivalent plastic scintillator embedded inside a truncated cylindrical acrylic phantom of 10cm radius. The scintillation light was recorded using a static R5 light-field camera and the 3D dose was reconstructed at a 2mm resolution in all 3 dimensions using an iterative backprojection algorithm. Results: The whole 3D dose distribution was recorded at a rate of one acquisition per second. The mean absolute dose difference between the detector and Pinnacle 3 was 1.3% over the region with more than 10% of the maximum dose. 3D gamma tests performed over the same region yield passing rates of 98.8% and 96.6% with criteria of 3%/1mm and 2%/1mm, respectively. Conclusion: Experimental results showed that our beam modeling and treatment planning system calculation was adequate for the safe administration of small field/high dose techniques such as SBRT. Moreover, because of the real-time capability of the detector, further validation of small field rotational, dynamic or gated technique can be monitored or verified by this system

  15. SU-F-BRE-07: Experimental Validation of a Lung SBRT Technique Using a Novel, True Volumetric Plenoptic-Plastic-Scintillator Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulet, M; Rilling, M; Gingras, L; Beaulieu, L; Archambault, L [CHU de Quebec and Universite Laval, Quebec, QC (Canada); Beddar, S [MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Lung SBRT is being used by an increasing number of clinics, including our center which recently treated its first patient. In order to validate this technique, the 3D dose distribution of the SBRT plan was measured using a previously developed 3D detector based on plenoptic camera and plastic scintillator technology. The excellent agreement between the detector measurement and the expected dose from the treatment planning system Pinnacle{sup 3} shows great promise and amply justify the development of the technique. Methods: The SBRT treatment comprised 8 non-coplanar 6MV photon fields with a mean field size of 12 cm{sup 2} at isocentre and a total prescription dose of 12Gy per fraction for a total of 48Gy. The 3D detector was composed of a 10×10×10 cm{sup 2} EJ-260 water-equivalent plastic scintillator embedded inside a truncated cylindrical acrylic phantom of 10cm radius. The scintillation light was recorded using a static R5 light-field camera and the 3D dose was reconstructed at a 2mm resolution in all 3 dimensions using an iterative backprojection algorithm. Results: The whole 3D dose distribution was recorded at a rate of one acquisition per second. The mean absolute dose difference between the detector and Pinnacle{sup 3} was 1.3% over the region with more than 10% of the maximum dose. 3D gamma tests performed over the same region yield passing rates of 98.8% and 96.6% with criteria of 3%/1mm and 2%/1mm, respectively. Conclusion: Experimental results showed that our beam modeling and treatment planning system calculation was adequate for the safe administration of small field/high dose techniques such as SBRT. Moreover, because of the real-time capability of the detector, further validation of small field rotational, dynamic or gated technique can be monitored or verified by this system.

  16. Characteristics and Validation Techniques for PCA-Based Gene-Expression Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. Berglund

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many gene-expression signatures exist for describing the biological state of profiled tumors. Principal Component Analysis (PCA can be used to summarize a gene signature into a single score. Our hypothesis is that gene signatures can be validated when applied to new datasets, using inherent properties of PCA. Results. This validation is based on four key concepts. Coherence: elements of a gene signature should be correlated beyond chance. Uniqueness: the general direction of the data being examined can drive most of the observed signal. Robustness: if a gene signature is designed to measure a single biological effect, then this signal should be sufficiently strong and distinct compared to other signals within the signature. Transferability: the derived PCA gene signature score should describe the same biology in the target dataset as it does in the training dataset. Conclusions. The proposed validation procedure ensures that PCA-based gene signatures perform as expected when applied to datasets other than those that the signatures were trained upon. Complex signatures, describing multiple independent biological components, are also easily identified.

  17. Validation of a technique by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of total isoflavones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar A. Soledispa Cañarte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Isoflavones may act as selective regulators in the prevention of various diseases. The most important source of isoflavones is the soy, from which different phytotherapeutics are elaborated of use in Ecuadorian population. However, its concentration varies depending on several factors, therefore quality assessment need to be carried out through out several analytical methods. Aims: To validate an analytical method by high precision liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify total isoflavones in herbal medicine. Methods: To quantify isoflavones, it was used a brand liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detector at 260 nm, C-18 column using isocratic method. The mobile phase was composed of 2% acetic acid: acetonitrile (75:25. The quantification was performed against reference standard. The parameters for the validation followed the established in the USP 33. Results: The chromatogram presented six peaks with elution between 1.557 and 18.913 min. The linearity of the system and the method got r2 equal to 0.98 and 0.99 respectively. The coefficients of variation 1.5% in the study of repetitiveness and 2% in intermediate precision. The accuracy of the adjusted lineal model exhibited r=0.95 and intercept reliable interval (-0.921; 1.743. Conclusions: The validated method was specific, accurate, precise and linear. It can be used for quality control and stability studies of isoflavones present in herbal medicine.

  18. Validation of previously reported predictors for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy, a post hoc analysis from a Phase III randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit; Kitpanit, Sarin; Prayongrat, Anussara; Kannarunimit, Danita; Netsawang, Buntipa; Chakkabat, Chakkapong

    2018-05-10

    This study aimed to validate previously reported dosimetric parameters, including thyroid volume, mean dose, and percentage thyroid volume, receiving at least 40, 45 and 50 Gy (V40, V45 and V50), absolute thyroid volume spared (VS) from 45, 50 and 60 Gy (VS45, VS50 and VS60), and clinical factors affecting the development of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RHT). A post hoc analysis was performed in 178 euthyroid nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients from a Phase III study comparing sequential versus simultaneous-integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy. RHT was determined by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with or without reduced free thyroxin, regardless of symptoms. The median follow-up time was 42.5 months. The 1-, 2- and 3-year freedom from RHT rates were 78.4%, 56.4% and 43.4%, respectively. The median latency period was 21 months. The thyroid gland received a median mean dose of 53.5 Gy. Female gender, smaller thyroid volume, higher pretreatment TSH level (≥1.55 μU/ml) and VS60 treatment planning.

  19. Validation of Extraction Paper Chromatography as a Quality Control Technique for Analysis of Sr-90 in Y-90 Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipavan, Poramatikul; Jatupol, Sangsuriyan; Wiranee, Sriweing

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Yttrium-90 (Y-90) is a daughter product of strontium-90 (Sr-90). It is specified that there should be less than 2 micro-curie of Sr-90 in Y-90 radiopharmaceuticals. Since both nuclides are beta emitting and there is always a contamination of Y-90 in Sr-90 sample, validation of the analytical method is necessary. In this study, commercial Y-90 and Sr-85 (a gamma emitting isotope of strontium) were used as daughter and mother nuclides, respectively. Extraction paper chromatography technique and its efficient validation method were investigated. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) diphosphonate was dropped at the origin of chromatography paper and air dried prior to sample drops. Validation of the separation was done by radio-chromatography scanning of the chromatography paper. Their energy spectra were identified in the spectra mode of Packard Cobra II automatic gamma counter, which can differentiate a pure gamma, a pure beta and a mixture of beta and gamma nuclides. Results showed that yttrium acetate remained fixed at the origin of the chromatography paper while strontium acetate moved to the solvent front when developed in saline. In conclusion, the extraction paper chromatography technique can effectively separate Sr-90 from Y-90

  20. Validation of the actuator line and disc techniques using the New MEXICO measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Shen, Wen Z.; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2016-01-01

    Actuator line and disc techniques are employed to analyse the wake obtained in the New MEXICO wind turbine experiment. The New MEXICO measurement campaign done in 2014 is a follow-up to the MEXICO campaign, which was completed in 2006. Three flow configurations in axial flow condition are simulated...

  1. Computed simulation of radiographies of pipes - validation of techniques for wall thickness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellon, C.; Tillack, G.R.; Nockemann, C.; Wenzel, L.

    1995-01-01

    A macroscopic model of radiographic NDE methods and applications is given. A computer-aided approach for determination of wall thickness from radiographs is presented, guaranteeing high accuracy and reproducibility of wall thickness determination by means of projection radiography. The algorithm was applied to computed simulations of radiographies. The simulation thus offers an effective means for testing such automated wall thickness determination as a function of imaging conditions, pipe geometries, coatings, and media tracking, and likewise is a tool for validation and optimization of the method. (orig.) [de

  2. Flight test techniques for validating simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse aircraft responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, R. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the effects of nuclear EM pulses (NEMPs) on aircraft systems, using a highly instrumented NASA F-106B to document the simulated NEMP environment at the Kirtland Air Force Base's Vertically Polarized Dipole test facility. Several test positions were selected so that aircraft orientation relative to the test facility would be the same in flight as when on the stationary dielectric stand, in order to validate the dielectric stand's use in flight configuration simulations. Attention is given to the flight test portions of the documentation program.

  3. First experience from in-core sensor validation based on correlation and neuro-fuzzy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figedy, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work new types of nuclear reactor in-core sensor validation methods are outlined. The first one is based on combination of correlation coefficients and mutual information indices, which reflect the correlation of signals in linear and nonlinear regions. The method may be supplemented by wavelet transform based signal features extraction and pattern recognition by artificial neural networks and also fuzzy logic based decision making. The second one is based on neuro-fuzzy modeling of residuals between experimental values and their theoretical counterparts obtained from the reactor core simulator calculations. The first experience with this approach is described and further improvements to enhance the outcome reliability are proposed (Author)

  4. A reference data set for validating vapor pressure measurement techniques: homologous series of polyethylene glycols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Ulrich K.; Siegrist, Franziska; Marcolli, Claudia; Emanuelsson, Eva U.; Gøbel, Freya M.; Bilde, Merete; Marsh, Aleksandra; Reid, Jonathan P.; Huisman, Andrew J.; Riipinen, Ilona; Hyttinen, Noora; Myllys, Nanna; Kurtén, Theo; Bannan, Thomas; Percival, Carl J.; Topping, David

    2018-01-01

    To predict atmospheric partitioning of organic compounds between gas and aerosol particle phase based on explicit models for gas phase chemistry, saturation vapor pressures of the compounds need to be estimated. Estimation methods based on functional group contributions require training sets of compounds with well-established saturation vapor pressures. However, vapor pressures of semivolatile and low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. At present, there is no general reference technique for measuring saturation vapor pressures of atmospherically relevant compounds with low vapor pressures at atmospheric temperatures. To address this problem, we measured vapor pressures with different techniques over a wide temperature range for intercomparison and to establish a reliable training set. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols (H - (O - CH2 - CH2)n - OH) for n = 3 to n = 8 ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 10-7 to 5×10-2 Pa and compare them with quantum chemistry calculations. Such a homologous series provides a reference set that covers several orders of magnitude in saturation vapor pressure, allowing a critical assessment of the lower limits of detection of vapor pressures for the different techniques as well as permitting the identification of potential sources of systematic error. Also, internal consistency within the series allows outlying data to be rejected more easily. Most of the measured vapor pressures agreed within the stated uncertainty range. Deviations mostly occurred for vapor pressure values approaching the lower detection limit of a technique. The good agreement between the measurement techniques (some of which are sensitive to the mass

  5. Validation study of the modified injection technique for internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong BB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Bin Cong,1,2,* Xiao-Shan Cao,1,2,* Peng-Fei Qiu,1 Yan-Bing Liu,1 Tong Zhao,1 Peng Chen,1 Chun-Jian Wang,1 Zhao-Peng Zhang,1 Xiao Sun,1 Yong-Sheng Wang1 1Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: According to the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern, a modified radiotracer injection technique (periareolar intraparenchyma, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance was established. To verify the accuracy of the hypothesis and validate the modified radiotracer injection technique and to observe whether the lymphatic drainage of the whole breast parenchyma could reach to the same IM-SLN, different tracers were injected into different locations of the breast. The validation study results showed that the correlation and the agreement of the radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer are significant (case-base, rs =0.808, P<0.001; Kappa =0.79, P<0.001. It proved that the lymphatic drainage from different location of the breast (the primary tumor, the subareolar plexus reached the same IM-SLNs and the hypothesis of IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern (ie, IM-SLN receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. In other words, it validated the accuracy of our modified radiotracer injection technique. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary, sentinel lymph node biopsy, visualization rate

  6. Recovery Act Validation of Innovative Exploration Techniques Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdmann, Gwen [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  7. Fiber Bragg Gratings, IT Techniques and Strain Gauge Validation for Strain Calculation on Aged Metal Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Montero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the feasibility of calculating strains in aged F114 steel specimens with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors and infrared thermography (IT techniques. Two specimens have been conditioned under extreme temperature and relative humidity conditions making comparative tests of stress before and after aging using different adhesives. Moreover, a comparison has been made with IT techniques and conventional methods for calculating stresses in F114 steel. Implementation of Structural Health Monitoring techniques on real aircraft during their life cycle requires a study of the behaviour of FBG sensors and their wiring under real conditions, before using them for a long time. To simulate aging, specimens were stored in a climate chamber at 70 °C and 90% RH for 60 days. This study is framed within the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM and Non Destructuve Evaluation (NDE research lines, integrated into the avionics area maintained by the Aeronautical Technologies Centre (CTA and the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU.

  8. Complementary techniques: validation of gene expression data by quantitative real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Maurizio; Mocellin, Simone

    2007-01-01

    Microarray technology can be considered the most powerful tool for screening gene expression profiles of biological samples. After data mining, results need to be validated with highly reliable biotechniques allowing for precise quantitation of transcriptional abundance of identified genes. Quantitative real time PCR (qrt-PCR) technology has recently reached a level of sensitivity, accuracy and practical ease that support its use as a routine bioinstrumentation for gene level measurement. Currently, qrt-PCR is considered by most experts the most appropriate method to confirm or confute microarray-generated data. The knowledge of the biochemical principles underlying qrt-PCR as well as some related technical issues must be beard in mind when using this biotechnology.

  9. Estimating Rooftop Suitability for PV: A Review of Methods, Patents, and Validation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    A number of methods have been developed using remote sensing data to estimate rooftop area suitable for the installation of photovoltaics (PV) at various geospatial resolutions. This report reviews the literature and patents on methods for estimating rooftop-area appropriate for PV, including constant-value methods, manual selection methods, and GIS-based methods. This report also presents NREL's proposed method for estimating suitable rooftop area for PV using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in conjunction with a GIS model to predict areas with appropriate slope, orientation, and sunlight. NREL's method is validated against solar installation data from New Jersey, Colorado, and California to compare modeled results to actual on-the-ground measurements.

  10. Validation of the technique to assessment of tablets Catechin from Rhizophora mangle L. by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Perreria, Luz Maria; Mancebo Dorvigny, Betty; Faure Garcia, Roberto; Travieso, Maria del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Authors made the high-performance liquid chromatography method validation to the quantitative assessment of cathechin as a marker substance in tablets obtained from the bark of Rhizophora mangle L. dry extract used in gastroduodenal ulcers treatment. Considering that this method as such is classified to quantitative assessment of the major compound or active ingredient in formulae or raw material, the following parameters were assessed: linearity, accuracy, sensitivity and precision expressed in its two ways: repetition and intermediate precision. Results obtained showed that this method is reliable allowing the compound assessment in presence of other substances, including excipients and auxiliary substances and to detect the presence of degradation products. Also, the statistical processing of results evidenced the linearity, precision, sensitivity and accuracy of this method

  11. Validation and qualification of surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors using application-independent optical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukar, Vivien G; Kadoke, Daniel; Kusche, Nadine; Münzenberger, Sven; Gründer, Klaus-Peter; Habel, Wolfgang R

    2012-01-01

    Surface-applied fibre optic strain sensors were investigated using a unique validation facility equipped with application-independent optical reference systems. First, different adhesives for the sensor's application were analysed regarding their material properties. Measurements resulting from conventional measurement techniques, such as thermo-mechanical analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis, were compared with measurements resulting from digital image correlation, which has the advantage of being a non-contact technique. Second, fibre optic strain sensors were applied to test specimens with the selected adhesives. Their strain-transfer mechanism was analysed in comparison with conventional strain gauges. Relative movements between the applied sensor and the test specimen were visualized easily using optical reference methods, digital image correlation and electronic speckle pattern interferometry. Conventional strain gauges showed limited opportunities for an objective strain-transfer analysis because they are also affected by application conditions. (paper)

  12. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  13. [Study on predicting sugar content and valid acidity of apples by near infrared diffuse reflectance technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-de; Ying, Yi-bin; Fu, Xia-ping

    2005-11-01

    The nondestructive method for quantifying sugar content (SC) and available acid (VA) of intact apples using diffuse near infrared reflectance and optical fiber sensing techniques were explored in the present research. The standard sample sets and prediction models were established by partial least squares analysis (PLS). A total of 120 Shandong Fuji apples were tested in the wave number of 12,500 - 4000 cm(-1) using Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy. The results of the research indicated that the nondestructive quantification of SC and VA, gave a high correlation coefficient 0.970 and 0.906, a low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) 0.272 and 0.056 2, a low root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) 0.261 and 0.0677, and a small difference between RMSEP and RMSEC 0.011 a nd 0.0115. It was suggested that the diffuse nearinfrared reflectance technique be feasible for nondestructive determination of apple sugar content in the wave number range of 10,341 - 5461 cm(-1) and for available acid in the wave number range of 10,341 - 3818 cm(-1).

  14. Emerging techniques for the discovery and validation of therapeutic targets for skeletal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Christine H; Nuttall, Mark E

    2002-12-01

    Advances in genomics and proteomics have revolutionised the drug discovery process and target validation. Identification of novel therapeutic targets for chronic skeletal diseases is an extremely challenging process based on the difficulty of obtaining high-quality human diseased versus normal tissue samples. The quality of tissue and genomic information obtained from the sample is critical to identifying disease-related genes. Using a genomics-based approach, novel genes or genes with similar homology to existing genes can be identified from cDNA libraries generated from normal versus diseased tissue. High-quality cDNA libraries are prepared from uncontaminated homogeneous cell populations harvested from tissue sections of interest. Localised gene expression analysis and confirmation are obtained through in situ hybridisation or immunohistochemical studies. Cells overexpressing the recombinant protein are subsequently designed for primary cell-based high-throughput assays that are capable of screening large compound banks for potential hits. Afterwards, secondary functional assays are used to test promising compounds. The same overexpressing cells are used in the secondary assay to test protein activity and functionality as well as screen for small-molecule agonists or antagonists. Once a hit is generated, a structure-activity relationship of the compound is optimised for better oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics allowing the compound to progress into development. Parallel efforts from proteomics, as well as genetics/transgenics, bioinformatics and combinatorial chemistry, and improvements in high-throughput automation technologies, allow the drug discovery process to meet the demands of the medicinal market. This review discusses and illustrates how different approaches are incorporated into the discovery and validation of novel targets and, consequently, the development of potentially therapeutic agents in the areas of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis

  15. VALIDATING A COMPUTER-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING STABILITY TO FAILURE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Arshava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An upsurge of interest in the implicit personality assessment, currently observed both in personality psycho-diagnostics and in experimental studies of social attitudes and prejudices, signals the shifting of researchers’ attention from de?ning between-person personality taxonomy to specifying comprehensive within-person processes, the dynamics of which can be captured at the level of an individual case. This research examines the possibility of the implicit assessment of the individual’s stability vs. susceptibility to failure stress by comparing the degrees of ef?cacy in the voluntary self-regulation of a computer-simulated information-processing activity under different conditions (patent of Ukraine № 91842, issued in 2010. By exposing two groups of participants (university undergraduates to processing the information, the scope of which exceeds the human short-term memory capacity at one of the stages of the modeled activity an unexpected and unavoidable failure is elicited. The participants who retain stability of their self-regulation behavior after having been exposed to failure, i.e. who keep processing information as effectively as they did prior to failure, are claimed to retain homeostasis and thus possess emotional stability. Those, who loose homeostasis after failure and display lower standards of self-regulation behavior, are considered to be susceptible to stress. The validity of the suggested type of the implicit diagnostics was empirically tested by clustering (K-means algorithm two samples of the participants on the  properties of their self-regulation behavior and testing between-cluster differences by a set of the explicitly assessed variables: Action control ef?cacy (Kuhl, 2001, preferred strategies of Coping with Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker, 1990,  Purpose-in-Life orientation (a Russian version of the test by Crumbaugh and Maholick, modi?ed by D.Leontiev, 1992, Psychological Well-being (Ryff, 1989

  16. Validation and Application of Computed Radiography (CR) Tangential Technique for Wall Thickness Measurement of 10 Inch Carbon Steel Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norhazleena Azaman; Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Amry Amin Abas; Arshad Yassin; Sukhri Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas industry requires Non Destructive Testing (NDT) to ensure each components, in-service and critical, are fit-for-purpose. Pipes that are used to transfer oil or gas are amongst the critical component that needs to be well maintained and inspected. Typical pipe discontinuities that may lead to unintended incidents are erosion, corrosion, dent, welding defects, etc. Wall thickness assessment, with Radiography Testing (RT) is normally used to inspect such discontinuities and can be performed with two approaches; (a) center line beam tangential technique (b) offset from the centre pipe tangential technique. The latter is a method of choice for this work because of the pipe dimension and limited radiation safe distance at site. Two successful validation approaches (simulation and experimental) were performed to determine the probability of successfulness before the actual RT work with tangential technique is carried out. The pipe was a 10 inch diameter in-service wrapped carbon steel. A 9 Ci Ir-192 and white Imaging Plate (IP) were used as a gamma radiation source and to record the radiographic image. Result of this work suggest that RT with tangential technique for 10 inch wrapped in-service carbon steel pipe can be successfully performed. (author)

  17. Arterial stiffness estimation in healthy subjects: a validation of oscillometric (Arteriograph) and tonometric (SphygmoCor) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Margareta; Eriksson, Maria Jolanta; Zierath, Juleen Rae; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Arterial stiffness is an important cardiovascular risk marker, which can be measured noninvasively with different techniques. To validate such techniques in healthy subjects, we compared the recently introduced oscillometric Arteriograph (AG) technique with the tonometric SphygmoCor (SC) method and their associations with carotid ultrasound measures and traditional risk indicators. Sixty-three healthy subjects aged 20-69 (mean 48 ± 15) years were included. We measured aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao) and augmentation index (AIx) by AG and SC, and with SC also the PWVao standardized to 80% of the direct distance between carotid and femoral sites (St-PWVaoSC). The carotid strain, stiffness index and intima-media thickness (cIMTmean) were evaluated by ultrasound. PWVaoAG (8.00 ± 2.16 m s(-1)) was higher (Pstiffness indices by AG and SC correlate with vascular risk markers in healthy subjects. AIxao results by AG and SC are closely interrelated, but higher values are obtained by AG. In the lower range, PWVao values by AG and SC are similar, but differ for higher values. Our results imply the necessity to apply one and the same technique for repeated studies.

  18. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2 k experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2 3 and the 2 4 , depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

  19. Experimental design technique applied to the validation of an instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Uanda Paula de M. dos; Moreira, Edson Gonçalves, E-mail: uandapaula@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method were carried out for the determination of the elements bromine, chlorine, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and vanadium in biological matrix materials using short irradiations at a pneumatic system. 2{sup k} experimental designs were applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. The chosen experimental designs were the 2{sup 3} and the 2{sup 4}, depending on the radionuclide half life. Different certified reference materials and multi-element comparators were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, irradiation time, counting time and sample distance to detector. Comparator concentration, sample mass and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations, it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN /CNEN-SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect, interaction effects and better irradiation conditions. (author)

  20. Validation of myocardial blood flow estimation with nitrogen-13 ammonia PET by the argon inert gas technique in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, J.; Glatting, G.; Neumaier, B.; Reske, S.N.; Hoff, J. van den; Hoeher, M.; Woehrle, J. n

    2001-01-01

    We simultaneously determined global myocardial blood flow (MBF) by the argon inert gas technique and by nitrogen-13 ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) to validate PET-derived MBF values in humans. A total of 19 patients were investigated at rest (n=19) and during adenosine-induced hyperaemia (n=16). Regional coronary artery stenoses were ruled out by angiography. The argon inert gas method uses the difference of arterial and coronary sinus argon concentrations during inhalation of a mixture of 75% argon and 25% oxygen to estimate global MBF. It can be considered as valid as the microspheres technique, which, however, cannot be applied in humans. Dynamic PET was performed after injection of 0.8±0.2 GBq 13 N-ammonia and MBF was calculated applying a two-tissue compartment model. MBF values derived from the argon method at rest and during the hyperaemic state were 1.03±0.24 ml min -1 g -1 and 2.64±1.02 ml min -1 g -1 , respectively. MBF values derived from ammonia PET at rest and during hyperaemia were 0.95±0.23 ml min -1 g -1 and 2.44±0.81 ml min -1 g -1 , respectively. The correlation between the two methods was close (y=0.92x+0.14, r=0.96; P 13 N-ammonia PET. (orig.)

  1. In-vivo validation of fast spectral velocity estimation techniques – preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Gran, Fredrik; Pedersen, Mads Møller

    2008-01-01

    Spectral Doppler is a common way to estimate blood velocities in medical ultrasound (US). The standard way of estimating spectrograms is by using Welch's method (WM). WM is dependent on a long observation window (OW) (about 100 transmissions) to produce spectrograms with sufficient spectral...... resolution and contrast. Two adaptive filterbank methods have been suggested to circumvent this problem: the Blood spectral Power Capon method (BPC) and the Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation method (BAPES). Previously, simulations and flow rig experiments have indicated that the two adaptive methods can...... was scanned using the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS and a B-K Medical 5 MHz linear array transducer with an angle of insonation not exceeding 60deg. All 280 spectrograms were then randomised and presented to a radiologist blinded for method and OW for visual evaluation: useful or not useful. WMbw...

  2. An angiographic technique for coronary fractional flow reserve measurement: in vivo validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, Shigeho; Zhang, Zhang; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-03-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an important prognostic determinant in a clinical setting. However, its measurement currently requires the use of invasive pressure wire, while an angiographic technique based on first-pass distribution analysis and scaling laws can be used to measure FFR using only image data. Eight anesthetized swine were instrumented with flow probe on the proximal segment of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries. Volumetric blood flow from the flow probe (Qp), coronary pressure (Pa) and right atrium pressure (Pv) were continuously recorded. Flow probe-based FFR (FFRq) was measured from the ratio of flow with and without stenosis. To determine the angiography-based FFR (FFRa), the ratio of blood flow in the presence of a stenosis (QS) to theoretically normal blood flow (QN) was calculated. A region of interest in the LAD arterial bed was drawn to generate time-density curves using angiographic images. QS was measured using a time-density curve and the assumption that blood was momentarily replaced with contrast agent during the injection. QN was estimated from the total coronary arterial volume using scaling laws. Pressure-wire measurements of FFR (FFRp), which was calculated from the ratio of distal coronary pressure (Pd) divided by proximal pressure (Pa), were continuously obtained during the study. A total of 54 measurements of FFRa, FFRp, and FFRq were taken. FFRa showed a good correlation with FFRq (FFRa = 0.97 FFRq +0.06, r(2) = 0.80, p < 0.001), although FFRp overestimated the FFRq (FFRp = 0.657 FFRq + 0.313, r(2) = 0.710, p < 0.0001). Additionally, the Bland-Altman analysis showed a close agreement between FFRa and FFRq. This angiographic technique to measure FFR can potentially be used to evaluate both anatomical and physiological assessments of a coronary stenosis during routine diagnostic cardiac catheterization that requires no pressure wires.

  3. Reliability and validity of the ultrasound technique to measure the rectus femoris muscle diameter in older CAD-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaes Tom

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing age of coronary artery disease (CAD patients and the occurrence of sarcopenia in the elderly population accompanied by 'fear of moving' and hospitalization in these patients often results in a substantial loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength. Cardiac rehabilitation can improve exercise tolerance and muscle strength in CAD patients but less data describe eventual morphological muscular changes possibly by more difficult access to imaging techniques. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess and quantify the reliability and validity of an easy applicable method, the ultrasound (US technique, to measure the diameter of rectus femoris muscle in comparison to the muscle dimensions measured with CT scans. Methods 45 older CAD patients without cardiac event during the last 9 months were included in this study. 25 patients were tested twice with ultrasound with a two day interval to assess test-retest reliability and 20 patients were tested twice (once with US and once with CT on the same day to assess the validity of the US technique compared to CT as the gold standard. Isometric and isokinetic muscle testing was performed to test potential zero-order correlations between muscle diameter, muscle volume and muscle force. Results An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.97 ((95%CL: 0.92 - 0.99 was found for the test-retest reliability of US and the ICC computed between US and CT was 0.92 (95%CL: 0.81 - 0.97. The absolute difference between both techniques was 0.01 ± 0.12 cm (p = 0.66 resulting in a typical percentage error of 4.4%. Significant zero-order correlations were found between local muscle volume and muscle diameter assessed with CT (r = 0.67, p = 0.001 and assessed with US (r = 0.49, p Conclusions Ultrasound imaging can be used as a valid and reliable measurement tool to assess the rectus femoris muscle diameter in older CAD patients.

  4. An Experimentally Validated Numerical Modeling Technique for Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M J; Nellis, G F; Kelin, S A; Zhu, W; Gianchandani, Y

    2010-11-01

    Cryogenic and high-temperature systems often require compact heat exchangers with a high resistance to axial conduction in order to control the heat transfer induced by axial temperature differences. One attractive design for such applications is a perforated plate heat exchanger that utilizes high conductivity perforated plates to provide the stream-to-stream heat transfer and low conductivity spacers to prevent axial conduction between the perforated plates. This paper presents a numerical model of a perforated plate heat exchanger that accounts for axial conduction, external parasitic heat loads, variable fluid and material properties, and conduction to and from the ends of the heat exchanger. The numerical model is validated by experimentally testing several perforated plate heat exchangers that are fabricated using microelectromechanical systems based manufacturing methods. This type of heat exchanger was investigated for potential use in a cryosurgical probe. One of these heat exchangers included perforated plates with integrated platinum resistance thermometers. These plates provided in situ measurements of the internal temperature distribution in addition to the temperature, pressure, and flow rate measured at the inlet and exit ports of the device. The platinum wires were deposited between the fluid passages on the perforated plate and are used to measure the temperature at the interface between the wall material and the flowing fluid. The experimental testing demonstrates the ability of the numerical model to accurately predict both the overall performance and the internal temperature distribution of perforated plate heat exchangers over a range of geometry and operating conditions. The parameters that were varied include the axial length, temperature range, mass flow rate, and working fluid.

  5. Assessment and validation of bronchodilation using the interrupter technique in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Laura; Sly, Peter D; Calogero, Claudia; Bernardini, Roberto; Novembre, Elio; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio; Lombardi, Enrico

    2010-07-01

    To determine and validate a cut-off value for bronchodilation using the interrupter resistance (Rint) in preschool children. Rint was measured in 60 healthy children (age range 2.7-6.4 years) before and after salbutamol inhalation (200 microg). Four potential methods for assessing BDR were evaluated: percent change from baseline, percent change of predicted values, absolute change in Rint, and change in Z-score. These cut-off values, determined as the fifth percentile of the healthy group, were applied to children referred for the assessment of recurrent wheezing, classified on the basis of acute symptoms and/or abnormal chest examination into symptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.9-6.1 years) and asymptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.5-5.7 years) groups. The cut-off values for bronchodilation calculated in healthy children were: -32% baseline; -33% predicted; -0.26 kPa L(-1) sec; and -1.25 Z-scores. Assessing BDR in children with a history of wheezing by either a decrease in absolute Rint or a decrease in Z-score gave sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value all >80% for detecting children with current respiratory symptoms. Both a decrease in Rint > or =0.26 kPa L(-1) sec and a decrease in Z-score of > or =1.25 are appropriate for assessing BDR in preschool children with a history of recurrent wheezing. As Z-score is a more general solution, we recommend using a change in Z-score to determine BDR in preschool children. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine the clinical utility of measuring BDR in managing lung disease in such children.

