WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously thought spectral

  1. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  2. Is the Universe More Transparent to Gamma Rays than Previously Thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has recently reported the detection of the strong gamma-ray blazar 3C279 during a 1-2 day flare. They have used their spectral observations to draw conclusions regarding upper limits on the opacity of the Universe to high energy gamma-rays and, by implication, upper limits on the extragalactic mid-infrared background radiation. In this paper we examine the effect of gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic infrared radiation on intrinsic spectra for this blazar and compare our results with the observational data on 3C279. We find agreement with our previous results, contrary to the recent assertion of the MAGIC group that the Universe is more transparent to gamma-rays than our calculations indicate. Our analysis indicates that in the energy range between approx. 80 and approx. 500 GeV, 3C279 has a best-fit intrinsic spectrum with a spectral index approx. 1.78 using our fast evolution model and approx. 2.19 using our baseline model. However, we also find that spectral indices in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 are almost as equally acceptable as the best fit spectral indices. Assuming the same intrinsic spectral index for this flare as for the 1991 flare from 3C279 observed by EGRET, viz., 2.02, which lies between our best fit indeces, we estimate that the MAGIC flare was approx.3 times brighter than the EGRET flare observed 15 years earlier.

  3. Peruvian Tropical Glacier May Survive Longer Than Previously Thought: Landsat Image Analysis of Nevado Coropuna Ice Cap, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochtitzky, W. H.; Edwards, B. R.; Marino, J.; Manrique, N.

    2015-12-01

    Nevado Coropuna is a large volcanic complex in southern Peru (15.56°S, 72.62°N; 6,425 m). The complex is approximately 12 km east-west and 8 km north-south with elevation from ~4,500 m at the base to over 6,000 m at the highest points. This ice cap is the largest hosted by a volcano in the tropics, and one of the ten biggest ice masses in the tropics. Previous workers have predicted that the Coropuna ice cap will completely melt by 2050. We present a new analysis of historic satellite imagery to test this hypothesis. In this study, ice and snow are classified based on unique spectral signatures including spectral band thresholds, Normalized Difference Snow Index, and Band 4/5 ratio. Landsat scenes (L2, 4, 5, 7, and 8) from 1975 to present in addition to one SPOT scene (2013) are used. Previous workers used images from June and July, which are peak snow periods in southern Peru, leading to overestimates of ice area. This study uses November and December images when snow is at an annual minimum. Annual equilibrium line altitudes are calculated for each end of year image (November/December). The glaciers of Nevado Coropuna were found to be shrinking at ~0.5 km2/yr, which is ~1/3 the rate previously published. In this study, SPOT (1.5 m resolution) and Landsat 7 ETM scenes from November 23 and 26, 2013 respectively were used to calibrate the spectral band threshold classification. While this study suggests that the ice cap of Coropuna will persist until 2100 given current rates, water quantity and security remains a concern for Peruvian agriculture. Coropuna is an active volcano, so it poses great risk to surrounding inhabitants from lahars, flooding, and debris avalanches. Our new data suggest that these will continue to be risks late into this century.

  4. Wide-field spectral imaging of human ovary autofluorescence and oncologic diagnosis via previously collected probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkoski, Timothy E.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-03-01

    With no sufficient screening test for ovarian cancer, a method to evaluate the ovarian disease state quickly and nondestructively is needed. The authors have applied a wide-field spectral imager to freshly resected ovaries of 30 human patients in a study believed to be the first of its magnitude. Endogenous fluorescence was excited with 365-nm light and imaged in eight emission bands collectively covering the 400- to 640-nm range. Linear discriminant analysis was used to classify all image pixels and generate diagnostic maps of the ovaries. Training the classifier with previously collected single-point autofluorescence measurements of a spectroscopic probe enabled this novel classification. The process by which probe-collected spectra were transformed for comparison with imager spectra is described. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 51% were obtained in classifying normal and cancerous ovaries using autofluorescence data alone. Specificity increased to 69% when autofluorescence data were divided by green reflectance data to correct for spatial variation in tissue absorption properties. Benign neoplasm ovaries were also found to classify as nonmalignant using the same algorithm. Although applied ex vivo, the method described here appears useful for quick assessment of cancer presence in the human ovary.

  5. Severe Ketoacidosis (pH ≤ 6.9 in Type 2 Diabetes: More Frequent and Less Ominous Than Previously Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rodríguez-Gutiérrez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening acute metabolic complication of uncontrolled diabetes. Severe cases of DKA (pH ≤ 7.00, bicarbonate level ≤ 10.0, anion gap > 12, positive ketones, and altered mental status are commonly encountered in patients with type 1 diabetes and are thought to carry an ominous prognosis. There is not enough information on the clinical course of severely acidotic type 2 diabetes (pH ≤ 6.9 patients with DKA, possibly because this condition is rarely seen in developed countries. In this series, we present 18 patients with type 2 diabetes, DKA, and a pH ≤ 6.9 that presented to a tertiary university hospital over the past 11 years. The objective was to describe their clinical characteristics, the triggering cause, and emphasis on treatment, evolution, and outcomes. The majority of the patients were female (61%. Mean age was 40.66 years (23–59. The patients had been first diagnosed with type 2 diabetes on average 5.27 ± 3.12 years before admission. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 antibodies were negative in all patients. The origin of DKA could be attributed to two main causes: treatment omission in 8 (44.4% patients and infections in 7 (38.8% patients. The most common symptoms described were general malaise, dyspnea, altered mental status, and abdominal pain. Mean serum glucose on admission was 613.8 ± 114.5 mg/dL. Mean venous pH was 6.84 ± 0.03 with an anion gap of 30.3 ± 2.9 and a venous HCO3 level of 3.62 ± 1.35 mmol/L. All patients had acute renal failure on admission, with a mean serum creatinine of 1.57 ± 0.35 mg/dL compared to 0.55 ± 0.21 mg/dL at discharge. All patients received regular insulin infusion, aggressive fluid repletion, and 12 patients (66% received bicarbonate infusion. Mean total insulin infusion dose was 181.7 ± 90.4 U (on average 0.14 ± 0.05 U/Kg/h. Mean time on infusion was 24.4 ± 12.6 hours. We recorded no mortality in this case series. Mean in-hospital stay

  6. Crisis Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Edwin Kent

    2016-01-01

    Crisis thought is an idea that gives a name to and accounts for some of the problematics of the sign crisis in political, social, cultural, and economic discourse. Specifically, crisis thought is a discursive formation, a concept used loosely here to refer to an assemblage of signs such as anxiety or fear that evoke or invoke similar, but inaccurate connotations as crisis in political and everyday usage. The general question this study grapples with is why political, social, cultural, and eco...

  7. Third thoughts

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Steven

    2018-01-01

    A wise, personal, and wide-ranging meditation on science and society by the Nobel Prize–winning author of To Explain the World. For more than four decades, one of the most captivating and celebrated science communicators of our time has challenged the public to think carefully about the foundations of nature and the inseparable entanglement of science and society. In Third Thoughts Steven Weinberg casts a wide net: from the cosmological to the personal, from astronomy, quantum mechanics, and the history of science to the limitations of current knowledge, the art of discovery, and the rewards of getting things wrong. Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics and author of the classic The First Three Minutes, Weinberg shares his views on some of the most fundamental and fascinating aspects of physics and the universe. But he does not seclude science behind disciplinary walls, or shy away from politics, taking on what he sees as the folly of manned spaceflight, the harms of inequality, and the importance of public...

  8. Spectral analysis of 87-lead body surface signal-averaged ECGs in patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction as a marker of ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Y; Kubota, I; Shibata, T; Yamaki, M; Ikeda, K; Tomoike, H

    1992-06-01

    There were few studies on the relation between the body surface distribution of high- and low-frequency components within the QRS complex and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Eighty-seven signal-averaged ECGs were obtained from 30 normal subjects (N group) and 30 patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction (MI) with VT (MI-VT[+] group, n = 10) or without VT (MI-VT[-] group, n = 20). The onset and offset of the QRS complex were determined from 87-lead root mean square values computed from the averaged (but not filtered) ECG waveforms. Fast Fourier transform analysis was performed on signal-averaged ECG. The resulting Fourier coefficients were attenuated by use of the transfer function, and then inverse transform was done with five frequency ranges (0-25, 25-40, 40-80, 80-150, and 150-250 Hz). From the QRS onset to the QRS offset, the time integration of the absolute value of reconstructed waveforms was calculated for each of the five frequency ranges. The body surface distributions of these areas were expressed as QRS area maps. The maximal values of QRS area maps were compared among the three groups. In the frequency ranges of 0-25 and 150-250 Hz, there were no significant differences in the maximal values among these three groups. Both MI groups had significantly smaller maximal values of QRS area maps in the frequency ranges of 25-40 and 40-80 Hz compared with the N group. The MI-VT(+) group had significantly smaller maximal values in the frequency ranges of 40-80 and 80-150 Hz than the MI-VT(-) group. These three groups were clearly differentiated by the maximal values of the 40-80-Hz QRS area map. It was suggested that the maximal value of the 40-80-Hz QRS area map was a new marker for VT after anterior MI.

  9. Exploring thought leadership, thought liberation and critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that any discussion of Africa's social and economic development has to take into account the three critical issues that remain pressing constraints for the further advancement of well-being in Africa: thought leadership, thought liberation and critical consciousness. These three 'ingredients' should anchor aspects ...

  10. Exploring Thought Leadership, Thought Liberation and Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2015 ... peripheral position that the African continent occupies in the global ... Gumede: Exploring Thought Leadership, and Critical Consciousness ... and seemingly incapable of creative endeavours. ...... origin', Journal of Peace Research 9 (2): 105–20.

  11. Thought 2 Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes the...... the reader through key concepts like statement, argument, validity, fallacy, modality and demonstration.......Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes...

  12. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

  13. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Educational Thoughts on "Three

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With simple, light touches but deep philosophical thought, this article analyses the problems in China’s education, and at the same time, it probes into the problems of effectiveness of educational theories and methods from the considerations of THREE as the basic starting point.

  15. Elemental Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  16. Wittgenstein's True Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lugg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central remarks of the Tractatus are without substantial content or consequence, remarks at the boundaries of sense that dissolve into truth.  While they say nothing, they encapsulate logical features of the language and the world.  Unasserted, they express thoughts, the truth of which Wittgenstein takes to be unassailable and definitive.  Asserted, they are out-and-out nonsense.  What is manifest in linguistic practice is no more sayable – and no less significant – than what is manifest in logical truths, mathematical equations and the principles of mechanics.

  17. Christianity and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy......, and freedom. This philosophical project had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics. At the theoretical level, the argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy to articulate an Italian political trajectory that does not simply accept the tale...

  18. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  19. A theory of unconscious thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Nordgren, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theory about human thought named the unconscious-thought theory (UTT). The theory is applicable to decision making, impression formation, attitude formation and change, problem solving, and creativity. It distinguishes between two modes of thought: unconscious and conscious. Unconscious

  20. Non-erotic thoughts and sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdon, Christine; Watson, Chris

    2011-10-01

    This study sought to replicate and extend investigations of current models of sexual dysfunction (Barlow, 2002; Janssen, Everaerd, Spiering, & Janssen, 2000) which implicate factors such as spectatoring, failure to use ameliorative strategies, and information processing biases in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. A sample of 165 (n = 71 men) undergraduates completed measures of sexual dysfunction and relationship satisfaction, and reported on the content and frequency of non-erotic thoughts during sex with a partner (i.e., spectatoring), the emotional impact of non-erotic thoughts, and the strategies used to manage them. They also reported on their main sexual functioning difficulties and the strategies they used to manage those difficulties. Finally, participants were presented with a series of hypothetical sexual scenarios and were asked to report their immediate interpretation of events in the scenario. The content of non-erotic thoughts was similar to previous work (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006), although gender differences in thought content were less pronounced. As in previous research, greater frequency of, and anxiety evoked by, non-erotic thoughts was associated with poorer sexual functioning, but we found that this was over and above relationship satisfaction. Participants both high and low in sexual functioning reported using a variety of strategies to manage their non-erotic thoughts, thought suppression being the least effective, and also used a variety of strategies to manage sexual difficulties. Poorer sexual functioning was associated with more negative interpretations of ambiguous sexual scenarios, but this was mediated by relationship satisfaction. However, positive interpretations were predicted by sexual functioning. Results were discussed in terms of their theoretical and clinical implications.

  1. Spectral radius of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Stevanovic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the

  2. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  3. From intrusive to oscillating thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Anne Griswold

    2007-10-01

    This paper focused on the possibility that intrusive thoughts (ITs) are a form of an evolutionary, adaptive, and complex strategy to prepare for and resolve stressful life events through schema formation. Intrusive thoughts have been studied in relation to individual conditions, such as traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They have also been documented in the average person experiencing everyday stress. In many descriptions of thought intrusion, it is accompanied by thought suppression. Several theories have been put forth to describe ITs, although none provides a satisfactory explanation as to whether ITs are a normal process, a normal process gone astray, or a sign of pathology. There is also no consistent view of the role that thought suppression plays in the process. I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression may be better understood by examining them together as a complex and adaptive mechanism capable of escalating in times of need. The ability of a biological mechanism to scale up in times of need is one hallmark of a complex and adaptive system. Other hallmarks of complexity, including self-similarity across scales, sensitivity to initial conditions, presence of feedback loops, and system oscillation, are also discussed in this article. Finally, I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression are better described together as an oscillatory cycle.

  4. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 53-59

  5. Thought and Action in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2015-01-01

    In much theory there is a tendency to place thought above action, or the opposite, action over thought. The consequence of the first option is that philosophy or scientific evidence gains the upper hand in educational thinking. The consequence of the second view is that pragmatism and relativism become the dominant features. This article discusses…

  6. Psychological effects of thought acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana; Wegner, Daniel M

    2008-10-01

    Six experiments found that manipulations that increase thought speed also yield positive affect. These experiments varied in both the methods used for accelerating thought (i.e., instructions to brainstorm freely, exposure to multiple ideas, encouragement to plagiarize others' ideas, performance of easy cognitive tasks, narration of a silent video in fast-forward, and experimentally controlled reading speed) and the contents of the thoughts that were induced (from thoughts about money-making schemes to thoughts of five-letter words). The results suggested that effects of thought speed on mood are partially rooted in the subjective experience of thought speed. The results also suggested that these effects can be attributed to the joy-enhancing effects of fast thinking (rather than only to the joy-killing effects of slow thinking). This work is inspired by observations of a link between "racing thoughts" and euphoria in cases of clinical mania, and potential implications of that observed link are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  8. The Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlmann, Charlotte; Madsen, Trine; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard

    2017-01-01

    -list assignment for 32 weeks. The primary outcomes are frequency and intensity of suicidal thoughts. Secondary outcome measures include depressive symptoms, hopelessness, worrying, quality of life, costs related to health care utilization and production loss. Number of deliberate self-harm episodes, suicides......BACKGROUND: Suicidal thoughts are common, causing distress for millions of people all over the world. However, people with suicidal thoughts might not access support due to financial restraints, stigma or a lack of available treatment offers. Self-help programs provided online could overcome...... these barriers, and previous efforts show promising results in terms of reducing suicidal thoughts. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention in reducing suicidal thoughts among people at risk of suicide. The Danish Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial...

  9. Two-Rockets Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    Let n>=2 be identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1, v2, ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. Let's focus on two arbitrary rockets Ri and Rjfrom the previous n rockets. Let's suppose, without loss of generality, that their speeds verify virocket Rj is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Lj =Lj' C(vj -vi) .(2) But in the reference frame of the astronaut in Rjit is like rocket Rjis stationary andRi moves with the speed vj -vi in opposite direction. Therefore, similarly, the non-proper time interval as measured by the astronaut inRj with respect to the event inRi is dilated with the same factor D(vj -vi) , i.e. Δtj . i = Δt' D(vj -vi) , and rocketRi is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Li =Li' C(vj -vi) .But it is a contradiction to have time dilations in both rockets. (3) Varying i, j in {1, 2, ..., n} in this Thought Experiment we get again other multiple contradictions about time dilations. Similarly about length contractions, because we get for a rocket Rj, n-2 different length contraction factors: C(vj -v1) , C(vj -v2) , ..., C(vj -vj - 1) , C(vj -vj + 1) , ..., C(vj -vn) simultaneously! Which is abnormal.

  10. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  11. The U.S.-Canada Border Effect : Smaller Than Previously Thought and Becoming Smaller

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    We revisit the effect of the U.S.-Canada national border on trade, considering to what extent the border reduces trade when : observable economic factors are controlled. A reexamination of the data yields estimates of the border effect that are 50% :...

  12. Early Earth Environments for an Emerging RNA World — More Widespread than Previously Thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. L.; Burcar, B.; Ackerson, M.; Riggi, V.; Watson, E. B.; McGown, L. B.

    2017-07-01

    Expanding the potential for an RNA World, we show that several mineral catalysts, beyond montmo-rillonite, can catalyze the polymerization of activated 5'-adenosine monophosphate under high pressure conditions.

  13. Yellow fever in Brazil: thoughts and hypotheses on the emergence in previously free areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and discusses factors associated to the reemergence of yellow fever and its transmission dynamics in the states of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil and Rio Grande do Sul (Southern during 2008 and 2009. The following factors have played a pivotal role for the reemergence of yellow fever in these areas: large susceptible human population; high prevalence of vectors and primary hosts (non-human primates; favorable climate conditions, especially increased rainfall; emergence of a new genetic lineage; and circulation of people and/or monkeys infected by virus. There is a need for an effective surveillance program to prevent the reemergence of yellow fever in other Brazilian states.

  14. Language, Thought and Memory in Linguistic Performance, A Thought View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Robert

    The contrasting views of Saussure and Bloomfield ("mentalist" versus "mechanist"), the hypotheses of Whorf showing the influence of language on certain habits of thought, and Chomsky's notion of generative transformational grammar in the context of language use are reviewed. The author notes the limits of these systems and suggests that in dealing…

  15. Thoughts on categorising bloodstain patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A thought piece submitted to the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI), as part of their consideration of forming an European Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Group, and submitted by one of their experts to the Taxonomy and Terminology...

  16. Operant Variability: Some Random Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) paper is a serious and thoughtful analysis of a vexing problem in behavior analysis: Just what should count as an operant class and how do people know? The slippery issue of a "generalized operant" or functional response class illustrates one aspect of this problem, and "variation" or "novelty" as an operant appears to fall into…

  17. Thought-action fusion in individuals with OCD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, N; Freshman, M; Ramsey, B; Neary, E; Brigidi, B

    2001-07-01

    Rachman (Rachman, S. (1993). Obsessions, responsibility, and guilt. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 149-154) suggested that patients with OCD may interpret thoughts as having special importance, thus experiencing thought-action fusion (TAF). Shafran, Thordarson and Rachman (Shafran, R., Thordarson, D. S. & Rachman, S. (1996). Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 710, 379-391) developed a questionnaire (TAF) and found that obsessives scored higher than non-obsessives on the measure. In the current study, we modified the TAF to include a scale that assessed the "likelihood of events happening to others" as well as ratings of the responsibility and cost for having these thoughts. Replicating previous findings, we found that individuals with OC symptoms gave higher ratings to the likelihood of negative events happening as a result of their negative thoughts. Individuals with OC symptoms also rated the likelihood that they would prevent harm by their positive thoughts higher than did individuals without OC symptoms. These results suggest that the role of thought-action fusion in OCs may extend to exaggerated beliefs about thoughts regarding the reduction of harm.

  18. Thought confidence as a determinant of persuasion: the self-validation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Richard E; Briñol, Pablo; Tormala, Zakary L

    2002-05-01

    Previous research in the domain of attitude change has described 2 primary dimensions of thinking that impact persuasion processes and outcomes: the extent (amount) of thinking and the direction (valence) of issue-relevant thought. The authors examined the possibility that another, more meta-cognitive aspect of thinking is also important-the degree of confidence people have in their own thoughts. Four studies test the notion that thought confidence affects the extent of persuasion. When positive thoughts dominate in response to a message, increasing confidence in those thoughts increases persuasion, but when negative thoughts dominate, increasing confidence decreases persuasion. In addition, using self-reported and manipulated thought confidence in separate studies, the authors provide evidence that the magnitude of the attitude-thought relationship depends on the confidence people have in their thoughts. Finally, the authors also show that these self-validation effects are most likely in situations that foster high amounts of information processing activity.

  19. Descartes’s mathematical thought

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Chikara

    2003-01-01

    Covering both the history of mathematics and of philosophy, Descartes's Mathematical Thought reconstructs the intellectual career of Descartes most comprehensively and originally in a global perspective including the history of early modern China and Japan. Especially, it shows what the concept of "mathesis universalis" meant before and during the period of Descartes and how it influenced the young Descartes. In fact, it was the most fundamental mathematical discipline during the seventeenth century, and for Descartes a key notion which may have led to his novel mathematics of algebraic analysis.

  20. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  1. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  2. Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waroquier, Laurent; Marchiori, David; Klein, Olivier; Cleeremans, Axel

    2009-01-01

    According to Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT: Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit "unconscious thought". Over three studies, respectively offering a conceptual, an identical and a methodologically improved replication of

  3. First onset of suicidal thought and behaviors in college

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mortier, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Auerbach, R.; Cuijpers, Pim; Green, J.G.; Kiekens, G.; Kessler, R.C.; Nock, M.K.; Zaslavsky, A.; Bruffaerts, R

    2017-01-01

    Background College students are a worldwide increasing group of young people at risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB). However, no previous studies have prospectively investigated the first onset of STB during the college period. Methods Using longitudinal data from the Leuven College

  4. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  5. Spectral Imaging by Upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to obtain spectrally resolved images using upconversion. By this method an image is spectrally shifted from one spectral region to another wavelength. Since the process is spectrally sensitive it allows for a tailored spectral response. We believe this will allow standard...... silicon based cameras designed for visible/near infrared radiation to be used for spectral images in the mid infrared. This can lead to much lower costs for such imaging devices, and a better performance....

  6. Second-to-Last Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2016-06-01

    You can’t really prepare an abstract of a concluding-remarks talk, but having spent 19 years, 8 months as a full time student (Sept. 1948, Toluca Lake Grammar School kindergarten to April 1968 Caltech Ph.D.), most of the ensuing 48 years as a teacher, and about 51 years as some sort of astronomer, I find myself woefully ignorant of astronomy education and therefore well prepared to bring a fresh and vacant mind to the ideas presented by our colleagues here. Several thoughts, however, intrude. First, as Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin said, “a woman should do astronomy only if nothing else will satisfy her, for nothing else is what she will get.” Make that “person” and “science” and it still carries much truth. Second, it is better to be a professional astronomer and an amateur alto than the converse. And third, it is better to be a professional dentist and an amateur astronomer than the converse. This, I think, leaves room for all of us to work in areas that we find attractive and that we turn out to be reasonably good at. The latter is at least as important as the former. There is a great deal of pleasure to be found as a second-rate singer or artist, but not, I hope, as a lousy astronomer or teacher.

  7. Thoughts on the nude body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fabbri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of nude appears to have ‘moved’, both because of the shift in our gaze and its point of reference. That is, unless this ‘negative emphasis’ is seen only as the uncri­ti­cal acceptance of that ‘polarizing question’ that declared the end of Clas­sical art and the decisive advent of modernity or as the effect of an hermeneutic excess ‒ of a philosophical definition of the nude impli­cit in our figurative culture – is it now the moment to go beyond the observation of the canonic nude and to develop new approaches to nudity? Despite its obviousness, the nude, too, is difficult to define. Where does the garment begin and the gown end? The skin and the flesh? How are we to describe the for­ces, movements and gestures of the body and its involucres? I will argue that the nude should be neither a pictorial genre nor a philosophical concept, but a «thought of the body» (De Chirico. It is an aesthetic figure with the power of affection and perception, but also a conceptual figure. It is not a ‘critical operator’ ‒ a cognitive ‘walk-on’ or extra ‒ but an actor with the power of speech, capable of forming and transforming new relationships with observers.

  8. Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral Decomposition Algorithm (SDA) is an unsupervised feature extraction technique similar to PCA that was developed to better distinguish spectral features in...

  9. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  10. On the origins of endogenous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillas, Alexandros

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Interestingly, IFG is also closely related to silent talking, as well as volition. The connection between IFG and volition is important given that endogenous thoughts are or at least greatly resemble voluntary actions. Against this background, I argue that IFG is key to understanding the origins of conscious endogenous thoughts. Furthermore, I look into goal-directed thinking and show that IFG plays a key role also in unconscious endogenous thinking.

  11. Thought and Language in Cognitive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destéfano, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive science, the discussion about the relations between language and thought is very heterogeneous. It involves developments on linguistics, philosophy, psychology, etc. Carruthers and Boucher (1998 identify different criteria that would organize the diversity of positions about language and thought assumed in linguistics, philosophy and psychology. One of them is the constitution thesis (CT, which establishes that language is constitutively involved in thought. In this paper I would like to show some problems of CT in order to understand the relation between language and thought in cognitive science.

  12. Thoughts from an Unapologetically Honest Introvert

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Amy Michelle

    2014-01-01

    My thesis exhibition, titled Thoughts From An Unapologetically Honest Introvert, highlighted our extrovert-centered society and provided introverts with new communication tools to change the social expectation.

  13. Recording thoughts while memorizing music: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania eLisboa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Musicians generally believe that memory differs from one person to the next. As a result, memorizing strategies that could be useful to almost everyone are not widely taught. We describe how an 18-year old piano student (Grade 7, ABRSM, learned to memorize by recording her thoughts, a technique inspired by studies of how experienced soloists memorize. The student, who had previously ignored suggestions that she play from memory, decided to learn to memorize, selecting Schumann’s Der Dichter Spricht for this purpose. Rather than explicitly teaching the student how to memorize, the teacher taught her to record her thoughts while playing by marking them on copies of the score, adapting an approach used previously in research with experienced performers. Over a 6½ week period, the student recorded her thoughts during practice (5 times and while performing from memory for the teacher (3 times. The student also video-recorded three weeks of practice, three performances, and the reconstruction of the piece from memory after a 9½-weeks break. The thoughts that the student reported were prepared during practice, stable over time, and functioned as memory retrieval cues during reconstruction. This suggests that the student memorized in the same way as the more experienced musicians who have been studied previously and that teaching student musicians to record their thoughts may be an effective way to help them memorize. The speed and durability of her memorization surprised the student, inspiring her to perform in public and to use the same technique for new pieces.

  14. Recording thoughts while memorizing music: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Tania; Chaffin, Roger; Demos, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Musicians generally believe that memory differs from one person to the next. As a result, memorizing strategies that could be useful to almost everyone are not widely taught. We describe how an 18-years old piano student (Grade 7, ABRSM), learned to memorize by recording her thoughts, a technique inspired by studies of how experienced soloists memorize. The student, who had previously ignored suggestions that she play from memory, decided to learn to memorize, selecting Schumann’s “Der Dichter Spricht” for this purpose. Rather than explicitly teaching the student how to memorize, the teacher taught her to record her thoughts while playing by marking them on copies of the score, adapting an approach used previously in research with experienced performers. Over a 6½ week period, the student recorded her thoughts during practice (five times) and while performing from memory for the teacher (three times). The student also video-recorded 3 weeks of practice, three performances, and the reconstruction of the piece from memory after a 9½-weeks break. The thoughts that the student reported were prepared during practice, stable over time, and functioned as memory retrieval cues during reconstruction. This suggests that the student memorized in the same way as the more experienced musicians who have been studied previously and that teaching student musicians to record their thoughts may be an effective way to help them memorize. The speed and durability of her memorization surprised the student, inspiring her to perform in public and to use the same technique for new pieces. PMID:25667574

  15. Choice as an engine of analytic thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    Choice is a behavioral act that has a variety of well-documented motivational consequences-it fosters independence by allowing people to simultaneously express themselves and influence the environment. Given the link between independence and analytic thinking, the current research tested whether choice also leads people to think in a more analytic rather than holistic manner. Four experiments demonstrate that making choices, recalling choices, and viewing others make choices leads people to think more analytically, as indicated by their attitudes, perceptual judgments, categorization, and patterns of attention allocation. People who made choices scored higher on a subjective self-report measure of analytic cognition compared to whose did not make a choice (pilot study). Using an objective task-based measure, people who recalled choices rather than actions were less influenced by changes in the background when making judgments about focal objects (Experiment 1). People who thought of others' behaviors as choices rather than actions were more likely to group objects based on categories rather than relationships (Experiment 2). People who recalled choices rather than actions subsequently allocated more visual attention to focal objects in a scene (Experiment 3). Together, these experiments demonstrate that choice has important yet previously unexamined consequences for basic psychological processes such as attention and cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Discovering Supervisors' Thought Patterns through Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roger C.; Moon, R. Arden

    This study focused on the thoughts, related schema, and decision-making of student teaching supervisors as they go about their work of supervision. Twelve practicing supervisors were asked to write their thoughts on a three-stage data gathering, circle instrument. These concepts were weighted to reflect the significance each concept had in the…

  17. "Aid to Thought"--Just Simulate It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinczkowski, Linda; Cardon, Phillip; Speelman, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides examples of Aid-to-Thought uses in urban decision making, classroom laboratory planning, and in a ship antiaircraft defense system. Aid-to-Thought modeling and simulations are tools students can use effectively in a STEM classroom while meeting Standards for Technological Literacy Benchmarks O and R. These projects prepare…

  18. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  19. Onboard spectral imager data processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Franklin, Abraham J.; Sears, Robert D.; Robison, Mark W.; Rafert, J. Bruce; Fronterhouse, Donald C.; Grotbeck, Ronald L.