  6. Validation of the dynamic structural integrity of a nuclear piping component using static inelastic modelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    This work is concerned with the evaluation of a quasi-static method as applied to a swing check valve designed to provide emergency shut-off capability subsequent to a postulated break in a steam line. The impact analysis of swinging disk upon the valve seat is an asymmetric problem in dynamic elastoplasticity with potentially large displacements and strains resulting from the impact. To perform a quasi-static analysis for this component the disk and seat region of the valve was isolated from the piping system by special boundary elements and an elastic-plastic finite element model was generated assuming axisymmetric solid ring elements. An equivalent static axisymmetric incremental load system was used to approximate the nonsymmetric initial velocity of impact. Subsequent to the nonlinear incremental finite element analysis by a standard computer software package (MARC-CDC program), a special post-processing program was employed to calculate the incremental sum of external work due to the defined load system. Equating this external work to the initial kinetic energy of impact, parametric curves for displacements, stresses, and strains were obtained as functions of various levels of kinetic energy imparted to the valve at closure. To verify the conservative nature of the assumptions made in the quasi-static model, a comparison was made with a time-dependent, nonlinear, axisymmetric, elastic-plastic finite difference simulation. Another standard computer software package (PISCES-2DL) was used for this dynamic simulation. For a check-point value of initial impact kinetic energy, correlation between the quasi-static finite element and dynamic finite difference analyses is presented. Validations of the assumptions made in the quasi-static analysis and of the results obtained are discussed in detail

  7. Selective and validated data processing techniques for performance improvement of automatic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Aponte Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the data processing techniques of accelerometers and force transducers allowed to get information about actions in order to improve the behavior of a cutting stage of a converting machinery for diapers production. In particular, different mechanical configurations have been studied and compared in order to reduce the solicitations due to the impacts between knives and anvil, to get clean and accurate cuts and to reduce wear of knives themselves. Reducing the uncertainty of measurements allowed to correctly individuate the best configuration for the pneumatic system that realize the coupling between anvil and knife. The size of pipes, the working pressure and the type of the fluid used in the coupling system have been examined. Experimental results obtained by means of acceleration and force measurements allowed to identify in a reproducible and coherent way the geometry of the pushing device and the working pressure range of the hydraulic fluid. The remarkable reduction of knife and anvil vibrations is expected to strongly reduce the wear of the cutting stage components.

  8. Dynamic arrythmia filtration for gated blood pool imaging: Validation against list - Mode technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juni, J.E.; Wallis, J.; Rocchini, A.; Wu-Connolly, L.

    1985-01-01

    Normal resting heart rate variation distort the diastolic portions of time-activity curves (TACs) generated from gated blood pool (GBP) images. This alters calculated measures of diastolic function e.g. peak filling rate (PFR). The authors compared diastolic filling parameters obtained by two methods of arrythmia removal, list-mode (LM) acquisition and a new approach, dynamic arrythima filtration (DAF). LM acquisition techniques reject beats of unusual cycle length, thus reducing the TAC distortions caused by heart rate variation but is time consuming and requires large amounts of disk storage. In DAF systems data is evaluated for cycle length in real-time and accepted or rejected immediately according to preset, operator determined cycle-length criteria, thus eliminating the need for post-processing of data and for large mass data storage. The authors prospectively determined EF, time to end-systole (TES), PFR, ad TPFR on 25 GBP patients. Camera and ECG data were sent simultaneously to 2 computers. One acquired data via LM and the other by DAF. Fluctuations in heart rate during GBP acquisition may cause errors in calculation of filling parameters. Both LM and DAF remove cycles of unusual length. DAF is less time consuming and technically demanding than LM and provides results which correlate closely with those obtained by LM

  9. A novel colourimetric technique to assess chewing function using two-coloured specimens: Validation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Martin; Christou, Panagiotis; Miyazaki, Hideo; Halazonetis, Demetrios; Herrmann, François R; Müller, Frauke

    2015-08-01

    Chewing efficiency may be evaluated using cohesive specimen, especially in elderly or dysphagic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate three two-coloured chewing gums for a colour-mixing ability test and to validate a new purpose built software (ViewGum©). Dentate participants (dentate-group) and edentulous patients with mandibular two-implant overdentures (IOD-group) were recruited. First, the dentate-group chewed three different types of two-coloured gum (gum1-gum3) for 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 chewing cycles. Subsequently the number of chewing cycles with the highest intra- and inter-rater agreement was determined visually by applying a scale (SA) and opto-electronically (ViewGum©, Bland-Altman analysis). The ViewGum© software determines semi-automatically the variance of hue (VOH); inadequate mixing presents with larger VOH than complete mixing. Secondly, the dentate-group and the IOD-group were compared. The dentate-group comprised 20 participants (10 female, 30.3±6.7 years); the IOD-group 15 participants (10 female, 74.6±8.3 years). Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement (SA) was very high at 20 chewing cycles (95.00-98.75%). Gums 1-3 showed different colour-mixing characteristics as a function of chewing cycles, gum1 showed a logarithmic association; gum2 and gum3 demonstrated more linear behaviours. However, the number of chewing cycles could be predicted in all specimens from VOH (all pchewing efficiency, given an elastic specimen is chewed for 20 cycles and could be recommended for the evaluation of chewing efficiency in a clinical and research setting. Chewing is a complex function of the oro-facial structures and the central nervous system. The application of the proposed assessments of the chewing function in geriatrics or special care dentistry could help visualising oro-functional or dental comorbidities in dysphagic patients or those suffering from protein-energy malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  10. Validation of a low dose simulation technique for computed tomography images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Muenzel

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluation of a new software tool for generation of simulated low-dose computed tomography (CT images from an original higher dose scan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original CT scan data (100 mAs, 80 mAs, 60 mAs, 40 mAs, 20 mAs, 10 mAs; 100 kV of a swine were acquired (approved by the regional governmental commission for animal protection. Simulations of CT acquisition with a lower dose (simulated 10-80 mAs were calculated using a low-dose simulation algorithm. The simulations were compared to the originals of the same dose level with regard to density values and image noise. Four radiologists assessed the realistic visual appearance of the simulated images. RESULTS: Image characteristics of simulated low dose scans were similar to the originals. Mean overall discrepancy of image noise and CT values was -1.2% (range -9% to 3.2% and -0.2% (range -8.2% to 3.2%, respectively, p>0.05. Confidence intervals of discrepancies ranged between 0.9-10.2 HU (noise and 1.9-13.4 HU (CT values, without significant differences (p>0.05. Subjective observer evaluation of image appearance showed no visually detectable difference. CONCLUSION: Simulated low dose images showed excellent agreement with the originals concerning image noise, CT density values, and subjective assessment of the visual appearance of the simulated images. An authentic low-dose simulation opens up opportunity with regard to staff education, protocol optimization and introduction of new techniques.

  11. [Selective biopsy of the sentinel lymph node in patients with breast cancer and previous excisional biopsy: is there a change in the reliability of the technique according to time from surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté-Llobera, A; Notta, P C; Benítez-Segura, A; López-Ojeda, A; Pernas-Simon, S; Boya-Román, M P; Bajén, M T

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of time on the reliability of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients with previous excisional biopsy (EB), analyzing both the sentinel lymph node detection and the lymph node recurrence rate. Thirty-six patients with cT1/T2 N0 breast cancer and previous EB of the lesion underwent a lymphoscintigraphy after subdermal periareolar administration of radiocolloid, the day before SLNB. Patients were classified into two groups, one including 12 patients with up to 29 days elapsed between EB and SLNB (group A), and another with the remaining 24 in which time between both procedures was of 30 days or more (group B). Scintigraphic and surgical detection of the sentinel lymph node, histological status of the sentinel lymph node and of the axillary lymph node dissection, if performed, and lymphatic recurrences during follow-up, were analyzed. Sentinel lymph node visualization at the lymphoscintigraphy and surgical detection were 100% in both groups. Histologically, three patients showed macrometastasis in the sentinel lymph node, one from group A and two from group B. None of the patients, not even those with malignancy of the sentinel lymph node, relapsed after a medium follow-up of 49.5 months (24-75). Time elapsed between EB and SLNB does not influence the reliability of this latter technique as long as a superficial injection of the radiopharmaceutical is performed, proving a very high detection rate of the sentinel lymph node without evidence of lymphatic relapse during follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental validation of energy parameters in parabolic trough collector with plain absorber and analysis of heat transfer enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, F. R.; Arunachala, U. C.; Sandeep, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    The quantum of heat loss from the receiver of the Parabolic Trough Collector is considerable which results in lower thermal efficiency of the system. Hence heat transfer augmentation is essential which can be attained by various techniques. An analytical model to evaluate the system with bare receiver performance was developed using MATLAB. The experimental validation of the model resulted in less than 5.5% error in exit temperature using both water and thermic oil as heat transfer fluid. Further, heat transfer enhancement techniques were incorporated in the model which included the use of twisted tape inserts, nanofluid, and a combination of both for further enhancement. It was observed that the use of evacuated glass cover in the existing setup would increase the useful heat gain up to 5.3%. Fe3O4/H2O nanofluid showed a maximum enhancement of 56% in the Nusselt number for the volume concentration of 0.6% at highest Reynolds number. Similarly, twisted tape turbulators (with twist ratio of 2) taken alone with water exhibited 59% improvement in Nusselt number. Combining both the heat transfer augmentation techniques at their best values revealed the Nusselt number enhancement up to 87%. It is concluded that, use of twisted tape with water is the best method for heat transfer augmentation since it gives the maximum effective thermal efficiency amongst all for the range of Re considered. The first section in your paper

  13. Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: validation of the technique through correlative comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hendrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM has been developed in order to provide vertical distributions of NO2 in the stratosphere from ground-based (GB zenith-sky UV-visible observations. It has been applied to observational data sets from the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations of Harestua (60° N, 10° E and Andøya (69° N, 16° E in Norway. The information content and retrieval errors have been analyzed following a formalism used for characterizing ozone profiles retrieved from solar infrared absorption spectra. In order to validate the technique, the retrieved NO2 vertical profiles and columns have been compared to correlative balloon and satellite observations. Such extensive validation of the profile and column retrievals was not reported in previously published work on the profiling from GB UV-visible measurements. A good agreement - generally better than 25% - has been found with the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloons. A similar agreement has been reached with correlative satellite data from the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instruments above 25km of altitude. Below 25km, a systematic underestimation - by up to 40% in some cases - of both HALOE and POAM III profiles by our GB profile retrievals has been observed, pointing out more likely a limitation of both satellite instruments at these altitudes. We have concluded that our study strengthens our confidence in the reliability of the retrieval of vertical distribution information from GB UV-visible observations and offers new perspectives in the use of GB UV-visible network data for validation purposes.

  14. SBUV version 8.6 Retrieval Algorithm: Error Analysis and Validation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarova, N. A.; Bhartia, P. K.; Frith, P. K.; McPeters, S. M.; Labow, R. D.; Taylor, G.; Fisher, S.; DeLand, M.

    2012-01-01

    SBUV version 8.6 algorithm was used to reprocess data from the Back Scattered Ultra Violet (BUV), the Solar Back Scattered Ultra Violet (SBUV) and a number of SBUV/2 instruments, which 'span a 41-year period from 1970 to 2011 (except a 5-year gap in the 1970s)[see Bhartia et al, 2012]. In the new version Daumont et al. [1992] ozone cross section were used, and new ozone [McPeters et ai, 2007] and cloud climatologies Doiner and Bhartia, 1995] were implemented. The algorithm uses the Optimum Estimation technique [Rodgers, 2000] to retrieve ozone profiles as ozone layer (partial column, DU) on 21 pressure layers. The corresponding total ozone values are calculated by summing ozone columns at individual layers. The algorithm is optimized to accurately retrieve monthly zonal mean (mzm) profiles rather than an individual profile, since it uses monthly zonal mean ozone climatology as the A Priori. Thus, the SBUV version 8.6 ozone dataset is better suited for long-term trend analysis and monitoring ozone changes rather than for studying short-term ozone variability. Here we discuss some characteristics of the SBUV algorithm and sources of error in the SBUV profile and total ozone retrievals. For the first time the Averaging Kernels, smoothing errors and weighting functions (or Jacobians) are included in the SBUV metadata. The Averaging Kernels (AK) represent the sensitivity of the retrieved profile to the true state and contain valuable information about the retrieval algorithm, such as Vertical Resolution, Degrees of Freedom for Signals (DFS) and Retrieval Efficiency [Rodgers, 2000]. Analysis of AK for mzm ozone profiles shows that the total number of DFS for ozone profiles varies from 4.4 to 5.5 out of 6-9 wavelengths used for retrieval. The number of wavelengths in turn depends on solar zenith angles. Between 25 and 0.5 hPa, where SBUV vertical resolution is the highest, DFS for individual layers are about 0.5.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Coolant Mixing in WWER and PWR Reactor Fuel Bundles by Laser Optical Techniques for CFD Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tar, D.; Baranyai, V; Ezsoel, Gy.; Toth, I.

    2010-01-01

    Non intrusive laser optical measurements have been carried out to investigate the coolant mixing in a model of the head part of a fuel assembly of a WWER reactor. The goal of this research was to investigate the coolant flow around the point based in-core thermocouple; and also provide experimental database as a validation tool for computational fluid dynamics calculations. The experiments have been carried out on a full size scale model of the head part of WWER-440/213 fuel assembly. In this paper first the previous results of the research project is summarised, when full field velocity vectors and temperature were obtained by particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence, respectively. Then, preliminary results of the investigation of the influence of the flow in the central tube will be reported by presenting velocity measurement results. In order to have well measurable effect, extreme flow rates have been set in the central tube by applying an inner tube with controlled flow rates. Despite the extreme conditions, the influence of the central tube to the velocity field proved to be significant. Further measurement will be done for the investigation of the effect of the gaps at the spacer fixings by displacing the inner tube vertically, and also the temperature distribution will also be determined at similar geometries by laser induced fluorescence. The aim of the measurements was to establish an experimental database, as well as the validation of computational fluid dynamics calculations. (Authors)

  16. Validation of the dynamics of SDS and RRS flux, flow, pressure and temperature signals using noise analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glockler, O.; Cooke, D.F.; Tulett, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, a program was initiated to establish reactor noise analysis as a practical tool for plant performance monitoring and system diagnostics in Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Since then, various CANDU-specific noise analysis applications have been developed and validated. The noise-based statistical techniques are being successfully applied as powerful troubleshooting and diagnostic tools to a wide variety of actual operational I and C problems. Critical plant components, instrumentation and processes are monitored on a regular basis, and their dynamic characteristics are verified on-power. Recent applications of noise analysis include (1) validating the dynamics of in-core flux detectors (ICFDS) and ion chambers, (2) estimating the prompt fraction ICFDs in noise measurements at full power and in power rundown tests, (3) identifying the cause of excessive signal fluctuations in certain flux detectors, (4) validating the dynamic coupling between liquid zone control signals, (5) detecting and monitoring mechanical vibrations of detector tubes, reactivity devices and fuel channels induced by moderator/coolant flow, (6) estimating the dynamics and response time of RTD temperature signals, (7) isolating the cause of RTD signal anomalies, (8) investigating the source of abnormal flow signal behaviour, (9) estimating the overall response time of flow and pressure signals, (1 0) detecting coolant boiling in fully instrumented fuel channels, (1 1) monitoring moderator circulation via temperature noise, and (12) predicting the performance of shut-off rods. Some of these applications are performed on an as needed basis. The noise analysis program, in the Pickering-B station alone, has saved Ontario Hydro millions of dollars during its first three years. The results of the noise analysis program have been also reviewed by the regulator (Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada) with favorable results. The AECB have expressed interest in Ontario Hydro further exploiting the

  17. A new validation technique for estimations of body segment inertia tensors: Principal axes of inertia do matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marcel M; Alderson, Jacqueline; El-Sallam, Amar; Dowling, James; Reinbolt, Jeffrey; Donnelly, Cyril J

    2016-12-08

    The aims of this study were to: (i) establish a new criterion method to validate inertia tensor estimates by setting the experimental angular velocity data of an airborne objects as ground truth against simulations run with the estimated tensors, and (ii) test the sensitivity of the simulations to changes in the inertia tensor components. A rigid steel cylinder was covered with reflective kinematic markers and projected through a calibrated motion capture volume. Simulations of the airborne motion were run with two models, using inertia tensor estimated with geometric formula or the compound pendulum technique. The deviation angles between experimental (ground truth) and simulated angular velocity vectors and the root mean squared deviation angle were computed for every simulation. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to assess the sensitivity of simulations to changes in magnitude of principal moments of inertia within ±10% and to changes in orientation of principal axes of inertia within ±10° (of the geometric-based inertia tensor). Root mean squared deviation angles ranged between 2.9° and 4.3° for the inertia tensor estimated geometrically, and between 11.7° and 15.2° for the compound pendulum values. Errors up to 10% in magnitude of principal moments of inertia yielded root mean squared deviation angles ranging between 3.2° and 6.6°, and between 5.5° and 7.9° when lumped with errors of 10° in principal axes of inertia orientation. The proposed technique can effectively validate inertia tensors from novel estimation methods of body segment inertial parameter. Principal axes of inertia orientation should not be neglected when modelling human/animal mechanics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. X-ray digital industrial radiography (DIR) for local liquid velocity (V{sub LL}) measurement in trickle bed reactors (TBRs): Validation of the technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar, E-mail: kmfgf@mst.edu; Lee, Hyoung Koo [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Fulton Hall, 310 W. 14th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 143 Schrenk Hall, 400 W. 11th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Al Dahhan, Muthanna H. [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Fulton Hall, 310 W. 14th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 143 Schrenk Hall, 400 W. 11th St., Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (V{sub LL}) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the V{sub LL} within TBRs.

  19. X-ray digital industrial radiography (DIR) for local liquid velocity (VLL) measurement in trickle bed reactors (TBRs): Validation of the technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar; Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al Dahhan, Muthanna H.

    2014-06-01

    Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (VLL) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the VLL within TBRs.

  20. X-ray digital industrial radiography (DIR) for local liquid velocity (VLL) measurement in trickle bed reactors (TBRs): Validation of the technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul; Al Dahhan, Muthanna H.

    2014-01-01

    Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (V LL ) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the V LL within TBRs

  1. X-ray digital industrial radiography (DIR) for local liquid velocity (V(LL)) measurement in trickle bed reactors (TBRs): validation of the technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar; Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Al Dahhan, Muthanna H

    2014-06-01

    Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (V(LL)) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the V(LL) within TBRs.

  2. Validation of a cylindrical phantom for verification of radiotherapy treatments in head and neck with special techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Nicolas M.; Garcia, Marcia; Piriz, Gustavo; Perez, Niurka

    2011-01-01

    Verification of radiotherapy treatments in head and neck requires, among other things, small volume chambers and a phantom to reproduce the geometry and density of the anatomical structure. New documents from the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements), Report 83, established the need for quality control in radiotherapy with special techniques such as IMRT (intensity-modulated radiation therapy). In this study, we built a cylindrical acrylic phantom with standing water, containing seven measuring points in the transverse plane and free location (0-20 cm) in the longitudinal plane. These points of measurement are constituted by cavities for the accommodation of the ionization chamber of 7 mm of mayor diameter (semi flex, pinpoint with build cup). The results of the phantom validation yielded percentage differences less than 1% in fixed beams and less than 2.5% in arc therapy for TPS Eclipse calculation. The preparation of this phantom, particularly made to verify the head and neck treatments, was simple and reliable for checking the dose in radiotherapy with fixed beams and/or special techniques such as arc therapy or IMRT, so that will be sent to various radiotherapy centers in the country for dosimetric verification in such treatments. (author)

  3. Evaluation of content validity for the FACT-G quality of life questionaire through multidimensional escalation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Ricardo; Ballesteros, Monica; Ortiz, Natascha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the structure of FACT-G latent variables in a sample of patients attending the National Cancer Institute of Colombia Methods: The FACT-G questionnaire was applied in 473 patients with different types of cancer during 2005-2007. A factor analysis was done based on a polychoric matrix and multidimensional escalation techniques for ordinal variables determining the domain structure of the questionnaire. Results: Breast and prostate cancer were the most frequent types of tumors. In total 54.6% were men and the mean age was 61 years (SD 11.7). The four domains of the questionnaire revealed a similar score. The factor analysis showed a similar structure to the original FACT-G with the emotional function as the less consistent domain. According to the multidimensional escalation analysis, a bidimensional structure is suitable after different adjustment indexes. Only the emotional function domain exposed a heterogeneous structure; the remaining revealed clustered structures and independence among them. Central components for quality of life were functional well-being and social/family well-being. Conclusions: The FACT-G quality of life questionnaire applied in a sample of Colombian patients was consistent wit the original instrument. The multidimensional escalation techniques provide additional information to conventional analysis and are useful to validate quality of life questionnaires.

  4. Validation of a cylindrical phantom for verification of radiotherapy treatments in head and neck with special techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Nicolas M.; Garcia, Marcia, E-mail: nimoralesv@gmail.com [Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Dept. de Ciencias Fisicas; Piriz, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Santiago (Chile). Fisica Medica; Perez, Niurka [Instituto de Salud Publica, Santiago (Chile). QA Radioterapia. Inst. de Salud Publica

    2011-07-01

    Verification of radiotherapy treatments in head and neck requires, among other things, small volume chambers and a phantom to reproduce the geometry and density of the anatomical structure. New documents from the ICRU (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements), Report 83, established the need for quality control in radiotherapy with special techniques such as IMRT (intensity-modulated radiation therapy). In this study, we built a cylindrical acrylic phantom with standing water, containing seven measuring points in the transverse plane and free location (0-20 cm) in the longitudinal plane. These points of measurement are constituted by cavities for the accommodation of the ionization chamber of 7 mm of mayor diameter (semi flex, pinpoint with build cup). The results of the phantom validation yielded percentage differences less than 1% in fixed beams and less than 2.5% in arc therapy for TPS Eclipse calculation. The preparation of this phantom, particularly made to verify the head and neck treatments, was simple and reliable for checking the dose in radiotherapy with fixed beams and/or special techniques such as arc therapy or IMRT, so that will be sent to various radiotherapy centers in the country for dosimetric verification in such treatments. (author)

  5. Validation of the sentinel lymph node biopsy technique in head and neck cancers of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radkani, Pejman; Mesko, Thomas W; Paramo, Juan C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to present our experience and validate the use of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in patients with head and neck cancers. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patients with a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck from 2008 to 2011 was done. The group consisted of a total of 20 patients. The first node(s) highlighted with blue, or identified as radioactive by Tc99-sulfur radioactive colloid, was (were) identified as the SLNs. In the first seven patients, formal modified neck dissection was performed. In the remaining 13 patients, only a SLN biopsy procedure was done. At least one SLN was identified in all 20 patients (100%). Only one patient (5%) had positive nodes. In this case, the SLN was also positive. In the remaining 19 cases, all lymph nodes were negative. After an average of 24 months of follow-up, there have been three local recurrences (15%) but no evidence of distant metastatic disease. SLN mapping in head and neck cancers is a feasible technique with a high identification rate and a low false-negative rate. Although the detection rate of regional metastatic disease compares favorably with published data as well as the disease-free and overall survival, further studies are warranted before considering this technique to be the "gold standard" in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and a negative neck by clinical examination and imaging studies.

  6. Experiments at the GELINA facility for the validation of the self-indication neutron resonance densitometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossa Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-Indication Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD is a passive non-destructive method that is being investigated to quantify the 239Pu content in a spent fuel assembly. The technique relies on the energy dependence of total cross sections for neutron induced reaction. The cross sections show resonance structures that can be used to quantify the presence of materials in objects, e.g. the total cross-section of 239Pu shows a strong resonance close to 0.3 eV. This resonance will cause a reduction of the number of neutrons emitted from spent fuel when 239Pu is present. Hence such a reduction can be used to quantify the amount of 239Pu present in the fuel. A neutron detector with a high sensitivity to neutrons in this energy region is used to enhance the sensitivity to 239Pu. This principle is similar to self-indication cross section measurements. An appropriate detector can be realized by surrounding a 239Pu-loaded fission chamber with appropriate neutron absorbing material. In this contribution experiments performed at the GELINA time-of-flight facility of the JRC at Geel (Belgium to validate the simulations are discussed. The results confirm that the strongest sensitivity to the target material was achieved with the self-indication technique, highlighting the importance of using a 239Pu fission chamber for the SINRD measurements.

  7. Validation of satellite data through the remote sensing techniques and the inclusion of them into agricultural education pilot programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadavid, Georgios; Kountios, Georgios; Bournaris, T.; Michailidis, Anastasios; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the remote sensing techniques have a significant role in all the fields of agricultural extensions as well as agricultural economics and education but they are used more specifically in hydrology. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of field spectroscopy for validation of the satellite data and how combination of remote sensing techniques and field spectroscopy can have more accurate results for irrigation purposes. For this reason vegetation indices are used which are mostly empirical equations describing vegetation parameters during the lifecycle of the crops. These numbers are generated by some combination of remote sensing bands and may have some relationship to the amount of vegetation in a given image pixel. Due to the fact that most of the commonly used vegetation indices are only concerned with red-near-infrared spectrum and can be divided to perpendicular and ratio based indices the specific goal of the research is to illustrate the effect of the atmosphere to those indices, in both categories. In this frame field spectroscopy is employed in order to derive the spectral signatures of different crops in red and infrared spectrum after a campaign of ground measurements. The main indices have been calculated using satellite images taken at interval dates during the whole lifecycle of the crops by using a GER 1500 spectro-radiomete. These indices was compared to those extracted from satellite images after applying an atmospheric correction algorithm -darkest pixel- to the satellite images at a pre-processing level so as the indices would be in comparable form to those of the ground measurements. Furthermore, there has been a research made concerning the perspectives of the inclusion of the above mentioned remote satellite techniques to agricultural education pilot programs.

  8. Validation of non-stationary precipitation series for site-specific impact assessment: comparison of two statistical downscaling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Xunchang John

    2016-02-01

    Statistical downscaling (SD) methods have become a popular, low-cost and accessible means of bridging the gap between the coarse spatial resolution at which climate models output climate scenarios and the finer spatial scale at which impact modellers require these scenarios, with various different SD techniques used for a wide range of applications across the world. This paper compares the Generator for Point Climate Change (GPCC) model and the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM)—two contrasting SD methods—in terms of their ability to generate precipitation series under non-stationary conditions across ten contrasting global climates. The mean, maximum and a selection of distribution statistics as well as the cumulative frequencies of dry and wet spells for four different temporal resolutions were compared between the models and the observed series for a validation period. Results indicate that both methods can generate daily precipitation series that generally closely mirror observed series for a wide range of non-stationary climates. However, GPCC tends to overestimate higher precipitation amounts, whilst SDSM tends to underestimate these. This infers that GPCC is more likely to overestimate the effects of precipitation on a given impact sector, whilst SDSM is likely to underestimate the effects. GPCC performs better than SDSM in reproducing wet and dry day frequency, which is a key advantage for many impact sectors. Overall, the mixed performance of the two methods illustrates the importance of users performing a thorough validation in order to determine the influence of simulated precipitation on their chosen impact sector.

  9. Development and validation of technique for in-vivo 3D analysis of cranial bone graft survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Mark P.; Caldwell, Curtis B.; Antonyshyn, Oleh M.; Ma, Karen; Cooper, Perry W.; Ehrlich, Lisa E.

    1997-05-01

    Bone autografts are routinely employed in the reconstruction of facial deformities resulting from trauma, tumor ablation or congenital malformations. The combined use of post- operative 3D CT and SPECT imaging provides a means for quantitative in vivo evaluation of bone graft volume and osteoblastic activity. The specific objectives of this study were: (1) Determine the reliability and accuracy of interactive computer-assisted analysis of bone graft volumes based on 3D CT scans; (2) Determine the error in CT/SPECT multimodality image registration; (3) Determine the error in SPECT/SPECT image registration; and (4) Determine the reliability and accuracy of CT-guided SPECT uptake measurements in cranial bone grafts. Five human cadaver heads served as anthropomorphic models for all experiments. Four cranial defects were created in each specimen with inlay and onlay split skull bone grafts and reconstructed to skull and malar recipient sites. To acquire all images, each specimen was CT scanned and coated with Technetium doped paint. For purposes of validation, skulls were landmarked with 1/16-inch ball-bearings and Indium. This study provides a new technique relating anatomy and physiology for the analysis of cranial bone graft survival.

  10. An easy-to-use semiquantitative food record validated for energy intake by using doubly labelled water technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebnick, C; Wagner, K; Thielecke, F; Dieter, G; Höhne, A; Franke, A; Garcia, A L; Meyer, H; Hoffmann, I; Leitzmann, P; Trippo, U; Zunft, H J F

    2005-09-01

    Estimating dietary intake is important for both epidemiological and clinical studies, but often lacks accuracy. To investigate the accuracy and validity of energy intake estimated by an easy-to-use semiquantitative food record (EI(SQFR)) compared to total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated by doubly labelled water technique (EE(DLW)). TEE was measured in 29 nonobese subjects using the doubly labelled water method over a period of 14 days. Within this period, subjects reported their food consumption by a newly developed semiquantitative food record for 4 consecutive days. Energy intake was calculated using the German Food Code and Nutrition Data Base BLS II.3. A good correlation was observed between EI(SQFR) and EE(DLW) (r = 0.685, P 20% in nine subjects (31%). In five subjects (17%), an overestimation of EI(SQFR) was observed. The easy-to-use semiquantitative food record provided good estimates of EI in free-living and nonobese adults without prior detailed verbal instructions. The presented food record has limitations regarding accuracy at the individual level.

  11. Validation of phenol red versus gravimetric method for water reabsorption correction and study of gender differences in Doluisio's absorption technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a method for water flux reabsorption measurement in Doluisio's Perfusion Technique based on the use of phenol red as a non-absorbable marker and to validate it by comparison with gravimetric procedure. The compounds selected for the study were metoprolol, atenolol, cimetidine and cefadroxil in order to include low, intermediate and high permeability drugs absorbed by passive diffusion and by carrier mediated mechanism. The intestinal permeabilities (Peff) of the drugs were obtained in male and female Wistar rats and calculated using both methods of water flux correction. The absorption rate coefficients of all the assayed compounds did not show statistically significant differences between male and female rats consequently all the individual values were combined to compare between reabsorption methods. The absorption rate coefficients and permeability values did not show statistically significant differences between the two strategies of concentration correction. The apparent zero order water absorption coefficients were also similar in both correction procedures. In conclusion gravimetric and phenol red method for water reabsorption correction are accurate and interchangeable for permeability estimation in closed loop perfusion method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Menstrual blood loss measurement: validation of the alkaline hematin technique for feminine hygiene products containing superabsorbent polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnay, Julia L; Nevatte, Tracy M; Dhingra, Vandana; O'Brien, Shaughn

    2010-12-01

    To validate the alkaline hematin technique for measurement of menstrual blood loss using ultra-thin sanitary towels that contain superabsorbent polymer granules as the absorptive agent. Laboratory study using simulated menstrual fluid (SMF) and Always Ultra Normal, Long, and Night "with wings" sanitary towels. Keele Menstrual Disorders Laboratory. None. None. Recovery of blood, linearity, and interassay variation over a range of SMF volumes applied to towels. Because of the variable percentage of blood in menstrual fluid, blood recovery was assessed from SMF constituted as 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% blood. The lower limit of reliable detection and the effect of storing soiled towels for up to 4 weeks at 15°C-20°C, 4°C, and -20°C before analysis were determined. Ninety percent recovery was reproducibly achieved up to 30 mL applied volume at all tested SMF compositions, except at low volume or high dilution equivalent to sanitary towels that contain superabsorbent polymers. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of the validity of the asymptotic techniques in the lower hybrid wave equation solution for reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, A.; Morini, L.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.; Zonca, F.