    1999-10-01

    Previous papers have described the concept behind the MightySat II.1 program, the satellite's Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer's optical design, the design for the spectral imaging payload, and its initial qualification testing. This paper discusses the on board data processing designed to reduce the amount of downloaded data by an order of magnitude and provide a demonstration of a smart spaceborne spectral imaging sensor. Two custom components, a spectral imager interface 6U VME card that moves data at over 30 MByte/sec, and four TI C-40 processors mounted to a second 6U VME and daughter card, are used to adapt the sensor to the spacecraft and provide the necessary high speed processing. A system architecture that offers both on board real time image processing and high-speed post data collection analysis of the spectral data has been developed. In addition to the on board processing of the raw data into a usable spectral data volume, one feature extraction technique has been incorporated. This algorithm operates on the basic interferometric data. The algorithm is integrated within the data compression process to search for uploadable feature descriptions.

  20. Spectral gamuts and spectral gamut mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Mitchell R.; Derhak, Maxim W.

    2006-01-01

    All imaging devices have two gamuts: the stimulus gamut and the response gamut. The response gamut of a print engine is typically described in CIE colorimetry units, a system derived to quantify human color response. More fundamental than colorimetric gamuts are spectral gamuts, based on radiance, reflectance or transmittance units. Spectral gamuts depend on the physics of light or on how materials interact with light and do not involve the human's photoreceptor integration or brain processing. Methods for visualizing a spectral gamut raise challenges as do considerations of how to utilize such a data-set for producing superior color reproductions. Recent work has described a transformation of spectra reduced to 6-dimensions called LabPQR. LabPQR was designed as a hybrid space with three explicit colorimetric axes and three additional spectral reconstruction axes. In this paper spectral gamuts are discussed making use of LabPQR. Also, spectral gamut mapping is considered in light of the colorimetric-spectral duality of the LabPQR space.

  1. Messianism in Latin American Environmental Thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Dairo

    2008-01-01

    One appears in the communication as one resorts for the social mobilization, towards the political pretensions of the messianic environmental thought, to symbiologies of body, psychic character and society of skeptical or relativist character. For the analysis of the symbiologies, we start from the criterion that when they are used politically in the environmental thought it is not done necessarily with an intention of strategic use I specify, but that its use can be by the implicit valuations that have these symbiologies in the world of the daily life, where the systems of environmental thought also interact of messianic type

  2. Thought Disorder in Preschool Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amanda K; Kelsay, Kimberly; Talmi, Ayelet; Noonan, Kate; Ross, Randal G

    2016-08-01

    Preschool identification of and intervention for psychiatric symptoms has the potential for lifelong benefits. However, preschool identification of thought disorder, a symptom associated with long term risk for social and cognitive dysfunction, has received little attention with previous work limited to examining preschoolers with severe emotional and behavioral dysregulation. Using story-stem methodology, 12 children with ADHD and 12 children without ADHD, ages 4.0-6.0 years were evaluated for thought disorder. Thought disorder was reliably assessed (Cronbach's alpha = .958). Children with ADHD were significantly more likely than children without ADHD to exhibit thought disorder (75 vs 25 %; Fischer's Exact Test = .0391). Thought disorder can be reliably assessed in preschool children and is present in preschool children with psychiatric illness including preschool children with ADHD. Thought disorder may be identifiable in preschool years across a broad range of psychiatric illnesses and thus may be an appropriate target of intervention.

  3. Neurally and mathematically motivated architecture for language and thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, L I; Ilin, R

    2010-01-01

    Neural structures of interaction between thinking and language are unknown. This paper suggests a possible architecture motivated by neural and mathematical considerations. A mathematical requirement of computability imposes significant constraints on possible architectures consistent with brain neural structure and with a wealth of psychological knowledge. How language interacts with cognition. Do we think with words, or is thinking independent from language with words being just labels for decisions? Why is language learned by the age of 5 or 7, but acquisition of knowledge represented by learning to use this language knowledge takes a lifetime? This paper discusses hierarchical aspects of language and thought and argues that high level abstract thinking is impossible without language. We discuss a mathematical technique that can model the joint language-thought architecture, while overcoming previously encountered difficulties of computability. This architecture explains a contradiction between human ability for rational thoughtful decisions and irrationality of human thinking revealed by Tversky and Kahneman; a crucial role in this contradiction might be played by language. The proposed model resolves long-standing issues: how the brain learns correct words-object associations; why animals do not talk and think like people. We propose the role played by language emotionality in its interaction with thought. We relate the mathematical model to Humboldt's "firmness" of languages; and discuss possible influence of language grammar on its emotionality. Psychological and brain imaging experiments related to the proposed model are discussed. Future theoretical and experimental research is outlined.

  4. Does unconscious thought outperform conscious thought on complex decisions? A further examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Thorsteinson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the benefits of unconscious thought on complex decisions (Dijksterhuis, 2004. Experiment 1 attempted to replicate and extend past research by examining the effect of providing reasons prior to rating the options. Results indicated no significant differences between the conditions. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate the findings of Dijksterhuis, Bos, Nordgren, and van Baaren (2006 and determine if a memory aid could overcome the limitations of conscious thought on complex tasks. Results revealed that a memory aid improved decisions compared to the conscious thought condition. Participants in the unconscious thought condition did not perform significantly better than did participants in the conscious thought condition.

  5. A few thoughts on the history ofepilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A few thoughts on the history ofepilepsy. J. C. DE ... Abstract The history of epilepsy is a saga ofthe struggle by ..... great detail in Germany using faradic stimulation and .... Holmes G. Evolution of clinical medicine as illustrated by rhe his-.

  6. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  7. Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts on an Appropriate ... This will be achieved through the creation of an IP system that provides ... the good being protected and the manner in which the creative process unfolds.

  8. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  9. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Þahin ÇÝFTÇÝ; Tacettin KURU

    2013-01-01

    Thought Action Fusion (TAF) is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996), is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). TAF alleged includi...

  10. DETECTION OF ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL VARIATION ON THE M-TYPE ASTEROID (16) PSYCHE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reddy, Vishnu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shepard, Michael K. [Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA 17815 (United States); Cloutis, Edward A.; Kiddell, Cain; Applin, Daniel [Department of Geography, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Takir, Driss [Astrogeology Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Conrad, Albert, E-mail: jsanchez@psi.edu [LBT Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The asteroid (16) Psyche is of scientific interest because it contains ∼1% of the total mass of the asteroid belt and is thought to be the remnant metallic core of a protoplanet. Radar observations have indicated the significant presence of metal on the surface with a small percentage of silicates. Prior ground-based observations showed rotational variations in the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and radar albedo of this asteroid. However, no comprehensive study that combines multi-wavelength data has been conducted so far. Here we present rotationally resolved NIR spectra (0.7–2.5 μ m) of (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. These data have been combined with shape models of the asteroid for each rotation phase. Spectral band parameters extracted from the NIR spectra show that the pyroxene band center varies from ∼0.92 to 0.94 μ m. Band center values were used to calculate the pyroxene chemistry of the asteroid, whose average value was found to be Fs{sub 30}En{sub 65}Wo{sub 5}. Variations in the band depth (BD) were also observed, with values ranging from 1.0% to 1.5%. Using a new laboratory spectral calibration method, we estimated an average orthopyroxene content of 6% ± 1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche, which exhibits the highest radar albedo, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum BD. The spectral characteristics of Psyche suggest that its parent body did not have the typical structure expected for a differentiated body or that the sequence of events that led to its current state was more complex than previously thought.

  11. DETECTION OF ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL VARIATION ON THE M-TYPE ASTEROID (16) PSYCHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Thomas, Cristina; Reddy, Vishnu; Shepard, Michael K.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Kiddell, Cain; Applin, Daniel; Takir, Driss; Conrad, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The asteroid (16) Psyche is of scientific interest because it contains ∼1% of the total mass of the asteroid belt and is thought to be the remnant metallic core of a protoplanet. Radar observations have indicated the significant presence of metal on the surface with a small percentage of silicates. Prior ground-based observations showed rotational variations in the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and radar albedo of this asteroid. However, no comprehensive study that combines multi-wavelength data has been conducted so far. Here we present rotationally resolved NIR spectra (0.7–2.5 μ m) of (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. These data have been combined with shape models of the asteroid for each rotation phase. Spectral band parameters extracted from the NIR spectra show that the pyroxene band center varies from ∼0.92 to 0.94 μ m. Band center values were used to calculate the pyroxene chemistry of the asteroid, whose average value was found to be Fs 30 En 65 Wo 5 . Variations in the band depth (BD) were also observed, with values ranging from 1.0% to 1.5%. Using a new laboratory spectral calibration method, we estimated an average orthopyroxene content of 6% ± 1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche, which exhibits the highest radar albedo, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum BD. The spectral characteristics of Psyche suggest that its parent body did not have the typical structure expected for a differentiated body or that the sequence of events that led to its current state was more complex than previously thought.

  12. Detection of Rotational Spectral Variation on the M-type Asteroid (16) Psyche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan A.; Reddy, Vishnu; Shepard, Michael K.; Thomas, Cristina; Cloutis, Edward A.; Takir, Driss; Conrad, Albert; Kiddell, Cain; Applin, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The asteroid (16) Psyche is of scientific interest because it contains ˜1% of the total mass of the asteroid belt and is thought to be the remnant metallic core of a protoplanet. Radar observations have indicated the significant presence of metal on the surface with a small percentage of silicates. Prior ground-based observations showed rotational variations in the near-infrared (NIR) spectra and radar albedo of this asteroid. However, no comprehensive study that combines multi-wavelength data has been conducted so far. Here we present rotationally resolved NIR spectra (0.7-2.5 μm) of (16) Psyche obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. These data have been combined with shape models of the asteroid for each rotation phase. Spectral band parameters extracted from the NIR spectra show that the pyroxene band center varies from ˜0.92 to 0.94 μm. Band center values were used to calculate the pyroxene chemistry of the asteroid, whose average value was found to be Fs30En65Wo5. Variations in the band depth (BD) were also observed, with values ranging from 1.0% to 1.5%. Using a new laboratory spectral calibration method, we estimated an average orthopyroxene content of 6% ± 1%. The mass-deficit region of Psyche, which exhibits the highest radar albedo, also shows the highest value for the spectral slope and the minimum BD. The spectral characteristics of Psyche suggest that its parent body did not have the typical structure expected for a differentiated body or that the sequence of events that led to its current state was more complex than previously thought.

  13. Spectral Index Properties of millijansky Radio Sources in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Kate; Hopkins, A. M.; Norris, R. P.; Zinn, P.; Middelberg, E.; Mao, M. Y.; Sharp, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    At the faintest radio flux densities (S1.4GHz 10 mJy) is well studied and is predominantly comprised of AGN. At fainter flux densities, particularly into the microJansky regime, star-forming galaxies begin to dominate the radio source population. Understanding these faint radio source populations is essential for understanding galaxy evolution, and the link between AGN and star formation. Conflicting results have recently arisen regarding whether there is a flattening of the average spectral index between a low radio frequency (325 or 610 MHz) and 1.4 GHz at these faint flux densities. To explore this issue, we have investigated the spectral index properties of a new catalogue of 843 MHz radio sources in the ELAIS-S1 (the European Large Area ISO Survey - South 1 Region) field. Our results support previous work showing a tendency towards flatter radio spectra at fainter flux densities. This catalogue is cross-matched to the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS), the widest deep radio survey to date at 1.4 GHz, with complementary 2.3 GHz, optical and infrared Spitzer Wide-area Infra-Red Extragalactic data. The variation of spectral index properties have been explored as a function of redshift, luminosity and flux density. [These new measurements have been used to identify a population of faint Compact Steep Spectrum sources, thought to be one of the earliest stages of the AGN life-cycle. Exploring this population will aid us in understanding the evolution of AGN as a whole.

  14. Extracting attosecond delays from spectrally overlapping interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2018-02-01

    Attosecond interferometry is becoming an increasingly popular technique for measuring the dynamics of photoionization in real time. Whereas early measurements focused on atomic systems with very simple photoelectron spectra, the technique is now being applied to more complex systems including isolated molecules and solids. The increase in complexity translates into an augmented spectral congestion, unavoidably resulting in spectral overlap in attosecond interferograms. Here, we discuss currently used methods for phase retrieval and introduce two new approaches for determining attosecond photoemission delays from spectrally overlapping photoelectron spectra. We show that the previously used technique, consisting in the spectral integration of the areas of interest, does in general not provide reliable results. Our methods resolve this problem, thereby opening the technique of attosecond interferometry to complex systems and fully exploiting its specific advantages in terms of spectral resolution compared to attosecond streaking.

  15. Thought beyond language: neural dissociation of algebra and natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Martin M; Parsons, Lawrence M; Osherson, Daniel N

    2012-08-01

    A central question in cognitive science is whether natural language provides combinatorial operations that are essential to diverse domains of thought. In the study reported here, we addressed this issue by examining the role of linguistic mechanisms in forging the hierarchical structures of algebra. In a 3-T functional MRI experiment, we showed that processing of the syntax-like operations of algebra does not rely on the neural mechanisms of natural language. Our findings indicate that processing the syntax of language elicits the known substrate of linguistic competence, whereas algebraic operations recruit bilateral parietal brain regions previously implicated in the representation of magnitude. This double dissociation argues against the view that language provides the structure of thought across all cognitive domains.

  16. The spectral dimension of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destri, Claudio; Donetti, Luca

    2002-01-01

    We present a simple yet rigorous approach to the determination of the spectral dimension of random trees, based on the study of the massless limit of the Gaussian model on such trees. As a by-product, we obtain evidence in favour of a new scaling hypothesis for the Gaussian model on generic bounded graphs and in favour of a previously conjectured exact relation between spectral and connectivity dimensions on more general tree-like structures

  17. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested......In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...... and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set...

  18. Spectral Learning for Supervised Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yining; Zhu, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Supervised topic models simultaneously model the latent topic structure of large collections of documents and a response variable associated with each document. Existing inference methods are based on variational approximation or Monte Carlo sampling, which often suffers from the local minimum defect. Spectral methods have been applied to learn unsupervised topic models, such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), with provable guarantees. This paper investigates the possibility of applying spectral methods to recover the parameters of supervised LDA (sLDA). We first present a two-stage spectral method, which recovers the parameters of LDA followed by a power update method to recover the regression model parameters. Then, we further present a single-phase spectral algorithm to jointly recover the topic distribution matrix as well as the regression weights. Our spectral algorithms are provably correct and computationally efficient. We prove a sample complexity bound for each algorithm and subsequently derive a sufficient condition for the identifiability of sLDA. Thorough experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets verify the theory and demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the spectral algorithms. In fact, our results on a large-scale review rating dataset demonstrate that our single-phase spectral algorithm alone gets comparable or even better performance than state-of-the-art methods, while previous work on spectral methods has rarely reported such promising performance.

  19. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  20. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þahin ÇÝFTÇÝ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thought Action Fusion (TAF is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996, is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. TAF alleged including a certain level also in the normal population, was seen in the relationship with the inflated responsability in OCD, thought suppression and neutralising, was tried to explain the direction of this relationship in the mediationel model framework. [JCBPR 2013; 2(3.000: 138-146

  1. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin CIFTCI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thought Action Fusion (TAF is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996, is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. TAF alleged including a certain level also in the normal population, was seen in the relationship with the inflated responsability in OCD, thought suppression and neutralising, was tried to explain the direction of this relationship in the mediationel model framework.

  2. Fast thought speed induces risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jesse J; Pronin, Emily

    2012-04-01

    In two experiments, we tested for a causal link between thought speed and risk taking. In Experiment 1, we manipulated thought speed by presenting neutral-content text at either a fast or a slow pace and having participants read the text aloud. In Experiment 2, we manipulated thought speed by presenting fast-, medium-, or slow-paced movie clips that contained similar content. Participants who were induced to think more quickly took more risks with actual money in Experiment 1 and reported greater intentions to engage in real-world risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex and illegal drug use, in Experiment 2. These experiments provide evidence that faster thinking induces greater risk taking.

  3. Hong Kong Liberals Are WEIRD: Analytic Thought Increases Support for Liberal Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhelm, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    This study tests whether liberals and conservatives within the same society think as if they were from different cultures. I tested this by measuring the cultural thought style of social liberals and conservatives in Hong Kong (Study 1). Liberals tended to think more analytically (more "WEIRD"), and conservatives tended to think more holistically (more common in East Asia). In Study 2, I trained people to think analytically or holistically before they read articles on political issues. Analytic thought caused people to form more liberal opinions, and holistic thought caused people to form more conservative opinions. The thought training affected participants' responses to a social issue, but not an economic issue or whether they identified as liberal or conservative. This study replicates a previous U.S. finding in an East Asian culture and a different political environment, suggesting that the link between politics and thought style extends beyond the United States.

  4. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry:Is Abstract Thought Metaphorical Thought?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eLakoff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  5. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between ...... observation sites and the turbulence intensity influence the results. The limitations of the theory are discussed....

  6. Suicidal Thoughts Among Medical Residents with Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report

  7. The relation between language, culture, and thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kanero, Junko; Masuda, Takahiko

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between culture, language, and thought has long been one of the most important topics for those who wish to understand the nature of human cognition. This issue has been investigated for decades across a broad range of research disciplines. However, there has been scant communication across these different disciplines, a situation largely arising through differences in research interests and discrepancies in the definitions of key terms such as 'culture,' 'language,' and 'thought.' This article reviews recent trends in research on the relation between language, culture and thought to capture how cognitive psychology and cultural psychology have defined 'language' and 'culture,' and how this issue was addressed within each research discipline. We then review recent research conducted in interdisciplinary perspectives, which directly compared the roles of culture and language. Finally, we highlight the importance of considering the complex interplay between culture and language to provide a comprehensive picture of how language and culture affect thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary Regeneration Model of Thought Process

    OpenAIRE

    Noboru, HOKKYO; Hitachi Energy Research Laboratory

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary attempt is made to understand the thought process and the evolution of the nervous system on the same footing as regeneration processes obeying certain recursive algebraic rules which possibly economize the information content of the increasingly complex structural-functional correlate of the evolving and thinking nervous system.

  9. Some thoughts on interacting binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The author presents some thoughts on the theory and observation of interacting binary systems. The complex physical processes possible in these systems make our present understanding inconclusive. New types of observation (X-ray, EUV, radio) present new challenges to the theoretician. The author discusses those problems which seem to hold the most promise for future progress. (Auth.)

  10. Patients' thoughts on patient- retained medical records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was also thought to motivate the patients to act on the advice given, and the records also served as a reminder to take their ... to use it and to standardise the information that is recorded; and health planners should be motivated to implement .... Table I: Combined list of themes identified and quotations supporting them.

  11. Disciplines in the Service of Educational Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that the 20th century has been the century of the application of disciplines - philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, statistics, cognitive science, and computer science - to educational thought on an unprecedented scale. The same disciplines, in the service of the study of women by women, have led to a whole new complex of thought…

  12. Scientific publishing: some food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Bo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publishing, here to be considered in a broader sense, as publishing of both specialised scientific journals and science popularisation works addressed to a wider audience, has been sailing for some years on troubled waters. To gather some possible food for thought is the purpose of this brief article.

  13. Agrammatism in a case of formal thought disorder: Beyond intellectual decline and working memory deficit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that naming and syntactic deficits in formal thought disorder may be related to global cognitive decline. This article reports the case of a patient, FM, with formal thought disorder schizophrenia who presents disproportionate deficits in receptive and expressive grammar with respect to his intellectual level of functioning. Syntactic and morphologic components of expressive grammar appeared equally impaired. Deficits in language comprehension were observed independently from working memory limitations. FM showed preserved grammaticality judgment, but defective sentence comprehension where semantic context does not provide heuristics for assigning thematic roles, but syntactic knowledge is essential. These atypical results are discussed within a neurodevelopmental aetiological model of formal thought disorder.

  14. Effects of songs with prosocial lyrics on prosocial thoughts, affect, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    "Previous research has shown that exposure to violent media increased aggression-related affect and thoughts, physiological arousal, and aggressive behavior as well as decreased prosocial tendencies. The present research examined the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial media promotes prosocial outcomes. Three studies revealed that listening to songs with prosocial (relative to neutral) lyrics increased the accessibility of prosocial thoughts, led to more interpersonal empathy, and fostered ...

  15. Thoughts in flight: automation use and pilots' task-related and task-unrelated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to examine the relationship between cockpit automation use and task-related and task-unrelated thought among airline pilots. Studies find that cockpit automation can sometimes relieve pilots of tedious control tasks and afford them more time to think ahead. Paradoxically, automation has also been shown to lead to lesser awareness. These results prompt the question of what pilots think about while using automation. A total of 18 airline pilots flew a Boeing 747-400 simulator while we recorded which of two levels of automation they used. As they worked, pilots were verbally probed about what they were thinking. Pilots were asked to categorize their thoughts as pertaining to (a) a specific task at hand, (b) higher-level flight-related thoughts (e.g.,planning ahead), or (c) thoughts unrelated to the flight. Pilots' performance was also measured. Pilots reported a smaller percentage of task-at-hand thoughts (27% vs. 50%) and a greater percentage of higher-level flight-related thoughts (56% vs. 29%) when using the higher level of automation. However, when all was going according to plan, using either level of automation, pilots also reported a higher percentage of task-unrelated thoughts (21%) than they did when in the midst of an unsuccessful performance (7%). Task-unrelated thoughts peaked at 25% when pilots were not interacting with the automation. Although cockpit automation may provide pilots with more time to think, it may encourage pilots to reinvest only some of this mental free time in thinking flight-related thoughts. This research informs the design of human-automation systems that more meaningfully engage the human operator.

  16. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  17. Manic thinking: independent effects of thought speed and thought content on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Wegner, Daniel M

    2006-09-01

    This experiment found that the speed of thought affects mood. Thought speed was manipulated via participants' paced reading of statements designed to induce either an elated or a depressed mood. Participants not only experienced more positive mood in response to elation than in response to depression statements, but also experienced an independent increase in positive mood when they had been thinking fast rather than slow--for both elation and depression statements. This effect of thought speed extended beyond mood to other experiences often associated with mania (i.e., feelings of power, feelings of creativity, a heightened sense of energy, and inflated self-esteem or grandiosity).

  18. Spectrally accurate contour dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, R.D.; Marcus, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    We present an exponentially accurate boundary integral method for calculation the equilibria and dynamics of piece-wise constant distributions of potential vorticity. The method represents contours of potential vorticity as a spectral sum and solves the Biot-Savart equation for the velocity by spectrally evaluating a desingularized contour integral. We use the technique in both an initial-value code and a newton continuation method. Our methods are tested by comparing the numerical solutions with known analytic results, and it is shown that for the same amount of computational work our spectral methods are more accurate than other contour dynamics methods currently in use

  19. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  20. Christian thought in Momcilo Nastasijevic's poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić-Tmušić Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poetry of Momcilo Nastasijevic gives us undoubted motive to talk about him as a consistent religious poet, a poet of orthodox religious inspiration. He approached towards words as sanctity, he endeavoured to measure each word, reach it, and clean it from accumulated dust of everyday’s blather. His attitude towards poetical locution, his personal law of poetical perfection, represents, brought up to the last consequences, principles of symbolist poetics. He thought of words as magic of sound and rhythm and examines all the effects we can get from it. To him, poetry was identical to crucial and the purest flickering of what he called human soul. The thought of our poet come down to essence of his poetry: who has understood his poems, can be sure that will understand Nastasijevic as a poet.

  1. Modular thought in the circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Applied to solve the problem of modular thought, provides a whole for simplification's method, the complex problems have become of, and the study of circuit is similar to the above problems: the complex connection between components, make the whole circuit topic solution seems to be more complex, and actually components the connection between the have rules to follow, this article mainly tells the story of study on the application of the circuit modular thought. First of all, this paper introduces the definition of two-terminal network and the concept of two-terminal network equivalent conversion, then summarizes the common source resistance hybrid network modular approach, containing controlled source network modular processing method, lists the common module, typical examples analysis.

  2. Globalising the classical foundations of IPE thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Helleiner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current efforts to teach and research the historical foundations of IPE thought in classical political economy in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries centre largely on European and American thinkers. If a more extensive 'global conversation' is to be fostered in the field today, the perspectives of thinkers in other regions need to be recognised, and brought into the mainstream of its intellectual history. As a first step towards 'globalising' the classical foundations of IPE thought, this article demonstrates some ways in which thinkers located beyond Europe and the United States engaged with and contributed to debates associated with the three well-known classical traditions on which current IPE scholarship often draws: economic liberalism, economic nationalism and Marxism. It also reveals the extensive nature of 'global conversations' about IPE issues in this earlier era.

  3. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  4. Life and its transfiguration in Nietzsche's thought

    OpenAIRE

    Cominos, Marina Olive

    2017-01-01

    This thesis argues that Nietzsche’s thought takes two paths toward overcoming the nihilism of modern culture. It shows that affirmation is alternatively conceived as a revaluation of life and as a transfiguration of it, introducing an ambiguity at the heart of Nietzsche’s philosophy. Nietzsche’s aspiration to cultural regeneration prevents him from recognising the implications of affirmation as it is best conceived, as transfiguration, an aesthetic condition that cannot be imposed or designed...

  5. Jean Rouch: sign, true and thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a fundamental question: thinking cinema verite documentary created by Jean Rouch from Deleuze’s power of the false problematic to highlight the singularities of images and signs that make it up. The cinematographic images created by Rouch allowing that thought be taken to maximum intensity and the process of artistic creation make speakable the unspeakable, audible the inaudible and visible the invisible.  

  6. Thought and Behavior Contagion in Capital Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, David; Teoh, Siew Hong

    2008-01-01

    Prevailing models of capital markets capture a limited form of social influence and information transmission, in which the beliefs and behavior of an investor affects others only through market price, information transmission and processing is simple (without thoughts and feelings), and there is no localization in the influence of an investor on others. In reality, individuals often process verbal arguments obtained in conversation or from media presentations, and observe...

  7. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or ?hyperpositive? (manic/goa...

  8. A Reappraisal of Jevons's Thought on Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Motohiro, Okada; Faculty of Economics, Konan University

    2012-01-01

    This paper re-examines W. S. Jevons's thought on labour and elucidates its uniqueness and limitations. Jevons's subjectivist approach penetrated his theory of labour, and he regarded pain as the measure of labour. In the first edition of The Theory of Political Economy, Jevons provided insights that could lead to the negation of the market determination of wages and other work conditions, thus offering a rationalisation of the intervention of socio-political factors in labour exchange. In doi...

  9. [Population policy: the legacy of Greek thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgegren Reategui, F

    1994-01-01

    The author "explains that the Greek philosophy and scientific thought developed elements of what is known today as population policies. These include roles and gender relationships, the population volume, the family, sexuality, birth control, eugenics, abortion and [quality of life]....The first part of the article reviews issues on family and women's roles. The second part is related to aspects associated with sexuality and...population policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  10. SPECTRAL SMILE CORRECTION IN CRISM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceamanos, X.; Doute, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is affected by a common artifact in "push-broom" sensors, the so-called "spectral smile". As a consequence, both central wavelength and spectral width of the spectral response vary along the across-track dimension, thus giving rise to a shifting and smoothing of spectra (see Fig. 1 (left)). In fact, both effects are greater for spectra on the edges, while they are minimum for data acquired by central detectors, the so-called "sweet spot". The prior artifacts become particularly critical for Martian observations which contain steep spectra such as CO2 ice-rich polar images. Fig. 1 (right) shows the horizontal brightness gradient which appears in every band corresponding to a steep portion of spectra. The correction of CRISM spectral smile is addressed using a two-step method which aims at modifying data sensibly in order to mimic the optimal CRISM response. First, all spectra, which are previously interpolated by cubic splines, are resampled to the "sweet spot" wavelengths in order to overcome the spectra shift. Secondly, the non-uniform spectral width is overcome by mimicking an increase of spectral resolution thanks to a spectral sharpening. In order to minimize noise, only bands particularly suffering from smile are selected. First, bands corresponding to the outliers of the Minimum Noise Transformation (MNF) eigenvector, which corresponds to the MNF band related to smile (MNF-smile), are selected. Then, a spectral neighborhood Θi, which takes into account the local spectral convexity or concavity, is defined for every selected band in order to maximize spectral shape preservation. The proposed sharpening technique takes into account both the instrument parameters and the observed spectra. First, every reflectance value belonging to a Θi is reevaluated by a sharpening which depends on a ratio of the spectral width of the current detector and the "sweet spot" one. Then, the optimal degree of

  11. Language as an instrument of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Asoulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available I show that there are good arguments and evidence to boot that support the language as an instrument of thought hypothesis. The underlying mechanisms of language, comprising of expressions structured hierarchically and recursively, provide a perspective (in the form of a conceptual structure on the world, for it is only via language that certain perspectives are available to us and to our thought processes. These mechanisms provide us with a uniquely human way of thinking and talking about the world that is different to the sort of thinking we share with other animals. If the primary function of language were communication then one would expect that the underlying mechanisms of language will be structured in a way that favours successful communication. I show that not only is this not the case, but that the underlying mechanisms of language are in fact structured in a way to maximise computational efficiency, even if it means causing communicative problems. Moreover, I discuss evidence from comparative, neuropathological, developmental, and neuroscientific evidence that supports the claim that language is an instrument of thought.

  12. Language, Thought, and Culture: Views and Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zahedi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study follows two aims: one to review some late views on the relations among language, thought, and culture; and the other, to offer a new strategy, in a novel model, based on last achievements in the minimalist approach. Studying views and arguments, three dichotomies are discussed: 1 the views which confirm the relation between culture and language in opposition to the views that deny this; 2 distinguishing the symmetry-procedural view and the transforming views of language; and 3 distinction among the social-communicational, and the biological-genetic motivations of language. The hypothesis for the novel strategy is that considering what the minimalist program has offered, especially from 2000 onwards, it is possible that language affects thought, while coding the and that culture affects language (which is called ethno-grammar . This is in addition to the biological-genetic base. From this point of view, language’s main function is neither to provide communication, nor to express thought, but to connect cognitive and socio-cultural terminals together.

  13. Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available techniques is complicated when considering very similar spectral signatures. Iron-bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals have similar spectral signatures. The study focuses on how could estimates of abundances of spectrally similar iron-bearing oxide...

  14. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.; Hale, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon

  15. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    It has been traditional in phonetic research to characterize monophthongs using a set of static formant frequencies, i.e., formant frequencies taken from a single time-point in the vowel or averaged over the time-course of the vowel. However, over the last twenty years a growing body of research has demonstrated that, at least for a number of dialects of North American English, vowels which are traditionally described as monophthongs often have substantial spectral change. Vowel Inherent Spectral Change has been observed in speakers’ productions, and has also been found to have a substantial effect on listeners’ perception. In terms of acoustics, the traditional categorical distinction between monophthongs and diphthongs can be replaced by a gradient description of dynamic spectral patterns. This book includes chapters addressing various aspects of vowel inherent spectral change (VISC), including theoretical and experimental studies of the perceptually relevant aspects of VISC, the relationship between ar...

  16. Thought-action fusion and thought suppression in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Diepstraten, P; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    2001-07-01

    To examine the significance of thought-action fusion (TAF) and thought suppression tendencies, the present study obtained pre- and post-treatment questionnaire data on these constructs in a sample of OCD patients (n=24) and non-OCD anxiety patients (n=20). Results indicate that TAF and suppression are correlated with severity of psychopathology. Yet, the associations between TAF and psychopathology are not typical for OCD, but do also occur in other anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, and social phobia). As well, mean scores on the TAF and thought suppression measures dropped significantly from pre- to post-treatment, indicating that TAF and thought suppression are susceptible to change during psychotherapy.

  17. Responsibility, thought-action fusion, and thought suppression in Turkish patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, O; Karanci, A N; Bastug, B; Kisa, C; Goka, E

    2008-03-01

    Although an inflated sense of responsibility, thought-action fusion, and thought suppression are influential factors in cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), their impact on OCD has generally been demonstrated in samples from Western countries. The aim of the present study is to evaluate these cognitive factors in Turkish patients with OCD, other anxiety disorders, and community controls. Group comparisons showed that responsibility based on self-dangerousness and thought suppression significantly distinguished OCD patients from patients with other anxiety disorders and controls. Moreover, correlation and discriminant function analyses indicated that thought-action fusion in morality and likelihood was also associated with OCD symptoms. The present findings provide support for the international validity and specificity of cognitive factors and model for OCD.

  18. Spectrally selective glazings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  19. Spectral finite element method wave propagation, diagnostics and control in anisotropic and inhomogeneous structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan; Roy Mahapatra, Debiprosad

    2008-01-01

    The use of composites and Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) in structural applications has increased. FGMs allow the user to design materials for a specified functionality and have many uses in structural engineering. However, the behaviour of these structures under high-impact loading is not well understood. This book is the first to apply the Spectral Finite Element Method (SFEM) to inhomogeneous and anisotropic structures in a unified and systematic manner. It focuses on some of the problems with this media which were previously thought unmanageable. Types of SFEM for regular and damaged 1-D and 2-D waveguides, solution techniques, methods of detecting the presence of damages and their locations, and methods for controlling the wave propagation responses are discussed. Tables, figures and graphs support the theory and case studies are included. This book is of value to senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying in this field, and researchers and practicing engineers in structural integrity.

  20. Death and dignity in Catholic Christian thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-12-01

    This article traces the history of the concept of dignity in Western thought, arguing that it became a formal Catholic theological concept only in the late nineteenth century. Three uses of the word are distinguished: intrinsic, attributed, and inflorescent dignity, of which, it is argued, the intrinsic conception is foundational. The moral norms associated with respect for intrinsic dignity are discussed briefly. The scriptural and theological bases for adopting the concept of dignity as a Christian idea are elucidated. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of this concept of dignity to the spiritual and ethical care of the dying.

  1. Media Influences on Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirkis, Jane E; Mok, Katherine; Robinson, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the media on suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Until recently, the vast majority of studies in this area were concerned with traditional forms of media like newspapers and television and looked at the potential for irresponsible reporting of suicide to lead....... The recent proliferation of pro-suicide websites has led to concerns that contagion effects may operate in newer media like the Internet, particularly with the advent of Web 2.0. There are numerous suicide prevention websites, which include educational, interactive, and social networking content. A body...

  2. Cochlear implant users' spectral ripple resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Turner, Christopher W; Karsten, Sue A; Henry, Belinda A; Gantz, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    This study revisits the issue of the spectral ripple resolution abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The spectral ripple resolution of recently implanted CI recipients (implanted during the last 10 years) were compared to those of CI recipients implanted 15 to 20 years ago, as well as those of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners from previously published data from Henry, Turner, and Behrens [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1111-1121 (2005)]. More recently, implanted CI recipients showed significantly better spectral ripple resolution. There is no significant difference in spectral ripple resolution for these recently implanted subjects compared to hearing-impaired (acoustic) listeners. The more recently implanted CI users had significantly better pre-operative speech perception than previously reported CI users. These better pre-operative speech perception scores in CI users from the current study may be related to better performance on the spectral ripple discrimination task; however, other possible factors such as improvements in internal and external devices cannot be excluded.

  3. The effects of psychoeducation on thought-action fusion, thought suppression, and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Carper, Teresa; Negy, Charles; Burns, Gillian; Lunt, Rachael A

    2010-09-01

    The current study examined the effects of a psychoeducational intervention designed to target thought-action fusion (TAF) on TAF, thought suppression, and responsibility cognitions. 139 undergraduate students (25 male; 114 female) who were relatively high in TAF with respect to their peers served as participants. Immediately following intervention, individuals who had received psychoeducation regarding TAF reported significantly lower morality TAF scores than individuals who had received psychoeducation regarding thoughts in general and individuals in the control group. At the two-week follow-up assessment, the likelihood TAF scores of those who had received psychoeducation regarding TAF were significantly lower than those of the control group. In addition, the group that received psychoeducation regarding TAF was the only group that did not experience a significant increase in thought suppression from baseline to post-intervention, and was also the only group to experience an increase in both frequency of and belief in low-responsibility thoughts from baseline to follow-up. Implications are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical workload and thoughts of retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkiö-Mäkelä, Merja; Hirvonen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Finnish employees' opinions on continuing work until retirement pension and after the age of 63, and to find out if physical workload is related to these opinions. Altogether 39% of men and 40% of women had never had thoughts of early retirement, and 59% claimed (both men and women) that they would consider working beyond the age of 63. Own health (20%); financial gain such as salary and better pension (19%); meaningful, interesting and challenging work (15%); flexible working hours or part-time work (13%); lighter work load (13%); good work community (8%); and good work environment (6%) were stated as factors affecting the decision to continue working after the age of 63. Employees whose work involved low physical workload had less thoughts of early retirement and had considered continuing work after the age of 63 more often than those whose work involved high physical loads. Own health in particular was stated as a reason to consider continuing work by employees whose work was physically demanding.

  5. Mystical thoughts of Eynolghozat regarding Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Assadollahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Love is a basic subject of Islamic mysticism. It is apparently the hallmark of Eynolghozat's thought as well. Hence, Mystics pronounce him as "Sheikh-al-Asheghin", "Sultan-al-oshshagh", and so on. Eynalghozat considers love as a common faith between God, human beings, and the whole universe by which enmity changes to friendship. He also considers love as a perfect leader who guides the lovers through the way ending to the eminent God. In his opinion, Love which can never be spoken of except by symbolic language is of three main types Great Love, e, middle love, and lower love. Like other mystics figurative (platonic love id of considerable importance for him. However, the first and second types of love -mentioned above- are much more prevalent in his works. In this article, the writer tries to supply a brief definition of love in Eynolghozat's opinion, as well as a comparison of his thoughts with his master that is, Ahmad Ghazali.

  6. [On the evolution of scientific thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Nominalists of the XIV century, precursors of modern science, thought that science's object was not the general, vague and indeterminate but the particular, which is real and can be known directly. About the middle of the XVII Century the bases of the modern science became established thanks to a revolution fomented essentially by Galileo, Bacon and Descartes. During the XVIII Century, parallel to the development of the great current of English Empiricism, a movement of scientific renewal also arose in continental Europe following the discipline of the Dutch Physicians and of Boerhaave. In the XIX Century, Claude Bernard dominated the scientific medicine but his rigorous determinism impeded him from taking into account the immense and unforeseeable field of the random. Nowadays, we approach natural science and medicine, from particular groups of facts; that is, from the responses of Nature to specific questions, but not from the general laws. Furthermore, in recent epistemology, the concept that experimental data are not pure facts, but rather, facts interpreted within a hermeneutical context has been established. Finally a general tendency to retrieve philosophical questions concerning the understanding of essence and existence can frequently be seen in scientific inquiry. In the light of the evolution of medical thought, it is possible to establish the position of scientific medicine within the movement of ideas dominating in our time. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  8. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  9. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  10. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  11. Spectral backward radiation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sung Duck; Lee, Keun Hyun; Kim, Bo Ra; Yoon, Suk Soo

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic backward radiation profile is frequency-dependent when incident region has deptional gradient of acoustical properties or multi-layers. Until now, we have measured the profiles of principal frequencies of used transducers so that it was not easy to understand the change of the frequency component and spectrum of backward radiation from the profile. We tried to measure the spectral backward radiation profiles using DFP(digital filer package) Lecroy DSO. The very big changes in the shape and pattern of spectral backward radiation profiles leads to the conclusion that this new try could be very effective tool to evaluate frequency dependent surface area.

  12. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  13. Effective e-Learning by Thoughtful Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Joyes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an insight into an e-learning design approach that has been used by the author in a wide range of contexts in Higher Education as part of an ongoing enquiry into transforming online teaching and learning within sustainable 'real' courses. A key driver has been the need to engage learners in Higher Education in moving from consumers to producers of knowledge and to engage in communities of practice through the use of online tools for learning. These developments use an analytic framework to support thoughtful e-learning design and insights into the way his framework has been applied are presented through a number of case studies. This work is shaping Web2.0 technologies to match a learning rather than a social agenda by casting them in particular learning activities within specific contexts for particular learning purposes.Keywords: e-learning, activity theory

  14. Two channel EEG thought pattern classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D A; Nguyen, H T; Burchey, H A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time electro-encephalogram (EEG) identification system with the goal of achieving hands free control. With two EEG electrodes placed on the scalp of the user, EEG signals are amplified and digitised directly using a ProComp+ encoder and transferred to the host computer through the RS232 interface. Using a real-time multilayer neural network, the actual classification for the control of a powered wheelchair has a very fast response. It can detect changes in the user's thought pattern in 1 second. Using only two EEG electrodes at positions O(1) and C(4) the system can classify three mental commands (forward, left and right) with an accuracy of more than 79 %

  15. Thought-action fusion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, R; Rachman, S

    2004-06-01

    The cognitive bias of "Thought Action Fusion" (TAF) has received significant research attention in the past decade. The review addresses the assessment of TAF, its place in cognitive theories of obsessional difficulties, and the evidence demonstrating that TAF is relevant to disorders beyond Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Data on the components of TAF, its extension to positive outcomes and its role in the aetiology, maintenance and treatment of OCD are reviewed. It is concluded that the moral form of TAF is less robust than the likelihood form and that scales may be best used as a starting point in identifying beliefs and conducting experimental investigations. It is also suggested that the scales be amended to include harm avoidance, which would also increase their clinical utility.

  16. Thought action fusion: can it be corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Bonnie G; Craske, Michelle G; Barrios, Velma; Holguin, Monique

    2002-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether or not a brief educational intervention delivered prior to engaging in an anxiety-provoking task (writing a sentence about hoping that a friend/relative was in a car accident) would be effective in offsetting anxiety in college students with a strong propensity to endorse statements of thought action fusion (TAF). As hypothesized, individuals receiving the educational intervention were less anxious than a placebo intervention control group at post task; they were also less likely to endorse statements of TAF after receiving the educational intervention. Also, those who chose to neutralize after writing the sentence (regardless of experimental group) were more likely to report feeling guiltier, more immoral and a greater sense of responsibility about writing the sentence prior to neutralizing than those who did not subsequently neutralize. These results are discussed in relation to the cognitive theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder and implications for prevention programs.

  17. Meaning and death-thought accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Green, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Meaning is a central feature in human life, but death can disrupt a sense of meaning. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that meaning in life and meaning in death are distinct types of meaning when mortality is salient and differentially affect death-thought accessibility (DTA). In Experiment 1, imagining a specific scenario in which meaning is preserved beyond death reduced DTA relative to a standard mortality salience prime; moreover, these effects were not due to changes in self-esteem. In Experiment 2, imagining a meaningful life when mortality is salient elicited greater DTA, whereas imagining meaning in death elicited less DTA. Imbuing death with meaning attenuates DTA, whereas meaning in life increases DTA. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THOUGHTS IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Hendry Ar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than 14 centuries, history has proved that Islamic teachings come with a variety of thoughts, social cultural backgrounds, periods through which the development and the dynamics evolved. The primary mission of mankind as the khalifah fil ardh (the caliph of the earth, is to practice the Islamic teachings (Shariah in accordance with the provisions of the primary source of Islam itself, i.e. the Qur’an and Hadith. At least, a long history of Islam as a religion of revelation suggests that the existence of Islamic teachings can grow and develop in every corner of the world, with a variety of spreading patterns that give the nuances and the mosaics in the development of the religion the present day.

  19. First thoughts on MD priorities for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Assmann, R

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 22 days of beam time will be allocated for LHC MDs. In this paper, after recalling the 2011 LHC MD experience, the MD rrequests for 2012 are reviewed. Three primary MD themes for 2012 can be identified: 1)pushing performance in 2012, 2)preparing for 2014/15, and 3)towards maximum luminosity. Example topics include emittance growth in collision or enhanced satellites for theme 1), 25 ns operation for 2), and ATS optics for 3). Structures lists of MD requests and topics for each theme as well as some initial thoughts on the MD priorities are presented. For certain topics, "start-of-fill MDs" are proposed in order to most efficiently use of the available beam time.

  20. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  1. Spectral Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandel, Jan; Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin; Fuglík, Viktor; Turčičová, Marie; Eben, Kryštof; Resler, Jaroslav; Juruš, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2014), EMS2014-446 [EMS Annual Meeting /14./ & European Conference on Applied Climatology (ECAC) /10./. 06.10.2014-10.10.2014, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * spectral filter Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  2. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  3. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  4. Characterization of the titanium Kβ spectral profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantler, C T; Smale, L F; Kinnane, M N; Illig, A J; Kimpton, J A; Crosby, D N

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals have Kα and Kβ characteristic radiation possessing complex asymmetric spectral profiles. Instrumental broadening normally encountered in x-ray experiments shifts features of profiles used for calibration, such as peak energy, by many times the quoted accuracies. We measure and characterize the titanium Kβ spectral profile. The peak energy of the titanium Kβ spectral profile is found to be 4931.966 ± 0.022 eV prior to instrumental broadening. This 4.5 ppm result decreases the uncertainty over the past literature by a factor of 2.6 and is 2.4 standard deviations from the previous standard. The spectrum is analysed and the resolution-free lineshape is extracted and listed for use in other experiments. We also incorporate improvement in analysis applied to earlier results for V Kβ. (paper)

  5. A Simple Spectral Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Torres

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of a spectral observer is twofold: the reconstruction of a signal of time via state estimation and the decomposition of such a signal into the frequencies that make it up. A spectral observer can be catalogued as an online algorithm for time-frequency analysis because is a method that can compute on the fly the Fourier transform (FT of a signal, without having the entire signal available from the start. In this regard, this paper presents a novel spectral observer with an adjustable constant gain for reconstructing a given signal by means of the recursive identification of the coefficients of a Fourier series. The reconstruction or estimation of a signal in the context of this work means to find the coefficients of a linear combination of sines a cosines that fits a signal such that it can be reproduced. The design procedure of the spectral observer is presented along with the following applications: (1 the reconstruction of a simple periodical signal, (2 the approximation of both a square and a triangular signal, (3 the edge detection in signals by using the Fourier coefficients, (4 the fitting of the historical Bitcoin market data from 1 December 2014 to 8 January 2018 and (5 the estimation of a input force acting upon a Duffing oscillator. To round out this paper, we present a detailed discussion about the results of the applications as well as a comparative analysis of the proposed spectral observer vis-à-vis the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT, which is a well-known method for time-frequency analysis.

  6. Thought insertion as a self-disturbance: An integration of predictive coding and phenomenological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sterzer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current theories in the framework of hierarchical predictive coding propose that positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as delusions and hallucinations, arise from an alteration in Bayesian inference, the term inference referring to a process by which learned predictions are used to infer probable causes of sensory data. However, for one particularly striking and frequent symptom of schizophrenia, thought insertion, no plausible account has been proposed in terms of the predictive-coding framework. Here we propose that thought insertion is due to an altered experience of thoughts as coming from nowhere, as is already indicated by the early 20th century phenomenological accounts by the early Heidelberg School of psychiatry. These accounts identified thought insertion as one of the self-disturbances (from German: Ichstörungen of schizophrenia and used mescaline as a model-psychosis in healthy individuals to explore the possible mechanisms. The early Heidelberg School (Gruhle, Mayer-Gross, Beringer first named and defined the self-disturbances, and proposed that thought insertion involves a disruption of the inner connectedness of thoughts and experiences, and a becoming sensory of those thoughts experienced as inserted. This account offers a novel way to integrate the phenomenology of thought insertion with the predictive coding framework. We argue that the altered experience of thoughts may be caused by a reduced precision of context-dependent predictions, relative to sensory precision. According to the principles of Bayesian inference, this reduced precision leads to increased prediction-error signals evoked by the neural activity that encodes thoughts. Thus, in analogy with the prediction-error related aberrant salience of external events that has been proposed previously, internal events such as thoughts (including volitions, emotions and memories can also be associated with increased prediction-error signaling and are thus imbued with

  7. Assessing the role of spectral and intensity cues in spectral ripple detection and discrimination in cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth S; Oxenham, Andrew J; Nelson, Peggy B; Nelson, David A

    2012-12-01

    Measures of spectral ripple resolution have become widely used psychophysical tools for assessing spectral resolution in cochlear-implant (CI) listeners. The objective of this study was to compare spectral ripple discrimination and detection in the same group of CI listeners. Ripple detection thresholds were measured over a range of ripple frequencies and were compared to spectral ripple discrimination thresholds previously obtained from the same CI listeners. The data showed that performance on the two measures was correlated, but that individual subjects' thresholds (at a constant spectral modulation depth) for the two tasks were not equivalent. In addition, spectral ripple detection was often found to be possible at higher rates than expected based on the available spectral cues, making it likely that temporal-envelope cues played a role at higher ripple rates. Finally, spectral ripple detection thresholds were compared to previously obtained speech-perception measures. Results confirmed earlier reports of a robust relationship between detection of widely spaced ripples and measures of speech recognition. In contrast, intensity difference limens for broadband noise did not correlate with spectral ripple detection measures, suggesting a dissociation between the ability to detect small changes in intensity across frequency and across time.

  8. The relationship between religion and thought-action fusion: use of an in vivo paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Pardue, Caleb M; Wheaton, Michael G

    2010-07-01

    Research has demonstrated that higher levels of religiosity are positively correlated with thought-action fusion (TAF), a set of cognitive biases found to be associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, previous studies have exclusively relied on a nomothetic approach to measuring TAF using a single self-report instrument, the thought-action fusion scale. The current study examined the relationship between religiosity and TAF using an in vivo behaviorally-based assessment in which participants thought about and wrote down thoughts of negative events involving loved ones. Forty-three highly religious Protestant Christians were compared to 30 Atheists/Agnostics on their in vivo ratings of anxiety, estimates of likelihood, and moral wrongness related to the negative thoughts. Results indicated that compared to the non-religious participants, those who were highly religious believed that writing and thinking about the negative events was more morally wrong and increased the likelihood of the event. Results are discussed in terms of the potential relationship between certain religious teachings and TAF-related beliefs about the importance, significance, and influence of thoughts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  10. Non-erotic thoughts, attentional focus, and sexual problems in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrea L; Purdon, Christine

    2011-04-01

    According to Barlow's model of sexual dysfunction, anxiety in sexual situations leads to attentional focus on sexual performance at the expense of erotic cues, which compromises sexual arousal. This negative experience will enhance anxiety in future sexual situations, and non-erotic thoughts (NETs) relevant to performance will receive attentional priority. Previous research with student samples (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006; Purdon & Watson, 2010) has found that people experience many types of NETs in addition to performance-relevant thoughts, and that, consistent with Barlow's model, the frequency of and anxiety evoked by these thoughts is positively associated with sexual problems. Extending this previous work, the current study found that, in a community sample of women (N = 81) and men (N = 72) in long-term relationships, women were more likely to report body image concerns and external consequences of the sexual activity, while men were more likely to report performance-related concerns. Equally likely among men and women were thoughts about emotional consequences of the sexual activity. Regardless of thought content, experiencing more frequent NETs was associated with more sexual problems in both women and men. Moreover, as per Barlow's model, greater negative affect in anticipation of and during sexual activity predicted greater frequency of NETs and greater anxiety in response to NETs was associated with greater difficulty dismissing the thoughts. However, greater difficulty in refocusing on erotic thoughts during sexual activity uniquely predicted more sexual problems above the frequency and dismissability of NETs. Together, these data support the cognitive interference mechanism implicated by Barlow's causal model of sexual dysfunction and have implications for the treatment of sexual problems.

  11. The effects of thoughts of survival and thoughts of death on recall in the adaptive memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Hart and Burns (2012) presented evidence that conditions that prime thoughts of one's mortality benefit recall. Drawing on the conceptual relation between thoughts of death and thoughts of survival, Hart and Burns interpret their findings as suggestive of the possibility that death-related thoughts function in manner similar to survival-related thoughts in enhancing recall. In the present study I draw on evolutionary arguments to question whether a conceptual relation between thoughts of death and thoughts of survival translates into a functional relation. I then present data showing that while death-related thoughts can promote high levels of recall, (a) the level achieved does not match that produced by survival processing and (b) survival and death cognition likely rely on different mechanisms to achieve their effects.

  12. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  13. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings.

  14. Some thoughts on psychoanalysis and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilka, Jaime

    2002-10-01

    The author attempts to establish a framework for understanding the contribution of psychoanalysis to ethics through examining the work of certain philosophers, especially Kant. After reviewing the development of Freudian thought and going beyond the 'psychoanalysis and/or psychiatry?' question, he asserts that the space of the psychoanalytical cure revolves around an ethical problem. Thus, the limits of analysis should be determined by the subject's capacity for developing a structure of belief in the unconscious, with the concomitant capacity to go beyond equivocation in respect of an ethical conflict that underlies all cases where psychical suffering is manifested. Indeed, only human beings are called upon to deal with an ethical paradox-equally a logical one-which could be stated thus: there is Good in Evil and Evil in Good. This ethical paradox is the consequence of human subjection to the constituent laws of the Oedipus complex, which distances the human being, in his/her dealings with Evil and with Good, from any naturalist stance. In respect of the cure, then, we must take into account that Evil does not proceed from any particular drive-based characteristic, but is rather the expression of specific subjection to an unconscious Other, towards which it directs its affects. Finally, the author proposes a principle that emerges from the preceding discussion: let us not impute to or place in the Other our own subjective splitting or pain at existing.

  15. FROM MYTHICAL THINKING TO POLITICAL THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Lassan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the Russian epos as well as Russian fairy tales: the images that are frequently there tend to be projected on the contemporary political discourse. The author assumes that the analysis of the folklore stories might allow defining the archetypes, which in a certain manner affect the contemporary political thought in Russia. The author demonstrates the way in which the national cultural archetypes relate to the common cultural ones (Greek myths, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, contain their specific national modification. Thus, the Hero Archetype in Russian epos appears to be nationally marked (its Russianness is particularly stressed as well as the image of an enemy, filling in the Shadow Archetype. Russian ‘bogatyr’ is traditionally on a state service and remains faithful to his grand duke, notwithstanding the injustice of the latter. The characters of fairy tales wage “preventive wars” in which they become the winners. The contemporary Russian political discourse inherits, to a certain extent, the value as well as the worldview aspects of the Russian epos.

  16. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin P Clark

    Full Text Available Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID. In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM. Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with

  17. Hybrid spectral CT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Darin P.

    2017-01-01

    Current photon counting x-ray detector (PCD) technology faces limitations associated with spectral fidelity and photon starvation. One strategy for addressing these limitations is to supplement PCD data with high-resolution, low-noise data acquired with an energy-integrating detector (EID). In this work, we propose an iterative, hybrid reconstruction technique which combines the spectral properties of PCD data with the resolution and signal-to-noise characteristics of EID data. Our hybrid reconstruction technique is based on an algebraic model of data fidelity which substitutes the EID data into the data fidelity term associated with the PCD reconstruction, resulting in a joint reconstruction problem. Within the split Bregman framework, these data fidelity constraints are minimized subject to additional constraints on spectral rank and on joint intensity-gradient sparsity measured between the reconstructions of the EID and PCD data. Following a derivation of the proposed technique, we apply it to the reconstruction of a digital phantom which contains realistic concentrations of iodine, barium, and calcium encountered in small-animal micro-CT. The results of this experiment suggest reliable separation and detection of iodine at concentrations ≥ 5 mg/ml and barium at concentrations ≥ 10 mg/ml in 2-mm features for EID and PCD data reconstructed with inherent spatial resolutions of 176 μm and 254 μm, respectively (point spread function, FWHM). Furthermore, hybrid reconstruction is demonstrated to enhance spatial resolution within material decomposition results and to improve low-contrast detectability by as much as 2.6 times relative to reconstruction with PCD data only. The parameters of the simulation experiment are based on an in vivo micro-CT experiment conducted in a mouse model of soft-tissue sarcoma. Material decomposition results produced from this in vivo data demonstrate the feasibility of distinguishing two K-edge contrast agents with a spectral

  18. Noncommutativity from spectral flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzl, Thomas; Ilderton, Anton [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-27

    We investigate the transition from second- to first-order systems. Quantum mechanically, this transforms configuration space into phase space and hence introduces noncommutativity in the former. This transition may be described in terms of spectral flow. Gaps in the energy or mass spectrum may become large which effectively truncates the available state space. Using both operator and path integral languages we explicitly discuss examples in quantum mechanics (light-front) quantum field theory and string theory.