    2007-01-01

    Knowing that the lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation in tokamak plasmas can be correctly described with a full wave approach only, based on fully numerical techniques or on semianalytical approaches, in this paper, the LH wave equation is asymptotically solved via the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method for the first two orders of the expansion parameter, obtaining governing equations for the phase at the lowest and for the amplitude at the next order. The nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) for the phase is solved in a pseudotoroidal geometry (circular and concentric magnetic surfaces) by the method of characteristics. The associated system of ordinary differential equations for the position and the wavenumber is obtained and analytically solved by choosing an appropriate expansion parameter. The quasilinear PDE for the WKB amplitude is also solved analytically, allowing us to reconstruct the wave electric field inside the plasma. The solution is also obtained numerically and compared with the analytical solution. A discussion of the validity limits of the WKB method is also given on the basis of the obtained results

  14. Validation of an extraction paper chromatography (EPC) technique for estimation of trace levels of 90Sr in 90Y solutions obtained from 90Sr/90Y generator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha Pandey; Yogendra Kumar; Ashutosh Dash

    2014-01-01

    While the extraction paper chromatography (EPC) technique constitutes a novel paradigm for the determination of few Becquerels of 90 Sr in MBq quantities of 90 Y obtained from 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator, validation of the technique is essential to ensure its usefulness as a real time analytical tool. With a view to explore the relevance and applicability of EPC technique as a real time quality control (QC) technique for the routine estimation of 90 Sr content in generator produced 90 Y, a systematic validation study was carried out diligently not only to establish its worthiness but also to broaden its horizon. The ability of the EPC technique to separate trace amounts of Sr 2+ in the presence of large amounts of Y 3+ was verified. The specificity of the technique for Y 3+ was demonstrated with 90 Y obtained by neutron irradiation. The method was validated under real experimental conditions and compared with a QC method described in US Pharmacopeia for detection of 90 Sr levels in 90 Y radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) measurements by SPECT analysis of Xenon-133 transit: Validation of technique and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezai, K.; Kirchner, P.; Armstrong, C.; Ehrhardt, J.; Damasio, H.; Adams, H.; Damasio, A.

    1984-01-01

    The SPECT system (Tomomatic-64) developed by a previous study for rCBF measurements with Xe-133 was validated with phantom simulations and clinical studies. A bi-compartmental flow phantom was developed consisting of a Xenon-133 pump connected in series to head and lung compartments. Flow rates between 0.2 and 1.4 brain volumes/min (20-140 cc/100ml/min) were tested against Tomomatic measurements by linear regression. Correlation was excellent (r=1.0) in the range of 0.2-1.2 (20-120 cc/100ml/min), representing flow rates which are most likely to be encountered in clinical studies. Flow rates above 1.2 (120 cc/100 ml/min) were significantly underestimated. 32 studies on 20 volunteers gave a mean normal flow of 72 (SD=12) cc/ 100g/min. Mean regional flow ranged from 62 in frontal lobes to 75 in central gray matter. Right-to-left variation was less than 5%. The lowest regional flow in a normal subject was 45 cc/100g/min. 68 studies were performed on 30 stroke patients. In 27 rCBF was less than 45 in affected brain areas for a sensitivity of 90% which improved to 97% when comparisons with contralateral brain were included. Initial CT scans were normal or non-diagnostic in 10, but showed CVA's in regions of reduced rCBF in 17 patients. rCBF abnormalities involved greater portions of brain than CT changes, often (8/17) including distant regions, unpredicted by CT or clinical studies but known to be strongly interconnected to the area of structural damage. SPECT estimates of rCBF appear to be a sensitive research and diagnostic tool and complement the structural information provided by CT

  16. Histopathological Validation of the Surface-Intermediate-Base Margin Score for Standardized Reporting of Resection Technique during Nephron Sparing Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Andrea; Campi, Riccardo; Kutikov, Alexander; Montagnani, Ilaria; Sessa, Francesco; Serni, Sergio; Raspollini, Maria Rosaria; Carini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The surface-intermediate-base margin score is a novel standardized reporting system of resection techniques during nephron sparing surgery. We validated the surgeon assessed surface-intermediate-base score with microscopic histopathological assessment of partial nephrectomy specimens. Between June and August 2014 data were prospectively collected from 40 consecutive patients undergoing nephron sparing surgery. The surface-intermediate-base score was assigned to all cases. The score specific areas were color coded with tissue margin ink and sectioned for histological evaluation of healthy renal margin thickness. Maximum, minimum and mean thickness of healthy renal margin for each score specific area grade (surface [S] = 0, S = 1 ; intermediate [I] or base [B] = 0, I or B = 1, I or B = 2) was reported. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the thickness of healthy renal margin in S = 0 vs 1 and I or B = 0 vs 1 vs 2 grades, respectively. Maximum, minimum and mean thickness of healthy renal margin was significantly different among score specific area grades S = 0 vs 1, and I or B = 0 vs 1, 0 vs 2 and 1 vs 2 (p <0.001). The main limitations of the study are the low number of the I or B = 1 and I or B = 2 samples and the assumption that each microscopic slide reflects the entire score specific area for histological analysis. The surface-intermediate-base scoring method can be readily harnessed in real-world clinical practice and accurately mirrors histopathological analysis for quantification and reporting of healthy renal margin thickness removed during tumor excision. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accuracy and feasibility of estimated tumour volumetry in primary gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours: validation using semiautomated technique in 127 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Shinagare, Atul B; O'Neill, Ailbhe C; Nishino, Mizuki; Rosenthal, Michael H; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2016-01-01

    To validate estimated tumour volumetry in primary gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) using semiautomated volumetry. In this IRB-approved retrospective study, we measured the three longest diameters in x, y, z axes on CTs of primary gastric GISTs in 127 consecutive patients (52 women, 75 men, mean age 61 years) at our institute between 2000 and 2013. Segmented volumes (Vsegmented) were obtained using commercial software by two radiologists. Estimate volumes (V1-V6) were obtained using formulae for spheres and ellipsoids. Intra- and interobserver agreement of Vsegmented and agreement of V1-6 with Vsegmented were analysed with concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Median Vsegmented and V1-V6 were 75.9, 124.9, 111.6, 94.0, 94.4, 61.7 and 80.3 cm(3), respectively. There was strong intra- and interobserver agreement for Vsegmented. Agreement with Vsegmented was highest for V6 (scalene ellipsoid, x ≠ y ≠ z), with CCC of 0.96 [95 % CI 0.95-0.97]. Mean relative difference was smallest for V6 (0.6 %), while it was -19.1 % for V5, +14.5 % for V4, +17.9 % for V3, +32.6 % for V2 and +47 % for V1. Ellipsoidal approximations of volume using three measured axes may be used to closely estimate Vsegmented when semiautomated techniques are unavailable. Estimation of tumour volume in primary GIST using mathematical formulae is feasible. Gastric GISTs are rarely spherical. Segmented volumes are highly concordant with three axis-based scalene ellipsoid volumes. Ellipsoid volume can be used as an alternative for automated tumour volumetry.

  18. Applications of the parity space technique to the validation of the water level measurement of pressurizer for steady state and transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Bath, L.

    1983-01-01

    During the design of disturbance analysis and surveillance systems, safety parameter display systems, computerized operator support systems or advanced control rooms, sensor signal validation is commonly considered as the first task to be performed. After an introduction of the anticipated benefits of the signal validation techniques and a brief survey of the methods under current practices, a signal validation technique based upon the parity space methodology is presented. The efficiency of the method applied to the detection and the identification of five types of failures is illustrated with two examples when three water level measurements of a pressurizer of a nuclear plant are redundant. In the first example the use of the analytical redundancy technique is presented when only two identical sensors are available. A detailed description of the dynamic model of the pressurizer is given. In the second example the case of the identical water level sensors is considered. Performances of the software developed on a computer DEC PDP 11 are finally given

  19. The F4E programme on nuclear data validation and nuclear instrumentation techniques for TBM in ITER

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leichtle, D.; Angelone, M.; Batistoni, P.; Calderoni, P.; Fischer, U.; Izquierdo, J.; Klix, A.; Kodeli, I.; Kuc, T.; Lilley, S.; Majerle, Mitja; Packer, L.; Pillon, M.; Pohorecki, W.; Snoj, L.; Villari, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, 9-10 (2014), s. 2169-2173 ISSN 0920-3796 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear data * TBM * neutronic sensors * validation experiments Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2014

  20. Validation Techniques of network harmonic models based on switching of a series linear component and measuring resultant harmonic increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two methods of validation of transmission network harmonic models are introduced. The methods were developed as a result of the work presented in [1]. The first method allows calculating the transfer harmonic impedance between two nodes of a network. Switching a linear, series network......, as for example a transmission line. Both methods require that harmonic measurements performed at two ends of the disconnected element are precisely synchronized....... are used for calculation of the transfer harmonic impedance between the nodes. The determined transfer harmonic impedance can be used to validate a computer model of the network. The second method is an extension of the fist one. It allows switching a series element that contains a shunt branch...

  1. Development and validation of predictive simulation model of multi-layer repair welding process by temper bead technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigetaka; Miyasaka, Fumikazu; Mochizuki, Masahito; Tanaka, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has recently been observed in the nickel base alloy weld metal of dissimilar pipe joint used in pressurized water reactor (PWR) . Temper bead technique has been developed as one of repair procedures against SCC applicable in case that post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is difficult to carry out. In this regard, however it is essential to pass the property and performance qualification test to confirm the effect of tempering on the mechanical properties at repair welds before temper bead technique is actually used in practice. Thus the appropriate welding procedure conditions in temper bead technique are determined on the basis of the property and performance qualification testing. It is necessary for certifying the structural soundness and reliability at repair welds but takes a lot of work and time in the present circumstances. Therefore it is desirable to establish the reasonable alternatives for qualifying the property and performance at repair welds. In this study, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation procedures were developed for predicting weld bead configuration and temperature distribution during multi-layer repair welding process by temper bead technique. In the developed simulation technique, characteristics of heat source in temper bead welding are calculated from weld heat input conditions through the arc plasma simulation and then weld bead configuration and temperature distribution during temper bead welding are calculated from characteristics of heat source obtained through the coupling analysis between bead surface shape and thermal conduction. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results under the same welding heat input conditions. As the results, the bead surface shape and temperature distribution, such as A cl lines, were in good agreement between simulation and experimental results. It was concluded that the developed simulation technique has the potential to become useful for

  2. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (T avr), maximum temperature (T max), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, T avr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for T avr, T max, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for T avr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for T avr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present. PMID:26137486

  3. Estimation of leaf area index using ground-based remote sensed NDVI measurements: validation and comparison with two indirect techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontailler, J.-Y.; Hymus, G.J.; Drake, B.G.

    2003-01-01

    This study took place in an evergreen scrub oak ecosystem in Florida. Vegetation reflectance was measured in situ with a laboratory-made sensor in the red (640-665 nm) and near-infrared (750-950 nm) bands to calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and derive the leaf area index (LAI). LAI estimates from this technique were compared with two other nondestructive techniques, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and hemispherical photographs, in four contrasting 4 m 2 plots in February 2000 and two 4m 2 plots in June 2000. We used Beer's law to derive LAI from PAR interception and gap fraction distribution to derive LAI from photographs. The plots were harvested manually after the measurements to determine a 'true' LAI value and to calculate a light extinction coefficient (k). The technique based on Beer's law was affected by a large variation of the extinction coefficient, owing to the larger impact of branches in winter when LAI was low. Hemispherical photographs provided satisfactory estimates, slightly overestimated in winter because of the impact of branches or underestimated in summer because of foliage clumping. NDVI provided the best fit, showing only saturation in the densest plot (LAI = 3.5). We conclude that in situ measurement of NDVI is an accurate and simple technique to nondestructively assess LAI in experimental plots or in crops if saturation remains acceptable. (author)

  4. Estimation of leaf area index using ground-based remote sensed NDVI measurements: validation and comparison with two indirect techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontailler, J.-Y. [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Dept. d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale, Orsay Cedex (France); Hymus, G.J.; Drake, B.G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This study took place in an evergreen scrub oak ecosystem in Florida. Vegetation reflectance was measured in situ with a laboratory-made sensor in the red (640-665 nm) and near-infrared (750-950 nm) bands to calculate the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and derive the leaf area index (LAI). LAI estimates from this technique were compared with two other nondestructive techniques, intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and hemispherical photographs, in four contrasting 4 m{sup 2} plots in February 2000 and two 4m{sup 2} plots in June 2000. We used Beer's law to derive LAI from PAR interception and gap fraction distribution to derive LAI from photographs. The plots were harvested manually after the measurements to determine a 'true' LAI value and to calculate a light extinction coefficient (k). The technique based on Beer's law was affected by a large variation of the extinction coefficient, owing to the larger impact of branches in winter when LAI was low. Hemispherical photographs provided satisfactory estimates, slightly overestimated in winter because of the impact of branches or underestimated in summer because of foliage clumping. NDVI provided the best fit, showing only saturation in the densest plot (LAI = 3.5). We conclude that in situ measurement of NDVI is an accurate and simple technique to nondestructively assess LAI in experimental plots or in crops if saturation remains acceptable. (author)

  5. Study of non-validity of mixture rule near K-absorption edges by X-ray spectrometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharanabasappa; Chitralekha, A.; Kerur, B.R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray spectrometric technique has been described to determine the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient, μ/ρ, of X-rays employing HPGe X-ray detector and radioactive sources. The photon intensity is measured by gating the channel of the spectrometer at FWHM/photo peak. Using the technique the 'best value' values of μ/ρ were obtained for those thicknesses which lie in the transmission (T) range 0.5 ≥ T ≥ 0.02. Total attenuation cross sections for other elements and lead compounds were measured at photon energies from 17 to 88 keV to study the Bragg's additivity law near the absorption edge of the lead. The measured values of mass attenuation coefficient values are compared with theoretical values obtained using Winxcom (programme). This study suggests that measured mass attenuation coefficient values at and near absorption edges differ from the theoretical value by about 17-23%. (author)

  6. Validation of the actuator disc and actuator line techniques for yawed rotor flows using the New Mexico experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breton, S. P.; Shen, Wen Zhong; Ivanell, S.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental data acquired in the New Mexico experiment on a yawed 4.5m diameter rotor model turbine are used here to validate the actuator line (AL) and actuator disc (AD) models implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation code EllipSys3D in terms of loading and velocity field. Even without modelling...... the AD model can reproduce the averaged features of the flow. The importance of using high quality airfoil data (including 3D corrections) as well as a fine grid resolution is highlighted by the results obtained. Overall, it is found that both models can satisfactorily predict the 3D velocity field...... and blade loading of the New Mexico rotor under yawed inflow....

  7. Development and validation of a technique of measurement of the void fraction by X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouet, Emmanuel

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an instrumentation to measure the local void fraction map in an air - water flow by X-ray tomography. After an exhaustive literature survey, the selected reconstruction algorithms are compared to choose the most effective. Several improvements are added and tested to enhance the reconstruction accuracy in the vicinity of the pipe walls. An experimental parallel beam tomographic bench has been developed and its operating parameters have been optimized. The acquisition system and the reconstruction algorithm are used to map phantoms, homogeneous or non - homogeneous air - water bubbly flows and bundle flows with regular or interlaced sampling scheme. The method is validated by comparing with the void fraction maps measured with an optical probe. At the end, the method is extended to the fan-beam geometry. (author) [fr

  8. Comparison and validation of classical and modified techniques for studies of genotoxic potential of peptides used in radiopharmaceuticals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, Ivette Zegarra

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro micronucleus frequency test (FMN) is one method of choice in the development of toxicological safety tests. For its development, this work carried out modifications of the conventional technique regarding the cultivation substrate of the cells and staining for microscopy evaluation. The cell cultures were grown directly on slides, and staining was performed with acridine orange (AO) instead of the classical Giemsa staining. Positive controls were used for potential clastogenic (mitomycin C, benzo [a] pyrene) and aneugenic (colchicine) effects, recommended by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). As test molecules, compounds were used whose association with radioactive isotopes make up radiopharmaceuticals produced by IPEN. DOTATATE and Ubiquicidine were tested at different concentrations proportional to the maximum concentrations used in adult patients. Therefore, corresponding to the concentrations dilutions were performed 0.1X, 1X and 10X cultures and CHO-KI cells were exposed to these concentrations for cytotoxicity assays and FMN. None of the concentrations induced significant cytotoxicity. For FMN analysis, it was recorded every mononuclear cells and multinucleated up to 1000 counts binucleated cells with or without micronuclei. In this way it was possible to analyze the frequency of micronuclei and the proliferation index (CBPI). The concentrations of the test drug (0.1X, 1X and 10X) did not induce aggression to cells. None of the concentrations showed cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, or any changes in cell cycle compared to controls, demonstrating their safety according to the parameters required by international standards. The results also showed good agreement between the comparison of readings by independent analysts, with minor discrepancies debatable, and good correlation comparing to classical staining technique. Thus the changes made in FMN technique showed potential to fulfill all requirements as preclinical

  9. Validation of a computer modelled forensic facial reconstruction technique using CT data from live subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Laura J; Khambay, Balvinder; Ayoub, Ashraf; Erolin, Caroline; Rynn, Chris; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Human forensic facial soft tissue reconstructions are used when post-mortem deterioration makes identification difficult by usual means. The aim is to trigger recognition of the in vivo countenance of the individual by a friend or family member. A further use is in the field of archaeology. There are a number of different methods that can be applied to complete the facial reconstruction, ranging from two dimensional drawings, three dimensional clay models and now, with the advances of three dimensional technology, three dimensional computerised modelling. Studies carried out to assess the accuracy of facial reconstructions have produced variable results over the years. Advances in three dimensional imaging techniques in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, particularly cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), now provides an opportunity to utilise the data of live subjects and assess the accuracy of the three dimensional computerised facial reconstruction technique. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a computer modelled facial reconstruction technique using CBCT data from live subjects. This retrospective pilot study was carried out at the Glasgow Dental Hospital Orthodontic Department and the Centre of Anatomy and Human Identification, Dundee University School of Life Sciences. Ten patients (5 male and 5 female; mean age 23 years) with mild skeletal discrepancies with pre-surgical cone beam CT data (CBCT) were included in this study. The actual and forensic reconstruction soft tissues were analysed using 3D software to look at differences between landmarks, linear and angular measurements and surface meshes. There were no statistical differences for 18 out of the 23 linear and 7 out of 8 angular measurements between the reconstruction and the target (p<0.05). The use of Procrustes superimposition has highlighted potential problems with soft tissue depth and anatomical landmarks' position. Surface mesh analysis showed that this virtual

  10. Field validity and feasibility of four techniques for the detection of Trichuris in simians: a model for monitoring drug efficacy in public health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Levecke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths, such as Trichuris trichiura, are of major concern in public health. Current efforts to control these helminth infections involve periodic mass treatment in endemic areas. Since these large-scale interventions are likely to intensify, monitoring the drug efficacy will become indispensible. However, studies comparing detection techniques based on sensitivity, fecal egg counts (FEC, feasibility for mass diagnosis and drug efficacy estimates are scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the ether-based concentration, the Parasep Solvent Free (SF, the McMaster and the FLOTAC techniques were compared based on both validity and feasibility for the detection of Trichuris eggs in 100 fecal samples of nonhuman primates. In addition, the drug efficacy estimates of quantitative techniques was examined using a statistical simulation. Trichuris eggs were found in 47% of the samples. FLOTAC was the most sensitive technique (100%, followed by the Parasep SF (83.0% [95% confidence interval (CI: 82.4-83.6%] and the ether-based concentration technique (76.6% [95% CI: 75.8-77.3%]. McMaster was the least sensitive (61.7% [95% CI: 60.7-62.6%] and failed to detect low FEC. The quantitative comparison revealed a positive correlation between the four techniques (Rs = 0.85-0.93; p<0.0001. However, the ether-based concentration technique and the Parasep SF detected significantly fewer eggs than both the McMaster and the FLOTAC (p<0.0083. Overall, the McMaster was the most feasible technique (3.9 min/sample for preparing, reading and cleaning of the apparatus, followed by the ether-based concentration technique (7.7 min/sample and the FLOTAC (9.8 min/sample. Parasep SF was the least feasible (17.7 min/sample. The simulation revealed that the sensitivity is less important for monitoring drug efficacy and that both FLOTAC and McMaster were reliable estimators. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study

  11. Validation of an elastic registration technique to estimate anatomical lung modification in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggiano, Elena; Cattaneo, Giovanni M; Ciavarro, Cristina; Dell'Oca, Italo; Persano, Diego; Calandrino, Riccardo; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    The study of lung parenchyma anatomical modification is useful to estimate dose discrepancies during the radiation treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients. We propose and validate a method, based on free-form deformation and mutual information, to elastically register planning kVCT with daily MVCT images, to estimate lung parenchyma modification during Tomotherapy. We analyzed 15 registrations between the planning kVCT and 3 MVCT images for each of the 5 NSCLC patients. Image registration accuracy was evaluated by visual inspection and, quantitatively, by Correlation Coefficients (CC) and Target Registration Errors (TRE). Finally, a lung volume correspondence analysis was performed to specifically evaluate registration accuracy in lungs. Results showed that elastic registration was always satisfactory, both qualitatively and quantitatively: TRE after elastic registration (average value of 3.6 mm) remained comparable and often smaller than voxel resolution. Lung volume variations were well estimated by elastic registration (average volume and centroid errors of 1.78% and 0.87 mm, respectively). Our results demonstrate that this method is able to estimate lung deformations in thorax MVCT, with an accuracy within 3.6 mm comparable or smaller than the voxel dimension of the kVCT and MVCT images. It could be used to estimate lung parenchyma dose variations in thoracic Tomotherapy

  12. Development and validation of a new technique for estimating a minimum postmortem interval using adult blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) carcass attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the onset and duration of adult blow fly activity is critical to accurately estimating the period of insect activity or minimum postmortem interval (minPMI). Few, if any, reliable techniques have been developed and consequently validated for using adult fly activity to determine a minPMI. In this study, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of Cochliomyia macellaria and Chrysomya rufifacies were collected from swine carcasses in rural central Texas, USA, during summer 2008 and Phormia regina and Calliphora vicina in the winter during 2009 and 2010. Carcass attendance patterns of blow flies were related to species, sex, and oocyte development. Summer-active flies were found to arrive 4-12 h after initial carcass exposure, with both C. macellaria and C. rufifacies arriving within 2 h of one another. Winter-active flies arrived within 48 h of one another. There was significant difference in degree of oocyte development on each of the first 3 days postmortem. These frequency differences allowed a minPMI to be calculated using a binomial analysis. When validated with seven tests using domestic and feral swine and human remains, the technique correctly estimated time of placement in six trials.

  13. Validating the appropriateness of TACOM measure: Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores quantified by NASA-TLX technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jung, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the appropriateness of the task complexity (TACOM) measure that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks was investigated by comparing subjective workload scores with the associated TACOM scores. To this end, based on the NASA-TLX (task load index) technique, 18 operators were asked to subjectively estimate perceived workload for 23 emergency tasks that were specified in the emergency operating procedures of the reference nuclear power plants. As the result of comparisons, it was observed that subjective workload scores increase in proportion to the increase of TACOM scores. Therefore, it is expect that the TACOM measure can be used as a serviceable method to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks. (authors)

  14. Validating the appropriateness of TACOM measure: Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores quantified by NASA-TLX technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Jung, W. [Integrated Safety Assessment Div., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., P.O.Box 105, Duckjin-Dong, Yusong-Ku, Taejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the appropriateness of the task complexity (TACOM) measure that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks was investigated by comparing subjective workload scores with the associated TACOM scores. To this end, based on the NASA-TLX (task load index) technique, 18 operators were asked to subjectively estimate perceived workload for 23 emergency tasks that were specified in the emergency operating procedures of the reference nuclear power plants. As the result of comparisons, it was observed that subjective workload scores increase in proportion to the increase of TACOM scores. Therefore, it is expect that the TACOM measure can be used as a serviceable method to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks. (authors)

  15. Measurement of the viability of stored red cells by the single-isotope technique using 51Cr. Analysis of validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutler, E.; West, C.

    1984-01-01

    A single-isotope 51 Cr method often is used to evaluate the viability of stored red cells. In this technique, the red cell mass is measured by back-extrapolation to time zero (t0) of the radioactivity of the blood between 5 and 20 minutes after infusion of the sample. If there is early destruction of stored cells, this method provides an overestimate of the red cell mass and, hence, of the viability of the stored cells. Freshly drawn red cells from normal donors were labeled with /sup 99m/Tc, and cells from the same donor which had been stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine-one (CPDA-1) for periods ranging from 7 to 49 days were labeled with 51 Cr. A comparison of the ''true red cell mass'' as determined with /sup 99m/Tc with the back-extrapolated red cell mass from stored 51 Cr-labeled cells has made it possible to define the magnitude of error introduced by early loss of red cells. The overestimation of red cell mass and viability was diminished if only the 51 Cr radioactivity between 5 and 15 minutes after infusion was used in back-extrapolating to t0. The degree of overestimation of red cell mass was greatest when the red cell viability had declined to very low levels. However, in the entire range of 10 to 80 percent viability, the overestimate of viability was usually less than 4 percent. The overestimate of viability proved to be quite similar for all samples and may be taken into account when using the single-isotope technique for measurement of red cell viability

  16. Validity of linear measurements of the jaws using ultralow-dose MDCT and the iterative techniques of ASIR and MBIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ekrish, Asma'a A; Al-Shawaf, Reema; Schullian, Peter; Al-Sadhan, Ra'ed; Hörmann, Romed; Widmann, Gerlig

    2016-10-01

    To assess the comparability of linear measurements of dental implant sites recorded from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images obtained using standard-dose filtered backprojection (FBP) technique with those from various ultralow doses combined with FBP, adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) techniques. The results of the study may contribute to MDCT dose optimization for dental implant site imaging. MDCT scans of two cadavers were acquired using a standard reference protocol and four ultralow-dose test protocols (TP). The volume CT dose index of the different dose protocols ranged from a maximum of 30.48-36.71 mGy to a minimum of 0.44-0.53 mGy. All scans were reconstructed using FBP, ASIR-50, ASIR-100, and MBIR, and either a bone or standard reconstruction kernel. Linear measurements were recorded from standardized images of the jaws by two examiners. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability of the measurements were analyzed using Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlation. Agreement between the measurements obtained with the reference-dose/FBP protocol and each of the test protocols was determined with Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. No systematic variation was found between the linear measurements obtained with the reference protocol and the other imaging protocols. The only exceptions were TP3/ASIR-50 (bone kernel) and TP4/ASIR-100 (bone and standard kernels). The mean measurement differences between these three protocols and the reference protocol were within ±0.1 mm, with the 95 % confidence interval limits being within the range of ±1.15 mm. A nearly 97.5 % reduction in dose did not significantly affect the height and width measurements of edentulous jaws regardless of the reconstruction algorithm used.

  17. Validation of abundance estimates from mark–recapture and removal techniques for rainbow trout captured by electrofishing in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2005-01-01

    Estimation of fish abundance in streams using the removal model or the Lincoln - Peterson mark - recapture model is a common practice in fisheries. These models produce misleading results if their assumptions are violated. We evaluated the assumptions of these two models via electrofishing of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in central Idaho streams. For one-, two-, three-, and four-pass sampling effort in closed sites, we evaluated the influences of fish size and habitat characteristics on sampling efficiency and the accuracy of removal abundance estimates. We also examined the use of models to generate unbiased estimates of fish abundance through adjustment of total catch or biased removal estimates. Our results suggested that the assumptions of the mark - recapture model were satisfied and that abundance estimates based on this approach were unbiased. In contrast, the removal model assumptions were not met. Decreasing sampling efficiencies over removal passes resulted in underestimated population sizes and overestimates of sampling efficiency. This bias decreased, but was not eliminated, with increased sampling effort. Biased removal estimates based on different levels of effort were highly correlated with each other but were less correlated with unbiased mark - recapture estimates. Stream size decreased sampling efficiency, and stream size and instream wood increased the negative bias of removal estimates. We found that reliable estimates of population abundance could be obtained from models of sampling efficiency for different levels of effort. Validation of abundance estimates requires extra attention to routine sampling considerations but can help fisheries biologists avoid pitfalls associated with biased data and facilitate standardized comparisons among studies that employ different sampling methods.

  18. Development, standardization and validation of purine excretion technique for measuring microbial protein supply for Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozdemir, H.; Gucus, A.I.; Ozcan, H.; Sogut, A.; Yaman, S.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate of the developed techniques for uric acid, allantoin and creatinine in Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle on farm at different feeding level locally available feed resources and linking the observed information to feed intake and to assess of protein nutrition status of Yerli Kara cross-breed dairy cattle using urinary PD and creatinine excretion. In Experiment I. Response of daily PD excretion to feed intake in Yerli Kara cross-breed on state farm was measured. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30 % wheat straw and 70 % compounded feed. The diet contained 90 % DM, its N and OM contents were 124 and 950 g/kg DM, respectively. In Experiment II. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at state farm. Four Yerli Kara cross-breed bulls live weight with a mean of 211±41.3 kg were used. Experimental design, feeding and diet were the same as in Experiment I. The treatments were [located according to a 4x4 Latin Square design. In Experiment III. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at smallholder farms. Compound feed containing 65 % barley, 25 % bran, 6 % sunflower seed meal, 3 % manner dust and 1 % mineral and vitamin mixture (120 g/kg DM-Crude Protein and 950 g/kg DM-Organic Matter)- was offered total in between 2 to 3 kg in two parts one in the morning (07:30 h) and one in the afternoon (17:00 h). Compound feed ingredients were similar given to all animals but Groups I, II and III animals were receiving 1 to 2 kg/d of straw (30 g CP/kg DM, 93Og OM/kg DM), grass hay (70g CP/kg DM, 915 g OM/kg DM), straw and grass hay respectively. There were significant correlations (R 2 =0.99) between PD excretion (mmol/d) and DOMI (kg/d) for YK-C cattle. PD execration (mmol/L) was plotted against PD: Creatinine W 0.75 to obtain slope and use as constant for the estimation of daily PD excretion from spot sampling from animals held by small holders. The equation could be expressed as: PD (mmol/d)=8.27+0.960 (PD:CxW 0.75 ). The

  19. Study of the Tool Geometry Influence in Indentation for the Analysis and Validation of the New Modular Upper Bound Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bermudo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on incremental bulk metal forming processes, the indentation process is gaining interest as a fundamental part of these kinds of processes. This paper presents the analysis of the pressure obtained in indentation under the influence of different punch geometries. To this end, an innovative Upper Bound Theorem (UBT based solution is introduced. This new solution can be easily applied to estimate the necessary force that guarantees plastic deformation by an indentation process. In this work, we propose an accurate analytical approach to analyse indentation under different punches. The new Modular Upper Bound (MUB method presents a simpler and faster application. Additionally, its complexity is not considerably increased by the addition of more Triangular Rigid Zones. In addition, a two-dimensional indentation model is designed and implemented using the Finite Element Method (FEM. The comparison of the two methods applied to the indentation process analysed—the new Modular Upper Bound technique and the Finite Element Method—reveal close similarities, the new Modular Upper Bound being more computationally efficient.

  20. Guide du calcul en mécanique valider le comportement des systèmes techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Spenlé, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Ce guide couvre l’essentiel des programmes de la Première STI2D aux sections de BTS pour les compétences liées à la mécanique. Pour prendre en compte les nouveautés pédagogiques, cette nouvelle édition évolue vers des systèmes « grand public » (robotique humanoïde, cycle trainer, power-ball…) ou des systèmes liés au développement durable(éolienne, scooter électrique…). Points forts - Un guide qui tient compte des orientations du nouveau programme de STI2D : - systèmes vibratoires ; - accéléromètres, effet gyroscopique ; - développement de l’énergétique. - Les disciplines Génie mécanique/Génie électrique sont décloisonnées: - introduction de dispositifs pluri-techniques ; - présentation d’interfaces liant la partie opérative à la partie commande ; - introduction de la conversion de l’énergie électrique en énergie mécanique et réciproquement, étude comportementale, point de fonctionnement, définition des grandeurs associées. - Le caractère expérimental, ...

  1. A comparative study of ICH validated novel spectrophotometric techniques for resolving completely overlapping spectra of quaternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nouruddin W.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abdelkawy, M.; Emam, Aml A.

    2016-02-01

    A pharmaceutically marketed mixture of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine co-formulated as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. Simultaneous determination of the aforementioned pharmaceutical formulation without prior separation steps was applied using mean centering of ratio spectra and triple divisor spectrophotometric methods. Mean centering of ratio spectra method depended on using the mean centered ratio spectra in three successive steps which eliminated the derivative steps and so the signal to noise ratio was improved. The absorption spectra of the prepared solutions were measured in the wavelength range of 215-300 nm in the concentration ranges of 1-15, 3-15, 1-20, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 for Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. The amplitudes of the mean centered third ratio spectra were measured at 250 nm and 268 nm for Yohimbine and Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, respectively and at peak to peak 272-273 and 262-263 nm for Niacin and Caffeine, respectively. In triple divisor method each drug in the quaternary mixture was determined by dividing the spectrum of the quaternary mixture by a standard spectrum of a mixture containing equal concentrations of the other three drugs. First derivative of these ratio spectra was obtained where determination could be achieved without any interference from the other three drugs. Amplitudes of 1-15, 3-15, 1-15, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 were used for selective determination of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. Laboratory prepared mixtures were analyzed by the developed novel methods to investigate their selectivity also, Super Act® capsules were successfully analyzed to ensure absence of interference from additives. The developed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were statistically compared with each other and with the reported methods; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA

  2. Validation of the technique of kinetic fosforimetria induced by laser for the determination of the concentration of uranium in urine; Validacion de la tecnica de fosforimetria cinetica inducida por laser para la determinacion de la concentracion de uranio en orina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.; Sierra, I.; Benito, P.; Lopez, C.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to conduct the validation of the method of determination of uranium using the technique of Kinetic Phosphorescence Analyser (KPA) The technical requirements of the standard 17025 stresses the need for validation samples KPA urine of workers exposed to risk of internal contamination. (Author)

  3. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  4. Validation and application of the methodology for analysis of radon concentration in the air through the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Caroline de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Pocos), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas that occurs naturally in soil and could enter into residential. The decay products of radon are radioactive metals which, when inhaled, can be retained in the respiratory system, leading to an internal dose of radiation. The monitoring of radon levels in residences and workplaces is extremely important, since high concentrations of this gas can cause serious public health problems. This study analyzed the concentration of radon in the air in 94 work environments at the Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC/CNEN, including laboratories, administrative rooms, workshop, warehouse and guardhouse. The method employed in the monitoring was the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors, known as SSNTD. For calibration and validation of this method, controlled experiments were conducted in laboratory with specific instrumentation. The monitoring results indicated that most environments present radon concentrations above 100 Bq m{sup -3}, which is the reference level recommended by the World Health Organization. (author)

  5. Validation and application of the methodology for analysis of radon concentration in the air through the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Caroline de; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas that occurs naturally in soil and could enter into residential. The decay products of radon are radioactive metals which, when inhaled, can be retained in the respiratory system, leading to an internal dose of radiation. The monitoring of radon levels in residences and workplaces is extremely important, since high concentrations of this gas can cause serious public health problems. This study analyzed the concentration of radon in the air in 94 work environments at the Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC/CNEN, including laboratories, administrative rooms, workshop, warehouse and guardhouse. The method employed in the monitoring was the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors, known as SSNTD. For calibration and validation of this method, controlled experiments were conducted in laboratory with specific instrumentation. The monitoring results indicated that most environments present radon concentrations above 100 Bq m -3 , which is the reference level recommended by the World Health Organization. (author)

  6. Models of signal validation using artificial intelligence techniques applied to a nuclear reactor; Modelos de validacao de sinal utilizando tecnicas de inteligencia artificial aplicados a um reator nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Mauro V. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schirru, Roberto [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2000-07-01

    This work presents two models of signal validation in which the analytical redundancy of the monitored signals from a nuclear plant is made by neural networks. In one model the analytical redundancy is made by only one neural network while in the other it is done by several neural networks, each one working in a specific part of the entire operation region of the plant. Four cluster techniques were tested to separate the entire operation region in several specific regions. An additional information of systems' reliability is supplied by a fuzzy inference system. The models were implemented in C language and tested with signals acquired from Angra I nuclear power plant, from its start to 100% of power. (author)

  7. Validation of a motion-robust 2D sequential technique for quantification of hepatic proton density fat fraction during free breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooler, B Dustin; Hernando, Diego; Ruby, Jeannine A; Ishii, Hiroshi; Shimakawa, Ann; Reeder, Scott B

    2018-04-17

    Current chemical-shift-encoded (CSE) MRI techniques for measuring hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) are sensitive to motion artifacts. Initial validation of a motion-robust 2D-sequential CSE-MRI technique for quantification of hepatic PDFF. Phantom study and prospective in vivo cohort. Fifty adult patients (27 women, 23 men, mean age 57.2 years). 3D, 2D-interleaved, and 2D-sequential CSE-MRI acquisitions at 1.5T. Three CSE-MRI techniques (3D, 2D-interleaved, 2D-sequential) were performed in a PDFF phantom and in vivo. Reference standards were 3D CSE-MRI PDFF measurements for the phantom study and single-voxel MR spectroscopy hepatic PDFF measurements (MRS-PDFF) in vivo. In vivo hepatic MRI-PDFF measurements were performed during a single breath-hold (BH) and free breathing (FB), and were repeated by a second reader for the FB 2D-sequential sequence to assess interreader variability. Correlation plots to validate the 2D-sequential CSE-MRI against the phantom and in vivo reference standards. Bland-Altman analysis of FB versus BH CSE-MRI acquisitions to evaluate robustness to motion. Bland-Altman analysis to assess interreader variability. Phantom 2D-sequential CSE-MRI PDFF measurements demonstrated excellent agreement and correlation (R 2 > 0.99) with 3D CSE-MRI. In vivo, the mean (±SD) hepatic PDFF was 8.8 ± 8.7% (range 0.6-28.5%). Compared with BH acquisitions, FB hepatic PDFF measurements demonstrated bias of +0.15% for 2D-sequential compared with + 0.53% for 3D and +0.94% for 2D-interleaved. 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were narrower for 2D-sequential (±0.99%), compared with 3D (±3.72%) and 2D-interleaved (±3.10%). All CSE-MRI techniques had excellent correlation with MRS (R 2 > 0.97). The FB 2D-sequential acquisition demonstrated little interreader variability, with mean bias of +0.07% and 95% LOA of ± 1.53%. This motion-robust 2D-sequential CSE-MRI can accurately measure hepatic PDFF during free breathing in a patient population with

  8. Simple protein precipitation extraction technique followed by validated chromatographic method for linezolid analysis in real human plasma samples to study its pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Samah A; Eissa, Maya S; Ahmed, Hytham M

    2017-02-01

    Fast and sensitive HPLC method was developed, optimized and validated for quantification of linezolid (LNZ) in human plasma using guaifenesin as an internal standard (IS). Analyte and IS were extracted from plasma by simple protein precipitation extraction technique using methanol as the precipitating solvent. The pretreated samples were injected in a mobile phase formed of acetonitrile:water:methanol (20:70:10v/v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min with UV detection at 251nm. Separation was done using Aglient ODS C 18 . The method showed linearity in the range of 0.75-50μg/mL with correlation coefficients equals to 0.9991. Precision and accuracy were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bio-analytical method validation. The RSDs for intra- and inter-day assays were <3.56 and 4.63%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracies were 94.67-98.28% and 91.25-96.18%, respectively. The mean absolute recoveries ranged from 92.56±1.78 to 95.24±2.84. According to stability results, LNZ was stable in human plasma during the storage and analysis. LNZ a pharmacokinetic behavior was studied by applying the proposed analytical method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of a new expert elicitation model with the Classical Model, equal weights and single experts, using a cross-validation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flandoli, F. [Dip.to di Matematica Applicata, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Giorgi, E. [Dip.to di Matematica Applicata, Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Pisa, via della Faggiola 32, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Aspinall, W.P. [Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, and Aspinall and Associates, Tisbury (United Kingdom); Neri, A., E-mail: neri@pi.ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Pisa, via della Faggiola 32, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ranking and weighting experts' performances when quantitative judgments are being elicited for decision support is considered. A new scoring model, the Expected Relative Frequency model, is presented, based on the closeness between central values provided by the expert and known values used for calibration. Using responses from experts in five different elicitation datasets, a cross-validation technique is used to compare this new approach with the Cooke Classical Model, the Equal Weights model, and individual experts. The analysis is performed using alternative reward schemes designed to capture proficiency either in quantifying uncertainty, or in estimating true central values. Results show that although there is only a limited probability that one approach is consistently better than another, the Cooke Classical Model is generally the most suitable for assessing uncertainties, whereas the new ERF model should be preferred if the goal is central value estimation accuracy. - Highlights: > A new expert elicitation model, named Expected Relative Frequency (ERF), is presented. > A cross-validation approach to evaluate the performance of different elicitation models is applied. > The new ERF model shows the best performance with respect to the point-wise estimates.

  10. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  11. Validation of a gating technique for radiotherapy treatment of injuries affected by respiratory motion; Validacion de una atecnica de gating para el tratamiento con radioterapia externa de lesiones afectadas por el movimiento respiratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Ortega, J.; Castro Tejero, P.

    2011-07-01

    The use of gating techniques for the treatment of lesions that are involved respiratory motion may bring an increase in the dose administered. tumors and decreased the dose to adjacent healthy organs. In the study presented shows the steps taken to validate the respiratory gating technique using the RPM system (Real-time Position Management) from Varian. (Author)

  12. Pseudodynamic Bearing Capacity Analysis of Shallow Strip Footing Using the Advanced Optimization Technique “Hybrid Symbiosis Organisms Search Algorithm” with Numerical Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Saha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of shallow foundations subjected to seismic loading has been an important area of research for civil engineers. This paper presents an upper-bound solution for bearing capacity of shallow strip footing considering composite failure mechanisms by the pseudodynamic approach. A recently developed hybrid symbiosis organisms search (HSOS algorithm has been used to solve this problem. In the HSOS method, the exploration capability of SQI and the exploitation potential of SOS have been combined to increase the robustness of the algorithm. This combination can improve the searching capability of the algorithm for attaining the global optimum. Numerical analysis is also done using dynamic modules of PLAXIS-8.6v for the validation of this analytical solution. The results obtained from the present analysis using HSOS are thoroughly compared with the existing available literature and also with the other optimization techniques. The significance of the present methodology to analyze the bearing capacity is discussed, and the acceptability of HSOS technique is justified to solve such type of engineering problems.

  13. Measurement of migration of soft tissue by modified Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA): validation of a new technique to monitor rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, P M M; Baring, T; Reilly, P; Emery, R J H; Amis, A A

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a technique to use Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) to measure migration of soft-tissue structures after rotator cuff repair. RSA stereo films were obtained; images were analysed using a semi-automatic software program allowing 3D viewing of results. RSA imaging experiments were performed to validate the technique, using a glass phantom with implanted RSA beads and an animal model with steel sutures as RSA markers which were moved known distances. Repeated measurements allowed assessment of inter- and intra-observer variability at a maximum of 1.06 mm. RSA analysis of the phantom showed a variation up to 0.22 mm for static and 0.28 mm for dynamic studies. The ovine tissue specimen demonstrated that using steel sutures as RSA markers in soft tissue is feasible, although less accurate than when measuring bone motion. This novel application of RSA to measure soft tissue migration is practicable and can be extended to in vivo studies.

  14. Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy sensitivity to nicotinamide-induced blood flow elevation in the murine hindlimb using the fluorescent microsphere technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Ashley R.; Ramirez, Gabriel A.; Han, Songfeng; Liu, Ziping; Bubel, Tracy M.; Choe, Regine

    2018-03-01

    Nicotinamide has been shown to affect blood flow in both tumor and normal tissues, including skeletal muscle. Intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide was used as a simple intervention to test the sensitivity of noninvasive diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to changes in blood flow in the murine left quadriceps femoris skeletal muscle. DCS was then compared with the gold-standard fluorescent microsphere (FM) technique for validation. The nicotinamide dose-response experiment showed that relative blood flow measured by DCS increased following treatment with 500- and 1000-mg / kg nicotinamide. The DCS and FM technique comparison showed that blood flow index measured by DCS was correlated with FM counts quantified by image analysis. The results of this study show that DCS is sensitive to nicotinamide-induced blood flow elevation in the murine left quadriceps femoris. Additionally, the results of the comparison were consistent with similar studies in higher-order animal models, suggesting that mouse models can be effectively employed to investigate the utility of DCS for various blood flow measurement applications.

  15. Validation of a measuring technique with computed tomography for cement penetration into trabecular bone underneath the tibial tray in total knee arthroplasty on a cadaver model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verburg, Hennie; Ridder, Laurens C van de; Verhoeven, Vincent WJ; Pilot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), cement penetration between 3 and 5 mm beneath the tibial tray is required to prevent loosening of the tibia component. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a reliable in vivo measuring technique using CT imaging to assess cement distribution and penetration depth in the total area underneath a tibia prosthesis. We defined the radiodensity ranges for trabecular tibia bone, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement and cement-penetrated trabecular bone and measured the percentages of cement penetration at various depths after cementing two tibia prostheses onto redundant femoral heads. One prosthesis was subsequently removed to examine the influence of the metal tibia prostheses on the quality of the CT images. The percentages of cement penetration in the CT slices were compared with percentages measured with photographs of the corresponding transversal slices. Trabecular bone and cement-penetrated trabecular bone had no overlap in quantitative scale of radio-density. There was no significant difference in mean HU values when measuring with or without the tibia prosthesis. The percentages of measured cement-penetrated trabecular bone in the CT slices of the specimen were within the range of percentages that could be expected based on the measurements with the photographs (p = 0.04). CT scan images provide valid results in measuring the penetration and distribution of cement into trabecular bone underneath the tibia component of a TKA. Since the proposed method does not turn metal elements into artefacts, it enables clinicians to assess the width and density of the cement mantle in vivo and to compare the results of different cementing methods in TKA

  16. SU-E-T-516: Dosimetric Validation of AcurosXB Algorithm in Comparison with AAA & CCC Algorithms for VMAT Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvel, M; Subramanian, V Sai; Arun, G; Thirumalaiswamy, S; Ramalingam, K; Kumar, S Ashok; Jagadeesh, K

    2012-06-01

    To dosimetrically validate AcurosXB algorithm for Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) in comparison with standard clinical Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm(AAA) and Collapsed Cone Convolution(CCC) dose calculation algorithms. AcurosXB dose calculation algorithm is available with Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (V10). It uses grid-based Boltzmann equation solver to predict dose precisely in lesser time. This study was made to realize algorithms ability to predict dose accurately as its delivery for which five clinical cases each of Brain, Head&Neck, Thoracic, Pelvic and SBRT were taken. Verification plans were created on multicube phantom with iMatrixx-2D detector array and then dose prediction was done with AcurosXB, AAA & CCC (COMPASS System) algorithm and the same were delivered onto CLINAC-iX treatment machine. Delivered dose was captured in iMatrixx plane for all 25 plans. Measured dose was taken as reference to quantify the agreement between AcurosXB calculation algorithm against previously validated AAA and CCC algorithm. Gamma evaluation was performed with clinical criteria distance-to-agreement 3&2mm and dose difference 3&2% in omnipro-I'MRT software. Plans were evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient, quantitative area gamma and average gamma. Study shows good agreement between mean correlation 0.9979±0.0012, 0.9984±0.0009 & 0.9979±0.0011 for AAA, CCC & Acuros respectively. Mean area gamma for criteria 3mm/3% was found to be 98.80±1.04, 98.14±2.31, 98.08±2.01 and 2mm/2% was found to be 93.94±3.83, 87.17±10.54 & 92.36±5.46 for AAA, CCC & Acuros respectively. Mean average gamma for 3mm/3% was 0.26±0.07, 0.42±0.08, 0.28±0.09 and 2mm/2% was found to be 0.39±0.10, 0.64±0.11, 0.42±0.13 for AAA, CCC & Acuros respectively. This study demonstrated that the AcurosXB algorithm had a good agreement with the AAA & CCC in terms of dose prediction. In conclusion AcurosXB algorithm provides a valid, accurate and speedy alternative to AAA

  17. TU-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Validation of a CT X-Ray Source Characterization Technique for Dose Computation Using An Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M; Tambasco, M [San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States); Poirier, Y [CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To experimentally validate a rotational kV x-ray source characterization technique by computing CT dose in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom using an in-house dose computation algorithm (kVDoseCalc). Methods: The lateral variation in incident energy spectra of a GE Optima big bore CT scanner was found by measuring the HVL along the internal, full bow-tie filter axis. The HVL and kVp were used to generate the x-ray spectra using Spektr software, while beam fluence was derived by dividing the integral product of the spectra and in-air mass-energy absorption coefficients by in-air dose measurements along the bow-tie filter axis. Beams produced by the GE Optima scanner were modeled at 80 and 140 kVp tube settings. kVDoseCalc calculates dose by solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation using a combination of deterministic and stochastic methods. Relative doses in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (E2E SBRT Phantom) irradiated by the GE Optima scanner were measured using a (0.015 cc) PTW Freiburg ionization chamber, and compared to computations from kVDoseCalc. Results: The agreement in relative dose between dose computation and measurement for points of interest (POIs) within the primary path of the beam was within experimental uncertainty for both energies, however points outside the primary beam were not. The average absolute percent difference for POIs within the primary path of the beam was 1.37% and 5.16% for 80 and 140 kVp, respectively. The minimum and maximum absolute percent difference for both energies and all POIs within the primary path of the beam was 0.151% and 6.41%, respectively. Conclusion: The CT x-ray source characterization technique based on HVL measurements and kVp can be used to accurately compute CT dose in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom.

  18. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  19. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  20. Validation of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound in predicting outcomes of antiangiogenic therapy for solid tumors: the French multicenter support for innovative and expensive techniques study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassau, Nathalie; Bonastre, Julia; Kind, Michèle; Vilgrain, Valérie; Lacroix, Joëlle; Cuinet, Marie; Taieb, Sophie; Aziza, Richard; Sarran, Antony; Labbe-Devilliers, Catherine; Gallix, Benoit; Lucidarme, Olivier; Ptak, Yvette; Rocher, Laurence; Caquot, Louis-Michel; Chagnon, Sophie; Marion, Denis; Luciani, Alain; Feutray, Sylvaine; Uzan-Augui, Joëlle; Coiffier, Benedicte; Benastou, Baya; Koscielny, Serge

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) has been used in single-center studies to evaluate tumor response to antiangiogenic treatments: the change of area under the perfusion curve (AUC), a criterion linked to blood volume, was consistently correlated with the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors response. The main objective here was to do a multicentric validation of the use of DCE-US to evaluate tumor response in different solid tumor types treated by several antiangiogenic agents. A secondary objective was to evaluate the costs of the procedure. This prospective study included patients from 2007 to 2010 in 19 centers (8 teaching hospitals and 11 comprehensive cancer centers). All patients treated with antiangiogenic therapy were eligible. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound examinations were performed at baseline as well as on days 7, 15, 30, and 60. For each examination, a perfusion curve was recorded during 3 minutes after injection of a contrast agent. Change from baseline at each time point was estimated for each of 7 fitted criteria. The main end point was freedom from progression (FFP). Criterion/time-point combinations with the strongest correlation with FFP were analyzed further to estimate an optimal cutoff point. A total of 1968 DCE-US examinations in 539 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up was 1.65 years. Variations from baseline were significant at day 30 for several criteria, with AUC having the most significant association with FFP (P = 0.00002). Patients with a greater than 40% decrease in AUC at day 30 had better FFP (P = 0.005) and overall survival (P = 0.05). The mean cost of each DCE-US was 180&OV0556;, which corresponds to $250 using the current exchange rate. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a new functional imaging technique that provides a validated criterion, namely, the change of AUC from baseline to day 30, which is predictive of tumor progression in a large multicenter cohort. Because of its low cost, it

  1. Validation of a field filtration technique for characterization of suspended particulate matter from freshwater. Part II. Minor, trace and ultra trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odman, Fredrik; Ruth, Thomas; Rodushkin, Ilia; Ponter, Christer

    2006-01-01

    A field filtration method for the concentration and separation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from freshwater systems and the subsequent determination of minor, trace and ultra trace elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Zn and Zr) is validated with respect to detection limits, precision and bias. The validation comprises the whole procedure including filtration, sample digestion and instrumental analysis. The method includes two digestion procedures (microwave acid digestion and alkali fusion) in combination with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). Total concentrations of these 27 trace and minor elements have been determined in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from lake and river water with low levels of suspended solids ( -1 DW), and a wide range of element concentrations. The precision of the method including filtration, digestion and instrumental determination ranges between 8% and 18% RSD for most elements on a dry weight basis. Higher recovery after acid digestion is found for some elements, probably because of volatilization or retention losses in the fusion procedure. Other elements show higher recovery after fusion, which is explained by more efficient decomposition of refractory mineral phases relative to the non-total acid digestion. Non-detectable concentrations of some elements are reported due to small differences between blank filter levels and the amounts of elements present on the filters after sampling. The method limits of detection range between 0.7 ng and 2.65 μg, as estimated from the blank filter samples. These detection limits are 10-550 times higher compared to the corresponding instrumental limits of detection. The accuracy and bias of the overall analytical procedure was assessed from replicate analysis of certified reference materials. A critical evaluation of

  2. Genomic prediction using different estimation methodology, blending and cross-validation techniques for growth traits and visual scores in Hereford and Braford cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, G S; Reimann, F A; Cardoso, L L; Ferreira, C E R; Junqueira, V S; Schmidt, P I; Braccini Neto, J; Yokoo, M J I; Sollero, B P; Boligon, A A; Cardoso, F F

    2018-05-07

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and bias of direct and blended genomic predictions using different methods and cross-validation techniques for growth traits (weight and weight gains) and visual scores (conformation, precocity, muscling and size) obtained at weaning and at yearling in Hereford and Braford breeds. Phenotypic data contained 126,290 animals belonging to the Delta G Connection genetic improvement program, and a set of 3,545 animals genotyped with the 50K chip and 131 sires with the 777K. After quality control, 41,045 markers remained for all animals. An animal model was used to estimate (co)variances components and to predict breeding values, which were later used to calculate the deregressed estimated breeding values (DEBV). Animals with genotype and phenotype for the traits studied were divided into four or five groups by random and k-means clustering cross-validation strategies. The values of accuracy of the direct genomic values (DGV) were moderate to high magnitude for at weaning and at yearling traits, ranging from 0.19 to 0.45 for the k-means and 0.23 to 0.78 for random clustering among all traits. The greatest gain in relation to the pedigree BLUP (PBLUP) was 9.5% with the BayesB method with both the k-means and the random clustering. Blended genomic value accuracies ranged from 0.19 to 0.56 for k-means and from 0.21 to 0.82 for random clustering. The analyzes using the historical pedigree and phenotypes contributed additional information to calculate the GEBV and in general, the largest gains were for the single-step (ssGBLUP) method in bivariate analyses with a mean increase of 43.00% among all traits measured at weaning and of 46.27% for those evaluated at yearling. The accuracy values for the marker effects estimation methods were lower for k-means clustering, indicating that the training set relationship to the selection candidates is a major factor affecting accuracy of genomic predictions. The gains in

  3. Accuracy and Feasibility of Estimated Tumour Volumetry in Primary Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours: Validation Using Semi-automated Technique in 127 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Shinagare, Atul B.; O’Neill, Ailbhe C.; Nishino, Mizuki; Rosenthal, Michael H.; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To validate estimated tumour volumetry in primary gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) using semi-automated volumetry. Materials and Methods In this IRB-approved retrospective study, we measured the three longest diameters in x, y, z axes on CTs of primary gastric GISTs in 127 consecutive patients (52 women, 75 men, mean age: 61 years) at our institute between 2000 and 2013. Segmented volumes (Vsegmented) were obtained using commercial software by two radiologists. Estimate volumes (V1–V6) were obtained using formulae for spheres and ellipsoids. Intra- and inter-observer agreement of Vsegmented and agreement of V1–6 with Vsegmented were analysed with concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Results Median Vsegmented and V1–V6 were 75.9 cm3, 124.9 cm3, 111.6 cm3, 94.0 cm3, 94.4cm3, 61.7 cm3 and 80.3 cm3 respectively. There was strong intra- and inter-observer agreement for Vsegmented. Agreement with Vsegmented was highest for V6 (scalene ellipsoid, x≠y≠z), with CCC of 0.96 [95%CI: 0.95–0.97]. Mean relative difference was smallest for V6 (0.6%), while it was −19.1% for V5, +14.5% for V4, +17.9% for V3, +32.6 % for V2 and +47% for V1. Conclusion Ellipsoidal approximations of volume using three measured axes may be used to closely estimate Vsegmented when semi-automated techniques are unavailable. PMID:25991487

  4. Validity of the neck disability index, Northwick Park neck pain questionnaire, and problem elicitation technique for measuring disability associated with whiplash-associated disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan Lucas; O'Leary, Elizabeth F.; Niere, Ken R.; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2003-01-01

    The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) were developed to measure self-perceived disability from neck pain, including that which may arise from whiplash injury. However, there is little data specifically concerning their validity for whiplash-associated

  5. Development and validation of three-dimensional CFD techniques for reactor safety applications. Final report; Entwicklung und Validierung dreidimensionaler CFD Verfahren fuer Anwendungen in der Reaktorsicherheit. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Palazzo, Simone; Papukchiev, Angel; Scheurer Martina

    2016-12-15

    The overall goal of the project RS 1506 ''Development and Validation of Three Dimensional CFD Methods for Reactor Safety Applications'' is the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for the simulation of three -dimensional thermo-hydraulic heat and fluid flow phenomena in nuclear reactors. For this purpose a wide spectrum of validation and test cases was selected covering fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the downcomer and in the core of pressurized water reactors. In addition, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the CFD code ANSYS CFX was further developed and validated. The first choice were UPTF experiments where turbulent single- and two-phase flows were investigated in a 1:1 scaled model of a German KONVOI reactor. The scope of the CFD calculations covers thermal mixing and stratification including condensation in single- and two-phase flows. In the complex core region, the flow in a fuel assembly with spacer grid was simulated as defined in the OECD/NEA Benchmark MATIS-H. Good agreement are achieved when the geometrical and physical boundary conditions were reproduced as realistic as possible. This includes, in particular, the consideration of heat transfer to walls. The influence of wall modelling on CFD results was investigated on the TALL-3D T01 experiment. In this case, the dynamic three dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena were simulated in a Generation IV liquid metal cooled reactor. Concurrently to the validation work, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the ANSYS CFX software was optimized and expanded for two-phase flows. Different coupling approaches were investigated, in order to overcome the large difference between CPU-time requirements of system and CFD codes. Finally, the coupled simulation system was validated by applying it to the simulation of the PSI double T-junction experiment, the LBE-flow in the MYRRA Spallation experiment and a demonstration test case

  6. Ray-tracing techniques to assess the electromagnetic field radiated by radio base stations: Application and experimental validation in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, S.; Anglesio, L.; D'Amore, G.; Mantovan, M.; Menegolli, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a ray-tracing model for electromagnetic field calculation, which is used in urban environments to predict irradiation from radio base stations for population exposure evaluation. Validation was carried out through a measurement campaign by choosing measurement points in order to test different propagation environments and analysing broadcast control channels through narrow band measurements. Comparison of the calculated and measured fields indicates that the ray-tracing model used calculates electric field with good accuracy, in spite of the fact that the propagation environment is not described in detail, because of difficulties in modelling the geometrical and electrical characteristics of urban areas. Differences between the calculated and measured results remain below 1.5 dB, with a mean value of 1 dB. (authors)

  7. Validation of QuEChERS analytical technique for organochlorines and synthetic pyrethroids in fruits and vegetables using GC-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J K; Patyal, S K; Sharma, Ajay

    2018-03-19

    In the present day scenario of increasing awareness and concern about the pesticides, it is very important to ensure the quality of data being generated in pesticide residue analysis. To impart confidence in the products, terms like quality assurance and quality control are used as an integral part of quality management. In order to ensure better quality of results in pesticide residue analysis, validation of analytical methods to be used is extremely important. Keeping in view the importance of validation of method, the validation of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) a multiresidue method for extraction of 13 organochlorines and seven synthetic pyrethroids in fruits and vegetables followed by GC ECD for quantification was done so as to use this method for analysis of samples received in the laboratory. The method has been validated as per the Guidelines issued by SANCO (French words Sante for Health and Consommateurs for Consumers) in accordance with their document SANCO/XXXX/2013. Various parameters analyzed, viz., linearity, specificity, repeatability, reproducibility, and ruggedness were found to have acceptable values with a per cent RSD of less than 10%. Limit of quantification (LOQ) for the organochlorines was established to be 0.01 and 0.05 mg kg -1 for the synthetic pyrethroids. The uncertainty of the measurement (MU) for all these compounds ranged between 1 and 10%. The matrix-match calibration was used to compensate the matrix effect on the quantification of the compounds. The overall recovery of the method ranged between 80 and 120%. These results demonstrate the applicability and acceptability of this method in routine estimation of pesticide residues of these 20 pesticides in the fruits and vegetables by the laboratory.

  8. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  9. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  10. Further fMRI Validation of the Visual Half Field Technique as an Indicator of Language Laterality: A Large-Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Haegen, Lise; Cai, Qing; Seurinck, Ruth; Brysbaert, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The best established lateralized cerebral function is speech production, with the majority of the population having left hemisphere dominance. An important question is how to best assess the laterality of this function. Neuroimaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) are increasingly used in clinical settings to…

  11. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  12. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2k experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2 k experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  13. A Validated Stability-indicating Reverse Phase HPLC Assay Method for the Determination of Memantine Hydrochloride Drug Substance with UV-Detection Using Precolumn Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavil Narola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This present paper deals with the development and validation of a stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of Memantine hydrochloride. Memantine hydrochloride was derivatized with 0.015 M 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC and 0.5 M borate buffer solution by keeping it at room temperature for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 10 μL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ, The mobile phase consisting of 80% acetonitrile and 20% phosphate buffer solution and a flow rate of 2 milliliter/minute. The Memantine was eluted at approximately 7.5 minutes. The volume of FMOC used in derivatization, concentration of FMOC and derivatization time was optimized and used. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of Memantine hydrochloride using acid (5.0 Normal (N hydrochloric acid, base (1.0 N sodium hydroxide, oxidation (30% hydrogen peroxide, thermal (105 ° C, photolytic and humidity conditions. The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, precision (% RSD about 0.70%, linearity (linearity of range about 70-130 μg/mL, ruggedness (Overall % RSD about 0.35%, stability in analytical solution (Cumulative % RSD about 0.11% after 1450 min. and robustness.

  14. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  15. A Validated Stability-indicating Reverse Phase HPLC Assay Method for the Determination of Memantine Hydrochloride Drug Substance with UV-Detection Using Precolumn Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavil Narola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This present paper deals with the development and validation of a stability indicating high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of Memantine hydrochloride. Memantine hydrochloride was derivatized with 0.015 M 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC and 0.5 M borate buffer solution by keeping it at room temperature for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 10 µL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a kromasil C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µ. The mobile phase consisting of 80% acetonitrile and 20% phosphate buffer solution and a flow rate of 2 milliliter/minute. The Memantine was eluted at approximately 7.5 minutes. The volume of FMOC used in derivatization, concentration of FMOC and derivatization time was optimized and used. Forced degradation studies were performed on bulk sample of Memantine hydrochloride using acid (5.0 Normal (N hydrochloric acid, base (1.0 N sodium hydroxide, oxidation (30% hydrogen peroxide, thermal (105°C, photolytic and humidity conditions. The developed LC method was validated with respect to specificity, precision (% RSD about 0.70%, linearity (linearity of range about 70–130 µg/mL, ruggedness (Overall % RSD about 0.35%, stability in analytical solution (Cumulative % RSD about 0.11% after 1450 min. and robustness.