  19. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  20. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  1. Understanding Soliton Spectral Tunneling as a Spectral Coupling Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Wang, Shaofei; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Soliton eigenstate is found corresponding to a dispersive phase profile under which the soliton phase changes induced by the dispersion and nonlinearity are instantaneously counterbalanced. Much like a waveguide coupler relying on a spatial refractive index profile that supports mode coupling...... between channels, here we suggest that the soliton spectral tunneling effect can be understood supported by a spectral phase coupler. The dispersive wave number in the spectral domain must have a coupler-like symmetric profile for soliton spectral tunneling to occur. We show that such a spectral coupler...

  2. Semantics, pragmatics, and formal thought disorders in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavera, Carlos; Puyuelo, Miguel; Antoñanzas, José L; Teruel, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze how formal thought disorders (FTD) affect semantics and pragmatics in patients with schizophrenia. The sample comprised subjects with schizophrenia (n = 102) who met the criteria for the disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision. In the research process, the following scales were used: Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for psychopathology measurements; the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication (TLC) for FTD, Word Accentuation Test (WAT), System for the Behavioral Evaluation of Social Skills (SECHS), the pragmatics section of the Objective Criteria Language Battery (BLOC-SR) and the verbal sections of the Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS) III, for assessment of semantics and pragmatics. The results in the semantics and pragmatics sections were inferior to the average values obtained in the general population. Our data demonstrated that the more serious the FTD, the worse the performances in the Verbal-WAIS tests (particularly in its vocabulary, similarities, and comprehension sections), SECHS, and BLOC-SR, indicating that FTD affects semantics and pragmatics, although the results of the WAT indicated good premorbid language skills. The principal conclusion we can draw from this study is the evidence that in schizophrenia the superior level of language structure seems to be compromised, and that this level is related to semantics and pragmatics; when there is an alteration in this level, symptoms of FTD appear, with a wide-ranging relationship between both language and FTD. The second conclusion is that the subject's language is affected by the disorder and rules out the possibility of a previous verbal impairment.

  3. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  4. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  5. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  6. The merits of unconscious thought in rule detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiansheng; Zhu, Yawen; Yang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    According to unconscious thought theory (UTT), unconscious thought is more adept at complex decision-making than is conscious thought. Related research has mainly focused on the complexity of decision-making tasks as determined by the amount of information provided. However, the complexity of the rules generating this information also influences decision making. Therefore, we examined whether unconscious thought facilitates the detection of rules during a complex decision-making task. Participants were presented with two types of letter strings. One type matched a grammatical rule, while the other did not. Participants were then divided into three groups according to whether they made decisions using conscious thought, unconscious thought, or immediate decision. The results demonstrated that the unconscious thought group was more accurate in identifying letter strings that conformed to the grammatical rule than were the conscious thought and immediate decision groups. Moreover, performance of the conscious thought and immediate decision groups was similar. We conclude that unconscious thought facilitates the detection of complex rules, which is consistent with UTT.

  7. The merits of unconscious thought in rule detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Li

    Full Text Available According to unconscious thought theory (UTT, unconscious thought is more adept at complex decision-making than is conscious thought. Related research has mainly focused on the complexity of decision-making tasks as determined by the amount of information provided. However, the complexity of the rules generating this information also influences decision making. Therefore, we examined whether unconscious thought facilitates the detection of rules during a complex decision-making task. Participants were presented with two types of letter strings. One type matched a grammatical rule, while the other did not. Participants were then divided into three groups according to whether they made decisions using conscious thought, unconscious thought, or immediate decision. The results demonstrated that the unconscious thought group was more accurate in identifying letter strings that conformed to the grammatical rule than were the conscious thought and immediate decision groups. Moreover, performance of the conscious thought and immediate decision groups was similar. We conclude that unconscious thought facilitates the detection of complex rules, which is consistent with UTT.

  8. Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov, Vladimir D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced.

  9. On spectral pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llobet, X.; Appert, K.; Bondeson, A.; Vaclavik, J.

    1990-01-01

    Finite difference and finite element approximations of eigenvalue problems, under certain circumstances exhibit spectral pollution, i.e. the appearance of eigenvalues that do not converge to the correct value when the mesh density is increased. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated in a homogeneous case by means of discrete dispersion relations: the polluting modes belong to a branch of the dispersion relation that is strongly distorted by the discretization method employed, or to a new, spurious branch. The analysis is applied to finite difference methods and to finite element methods, and some indications about how to avoiding polluting schemes are given. (author) 5 figs., 10 refs

  10. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  11. Spectral signatures of chirality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    We present a new way of measuring chirality, via the spectral shift of photonic band gaps in one-dimensional structures. We derive an explicit mapping of the problem of oblique incidence of circularly polarized light on a chiral one-dimensional photonic crystal with negligible index contrast...... to the formally equivalent problem of linearly polarized light incident on-axis on a non-chiral structure with index contrast. We derive analytical expressions for the first-order shifts of the band gaps for negligible index contrast. These are modified to give good approximations to the band gap shifts also...

  12. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  13. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  14. Spectral decomposition of tent maps using symmetry considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, G.E.; Driebe, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The spectral decompostion of the Frobenius-Perron operator of maps composed of many tents is determined from symmetry considerations. The eigenstates involve Euler as well as Bernoulli polynomials. The authors have introduced some new techniques, based on symmetry considerations, enabling the construction of spectral decompositions in a much simpler way than previous construction algorithms, Here we utilize these techniques to construct the spectral decomposition for one- dimensional maps of the unit interval composed of many tents. The construction uses the knowledge of the spectral decomposition of the r-adic map, which involves Bernoulli polynomials and their duals. It will be seen that the spectral decomposition of the tent maps involves both Bernoulli polynomials and Euler polynomials along with the appropriate dual states

  15. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  16. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  17. The evolution of language and thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2016-06-20

    Language primarily evolved as a vocal medium that transmits the attributes of human culture and the necessities of daily communication. Human language has a long, complex evolutionary history. Language also serves as an instrument of thought since it has become evident that in the course of this process neural circuits that initially evolved to regulate motor control, motor responses to external events, and ultimately talking were recycled to serve tasks such as working memory, cognitive flexibility linguistic tasks such as comprehending distinctions in meaning conveyed by syntax. This precludes the human brain possessing an organ devoted exclusively to language, such as the Faculty of Language proposed by Chomsky (1972, 2012). In essence like Fodor's (1983) modular model, a restatement of archaic phrenological theories (Spurzheim, 1815). The subcortical basal ganglia can be traced back to early anurans. Although our knowledge of the neural circuits of the human brain is at a very early stage and incomplete, the findings of independent studies over the past 40 years, discussed here, have identified circuits linking the basal ganglia with various areas of prefrontal cortex, posterior cortical regions and other subcortical structures. These circuits are active in linguistic tasks such as lexical access, comprehending distinctions in meaning conferred by syntax and the range of higher cognitive tasks involving executive control and play a critical role in conferring cognitive flexibility. The cingulate cortex which appeared in Therapsids, transitional mammal-like reptiles who lived in age of the dinosaurs, most likely enhanced mother-infant interaction, contributing to success in the Darwinian (1859) "Struggle for Existence" - the survival of progeny. They continue to fill that role in present-day mammals as well as being involved in controlling laryngeal phonation during speech and directing attention (Newman & MacLean, 1983; Cummings, 1993". The cerebellum and

  18. Some thoughts on Harker-Kasper inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolfson, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    The approach by Harker and Kasper which led to the first inequality relationships between structure factors has not previously been applied to the space group P1 and there seems to have been a view that it could not give useful results for that space group. The idea has also been advanced that Harker-Kasper inequalities are contained within the complete set of determinantal inequalities derived by Karle and Hauptman. It is shown that the Harker-Kasper approach can be applied in space group P1 and gives inequality relationships which are distinct, at least in form, from those derived from determinants. Indeed, in some cases, a simple Harker-Kasper inequality can be more effective than an equally simple determinantal inequality in restricting the allowed values of three-phase invariants. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics safety analysis and thoughts on FUKUSHIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninokata, Hisashi

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article is to show my thoughts on the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. It is cited from a summary of my lecture talk in Indonesia, in the beginning of the last December, 2011. This talk was based on my previous lecture and seminar talks including those delivered at MIT, June 16, at the ANS Annual Meeting in Hollywood, Florida, June 28 at NURETH-13 in Toronto, September 27, and others. The content is based on the open and latest information available to date in Japan. It may contain some erroneous or uncertain information. I tried to minimize it to my best capability. Also I tried to eliminate any critical issues or opinions that may jeopardize some people who were involved in. The latter half of this article will be excerpts of my recent R and D activities related to the safety-by-design for sodium cooled fast reactors and light water reactors, thermal hydraulics analysis focusing on the simulation-based technology, in particular subchannel analysis and computational fluid dynamics. (J.P.N.)

  20. BLAZAR SPECTRAL PROPERTIES AT 74 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Paggi, A.; D' Abrusco, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Blazars are the most extreme class of active galactic nuclei. Despite a previous investigation at 102 MHz for a small sample of BL Lac objects and our recent analysis of blazars detected in the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, a systematic study of the blazar spectral properties at frequencies below 100 MHz has been never carried out. In this paper, we present the first analysis of the radio spectral behavior of blazars based on the recent Very Large Array Low-frequency Sky Survey (VLSS) at 74 MHz. We search for blazar counterparts in the VLSS catalog, confirming that they are detected at 74 MHz. We then show that blazars present radio-flat spectra (i.e., radio spectral indices of ∼0.5) when evaluated, which also about an order of magnitude in frequency lower than previous analyses. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the blazars-radio galaxies connection since the low-frequency radio data provide a new diagnostic tool to verify the expectations of the unification scenario for radio-loud active galaxies.

  1. THE POTENTIAL IMPORTANCE OF BINARY EVOLUTION IN ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL SPECTRAL FITTING OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhongmu; Mao, Caiyan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Qian; Li, Maocai

    2013-01-01

    Most galaxies possibly contain some binaries, and more than half of Galactic hot subdwarf stars, which are thought to be a possible origin of the UV-upturn of old stellar populations, are found in binaries. However, the effect of binary evolution has not been taken into account in most works on the spectral fitting of galaxies. This paper studies the role of binary evolution in the spectral fitting of early-type galaxies, via a stellar population synthesis model including both single and binary star populations. Spectra from ultraviolet to optical bands are fitted to determine a few galaxy parameters. The results show that the inclusion of binaries in stellar population models may lead to obvious change in the determination of some parameters of early-type galaxies and therefore it is potentially important for spectral studies. In particular, the ages of young components of composite stellar populations become much older when using binary star population models instead of single star population models. This implies that binary star population models will measure significantly different star formation histories for early-type galaxies compared to single star population models. In addition, stellar population models with binary interactions on average measure larger dust extinctions than single star population models. This suggests that when binary star population models are used, negative extinctions are possibly no longer necessary in the spectral fitting of galaxies (see previous works, e.g., Cid Fernandes et al. for comparison). Furthermore, it is shown that optical spectra have strong constraints on stellar age while UV spectra have strong constraints on binary fraction. Finally, our results suggest that binary star population models can provide new insight into the stellar properties of globular clusters

  2. Rectangular spectral collocation

    KAUST Repository

    Driscoll, Tobin A.

    2015-02-06

    Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.

  3. Spectral evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca-Volmerange, B.

    1989-01-01

    A recent striking event in Observational Cosmology is the discovery of a large population of galaxies at extreme cosmological distances (extended from spectral redshifts ≅ 1 to ≥ 3) corresponding to a lookback time of 80% of the Universe's age. However when galaxies are observed at such remote epochs, their appearances are affected by at least two simultaneous effects which are respectively a cosmological effect and the intrinsic evolution of their stellar populations which appear younger than in our nearby galaxies. The fundamental problem is first to disentangle the respective contributions of these two effects to apparent magnitudes and colors of distant galaxies. Other effects which are likely to modify the appearance of galaxies are amplification by gravitational lensing and interaction with environment will also be considered. (author)

  4. Spectral Line Shapes. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Ulivi, L.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes which was held in Firenze,Italy from June 16-21, 1996. The topics covered a wide range of subjects emphasizing the physical processes associated with the formation of line profiles: high and low density plasma; atoms and molecules in strong laser fields, Dopple-free and ultra-fine spectroscopy; the line shapes generated by the interaction of neutrals, atoms and molecules, where the relavant quantities are single particle properties, and the interaction-induced spectroscopy. There were 131 papers presented at the conference, out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  5. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Wave function antisymmetry in the aggregate atomic spectral-product basis is enforced by unitary transformation performed subsequent to formation of the Hamiltonian matrix, greatly simplifying its construction...

  6. [Review of digital ground object spectral library].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hu; Zhou, Ding-Wu

    2009-06-01

    A higher spectral resolution is the main direction of developing remote sensing technology, and it is quite important to set up the digital ground object reflectance spectral database library, one of fundamental research fields in remote sensing application. Remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics, and quantitative analysis has been developed to a new stage. The present article summarized and systematically introduced the research status quo and development trend of digital ground object reflectance spectral libraries at home and in the world in recent years. Introducing the spectral libraries has been established, including desertification spectral database library, plants spectral database library, geological spectral database library, soil spectral database library, minerals spectral database library, cloud spectral database library, snow spectral database library, the atmosphere spectral database library, rocks spectral database library, water spectral database library, meteorites spectral database library, moon rock spectral database library, and man-made materials spectral database library, mixture spectral database library, volatile compounds spectral database library, and liquids spectral database library. In the process of establishing spectral database libraries, there have been some problems, such as the lack of uniform national spectral database standard and uniform standards for the ground object features as well as the comparability between different databases. In addition, data sharing mechanism can not be carried out, etc. This article also put forward some suggestions on those problems.

  7. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  8. Spatial Working Memory Is Necessary for Actions to Guide Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Directed actions can play a causal role in cognition, shaping thought processes. What drives this cross-talk between action and thought? I investigated the hypothesis that representations in spatial working memory mediate interactions between directed actions and problem solving. Participants attempted to solve an insight problem while…

  9. Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years Robin Horton has argued for what he refers to as the 'continuity thesis' according to which there are theoretical similarities between African traditional thought and modern Western science. Horton's thesis stands in contrast to the standard Western anthropological appraisal of traditional African thought.

  10. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton…

  11. The Influence of Family of Origin Relationships on Career Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Xu, Yonghong Jade; Strauser, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Family of origin relationships are an important influence on career decision-making. The current study investigates the relationship between family cohesion, expressiveness and conflict and dysfunctional career thoughts. The Family Environment Scale-Form R (Moos & Moos, 2009) measured the family environment and the Career Thoughts Inventory…

  12. Thought Suppression and Meaning in Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older adults who experience problems with thought suppression tend to encounter greater difficulty deriving a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older people (N = 988) indicate that greater difficulty with thought suppression is associated with a decline in meaning over…

  13. The Content of Emotional Thoughts | Bloser | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I examine Peter Goldie's theory of emotional thoughts and feelings, offered in his recent book The Emotions and subsequent articles. Goldie argues that emotional thoughts cannot be assimilated to belief or judgment, together with some added-on phenomenological component, and on this point I agree with ...

  14. Emancipation in postmodernity : political thought in Japanese science fiction animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, M.

    2017-01-01

    Animation has long been overlooked as source for political thought. The aim of this thesis is to rectify this, and it will do so in two ways. First, it makes a theoretical and empirical case for animation as an intellectual source of political thought that should be used along with philosophical

  15. A validation study of the Brief Irrational Thoughts Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M.; Wissink, I.B.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of the "Brief Irrational Thoughts Inventory" (BITI) in a sample of 256 justice-involved youths. The BITI is a questionnaire used to determine the nature and severity of irrational thoughts related to aggressive (externalizing), sub-assertive

  16. Implicit and explicit appraisals of the importance of intrusive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A; Woody, Sheila R; Magee, Joshua C

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate cognitive theories of obsessions, the current study experimentally manipulated appraisals of the importance of intrusive thoughts. Undergraduate students (N = 156) completed measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and beliefs and were primed with a list of commonly reported unwanted thoughts. Participants were then informed that unwanted thoughts are either (1) significant and indicative of their personal values, or (2) meaningless, or participants (3) received no instructions about unwanted thoughts. Participants then completed implicit and explicit measures of self-evaluation and interpretations of their unwanted thoughts. Results indicated that the manipulation shifted implicit appraisals of unwanted thoughts in the expected direction, but not self-evaluations of morality or dangerousness. Interestingly, explicit self-esteem and beliefs about the significance of unwanted thoughts were associated with measures of OCD beliefs, whereas implicit self-evaluations of dangerousness were better predicted by the interaction of pre-existing OCD beliefs with the manipulation. Results are discussed in terms of divergent predictors of implicit and explicit responses to unwanted thoughts.

  17. A Meta-Analysis on Unconscious Thought Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Bos, M.W.; Sjoerdsma, A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Nordgren, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed on the unconscious thought effect (UTE). All available published and unpublished data on unconscious thought were included. Our aims were to provide a statistically robust estimate of the effect size of the UTE, to identify significant moderators, and to

  18. Relation of Disability Type and Career Thoughts to Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchak, Kristen V.; Lease, Suzanne H.; Strauser, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared dysfunctional career thoughts and perceptions of vocational identity for individuals with different types of disabilities and examined whether the relation of career thoughts to vocational identity was moderated by type of disability. Ninety adults with cognitive and physical impairments were administered the Career Thoughts…

  19. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  20. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  1. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  2. A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities

  3. A thought in the park: The influence of naturalness and low-level visual features on expressed thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn E. Schertz; Sonya Sachdeva; Omid Kardan; Hiroki P. Kotabe; Kathleen L. Wolf; Marc G. Berman

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the physical characteristics of one's environment have wide ranging effects on affect and cognition. Other research has demonstrated that one's thoughts have impacts on mood and behavior, and in this three-part research program we investigated how physical features of the environment can alter thought content. In one study, we...

  4. Singular and combined effects of thought suppression and anxiety induction on frequency of threatening thoughts: An experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cougle, J.R.; Smits, J.A.J.; Lee, H.J.; Powers, M.B.; Telch, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been hypothesized to play an important role in the maintenance of clinical disorders such as OCD and PTSD. The present study sought to examine the singular and combined effects of thought suppression instructions and anxiety induction (as induced by an

  5. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  6. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  7. How Do Thoughts, Emotions, and Decisions Align? A New Way to Examine Theory of Mind in Middle Childhood and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined 4- to 10-year-olds’ and adults’ (N = 280) tendency to connect people’s thoughts, emotions, and decisions into valence-matched mental state triads (thought valence = emotion valence = decision valence; such as, anticipate something bad + feel worried + avoid) and valence-matched mental state dyads (thought-emotion, thought-decision, and emotion-decision). Participants heard vignettes about focal characters who re-encountered individuals who had previously harmed them twice, helped them twice, or both harmed and helped them. Baseline trials involved no past experience. Children and adults predicted the focal characters’ thoughts (anticipate something good or bad), emotions (feel happy or worried), and decisions (go near or stay away). Results showed significant increases between 4 and 10 years in the formation of valence-matched mental state triads and dyads, with thoughts and emotions most often aligned by valence. We also documented age-related improvement in awareness that uncertain situations elicit less valence-consistent mental states than more certain situations, with females expecting weaker coherence among characters’ thoughts, emotions, and decisions than males. Controlling for age and sex, individuals with stronger executive function (working memory and inhibitory control) predicted more valence-aligned mental states. These findings add to the emerging literature on development and individual differences in children’s reasoning about mental states and emotions during middle childhood and beyond. PMID:27017060

  8. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  9. Thought Speed, Mood, and the Experience of Mental Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana

    2008-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical account relating thought speed to mood and psychological experience. Thought sequences that occur at a fast speed generally induce more positive affect than do those that occur slowly. Thought speed constitutes one aspect of mental motion. Another aspect involves thought variability, or the degree to which thoughts in a sequence either vary widely from or revolve closely around a theme. Thought sequences possessing more motion (occurring fast and varying widely) generally produce more positive affect than do sequences possessing little motion (occurring slowly and repetitively). When speed and variability oppose each other, such that one is low and the other is high, predictable psychological states also emerge. For example, whereas slow, repetitive thinking can prompt dejection, fast, repetitive thinking can prompt anxiety. This distinction is related to the fact that fast thinking involves greater actual and felt energy than slow thinking does. Effects of mental motion occur independent of the specific content of thought. Their consequences for mood and energy hold psychotherapeutic relevance. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  10. ULTRAVIOLET RAMAN SPECTRAL SIGNATURE ACQUISITION: UV RAMAN SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDLACEK,III, A.J.FINFROCK,C.

    2002-09-01

    As a member of the science-support part of the ITT-lead LISA development program, BNL is tasked with the acquisition of UV Raman spectral fingerprints and associated scattering cross-sections for those chemicals-of-interest to the program's sponsor. In support of this role, the present report contains the first installment of UV Raman spectral fingerprint data on the initial subset of chemicals. Because of the unique nature associated with the acquisition of spectral fingerprints for use in spectral pattern matching algorithms (i.e., CLS, PLS, ANN) great care has been undertaken to maximize the signal-to-noise and to minimize unnecessary spectral subtractions, in an effort to provide the highest quality spectral fingerprints. This report is divided into 4 sections. The first is an Experimental section that outlines how the Raman spectra are performed. This is then followed by a section on Sample Handling. Following this, the spectral fingerprints are presented in the Results section where the data reduction process is outlined. Finally, a Photographs section is included.

  11. God's Thoughts: Practical Steps Toward a Theory of Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2017-04-01

    In 1922, Einstein was speaking to young Esther Salaman during a long walk; she was talking of her dreams and goals and he was sharing some of his thoughts. Among thoughts of travel, he described his core guiding intellectual principle when he said, "I want to know how God created this world [wie sich Gott die Welt beschaffen]. I'm not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that element. I want to know His thoughts; the rest are just details."

  12. On social death: ostracism and the accessibility of death thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social death (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make death more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of death-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced death-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of death-related thoughts.

  13. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity in the bumblebee, Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Skorupski

    Full Text Available The bumblebee Bombus impatiens is increasingly used as a model in comparative studies of colour vision, or in behavioural studies relying on perceptual discrimination of colour. However, full spectral sensitivity data on the photoreceptor inputs underlying colour vision are not available for B. impatiens. Since most known bee species are trichromatic, with photoreceptor spectral sensitivity peaks in the UV, blue and green regions of the spectrum, data from a related species, where spectral sensitivity measurements have been made, are often applied to B impatiens. Nevertheless, species differences in spectral tuning of equivalent photoreceptor classes may result in peaks that differ by several nm, which may have small but significant effects on colour discrimination ability. We therefore used intracellular recording to measure photoreceptor spectral sensitivity in B. impatiens. Spectral peaks were estimated at 347, 424 and 539 nm for UV, blue and green receptors, respectively, suggesting that this species is a UV-blue-green trichromat. Photoreceptor spectral sensitivity peaks are similar to previous measurements from Bombus terrestris, although there is a significant difference in the peak sensitivity of the blue receptor, which is shifted in the short wave direction by 12-13 nm in B. impatiens compared to B. terrestris.

  15. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    -of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors to a known source of electromagnetic radiation individually. This was determined by measuring the output of all detection channels for radiation propagated through a continuously scanned polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer. As there is no on-board spectrometer......, dust emission, Sunyaev Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. While previous papers have already described the pre-flight experiments conducted on the Planck HFI...

  16. How does thought-action fusion relate to responsibility attitudes and thought suppression to aggravate the obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altın, Müjgan; Gençöz, Tülin

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive cognitive theories of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that clinical obsessions and compulsions arise from specific sorts of dysfunctional beliefs and appraisals, such as inflated sense of responsibility, thought-action fusion (TAF), and thought suppression. The present study aimed to examine the mediator roles of responsibility and thought suppression between TAF and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Specifically, it aimed to explore the relative effects of TAF factors (i.e. morality and likelihood) on inflated sense of responsibility and on thought suppression to increase the obsessive qualities of intrusions. Two hundred and eighty-three Turkish undergraduate students completed a battery of measures on responsibility, thought suppression, TAF, OC symptoms, and depression. A series of hierarchical regression analyses, where depressive symptoms were controlled for, indicated that TAF-morality and TAF-likelihood follow different paths toward OC symptoms. Although TAF-morality associated with inflated sense of responsibility, TAF-likelihood associated with thought suppression efforts, and in turn these factors increased OC symptoms. These findings provide support for the critical role of sense of responsibility and thought suppression between the relationship of TAF and OC symptoms. Findings were discussed in line with the literature.

  17. Relationships between thought-action fusion, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Muris, P; Schmidt, H; Merckelbach, H

    2000-09-01

    Research has shown that there are strong similarities in content between the obsessions and compulsions that characterize obsessive-compulsive disorder and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions. However, clinical and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions do differ with respect to characteristics like frequency, intensity, discomfort and elicited resistance. Two separate concepts have been invoked to explain how normal obsessions and compulsions may develop into clinical phenomena. First, it is suggested that thought-action fusion (TAF) contributes to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Second, thought suppression may intensify obsessive-compulsive symptoms due to its paradoxical effect on intrusive thoughts. Although both phenomena have been found to contribute to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, possible interactions between these two have never been investigated. The current study explored how TAF and thought suppression interact in the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 173) completed questionnaires pertaining to TAF, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Covariances between the scores on these questionnaires were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. Results suggest that TAF triggers thought suppression, while thought suppression, in turn, promotes obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  18. The Connection between the Thought of Progress and Philosophical Thinking in the West Case Study: Descartes’ Thought System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mustafa Shahraeeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thought of progress has been considered as one of the presuppositions of the West modernity. Having accepted this idea, we should regard it as one of the bases and foundations of early modern philosophy, and consider Descartes, known as the father of modern philosophy, as having a major role in its formation. There is a strong relationship between the West philosophical thought and the change of the idea of progress to one of the undisputed facts of the west civilization, and this issue can be seen clearly in Descartes thought system better than anywhere else. The present paper intends to show the leading position of Descartes’ thought system in the institutionalization of the concept of progress in the West philosophical system in three main parts: 1. Authority fighting and its relation with Cartesian’s Doubt, 2. The genuineness of the worldly life in Descartes’ thought system, and 3. Establishing the foundation of modern science. This article is based on the modern forerunners’ change of opinion about the philosophy mission in the world. It  makes attempt to demonstrate in order to achieve the thought of progress, some prerequisites are necessary; and these prerequisite, though not exclusively, in their best and most complete form are generally achieved in the West philosophical thought and are particularly accomplished in Descartes’ philosophy.

  19. A spectral algorithm for the seriation problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Boman, E.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Hendrickson, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Given a set of objects and a correlation function f reflecting the desire for two items to be near each other, find all sequences {pi} of the items so that correlation preferences are preserved; that is if {pi}(i) < {pi}(j) < {pi}(k) then f(i,j) {ge} f(i,k) and f(j,k) {ge} f(i,k). This seriation problem has numerous applications, for instance, solving it yields a solution to the consecutive ones problem. We present a spectral algorithm for this problem that has a number of interesting features. Whereas most previous applications of spectral techniques provided bounds or heuristics, our result is an algorithm for a nontrivial combinatorial problem. Our analysis introduces powerful tools from matrix theory to the theoretical computer science community. Also, spectral methods are being applied as heuristics for a variety of sequencing problems and our result helps explain and justify these applications. Although the worst case running time for our approach is not competitive with that of existing methods for well posed problem instances, unlike combinatorial approaches our algorithm remains a credible heuristic for the important cases where there are errors in the data.