  16. A Validated Reverse Phase HPLC Method for the Determination of Disodium EDTA in Meropenem Drug Substance with UV-Detection using Precolumn Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavil Narola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of disodium EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in Meropenem active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. EDTA was derivatized with Ferric chloride solution by heating at 70 ° C in water bath for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 100 μL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a Phenomenex Luna C18(2 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ, The mobile phase consisting of 5% methanol and 95% of 0.7 g/L solution of Tetra butyl ammonium bromide and 4.6 g/L solution of sodium acetate trihydrate in water (pH adjusted to 4.0 with the help of acetic acid glacial and a flow rate of 1 milliliter/minute. EDTA eluted at approximately 6 minutes. The method was suitably validated with respect to specificity, linearity of response, precision, accuracy, ruggedness, stability in analytical solution, limit of quantitation and detection and robustness for its intended use.

  17. Prospective validation of intra- and interobserver reproducibility of a new point shear wave elasto graphic technique for assessing liver stiffness in patients with chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Su Joa; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Won; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yang, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Sae Jin; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To assess intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of a new point shear wave elastography technique (pSWE, S-Shearwave, Samsung Medison) and compare its accuracy in assessing liver stiffness (LS) with an established pSWE technique (Virtual Touch Quantification, VTQ). Thirty-three patients were enrolled in this Institutional Review Board-approved prospective study. LS values were measured by VTQ on an Acuson S2000 system (Siemens Healthineer) and S-Shearwave on an RS-80A (Samsung Medison) in the same session, followed by two further S-Shearwave sessions for inter- and intra-observer variation at 8-hour intervals. The technical success rate (SR) and reliability of the measurements of both pSWE techniques were compared. The intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of S-Shearwave was determined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). LS values were measured by both methods of pSWE. The diagnostic performance in severe fibrosis (F ≥ 3) and cirrhosis (F = 4) was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and the Obuchowski measure with the LS values of transient elastography as the referenced standard. The VTQ (100%, 33/33) and S-Shearwave (96.9%, 32/33) techniques did not display a significant difference in technical SR (p = 0.63) or reliability of LS measurements (96.9%, 32/33; 93.9%, 30/32, respectively, p = 0.61). The inter- and intra-observer agreement for LS measurements using the S-Shearwave technique was excellent (ICC = 0.98 and 0.99, respectively). The mean LS values of both pSWE techniques were not significantly different and exhibited a good correlation (r = 0.78). To detect F ≥ 3 and F = 4, VTQ and S-Shearwave showed comparable diagnostic accuracy as indicated by the following outcomes: areas under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) = 0.87 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.70–0.96), 0.89 for VTQ (95% CI 0.74–0.97), respectively; and AUROC = 0.84 (95% CI 0.67–0.94), 0.94 (95% CI 0.80–0.99) for S

  18. A study on evaluating validity of SNR calculation using a conventional two region method in MR images applied a multichannel coil and parallel imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwan Woo; Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Beong Gyu; Lee, Jong Seok [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the problems of a signal to noise ratio measurement using a two region measurement method that is conventionally used when using a multi-channel coil and a parallel imaging technique. As a research method, after calculating the standard SNR using a single channel head coil of which coil satisfies three preconditions when using a two region measurement method, we made comparisons and evaluations after calculating an SNR by using a two region measurement method of which method is problematic because it is used without considering the methods recommended by reputable organizations and the preconditions at the time of using a multi-channel coil and a parallel imaging technique. We found that a two region measurement method using a multi-channel coil and a parallel imaging technique shows the highest relative standard deviation, and thus shows a low degree of precision. In addition, we found out that the difference of SNR according to ROI location was very high, and thus a spatial noise distribution was not uniform. Also, 95% confidence interval through Blend-Altman plot is the widest, and thus the conformity degree with a two region measurement method using the standard single channel head coil is low. By directly comparing an AAPM method, which serves as a standard of a performance evaluation test of a magnetic resonance imaging device under the same image acquisition conditions, an NEMA method which can accurately determine the noise level in a signal region and the methods recommended by manufacturers of a magnetic resonance imaging device, there is a significance in that we quantitatively verified the inaccurate problems of a signal to noise ratio using a two region measurement method when using a multi-channel coil and a parallel imaging technique of which method does not satisfy the preconditions that researchers could overlook.

  19. Development and validation of brain and spinal cord vector and cell-delivery techniques in pre-clinical minipig models of neurodegenerative disorders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juhás, Štefan; Juhásová, Jana; Klíma, Jiří; Maršala, M.; Maršala, S.; Atsushi, Y.; Johe, K.; Motlík, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 9-10 ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : minipig models of neurodegenerative disorders * brin and spinal cord cell delivery techniques Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Estimates of evapotranspiration for riparian sites (Eucalyptus) in the Lower Murray -Darling Basin using ground validated sap flow and vegetation index scaling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, T.; Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Water accounting is becoming critical globally, and balancing consumptive water demands with environmental water requirements is especially difficult in in arid and semi-arid regions. Within the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia, riparian water use has not been assessed across broad scales. This study therefore aimed to apply and validate an existing U.S. riparian ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) algorithm for the MDB river systems to assist water resource managers to quantify environmental water needs over wide ranges of niche conditions. Ground-based sap flow ET was correlated with remotely sensed predictions of ET, to provide a method to scale annual rates of water consumption by riparian vegetation over entire irrigation districts. Sap flux was measured at nine locations on the Murrumbidgee River between July 2011 and June 2012. Remotely sensed ET was calculated using a combination of local meteorological estimates of potential ET (ETo) and rainfall and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from selected 250 m resolution pixels. The sap flow data correlated well with MODIS EVI. Sap flow ranged from 0.81 mm/day to 3.60 mm/day and corresponded to a MODIS-based ET range of 1.43 mm/day to 2.42 mm/day. We found that mean ET across sites could be predicted by EVI-ETo methods with a standard error of about 20% across sites, but that ET at any given site could vary much more due to differences in aquifer and soil properties among sites. Water use was within range of that expected. We conclude that our algorithm developed for US arid land crops and riparian plants is applicable to this region of Australia. Future work includes the development of an adjusted algorithm using these sap flow validated results.

  1. Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-11-28

    Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen muscle samples of 369 red foxes from the Netherlands, of which one fox was positive (0.067 larvae per gram). This result was compared with historical Trichinella findings in Dutch red foxes. Molecular analysis using 5S PCR showed that both T. britovi and T. nativa were present in the Latvian foxes, without mixed infections. Of 96 non-frozen T. britovi ML, 94% was successfully sequenced, whereas this was the case for only 8.3% of 72 frozen T. britovi ML. The single Trichinella sp. larva that was recovered from the positive Dutch fox did not yield PCR product, probably due to severe freeze-damage. In conclusion, the SSM presented in this study is a fast and effective method to detect dead Trichinella larvae in frozen meat. We showed that the Trichinella prevalence in Dutch red fox was 0.27% (95% CI 0.065-1.5%), in contrast to 3.9% in the same study area fifteen years ago. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of 5S PCR for identification of Trichinella britovi single larvae from frozen meat is not more than 8.3%.

  2. Pharmacognostic evaluation, and development and validation of a HPLC-DAD technique for gallocatechin and epigallocatechin in rhizomes from Limonium brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Blainski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Limonium brasiliense (Boiss. Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, is a plant from the southern coast of Brazilian that is used for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disorders and genito-urinary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality control parameters for rhizomes collected during different periods by pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods, and to develop and validate a HPLC-DAD method for quantitative control of marker substances. The measured parameters were: granulometric analysis (d50 = 0.21–0.48 mm, loss on drying (11.1–12.4%, total ash (4.9–5.7%, dry residue by extraction with acetone:water (7:3, v/v (30.6–39.5%, total polyphenol content (8.5–15.8%, and chromatographic fingerprint by HPLC and TLC. Besides, the acetone:water (7:3, v/v extraction solvent in combination with a turbo-extractor, yielded the crude extract with a significant increase in tannins (F4,20 = 37.0, p < 0.001. The antioxidant potential of the crude acetone:water (7:3, v/v extract, as well as the ethyl acetate and water fractions obtained after the partition process was evaluated by DPPH and the results were, respectively: IC50 6.87, 5.91, and 6.92 µg/ml. The validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. The gallo- and epigallocatechin contents were, respectively, 0.8–2.7% and 1.2–2.2%. These data contribute to analysis of the pharmacognostic quality control of the commonly used part from this species.

  3. Assessment of body fat in the pony: part II. Validation of the deuterium oxide dilution technique for the measurement of body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, A H A; Curtis, G C; Milne, E; Harris, P A; Argo, C Mc

    2011-09-01

    Excessive accumulations or depletions of body fat have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in horses and ponies. An objective, minimally-invasive method to accurately quantify body fat in living animals is required to aid nutritional management and define welfare/performance limits. To compare deuterium oxide (D(2) O) dilution-derived estimates of total body water (TBW) and body fat with values obtained by 'gold standard' proximate analysis and cadaver dissection. D(2) O dilution offers a valid method for the determination of TBW and body fat in equids. Seven mature (mean ± s.e. 13 ± 3 years, 212 ± 14 kg, body condition scores 1.25-7/9), healthy, Welsh Mountain pony mares, destined for euthanasia (for nonresearch purposes) were used. Blood samples were collected before and 4 h after D(2) O (0.11-0.13 g/kg bwt, 99.8 atom percent excess) administration. Plasma was analysed by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry following filtration and zinc reduction. After euthanasia, white adipose tissue (WAT) mass was recorded before all body tissues were analysed by proximate chemical analyses. D(2) O-derived estimates of TBW and body fat were strongly associated with proximate analysis- and dissection-derived values (all r(2) >0.97, P≤0.0001). Bland-Altman analyses demonstrated good agreements between methods. D(2) O dilution slightly overestimated TBW (0.79%, limits of agreement (LoA) -3.75-2.17%) and underestimated total body lipid (1.78%, LoA -0.59-4.15%) and dissected WAT (0.72%, LoA -2.77-4.21%). This study provides the first validation of the D(2) O dilution method for the minimally-invasive, accurate, repeatable and objective measurement of body water and fat in living equids. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Validation of an in situ solidification/stabilization technique for hazardous barium and cyanide waste for safe disposal into a secured landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Rucha; Kodam, Kisan; Ghole, Vikram; Surya Mohan Rao, K

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to devise and validate an appropriate treatment process for disposal of hazardous barium and cyanide waste into a landfill at a Common Hazardous Waste Treatment Storage Disposal Facility (CHWTSDF). The waste was generated during the process of hardening of steel components and contains cyanide (reactive) and barium (toxic) as major contaminants. In the present study chemical fixation of the contaminants was carried out. The cyanide was treated by alkali chlorination with calcium hypochlorite and barium by precipitation with sodium sulfate as barium sulfate. The pretreated mixture was then solidified and stabilized by binding with a combination of slag cement, ordinary Portland cement and fly ash, molded into blocks (5 x 5 x 5 cm) and cured for a period of 3, 7 and 28 days. The final experiments were conducted with 18 recipe mixtures of waste + additive:binder (W:B) ratios. The W:B ratios were taken as 80:20, 70:30 and 50:50. The optimum proportions of additives and binders were finalized on the basis of the criteria of unconfined compressive strength and leachability. The leachability studies were conducted using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. The blocks were analyzed for various physical and leachable chemical parameters at the end of each curing period. Based on the results of the analysis, two recipe mixtures, with compositions - 50% of [waste + (120 g Ca(OCl)(2) + 290 g Na(2)SO(4)) kg(-1) of waste] + 50% of binders, were validated for in situ stabilization into a secured landfill of CHWTSDF. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  6. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  7. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  8. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  9. On performing of interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method) to investigate flows and validate 3D flow numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Al. A.; Shevchenko, A. M.; Khotyanovsky, D. V.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shmakov, A. S.; Golubev, M. P.

    2017-10-01

    We present a method for and results of determination of the field of integral density in the structure of flow corresponding to the Mach interaction of shock waves at Mach number M = 3. The optical diagnostics of flow was performed using an interference technique based on self-adjusting Zernike filters (SA-AVT method). Numerical simulations were carried out using the CFS3D program package for solving the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Quantitative data on the distribution of integral density on the path of probing radiation in one direction of 3D flow transillumination in the region of Mach interaction of shock waves were obtained for the first time.

  10. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  11. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  12. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  13. Determine what requirements should be established for verification and validation of OSS software, and which techniques are available to improve V and V. Task 4.5.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Verification and validation (V and V) is the process to ensure that a system is designed according to its requirements and to confirm that the system actually performs the required functions completely and reliably. V and V methodology and guidelines are fundamental to all digital implementations in nuclear plants. The objectives of R and D projects in the area of V and V are to: Evaluate V and V standards are methods for applicability in enhancing operator support systems at nuclear power plants; Develop new V and V standards and methods when those existing do not entirely meet the needs of these new applications; ensure that V and V of operator support systems is sufficient to meet design requirements and fully demonstrate that operator support systems function as intended; provide communication of V and V methods and requirements so that they are properly utilized; provide V and V methods and tools which will allow the process to be performed consistently and efficiently, and which enhance acceptance from users, management, vendors, and regulators. Refs

  14. Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using GIS-based Vector Grid File (VGF Validating with InSAR Techniques: Three Gorges, Yangtze River (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kıncal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A landslide susceptibility assessment for the Three Gorges (TG region (China was performed in a Geographical Information System (GIS environment and Persistent Scatterer (PS InSAR derived displacements were used for validation purposes. Badong County of TG was chosen as case study field. Landslide parameters were derived from two datasets. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER Global Digital Elevation Map (GDEM was used to calculate slope geometry parameters (slope, aspect, drainage, and lineament, while geology and vegetation cover were obtained from Landsat and ASTER data. The majority of historical landslides occurred in the sandstone-shale-claystone intercalations. It appears that slope gradients are more critical than other parameters such as aspect and drainage. The susceptibility assessment was based on a summation of assigned susceptibility scores (points for each 30×30 m unit in a database of a Vector Grid File (VGF composed of ‘vector pixels’. A landslide susceptibility map (LSM was generated using VGF and classified with low, moderate and high landslide susceptibility zones. The comparison between the LSM and PS InSAR derived displacements suggests that landslides only account for parts of the observed surface movements.

  15. Validation of landslide hazard assessment by means of GPS monitoring technique – a case study in the Dolomites (Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tagliavini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years a research project aimed at the assessment of the landslide hazard and susceptibility in the high Cordevole river basin (Eastern Dolomites, Italy have been carried out. The hazard map was made adopting the Swiss Confederation semi-deterministic approach that takes into account parameters such as velocity, geometry and frequency of landslides. Usually these parameters are collected by means of geological and morphological surveys, historical archive researches, aerophotogrammetric analysis etc. In this framework however the dynamics of an instable slope can be difficult to determine. This work aims at illustrating some progress in landslide hazard assessment using a modified version of the Swiss Confederation semi-deterministic approach in which the values of some parameters have been refined in order to accomplish more reliable results in hazard assessment. A validation of the accuracy of these new values, using GPS and inclinometric measurements, has been carried out on a test site located inside the high Cordevole river basin.

  16. Is Structured Observation a Valid Technique to Measure Handwashing Behavior? Use of Acceleration Sensors Embedded in Soap to Assess Reactivity to Structured Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K.; Halder, Amal K.; Granger, Stewart P.; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M. Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3–10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0–18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior. PMID:21036840

  17. Validation of 2 noninvasive, markerless reconstruction techniques in biplane high-speed fluoroscopy for 3-dimensional research of bovine distal limb kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M; Reich, E; Grund, S; Mülling, C K W; Geiger, S M

    2017-10-01

    Lameness severely impairs cattle's locomotion, and it is among the most important threats to animal welfare, performance, and productivity in the modern dairy industry. However, insight into the pathological alterations of claw biomechanics leading to lameness and an understanding of the biomechanics behind development of claw lesions causing lameness are limited. Biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography is a new approach for the analysis of skeletal motion. Biplane high-speed videos in combination with bone scans can be used for 3-dimensional (3D) animations of bones moving in 3D space. The gold standard, marker-based animation, requires implantation of radio-opaque markers into bones, which impairs the practicability for lameness research in live animals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparative accuracy of 2 noninvasive, markerless animation techniques (semi-automatic and manual) in 3D animation of the bovine distal limb. Tantalum markers were implanted into each of the distal, middle, and proximal phalanges of 5 isolated bovine distal forelimbs, and biplane high-speed x-ray videos of each limb were recorded to capture the simulation of one step. The limbs were scanned by computed tomography to create bone models of the 6 digital bones, and 3D animation of the bones' movements were subsequently reconstructed using the marker-based, the semi-automatic, and the manual animation techniques. Manual animation translational bias and precision varied from 0.63 ± 0.26 mm to 0.80 ± 0.49 mm, and rotational bias and precision ranged from 2.41 ± 1.43° to 6.75 ± 4.67°. Semi-automatic translational values for bias and precision ranged from 1.26 ± 1.28 mm to 2.75 ± 2.17 mm, and rotational values varied from 3.81 ± 2.78° to 11.7 ± 8.11°. In our study, we demonstrated the successful application of biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography to gait analysis of bovine distal limb. Using the manual animation technique, kinematics

  18. The validation of an infrared simulation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available theoretical validation framework. This paper briefly describes the procedure used to validate software models in an infrared system simulation, and provides application examples of this process. The discussion includes practical validation techniques...

  19. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 05: A novel respiratory motion simulation program for VMAT treatment plans: a phantom validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubley, Emily; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a computational method to simulate craniocaudal respiratory motion in a VMAT treatment plan. Methods: Three 4DCTs of the QUASAR respiratory motion phantom were acquired with a 2cm water-density spherical tumour embedded in cedar to simulate lung. The phantom was oscillating sinusoidally with an amplitude of 2cm and periods of 3, 4, and 5 seconds. An ITV was contoured and 5mm PTV margin was added. High and a low modulation factor VMAT plans were created for each scan. An in-house program was developed to simulate respiratory motion in the treatment plans by shifting the MLC leaf positions relative to the phantom. Each plan was delivered to the phantom and the dose was measured using Gafchromic film. The measured and calculated plans were compared using an absolute dose gamma analysis (3%/3mm). Results: The average gamma pass rate for the low modulation plan and high modulation plans were 91.1% and 51.4% respectively. The difference between the high and low modulation plans gamma pass rates is likely related to the different sampling frequency of the respiratory curve and the higher MLC leaf speeds in the high modulation plan. A high modulation plan has a slower gantry speed and therefore samples the breathing cycle at a coarser frequency leading to inaccuracies between the measured and planned doses. Conclusion: A simple program, including a novel method for increasing sampling frequency beyond the control point frequency, has been developed to simulate respiratory motion in VMAT plans by shifting the MLC leaf positions.

  20. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Oral Cancer: Validation of Technique and Clinical Implications of Added Oblique Planar Lymphoscintigraphy and/or Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, J.B.; Soerensen, J.A.; Grupe, P.; Krogdahl, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Depts. of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Nuclear Medicine, and Pathology

    2005-10-01

    Purpose: To validate lymphatic mapping combined with sentinel lymph node biopsy as a staging procedure, and to evaluate the possible clinical implications of added oblique lymphoscintigraphy and/or tomography and test the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of lymphoscintigraphy. Material and Methods: Forty patients (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90) with 24 T1 and 16 T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Planar lymphoscintigraphy, emission and transmission tomography were performed. Detection and excision of the sentinel nodes were guided by a gamma probe. The sentinel nodes were step-sectioning and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and cytokeratin (CK 1). Histology and follow-up were used as 'gold standard'. Tumor location, number of sentinel lymph nodes, metastasis, and recurrences were registered. Two observers evaluated the lymphoscintigraphic images to assess the inter-rater agreement. Results: Eleven (28%) patients were upstaged. The sentinel lymph node identification rate was 97.5%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy significantly differentiated between patients with or without lymph node metastasis ( P = 0.001). Lymphatic mapping revealed 124 hotspots and 144 hot lymph nodes were removed by sentinel lymph node biopsy. Three patients developed a lymph node recurrence close to the primary tumor site during follow-up. Added oblique lymphoscintigraphic images and/or tomography revealed extra hotspots in 15/40 (38%) patients. In 4/40 (10%), extra contralateral hotspots were detected. Conclusion: Sentinel lymph node biopsy upstaged 28% of the patients. Sentinel lymph nodes close to the primary tumor were difficult to find. Added oblique planar images and/or tomographic images revealed extra clinical relevant hotspots in 38% of patients. Reproducibility proved excellent.

  1. Validated HPTLC technique for simultaneous evaluation of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin in Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.: A systematic approach for quality control of herbals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sarfaraj Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the simultaneous quantification of two biologically active elements, flavonoids gallic acid (GA and quercetin (QE, in methanolic extract of Trichosanthes dioica that was customarily used to lower blood sugar and cholesterol. Methods: Silica gel 60F254 having receded with aluminum plate was applied for the separation. We used toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:4:1, v/v/v as a solvent system for the separation. Results: At 270 nm in reflectance mode densitometric analysis was performed. Squeezed bands for GA and QE were achieved at Rf (0.31 ± 0.03 and (0.50 ± 0.02. The scheme was validated for sensitivity, specificity, limit of detection and quantification. Linear relationship was found between the concentration range of 100–1 000 ng spot–1 for GA and 150–900 ng spot–1 for GA and QE, respectively. The instrumental precision was noted to be 1.03–1.96 (% RSD and 1.09–1.98 (% RSD for GA and QE, separately. Methodology specificity was determined at three different study point with varying concentration for recovery studies. Mean % recovery was noted to be 99.4%–99.9% and 98.7%–99.3% and the content estimated as (31.00 ± 1.18% and (39.00 ± 1.24% for GA and QE, respectively. Conclusions: The developed high performance thin layer chromatography scheme can be used for routine quality control analysis of Trichosanthes dioica and several other formulations containing these markers.

  2. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 05: A novel respiratory motion simulation program for VMAT treatment plans: a phantom validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubley, Emily; Pierce, Greg; Ploquin, Nicolas [University of Calgary, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Tom Baker Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: To develop and validate a computational method to simulate craniocaudal respiratory motion in a VMAT treatment plan. Methods: Three 4DCTs of the QUASAR respiratory motion phantom were acquired with a 2cm water-density spherical tumour embedded in cedar to simulate lung. The phantom was oscillating sinusoidally with an amplitude of 2cm and periods of 3, 4, and 5 seconds. An ITV was contoured and 5mm PTV margin was added. High and a low modulation factor VMAT plans were created for each scan. An in-house program was developed to simulate respiratory motion in the treatment plans by shifting the MLC leaf positions relative to the phantom. Each plan was delivered to the phantom and the dose was measured using Gafchromic film. The measured and calculated plans were compared using an absolute dose gamma analysis (3%/3mm). Results: The average gamma pass rate for the low modulation plan and high modulation plans were 91.1% and 51.4% respectively. The difference between the high and low modulation plans gamma pass rates is likely related to the different sampling frequency of the respiratory curve and the higher MLC leaf speeds in the high modulation plan. A high modulation plan has a slower gantry speed and therefore samples the breathing cycle at a coarser frequency leading to inaccuracies between the measured and planned doses. Conclusion: A simple program, including a novel method for increasing sampling frequency beyond the control point frequency, has been developed to simulate respiratory motion in VMAT plans by shifting the MLC leaf positions.

  3. Validation of methods for WDXRF and OES-spark techniques in steel analysis. Determination of the uncertainty of measurements for API steel plant sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Carlos Eduardo da

    2009-01-01

    The increase of gas and petroleum demanding in the national and international markets, the specification and certification of the chemical analysis results of gas and oil pipe-line have became more and more challenging. A continuous development has been outlined to improve API grade alloy steels (American Petroleum Institute). The steel properties depend on the chemical composition control and process parameters during its manufacturing. In this work, a comparison of the measurement uncertainty between X-ray fluorescence (WD system) and Optical Emission (OES-spark) spectrometry, for API grade steel plant samples analysis, was outlined. Usually, this kind of analyze requires less than 40 seconds for full chemical characterization for adjustment in the process parameters production. The main influence source in the chemical analysis was evaluated for design of experiments. The constituents and trace elements such as Al, Si, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Nb, Mo and Sn were determined using the ASTM E-322, E-415, E-1009 and E-1085 standard methodologies. The 185A and 187A certified reference materials from CMI (Czech Metrology Institute) were used for evaluation of the methods. The uncertainty of the measurement, precision, accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements were obtained applying statistic tests, recommended by ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of measurement for each element is discussed for both techniques. (author)

  4. Exploring pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) inhibitors: a predictive approach combining comparative validated multiple molecular modelling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sk Abdul; Bhargava, Sonam; Adhikari, Nilanjan; Gayen, Shovanlal; Jha, Tarun

    2018-02-01

    Phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) is a potential target for a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as Schizophrenia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. A number of pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine PDE1 inhibitors were subjected to different molecular modelling techniques [such as regression-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR): multiple linear regression, support vector machine and artificial neural network; classification-based QSAR: Bayesian modelling and Recursive partitioning; Monte Carlo based QSAR; Open3DQSAR; pharmacophore mapping and molecular docking analyses] to get a detailed knowledge about the physicochemical and structural requirements for higher inhibitory activity. The planarity of the pyrimidinone ring plays an important role for PDE1 inhibition. The N-methylated function at the 5th position of the pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine core is required for interacting with the PDE1 enzyme. The cyclopentyl ring fused with the parent scaffold is necessary for PDE1 binding potency. The phenylamino substitution at 3rd position is crucial for PDE1 inhibition. The N2-substitution at the pyrazole moiety is important for PDE1 inhibition compared to the N1-substituted analogues. Moreover, the p-substituted benzyl side chain at N2-position helps to enhance the PDE1 inhibitory profile. Depending on these observations, some new molecules are predicted that may possess better PDE1 inhibition.

  5. Validation of an approach to predict total-tract fiber digestibility using a standardized in vitro technique for different diets fed to high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Ruh, K; Combs, D K

    2015-04-01

    The experimental objective was to validate an in vitro model to predict total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility in dairy cattle. Twenty-one diets from 7 studies conducted at University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for in vitro fiber digestibility. Forages varied among diets (corn, alfalfa, tall and meadow fescue, and wheat straw silages) and nutrient composition (ranges: NDF = 22.5 to 33.8%; crude protein = 15.8 to 18.9%; nonfiber carbohydrates = 38.0 to 51.0%). Total-tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD) observed in in vivo trials was determined using different markers as described in the individual studies. The in vitro TTNDFD model predicted total-tract fiber digestibility from the proportion of total NDF potentially digestible (pdNDF), rate of pdNDF degradation, and rate of passage of pdNDF. The model predicted TTNDFD similar to in vivo measurements. The relationship between TTNDFD measured in vivo and TTNDFD predicted by the in vitro assay was significant (R(2) = 0.68). The relationship between in vitro 30-h NDF digestibility values and in vivo total-tract NDF digestibility values was not significant, whereas in vitro 48-h NDF digestibility values were correlated (R(2) = 0.30) with in vivo TTNDFD measurements. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) showed a negative relationship (R(2) = 0.40) with TTNDFD in vivo. Each 1-percentage-unit increase of iNDF resulted in a decrease of 0.96 percentage units of total-tract NDF digestibility; however, iNDF by itself was not a good predictor of TTNDFD because of the difference among the means. This study showed that an in vitro TTNDFD model that uses iNDF, pdNDF, and rates of pdNDF digestion and passage can predict (R(2) = 0.68) total-tract NDF digestibility. Most importantly, we demonstrated the ability to predict total-tract fiber digestibility from a model based on in vitro NDF degradation, which could improve our ability to optimize forage utilization and milk production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  6. Explicating Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  7. Local recurrence risk after previous salvage mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Iwase, T; Okumura, Y; Yoshida, A; Masuda, N; Nakatsukasa, K; Shien, T; Tanaka, S; Komoike, Y; Taguchi, T; Arima, N; Nishimura, R; Inaji, H; Ishitobi, M

    2016-07-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard treatment for early breast cancer. For ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery, salvage mastectomy is the current standard surgical procedure. However, it is not rare for patients with IBTR who have received salvage mastectomy to develop local recurrence. In this study, we examined the risk factors of local recurrence after salvage mastectomy for IBTR. A total of 118 consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed IBTR without distant metastases and underwent salvage mastectomy without irradiation for IBTR between 1989 and 2008 were included from eight institutions in Japan. The risk factors of local recurrence were assessed. The median follow-up period from salvage mastectomy for IBTR was 4.6 years. Patients with pN2 or higher on diagnosis of the primary tumor showed significantly poorer local recurrence-free survival than those with pN0 or pN1 at primary tumor (p mastectomy for IBTR. Further research and validation studies are needed. (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000008136). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validity and reliability of a field technique for sweat Na+ and K+ analysis during exercise in a hot-humid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Ungaro, Corey T; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; Reimel, Adam J; Stofan, John R

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared a field versus reference laboratory technique for extracting (syringe vs. centrifuge) and analyzing sweat [Na(+)] and [K(+)] (compact Horiba B-722 and B-731, HORIBA vs. ion chromatography, HPLC) collected with regional absorbent patches during exercise in a hot-humid environment. Sweat samples were collected from seven anatomical sites on 30 athletes during 1-h cycling in a heat chamber (33°C, 67% rh). Ten minutes into exercise, skin was cleaned/dried and two sweat patches were applied per anatomical site. After removal, one patch per site was centrifuged and sweat was analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (CENTRIFUGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (CENTRIFUGE HPLC). Sweat from the second patch per site was extracted using a 5-mL syringe and analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (SYRINGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (SYRINGE HPLC). CENTRIFUGE HORIBA, SYRINGE HPLC, and SYRINGE HORIBA were highly related to CENTRIFUGE HPLC ([Na(+)]: ICC = 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively; [K(+)]: ICC = 0.87, 0.92, and 0.84, respectively), while mean differences from CENTRIFUGE HPLC were small but usually significant ([Na(+)]: 4.7 ± 7.9 mEql/L, -2.5 ± 9.3 mEq/L, 4.0 ± 10.9 mEq/L (all P CENTRIFUGE HPLC 95% of the time. The field (SYRINGE HORIBA) method of extracting and analyzing sweat from regional absorbent patches may be useful in obtaining sweat [Na(+)] when rapid estimates in a hot-humid field setting are needed.

  9. Validity and reliability of a field technique for sweat Na+ and K+ analysis during exercise in a hot‐humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Ungaro, Corey T.; Barnes, Kelly A.; Nuccio, Ryan P.; Reimel, Adam J.; Stofan, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared a field versus reference laboratory technique for extracting (syringe vs. centrifuge) and analyzing sweat [Na+] and [K+] (compact Horiba B‐722 and B‐731, HORIBA vs. ion chromatography, HPLC) collected with regional absorbent patches during exercise in a hot‐humid environment. Sweat samples were collected from seven anatomical sites on 30 athletes during 1‐h cycling in a heat chamber (33°C, 67% rh). Ten minutes into exercise, skin was cleaned/dried and two sweat patches were applied per anatomical site. After removal, one patch per site was centrifuged and sweat was analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (CENTRIFUGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (CENTRIFUGE HPLC). Sweat from the second patch per site was extracted using a 5‐mL syringe and analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (SYRINGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (SYRINGE HPLC). CENTRIFUGE HORIBA, SYRINGE HPLC, and SYRINGE HORIBA were highly related to CENTRIFUGE HPLC ([Na+]: ICC = 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively; [K+]: ICC = 0.87, 0.92, and 0.84, respectively), while mean differences from CENTRIFUGE HPLC were small but usually significant ([Na+]: 4.7 ± 7.9 mEql/L, −2.5 ± 9.3 mEq/L, 4.0 ± 10.9 mEq/L (all P CENTRIFUGE HPLC 95% of the time. The field (SYRINGE HORIBA) method of extracting and analyzing sweat from regional absorbent patches may be useful in obtaining sweat [Na+] when rapid estimates in a hot‐humid field setting are needed. PMID:24793982

  10. TH-EF-BRB-10: Dosimetric Validation of a Trajectory Based Cranial SRS Treatment Technique On a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Gete, E [Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work investigates the dosimetric accuracy of a trajectory based delivery technique in which an optimized radiation beam is delivered along a Couch-Gantry trajectory that is formed by simultaneous rotation of the linac gantry and the treatment couch. Methods: Nine trajectory based cranial SRS treatment plans were created using in-house optimization software. The plans were calculated for delivery on the TrueBeam STx linac with 6MV photon beam. Dose optimization was performed along a user-defined trajectory using MLC modulation, dose rate modulation and jaw tracking. The pre-defined trajectory chosen for this study is formed by a couch rotation through its full range of 180 degrees while the gantry makes four partial arc sweeps which are 170 degrees each. For final dose calculation, the trajectory based plans were exported to the Varian Eclipse Treatment Planning System. The plans were calculated on a homogeneous cube phantom measuring 18.2×18.2×18.2 cm3 with the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) using a 1mm3 calculation voxel. The plans were delivered on the TrueBeam linac via the developer’s mode. Point dose measurements were performed on 9 patients with the IBA CC01 mini-chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.01 cc. Gafchromic film measurements along the sagittal and coronal planes were performed on three of the 9 treatment plans. Point dose values were compared with ion chamber measurements. Gamma analysis comparing film measurement and AAA calculations was performed using FilmQA Pro. Results: The AAA calculations and measurements were in good agreement. The point dose difference between AAA and ion chamber measurements were within 2.2%. Gamma analysis test pass rates (2%, 2mm passing criteria) for the Gafchromic film measurements were >95%. Conclusion: We have successfully tested TrueBeam’s ability to deliver accurate trajectory based treatments involving simultaneous gantry and couch rotation with MLC and dose rate modulation along the

  11. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  12. A validation of the application of D2O stable isotope tracer techniques for monitoring day-to-day changes in muscle protein subfraction synthesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Franchi, Martino V.; Brook, Matthew S.; Narici, Marco V.; Williams, John P.; Mitchell, William K.; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Greenhaff, Paul L.; Atherton, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) remains a cornerstone for understanding the control of muscle mass. Traditional [13C]amino acid tracer methodologies necessitate sustained bed rest and intravenous cannulation(s), restricting studies to ∼12 h, and thus cannot holistically inform on diurnal MPS. This limits insight into the regulation of habitual muscle metabolism in health, aging, and disease while querying the utility of tracer techniques to predict the long-term efficacy of anabolic/anticatabolic interventions. We tested the efficacy of the D2O tracer for quantifying MPS over a period not feasible with 13C tracers and too short to quantify changes in mass. Eight men (22 ± 3.5 yr) undertook one-legged resistance exercise over an 8-day period (4 × 8–10 repetitions, 80% 1RM every 2nd day, to yield “nonexercised” vs. “exercise” leg comparisons), with vastus lateralis biopsies taken bilaterally at 0, 2, 4, and 8 days. After day 0 biopsies, participants consumed a D2O bolus (150 ml, 70 atom%); saliva was collected daily. Fractional synthetic rates (FSRs) of myofibrillar (MyoPS), sarcoplasmic (SPS), and collagen (CPS) protein fractions were measured by GC-pyrolysis-IRMS and TC/EA-IRMS. Body water initially enriched at 0.16–0.24 APE decayed at ∼0.009%/day. In the nonexercised leg, MyoPS was 1.45 ± 0.10, 1.47 ± 0.06, and 1.35 ± 0.07%/day at 0–2, 0–4, and 0–8 days, respectively (∼0.05–0.06%/h). MyoPS was greater in the exercised leg (0–2 days: 1.97 ± 0.13%/day; 0–4 days: 1.96 ± 0.15%/day, P < 0.01; 0–8 days: 1.79 ± 0.12%/day, P < 0.05). CPS was slower than MyoPS but followed a similar pattern, with the exercised leg tending to yield greater FSRs (0–2 days: 1.14 ± 0.13 vs. 1.45 ± 0.15%/day; 0–4 days: 1.13 ± 0.07%/day vs. 1.47 ± 0.18%/day; 0–8 days: 1.03 ± 0.09%/day vs. 1.40 ± 0.11%/day). SPS remained unchanged. Therefore, D2O has unrivaled utility to quantify day-to-day MPS in humans and inform on short

  13. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  14. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  15. Measurement of the $\\mathrm{Z}\\gamma^{*} \\to \\tau\\tau$ cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV and validation of $\\tau$ lepton analysis techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Grossmann, Johannes; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Pree, Elias; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Seva, Tomislav; Starling, Elizabeth; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; Caudron, Adrien; David, Pieter; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Yu, Taozhe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Jing; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdalla, Hassan; El-khateeb, Esraa; Khalil, Shaaban; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoffmann, Malte; Karavdina, Anastasia; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pauwels, Kristof; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Alexakhin, Vadim; Golunov, Alexander; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbounov, Nikolai; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Markin, Oleg; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Blinov, Vladimir; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Curras, Esteban; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Verweij, Marta; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Reichmann, Michael; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Elwood, Adam; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Matsushita, Takashi; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Pazzini, Jacopo; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Weimin; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Santra, Arka; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Royon, Christophe; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Hiltbrand, Joshua; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Ciesielski, Robert; Goulianos, Konstantin; Mesropian, Christina; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the $\\mathrm{Z}/\\gamma^{*} \\to \\tau\\tau$ cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV, using data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3 fb$^{-1}$. The product of the inclusive cross section and branching fraction is measured to be $\\sigma(\\mathrm{pp} \\to \\mathrm{Z}/\\gamma^{*}\\text{+X}) \\, \\mathcal{B}(\\mathrm{Z}/\\gamma^{*} \\to \\tau\\tau) = $ 1848 $\\pm$ 12 (stat) $\\pm$ 67 (syst+lumi) pb, in agreement with the standard model expectation, computed at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The measurement is used to validate new analysis techniques relevant for future measurements of $\\tau$ lepton production. The measurement also provides the reconstruction efficiency and energy scale for $\\tau$ decays to hadrons+$\

  16. Isotope-aided studies of the bioavailability of iron from diets and fortified foods to be used in iron fortifications programmes in Chile and Ecuador: Validation of in vitro techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertrampf, E.; Pizarro, F.; Olivares, M.; Walter, T.; Fuenmayor, G.; Estevez, E.; Yepez, R.

    1992-01-01

    In selected typical Ecuatorian foods to be used in nutritional intervention programmes, we measured iron bioavailability in humans, with a double isotopic method. The interaction with some accompanied foods or beverages was also studied. Iron bioavailability from wheat flour foods was good (9%). When vermicelli soup was eaten together with lemonade sweetened with raw sugar cane, mean iron absorption was the highest (15%). Camomile infusion do not affect iron absorption from bread. At the same time, we will validate an in vitro iron availability technique comparing it with the results obtained in other laboratories involved in the present CRP and with the results obtained in the same foods with in vivo double isotopic. We will also start studies of in vitro zinc availability. (author). 26 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Measurement of the $\\mathrm{Z}\\gamma^{*} \\to \\tau\\tau$ cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV and validation of $\\tau$ lepton analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2018-01-10

    A measurement is presented of the $\\mathrm{Z}/\\gamma^{*} \\to \\tau\\tau$ cross section in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV, using data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3 fb$^{-1}$. The product of the inclusive cross section and branching fraction is measured to be $\\sigma(\\mathrm{pp} \\to \\mathrm{Z}/\\gamma^{*}\\text{+X}) \\, \\mathcal{B}(\\mathrm{Z}/\\gamma^{*} \\to \\tau\\tau) = $ 1848 $\\pm$ 12 (stat) $\\pm$ 67 (syst+lumi) pb, in agreement with the standard model expectation, computed at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The measurement is used to validate new analysis techniques relevant for future measurements of $\\tau$ lepton production. The measurement also provides the reconstruction efficiency and energy scale for $\\tau$ decays to hadrons+$\

  18. Body composition validation technique using anthropometrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal bodyweights of the participantsweremeasured inlying positionsusing anadaptation of theGuthri Smith apparatus frame towhich a firmstretcher and two spring balances were attached on a horizontal level position. The heights of the subjects were also taken on supine lying on a firm plinth. The body weight and ...

  19. Magnetoencephalographic localization of peritumoral temporal epileptic focus previous surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Carlos; Saldaña, Cristóbal; Hidalgo, Mercedes González; Maestú, Fernando; Fernández, Alberto; Arrazola, Juan; Ortiz, Tomás

    2003-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is suggested as a localizing technique of epileptogenic areas in drug-resistant seizure patients due to intracraneal lesions. A male 42-year-old patient who begins at 26 with partial complex drug-resistant seizures is put forward. MRI shows a 9 mm diameter lesion located in left superior temporal gyrus which seems compatible with cavernoma. Both conventional and sleep deprivation EEGs have proved normal. Sleep EEG shows sharp waves in left temporal region. MEG helps to localize interictal spike and spike-wave activity, as well as wide slow wave (2-7 Hz) activity areas. Craniotomy under analgesia and aware sedation conditions is carried out. Intrasurgery cortical electric stimulation assisted by neuronavigator causes a limited partial complex seizure which the patient recognizes to be exactly like his. Thus, MEG localization of the epileptogenic area is confirmed. Surgical resection of both the lesion and the epileptogenic area is carried out. The patient remains free from seizures 9 months after surgery. A control MEG study reveals no epileptogenic nor slow wave activity. in this particular case, MEG has proven to be a useful presurgical evaluation technique to localize epileptogenic activity, validated by intrasurgical cortical stimulation.

  20. FACTAR validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.B.; Wadsworth, S.L.; Rock, R.C.; Sills, H.E.; Langman, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed strategy to validate fuel channel thermal mechanical behaviour codes for use of current power reactor safety analysis is presented. The strategy is derived from a validation process that has been recently adopted industry wide. Focus of the discussion is on the validation plan for a code, FACTAR, for application in assessing fuel channel integrity safety concerns during a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). (author)

  1. Examination of irradiated fuel elements using gamma scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichim, O.; Mincu, M.; Man, I.; Stanica, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to validate the gamma scanning technique used to calculate the activity of gamma fission products from CANDU/TRIGA irradiated fuel elements. After a short presentation of the equipments used and their characteristics, the paper describes the calibration technique for the devices and how computed tomography reconstruction is done. Following the previously mentioned steps is possible to obtain the axial and radial profiles and the computed tomography reconstruction for calibration sources and for the irradiated fuel elements. The results are used to validate the gamma scanning techniques as a non-destructive examination method. The gamma scanning techniques will be used to: identify the fission products in the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements, construct the axial and radial distributions of fission products, get the distribution in cross section through computed tomography reconstruction, and determine the nuclei number and the fission products activity of the irradiated CANDU/TRIGA fuel elements. (authors)

  2. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  3. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. Copyright © 2012

  4. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  5. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  6. Validation philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vornehm, D.

    1994-01-01

    To determine when a set of calculations falls within an umbrella of an existing validation documentation, it is necessary to generate a quantitative definition of range of applicability (our definition is only qualitative) for two reasons: (1) the current trend in our regulatory environment will soon make it impossible to support the legitimacy of a validation without quantitative guidelines; and (2) in my opinion, the lack of support by DOE for further critical experiment work is directly tied to our inability to draw a quantitative open-quotes line-in-the-sandclose quotes beyond which we will not use computer-generated values

  7. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  8. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  9. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  10. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  11. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R.; Amaral, P.; Zêzere, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Goulart, C.

    2009-04-01

    purposes, the landslides were randomly divided in two sub-datasets: a modelling dataset with 748 events (2,2% of the study area) and a validation dataset with 747 events (2,3% of the study area). The susceptibility algorithms achieved with the different probabilistic techniques, were rated individually using success rate and prediction rate curves. The best model performance was obtained with the logistic regression, although the results from the different methods do not show significant differences neither in success nor in prediction rate curves. These evidences revealed that: (1) the modelling landslide dataset is representative of the entire landslide population characteristics; and (2) the increase of complexity and robustness in the probabilistic methodology did not produce a significant increase in success or prediction rates. Therefore, it was concluded that the resolution and quality of the input variables are much more important than the probabilistic model chosen to assess landslide susceptibility. This work was developed on the behalf of VOLCSOILRISK project (Volcanic Soils Geotechnical Characterization for Landslide Risk Mitigation), supported by Direcção Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia - Governo Regional dos Açores.

  13. Co-ordinated research project on validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution, analyzed by nuclear and related techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Environmental pollution is a cause of ever increasing concern in the world. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, Brazil, 1992) reaffirmed the importance of protecting the environment within the context of sustainable development. Arising out of this conference, the Rio Agenda 21 declaration called for a number of nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance and co-ordination under 'Capacity 21', concerning environmental monitoring and assessment, including the use of biological markers. Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for assessing the levels of air pollution. In several developed countries biomonitoring is used on a regular basis for such surveys. Application of biomonitors has several advantages compared to the use of direct measurements of contaminants, related primarily to the permanent and common occurrence in the field, the ease of sampling and trace element accumulation. Furthermore, biomonitors provide a measure of integrated exposure over an extended period of time, are present in remote areas and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Suitably chosen biomonitors accumulate contaminants over certain periods of time, concentrate them, thus allowing more reliable analytical measurements. Simple and cheap sampling procedures (in contrast to direct measurements) allow a very large number of sites to be included in the same survey, permitting detailed geographical patterns to be drawn. In combination with the specimen banking (long-term storage) of selected samples, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. By application of appropriate statistical tools, information can also be obtained on the type and location of pollution sources as well as on the short, medium and long range trans-boundary transport of environmental pollutants. In Europe, nuclear and related analytical techniques have been shown to be

  14. Co-ordinated research project on validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution, analyzed by nuclear and related techniques. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a cause of ever increasing concern in the world. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, Brazil, 1992) reaffirmed the importance of protecting the environment within the context of sustainable development. Arising out of this conference, the Rio Agenda 21 declaration called for a number of nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance and co-ordination under 'Capacity 21', concerning environmental monitoring and assessment, including the use of biological markers. Biomonitoring is an appropriate tool for assessing the levels of air pollution. In several developed countries biomonitoring is used on a regular basis for such surveys. Application of biomonitors has several advantages compared to the use of direct measurements of contaminants, related primarily to the permanent and common occurrence in the field, the ease of sampling and trace element accumulation. Furthermore, biomonitors provide a measure of integrated exposure over an extended period of time, are present in remote areas and no expensive technical equipment is involved in collecting them. Suitably chosen biomonitors accumulate contaminants over certain periods of time, concentrate them, thus allowing more reliable analytical measurements. Simple and cheap sampling procedures (in contrast to direct measurements) allow a very large number of sites to be included in the same survey, permitting detailed geographical patterns to be drawn. In combination with the specimen banking (long-term storage) of selected samples, biomonitoring can be an effective tool for pollutant mapping and trend monitoring by real time and retrospective analysis. By application of appropriate statistical tools, information can also be obtained on the type and location of pollution sources as well as on the short, medium and long range trans-boundary transport of environmental pollutants. In Europe, nuclear and related analytical techniques have been shown to be

  15. A website evaluation model by integration of previous evaluation models using a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the ecommerce growth, websites play an essential role in business success. Therefore, many authors have offered website evaluation models since 1995. Although, the multiplicity and diversity of evaluation models make it difficult to integrate them into a single comprehensive model. In this paper a quantitative method has been used to integrate previous models into a comprehensive model that is compatible with them. In this approach the researcher judgment has no role in integration of models and the new model takes its validity from 93 previous models and systematic quantitative approach.

  16. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  17. Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Quantification of Acetone and Isopropyl Alcohol in the Tartaric Acid Base Pellets of Dipyridamole Modified Release Capsules by Using Headspace Gas Chromatographic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Valavala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, accurate, robust headspace gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone and isopropyl alcohol in tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules. The residual solvents acetone and isopropyl alcohol were used in the manufacturing process of the tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules by considering the solubility of the dipyridamole and excipients in the different manufacturing stages. The method was developed and optimized by using fused silica DB-624 (30 m × 0.32 mm × 1.8 µm column with the flame ionization detector. The method validation was carried out with regard to the guidelines for validation of analytical procedures Q2 demanded by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH. All the validation characteristics were meeting the acceptance criteria. Hence, the developed and validated method can be applied for the intended routine analysis.

  18. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  19. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  20. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  1. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  2. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  3. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  4. Convergent validity test, construct validity test and external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maldavsky

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The author first exposes a complement of a previous test about convergent validity, then a construct validity test and finally an external validity test of the David Liberman algorithm.  The first part of the paper focused on a complementary aspect, the differential sensitivity of the DLA 1 in an external comparison (to other methods, and 2 in an internal comparison (between two ways of using the same method, the DLA.  The construct validity test exposes the concepts underlined to DLA, their operationalization and some corrections emerging from several empirical studies we carried out.  The external validity test examines the possibility of using the investigation of a single case and its relation with the investigation of a more extended sample.

  5. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  6. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  7. Successive Research: A Strategy for Building on Previous Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Mary Anne

    1979-01-01

    Describes an approach to clinical research used by the author in teaching graduate nursing students, involving replication and expansion of a primary study of hospital intensive care units. This approach provided valuable experience as well as validated data about clinical practice. Discusses advantages and disadvantages in the approach. (MF)

  8. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  9. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  10. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  11. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  12. Validation of Multilevel Constructs: Validation Methods and Empirical Findings for the EDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forer, Barry; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to highlight the foundations of multilevel construct validation, describe two methodological approaches and associated analytic techniques, and then apply these approaches and techniques to the multilevel construct validation of a widely-used school readiness measure called the Early Development Instrument (EDI;…

  13. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  14. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  15. Validating a UAV artificial intelligence control system using an autonomous test case generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

    2013-05-01

    The validation of safety-critical applications, such as autonomous UAV operations in an environment which may include human actors, is an ill posed problem. To confidence in the autonomous control technology, numerous scenarios must be considered. This paper expands upon previous work, related to autonomous testing of robotic control algorithms in a two dimensional plane, to evaluate the suitability of similar techniques for validating artificial intelligence control in three dimensions, where a minimum level of airspeed must be maintained. The results of human-conducted testing are compared to this automated testing, in terms of error detection, speed and testing cost.

  16. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  17. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  18. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River estuary. Volume III. An analysis of the validity of the utilities' stock-recruitment curve-fitting exercise and prior estimation of beta technique. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1792

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.; Kirk, B.L.

    1982-03-01

    This report addresses the validity of the utilities' use of the Ricker stock-recruitment model to extrapolate the combined entrainment-impingement losses of young fish to reductions in the equilibrium population size of adult fish. In our testimony, a methodology was developed and applied to address a single fundamental question: if the Ricker model really did apply to the Hudson River striped bass population, could the utilities' estimates, based on curve-fitting, of the parameter alpha (which controls the impact) be considered reliable. In addition, an analysis is included of the efficacy of an alternative means of estimating alpha, termed the technique of prior estimation of beta (used by the utilities in a report prepared for regulatory hearings on the Cornwall Pumped Storage Project). This validation methodology should also be useful in evaluating inferences drawn in the literature from fits of stock-recruitment models to data obtained from other fish stocks

  19. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  20. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  1. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  2. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...... to contextual validities involving yesterday, today and tomorrow as well....

  3. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  4. Upon Further Review: V. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Updated results are given for nine asteroids previously reported from the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO). The original images were re-measured to obtain new data sets using the latest version of MPO Canopus photometry software, analysis tools, and revised techniques for linking multiple observing runs covering several days to several weeks. Results that were previously not reported or were moderately different were found for 1659 Punkajarju, 1719 Jens, 1987 Kaplan, 2105 Gudy, 2961 Katsurahama, 3285 Ruth Wolfe, 3447 Burckhalter, 7816 Hanoi, and (34817) 2000 SE116. This is one in a series of papers that will examine results obtained during the initial years of the asteroid lightcurve program at PDO.

  5. Prevalent musculoskeletal pain as a correlate of previous exposure to torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorte Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bojholm, S

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To research possible associations between previous exposure to specific torture techniques and prevalent pain in the head and face, back, and feet. METHODS: 221 refugees, 193 males and 28 females, previously exposed to torture in their home country, were subject to a clinical interview...... was general abuse of the whole body (OR 5.64, 95% CI 1.93-16.45). CONCLUSION: In spite of many factors being potentially co-responsible for prevalent pain, years after the torture took place it presents itself as strongly associated with specific loci of pain, with generalized effects, and with somatizing....

  6. Validation of methodologies for the analysis of lead and methyl-ether in gasoline, using the techniques of atomic emission with plasma source coupled inductively and micellar liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Escalante, M.

    1995-01-01

    This study established and optimized the experimental variables for the lead quantization through the Icp-Aes technique, in aqueous media. A comparative study of several proposal methods, that appears in the literature for the extraction in aqueous media of the lead in gasoline was made. It determined that it is not possible, to make this procedure using the reaction of hydrolysis of tetraethyl lead. The op tim conditions were established, for the lead quantization in gasoline, using methyl-isobutyl-ketone and also ethanol as dis solvents. The conditions of the proposed methodologies were optimized, and the variables of analytical performance were defined. It was demonstrated, that it is possible to prepare lead dissolution patterns, in organic media, starting from inorganic salts of this metal. The techniques of chromatography of gases and of liquid chromatography of high pressure, in the analysis of methyl-ter butyl-ether (Mtbe), were compared. It demonstrated that it is possible, to quantize the Mtbe through the HPLC technique, and it found that the 'micellar' liquid chromatography. (author) [es

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  8. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  10. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  11. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  12. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  13. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  14. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  15. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted material. 154.302 Section 154.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... concurrently with the rate change filing. There must be furnished to the Director, Office of Energy Market...

  16. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  17. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  18. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  19. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  20. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  1. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  2. Validation for chromatographic and electrophoretic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ribani, Marcelo; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan; Collins, Carol H.; Jardim, Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes; Melo, Lúcio Flávio Costa

    2004-01-01

    The validation of an analytical method is fundamental to implementing a quality control system in any analytical laboratory. As the separation techniques, GC, HPLC and CE, are often the principal tools used in such determinations, procedure validation is a necessity. The objective of this review is to describe the main aspects of validation in chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis, showing, in a general way, the similarities and differences between the guidelines established by the dif...

  3. Do emotional intelligence and previous caring experience influence student nurse performance? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; Carver, Fiona; Carver, Hannah; Brown, Norrie

    2016-08-01

    Reports of poor nursing care have focused attention on values based selection of candidates onto nursing programmes. Values based selection lacks clarity and valid measures. Previous caring experience might lead to better care. Emotional intelligence (EI) might be associated with performance, is conceptualised and measurable. To examine the impact of 1) previous caring experience, 2) emotional intelligence 3) social connection scores on performance and retention in a cohort of first year nursing and midwifery students in Scotland. A longitudinal, quasi experimental design. Adult and mental health nursing, and midwifery programmes in a Scottish University. Adult, mental health and midwifery students (n=598) completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short form and Schutte's Emotional Intelligence Scale on entry to their programmes at a Scottish University, alongside demographic and previous caring experience data. Social connection was calculated from a subset of questions identified within the TEIQue-SF in a prior factor and Rasch analysis. Student performance was calculated as the mean mark across the year. Withdrawal data were gathered. 598 students completed baseline measures. 315 students declared previous caring experience, 277 not. An independent-samples t-test identified that those without previous caring experience scored higher on performance (57.33±11.38) than those with previous caring experience (54.87±11.19), a statistically significant difference of 2.47 (95% CI, 0.54 to 4.38), t(533)=2.52, p=.012. Emotional intelligence scores were not associated with performance. Social connection scores for those withdrawing (mean rank=249) and those remaining (mean rank=304.75) were statistically significantly different, U=15,300, z=-2.61, p$_amp_$lt;0.009. Previous caring experience led to worse performance in this cohort. Emotional intelligence was not a useful indicator of performance. Lower scores on the social connection factor were associated

  4. Verification and validation for waste disposal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    A set of evaluation criteria has been developed to assess the suitability of current verification and validation techniques for waste disposal methods. A survey of current practices and techniques was undertaken and evaluated using these criteria with the items most relevant to waste disposal models being identified. Recommendations regarding the most suitable verification and validation practices for nuclear waste disposal modelling software have been made

  5. Linear Unlearning for Cross-Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The leave-one-out cross-validation scheme for generalization assessment of neural network models is computationally expensive due to replicated training sessions. In this paper we suggest linear unlearning of examples as an approach to approximative cross-validation. Further, we discuss...... time series prediction benchmark demonstrate the potential of the linear unlearning technique...

  6. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  7. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed.

  8. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  9. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  10. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  11. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  12. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Individual Differences in Response to Stress in a Previously Validated Animal Model of PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Kaplan & Kotler , 1999; Cohen & Zohar, 2004; Cohen, Zohar and Matar, 2003; Cohen et al., 2005; Cohen et al. 2004), the proportion of...behavior in rats following chronic treatment with imipramine. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 110(1-2), 245-253. Cohen, H., Friedberg, S., Michael, M., Kotler ...Kaplan, Z., & Kotler , M. (1999). CCK-antagonists in a rat exposed to acute stress: implication for anxiety associated with post-traumatic stress disorder

  14. The validity and reliability of iridology in the diagnosis of previous acute appendicitis as evi-denced by appendectomy

    OpenAIRE

    L. Frank; J.T. Ferreira; J. Pellow

    2013-01-01

    Iridology is defined as a photographic science that identifies pathological and functional changes within organs via biomicroscopic iris assessment for aberrant lines, spots, and discolourations. According to iridology, the iris does not reflect changes  during  anaesthesia,  due  to  the  drugs inhibitory  effects  on  nerves  impulses,  and  in cases of organ removal, it reflects the pre-surgical condition.The profession of Homoeopathy is frequently associated with iridology and in a recent...

  15. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  16. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  17. Co-ordinated research project on validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution, analysed by nuclear and related techniques. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Environmental pollution is a cause of ever increasing concern in the world. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, Brazil, 1992) reaffirmed the importance of protecting the environment within the context of sustainable development. Arising out of this conference, the Rio Agenda 21 declaration called for a number of nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance and co-ordination under 'Capacity 21', concerning environmental monitoring and assessment, including the use of biological markers. Environmental protection and control is a matter of high priority in all developing countries' governmental policies in view of its implications for the welfare of the present and future populations. Therefore it is expected that regional and national organisations responsible for legislation and environmental policy, municipal organisations, which could use the data collected for establishing emission levels, organisations responsible for pollutant emission control and public health-related institutions will benefit from this proposed Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The CRP is expected to exploit possibilities of developing and validating tools for using appropriate biomonitors to map the distribution of air pollution over wide areas in developing countries. If successful, this would be a powerful way for developing countries to monitor air pollution.

  18. Co-ordinated research project on validation and application of plants as biomonitors of trace element atmospheric pollution, analysed by nuclear and related techniques. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a cause of ever increasing concern in the world. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio, Brazil, 1992) reaffirmed the importance of protecting the environment within the context of sustainable development. Arising out of this conference, the Rio Agenda 21 declaration called for a number of nationally determined action programmes, with international assistance and co-ordination under 'Capacity 21', concerning environmental monitoring and assessment, including the use of biological markers. Environmental protection and control is a matter of high priority in all developing countries' governmental policies in view of its implications for the welfare of the present and future populations. Therefore it is expected that regional and national organisations responsible for legislation and environmental policy, municipal organisations, which could use the data collected for establishing emission levels, organisations responsible for pollutant emission control and public health-related institutions will benefit from this proposed Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The CRP is expected to exploit possibilities of developing and validating tools for using appropriate biomonitors to map the distribution of air pollution over wide areas in developing countries. If successful, this would be a powerful way for developing countries to monitor air pollution

  19. No. 155-Guidelines for Vaginal Birth After Previous Caesarean Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Marie-Jocelyne; MacKinnon, Catherine Jane

    2018-03-01

    To provide evidence-based guidelines for the provision of a trial of labour (TOL) after Caesarean section. Fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) and repeat Caesarean section. MEDLINE database was searched for articles published from January 1, 1995, to February 28, 2004, using the key words "vaginal birth after Caesarean (Cesarean) section." The quality of evidence is described using the Evaluation of Evidence criteria outlined in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. VALIDATION: These guidelines were approved by the Clinical Practice Obstetrics and Executive Committees of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Fontan Surgical Planning: Previous Accomplishments, Current Challenges, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusty, Phillip M; Slesnick, Timothy C; Wei, Zhenglun Alan; Rossignac, Jarek; Kanter, Kirk R; Fogel, Mark A; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2018-04-01

    The ultimate goal of Fontan surgical planning is to provide additional insights into the clinical decision-making process. In its current state, surgical planning offers an accurate hemodynamic assessment of the pre-operative condition, provides anatomical constraints for potential surgical options, and produces decent post-operative predictions if boundary conditions are similar enough between the pre-operative and post-operative states. Moving forward, validation with post-operative data is a necessary step in order to assess the accuracy of surgical planning and determine which methodological improvements are needed. Future efforts to automate the surgical planning process will reduce the individual expertise needed and encourage use in the clinic by clinicians. As post-operative physiologic predictions improve, Fontan surgical planning will become an more effective tool to accurately model patient-specific hemodynamics.

  1. Development and Experimental Validation of Large Eddy Simulation Techniques for the Prediction of Combustion-Dynamic Process in Syngas Combustion: Characterization of Autoignition, Flashback, and Flame-Liftoff at Gas-Turbine Relevant Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihme, Matthias [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Driscoll, James [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-31

    The objective of this closely coordinated experimental and computational research effort is the development of simulation techniques for the prediction of combustion processes, relevant to the oxidation of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) fuels at gas-turbine relevant operating conditions. Specifically, the research goals are (i) the characterization of the sensitivity of syngas ignition processes to hydrodynamic processes and perturbations in temperature and mixture composition in rapid compression machines and ow-reactors and (ii) to conduct comprehensive experimental investigations in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine (GT) combustor under realistic high-pressure operating conditions in order (iii) to obtain fundamental understanding about mechanisms controlling unstable flame regimes in HHC-combustion.