  20. Validation of the Paranoid Thoughts Scale in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abdolmohammadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Considering that paranoid thought has one-dimensional approach, use of long questionnaires has no clinical and research application, therefore use of short questionnaires seems necessary. The Green et al. paranoid thought scale is a short self-assessment tool for assessing paranoid thought in non-clinical and clinical group. This research was conducted to validate this questionnaire in Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 356 students were selected using stratified sampling method and assessed by GPTS and Minnesota multiphasic paranoid inventory (MMPI in 2015. Validity was assessed simultaneously with MMPI testing. Results: The correlation coefficient of GPTS and MMPI scores was α=0.71 and significant (p<0.001. Internal consistency value was estimated to be 0.81 according to Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Conclusion: GPTS is an appropriate and short tool for screening in paranoid thought-related researches. Keywords: Paranoid disorders; Personality tests; Validation studies.

  1. Preliminary thoughts on the data acquisition for the next generation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preliminary thoughts about the data acquisition system to be developed for ... the fully processed detector information, there is a long path with different cru- ... detector to the outside, 6 GHz SCM fiber optic links are presently considered, but.

  2. Teaching thoughtful practice: narrative pedagogy in addictions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermause, Roxanne K; Townsend, Ryan P

    2010-07-01

    Preparing practitioners for this rapidly changing and demanding health care environment is challenging. A surge in knowledge development and scientific advancement has placed a priority on technical skill and a focus on content driven educational processes that prepare students for evidence-based practice. However, the most difficult health care scenarios require thinking-in-action and thoughtfulness as well as didactic knowledge. It is our contention that interpretive educational methods, like narrative pedagogy, will promote judgment-based practice that includes use of evidence and delivery of thoughtful care. In this article, we describe and interpret a narrative approach to addictions content and teaching thoughtful practice. We present our pedagogical process, including observations and field notes, to show how interpretive pedagogies can be introduced into nursing curricula. By presenting this process, the reader is invited to consider interpretive methods as a way to inspire and habituate thoughtful practice and judgment-based care. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Progress in the spectral library based protein identification strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Derui; Ma, Jie; Xie, Zengyan; Bai, Mingze; Zhu, Yunping; Shu, Kunxian

    2018-04-25

    Exponential growth of the mass spectrometry (MS) data is exhibited when the mass spectrometry-based proteomics has been developing rapidly. It is a great challenge to develop some quick, accurate and repeatable methods to identify peptides and proteins. Nowadays, the spectral library searching has become a mature strategy for tandem mass spectra based proteins identification in proteomics, which searches the experiment spectra against a collection of confidently identified MS/MS spectra that have been observed previously, and fully utilizes the abundance in the spectrum, peaks from non-canonical fragment ions, and other features. This review provides an overview of the implement of spectral library search strategy, and two key steps, spectral library construction and spectral library searching comprehensively, and discusses the progress and challenge of the library search strategy.

  4. Spectral and spatial shaping of Smith-Purcell radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remez, Roei; Shapira, Niv; Roques-Carmes, Charles; Tirole, Romain; Yang, Yi; Lereah, Yossi; Soljačić, Marin; Kaminer, Ido; Arie, Ady

    2017-12-01

    The Smith-Purcell effect, observed when an electron beam passes in the vicinity of a periodic structure, is a promising platform for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in previously unreachable spectral ranges. However, most of the studies of this radiation were performed on simple periodic gratings, whose radiation spectrum exhibits a single peak and its higher harmonics predicted by a well-established dispersion relation. Here, we propose a method to shape the spatial and spectral far-field distribution of the radiation using complex periodic and aperiodic gratings. We show, theoretically and experimentally, that engineering multiple peak spectra with controlled widths located at desired wavelengths is achievable using Smith-Purcell radiation. Our method opens the way to free-electron-driven sources with tailored angular and spectral responses, and gives rise to focusing functionality for spectral ranges where lenses are unavailable or inefficient.

  5. On the Spectral Entropy of Thermodynamic Paths for Elementary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Graham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems do not elect thermodynamic pathways on their own. They operate in tandem with their surroundings. Pathway selection and traversal require coordinated work and heat exchanges along with parallel tuning of the system variables. Previous research by the author (Reference [1] focused on the information expressed in thermodynamic pathways. Examined here is how spectral entropy is a by-product of information that depends intricately on the pathway structure. The spectral entropy has proven to be a valuable tool in diverse fields. This paper illustrates the contact between spectral entropy and the properties which distinguish ideal from non-ideal gases. The role of spectral entropy in the first and second laws of thermodynamics and heat → work conversions is also discussed.

  6. Not Merely Experiential: Unconscious Thought Can Be Rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Garrison

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals often form more reasonable judgments from complex information after a period of distraction vs. deliberation. This phenomenon has been attributed to sophisticated unconscious thought during the distraction period that integrates and organizes the information (Unconscious Thought Theory; Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006. Yet, other research suggests that experiential processes are strengthened during the distraction (relative to deliberation period, accounting for the judgment and decision benefit. We tested between these possibilities, hypothesizing that unconscious thought is distinct from experiential processes, and independently contributes to judgments and decisions during a distraction period. Using an established paradigm, Experiment 1 (N = 319 randomly induced participants into an experiential or rational mindset, after which participants received complex information describing three roommates to then consider consciously (i.e., deliberation or unconsciously (i.e., distraction. Results revealed superior roommate judgments (but not choices following distraction vs. deliberation, consistent with Unconscious Thought Theory. Mindset did not have an influence on roommate judgments. However, planned tests revealed a significant advantage of distraction only within the rational-mindset condition, which is contrary to the idea that experiential processing alone facilitates complex decision-making during periods of distraction. In a second experiment (N = 136, we tested whether effects of unconscious thought manifest for a complex analytical reasoning task for which experiential processing would offer no advantage. As predicted, participants in an unconscious thought condition outperformed participants in a control condition, suggesting that unconscious thought can be analytical. In sum, the current results support the existence of unconscious thinking processes that are distinct from experiential processes, and can be rational. Thus

  7. Not Merely Experiential: Unconscious Thought Can Be Rational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Katie E; Handley, Ian M

    2017-01-01

    Individuals often form more reasonable judgments from complex information after a period of distraction vs. deliberation. This phenomenon has been attributed to sophisticated unconscious thought during the distraction period that integrates and organizes the information (Unconscious Thought Theory; Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006). Yet, other research suggests that experiential processes are strengthened during the distraction (relative to deliberation) period, accounting for the judgment and decision benefit. We tested between these possibilities, hypothesizing that unconscious thought is distinct from experiential processes, and independently contributes to judgments and decisions during a distraction period. Using an established paradigm, Experiment 1 ( N = 319) randomly induced participants into an experiential or rational mindset, after which participants received complex information describing three roommates to then consider consciously (i.e., deliberation) or unconsciously (i.e., distraction). Results revealed superior roommate judgments (but not choices) following distraction vs. deliberation, consistent with Unconscious Thought Theory. Mindset did not have an influence on roommate judgments. However, planned tests revealed a significant advantage of distraction only within the rational-mindset condition, which is contrary to the idea that experiential processing alone facilitates complex decision-making during periods of distraction. In a second experiment ( N = 136), we tested whether effects of unconscious thought manifest for a complex analytical reasoning task for which experiential processing would offer no advantage. As predicted, participants in an unconscious thought condition outperformed participants in a control condition, suggesting that unconscious thought can be analytical. In sum, the current results support the existence of unconscious thinking processes that are distinct from experiential processes, and can be rational. Thus, the

  8. Cognitive restructuring of gambling-related thoughts: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Maxime; Giroux, Isabelle; Goulet, Annie; Jacques, Christian; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Gamblers' thoughts have a fundamental influence on their gambling problem. Cognitive restructuring is the intervention of choice to correct those thoughts. However, certain difficulties are noted in the application of cognitive restructuring techniques and the comprehension of their guidelines. Furthermore, the increase of skill game players (e.g. poker) entering treatment creates a challenge for therapists, as these gamblers present with different thoughts than those of the gamblers usually encountered in treatment (e.g. chance-only games like electronic gambling machines). This systematic review aims to describe how cognitive restructuring is carried out with gamblers based on the evidence available in empirical studies that include cognitive interventions for gambling. Of the 2607 studies collected, 39 were retained. The results highlight exposure as the most frequently used technique to facilitate identification of gambling-related thoughts (imaginal=28.2%; in vivo=10.3%). More than half of the studies (69.2%) clearly reported therapeutic techniques aimed to correct gamblers' thoughts, of which 37% involved visual support to challenge those thoughts (e.g. ABC log). Of the 39 studies retained, 48.7% included skill game players (i.e., poker, blackjack, sports betting) in their sample. However, none of these studies mentioned whether cognitive restructuring had been adapted for these gamblers. Several terms referring to gamblers' thoughts were used interchangeably (e.g. erroneous, dysfunctional or inadequate thoughts), although each of these terms could refer to specific content. Clinical implications of the results are discussed with regard to the needs of therapists. This review also suggests recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Not Merely Experiential: Unconscious Thought Can Be Rational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Katie E.; Handley, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals often form more reasonable judgments from complex information after a period of distraction vs. deliberation. This phenomenon has been attributed to sophisticated unconscious thought during the distraction period that integrates and organizes the information (Unconscious Thought Theory; Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006). Yet, other research suggests that experiential processes are strengthened during the distraction (relative to deliberation) period, accounting for the judgment and decision benefit. We tested between these possibilities, hypothesizing that unconscious thought is distinct from experiential processes, and independently contributes to judgments and decisions during a distraction period. Using an established paradigm, Experiment 1 (N = 319) randomly induced participants into an experiential or rational mindset, after which participants received complex information describing three roommates to then consider consciously (i.e., deliberation) or unconsciously (i.e., distraction). Results revealed superior roommate judgments (but not choices) following distraction vs. deliberation, consistent with Unconscious Thought Theory. Mindset did not have an influence on roommate judgments. However, planned tests revealed a significant advantage of distraction only within the rational-mindset condition, which is contrary to the idea that experiential processing alone facilitates complex decision-making during periods of distraction. In a second experiment (N = 136), we tested whether effects of unconscious thought manifest for a complex analytical reasoning task for which experiential processing would offer no advantage. As predicted, participants in an unconscious thought condition outperformed participants in a control condition, suggesting that unconscious thought can be analytical. In sum, the current results support the existence of unconscious thinking processes that are distinct from experiential processes, and can be rational. Thus, the

  10. Neural reactivation links unconscious thought to decision-making performance

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, John David; Bursley, James K.; Satpute, Ajay B.

    2013-01-01

    Brief periods of unconscious thought (UT) have been shown to improve decision making compared with making an immediate decision (ID). We reveal a neural mechanism for UT in decision making using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants (N = 33) encoded information on a set of consumer products (e.g. 48 attributes describing four different cars), and we manipulated whether participants (i) consciously thought about this information (conscious thou...

  11. Ultraviolet spectral reflectance of carbonaceous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applin, Daniel M.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Pitman, Karly M.; Roush, Ted L.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Lucey, Paul G.

    2018-06-01

    A number of planetary spacecraft missions have carried instruments with sensors covering the ultraviolet (UV) wavelength range. However, there exists a general lack of relevant UV reflectance laboratory data to compare against these planetary surface remote sensing observations in order to make confident material identifications. To address this need, we have systematically analyzed reflectance spectra of carbonaceous materials in the 200-500 nm spectral range, and found spectral-compositional-structural relationships that suggest this wavelength region could distinguish between otherwise difficult-to-identify carbon phases. In particular (and by analogy with the infrared spectral region), large changes over short wavelength intervals in the refractive indices associated with the trigonal sp2π-π* transition of carbon can lead to Fresnel peaks and Christiansen-like features in reflectance. Previous studies extending to shorter wavelengths also show that anomalous dispersion caused by the σ-σ* transition associated with both the trigonal sp2 and tetrahedral sp3 sites causes these features below λ = 200 nm. The peak wavelength positions and shapes of π-π* and σ-σ* features contain information on sp3/sp2, structure, crystallinity, and powder grain size. A brief comparison with existing observational data indicates that the carbon fraction of the surface of Mercury is likely amorphous and submicroscopic, as is that on the surface of the martian satellites Phobos and Deimos, and possibly comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while further coordinated observations and laboratory experiments should refine these feature assignments and compositional hypotheses. The new laboratory diffuse reflectance data reported here provide an important new resource for interpreting UV reflectance measurements from planetary surfaces throughout the solar system, and confirm that the UV can be rich in important spectral information.

  12. SURFACE ALBEDO AND SPECTRAL VARIABILITY OF CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Reddy, Vishnu; Corre, Lucille Le; Sykes, Mark V.; Prettyman, Thomas H. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Nathues, Andreas; Hoffmann, Martin; Schaefer, Michael [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Göttingen (Germany); Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Cloutis, Edward A. [University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Carsenty, Uri; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Mottola, Stefano; Schröder, Stefan E. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin (Germany); Castillo-Rogez, Julie C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Schenk, Paul [Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Williams, David A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Smith, David E. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zuber, Maria T. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); and others

    2016-02-01

    Previous observations suggested that Ceres has active, but possibly sporadic, water outgassing as well as possibly varying spectral characteristics over a timescale of months. We used all available data of Ceres collected in the past three decades from the ground and the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as the newly acquired images by the Dawn  Framing Camera, to search for spectral and albedo variability on Ceres, on both a global scale and in local regions, particularly the bright spots inside the Occator crater, over timescales of a few months to decades. Our analysis has placed an upper limit on the possible temporal albedo variation on Ceres. Sporadic water vapor venting, or any possibly ongoing activity on Ceres, is not significant enough to change the albedo or the area of the bright features in the Occator crater by >15%, or the global albedo by >3% over the various timescales that we searched. Recently reported spectral slope variations can be explained by changing Sun–Ceres–Earth geometry. The active area on Ceres is less than 1 km{sup 2}, too small to cause global albedo and spectral variations detectable in our data. Impact ejecta due to impacting projectiles of tens of meters in size like those known to cause observable changes to the surface albedo on Asteroid Scheila cannot cause detectable albedo change on Ceres due to its relatively large size and strong gravity. The water vapor activity on Ceres is independent of Ceres’ heliocentric distance, ruling out the possibility of the comet-like sublimation process as a possible mechanism driving the activity.

  13. Evolutionary Computing Methods for Spectral Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, Richard; Fink, Wolfgang; Huntsberger, Terrance; Lee, Seugwon; Tisdale, Edwin; VonAllmen, Paul; Tinetti, Geivanna

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for processing spectral images to retrieve information on underlying physical, chemical, and/or biological phenomena is based on evolutionary and related computational methods implemented in software. In a typical case, the solution (the information that one seeks to retrieve) consists of parameters of a mathematical model that represents one or more of the phenomena of interest. The methodology was developed for the initial purpose of retrieving the desired information from spectral image data acquired by remote-sensing instruments aimed at planets (including the Earth). Examples of information desired in such applications include trace gas concentrations, temperature profiles, surface types, day/night fractions, cloud/aerosol fractions, seasons, and viewing angles. The methodology is also potentially useful for retrieving information on chemical and/or biological hazards in terrestrial settings. In this methodology, one utilizes an iterative process that minimizes a fitness function indicative of the degree of dissimilarity between observed and synthetic spectral and angular data. The evolutionary computing methods that lie at the heart of this process yield a population of solutions (sets of the desired parameters) within an accuracy represented by a fitness-function value specified by the user. The evolutionary computing methods (ECM) used in this methodology are Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, both of which are well-established optimization techniques and have also been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These are embedded in a conceptual framework, represented in the architecture of the implementing software, that enables automatic retrieval of spectral and angular data and analysis of the retrieved solutions for uniqueness.

  14. The Effect of Epidermal Structures on Leaf Spectral Signatures of Ice Plants (Aizoaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Hans-Jürgen Heim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal structures (ES of leaves are known to affect the functional properties and spectral responses. Spectral studies focused mostly on the effect of hairs or wax layers only. We studied a wider range of different ES and their impact on spectral properties. Additionally, we identified spectral regions that allow distinguishing different ES. We used a field spectrometer to measure ex situ leaf spectral responses from 350 nm–2500 nm. A spectral library for 25 species of the succulent family Aizoaceae was assembled. Five functional types were defined based on ES: flat epidermal cell surface, convex to papillary epidermal cell surface, bladder cells, hairs and wax cover. We tested the separability of ES using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA based on the spectral data. Subsequently, variable importance (VIP was calculated to identify spectral regions relevant for discriminating our functional types (classes. Classification performance was high, with a kappa value of 0.9 indicating well-separable spectral classes. VIP calculations identified six spectral regions of increased importance for the classification. We confirmed and extended previous findings regarding the visible-near-infrared spectral region. Our experiments also confirmed that epidermal leaf traits can be classified due to clearly distinguishable spectral signatures across species and genera within the Aizoaceae.

  15. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  16. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  17. A Penny for Your Thoughts: Dimensions of Thought Content and Relationships with Individual Differences in Emotional Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Andrews-Hanna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A core aspect of human cognition involves overcoming the constraints of the present environment by mentally simulating another time, place, or perspective. Although these self-generated processes confer many benefits, they can come at an important cost, and this cost is greater for some individuals than for others. Here we explore the possibility that the costs and benefits of self-generated thought depend, in part, upon its phenomenological content. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a novel thought sampling paradigm and explored normative ratings of multiple thought content variables (i.e. valence, specificity, self-relevance, etc. across a large sample of young adults. Next, we examined multi-level relationships among these content variables, and used a hierarchical clustering approach to partition self-generated thought into multiple dimensions. Finally, we investigated whether these content dimensions predicted individual differences in the costs and benefits of the experience, assessed with questionnaires measuring emotional health and wellbeing. Individuals who characterized their thoughts as more negative and more personally-significant exhibited scored higher on constructs associated with Depression and Trait Negative Affect, whereas those who characterized their thoughts as less specific scored higher on constructs linked to Rumination. In contrast, individuals who characterized their thoughts as more positive, less personally-significant, and more specific scored higher on constructs linked to improved wellbeing (Mindfulness. Collectively, these findings suggest that the content of people’s inner thoughts can 1 be productively examined, 2 be distilled into several major dimensions, and 3 account for a large portion of variability in their functional outcomes.

  18. Evaluation criteria for spectral design of camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Fagerström, Jan; Hallberg, Tomas; Kariis, Hans

    2015-10-01

    In development of visual (VIS) and infrared (IR) camouflage for signature management, the aim is the design of surface properties of an object to spectrally match or adapt to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast perceived by a threatening sensor. The so called 'ladder model" relates the requirements for task measure of effectiveness with surface structure properties through the steps signature effectiveness and object signature. It is intended to link materials properties via platform signature to military utility and vice versa. Spectral design of a surface intends to give it a desired wavelength dependent optical response to fit a specific application of interest. Six evaluation criteria were stated, with the aim to aid the process to put requirement on camouflage and for evaluation. The six criteria correspond to properties such as reflectance, gloss, emissivity, and degree of polarization as well as dynamic properties, and broadband or multispectral properties. These criteria have previously been exemplified on different kinds of materials and investigated separately. Anderson and Åkerlind further point out that the six criteria rarely were considered or described all together in one and same publication previously. The specific level of requirement of the different properties must be specified individually for each specific situation and environment to minimize the contrast between target and a background. The criteria or properties are not totally independent of one another. How they are correlated is part of the theme of this paper. However, prioritization has been made due to the limit of space. Therefore all of the interconnections between the six criteria will not be considered in the work of this report. The ladder step previous to digging into the different material composition possibilities and choice of suitable materials and structures (not covered here), includes the object signature and decision of what the spectral response should be

  19. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  20. The relationship of thought-action fusion to pathologicial worry and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Zucker, Bonnie G; Craske, Michelle G

    2002-10-01

    Meta-cognitive beliefs associated with pathological worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may encompass the likelihood subtype of thought-action fusion (TAF), the belief that one's thoughts can influence outside events. In the current study of 494 undergraduate college students, positive correlations between scores on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the two Likelihood subscales of the TAF Scale were found, and participants endorsing at least some DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for GAD scored significantly higher on both TAF-Likelihood subscales than participants reporting no GAD symptoms. However, these TAF scales did not predict GAD diagnostic status with PSWQ included as a predictor. In contrast to previous research, the TAF-Moral scale did not correlate with worry. Relationships between TAF, pathological worry, and meta-cognition are discussed in relation to GAD.

  1. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: Testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel James Siebert Ashby

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one’s options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a ‘deliberation with information’ condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought over ‘deliberation without information’, we find that ‘deliberation with information’ equals or outperforms unconscious thought in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that unconscious thought has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. We furthermore show that ‘deliberate thought with information’ leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to unconscious thought which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  2. The Role of Gist and Verbatim Memory in Complex Decision Making: Explaining the Unconscious-Thought Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Marlène; Waroquier, Laurent; Terrier, Patrice

    2017-01-01

    Previous research showed that the "unconscious-thought effect", which refers to an improvement in complex decision making following a distraction period, was moderated by the presentation format of pieces of information about different options. The aim of the current study was to replicate this finding and further examine the memory…

  3. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  4. The Concept of Paleologic Thought According to Arieti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Melo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Aristotelic Logic, which is characterized by four laws, is commonly accepted as being representative of normal though, when considered in its formal aspect. Arieti defends the existence of another logic, one that he has designated "Paleological", which was dominant in human beings in the beginning of their evolution, and that also occurs in certain characteristics of infantile thought, as well as in the primary process (manner in which the unconscious operates. The same author considers that this logic, whoch is quiescent, emerges in schizophrenic thought, dominating and overlapping the Aristotelian logic. In order to escape from anguish, the shizophrenic patient abandons Aristotelian norms of thought and adopts the Paleological form, because by interpreting reality, in light of Aristotelian logic, it's felt to be threatening and unbearable. Finally, Arieti explains that the principles of Paleological thought don't explain the phenomenon dynamically, merely formally. The study of psychodinamic mechanisms reveals what and why (content and motivation, while the study of formal mechanims reveal how, thoughts and feelings are processed.

  5. Brain mechanisms for loss of awareness of thought and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A.; Halligan, Peter W.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Deeley, Quinton

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Loss or reduction of awareness is common in neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena but the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. fMRI was combined with suggestions for automatic writing in 18 healthy highly hypnotically suggestible individuals in a within-subjects design to determine whether clinical alterations in awareness of thought and movement can be experimentally modelled and studied independently of illness. Subjective ratings of control, ownership, and awareness of thought and movement, and fMRI data were collected following suggestions for thought insertion and alien control of writing movement, with and without loss of awareness. Subjective ratings confirmed that suggestions were effective. At the neural level, our main findings indicated that loss of awareness for both thought and movement during automatic writing was associated with reduced activation in a predominantly left-sided posterior cortical network including BA 7 (superior parietal lobule and precuneus), and posterior cingulate cortex, involved in self-related processing and awareness of the body in space. Reduced activity in posterior parietal cortices may underlie specific clinical and cultural alterations in awareness of thought and movement. Clinically, these findings may assist development of imaging assessments for loss of awareness of psychological origin, and interventions such as neurofeedback. PMID:28338742

  6. Objectification of people and thoughts: An attitude change perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñol, Pablo; Petty, Richard E; Belding, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Many objectification phenomena can be understood from a mind-body dualism perspective in which the more people focus on their bodies, the less they focus on their minds. Instead of viewing mind and body in opposition to each other, we advocate for a more reciprocal view in which mind and body work in conjunction. Consistent with an integrated mind-body approach, we begin our review by describing research on embodied persuasion revealing that focusing on our own body can reduce but also increase thinking (elaboration), as well as affecting the use of thoughts in forming evaluations (validation). Next, we extend our integrated view to a new domain and suggest that physical objects can influence thoughts and that one's thoughts can also be objectified. The first portion of this section focuses on research on enclothed cognition revealing that wearing physical objects can operate through the same processes of elaboration (increasing and decreasing thinking) and validation (increasing and decreasing thought usage) as the body. The second portion reveals that thoughts can be understood and treated as if they were physical objects affecting evaluative processes by influencing elaboration and validation processes. The final section provides some practical guidance relevant to campaigns designed to reduce the objectification of women and the infrahumanization of stigmatized groups. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Spectrally accurate initial data in numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Nicholas A.

    Einstein's theory of general relativity has radically altered the way in which we perceive the universe. His breakthrough was to realize that the fabric of space is deformable in the presence of mass, and that space and time are linked into a continuum. Much evidence has been gathered in support of general relativity over the decades. Some of the indirect evidence for GR includes the phenomenon of gravitational lensing, the anomalous perihelion of mercury, and the gravitational redshift. One of the most striking predictions of GR, that has not yet been confirmed, is the existence of gravitational waves. The primary source of gravitational waves in the universe is thought to be produced during the merger of binary black hole systems, or by binary neutron stars. The starting point for computer simulations of black hole mergers requires highly accurate initial data for the space-time metric and for the curvature. The equations describing the initial space-time around the black hole(s) are non-linear, elliptic partial differential equations (PDE). We will discuss how to use a pseudo-spectral (collocation) method to calculate the initial puncture data corresponding to single black hole and binary black hole systems.

  8. Formal Thought Disorder and language impairment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness in which disorders of thought content are a prominent feature. The disruption of normal flow of thought, or “Formal Thought Disorder” (FTD, has been traditionally assessed through the content and form of patients’ speech, and speech abnormalities in schizophrenia were considered as a by-product of the disruption in conceptual structures and associative processes related to psychosis. This view has been changed due to increasing evidence that language per se is impaired in schizophrenia, especially its semantic, discursive, and pragmatic aspects. Schizophrenia is currently considered by some authors as a “language related human specific disease” or “logopathy”, and the neuroanatomical and genetic correlates of the language impairment in these patients are under investigation. Such efforts may lead to a better understanding about the pathophysiology of this devastating mental disease. We present some current concepts related to FTD as opposed to primary neurolinguistic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  9. The magic of Rudaki's thought and literary language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S Basiri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, at first, discuses the fact that language is the most important means of human being to reach the fact and beauty. Language is a means of logical thinking rather than a way of communication. However, literary language in Rudaki's poetry has the best capacity to identify and reveal mental concepts through using aesthetics. The main question of this article is how Rudaki connected language to thought and what is his artistic creation? For this reason the researcher, after presenting and considering evidences, proves that Rudaki has used all characteristics of language and principals of creative language to connect literary language and thought together. The most prominent elements of Rudaki's thought and literary language are: using the most proper words in collocation, distinguishing the relationship of cause and effect and existence through literary language, asserting artistic fact, using imagination and principles of association of meanings, and entering poetical experience in language dominion (domain.

  10. Cinema as the Interdisciplinary Conjuncture of Political Thought and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Alavipoor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available From the dawn of its history, cinema has been considered as a phenomenon in which different thoughts, among them the political, could be addressed. Indeed, many film-makers have presented various aspects of political norms and the good order of society through movies. However, this combination of the idea and image has been addressed in different ways and among others, as seems, the historical narrative has the potentiality to convey critical and normal political ideas in cinema. Exploring different types of representing the political thought in cinematic historical narratives, the present study attempts to identify cinema’s interdisciplinary potential as a conjuncture for the disciplines of history and political thought.

  11. The Spectral Web of stationary plasma equilibria. II. Internal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    (MRI) thought to be operating in accretion disks about black holes. The sequence n =1 ,2 ,… of unstable MRIs is located on one continuous solution path, but also on infinitely many separate loops ("pancakes") of the conjugate path with just one MRI on each of them. For narrow accretion disks, those sequences are connected with the slow magneto-sonic continuum, which is far away though from the marginal stability transition. In this case, the Spectral Web method is the first to effectively incorporate the MRIs into the general MHD spectral theory of equilibria with background flows. Together, the three examples provide compelling evidence of the computational power of the Spectral Web Method.

  12. Boundaries of regulatory fit: Is it the thought that counts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leikas, S.; Lindeman, M.; Roininen, K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeling of regulatory fit is thought to arise from the right kind of goal pursuit, but some studies imply that it may be evoked even by lesser involvement in the right kind of strategies. The present experiment explored the minimum of involvement necessary to evoke regulatory fit. Participants...... the same information. Participants in promotion focus reported more positive attitudes in the rich information condition, whereas prevention-focused participants reported more positive attitudes in the accurate information condition. The results showed that regulatory fit can be evoked through mere thought...