  2. Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-09-01

    A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  3. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  4. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  5. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  6. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  7. [ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neykova, K; Dimitrova, V; Dimitrov, R; Vakrilova, L

    2016-01-01

    To analyze pregnancy outcome in patients who were on antithrombotic medication (AM) because of previous pregnancy with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The studied group (SG) included 21 pregnancies in 15 women with history of previous IUGR. The patients were on low dose aspirin (LDA) and/or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Pregnancy outcome was compared to the one in two more groups: 1) primary group (PG) including the previous 15 pregnancies with IUGR of the same women; 2) control group (CG) including 45 pregnancies of women matched for parity with the ones in the SG, with no history of IUGR and without medication. The SG, PG and CG were compared for the following: mean gestational age (g.a.) at birth, mean birth weight (BW), proportion of cases with early preeclampsia (PE), IUGR (total, moderate, and severe), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), neonatal death (NND), admission to NICU, cesarean section (CS) because of chronic or acute fetal distress (FD) related to IUGR, PE or placental abruption. Student's t-test was applied to assess differences between the groups. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The differences between the SG and the PG regarding mean g. a. at delivery (33.7 and 29.8 w.g. respectively) and the proportion of babies admitted to NICU (66.7% vs. 71.4%) were not statistically significant. The mean BW in the SG (2114,7 g.) was significantly higher than in the PG (1090.8 g.). In the SG compared with the PG there were significantly less cases of IUFD (14.3% and 53.3% respectively), early PE (9.5% vs. 46.7%) moderate and severe IUGR (10.5% and 36.8% vs. 41.7% and 58.3%). Neonatal mortality in the SG (5.6%) was significantly lower than in the PG (57.1%), The proportion of CS for FD was not significantly different--53.3% in the SG and 57.1% in the PG. On the other hand, comparison between the SG and the CG demonstrated significantly lower g.a. at delivery in the SG (33.7 vs. 38 w.g.) an lower BW (2114 vs. 3094 g

  8. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  9. Validation of GC-IRMS techniques for δ13C and δ2H CSIA of organophosphorus compounds and their potential for studying the mode of hydrolysis in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Kümmel, Steffen; Richnow, Hans H

    2017-04-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is among the most promising tools for studying the fate of organic pollutants in the environment. However, the feasibility of multidimensional CSIA was limited by the availability of a robust method for precise isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing organic compounds. We developed a method for δ 13 C and δ 2 H analysis of eight organophosphorus compounds (OPs) with different chemical properties. In particular, we aimed to compare high-temperature conversion (HTC) and chromium-based HTC (Cr/HTC) units to explore the limitations of hydrogen isotope analysis of heteroatom-bearing compounds. Analysis of the amount dependency of the isotope values (linearity analysis) of OPs indicated that the formation of HCl was a significant isotope fractionation process leading to inaccurate δ 2 H analysis in HTC. In the case of nonchlorinated OPs, by-product formation of HCN, H 2 S, or PH 3 in HTC was observed but did not affect the dynamic range of reproducible isotope values above the limit of detection. No hydrogen-containing by-products were found in the Cr/HTC process by use of ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. The accuracy of gas chromatography - isotope ratio mass spectrometry was validated in comparison with elemental analyzer - isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Dual-isotope fractionation yielded Λ values of 0 ± 0 at pH 7, 7 ± 1 at pH 9, and 30 ± 6 at pH 12, indicating the potential of 2D CSIA to characterize the hydrolysis mechanisms of OPs. This is the first report on the combination of δ 2 H and δ 13 C isotope analysis of OPs, and this is the first study providing a systematic evaluation of HTC and Cr/HTC for hydrogen isotope analysis using OPs as target compounds. Graphical Abstract Comparison of δ 2 H measurement of non-chlorinated and chlorinated OPs via GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS and GC-HTC-IRMS system.

  10. Machine learning techniques for gait biometric recognition using the ground reaction force

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, James Eric; Woungang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how machine learning techniques can be used to analyze and make use of one particular category of behavioral biometrics known as the gait biometric. A comprehensive Ground Reaction Force (GRF)-based Gait Biometrics Recognition framework is proposed and validated by experiments. In addition, an in-depth analysis of existing recognition techniques that are best suited for performing footstep GRF-based person recognition is also proposed, as well as a comparison of feature extractors, normalizers, and classifiers configurations that were never directly compared with one another in any previous GRF recognition research. Finally, a detailed theoretical overview of many existing machine learning techniques is presented, leading to a proposal of two novel data processing techniques developed specifically for the purpose of gait biometric recognition using GRF. This book · introduces novel machine-learning-based temporal normalization techniques · bridges research gaps concerning the effect of ...

  11. A comparison of morbidity associated with placenta previa with and without previous caesarean sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baqai, S.; Siraj, A.; Noor, N.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the morbidity associated with placenta previa with and without previous caesarean sections. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: From March 2014 till March 2016 in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at PNS Shifa hospital Karachi. Material and Methods: After the approval from hospital ethical committee, antenatal patients with singleton pregnancy of gestational age >32 weeks, in the age group of 20-40 years diagnosed to have placenta previa included in the study. All patients with twin pregnancy less than 20 years and more than 40 years of age were excluded. The records of all patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Data had been collected for demographic and maternal variables, placenta previa, history of previous lower segment caesarean section (LSCS), complications associated with placenta previa and techniques used to control blood loss were recorded. Results: During the study period, 6879 patients were delivered in PNS Shifa, out of these, 2060 (29.9%) had caesarean section out of these, 47.3% patients had previous history of LSCS. Thirty three (1.6%) patients were diagnosed to have placenta previa and frequency of placenta previa was significantly higher in patients with previous history of LSCS than previous normal delivery of LSCS i.e. 22 vs. 11 (p=0.023). It was observed that the frequency of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) and Intensive care unit (ICU) stay were significantly higher in patients with previous history of LSCS than previous history of normal delivery. Conclusion: Frequency of placenta previa was significantly higher in patients with history of LSCS. Also placenta previa remains a major risk factor for various maternal complications. (author)

  12. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  13. Corneal perforation after conductive keratoplasty with previous refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Titze, Patrik; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-12-01

    A 56-year-old woman had conductive keratoplasty (CK) for residual hyperopia and astigmatism. Three years before the procedure, the patient had arcuate keratotomy, followed by laser in situ keratomileusis 2 years later for high astigmatism correction in both eyes. During CK, a corneal perforation occurred in the right eye; during the postoperative examination, an iris perforation and anterior subcapsule opacification were seen beneath the perforation site. The perforation was managed with a bandage contact lens and an antibiotic-steroid ointment; it had a negative Seidel sign by the third day. The surgery in the left eye was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 and the best corrected visual acuity 20/20 in both eyes with a significant improvement in corneal topography. Care must be taken to prevent CK-treated spots from coinciding with areas in the corneal stroma that might have been altered by previous refractive procedures.

  14. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  15. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones affect every cell in the human body, and the cardiovascular changes associated with increased levels of thyroid hormones are especially well described. As an example, short-term hyperthyroidism has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart, leading to a hyperdynamic...... with CVD, LD and DM both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Although the design used does not allow a stringent distinction between cause and effect, the findings indicate a possible direct association between hyperthyroidism and these morbidities, or vice versa....... vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions...

  16. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  17. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  18. Urethrotomy has a much lower success rate than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Richard; Eisenberg, Lauren

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for simple male urethral strictures. A retrospective chart review was performed on 136 patients who underwent urethrotomy from January 1994 through March 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth and fifth urethrotomy. Patients with complex strictures (36) were excluded from the study for reasons including previous urethroplasty, neophallus or previous radiation, and 24 patients were lost to followup. Data were available for 76 patients. The stricture-free rate after the first urethrotomy was 8% with a median time to recurrence of 7 months. For the second urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 6% with a median time to recurrence of 9 months. For the third urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 9% with a median time to recurrence of 3 months. For procedures 4 and 5 stricture-free rate was 0% with a median time to recurrence of 20 and 8 months, respectively. Urethrotomy is a popular treatment for male urethral strictures. However, the performance characteristics are poor. Success rates were no higher than 9% in this series for first or subsequent urethrotomy during the observation period. Most of the patients in this series will be expected to experience failure with longer followup and the expected long-term success rate from any (1 through 5) urethrotomy approach is 0%. Urethrotomy should be considered a temporizing measure until definitive curative reconstruction can be planned. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Bentall operation after previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballore, Luca; Tramontin, Corrado; Manca, Paolo; Tocco, Stefania; Lixi, Giovanni; Matta, Gildo; Cirio, Emiliano Maria; Martelli, Valentino

    2007-04-01

    Pathologies that involve the ascending aorta are described in case reports of patients after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Here, we present a case report. Preoperative tests showed an aortic ratio of > 1.5. The patient was operated on replacement of the ascending aorta according to the Bentall technique. At present, the guidelines for replacement of the ascending aorta recommend an aortic ratio of > 1.5 and in case of Marfan syndrome of > 1.3. In these patient subsets, cystic medial necrosis and an increased risk of aortic dissection have been described. Therefore, as for Marfan syndrome, why an aortic ratio of >1.3 should not be considered a proper surgical indication also for these patients?

  20. Comparison of a web-based food record tool and a food-frequency questionnaire and objective validation using the doubly labelled water technique in a Swedish middle-aged population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybacka, Sanna; Bertéus Forslund, Heléne; Wirfält, Elisabet; Larsson, Ingrid; Ericson, Ulrika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Bergström, Göran; Hedblad, Bo; Winkvist, Anna; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2016-01-01

    Two web-based dietary assessment tools have been developed for use in large-scale studies: the Riksmaten method (4-d food record) and MiniMeal-Q (food-frequency method). The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of these methods to capture energy intake against objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labelled water technique (TEE DLW ), and to compare reported energy and macronutrient intake. This study was conducted within the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), which included 1111 randomly selected men and women aged 50-64 years from the Gothenburg general population. Of these, 200 were enrolled in the SCAPIS diet substudy. TEE DLW was measured in a subsample ( n 40). Compared with TEE DLW , both methods underestimated energy intake: -2·5 (sd  2·9) MJ with the Riksmaten method; -2·3 (sd 3·6) MJ with MiniMeal-Q. Mean reporting accuracy was 80 and 82 %, respectively. The correlation between reported energy intake and TEE DLW was r 0·4 for the Riksmaten method ( P  < 0·05) and r 0·28 (non-significant) for MiniMeal-Q. Women reported similar average intake of energy and macronutrients in both methods whereas men reported higher intakes with the Riksmaten method. Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0·14 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0·77 (alcohol). Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable agreement for energy and energy-adjusted protein and carbohydrate intake, whereas the agreement for fat intake was poorer. According to energy intake data, both methods displayed similar precision on energy intake reporting. However, MiniMeal-Q was less successful in ranking individuals than the Riksmaten method. The development of methods to achieve limited under-reporting is a major challenge for future research.

  1. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Robyn; Chakraborty, Santam; Nygren, Ian; Sinha, Richie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ≥3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ≥3 acute toxicity

  2. Multiple inflammatory biomarker detection in a prospective cohort study: a cross-validation between well-established single-biomarker techniques and an electrochemiluminescense-based multi-array platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas C T van Bussel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In terms of time, effort and quality, multiplex technology is an attractive alternative for well-established single-biomarker measurements in clinical studies. However, limited data comparing these methods are available. METHODS: We measured, in a large ongoing cohort study (n = 574, by means of both a 4-plex multi-array biomarker assay developed by MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD and single-biomarker techniques (ELISA or immunoturbidimetric assay, the following biomarkers of low-grade inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1. These measures were realigned by weighted Deming regression and compared across a wide spectrum of subjects' cardiovascular risk factors by ANOVA. RESULTS: Despite that both methods ranked individuals' levels of biomarkers very similarly (Pearson's r all≥0.755 absolute concentrations of all biomarkers differed significantly between methods. Equations retrieved by the Deming regression enabled proper realignment of the data to overcome these differences, such that intra-class correlation coefficients were then 0.996 (CRP, 0.711 (SAA, 0.895 (sICAM-1 and 0.858 (sVCAM-1. Additionally, individual biomarkers differed across categories of glucose metabolism, weight, metabolic syndrome and smoking status to a similar extent by either method. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple low-grade inflammatory biomarker data obtained by the 4-plex multi-array platform of MSD or by well-established single-biomarker methods are comparable after proper realignment of differences in absolute concentrations, and are equally associated with cardiovascular risk factors, regardless of such differences. Given its greater efficiency, the MSD platform is a potential tool for the quantification of multiple biomarkers of low-grade inflammation in large ongoing and future clinical studies.

  3. Satellite imager calibration and validation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available and Validation Lufuno Vhengani*, Minette Lubbe, Derek Griffith and Meena Lysko Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Defence Peace Safety and Security, Pretoria, South Africa E-mail: * lvhengani@csir.co.za Abstract: The success or failure... techniques specific to South Africa. 1. Introduction The success or failure of any earth observation mission depends on the quality of its data. To achieve optimum levels of reliability most sensors are calibrated pre-launch. However...

  4. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  5. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  6. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  7. Mediastinal involvement in lymphangiomatosis: a previously unreported MRI sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikas; Shah, Sachit; Barnacle, Alex; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Brock, Penelope [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Harper, John I. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Dermatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare systemic disorder affecting children. Due to its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical, histological and imaging features, establishing the diagnosis of multifocal lymphangiomatosis can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to describe a new imaging sign in this disorder: paraspinal soft tissue and signal abnormality at MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging, clinical and histopathological findings in a cohort of eight children with thoracic involvement from this condition. Evidence of paraspinal chest disease was identified at MRI and CT in all eight of these children. The changes comprise heterogeneous intermediate-to-high signal parallel to the thoracic vertebrae on T2-weighted sequences at MRI, with abnormal paraspinal soft tissue at CT and plain radiography. Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder with a broad range of clinicopathological and imaging features. MRI allows complete evaluation of disease extent without the use of ionising radiation and has allowed us to describe a previously unreported imaging sign in this disorder, namely, heterogeneous hyperintense signal in abnormal paraspinal tissue on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  8. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  9. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  10. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  11. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingzhao Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans. Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  12. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingzhao; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Babu, Mohan; Díaz-Mejía, J Javier; Butland, Gareth; Yang, Wenhong; Pogoutse, Oxana; Guo, Xinghua; Phanse, Sadhna; Wong, Peter; Chandran, Shamanta; Christopoulos, Constantine; Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Nasseri, Negin Karimi; Musso, Gabriel; Ali, Mehrab; Nazemof, Nazila; Eroukova, Veronika; Golshani, Ashkan; Paccanaro, Alberto; Greenblatt, Jack F; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Emili, Andrew

    2009-04-28

    One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans). Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  13. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Richard; Kohles, Joseph D; Babbitt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT) of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV) ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP) use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p 90% at Month 10). In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.

  14. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  15. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  16. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  17. Astrophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, C R

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  18. Llizarov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankman, S.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Frankel, V.; Golyakhovsky, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

  19. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  20. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  1. Impact of Students’ Class Attendance on Recalling Previously Acquired Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camellia Hemyari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, availability of class material including typed lectures, the professor’s Power Point slides, sound recordings, and even videos made a group of students feel that it is unnecessary to attend the classes. These students usually read and memorize typed lectures within two or three days prior to the exams and usually pass the tests even with low attendance rate. Thus, the question is how effective is this learning system and how long the one-night memorized lessons may last.Methods: A group of medical students (62 out of 106 students, with their class attendance and educational achievements in the Medical Mycology and Parasitology course being recorded since two years ago, was selected and their knowledge about this course was tested by multiple choice questions (MCQ designed based on the previous lectures.Results: Although the mean re-exam score of the students at the end of the externship was lower than the corresponding final score, a significant association was found between the scores of the students in these two exams (r=0.48, P=0.01. Moreover, a significant negative association was predicted between the number of absences and re-exam scores (r=-0.26, P=0.037.Conclusion: As our findings show, the phenomenon of recalling the acquired lessons is preserved for a long period of time and it is associated with the students’ attendance. Many factors including generation effect (by taking notes and cued-recall (via slide picture might play a significant role in the better recalling of the learned information in students with good class attendance.Keywords: STUDENT, MEMORY, LONG-TERM, RECALL, ABSENTEEISM, LEARNING

  2. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  3. Clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Odabasi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery.\tDesign: A clinical observational, prospective, non randomised trial comparing outcomes of 13 patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery with outcomes of 19 patients who had not surgery.\tSetting: Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.\tPatients: Thirty-two subjects [average age 51,1±6,9 (37-66] who had indication of total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral\tsalpingooferectomy due to benign pathologies.\tInterventions: According to ACOG, LAVH was performed by using the Garry technique at the trocar insertions, the Reich technique\tat the laparoscopic phase and the Heaney technique at the vaginal phase by the same operator. After adhesiolysis and diagnostic procedures, ureters were dissected medially. By coagulating, bilateral round and infundibulopelvic ligaments were cut after the\tmobilisation of bladder. The operation was completed by the same operation team by vaginal approach consequently. At all operations, 80 W unipolar or 150 W bipolar diathermic dissection and 25-35 W unipolar diathermic cutting were performed.\tMain outcome measures: Age, parity, menopausal status, preoperative indications, type of previous abdominopelvic surgey and incision, intraoperative indications, adhesion scores, rate of unintended laparotomy, operative time, uterus weight, loss of blood,\tcomplications, postoperative pain scores and analgesic requirements, time necessary for returning to normal intestinal function, length of hospitalisation and rate of readmission to hospital.\tRESULTS: When compared with the patients who had not previous abdominopelvic surgery, all adhesion scores, uterus weight, operative time and the number of total postoperative complications were found significantly high at patients who had previous\tsurgery. Loss of blood, the rate

  4. Parental Attitudes Toward Advanced Behavior Guidance Techniques Used in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Monica; McTigue, Dennis J; Thikkurissy, Sarat; Fields, Henry W

    2016-01-01

    To re-examine parental attitudes toward advanced behavior management techniques in pediatric dentistry and determine whether cost, urgency, and amount of treatment influence parental preferences. Parents viewed previously validated videotaped clinical vignettes of four advanced behavior guidance techniques: (1) passive immobilization; (2) active immobilization; (3) general anesthesia; and (4) oral sedation. The study was conducted in a children's hospital dental clinic and a suburban private pediatric dentistry office. Parents rated overall acceptance of the techniques, and acceptance under specified conditions using an anchored visual analogue scale. One hundred five parents completed the survey; 55 from the children's hospital and 50 from private practice. Oral sedation was rated as the most acceptable technique, followed by general anesthesia, active immobilization, and passive immobilization. As urgency, convenience, and previous experience increased, parental acceptance of the technique increased. As cost of treatment increased, parental acceptance decreased. Ratings between the children's hospital group and private practice group differed, as did the demographic variables of insurance, income, and race. The hierarchy of parental acceptance of advanced behavior guidance techniques is changing with increasing approval of pharmacological management and decreasing approval of physical management. The health care delivery system, urgency, convenience, previous experience, and cost all influence parental acceptance.

  5. Clinical observation of phacoemulsification in patients with previous trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2013-09-01

    . CONCLUSION: Visual function restore is stable in transparent corneal incision phacoemulsification in cataract patients who underwent glaucoma filtration surgeries; the intraocular pressure can be controlled effectively, and can further reduce the intraocular pressure of angle-closure glaucoma. Preoperative comprehensive evaluation of the affected eye and appropriate technique selection are benefit to the improvement of operation effect and the reduction of complications.

  6. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for selectively extracting and storing only krypton and xenon in the waste gases that are released from a pressurized water nuclear power reactor are described. The illustrative fluorocarbon absorption system has three separation stages: an initial gas-fluorocarbon absorber, a flash chamber and fractionator for segregating all of the absorbed gases from the loaded absorber stage fluorocarbon (save for the krypton and xenon), and a stripper that receives the partially loaded fluorocarbon liquid directly from the fractionator in order to separate only the krypton and xenon. A molecular sieve filter dries the input process gas, a cartridge type solvent filter is used to remove radiation degradation products from the loaded liquid that flows from the absorber, a cold trap gas drier is provided to remove residual solvent vapor from the separated krypton and xenon, and radiation detectors automatically activate valves to establish safe conditions in the event of an accident or plant failure. (U.S.)

  7. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  8. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  9. DTU PMU Laboratory Development - Testing and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Yang, Guang-Ya; Martin, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of the results of phasor measurement unit (PMU) laboratory development and testing done at the Centre for Electric Technology (CET), Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Analysis of the PMU performance first required the development of tools to convert the DTU PMU data into IEEE standard, and the validation is done for the DTU-PMU via a validated commercial PMU. The commercial PMU has been tested from the authors' previous efforts, where the response can be expected to foll...

  10. Lesson 6: Signature Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checklist items 13 through 17 are grouped under the Signature Validation Process, and represent CROMERR requirements that the system must satisfy as part of ensuring that electronic signatures it receives are valid.

  11. Empirical techniques in finance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhar, Ramaprasad

    2005-01-01

    This book offers the opportunity to study and experience advanced empi- cal techniques in finance and in general financial economics. It is not only suitable for students with an interest in the field, it is also highly rec- mended for academic researchers as well as the researchers in the industry. The book focuses on the contemporary empirical techniques used in the analysis of financial markets and how these are implemented using actual market data. With an emphasis on Implementation, this book helps foc- ing on strategies for rigorously combing finance theory and modeling technology to extend extant considerations in the literature. The main aim of this book is to equip the readers with an array of tools and techniques that will allow them to explore financial market problems with a fresh perspective. In this sense it is not another volume in eco- metrics. Of course, the traditional econometric methods are still valid and important; the contents of this book will bring in other related modeling topics tha...

  12. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  13. Verification and Validation in Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Debbabi, Mourad; Jarraya, Yosr; Soeanu, Andrei; Alawneh, Luay

    2010-01-01

    "Verification and validation" represents an important process used for the quality assessment of engineered systems and their compliance with the requirements established at the beginning of or during the development cycle. Debbabi and his coauthors investigate methodologies and techniques that can be employed for the automatic verification and validation of systems engineering design models expressed in standardized modeling languages. Their presentation includes a bird's eye view of the most prominent modeling languages for software and systems engineering, namely the Unified Model

  14. Tendon 'turnover lengthening' technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovac, S; Miranda, B H

    2013-11-01

    Tendon defect reconstruction is amongst the most technically challenging areas in hand surgery. Tendon substance deficiency reconstruction techniques include lengthening, grafting, two-stage reconstruction and tendon transfers, however each is associated with unique challenges over and above direct repair. We describe a novel 'turnover lengthening' technique for hand tendons that has successfully been applied to the repair of several cases, including a case of attritional flexor and traumatic extensor tendon rupture in two presented patients where primary tenorrhaphy was not possible. In both cases a good post-operative outcome was achieved, as the patients were happy having returned back to normal activities of daily living such that they were discharged 12 weeks post-operatively. Our technique avoids the additional morbidity and complications associated with grafting, transfers and two stage reconstructions. It is quick, simple and reproducible for defects not exceeding 3-4 cm, provides a means of immediate one stage reconstruction, no secondary donor site morbidity and does not compromise salvage by tendon transfer and/or two-stage reconstruction in cases of failure. To our knowledge no such technique has been previously been described to reconstruct such hand tendon defects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Revision and simplification of the boarding previous minimum of the lumbar column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazannec, JY; Del Vecchio, R; Ramare, S; Saillant, G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the boarding retroperineal previous minimum, which provides access at any level discal and vertebral between T12 and S1. It is carried out a technique of dissection retroperineal that facilitates the renal and duodenum-pancreatic mobilization to consent to the face previous left of the whole lumbar column and of the thoracic-lumbar union. They were carried out careful anatomical dissections in fresh cadavers and preserved to determine the topography and the anatomical relationships of interest and this way to develop a sure boarding and easily reproducible. Special attention has been paid to the description of the lumbar veins and the anastomosis between the vein renal left and the hemiacigos system for the exhibition of the expensive left anterolateral of T12 and L1. A series of 94 patients is reported with lesions caused by traumas or degenerative processes. For all the lumbar levels, even in-patient with antecedents of surgery intraperitoneal, the boarding minimum retroperitoneal, was safe for the kidneys, ureters, spleen, hypo gastric plexus and duodenum-pancreatic union. Better cosmetic results are reported, decrease of the time surgical, scarce bled intraoperatory and easiness for the decortications and placement of implants. The previous boarding minimum retro peritoneal of the column developed starting from the boarding classic retroperineals, offers significant advantages on the endoscopic techniques, which require sophisticated machinery and they are technically plaintiffs. The exhibition of all the lumbar levels, as well as the reduction maneuvers and placement of implants, they can be carried out with easiness without causing muscular damage

  16. Validation process of simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Isidro, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    It is presented a methodology on empirical validation about any detailed simulation model. This king of validation it is always related with an experimental case. The empirical validation has a residual sense, because the conclusions are based on comparisons between simulated outputs and experimental measurements. This methodology will guide us to detect the fails of the simulation model. Furthermore, it can be used a guide in the design of posterior experiments. Three steps can be well differentiated: Sensitivity analysis. It can be made with a DSA, differential sensitivity analysis, and with a MCSA, Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis. Looking the optimal domains of the input parameters. It has been developed a procedure based on the Monte-Carlo methods and Cluster techniques, to find the optimal domains of these parameters. Residual analysis. This analysis has been made on the time domain and on the frequency domain, it has been used the correlation analysis and spectral analysis. As application of this methodology, it is presented the validation carried out on a thermal simulation model on buildings, Esp., studying the behavior of building components on a Test Cell of LECE of CIEMAT. (Author) 17 refs

  17. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  18. Validation techniques of agent based modelling for geospatial simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Darvishi, M.; Ahmadi, G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most interesting aspects of modelling and simulation study is to describe the real world phenomena that have specific properties; especially those that are in large scales and have dynamic and complex behaviours. Studying these phenomena in the laboratory is costly and in most cases it is impossible. Therefore, Miniaturization of world phenomena in the framework of a model in order to simulate the real phenomena is a reasonable and scientific approach to understand the world. Agent...

  19. In-vivo Validation of Fast Spectral Velocity Estimation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Gran, Fredrik; Pedersen, Mads Møller

    2010-01-01

    . BAPES and BPC compared to WM had better resolution (lower FWHM) for all OW equally well (p > 0.05) at OW 128 and 64, while W.BOX scored less (p ..., and that OW can be reduced to 32 using BPC and 16 using BAPES without reducing the usefulness of the spectrogram. This could potentially increase the temporal resolution of the spectrogram or the frame-rate of the interleaved B-mode images....

  20. Validation Techniques of the Intern Models for Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Moinescu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The new own funds adequacy device, officialy named “ International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards”, describes the most important benchmark framework for micro-prudential supervision at the moment. The publication of the final text in June 2004, after five years of deliberations, represents the result of multiple analyses and comments provided by all interested parties, banking supervision authorities, associations and credit institutions. Provided the development of complex methodologies of risk measurement and management, on a large scale, by credit institutions, simple and static rules of the first accord have become less and less relevant during the last years. And so, the need of setting up a own funds adequacy framework which is much more risk sensitive and provides incentives to credit institutions on what concerns the improvement of risk measurement and management systems was met by approval of the Basel II Accord, which will, therefore, lead to the strengthening of financial stability. The revisal of the Accord was mainly focused on the increase of risk analysis and internal measurement and the changes made to their estimation allow banks to create their own methodological framework to calculate capital requirements (also considering each credit institution’ risk appetite.

  1. Experimental validation of waveform relaxation technique for power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    damping controller drawn our attention to a potential convergence problem which ... method was originally proposed as a method of parallelizing the numerical integration of very. Figure 2 ..... to it the features of an industrial real-time operating system. ..... Odeh F and Ruehli A 1985 Waveform relaxation: Theory and practice.

  2. Validation of a satellite-based cyclogenesis technique over the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    its intensification into a TC is very essential for the management of TC disaster. .... cast System (GFS) data fields as well as con- ... score and relative operating characteristic, showed ..... The authors acknowledge the support provided by.

  3. Validation techniques for object-oriented proof outlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a proof outline logic for a simple object-oriented programming language. The language has all object-oriented features of popular programming languages like Java and C#. In particular, it supports inheritance, field shadowing, aliasing, dynamic object creation, subtype

  4. Repeated Surgical or Endoscopic Myotomy for Recurrent Dysphagia in Patients After Previous Myotomy for Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Uberto; Rosati, Riccardo; De Pascale, Stefano; Porta, Matteo; Carlani, Elisa; Pestalozza, Alessandra; Repici, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Surgical myotomy of the lower esophageal sphincter has a 5-year success rate of approximately 91 %. Peroral endoscopic myotomy can provide similar results for controlling dysphagia. Some patients experience either persistent or recurrent dysphagia after myotomy. We present here a retrospective analysis of our experience with redo myotomy for recurrent dysphagia in patients with achalasia. From March 1996 to February 2015, 234 myotomies for primary or recurrent achalasia were performed in our center. Fifteen patients (6.4 %) had had a previous myotomy and were undergoing surgical redo myotomy (n = 9) or endoscopic redo myotomy (n = 6) for recurrent symptoms. Patients presented at a median of 10.4 months after previous myotomy. Median preoperative Eckardt score was 6. Among the nine patients undergoing surgical myotomy, three esophageal perforations occurred intraoperatively (all repaired immediately). Surgery lasted 111 and 62 min on average (median) in the surgical and peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) groups, respectively. No postoperative complications occurred in either group. Median postoperative stay was 3 and 2.5 days in the surgical and POEM groups, respectively. In the surgical group, Eckardt score was dysphagia. Preliminary results using POEM indicate that the technique can be safely used in patients who have undergone previous surgical myotomy.

  5. Validation of New Cancer Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Michael J; Sturgeon, Catherine M; Söletormos, Georg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are playing increasingly important roles in the detection and management of patients with cancer. Despite an enormous number of publications on cancer biomarkers, few of these biomarkers are in widespread clinical use. CONTENT: In this review, we discuss the key steps...... in advancing a newly discovered cancer candidate biomarker from pilot studies to clinical application. Four main steps are necessary for a biomarker to reach the clinic: analytical validation of the biomarker assay, clinical validation of the biomarker test, demonstration of clinical value from performance...... of the biomarker test, and regulatory approval. In addition to these 4 steps, all biomarker studies should be reported in a detailed and transparent manner, using previously published checklists and guidelines. Finally, all biomarker studies relating to demonstration of clinical value should be registered before...

  6. Validation of nursing management diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R S

    1995-01-01

    Nursing management diagnosis based on nursing and management science, merges "nursing diagnosis" and "organizational diagnosis". Nursing management diagnosis is a judgment about nursing organizational problems. The diagnoses provide a basis for nurse manager interventions to achieve outcomes for which a nurse manager is accountable. A nursing organizational problem is a discrepancy between what should be happening and what is actually happening that prevents the goals of nursing from being accomplished. The purpose of this study was to validate 73 nursing management diagnoses identified previously in 1992: 71 of the 72 diagnoses were considered valid by at least 70% of 136 participants. Diagnoses considered to have high priority for future research and development were identified by summing the mean scores for perceived frequency of occurrence and level of disruption. Further development of nursing management diagnoses and testing of their effectiveness in enhancing decision making is recommended.

  7. Left ventricular assist device implantation in a patient who had previously undergone apical myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yang Hyun; Deo, Salil V; Topilsky, Yan; Grogan, Martha A; Park, Soon J

    2012-03-01

    Apical hypertrophy is a rare variant of hypertropic cardiomyopathy. These patients may present with end-stage congestive heart failure subsequent to long standing diastolic dysfunction. We report the technique for left ventricular assist device insertion in a patient with previous apical myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    to suffer from the same deficiencies. The PPV are universal and can be applied to all situations in which the assessment of performance is desired: prediction-, classification-, time series forecasting-, modeling validation. The key element of PPV is the Theory of Sampling (TOS), which allow insight......) is critically necessary for the inclusion of the sampling errors incurred in all 'future' situations in which the validated model must perform. Logically, therefore, all one data set re-sampling approaches for validation, especially cross-validation and leverage-corrected validation, should be terminated...

  9. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  10. Female Sexual Dysfunction in the Late Postpartum Period Among Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargin, M. A.; Yassa, M.; Taymur, B. D.; Akca, G.; Tug, N.; Taymur, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the status of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) between women with a history of previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with follow-up of a healthy pregnancy, using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September to December 2015. Methodology: Healthy sexually active adult parous females were included. Participants were asked to complete the validated Turkish versions of the FSFI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Student's t-test was used for two-group comparisons of normally distributed variables and quantitative data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for two-group comparisons of non-normally distributed variables. Pearson's chi-squared test, the Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, Fisher's exact test, and Yates' continuity correction test were used for comparison of qualitative data. Results: The mean FSFI scores of the 179 participants was 23.50 +- 3.94. FSFI scores and scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05), according to a history of GDM and types of FSD (none, mild, severe). HADS scores and anxiety and depression types did not statistically significantly differ according to the history of GDM (p>0.05). Conclusion: An association could not be found in FSFI scores between participants with both the history of previous GDM and with healthy pregnancy; subclinical sexual dysfunction may be observed in the late postpartum period among women with a history of previous GDM. This may adversely affect their sexual health. (author)

  11. Female Sexual Dysfunction in the Late Postpartum Period Among Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Yassa, Murat; Taymur, Bilge Dogan; Taymur, Bulent; Akca, Gizem; Tug, Niyazi

    2017-04-01

    To compare the status of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) between women with a history of previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and those with follow-up of a healthy pregnancy, using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Cross-sectional study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from September to December 2015. Healthy sexually active adult parous females were included. Participants were asked to complete the validated Turkish versions of the FSFI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaires. Student's t-test was used for two-group comparisons of normally distributed variables and quantitative data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for two-group comparisons of non-normally distributed variables. Pearson's chi-squared test, the Fisher-FreemanHalton test, Fisher's exact test, and Yates' continuity correction test were used for comparison of qualitative data. The mean FSFI scores of the 179 participants was 23.50 ±3.94. FSFI scores and scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05), according to a history of GDM and types of FSD (none, mild, severe). HADS scores and anxiety and depression types did not statistically significantly differ according to the history of GDM (p>0.05). An association could not be found in FSFI scores between participants with both the history of previous GDM and with healthy pregnancy; subclinical sexual dysfunction may be observed in the late postpartum period among women with a history of previous GDM. This may adversely affect their sexual health.