  13. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  14. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  15. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  16. Spectral Imaging of Portolan Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Fenella G.; Wilson, Meghan A.; Ghez, Anita

    2018-05-01

    Spectral imaging of Portolan Charts, early nautical charts, provided extensive new information about their construction and creation. The origins of the portolan chart style have been a continual source of perplexity to numerous generations of cartographic historians. The spectral imaging system utilized incorporates a 50 megapixel mono-chrome camera with light emitting diode (LED) illumination panels that cover the range from 365 nm to 1050 nm to capture visible and non-visible information. There is little known about how portolan charts evolved, and what influenced their creation. These early nautical charts began as working navigational tools of medieval mariners, initially made in the 1300s in Italy, Portugal and Spain; however the origin and development of the portolan chart remained shrouded in mystery. Questions about these early navigational charts included whether colorants were commensurate with the time period and geographical location, and if different, did that give insight into trade routes, or possible later additions to the charts? For example; spectral data showed the red pigment on both the 1320 portolan chart and the 1565 Galapagos Islands matched vermillion, an opaque red pigment used since antiquity. The construction of these charts was also of great interest. Spectral imaging with a range of illumination modes revealed the presence of a "hidden circle" often referred to in relation to their construction. This paper will present in-depth analysis of how spectral imaging of the Portolans revealed similarities and differences, new hidden information and shed new light on construction and composition.

  17. The even and the odd spectral flows on the N=2 superconformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato-Rivera, B.

    1998-01-01

    There are two different spectral flows on the N=2 superconformal algebras (four in the case of the topological algebra). The usual spectral flow, first considered by Schwimmer and Seiberg, is an even transformation, whereas the spectral flow previously considered by the author and Rosado is an odd transformation. We show that the even spectral flow is generated by the odd spectral flow, and therefore only the latter is fundamental. We also analyze thoroughly the four ''topological'' spectral flows, writing two of them here for the first time. Whereas the even and the odd spectral flows have quasi-mirrored properties acting on the antiperiodic or the periodic algebras, the topological even and odd spectral flows have drastically different properties acting on the topological algebra. The other two topological spectral flows have mixed even and odd properties. We show that the even and the even-odd topological spectral flows are generated by the odd and the odd-even topological spectral flows, and therefore only the latter are fundamental. (orig.)

  18. Impulsivity moderates the relationship between previous quit failure and cue-induced craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erblich, Joel; Michalowski, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Poor inhibitory control has been shown to be an important predictor of relapse to a number of drugs, including nicotine. Indeed, smokers who exhibit higher levels of impulsivity are thought to have impaired regulation of urges to smoke, and previous research has suggested that impulsivity may moderate cue-induced cigarette cravings. To that end, we conducted a study to evaluate the interplay between failed smoking cessation, cue-induced craving, and impulsivity. Current smokers (n=151) rated their cigarette cravings before and after laboratory to exposure to smoking cues, and completed questionnaires assessing impulsivity and previous failed quit attempts. Findings indicated that shorter duration of previous failed quit attempts was related to higher cue-induced cigarette craving, especially among smokers with higher levels of impulsivity. Results underscore the importance of considering trait impulsivity as a factor in better understanding the management of cue-induced cravings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How intention and monitoring your thoughts influence characteristics of autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2018-05-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories come to mind effortlessly and unintended, but the mechanisms of their retrieval are not fully understood. We hypothesize that involuntary retrieval depends on memories that are highly accessible (e.g., intense, unusual, recent, rehearsed), while the elaborate search that characterizes voluntary retrieval also produces memories that are mundane, repeated or distant - memories with low accessibility. Previous research provides some evidence for this 'threshold hypothesis'. However, in almost every prior study, participants have been instructed to report only memories while ignoring other thoughts. It is possible that such an instruction can modify the phenomenological characteristics of involuntary memories. This study aimed to investigate the effects of retrieval intentionality (i.e., wanting to retrieve a memory) and selective monitoring (i.e., instructions to report only memories) on the phenomenology of autobiographical memories. Participants were instructed to (1) intentionally retrieve autobiographical memories, (2) intentionally retrieve any type of thought (3) wait for an autobiographical memory to spontaneously appear, or (4) wait for any type of thought to spontaneously appear. They rated the mental content on a number of phenomenological characteristics both during retrieval and retrospectively following retrieval. The results support the prediction that highly accessible memories mostly enter awareness unintended and without selective monitoring, while memories with low accessibility rely on intention and selective monitoring. We discuss the implications of these effects. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Children's thoughts on the social exclusion of peers with intellectual or learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, E A; Brown, J; Stepien, M

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has shown that children with intellectual or learning disabilities are at risk for social exclusion by their peers but little is known of children's views on this topic. In this study, we used concept mapping to investigate elementary school children's thoughts on why they believe their peers with intellectual or learning disabilities are sometimes socially excluded at school. Participants were 49 grade five and six children who attended inclusive classrooms. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. We extracted 49 unique statements from the transcribed data, and then invited participants to sort the statements into meaningful categories. Sorted data were entered into matrices, which were summed and analysed with multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis. A four-cluster solution provided the best conceptual fit for the data. Clusters reflected themes on (1) the thoughts and actions of other children; (2) differences in learning ability and resource allocation; (3) affect, physical characteristics and schooling; and (4) negative thoughts and behaviours. The overarching reason for social exclusion focused on differences between children with and without disabilities. This study also provided evidence that children are effective, reliable and competent participants in concept mapping. Educational and research implications are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  1. Examination of Spectral Transformations on Spectral Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wu, C.

    2018-04-01

    While many spectral transformation techniques have been applied on spectral mixture analysis (SMA), few study examined their necessity and applicability. This paper focused on exploring the difference between spectrally transformed schemes and untransformed scheme to find out which transformed scheme performed better in SMA. In particular, nine spectrally transformed schemes as well as untransformed scheme were examined in two study areas. Each transformed scheme was tested 100 times using different endmember classes' spectra under the endmember model of vegetation- high albedo impervious surface area-low albedo impervious surface area-soil (V-ISAh-ISAl-S). Performance of each scheme was assessed based on mean absolute error (MAE). Statistical analysis technique, Paired-Samples T test, was applied to test the significance of mean MAEs' difference between transformed and untransformed schemes. Results demonstrated that only NSMA could exceed the untransformed scheme in all study areas. Some transformed schemes showed unstable performance since they outperformed the untransformed scheme in one area but weakened the SMA result in another region.

  2. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  3. Spectral ellipsometry of nanodiamond composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebov, S.G.; Ivanov-Omskij, V.I.; Gordeev, S.K.; Garriga, M.; Alonso, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Methods of spectral ellipsometry were applied for analysis of optical properties of nanodiamond based composite in spectral region 1.4-5 eV. The nanocomposite was synthesized by molding of ultradispersed nanodiamond powder in the course of heterogeneous chemical reaction of decomposition of methane, forming pyrocarbon interconnecting nanodiamond grains. The energy of σ + π plasmon of pyrocarbon component of nanodiamond composite was restored which proves to be ∼ 24 eV; using this value, an estimation was done of pyrocarbon matrix density, which occurs to be 2 g/cm 3 [ru

  4. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  5. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  6. The Development of Motivational Thought in the Study of Curiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidler, Derek C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the development of motivational thought in the study of exploratory behavior and curiosity. Traces the way in which concepts of curiosity were considered from the perspectives of instinct and drive-reduction theories to the more recent notions of optimal stimulation. (Author)

  7. Willful Ignorance and the Death Knell of Critical Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel Ian

    2018-01-01

    Independent, critical thought has never been more important in the United States. In the Age of Trump, political officials spout falsehoods called "alternative facts" as if they were on equal footing with researchable, scientific data. At the same time, an unquestioning populace engages in acts of "willful ignorance" on a daily…

  8. Military Airpower: A Revised Digest of Airpower Opinions and Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Opinions and Thoughts Air University Press Team Chief Editor Jeanne Shamburger Copy Editor Sherry Terrell Cover Art and Book...Design Steven C. Garst Illustrations Daniel Armstrong Composition and Prepress Production Ann Bailey Quality Review Mary J. Moore Print Preparation Joan Hickey Distribution Diane Clark

  9. Film as a "Thoughtful" Medium for Teaching History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    This collective case study of teachers and students in two ninth-grade US history classes examines the role that films can play as a "thoughtful" medium for teaching history. Specifically, the study focuses on the nature and range of authentic intellectual work that students are engaged in with film in the classroom (Newmann, F., B.…

  10. Academic Achievement and Formal Thought in Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; de Anglat, Hilda Difabio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research on university-level academic performance has significantly linked failure and dropping out to formal reasoning deficiency. We have not found any papers on formal thought in Argentine university students, in spite of the obvious shortcomings observed in the classrooms. Thus, the main objective of this paper was exploring the…

  11. Sexism in Political Thought and Its Refutation: A Schematic Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Siegrun F.

    The document examines Western political thought in terms of women's and men's expected spheres of concern, the proper male and female nature, and the sex-specific allocation of social values. In addition, the author applies her conclusions to contemporary political issues in the United States. Aristotle, Cicero, Aquinas, Rousseau, and Hegel made a…

  12. The effects of familiarity on thought--action fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C; Wheaton, Michael G; Fabricant, Laura E; Jacobson, Spenser R; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined whether beliefs about the importance of thoughts (i.e., thought--action fusion; TAF) are related to the target subject of the negative thought. One hundred and seven undergraduate students were randomly assigned to imagine either a beloved relative or a stranger being diagnosed with cancer and provided in vivo ratings of anxiety, likelihood, moral wrongness, urge to neutralize, and how upsetting the event would be if it occurred. Results indicated that thinking of a relative being diagnosed with cancer provoked more distress, urges to neutralize, and higher estimates of likelihood, as well greater use of mental neutralizing behaviors, compared to thinking of a stranger. Contrary to our prediction, the groups did not differ in their ratings of the moral wrongness. These findings broadly support the assertion that the more personally significant a negative intrusive thought, the more it will provoke distress and urges to neutralize. Results are discussed in terms of the cognitive model of obsessions and clinical implications are addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Depressive Thought Content Among Female College Students With Bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1988-01-01

    Compared overall depression scores on Beck Depression Inventory between women with and without bulimia and examined differences in specific depression items. Results indicated that bulimics were more depressed than controls and had distorted thoughts regarding body image, self-blame, somatic preoccupation, guilt, and suicidal ideation. (Author/NB)

  14. Dynamic interactions of the cortical networks during thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Kazuo; Kiyonaka, Takashi; Aoki, Takaaki; Inagawa, Michiyo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-08-01

    Thought suppression has spurred extensive research in clinical and preclinical fields, particularly with regard to the paradoxical aspects of this behavior. However, the involvement of the brain's inhibitory system in the dynamics underlying the continuous effort to suppress thoughts has yet to be clarified. This study aims to provide a unified perspective for the volitional suppression of internal events incorporating the current understanding of the brain's inhibitory system. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed thought suppression blocks alternating with visual imagery blocks. The whole dataset was decomposed by group-independent component analysis into 30 components. After discarding noise components, the 20 valid components were subjected to further analysis of their temporal properties including task-relatedness and between-component residual correlation. Combining a long task period and a data-driven approach, we observed a right-side-dominant, lateral frontoparietal network to be strongly suppression related. This network exhibited increased fluctuation during suppression, which is compatible with the well-known difficulty of suppression maintenance. Between-network correlation provided further insight into the coordinated engagement of the executive control and dorsal attention networks, as well as the reciprocal activation of imagery-related components, thus revealing neural substrates associated with the rivalry between intrusive thoughts and the suppression process.

  15. God's Thoughts: Practical Steps toward a Theory of Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2017-01-01

    No matter your opinion on religion, whether you are a staunch believer or an unapologetic atheist, that phrase "God's thoughts" is a delightfully poetic one. It represents in a metaphorical way nothing less than an understanding of the deepest and most fundamental laws of the universe. Specifically, the hope is that we will one day be…

  16. Sexual thoughts: links to testosterone and cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) or cortisol (C) in males of a variety of species, including humans, and just thinking about sex increases T in women. We investigated whether sexual thoughts change T or C in men and whether hormone measures (baseline, post-activity, and changes) correlate with psychological sexual arousal. We used the Imagined Social Situation Exercise to assess how hormones respond to and correlate with sexual thoughts and arousal relative to three control conditions: neutral, stressful, and positive. A total of 99 men provided a baseline saliva sample, imagined and wrote about a sexual or control situation, and provided a second saliva sample 15 min later. Results indicated that, for participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline and post-activity C corresponded to larger increases in self- reported sexual and autonomic arousal. Although sexual thoughts increased sexual arousal, they did not change T or C compared to control conditions. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts are not sufficient to change T or C in men, but C may facilitate sexual arousal by directing energy towards a sexual situation.

  17. Feeding Health: Thoughts on Healthy Food for a Healthy Planet

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-19

    In this podcast, Food Rules author Michael Pollan discusses American food culture and gives his thoughts on how food can impact human and environmental health.  Created: 8/19/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Office of Sustainability.   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  18. Critique of Nkrumah's Philosophical Materialism | Ani | Thought and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  19. About the Reflective Thought Also Known as the Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Federico R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable…

  20. Deafness, Thought Bubbles, and Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of theory-of-mind development were examined via a training study of false-belief conceptions in deaf children of hearing parents (N = 43). In comparison to 2 different control conditions, training based on thought-bubble instruction about beliefs was linked with improved false-belief understanding as well as progress…

  1. Color, Temperature and Heat: Exploring University Students Mental Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlas, Ian Phil

    2016-01-01

    Color, temperature and heat are among the concepts in science that are interconnected. These concepts are introduced to learners even before they enter the basic education. On the other hand, in school, it is formally introduced to them not only in science but also in the humanities. The foregoing study attempted to explore the mental thoughts of…

  2. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  3. Commerce and morality in eighteenth-century Italian political thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Stapelbroek (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis special issue presents a number of studies by young scholars in the history of eighteenth-century Italian political thought, a field that was put on the map in the second half of the twentieth century by the efforts of Franco Venturi. By taking up the theme of commerce and morality,

  4. Negative Thought Stopping. A Key to Performance Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Susan G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mental training on skill acquisition and performance is currently emphasized in the study of sport psychology and motor learning. This article provides the teacher and coach with general guidelines for understanding and incorporating negative thought stopping training into athletic programs. (MT)

  5. Recalibrating the context for reported speech and thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how speakers who are about to produce, or in the midst of producing, reported speech and thought (RT), temporarily abandon the production of RT to include other material. Using Conversation Analysis, we identify three positions in which RT is abandoned temporarily...

  6. Scientific publishing: some food for thought (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Bo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publishing, here to be considered in a broader sense, as publishing of both specialised scientific journals and science popularisation works addressed to a wider audience, has been sailing for some years on troubled waters. To gather some possible food for thought is the purpose of this brief article.

  7. Sound Not Light: Levinas and the Elements of Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma; Standish, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Can Levinas' thought of the other be extended beyond the relation to the other human being? This article seeks to demonstrate that Levinas' philosophy can indeed be read in such a sense and that this serves to open up a new way of understanding human thinking. Key to understanding such an extension of Levinas' philosophy will be his account of the…

  8. Kindness in the Art Classroom: Kind Thoughts on Stephen Rowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Stephen Rowland's article, "Kindness," which appeared in "London Review of Education," November 2009. Much to my amazement, Stephen Rowland's article was the only one I found when I did a global database search on "kindness in education". I had thought that I would find reams of information in the databases on the…

  9. Antonio Gramsci on intellectual thought – Challenging nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, B

    2017-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Antonio Gramsci on intellectual thought – Challenging nursing journaltitle: Nurse Education Today articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2017.02.023 content_type: simple-article copyright: © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlmann, Charlotte; Madsen, Trine; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -list assignment for 32 weeks. The primary outcomes are frequency and intensity of suicidal thoughts. Secondary outcome measures include depressive symptoms, hopelessness, worrying, quality of life, costs related to health care utilization and production loss. Number of deliberate self-harm episodes, suicides...

  11. Understanding in the humanities: Gadamer's thought at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because Gadamer is very sensitive to the role of history, tradition and authority within human life, the overall intention of this article will be to unveil major elements of modern philosophy which exerted an influence upon his thought. In this sense it can be seen as applying his notion of 'Wirkungsgeschichte' to an assessment ...

  12. The Role of Affect in Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamokoski, Cynthia A.; Scheel, Karen R.; Rogers, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Risk factors, theoretical explanations, and treatment suggestions for suicidal behaviors have historically focused largely on cognitions, but a more comprehensive picture may be provided by examining the role of affect in suicidal thoughts and behaviors. In the current study the link between affect and suicide within the theoretical framework of…

  13. Creating a universe from thermodynamic thought experiments I

    OpenAIRE

    Ojo, Akinbo

    2006-01-01

    We describe a thought experiment using an isolated system of known parameters and assuming the correctness of Clausius and Boltzmann descriptions of entropy. The experiment produced an astronomical increase in the number of possible ways the system can be arranged and inescapably in achieving this, an increase in the compartment volume of the system. The result may possibly be of significance to cosmology.

  14. A Logic Programming Testbed for Inductive Thought and Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Norman D.

    This paper describes applications of logic programming technology to the teaching of the inductive method in computer science and mathematics. It discusses the nature of inductive thought and its place in those fields of inquiry, arguing that a complete logic programming system for supporting inductive inference is not only feasible but necessary.…

  15. GOSAT-2014 methane spectral line list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.V.; Lyulin, O.M.; Mikhailenko, S.N.; Perevalov, V.I.; Filippov, N.N.; Grigoriev, I.M.; Morino, I.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsunaga, T.

    2015-01-01

    The updated methane spectral line list GOSAT-2014 for the 5550–6240 cm −1 region with the intensity cutoff of 5×10 –25 cm/molecule at 296 K is presented. The line list is based on the extensive measurements of the methane spectral line parameters performed at different temperatures and pressures of methane without and with buffer gases N 2 , O 2 and air. It contains the following spectral line parameters of about 12150 transitions: line position, line intensity, energy of lower state, air-induced and self-pressure-induced broadening and shift coefficients and temperature exponent of air-broadening coefficient. The accuracy of the line positions and intensities are considerably improved in comparison with the previous version GOSAT-2009. The improvement of the line list is done mainly due to the involving to the line position and intensity retrieval of six new spectra recorded with short path way (8.75 cm). The air-broadening and air-shift coefficients for the J-manifolds of the 2ν 3 (F 2 ) band are refitted using the new more precise values of the line positions and intensities. The line assignment is considerably extended. The lower state J-value was assigned to 6397 lines representing 94.4% of integrated intensity of the considering wavenumber region. The complete assignment was done for 2750 lines. - Highlights: • The upgrade of the GOSAT methane line list in the 5550–6240 cm −1 region is done. • 12,146 experimental methane line positions and intensities are retrieved. • 6376 lower energy levels for methane lines are determined

  16. Local normal vector field formulation for periodic scattering problems formulated in the spectral domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, M.C.; Setija, Irwan

    2017-01-01

    We present two adapted formulations, one tailored to isotropic media and one for general anisotropic media, of the normal vector field framework previously introduced to improve convergence near arbitrarily shaped material interfaces in spectral simulation methods for periodic scattering geometries.

  17. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Observed spectral features of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author concentrates on the observed properties of dust spectral features. Identifications, based on laboratory data, are given whenever plausible ones exist. There are a very large number of papers in the literature of even such a young field as infrared spectroscopy, and therefore the author refers only to the most recent paper on a topic or to another review. (Auth.)

  19. Rayleigh imaging in spectral mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Karl; Danielsson, Mats; Fredenberg, Erik

    2016-03-01

    Spectral imaging is the acquisition of multiple images of an object at different energy spectra. In mammography, dual-energy imaging (spectral imaging with two energy levels) has been investigated for several applications, in particular material decomposition, which allows for quantitative analysis of breast composition and quantitative contrast-enhanced imaging. Material decomposition with dual-energy imaging is based on the assumption that there are two dominant photon interaction effects that determine linear attenuation: the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering. This assumption limits the number of basis materials, i.e. the number of materials that are possible to differentiate between, to two. However, Rayleigh scattering may account for more than 10% of the linear attenuation in the mammography energy range. In this work, we show that a modified version of a scanning multi-slit spectral photon-counting mammography system is able to acquire three images at different spectra and can be used for triple-energy imaging. We further show that triple-energy imaging in combination with the efficient scatter rejection of the system enables measurement of Rayleigh scattering, which adds an additional energy dependency to the linear attenuation and enables material decomposition with three basis materials. Three available basis materials have the potential to improve virtually all applications of spectral imaging.

  20. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  1. Spectral ansatz in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.; Slim, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    An ansatz of Delbourgo and Salam for the spectral representation of the vertex function in quantum electrodynamics. The Ward-Takahashi identity is respected, and the electron propagator does not have a ghost. The infra-red and ultraviolet behaviours of the electron propagator in this theory are considered, and a rigorous existence theorem for the propagator in the Yennie gauge is presented

  2. Spectral Diagonal Ensemble Kalman Filters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasanický, Ivan; Mandel, Jan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 485-497 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-34856S Grant - others:NSF(US) DMS-1216481 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : data assimilation * ensemble Kalman filter * spectral representation Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2015

  3. Biomarkers and Biological Spectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-23

    G. Sowa, H. H. Mantsch, National Research Council Canada; S. L. Zhang, Unilever Research (USA) 85 Brain tissue charcterization using spectral imaging...image registration and of the expert staff of Hill Top Research in Winnipeg for hosting the hydration study. Financial assistance from Unilever Research

  4. The exponential function expansion of the intra-nodal cross sections for the spectral history gradient correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Noh, J. M.; Cheong, H. K.; Choo, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to simplify the previous spectral history effect correction based on the polynomial expansion nodal method, a new spectral history effect correction is proposed. The new spectral history correction eliminates four microscopic depletion points out of total 13 depletion points in the previous correction by approximating the group cross sections with exponential function. The neutron flux to homogenize the group cross sections for the correction of the spectral history effect is calculated by the analytic function expansion nodal method in stead of the conventional polynomial expansion nodal method. This spectral history correction model is verified against the three MOX benchmark cores: a checkerboard type, a small core with 25 fuel assemblies, and a large core with 177 fuel assemblies. The benchmark results prove that this new spectral history correction model is superior to the previous one even with the reduced number of the local microscopic depletion points

  5. Contrast Enhanced Spectral Mammography: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika K; Lobbes, M B I; Lewin, John

    2018-02-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) provides low-energy 2D mammographic images comparable to standard digital mammography and a post-contrast recombined image to assess tumor neovascularity similar to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The utilization of CESM in the United States is currently low but could increase rapidly given many potential indications for clinical use. This article discusses historical background and literature review of indications and diagnostic accuracy of CESM to date. CESM is a growing technique for breast cancer detection and diagnosis that has levels of sensitivity and specificity on par with contrast-enhanced breast MRI. Because of its similar performance and ease of implementation, CESM is being adopted for multiple indications previously reserved for MRI, such as problem-solving, disease extent in newly diagnosed patients, and evaluating the treatment response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation from an equilibrium CO2-N2 plasma in the [250-850 nm] spectral region: II. Spectral modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M Lino da; Vacher, D; Andre, P; Faure, G; Dudeck, M

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this work, described in a previous paper, the thermodynamic conditions in an atmospheric pressure inductively coupled CO 2 -N 2 plasma have been determined, and the radiation emission spectrum has been measured and calibrated in the [250-850 nm] spectral region. In the second part of this work, a synthetic radiation spectrum is obtained taking into account (a) the geometry of the plasma torch and (b) the local thermodynamic conditions of the plasma. This synthetic spectrum has then been compared against the measured spectrum. The good agreement between the two spectra allows validating the spectral database of the line-by-line code SPARTAN for the simulation of the radiative emission of CO 2 -N 2 plasmas from the near-UV to the near-IR spectral region.

  7. STIGLER’S INFLUENTIAL CONTRIBUTION TO ECONOMIC THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artidiatun Adji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes George J. Stigler’s influential contributions to economic ideas, specifically on industrial structures, the functioning of markets, the causes and effects of public regulation, the economics of information, and on the development of economic thought. Stigler’s most influential contribution to economic thought came in his work on information theory. Treating information as a valuable commodity, he explained why prices differ for identical goods. From his work, many other theories have been built to explain economic behavior. A considerable number of works on decision making under uncertainty could not have progressed without an understanding of the role of information. His swing of the pendulum in economic regulation constitutes a great turnabout. He started research, known as public choice, which assumes that government policymakers are driven by self-interest rather than pure concern for the public’s welfare. His views have now become those of the mainstream.

  8. On the Educational Thoughts in Dewey's Democracy and Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zong-xia

    2016-01-01

    Dewey is a famous American educator,and his Democracy and Education is a complete and systematic theoretical sys-tem of education,so it is know as the classics education, progressive education theory of the general program.There are many de-fects and deficiencies in the education of junior middle school in our country,the pragmatism education thought in the book has a great influence on the education of junior middle school in our country,so analysis of the educational thoughts of Dewey's De-mocracy and Education,such as"child centered theory","school is society", education is"life","learn from doing"and so on,this is to improve the history education of junior high school in our country and further promote the education reform of our country has a great positive significance.

  9. [The establishment of research inherit mode of famous academic thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-ping; Wu, Mian-hua; Guo, Wei-feng

    2011-12-01

    To study and summarize the academic thoughts of famous Chinese medicine doctors is the main pathway of developing Chinese medicine theories. It is of important significance in enriching and developing the Chinese medicine theories by combining traditional and modern research methods, merging multiple disciples to study the research inherit mode of famous academic thoughts. The major study links include: (1) To refine scientific hypotheses from huge amount of clinical case records; (2) To find the literature sources; (3) To embody the practice significance of the innovative theories by clinical studies; (4) To reveal the scientific connotation of Chinese medicine theories by experimental studies. We hope to reach the goal of innovating and developing Chinese medicine theories on the basis of inheritance by integrating clinical case records, tracing the literature sources, clinical and experimental studies.

  10. Integrative change model in psychotherapy: Perspectives from Indian thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, L S S

    2013-01-01

    Different psychotherapeutic approaches claim positive changes in patients as a result of therapy. Explanations related to the change process led to different change models. Some of the change models are experimentally oriented whereas some are theoretical. Apart from the core models of behavioral, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive and spiritually oriented models there are specific models, within psychotherapy that explains the change process. Integrative theory of a person as depicted in Indian thought provides a common ground for the integration of various therapies. Integrative model of change based on Indian thought, with specific reference to psychological concepts in Upanishads, Ayurveda, Bhagavad Gita and Yoga are presented. Appropriate psychological tools may be developed in order to help the clinicians to choose the techniques that match the problem and the origin of the dimension. Explorations have to be conducted to develop more techniques that are culturally appropriate and clinically useful. Research has to be initiated to validate the identified concepts.

  11. Detecting Weak Spectral Lines in Interferometric Data through Matched Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Andrews, Sean M.; Walsh, Catherine; Czekala, Ian; Huang, Jane; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.

    2018-04-01

    Modern radio interferometers enable observations of spectral lines with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. In spite of these technical advances, many lines of interest are still at best weakly detected and therefore necessitate detection and analysis techniques specialized for the low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) regime. Matched filters can leverage knowledge of the source structure and kinematics to increase sensitivity of spectral line observations. Application of the filter in the native Fourier domain improves S/N while simultaneously avoiding the computational cost and ambiguities associated with imaging, making matched filtering a fast and robust method for weak spectral line detection. We demonstrate how an approximate matched filter can be constructed from a previously observed line or from a model of the source, and we show how this filter can be used to robustly infer a detection significance for weak spectral lines. When applied to ALMA Cycle 2 observations of CH3OH in the protoplanetary disk around TW Hya, the technique yields a ≈53% S/N boost over aperture-based spectral extraction methods, and we show that an even higher boost will be achieved for observations at higher spatial resolution. A Python-based open-source implementation of this technique is available under the MIT license at http://github.com/AstroChem/VISIBLE.

  12. What James Parkinson Really Thought was Behind Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD

    2017-01-01

    In May, 2017, a Norwegian study done by Berstad and Berstad threw its support behind revitalizing of the hypothesis that with regard to Parkinson's disease (PD), the preponderance of convincing evidence points to a chronic infectious cause – not viral and most likely of the family Actinomycetales of which tuberculosis and the mycobacteria are premier members. The Berstads concluded that in accordance with such thoughts and despite the diagnostic challenges ahead, that further studies in human...

  13. Moenawar Khalil: The Career and Thought of Indonesian Muslim Reformist

    OpenAIRE

    Toha Hamim

    2014-01-01

    The study of Islamic reform movement in Indonesia in general give less attention to the genuine character is engaged outside the political arena. Various scientific papers, both national and international levels, as if not take place to the figures, although they are thought to have inspired the emergence of various new movement in Indonesian Islam. This happens not because the figures were not known to the public, but rather that the study of Islamic reform is often written and analyzed with...

  14. The Youth Soccer Coaches’ Visions and Thoughts of Leader Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertting Krister

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Objectives: The European Commission has highlighted the use of sports as an important venue for engaging citizens in health-enhancing activities, physical activity, volunteerism and active citizenship. Coaching is a central component of sports for children and youth, but there is little research on the promotion of sports coaches’ health. In the light of this gap, the aim of this paper was to elucidate youth soccer coaches’ visions and thoughts regarding leadership support from clubs and soccer associations.

  15. About the reflective thought also known as the critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico R. León

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable disposition, as a measurable ability and as an educational task.

  16. HALF-FORGOTTEN PERSONALITIES OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT – SILVIO GESELL

    OpenAIRE

    Sirůček Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Silvio Gesell was a  German tradesman, self-educated economist, globetrotter and social reformer with a nonconformist worldview. He is known for his proposals for monetary reform. He is famous for his experiments with interest-free currency. Gesell’s thought inspired a plenty of political and civil movements, and has a few followers even to this day.

  17. HALF-FORGOTTEN PERSONALITIES OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT – SILVIO GESELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirůček Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Silvio Gesell was a  German tradesman, self-educated economist, globetrotter and social reformer with a nonconformist worldview. He is known for his proposals for monetary reform. He is famous for his experiments with interest-free currency. Gesell’s thought inspired a plenty of political and civil movements, and has a few followers even to this day.

  18. Formulation of the verbal thought process based on generative rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, N; Fujisaki, H

    1984-01-01

    As assumption is made on the generative nature of the verbal thought process, based on an analogy between language use and verbal thought. A procedure is then presented for acquiring the set of generative rules from a given set of concept strings, leading to an efficient representation of verbal knowledge. The non-terminal symbols derived in the acquisition process are found to correspond to concepts and superordinate concepts in the human process of verbal thought. The validity of the formulation and the efficiency of knowledge representation is demonstrated by an example in which knowledge of biological properties of animals is reorganized into a set of generative rules. The process of inductive inference is then defined as a generalization of the acquired knowledge, and the principle of maximum simplicity of rules is proposed as a possible criterion for such generalization. The proposal is also tested by an example in which only a small part of a systematic body of knowledge is utilized to make interferences on the unknown parts of the system. 6 references.

  19. Thought and from Thinking Analysis to Experiment De sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Aycan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study is to discuss thought with extension of thinking, one of the main concepts of philosophy education, on the basis of analytical philosophy and philosophy of decomposition and to explain its importance for chemistry. From elementary school to university, experiments to be conducted by students in chemistry laboratories are given them like recipes and they are asked to make their experiments according to these recipes. In fact, by using the thinking style imparted to students in class, they must design an experiment and through the practical thinking skills they have gained again in the class, they must conduct the experiment according to this design. Therefore, understanding thought and thinking in relation to chemistry education is of great importance. In the methodology of the current study, holistic approach was adopted. Descriptive survey method was used and document analysis was conducted. In the study, the difference between the concepts of thought and thinking and personal and socio-cultural factors and concepts giving rise to their emergence and their uniqueness and importance were evaluated. As a result, the conditions in which the instruction about the concept of thinking could be integrated into chemistry education were discussed. Finally, the conditions of thinking instruction to students and teachers was explained and contribution of thinking instruction to students and teachers was given.

  20. Scientific Thinking in Islamic Thought: Concept and its Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias Azhar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available God’s revelations, as the main source of knowledge, do not deny, in any way our brain’s functional capabilities. The Quran acknowledges the necessity and importance of the brain. Islamic epistemology regards the brain as the second source of knowledge after the revelations. The holistic perspective on knowledge that is gained by mankind is that it is constructed by man in the context of their thinking culture, education and social concepts. Therefore, in this regard, thinking method directly relates to the objectives of Islam and its Sharia, and gives a significant implication towards understanding and developing Sharia as a dynamic knowledge area. This study combines three (3 methods, content analysis; historical method and comparison of the review of the history of the construction of Islamic thought and the review of screening methods Sociology Society background. The discussion this article covers the definition and concept of scientific thinking skills and scientific Islamic thought and the approaches of critical thinking in Islamic scientific thought. In reality, Muslims are not prohibited by their religion to think scientifically through scientific thinking methods, provided that it does not contradict with Islam. Some knowledge which is built through scientific thinking can be used to understand the Quranic texts more profoundly. Also, undeniably, the eminence of God’s revelations has been made evident and exploited to proof the existence of Allah.

  1. Neural reactivation links unconscious thought to decision-making performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John David; Bursley, James K; Satpute, Ajay B

    2013-12-01

    Brief periods of unconscious thought (UT) have been shown to improve decision making compared with making an immediate decision (ID). We reveal a neural mechanism for UT in decision making using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants (N = 33) encoded information on a set of consumer products (e.g. 48 attributes describing four different cars), and we manipulated whether participants (i) consciously thought about this information (conscious thought), (ii) completed a difficult 2-back working memory task (UT) or (iii) made an immediate decision about the consumer products (ID) in a within-subjects blocked design. To differentiate UT neural activity from 2-back working memory neural activity, participants completed an independent 2-back task and this neural activity was subtracted from neural activity occurring during the UT 2-back task. Consistent with a neural reactivation account, we found that the same regions activated during the encoding of complex decision information (right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left intermediate visual cortex) continued to be activated during a subsequent 2-min UT period. Moreover, neural reactivation in these regions was predictive of subsequent behavioral decision-making performance after the UT period. These results provide initial evidence for post-encoding unconscious neural reactivation in facilitating decision making.

  2. Frontal dynamic aphasia in progressive supranuclear palsy: Distinguishing between generation and fluent sequencing of novel thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail A; Spooner, Donna; Harrison, William J

    2015-10-01

    Frontal dynamic aphasia is characterised by a profound reduction in spontaneous speech despite well-preserved naming, repetition and comprehension. Since Luria (1966, 1970) designated this term, two main forms of dynamic aphasia have been identified: one, a language-specific selection deficit at the level of word/sentence generation, associated with left inferior frontal lesions; and two, a domain-general impairment in generating multiple responses or connected speech, associated with more extensive bilateral frontal and/or frontostriatal damage. Both forms of dynamic aphasia have been interpreted as arising due to disturbances in early prelinguistic conceptual preparation mechanisms that are critical for language production. We investigate language-specific and domain-general accounts of dynamic aphasia and address two issues: one, whether deficits in multiple conceptual preparation mechanisms can co-occur; and two, the contribution of broader cognitive processes such as energization, the ability to initiate and sustain response generation over time, to language generation failure. Thus, we report patient WAL who presented with frontal dynamic aphasia in the context of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). WAL was given a series of experimental tests that showed that his dynamic aphasia was not underpinned by a language-specific deficit in selection or in microplanning. By contrast, WAL presented with a domain-general deficit in fluent sequencing of novel thoughts. The latter replicated the pattern documented in a previous PSP patient (Robinson, et al., 2006); however, unique to WAL, generating novel thoughts was impaired but there was no evidence of a sequencing deficit because perseveration was absent. Thus, WAL is the first unequivocal case to show a distinction between novel thought generation and subsequent fluent sequencing. Moreover, WAL's generation deficit encompassed verbal and non-verbal responses, showing a similar (but more profoundly reduced) pattern

  3. Spectral synchronicity in brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    de Jesus Euan Campos, Carolina; Ombao, Hernando; Ortega, Joaquí n

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying brain regions with similar oscillatory patterns detected from electroencephalograms. We introduce the hierarchical spectral merger (HSM) clustering method where the feature of interest is the spectral curve and the similarity metric used is the total variance distance. The HSM method is compared with clustering using features derived from independent-component analysis. Moreover, the HSM method is applied to 2 different electroencephalogram datasets. The first was recorded at resting state where the participant was not engaged in any cognitive task; the second was recorded during a spontaneous epileptic seizure. The results of the analyses using the HSM method demonstrate that clustering could evolve over the duration of the resting state and during epileptic seizure.

  4. Spectral synchronicity in brain signals

    KAUST Repository

    de Jesus Euan Campos, Carolina

    2018-05-04

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying brain regions with similar oscillatory patterns detected from electroencephalograms. We introduce the hierarchical spectral merger (HSM) clustering method where the feature of interest is the spectral curve and the similarity metric used is the total variance distance. The HSM method is compared with clustering using features derived from independent-component analysis. Moreover, the HSM method is applied to 2 different electroencephalogram datasets. The first was recorded at resting state where the participant was not engaged in any cognitive task; the second was recorded during a spontaneous epileptic seizure. The results of the analyses using the HSM method demonstrate that clustering could evolve over the duration of the resting state and during epileptic seizure.

  5. Spectral computations for bounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ahues, Mario; Limaye, Balmohan

    2001-01-01

    Exact eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and principal vectors of operators with infinite dimensional ranges can rarely be found. Therefore, one must approximate such operators by finite rank operators, then solve the original eigenvalue problem approximately. Serving as both an outstanding text for graduate students and as a source of current results for research scientists, Spectral Computations for Bounded Operators addresses the issue of solving eigenvalue problems for operators on infinite dimensional spaces. From a review of classical spectral theory through concrete approximation techniques to finite dimensional situations that can be implemented on a computer, this volume illustrates the marriage of pure and applied mathematics. It contains a variety of recent developments, including a new type of approximation that encompasses a variety of approximation methods but is simple to verify in practice. It also suggests a new stopping criterion for the QR Method and outlines advances in both the iterative refineme...

  6. [Medicine and society. Schools of thought in the health field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J C

    1983-01-01

    The article considers the answers given by different schools of thought to the fundamental questions about the degree of autonomy of medicine and the kind of articulation between medicine and society as a whole and in its "parts." The answers vary with the thinking in the different social sciences and the philosophic schools associated with them. The author divides his presentation in two broad chapters: The first covers schools of thought in the health field, and attempts to delineate the philosophical foundations underlying the principal current schools of thought in this field, without attempting a history of the philosophical schools or analyzing each of them in detail. Thus, two idealist currents are studied which have exerted great influence in the health field--neopositivism and neo-Kantianism--and marxism as the materialist school, which recognizes the primary of matter, nature, and objective reality, and views consciousness as a property of matter. The second chapter considers the theoretical contest now going on among the schools of thought discussed in the first chapter, which try to explain the relationship between medicine and the social structure; the effectiveness of medical action, and the social determinants of disease. Prior to the seventies, the author says, the dominant view of the autonomy of medicine, its effectiveness, the potential for social change of the medical institutions, and the benefits to health of economic development, was endorsed by the predominance of positivism among these schools of medical thought. The view that medicine was broadly autonomous and at the same level with other subsystems such as the economic, the political and the educational subsystems, assumed the possibility of changing society by an effort begun through any of these "sectors." The enormous growth of productive forces that took place in the developed capitalist countries during the fifties, and even more during the sixties, collided at the end of the latter

  7. Modal planes are spectral triples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayral, Victor; Iochum, Bruno; Schuecker, Thomas; Gracia-Bondia, Jose M.; Varilly, Joseph C.

    2003-09-01

    Axioms for nonunital spectral triples, extending those introduced in the unital case by Connes, are proposed. As a guide, and for the sake of their importance in noncommutative quantum field theory, the spaces R 2N endowed with Moyal products are intensively investigated. Some physical applications, such as the construction of noncommutative Wick monomials and the computation of the Connes-Lott functional action, are given for these noncommutative hyperplanes. (author)

  8. Chebyshev and Fourier spectral methods

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, John P

    2001-01-01

    Completely revised text focuses on use of spectral methods to solve boundary value, eigenvalue, and time-dependent problems, but also covers Hermite, Laguerre, rational Chebyshev, sinc, and spherical harmonic functions, as well as cardinal functions, linear eigenvalue problems, matrix-solving methods, coordinate transformations, methods for unbounded intervals, spherical and cylindrical geometry, and much more. 7 Appendices. Glossary. Bibliography. Index. Over 160 text figures.

  9. Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a spectral unmixing method for estimating the partial abundance of spectrally similar minerals in complex mixtures. The method requires formulation of a linear function of individual spectra of individual minerals. The first...

  10. Hot Jupiters Aren't As Lonely As We Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    (Caltech)Technique: Long-term radial velocity monitoringSearching for: Planetary companions at 120 AU from the starStudy 2Lead author: Henry Ngo (Caltech)Technique: Adaptive-optics imagingSearching for: Stellar companions at 502000 AU from the starStudy 3Lead author: Danielle Piskorz (Caltech)Technique: SpectroscopySearching for: Any additional stellar companions at 125 AU from the starThe companion fraction found within Study 2, the adaptive-optics imagine search. The three curves show the total, the systems with hot Jupiters on aligned and circular orbits, and those with hot Jupiters on misaligned and eccentric orbits. [Ngo et al. 2015]Migration ImplicationsUsing these three different techniques, the team found a significant number of both planetary and stellar companions that had not been previously detected. After correcting their results for completeness, they found a multiple-star rate of ~50% for these systems, resolving the problem of the missing companions. So really, we just werent looking hard enough for the companions previously.Intriguingly, the binary companion rate found for these hot Jupiter systems is higher than the average rate for the field stars (which is below 25% for the semimajor-axis range the FOHJ studies are sensitive to). This suggests that companion stars may indeed play a role in hot Jupiter formation and migration.That said, none of the three studies found a significant difference in the binary fraction for aligned versus misaligned hot Jupiters which means that the answer is not as simple as thought, with companion stars causing the misaligned planets. Thus, while hot Jupiters friends may play a role in their formation and migration, we still have work to do in understanding what that role is.CitationDanielle Piskorz et al 2015 ApJ 814 148. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/148Henry Ngo et al 2015 ApJ 800 138. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/138Heather A. Knutson et al 2014 ApJ 785 126. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/126

  11. Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....

  12. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nathaniel J S; Glöckner, Andreas; Dickert, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one's options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a "deliberation with information" condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought (UT) over "deliberation without information," we find that "deliberation with information" equals or outperforms UT in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that UT has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. Furthermore, we show that "deliberate thought with information" leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to UT which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  13. Assessment of thought-shape fusion: initial validation of a short version of the trait thought-shape fusion scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Baeyens, Céline; Purdon, Christine; Shafran, Roz; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Bouvard, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Thought-shape fusion (TSF) is a cognitive distortion that has been linked to eating pathology. Two studies were conducted to further explore this phenomenon and to establish the psychometric properties of a French short version of the TSF scale. In Study 1, students (n = 284) completed questionnaires assessing TSF and related psychopathology. In Study 2, the responses of women with eating disorders (n = 22) and women with no history of an eating disorder (n = 23) were compared. The French short version of the TSF scale has a unifactorial structure, with convergent validity with measures of eating pathology, and good internal consistency. Depression, eating pathology, body dissatisfaction, and thought-action fusion emerged as predictors of TSF. Individuals with eating disorders have higher TSF, and more clinically relevant food-related thoughts than do women with no history of an eating disorder. This research suggests that the shortened TSF scale can suitably measure this construct, and provides support for the notion that TSF is associated with eating pathology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. USGS Spectral Library Version 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Hoefen, Todd M.; Pearson, Neil C.; Wise, Richard A.; Benzel, William M.; Lowers, Heather A.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Klein, Anna J.

    2017-04-10

    We have assembled a library of spectra measured with laboratory, field, and airborne spectrometers. The instruments used cover wavelengths from the ultraviolet to the far infrared (0.2 to 200 microns [μm]). Laboratory samples of specific minerals, plants, chemical compounds, and manmade materials were measured. In many cases, samples were purified, so that unique spectral features of a material can be related to its chemical structure. These spectro-chemical links are important for interpreting remotely sensed data collected in the field or from an aircraft or spacecraft. This library also contains physically constructed as well as mathematically computed mixtures. Four different spectrometer types were used to measure spectra in the library: (1) Beckman™ 5270 covering the spectral range 0.2 to 3 µm, (2) standard, high resolution (hi-res), and high-resolution Next Generation (hi-resNG) models of Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) field portable spectrometers covering the range from 0.35 to 2.5 µm, (3) Nicolet™ Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) interferometer spectrometers covering the range from about 1.12 to 216 µm, and (4) the NASA Airborne Visible/Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer AVIRIS, covering the range 0.37 to 2.5 µm. Measurements of rocks, soils, and natural mixtures of minerals were made in laboratory and field settings. Spectra of plant components and vegetation plots, comprising many plant types and species with varying backgrounds, are also in this library. Measurements by airborne spectrometers are included for forested vegetation plots, in which the trees are too tall for measurement by a field spectrometer. This report describes the instruments used, the organization of materials into chapters, metadata descriptions of spectra and samples, and possible artifacts in the spectral measurements. To facilitate greater application of the spectra, the library has also been convolved to selected spectrometer and imaging spectrometers sampling and

  15. Spectral properties of generalized eigenparameter dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jost function, spectrum, the spectral singularities, and the properties of the principal vectors corresponding to the spectral singularities of L, if. ∞Σn=1 n(∣1 - an∣ + ∣bnl) < ∞. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 34L05, 34L40, 39A70, 47A10, 47A75. Key words: Discrete equations, eigenparameter, spectral analysis, ...

  16. Calibrating spectral images using penalized likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Glasbey, C.

    2003-01-01

    A new method is presented for automatic correction of distortions and for spectral calibration (which band corresponds to which wavelength) of spectral images recorded by means of a spectrograph. The method consists of recording a bar-like pattern with an illumination source with spectral bands

  17. Adinkras, Dessins, Origami, and Supersymmetry Spectral Triples

    OpenAIRE

    Marcolli, Matilde; Zolman, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spectral geometry and spectral action functionals associated to 1D Supersymmetry Algebras, using the classification of these superalgebras in terms of Adinkra graphs and the construction of associated dessin d'enfant and origami curves. The resulting spectral action functionals are computed in terms of the Selberg (super) trace formula.

  18. Relationship between behavioral and physiological spectral-ripple discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong Ho; Clinard, Christopher G; Kwon, Seeyoun; Dasika, Vasant K; Nie, Kaibao; Drennan, Ward R; Tremblay, Kelly L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have found a significant correlation between spectral-ripple discrimination and speech and music perception in cochlear implant (CI) users. This relationship could be of use to clinicians and scientists who are interested in using spectral-ripple stimuli in the assessment and habilitation of CI users. However, previous psychoacoustic tasks used to assess spectral discrimination are not suitable for all populations, and it would be beneficial to develop methods that could be used to test all age ranges, including pediatric implant users. Additionally, it is important to understand how ripple stimuli are processed in the central auditory system and how their neural representation contributes to behavioral performance. For this reason, we developed a single-interval, yes/no paradigm that could potentially be used both behaviorally and electrophysiologically to estimate spectral-ripple threshold. In experiment 1, behavioral thresholds obtained using the single-interval method were compared to thresholds obtained using a previously established three-alternative forced-choice method. A significant correlation was found (r = 0.84, p = 0.0002) in 14 adult CI users. The spectral-ripple threshold obtained using the new method also correlated with speech perception in quiet and noise. In experiment 2, the effect of the number of vocoder-processing channels on the behavioral and physiological threshold in normal-hearing listeners was determined. Behavioral thresholds, using the new single-interval method, as well as cortical P1-N1-P2 responses changed as a function of the number of channels. Better behavioral and physiological performance (i.e., better discrimination ability at higher ripple densities) was observed as more channels added. In experiment 3, the relationship between behavioral and physiological data was examined. Amplitudes of the P1-N1-P2 "change" responses were significantly correlated with d' values from the single-interval behavioral

  19. Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associ...

  20. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniaux, Martin; De Zordo, Tobias; Santner, Wolfram; Amort, Birgit; Koppelstätter, Florian; Jaschke, Werner; Dromain, Clarisse; Oberaigner, Willi; Hubalek, Michael; Marth, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography is one of the latest developments in breast care. Imaging with contrast agents in breast cancer was already known from previous magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography studies. However, high costs, limited availability-or high radiation dose-led to the development of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). We reviewed the current literature, present our experience, discuss the advantages and drawbacks of CESM and look at the future of this innovative technique.

  1. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  2. The Equivalence of Grayson and Friedlander-Suslin Spectral Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Podkopaev, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    This thesis establishes the equivalence of Grayson and Friedlander-Suslin spectral sequences, that was previously only known for the respective E_2-terms. We develop the necessary techniques regarding K_0-presheaves of spectra, building on the work of M. Walker and construct certain filtrations on the K-theory presheaf of spectra that we use as intermediate steps in obtaining the equivalence of the filtrations.

  3. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  4. White light spectral interferometer for measuring dispersion in the visible-near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosa, Yago; Rodríguez Fernández, Carlos Damian; Algnamat, Bilal S.; López-Lago, Elena; de la Fuente, Raul

    2017-08-01

    We have designed a spectrally resolved interferometer to measure the refractive index of transparent samples over a wide spectral band from 400 to 1550 nm. The measuring device consists of a Michelson interferometer whose output is analyzed by means of three fiber spectrometers. The first one is a homemade prism spectrometer, which obtains the interferogram produced by the sample over 400 to 1050 nm; the second one is a homemade transmission grating spectrometer thought to measure the interferogram in the near infrared spectral band from 950 to 1550 nm; the last one is a commercial Czerny-Turner spectrometer used to make high precision measurements of the displacement between the Michelson mirrors also using white light interferometry. The whole system is illuminated by a white light source with an emission spectrum similar to black body. We have tested the instrument with solid and liquids samples achieving accuracy to the fourth decimal on the refractive index after fitting it to a Cauchy formula

  5. Can Cinema Be Thought: Alain Badiou and the Artistic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ling

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Alain Badioursquo;s philosophy is generally understood to be a fundamentally mathematical enterprise, his principle categories of being, appearing, and truth being themselves thought only though specific scientific events. However the event itselfmdash;which constitutes the nexal point of his so-called lsquo;materialist dialecticrsquo;mdash;is contrarily thought not through mathematics but through art. And yet despite the fundamental role art plays in his philosophy Badioursquo;s lsquo;inaestheticrsquo; writings seem unduly proscriptive, allowing room principally for the expressly lsquo;literalrsquo; arts while eschewing for the most part those manifold arts which have little recourse to the letter. Badioursquo;s polemical writings on cinema are both symptomatic and serve as the most extreme example of this position, his cinema being one which wavers precariously on the border of art and non-art. This paper accordingly questions whether cinema can truly occupy a place in Badioursquo;s inaesthetics. I argue the hegemony of the letter in Badioursquo;s inaesthetics to be ultimately one of convenience and suggest that if cinematic truths are to be registered Badioursquo;s understanding of cinema as (what I interpret to be an art of dis-appearance must be rejected. I conclude by contending the oppressive literality of Badioursquo;s philosophy to be symptomatic of its mathematical basismdash;a paradoxical position insofar as the very non-mathematical nature of art allows for evental thoughtmdash;the consequence of which being that Badiou regrettably neglects by and large those manifold illiterate arts that might otherwise serve to augment his thought.br /

  6. Thoughts of Quitting General Surgery Residency: Factors in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, David Nathan; Dattani, Sheev; Miller, Sarah; Hayes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Attrition rates in general surgery training are higher than other surgical disciplines. We sought to determine the prevalence with which Canadian general surgery residents consider leaving their training and the contributing factors. An anonymous survey was administered to all general surgery residents in Canada. Responses from residents who considered leaving their training were assessed for importance of contributing factors. The study was conducted at the Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, a tertiary academic center. The response rate was approximately 34.0%. A minority (32.0%) reported very seriously or somewhat seriously considering leaving their training, whereas 35.2% casually considered doing so. Poor work-life balance in residency (38.9%) was the single-most important factor, whereas concern about future unemployment (16.7%) and poor future quality of life (15.7%) were next. Enjoyment of work (41.7%) was the most frequent mitigating factor. Harassment and intimidation were reported factors in 16.7%. On analysis, only intention to practice in a nonacademic setting approached significant association with thoughts of leaving (odds ratio = 1.92, CI = 0.99-3.74, p = 0.052). There was no association with sex, program, postgraduate year, relationship status, or subspecialty interest. There was a nonsignificant trend toward more thoughts of leaving with older age. Canadian general surgery residents appear less likely to seriously consider quitting than their American counterparts. Poor work-life balance in residency, fear of future unemployment, and anticipated poor future quality of life are significant contributors to thoughts of quitting. Efforts to educate prospective residents about the reality of the surgical lifestyle, and to assist residents in securing employment, may improve completion rates. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spectral multitude and spectral dynamics reflect changing conjugation length in single molecules of oligophenylenevinylenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Kousuke; Ogino, Kenji; Vacha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule study of phenylenevinylene oligomers revealed distinct spectral forms due to different conjugation lengths which are determined by torsional defects. Large spectral jumps between different spectral forms were ascribed to torsional flips of a single phenylene ring. These spectral changes reflect the dynamic nature of electron delocalization in oligophenylenevinylenes and enable estimation of the phenylene torsional barriers. © 2012 The Owner Societies.

  8. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  9. Martian spectral units derived from ISM imaging spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, S.; Mustard, J.; Saylor, R.

    1993-01-01

    Based on results of the Viking mission, the soil layer of Mars has been thought to be fairly homogeneous and to consist of a mixture of as few as two components, a 'dark gray' basaltic material and a 'bright red' altered material. However, near-infrared reflectance spectra measured recently both telescopically and from spacecraft indicate compositional heterogeneity beyond what can be explained by just two components. In particular, data from the ISM imaging spectrometer, which observed much of the equatorial region at a spatial resolution of approximately 22 km, indicate spatial differences in the presence and abundance of Fe-containing phases, hydroxylated silicates, and H2O. The ISM data was used to define, characterize, and map soil 'units' based on their spectral properties. The spatial distribution of these 'units' were compared to morphologic, visible color, and thermal inertia features recognized in Viking data.

  10. Some thoughts as counterpoint to the 'Energy and health' colloquium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Yves

    2014-06-01

    The author proposes some thoughts inspired by contributions made during a colloquium on energy and health. He first discusses expected correlations between energy, climate and health. In this respect, he first comments the influence of energy production on health, notably in the case of nuclear energy, biomass energy, and hydraulic energy. He also discusses an approach to energy and health considered a system: issue related to the choice of the energy mix, health problems associated with transport, health problems associated with energy storage. He discusses the relationship between energy and health according to a societal approach: lessons learned from the public debate approach, the problem of energy poverty

  11. Thought-action fusion and schizotypy in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Merckelbach, Harald

    2003-06-01

    To examine the relationship between thought-action fusion (TAF) and schizotypy. In two separate samples of undergraduate students (Ns = 77 and 64), correlations were computed between a measure of TAF and indices of schizotypy and fantasy proneness. Positive correlations were found between TAF and various aspects of schizotypy (i.e. perceptual aberration, magical ideation, schizotypal personality characteristics, disposition to hallucinate). However, correlations between TAF and schizotypy no longer attained significance when controlling for fantasy proneness. At least in the non-clinical population, the connection between TAF and schizotypy seems to be a by-product of fantasy-prone individuals' tendency to report unusual experiences.

  12. Algebra Sets, Symbols, and the Language of Thought (Revised Edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Tabak, John

    2011-01-01

    Algebra, Revised Edition describes the history of both strands of algebraic thought. This updated resource describes some of the earliest progress in algebra as well as some of the mathematicians in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and Greece who contributed to this early period. It goes on to explore the many breakthroughs in algebraic techniques as well as how letters were used to represent numbers. New material has been added to the chapter on "modern" algebra, a type of mathematical research that continues to occupy the attention of many mathematicians today.