  12. Aircraft applications of fault detection and isolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos Esteban, Andres

    In this thesis the problems of fault detection & isolation and fault tolerant systems are studied from the perspective of LTI frequency-domain, model-based techniques. Emphasis is placed on the applicability of these LTI techniques to nonlinear models, especially to aerospace systems. Two applications of Hinfinity LTI fault diagnosis are given using an open-loop (no controller) design approach: one for the longitudinal motion of a Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft, the other for a turbofan jet engine. An algorithm formalizing a robust identification approach based on model validation ideas is also given and applied to the previous jet engine. A general linear fractional transformation formulation is given in terms of the Youla and Dual Youla parameterizations for the integrated (control and diagnosis filter) approach. This formulation provides better insight into the trade-off between the control and the diagnosis objectives. It also provides the basic groundwork towards the development of nested schemes for the integrated approach. These nested structures allow iterative improvements on the control/filter Youla parameters based on successive identification of the system uncertainty (as given by the Dual Youla parameter). The thesis concludes with an application of Hinfinity LTI techniques to the integrated design for the longitudinal motion of the previous Boeing 747-100/200 model.

  13. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlee Azil Illias

    Full Text Available It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN and particle swarm optimisation (PSO techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  14. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, Hazlee Azil; Chai, Xin Rui; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim; Mokhlis, Hazlie

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  15. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works. PMID:26103634

  16. Magnetism in meteorites. [terminology, principles and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J. M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    An overview of this subject is presented. The paper includes a glossary of magnetism terminology and a discussion of magnetic techniques used in meteorite research. These techniques comprise thermomagnetic analysis, alternating field demagnetization, thermal demagnetization, magnetic anisotropy, low-temperature cycling, and coercive forces, with emphasis on the first method. Limitations on the validity of paleointensity determinations are also discussed.

  17. Experimental evaluation of a quasi-modal parameter based rotor foundation identification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minli; Liu, Jike; Feng, Ningsheng; Hahn, Eric J.

    2017-12-01

    Correct modelling of the foundation of rotating machinery is an invaluable asset in model-based rotor dynamic study. One attractive approach for such purpose is to identify the relevant modal parameters of an equivalent foundation using the motion measurements of rotor and foundation at the bearing supports. Previous research showed that, a complex quasi-modal parameter based system identification technique could be feasible for this purpose; however, the technique was only validated by identifying simple structures under harmonic excitation. In this paper, such identification technique is further extended and evaluated by identifying the foundation of a numerical rotor-bearing-foundation system and an experimental rotor rig respectively. In the identification of rotor foundation with multiple bearing supports, all application points of excitation forces transmitted through bearings need to be included; however the assumed vibration modes far outside the rotor operating speed cannot or not necessary to be identified. The extended identification technique allows one to identify correctly an equivalent foundation with fewer modes than the assumed number of degrees of freedom, essentially by generalising the technique to be able to handle rectangular complex modal matrices. The extended technique is robust in numerical and experimental validation and is therefore likely to be applicable in the field.

  18. Cross validation for the classical model of structured expert judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colson, Abigail R.; Cooke, Roger M.

    2017-01-01

    We update the 2008 TU Delft structured expert judgment database with data from 33 professionally contracted Classical Model studies conducted between 2006 and March 2015 to evaluate its performance relative to other expert aggregation models. We briefly review alternative mathematical aggregation schemes, including harmonic weighting, before focusing on linear pooling of expert judgments with equal weights and performance-based weights. Performance weighting outperforms equal weighting in all but 1 of the 33 studies in-sample. True out-of-sample validation is rarely possible for Classical Model studies, and cross validation techniques that split calibration questions into a training and test set are used instead. Performance weighting incurs an “out-of-sample penalty” and its statistical accuracy out-of-sample is lower than that of equal weighting. However, as a function of training set size, the statistical accuracy of performance-based combinations reaches 75% of the equal weight value when the training set includes 80% of calibration variables. At this point the training set is sufficiently powerful to resolve differences in individual expert performance. The information of performance-based combinations is double that of equal weighting when the training set is at least 50% of the set of calibration variables. Previous out-of-sample validation work used a Total Out-of-Sample Validity Index based on all splits of the calibration questions into training and test subsets, which is expensive to compute and includes small training sets of dubious value. As an alternative, we propose an Out-of-Sample Validity Index based on averaging the product of statistical accuracy and information over all training sets sized at 80% of the calibration set. Performance weighting outperforms equal weighting on this Out-of-Sample Validity Index in 26 of the 33 post-2006 studies; the probability of 26 or more successes on 33 trials if there were no difference between performance

  19. SONOGRAPHIC PREDICTION OF SCAR DEHISCENCE IN WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhada Suhas Jajoo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caesarean section (Sectio Caesarea is a surgical method for the completion of delivery. After various historical modifications of operative techniques, modern approach consists in the transverse dissection of the anterior wall of the uterus. The rate of vaginal birth after caesarean section was significantly reduced from year to year and the rate of repeated caesarean section is increased during the past 10 years. Evaluation of scar thickness is done by ultrasound, but it is still debatable size of thick scar that would be guiding “cut-off value” for the completion of the delivery method. To better assess the risk of uterine rupture, some authors have proposed sonographic measurement of lower uterine segment thickness near term assuming that there is an inverse correlation between LUS thickness and the risk of uterine scar defect. Therefore, this assessment for the management of women with prior CS may increase safety during labour by selecting women with the lowest risk of uterine rupture. The aim of the study is to study the diagnostic accuracy of sonographic measurements of the Lower Uterine Segment (LUS thickness near term in predicting uterine scar defects in women with prior Caesarean Section (CS. We aim to ascertain the best cut-off values for predicting uterine rupture. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 antenatal women with history of previous one LSCS who come to attend antenatal clinic will be assessed for scar thickness by transabdominal ultrasonography and its correlation with intraoperative findings. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted for 1 year after IEC approval with inclusion criteria previous one LSCS. Exclusion criteria- 1 Previous myomectomy scar; 2 Previous 2 LSCS; 3 Previous hysterotomy scar. RESULTS Our findings indicate that there is a strong association between degree of LUS thinning measured near term and the risk of uterine scar defect at birth. In our study, optimal cut-off value for predicting

  20. Multimicrophone Speech Dereverberation: Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dereverberation is required in various speech processing applications such as handsfree telephony and voice-controlled systems, especially when signals are applied that are recorded in a moderately or highly reverberant environment. In this paper, we compare a number of classical and more recently developed multimicrophone dereverberation algorithms, and validate the different algorithmic settings by means of two performance indices and a speech recognition system. It is found that some of the classical solutions obtain a moderate signal enhancement. More advanced subspace-based dereverberation techniques, on the other hand, fail to enhance the signals despite their high-computational load.

  1. Physical standards and valid caibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.

    1975-01-01

    The desire for improved nuclear material safeguards has led to the development and use of a number and techniques and instruments for the nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material. Sources of potential bias in NDA measurements are discussed and methods of eliminating the effects of bias in assay results are suggested. Examples are given of instruments in which these methods have been successfully applied. The results of careful attention to potential sources of assay bias are a significant reduction in the number and complexity of standards required for valid instrument calibration and more credible assay results. (auth)

  2. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  3. A systematic review of the reliability and validity of discrete choice experiments in valuing non-market environmental goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokotonarivo, Sarobidy; Schaafsma, Marije; Hockley, Neal

    2016-01-01

    reliability measures. DCE results were generally consistent with those of other stated preference techniques (convergent validity), but hypothetical bias was common. Evidence supporting theoretical validity (consistency with assumptions of rational choice theory) was limited. In content validity tests, 2...

  4. Validation of CryoSat-2 SAR mode based lake levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Stenseng, Lars; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    Lake level serve as an important indicator of the climate and continuous measurements are therefore essential. Satellite radar altimetry has now been used successfully for more than two decades to measure lake level as an addition to gauge measurements. The technique has, due to the large footprint...... with water levels obtained from Envisat. We find that the along-track precision of the mean based on CryoSat-2 is a few centimeter, even for the small lakes, which is a significant improvement compared to previous missions such as Envisat. When validating against gauge data we find RMS values of differences...

  5. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  6. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  7. Indiana pouch continent urinary reservoir in patients with previous pelvic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannel, R.S.; Braly, P.S.; Buller, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Little information exists on the use of continent urinary reservoirs in patients with previous pelvic irradiation. We report the use of the Indiana pouch urinary reservoir in ten women with a history of pelvic irradiation for cervical cancer, of whom eight underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent pelvic tumor and two had diversion for radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistula. All ten women achieved daytime continence, with a median time between catheterizations of 4.5 hours and a median pouch capacity of 500 mL. There was no evidence of leakage from the reservoir or significant ureteral reflux or obstruction on postoperative radiographic evaluation. No patient has required reoperation or had significant postoperative complications with the technique described

  8. Piezosurgery in Bone Augmentation Procedures Previous to Dental Implant Surgery: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, Gabriel Leonardo; Sigua-Rodriguez, Eder Alberto; Goulart, Douglas Rangel; Asprino, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    The piezosurgery has been used with increasing frequency and applicability by health professionals, especially those who deal with dental implants. The concept of piezoelectricity has emerged in the nineteenth century, but it was applied in oral surgery from 1988 by Tomaso Vercellotti. It consists of an ultrasonic device able to cut mineralized bone tissue, without injuring the adjacent soft tissue. It also has several advantages when compared to conventional techniques with drills and saws, such as the production of a precise, clean and low bleed bone cut that shows positive biological results. In dental implants surgery, it has been used for maxillary sinus lifting, removal of bone blocks, distraction osteogenesis, lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve, split crest of alveolar ridge and even for dental implants placement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of piezosurgery in bone augmentation procedures used previously to dental implants placement. PMID:26966469

  9. An Improved Fuzzy Based Missing Value Estimation in DNA Microarray Validated by Gene Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the gene expression data analysis algorithms require the entire gene expression matrix without any missing values. Hence, it is necessary to devise methods which would impute missing data values accurately. There exist a number of imputation algorithms to estimate those missing values. This work starts with a microarray dataset containing multiple missing values. We first apply the modified version of the fuzzy theory based existing method LRFDVImpute to impute multiple missing values of time series gene expression data and then validate the result of imputation by genetic algorithm (GA based gene ranking methodology along with some regular statistical validation techniques, like RMSE method. Gene ranking, as far as our knowledge, has not been used yet to validate the result of missing value estimation. Firstly, the proposed method has been tested on the very popular Spellman dataset and results show that error margins have been drastically reduced compared to some previous works, which indirectly validates the statistical significance of the proposed method. Then it has been applied on four other 2-class benchmark datasets, like Colorectal Cancer tumours dataset (GDS4382, Breast Cancer dataset (GSE349-350, Prostate Cancer dataset, and DLBCL-FL (Leukaemia for both missing value estimation and ranking the genes, and the results show that the proposed method can reach 100% classification accuracy with very few dominant genes, which indirectly validates the biological significance of the proposed method.

  10. Vibration transducer calibration techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, D. J.

    1980-09-01

    Techniques for the calibration of vibration transducers used in the Aeronautical Quality Assurance Directorate of the British Ministry of Defence are presented. Following a review of the types of measurements necessary in the calibration of vibration transducers, the performance requirements of vibration transducers, which can be used to measure acceleration, velocity or vibration amplitude, are discussed, with particular attention given to the piezoelectric accelerometer. Techniques for the accurate measurement of sinusoidal vibration amplitude in reference-grade transducers are then considered, including the use of a position sensitive photocell and the use of a Michelson laser interferometer. Means of comparing the output of working-grade accelerometers with that of previously calibrated reference-grade devices are then outlined, with attention given to a method employing a capacitance bridge technique and a method to be used at temperatures between -50 and 200 C. Automatic calibration procedures developed to speed up the calibration process are outlined, and future possible extensions of system software are indicated.

  11. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  12. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco Lub

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate), the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of con...

  13. Validation of HEDR models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Eslinger, P.W.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.; Thiede, M.E.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project has developed a set of computer models for estimating the possible radiation doses that individuals may have received from past Hanford Site operations. This document describes the validation of these models. In the HEDR Project, the model validation exercise consisted of comparing computational model estimates with limited historical field measurements and experimental measurements that are independent of those used to develop the models. The results of any one test do not mean that a model is valid. Rather, the collection of tests together provide a level of confidence that the HEDR models are valid

  14. Static Validation of a Voting Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Andersen, Esben Heltoft; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2005-01-01

    is formalised in an extension of the LySa process calculus with blinding signatures. The analysis, which is fully automatic, pinpoints previously undiscovered flaws related to verifiability and accuracy and we suggest modifications of the protocol needed for validating these properties....

  15. Current role of endovascular therapy in Marfan patients with previous aortic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Akin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Akin, Stephan Kische, Tim C Rehders, Tushar Chatterjee, Henrik Schneider, Thomas Körber, Christoph A Nienaber, Hüseyin InceDepartment of Medicine, Division of Cardiology at the University Hospital Rostock, Rostock School of Medicine, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057 Rostock, GermanyAbstract: The Marfan syndrome is a heritable disorder of the connective tissue which affects the cardiovascular, ocular, and skeletal system. The cardiovascular manifestation with aortic root dilatation, aortic valve regurgitation, and aortic dissection has a prevalence of 60% to 90% and determines the premature death of these patients. Thirty-four percent of the patients with Marfan syndrome will have serious cardiovascular complications requiring surgery in the first 10 years after diagnosis. Before aortic surgery became available, the majority of the patients died by the age of 32 years. Introduction in the aortic surgery techniques caused an increase of the 10 year survival rate up to 97%. The purpose of this article is to give an overview about the feasibility and outcome of stent-graft placement in the descending thoracic aorta in Marfan patients with previous aortic surgery.Keywords: Marfan syndrome, aortic dissection, root replacement, stent-graft, previous aortic surgery

  16. Trephine Transverse Colostomy Is Effective for Patients Who Have Previously Undergone Rectal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Seung-Seop; Jung, Sung Woo; Oh, Se Heon; Lee, Jong Lyul; Yoon, Yong Sik; Park, In Ja; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Colostomy creation is an essential procedure for colorectal surgeons, but the preferred method of colostomy varies by surgeon. We compared the outcomes of trephine colostomy creation with open those for the (laparotomy) and laparoscopic methods and evaluated appropriate indications for a trephine colostomy and the advantages of the technique. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 263 patients who had undergone colostomy creation by trephine, open and laparoscopic approaches between April 2006 and March 2016. We compared the clinical features and the operative and postoperative outcomes according to the approach used for stoma creation. Results One hundred sixty-three patients (62%) underwent colostomy surgery for obstructive causes and 100 (38%) for fistulous problems. The mean operative time was significantly shorter with the trephine approach (trephine, 46.0 ± 1.9 minutes; open, 78.7 ± 3.9 minutes; laparoscopic, 63.5 ± 5.0 minutes; P colostomy was feasible for a diversion colostomy (P colostomy is safe and can be implemented quickly in various situations, and compared to other colostomy procedures, the patient’s recovery is faster. Previous laparotomy history was not a contraindication for a trephine colostomy, and a trephine transverse colostomy is feasible for patients who have undergone previous rectal surgery. PMID:29742862

  17. Improving clinical decision support using data mining techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn-Thornton, Kath E.; Thorpe, Simon I.

    1999-02-01

    Physicians, in their ever-demanding jobs, are looking to decision support systems for aid in clinical diagnosis. However, clinical decision support systems need to be of sufficiently high accuracy that they help, rather than hinder, the physician in his/her diagnosis. Decision support systems with accuracies, of patient state determination, of greater than 80 percent, are generally perceived to be sufficiently accurate to fulfill the role of helping the physician. We have previously shown that data mining techniques have the potential to provide the underpinning technology for clinical decision support systems. In this paper, an extension of the work in reverence 2, we describe how changes in data mining methodologies, for the analysis of 12-lead ECG data, improve the accuracy by which data mining algorithms determine which patients are suffering from heart disease. We show that the accuracy of patient state prediction, for all the algorithms, which we investigated, can be increased by up to 6 percent, using the combination of appropriate test training ratios and 5-fold cross-validation. The use of cross-validation greater than 5-fold, appears to reduce the improvement in algorithm classification accuracy gained by the use of this validation method. The accuracy of 84 percent in patient state predictions, obtained using the algorithm OCI, suggests that this algorithm will be capable of providing the required accuracy for clinical decision support systems.

  18. An integrated automatic system to evaluate U and Th dynamic lixiviation from solid matrices, and to extract/pre-concentrate leached analytes previous ICP-MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Melisa Rodas; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferrer, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Leached fractions of U and Th from different environmental solid matrices were evaluated by an automatic system enabling the on-line lixiviation and extraction/pre-concentration of these two elements previous ICP-MS detection. UTEVA resin was used as selective extraction material. Ten leached fraction, using artificial rainwater (pH 5.4) as leaching agent, and a residual fraction were analyzed for each sample, allowing the study of behavior of U and Th in dynamic lixiviation conditions. Multivariate techniques have been employed for the efficient optimization of the independent variables that affect the lixiviation process. The system reached LODs of 0.1 and 0.7ngkg -1 of U and Th, respectively. The method was satisfactorily validated for three solid matrices, by the analysis of a soil reference material (IAEA-375), a certified sediment reference material (BCR- 320R) and a phosphogypsum reference material (MatControl CSN-CIEMAT 2008). Besides, environmental samples were analyzed, showing a similar behavior, i.e. the content of radionuclides decreases with the successive extractions. In all cases, the accumulative leached fraction of U and Th for different solid matrices studied (soil, sediment and phosphogypsum) were extremely low, up to 0.05% and 0.005% of U and Th, respectively. However, a great variability was observed in terms of mass concentration released, e.g. between 44 and 13,967ngUkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehman, Muniza; Pedersen, Stig Andur

    2012-01-01

    In philosophy of science, the interest for computational models and simulations has increased heavily during the past decades. Different positions regarding the validity of models have emerged but the views have not succeeded in capturing the diversity of validation methods. The wide variety...

  20. Validation of small Kepler transiting planet candidates in or near the habitable zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Guillermo; Kane, Stephen R.; Rowe, Jason F.

    2017-01-01

    A main goal of NASA's Kepler Mission is to establish the frequency of potentially habitable Earth-size planets (). Relatively few such candidates identified by the mission can be confirmed to be rocky via dynamical measurement of their mass. Here we report an effort to validate 18 of them...... statistically using the BLENDER technique, by showing that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false positive. Our analysis incorporates follow-up observations including high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and information from...... the analysis of the flux centroids of the Kepler observations themselves. Although many of these candidates have been previously validated by others, the confidence levels reported typically ignore the possibility that the planet may transit a star different from the target along the same line of sight...

  1. Heat Transfer Modeling and Validation for Optically Thick Alumina Fibrous Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    Combined radiation/conduction heat transfer through unbonded alumina fibrous insulation was modeled using the diffusion approximation for modeling the radiation component of heat transfer in the optically thick insulation. The validity of the heat transfer model was investigated by comparison to previously reported experimental effective thermal conductivity data over the insulation density range of 24 to 96 kg/cu m, with a pressure range of 0.001 to 750 torr (0.1 to 101.3 x 10(exp 3) Pa), and test sample hot side temperature range of 530 to 1360 K. The model was further validated by comparison to thermal conductivity measurements using the transient step heating technique on an insulation sample at a density of 144 kg/cu m over a pressure range of 0.001 to 760 torr, and temperature range of 290 to 1090 K.

  2. Poor Validity of the DSM-IV Schizoid Personality Disorder Construct as a Diagnostic Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Pedersen, Geir; Wilberg, Theresa; Karterud, Sigmund

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to evaluate the construct validity of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) by investigating a sample of 2,619 patients from the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs by a variety of statistical techniques. Nineteen patients (0.7%) reached the diagnostic threshold of SZPD. Results from the factor analyses indicated that SZPD consists of three factors: social detachment, withdrawal, and restricted affectivity/ anhedonia. Overall, internal consistency and diagnostic efficiency were poor and best for the criteria that belong to the social detachment factor. These findings pose serious questions about the clinical utility of SZPD as a diagnostic category. On the other hand, the three factors were in concordance with findings from previous studies and with the trait model for personality disorders in DSM-5, supporting the validity of SZPD as a dimensional construct. The authors recommend that SZPD should be deleted as a diagnostic category in future editions of DSM-5.

  3. Isotopic and criticality validation for actinide-only burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, E.; Lancaster, D.; Rahimi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used for actinide-only burnup credit isotopic validation and criticality validation are presented and discussed. Trending analyses have been incorporated into both methodologies, requiring biases and uncertainties to be treated as a function of the trending parameters. The isotopic validation is demonstrated using the SAS2H module of SCALE 4.2, with the 27BURNUPLIB cross section library; correction factors are presented for each of the actinides in the burnup credit methodology. For the criticality validation, the demonstration is performed with the CSAS module of SCALE 4.2 and the 27BURNUPLIB, resulting in a validated upper safety limit

  4. Radiocarbon evidence for a smaller oceanic carbon dioxide sink than previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesshaimer, Vago; Heimann, Martin; Levin, Ingeborg

    1994-07-01

    RADIOCARBON produced naturally in the upper atmosphere or arti-ficially during nuclear weapons testing is the main tracer used to validate models of oceanic carbon cycling, in particular the exchange of carbon dioxide with the atmosphere1-3 and the mixing parameters within the ocean itself4-7. Here we test the overall consistency of exchange fluxes between all relevant compartments in a simple model of the global carbon cycle, using measurements of the long-term tropospheric CO2 concentration8 and radiocarbon composition9-12, the bomb 14C inventory in the stratosphere13,14 and a compilation of bomb detonation dates and strengths15. We find that to balance the budget, we must invoke an extra source to account for 25% of the generally accepted uptake of bomb 14C by the oceans3. The strength of this source decreases from 1970 onwards, with a characteristic timescale similar to that of the ocean uptake. Significant radiocarbon transport from the remote high stratosphere and significantly reduced uptake of bomb 14C by the biosphere can both be ruled out by observational constraints. We therefore conclude that the global oceanic bomb 14C inventory should be revised downwards. A smaller oceanic bomb 14C inventory also implies a smaller oceanic radiocarbon penetration depth16, which in turn implies that the oceans take up 25% less anthropogenic CO2 than had previously been believed.

  5. Central venous stenosis among hemodialysis patients is often not associated with previous central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoda, Atsushi; Akimoto, Tetsu; Kato, Maki; Kanazawa, Hidenori; Nakata, Manabu; Sugase, Taro; Ogura, Manabu; Ito, Chiharu; Sugimoto, Hideharu; Muto, Shigeaki; Kusano, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    It is widely assumed that central venous stenosis (CVS) is most commonly associated with previous central venous catheterization among the chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. We evaluated the validity of this assumption in this retrospective study. The clinical records from 2,856 consecutive HD patients with vascular access failure during a 5-year period were reviewed, and a total of 26 patients with symptomatic CVS were identified. Combined with radiological findings, their clinical characteristics were examined. Only seven patients had a history of internal jugular dialysis catheterization. Diagnostic multidetector row computed tomography angiography showed that 7 of the 19 patients with no history of catheterization had left innominate vein stenosis due to extrinsic compression between the sternum and arch vessels. These patients had a shorter period from the time of creation of the vascular access to the initial referral (9.2 ± 7.6 months) than the rest of the patients (35.5 ± 18.6 months, p = 0.0017). Our findings suggest that cases without a history of central venous catheterization may not be rare among the HD patients with symptomatic CVS. However, those still need to be confirm by larger prospective studies of overall chronic HD patients with symptomatic CVS.

  6. Low temperature magneto-morphological characterisation of coronene and the resolution of previously observed unexplained phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potticary, Jason; Boston, Rebecca; Vella-Zarb, Liana; Few, Alex; Bell, Christopher; Hall, Simon R.

    2016-12-01

    The polyaromatic hydrocarbon coronene has been the molecule of choice for understanding the physical properties of graphene for over a decade. The modelling of the latter by the former was considered to be valid, as since it was first synthesised in 1932, the physical behaviour of coronene has been determined extremely accurately. We recently discovered however, an unforeseen polymorph of coronene, which exists as an enantiotrope with the previously observed crystal structure. Using low-temperature magnetisation and crystallographic measurements, we show here for the first time that the electronic and magnetic properties of coronene depend directly on the temperature at which it is observed, with hysteretic behaviour exhibited between 300 K and 100 K. Furthermore we determine that this behaviour is a direct result of the appearance and disappearance of the newly-discovered polymorph during thermal cycling. Our results not only highlight the need for theoretical models of graphene to take into account this anomalous behaviour at low temperatures, but also explain puzzling experimental observations of coronene dating back over 40 years.

  7. Predicting Radiation Pneumonitis After Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy in Patients Previously Treated With Conventional Thoracic Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zhang Xu; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy Y.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Chang, Joe Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to the lung in patients who had previously undergone conventional thoracic radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients who had previously received conventionally fractionated radiation therapy to the thorax were treated with SABR (50 Gy in 4 fractions) for recurrent disease or secondary parenchymal lung cancer (T 10 and mean lung dose (MLD) of the previous plan and the V 10 -V 40 and MLD of the composite plan were also related to RP. Multivariate analysis revealed that ECOG PS scores of 2-3 before SABR (P=.009), FEV1 ≤65% before SABR (P=.012), V 20 ≥30% of the composite plan (P=.021), and an initial PTV in the bilateral mediastinum (P=.025) were all associated with RP. Conclusions: We found that severe RP was relatively common, occurring in 20.8% of patients, and could be predicted by an ECOG PS score of 2-3, an FEV1 ≤65%, a previous PTV spanning the bilateral mediastinum, and V 20 ≥30% on composite (previous RT+SABR) plans. Prospective studies are needed to validate these predictors and the scoring system on which they are based.

  8. Modeling, implementation, and validation of arterial travel time reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Previous research funded by Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) developed a method for estimating : travel time reliability for arterials. This method was not initially implemented or validated using field data. This : project evaluated and r...

  9. Improvement and Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modelling Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens; Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K.

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used

  10. Improvement and Validation of Weld Residual Stress Modelling Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, Weilin; Gunnars, Jens (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Dong, Pingsha; Hong, Jeong K. (Center for Welded Structures Research, Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))

    2009-06-15

    The objective of this work is to identify and evaluate improvements for the residual stress modelling procedure currently used in Sweden. There is a growing demand to eliminate any unnecessary conservatism involved in residual stress assumptions. The study was focused on the development and validation of an improved weld residual stress modelling procedure, by taking advantage of the recent advances in residual stress modelling and stress measurement techniques. The major changes applied in the new weld residual stress modelling procedure are: - Improved procedure for heat source calibration based on use of analytical solutions. - Use of an isotropic hardening model where mixed hardening data is not available. - Use of an annealing model for improved simulation of strain relaxation in re-heated material. The new modelling procedure is demonstrated to capture the main characteristics of the through thickness stress distributions by validation to experimental measurements. Three austenitic stainless steel butt-welds cases are analysed, covering a large range of pipe geometries. From the cases it is evident that there can be large differences between the residual stresses predicted using the new procedure, and the earlier procedure or handbook recommendations. Previously recommended profiles could give misleading fracture assessment results. The stress profiles according to the new procedure agree well with the measured data. If data is available then a mixed hardening model should be used

  11. Labelled antibody techniques in glycoprotein estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.; Ekins, R.P.; Edwards, R.; Williams, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The problems in the radioimmunoassay of the glycoprotein hormones (pituitary LH, FSH and TSH and human chlorionic gonadotrophin HGG) are reviewed viz: limited specificity and sensitivity in the clinical context, interpretation of disparity between bioassay and radioimmunoassay, and interlaboratory variability. The advantages and limitations of the labelled antibody techniques - classical immonoradiometric methods and 2-site or 125 I-anti-IgG indirect labelling modifications are reviewed in general, and their theoretical potential in glycoprotein assays examined in the light of previous work. Preliminary experiments in the development of coated tube 2-site assay for glycoproteins using 125 I anti-IgG labelling are described, including conditions for maximizing solid phase extraction of the antigen, iodination of anti-IgG, and assay conditions such as effects of temperature of incubation with antigen 'hormonefree serum', heterologous serum and detergent washing. Experiments with extraction and antigen-specific antisera raised in the same or different species are described as exemplified by LH and TSH assay systems, the latter apparently promising greater sensitivity than radioimmunoassay. Proposed experimental and mathematical optimisation and validation of the method as an assay system is outlined, and the areas for further work delineated. (orig.) [de

  12. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  13. Model Validation Status Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M and O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  14. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  15. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  16. Development of knowledgebase system for assisting signal validation scheme design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.; Baba, T.; Washio, T.; Sugiyama, K.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a knowledgebase system to be used as a tool for designing signal validation schemes. The outputs from the signal validation scheme can be used as; (1) auxiliary signals for detecting sensor failures, (2) inputs to advanced instrumentation such as disturbance analysis and diagnosis system or safety parameter display system, and (3) inputs to digital control systems. Conventional signal validation techniques such as comparison of redundant sensors, limit checking, and calibration tests have been employed in nuclear power plants. However, these techniques have serious drawbacks, e.g. needs for extra sensors, vulnerability to common mode failures, limited applicability to continuous monitoring, etc. To alleviate these difficulties, a new signal validation technique has been developed by using the methods called analytic redundancy and parity space. Although the new technique has been proved feasible as far as preliminary tests are concerned, further developments should be made in order to enhance its practical applicability

  17. Predicting United States Medical Licensure Examination Step 2 clinical knowledge scores from previous academic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro KA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kristina A Monteiro, Paul George, Richard Dollase, Luba Dumenco Office of Medical Education, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: The use of multiple academic indicators to identify students at risk of experiencing difficulty completing licensure requirements provides an opportunity to increase support services prior to high-stakes licensure examinations, including the United States Medical Licensure Examination (USMLE Step 2 clinical knowledge (CK. Step 2 CK is becoming increasingly important in decision-making by residency directors because of increasing undergraduate medical enrollment and limited available residency vacancies. We created and validated a regression equation to predict students’ Step 2 CK scores from previous academic indicators to identify students at risk, with sufficient time to intervene with additional support services as necessary. Data from three cohorts of students (N=218 with preclinical mean course exam score, National Board of Medical Examination subject examinations, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK between 2011 and 2013 were used in analyses. The authors created models capable of predicting Step 2 CK scores from academic indicators to identify at-risk students. In model 1, preclinical mean course exam score and Step 1 score accounted for 56% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The second series of models included mean preclinical course exam score, Step 1 score, and scores on three NBME subject exams, and accounted for 67%–69% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The authors validated the findings on the most recent cohort of graduating students (N=89 and predicted Step 2 CK score within a mean of four points (SD=8. The authors suggest using the first model as a needs assessment to gauge the level of future support required after completion of preclinical course requirements, and rescreening after three of six clerkships to identify students who might benefit from

  18. The Effect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker...... experience among all members of the firm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-offs. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive effect on new firm survival. This effect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than...

  19. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  20. Cross validation in LULOO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1996-01-01

    The leave-one-out cross-validation scheme for generalization assessment of neural network models is computationally expensive due to replicated training sessions. Linear unlearning of examples has recently been suggested as an approach to approximative cross-validation. Here we briefly review...... the linear unlearning scheme, dubbed LULOO, and we illustrate it on a systemidentification example. Further, we address the possibility of extracting confidence information (error bars) from the LULOO ensemble....

  1. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more f