  13. Gender and Criminological Thought: Perspectives From a Feminist Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássius Guimarães Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to analyze, from a feminist epistemological framework and approach, the role of Criminology in the production and reproduction of power relationship, studying how women were perceived in their different schools of criminological thought, understanding that the adoption of gender as a category of analysis contributes to the production of a wider knowledge in this science, unveiling the invisibility of women's relationships towards to crime and to the Penal System. The methodology consists of a literature reviewing that crosses several disciplines, such as history, sociology, criminology and feminist theories.

  14. About the reflective thought also known as the critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    León, Federico R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable disposition, as a measurable ability and as an educational task. Este artículo aborda el concepto de pensamiento reflexivo o crítico desde su formulación ...

  15. Selling the favela: thoughts and polemics about a tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Freire-Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of the favela into a tourist attraction, examining how promoters in four different favelas attempted to actually place them in the tourist market. The development of the favela into a tourist destination is seen as part of the so-called reality tours phenomenon and of the global circulation of the favela as a trademark. The methodology included different strategies: long interviews with qualified informants, field observation, and participant observation in different tours. The article concludes with some thoughts on my own research experience on such a polemic field of investigation.

  16. Playing prosocial video games increases the accessibility of prosocial thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive tendencies. In contrast, evidence on possible positive effects of video game exposure on prosocial tendencies has been relatively sparse. The present research tested and found support for the hypothesis that exposure to prosocial video games increases the accessibility of prosocial thoughts. These results provide support to the predictive validity of the General Learning Model (Buckley & Anderson, 2006) for the effects of exposure to prosocial media on social tendencies. Thus, depending on the content of the video game, playing video games can harm but may also benefit social relations.

  17. Research on Foreign Background and Musical Thought of Teng Gu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available TENG Gu is a famous art historian in Republic of China. Together with early Chinese scholars studying abroad like ZONG Bai-hua, ZHU Guang-qian, DENG Yi-zhe, MA Cai and FU Bao-shi, he constructed a framework of early Chinese Art. We still know his influence after a century. In his artistic thought, the essential music idea occupies 1/3.He had given music the highest position among all arts and cultures. In his view, culture won’t have any value if art is removed. And all arts follow the rhythm of music.

  18. Development of IAEA description of passive safety and subsequent thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, P M [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The description of passive components and systems published by the IAEA in its TECDOC-626 was developed in the course of a Technical Committee Meeting held in Sweden and two subsequent Consultants Meetings held in Vienna. This description is reviewed and discussed in terms of the philosophies behind it, alternatives considered, problems encountered, and conclusions drawn. Also discussed is an Appendix to the TECDOC, which illustrates the spectrum of possibilities from passive to active by describing four typical categories of passivity. Subsequent thoughts on passive safety include a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages, concluding with a summary of current views and problems with it. (author). 8 refs.

  19. Spectral methods. Fundamentals in single domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, C.

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of ''Spectral Methods in Fluid Dynamics'' 1988, spectral methods have become firmly established as a mainstream tool for scientific and engineering computation. The authors of that book have incorporated into this new edition the many improvements in the algorithms and the theory of spectral methods that have been made since then. This latest book retains the tight integration between the theoretical and practical aspects of spectral methods, and the chapters are enhanced with material on the Galerkin with numerical integration version of spectral methods. The discussion of direct and iterative solution methods is also greatly expanded. (orig.)

  20. Spectral anomaly methods for aerial detection using KUT nuisance rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detwiler, R.S.; Pfund, D.M.; Myjak, M.J.; Kulisek, J.A.; Seifert, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    This work discusses the application and optimization of a spectral anomaly method for the real-time detection of gamma radiation sources from an aerial helicopter platform. Aerial detection presents several key challenges over ground-based detection. For one, larger and more rapid background fluctuations are typical due to higher speeds, larger field of view, and geographically induced background changes. As well, the possible large altitude or stand-off distance variations cause significant steps in background count rate as well as spectral changes due to increased gamma-ray scatter with detection at higher altitudes. The work here details the adaptation and optimization of the PNNL-developed algorithm Nuisance-Rejecting Spectral Comparison Ratios for Anomaly Detection (NSCRAD), a spectral anomaly method previously developed for ground-based applications, for an aerial platform. The algorithm has been optimized for two multi-detector systems; a NaI(Tl)-detector-based system and a CsI detector array. The optimization here details the adaptation of the spectral windows for a particular set of target sources to aerial detection and the tailoring for the specific detectors. As well, the methodology and results for background rejection methods optimized for the aerial gamma-ray detection using Potassium, Uranium and Thorium (KUT) nuisance rejection are shown. Results indicate that use of a realistic KUT nuisance rejection may eliminate metric rises due to background magnitude and spectral steps encountered in aerial detection due to altitude changes and geographically induced steps such as at land–water interfaces

  1. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin

    2017-09-01

    We present our broadband (2-250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550-5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806-20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  2. Broadband Spectral Investigations of Magnetar Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırmızıbayrak, Demet; Şaşmaz Muş, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki; Göğüş, Ersin, E-mail: demetk@sabanciuniv.edu [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabancı University, Orhanlı Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey)

    2017-09-01

    We present our broadband (2–250 keV) time-averaged spectral analysis of 388 bursts from SGR J1550−5418, SGR 1900+14, and SGR 1806−20 detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer ( RXTE ) here and as a database in a companion web-catalog. We find that two blackbody functions (BB+BB), the sum of two modified blackbody functions (LB+LB), the sum of a blackbody function and a power-law function (BB+PO), and a power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff (COMPT) all provide acceptable fits at similar levels. We performed numerical simulations to constrain the best fitting model for each burst spectrum and found that 67.6% of burst spectra with well-constrained parameters are better described by the Comptonized model. We also found that 64.7% of these burst spectra are better described with the LB+LB model, which is employed in the spectral analysis of a soft gamma repeater (SGR) for the first time here, than with the BB+BB and BB+PO models. We found a significant positive lower bound trend on photon index, suggesting a decreasing upper bound on hardness, with respect to total flux and fluence. We compare this result with bursts observed from SGR and AXP (anomalous X-ray pulsar) sources and suggest that the relationship is a distinctive characteristic between the two. We confirm a significant anticorrelation between burst emission area and blackbody temperature, and find that it varies between the hot and cool blackbody temperatures differently than previously discussed. We expand on the interpretation of our results in the framework of a strongly magnetized neutron star.

  3. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  4. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  5. Spectral representation in stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi.

    1988-10-01

    A spectral representation of stationary 2-point functions is investigated based on the operator formalism in stochastic quantization. Assuming the existence of asymptotic non-interacting fields, we can diagonalize the total Hamiltonian in terms of asymptotic fields and show that the correlation length along the fictious time is proportional to the physical mass expected in the usual field theory. A relation between renormalization factors in the operator formalism is derived as a byproduct and its validity is checked with the perturbative results calculated in this formalism. (orig.)

  6. Spectral Tensor-Train Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Marzouk, Youssef M.

    2016-01-01

    The accurate approximation of high-dimensional functions is an essential task in uncertainty quantification and many other fields. We propose a new function approximation scheme based on a spectral extension of the tensor-train (TT) decomposition. We first define a functional version of the TT...... adaptive Smolyak approach. The method is also used to approximate the solution of an elliptic PDE with random input data. The open source software and examples presented in this work are available online (http://pypi.python.org/pypi/TensorToolbox/)....

  7. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  8. The complex and transdisciplinarity thought as frames of scientific research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Galati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to describe and support, from the methodological point of view, Edgar Morin’s complex thought and Basarab Nicolescu’s transdisciplinarity. It is structured based on the philosophical and logical contexts of multi-method; and then developing methodological ideas from transdisciplinarity and complexity. The methodology used is the documentation, taking into account articles on doctrine and teaching experience. There is discourse analysis, classification and interpretation, also creating categories. The implications of integrative, complex and transdisciplinary philosophy are seen, in a research design for Social Sciences. Transdisciplinary category of "property" is provided, adding it to the "production" category. Developing the complexity and transdisciplinarity as a methodology, "transdisciplinary instructions" arise, which are applied to research although they were originally thought for teaching. From the structure of the research design, unsystematic transdisciplinary methodological strategies and systematic strategies element by element of the research project are identified. As another result, the creation of the category of "General Theory / Interim Science" is added, approached from transdisciplinarity

  9. Dream content and intrusive thoughts in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallotti, Simone; Casetta, Cecilia; Fanti, Valentina; Gambini, Orsola; Ostinelli, Edoardo G; Ranieri, Rebecca; Vanelli, Irene; D'Agostino, Armando

    2016-10-30

    Although central to any exhaustive theory of human subjectivity, the relationship between dream and waking consciousness remains uncertain. Some findings suggest that dream consciousness can be influenced by severe disorders of thought content. The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been shown to influence dream content in healthy individuals. In order to better define this phenomenon, we evaluated the persistence of obsessive/compulsive themes across the dream and waking cognition of OCD patients and in a control group of healthy subjects. Participants were administered a shortened version of the Thematic Apperception Test to produce a waking fantasy narration, and were trained to keep a dream diary. Dream and waking narrative contents were analyzed in order to recognize obsessive/compulsive themes, and to calculate Mean Dream Obsession/Compulsion (MDO, MDC) and Mean TAT Obsession/Compulsion (MTO, MTC) parameters. No differences were found between the two populations in terms of MDO, MDC, MTO, nor MTC. Density of obsessive and compulsive themes were significantly higher in dream reports than in waking narratives for both groups. No correlation was observed between MDO/MDC scores and Y-BOCS obsession/compulsion scores in the OCD group. These findings strengthen the discontinuity hypothesis, suggesting that ruminative aspects of cognition are somehow interrupted during dream activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Continuation of Iranshahri Thoughts in Kalileh va Demne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Zahirinav

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, Iranshahri’s thoughts such as ideal king, divine charisma, togetherness of religion and kingdom, justice, truth etc in kalileh va Demneh are investigated. In Kalileh and Demneh, kingdom is a divine gift and the king is at the center of the state affairs. Therefore, affection and kindness must be imprinted on his forehead, otherwise he would be a devilish creature who disturbs governing orders of the universe. He must metaphysically be supported in the circus of governmental affairs, and this is possible only by divine charisma. Such a king must be decorated with justice ornament, so that every body does his best in his own special class and approaches the salvation of soul. The king must also be decorated with accomplishments such as battle assistance and with virtues such as religion assistance. He must strengthen the social connection by “truth”. Basically, without truth life has no harmony because falsehood diverts life form its regular direction. But finally, with the dominance of divine forces over devilish ones, utopia, which is a secure place for releasing from disorder and injustice is proven to be true. Therefore, we conclude that Kalileh and Demneh has a contribution to the continuation of Iranshahri’s thoughts and also to the historical and cultural continuation of Iran in transition to the Islamic period.

  11. Nuclear power plants in post-war thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews how nuclear power plants have been talked about in the post-war thought. Science and technology sometimes significantly change the thinking way of humans, and nuclear power generation is an extreme technology. This paper overviews how nuclear power plants and humans are correlated. The following three points are discussed as the major issues of contemporary thought over nuclear power plants. First, on the danger of nuclear power plants, the risk of destructive power that nuclear energy has, and the danger of unreasoning development in science and technology civilization are discussed. Second, on the ethics issues surrounding nuclear power plants, the ethics that are based on unbalanced power relations, and democratic responsibility ethics based on discussion ethics are discussed. Third, on the issues of nuclear power plants and imagination, the limitations of democratic discussion surrounding nuclear power plants, the formation of imagination commensurate with the destructive power of nuclear power plants, and the formation of imagination that can represent the distant future are discussed. (A.O.)

  12. Thought Experiment to Examine Benchmark Performance for Fusion Nuclear Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isao; Ohta, Masayuki; Kusaka, Sachie; Sato, Fuminobu; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    There are many benchmark experiments carried out so far with DT neutrons especially aiming at fusion reactor development. These integral experiments seemed vaguely to validate the nuclear data below 14 MeV. However, no precise studies exist now. The author's group thus started to examine how well benchmark experiments with DT neutrons can play a benchmarking role for energies below 14 MeV. Recently, as a next phase, to generalize the above discussion, the energy range was expanded to the entire region. In this study, thought experiments with finer energy bins have thus been conducted to discuss how to generally estimate performance of benchmark experiments. As a result of thought experiments with a point detector, the sensitivity for a discrepancy appearing in the benchmark analysis is "equally" due not only to contribution directly conveyed to the deterctor, but also due to indirect contribution of neutrons (named (A)) making neutrons conveying the contribution, indirect controbution of neutrons (B) making the neutrons (A) and so on. From this concept, it would become clear from a sensitivity analysis in advance how well and which energy nuclear data could be benchmarked with a benchmark experiment.

  13. Thought Experiment to Examine Benchmark Performance for Fusion Nuclear Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murata Isao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many benchmark experiments carried out so far with DT neutrons especially aiming at fusion reactor development. These integral experiments seemed vaguely to validate the nuclear data below 14 MeV. However, no precise studies exist now. The author’s group thus started to examine how well benchmark experiments with DT neutrons can play a benchmarking role for energies below 14 MeV. Recently, as a next phase, to generalize the above discussion, the energy range was expanded to the entire region. In this study, thought experiments with finer energy bins have thus been conducted to discuss how to generally estimate performance of benchmark experiments. As a result of thought experiments with a point detector, the sensitivity for a discrepancy appearing in the benchmark analysis is “equally” due not only to contribution directly conveyed to the deterctor, but also due to indirect contribution of neutrons (named (A making neutrons conveying the contribution, indirect controbution of neutrons (B making the neutrons (A and so on. From this concept, it would become clear from a sensitivity analysis in advance how well and which energy nuclear data could be benchmarked with a benchmark experiment.

  14. Depressive thoughts limit working memory capacity in dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Nicholas A; Hutchison, Joanna L; Turner, Monroe; Montroy, Janelle; Bowles, Ryan P; Rypma, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Dysphoria is associated with persistence of attention on mood-congruent information. Longer time attending to mood-congruent information for dysphoric individuals (DIs) detracts from goal-relevant information processing and should reduce working memory (WM) capacity. Study 1 showed that DIs and non-DIs have similar WM capacities. Study 2 embedded depressive information into a WM task. Compared to non-DIs, DIs showed significantly reduced WM capacity for goal-relevant information in this task. Study 3 replicated results from Studies 1 and 2, and further showed that DIs had a significantly greater association between processing speed and recall on the depressively modified WM task compared to non-DIs. The presence of inter-task depressive information leads to DI-related decreased WM capacity. Results suggest dysphoria-related WM capacity deficits when depressive thoughts are present. WM capacity deficits in the presence of depressive thoughts are a plausible mechanism to explain day-to-day memory and concentration difficulties associated with depressed mood.

  15. The Problem of Civil War In Agamben's Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    This essay departs from the largely obscure theme of civil war in Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life to elucidate a fundamental aporia of his early political thought inherited from the work of Carl Schmitt. It begins with an analysis of the topology of the exception, as the inclu......This essay departs from the largely obscure theme of civil war in Agamben’s Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life to elucidate a fundamental aporia of his early political thought inherited from the work of Carl Schmitt. It begins with an analysis of the topology of the exception......, as the inclusion of civil war within the sovereign order – a conceptual move which forecloses the possibility of political contestation. This analysis permits an interrogation and critique of Agamben’s controversial claim regarding the inevitable shipwreck of the revolutions of the twentieth century....... This is followed by an exploration of Agamben’s failed attempts to move past this aporia via the strategy of exodus. Finally, the political impasse identified by Agamben is revealed to be a conceptual limitation, rather than a practical and political aporia, thus recovering the possibility of contesting...

  16. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shi

    Full Text Available Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  17. Hannah Arendt, evil and the eradication of thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Coline

    2012-10-01

    Evil deeds may be committed intentionally or out of madness, but it is those who follow orders that present us with the most complex moral, philosophical and psychological questions. In writing about the banality of evil, Hannah Arendt argues that "in granting pardon, it is the person and not the crime that is forgiven; in rootless evil there is no person left whom one could ever forgive." Arendt postulates that "being a person" necessarily entails the acts of memory and thought. This paper explores Arendt's ideas on memory and thought and how these processes can become subverted in the service of a higher order. Clinical material illustrates Whitmer's idea of dissociation as an "impairment of subjectivity" as distinct from Freud's view of dissociation as a form of repression. This shift in theoretical perspective sheds new light on our understanding of the totalitarian state of mind, i.e. of the mind of a "nobody", and the conditions within which evil is committed. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. Xu Guangqi’s Thought On Supplementing Confucianism With Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Seo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Xu Guangqi is one of the most influential Chinese scholars who accepted Christian faith during the late Ming dynasty. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism and replacing Buddhism by Christianity” had great impact on the development of Christianity in China. His idea, however, has often been accused of syncretism, and genuineness of his Christian faith has been put into question. Some argue that his theology lacks Christology. Others suggest that his ultimate goal was to achieve the Confucian political ideals through adopting some of the Christian moral teachings. Through the analysis of Xu Guangqi’ works and life, we find that he accepted all the essential Christian doctrines and Christology is the core of his understanding of “Tianzhu”. His view on Confucianism itself istransformed through Christian perspective. In his new understanding, the ultimate goal of Confucianism is to serve and to worship “Tianzhu”,same as Christianity. The ultimate problem of life is to save one’s soul.Xu Guangqi considered his scientific works as a way to propagate Christian faith,since science was seen as an integral part of Christian thought and practice. His idea of “supplementing Confucianism by Christianity” integrated Confucianism into the overarching framework of Christian thought.

  19. Associated Factors of Suicidal Thoughts in HIV-Positive Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Dabaghzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: As a first study, suicidal ideation and its correlates have been evaluated in Iranian HIV positive population .  Methods:One hundred and fifty HIV-positive individuals were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI and Somatization subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL 90 as self- reported questionnaires were used to assess the patients’ anxiety and depression status, suicidal thoughts, sleep quality and physiological factors, respectively . Results:Antiretroviral therapy and efavirenz intake did not show any significant effects on the patients’ suicidal ideation. Anxiety (p<0.001, depression (p<0.001, poor physical activity (P<0.001 and sleep quality (p<0.001 were significantly associated with the patients’ negative suicidal ideation. From the patients’ demographic data, unemployment (p = 0.04, living alone (p = 0.01, and lack of family support (p = 0.01 were correlated with the patients’ negative suicidal thoughts . Conclusion:Although hospitals are the main referral centers for providing care for HIV-positive individuals in Tehran, Iran, conducting a multi-center study with sufficient sample size from different areas of our country that include individuals with different behaviors and cultures is essential to confirm the results of this study.

  20. Moral thought-action fusion and OCD symptoms: the moderating role of religious affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siev, Jedidiah; Chambless, Dianne L; Huppert, Jonathan D

    2010-04-01

    The empirical literature on the relationship between moral thought-action fusion (TAF) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by mixed findings. Previous studies have reported religious group differences in moral TAF and the relationship between moral TAF and religiosity. In light of those studies and considering the apparent role of moral TAF in scrupulosity, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the possible role of religion as a moderator of the relationship between moral TAF and OCD symptoms. The results revealed that (a) Christians endorsed higher levels of moral TAF than did Jews independent of OCD symptoms; (b) religiosity was correlated with moral TAF in Christians but not in Jews, suggesting that Christian religious adherence is related to beliefs about the moral import of thoughts; and (c) moral TAF was related to OCD symptoms only in Jews. That is, for Christians, moral TAF was related to religiosity but not OCD symptoms, and for Jews, moral TAF was related to OCD symptoms but not religiosity. These results imply that moral TAF is only a marker of pathology when such beliefs are not culturally normative (e.g., as a function of religious teaching or doctrine). (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attachment and thought problems in an adolescent inpatient sample: The mediational role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jessica R; Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist. Bivariate correlations indicated that attachment coherence (a marker of security) was significantly and positively correlated with ToM abilities, and that low attachment coherence and poor ToM performance were each associated with increased youth- and parent-reported thought problems. Mediational models indicated that ToM mediated the relation between insecure attachment and thought problems according to both parent- and self-report. The results of the current study provide support for a model in which impairments in ToM contribute to the frequently documented association between insecure attachment and emerging psychotic symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications of these results are discussed, including the potential support for ToM-based interventions for early psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Curvature Effect and the Spectral Softening Phenomenon Detected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    soft spectral evolution, indicating that this spectral softening is not a rare phenomenon .... of time, there exists a temporal steep decay phase accompanied by spectral softening. (d) In most cases, the temporal power law index α and the spectral.

  3. Functional characterization of spectral tuning mechanisms in the great bowerbird short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (SWS1), and the origins of UV/violet vision in passerines and parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hazel, Ilke; Sabouhanian, Amir; Day, Lainy; Endler, John A; Chang, Belinda S W

    2013-11-13

    One of the most striking features of avian vision is the variation in spectral sensitivity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsins, which can be divided into two sub-types: violet- and UV- sensitive (VS & UVS). In birds, UVS has been found in both passerines and parrots, groups that were recently shown to be sister orders. While all parrots are thought to be UVS, recent evidence suggests some passerine lineages may also be VS. The great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis) is a passerine notable for its courtship behaviours in which males build and decorate elaborate bower structures. The great bowerbird SWS1 sequence possesses an unusual residue combination at known spectral tuning sites that has not been previously investigated in mutagenesis experiments. In this study, the SWS1 opsin of C. nuchalis was expressed along with a series of spectral tuning mutants and ancestral passerine SWS1 pigments, allowing us to investigate spectral tuning mechanisms and explore the evolution of UV/violet sensitivity in early passerines and parrots. The expressed C. nuchalis SWS1 opsin was found to be a VS pigment, with a λmax of 403 nm. Bowerbird SWS1 mutants C86F, S90C, and C86S/S90C all shifted λmax into the UV, whereas C86S had no effect. Experimentally recreated ancestral passerine and parrot/passerine SWS1 pigments were both found to be VS, indicating that UV sensitivity evolved independently in passerines and parrots from a VS ancestor. Our mutagenesis studies indicate that spectral tuning in C. nuchalis is mediated by mechanisms similar to those of other birds. Interestingly, our ancestral sequence reconstructions of SWS1 in landbird evolution suggest multiple transitions from VS to UVS, but no instances of the reverse. Our results not only provide a more precise prediction of where these spectral sensitivity shifts occurred, but also confirm the hypothesis that birds are an unusual exception among vertebrates where some descendants re-evolved UVS from a violet type

  4. Observer model optimization of a spectral mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Åslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Spectral imaging is a method in medical x-ray imaging to extract information about the object constituents by the material-specific energy dependence of x-ray attenuation. Contrast-enhanced spectral imaging has been thoroughly investigated, but unenhanced imaging may be more useful because it comes as a bonus to the conventional non-energy-resolved absorption image at screening; there is no additional radiation dose and no need for contrast medium. We have used a previously developed theoretical framework and system model that include quantum and anatomical noise to characterize the performance of a photon-counting spectral mammography system with two energy bins for unenhanced imaging. The theoretical framework was validated with synthesized images. Optimal combination of the energy-resolved images for detecting large unenhanced tumors corresponded closely, but not exactly, to minimization of the anatomical noise, which is commonly referred to as energy subtraction. In that case, an ideal-observer detectability index could be improved close to 50% compared to absorption imaging. Optimization with respect to the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, commonly referred to as energy weighting, deteriorated detectability. For small microcalcifications or tumors on uniform backgrounds, however, energy subtraction was suboptimal whereas energy weighting provided a minute improvement. The performance was largely independent of beam quality, detector energy resolution, and bin count fraction. It is clear that inclusion of anatomical noise and imaging task in spectral optimization may yield completely different results than an analysis based solely on quantum noise.

  5. Lesion characterization in spectral photon-counting tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederström, Björn; Fredenberg, Erik; Berggren, Karl; Erhard, Klaus; Danielsson, Mats; Wallis, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    It has previously been shown that 2D spectral mammography can be used to discriminate between (likely benign) cystic and (potentially malignant) solid lesions in order to reduce unnecessary recalls in mammography. One limitation of the technique is, however, that the composition of overlapping tissue needs to be interpolated from a region surrounding the lesion. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate that lesion characterization can be done with spectral tomosynthesis, and to investigate whether the 3D information available in tomosynthesis can reduce the uncertainty from the interpolation of surrounding tissue. A phantom experiment was designed to simulate a cyst and a tumor, where the tumor was overlaid with a structure that made it mimic a cyst. In 2D, the two targets appeared similar in composition, whereas spectral tomosynthesis revealed the exact compositional difference. However, the loss of discrimination signal due to spread from the plane of interest was of the same strength as the reduction of anatomical noise. Results from a preliminary investigation on clinical tomosynthesis images of solid lesions yielded results that were consistent with the phantom experiments, but were still to some extent inconclusive. We conclude that lesion characterization is feasible in spectral tomosynthesis, but more data, as well as refinement of the calibration and discrimination algorithms, are needed to draw final conclusions about the benefit compared to 2D.

  6. Automatic parquet block sorting using real-time spectral classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrom, Anders; Astrand, Erik; Johansson, Magnus

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a real-time spectral classification system based on the PGP spectrograph and a smart image sensor. The PGP is a spectrograph which extracts the spectral information from a scene and projects the information on an image sensor, which is a method often referred to as Imaging Spectroscopy. The classification is based on linear models and categorizes a number of pixels along a line. Previous systems adopting this method have used standard sensors, which often resulted in poor performance. The new system, however, is based on a patented near-sensor classification method, which exploits analogue features on the smart image sensor. The method reduces the enormous amount of data to be processed at an early stage, thus making true real-time spectral classification possible. The system has been evaluated on hardwood parquet boards showing very good results. The color defects considered in the experiments were blue stain, white sapwood, yellow decay and red decay. In addition to these four defect classes, a reference class was used to indicate correct surface color. The system calculates a statistical measure for each parquet block, giving the pixel defect percentage. The patented method makes it possible to run at very high speeds with a high spectral discrimination ability. Using a powerful illuminator, the system can run with a line frequency exceeding 2000 line/s. This opens up the possibility to maintain high production speed and still measure with good resolution.

  7. Berkeley SuperNova Ia Program (BSNIP): Initial Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jeffrey; Kong, J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The Berkeley SuperNova Ia Program (BSNIP) has been observing nearby (z analysis of this dataset consists of accurately and robustly measuring the strength and position of various spectral features near maximum brightness. We determine the endpoints, pseudo-continuum, expansion velocity, equivalent width, and depth of each major feature observed in our wavelength range. For objects with multiple spectra near maximum brightness we investigate how these values change with time. From these measurements we also calculate velocity gradients and various flux ratios within a given spectrum which will allow us to explore correlations between spectral and photometric observables. Some possible correlations have been studied previously, but our dataset is unique in how self-consistent the data reduction and spectral feature measurements have been, and it is a factor of a few larger than most earlier studies. We will briefly summarize the contents of the full dataset as an introduction to our initial analysis. Some of our measurements of SN Ia spectral features, along with a few initial results from those measurements, will be presented. Finally, we will comment on our current progress and planned future work. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of NSF grant AST-0908886, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Marc J. Staley Graduate Fellowship in Astronomy.

  8. How intention and monitoring your thoughts influence characteristics of autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2018-01-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories come to mind effortlessly and unintended, but the mechanisms of their retrieval are not fully understood. We hypothesize that involuntary retrieval depends on memories that are highly accessible (e.g., intense, unusual, recent, rehearsed), while the elaborate...... search that characterizes voluntary retrieval also produces memories that are mundane, repeated or distant – memories with low accessibility. Previous research provides some evidence for this ‘threshold hypothesis’. However, in almost every prior study, participants have been instructed to report only...... memories while ignoring other thoughts. It is possible that such an instruction can modify the phenomenological characteristics of involuntary memories. This study aimed to investigate the effects of retrieval intentionality (i.e., wanting to retrieve a memory) and selective monitoring (i.e., instructions...

  9. Self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts and emotional eating in family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Megan; Steffen, Ann

    2017-10-01

    Self-efficacy for controlling upsetting thoughts was examined as a predictor of emotional eating by family caregivers of physically and cognitively impaired older adults. Adult women (N = 158) providing healthcare assistance for an older family member completed an online survey about caregiving stressors, depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, and emotional eating. A stress process framework was used as a conceptual model to guide selection of variables predicting emotional eating scores. A hierarchical multiple regression was conducted and the overall model was significant (R 2 = .21, F(4,153) = 10.02, p accounting for IADL, role overload, and depression scores. These findings replicate previous research demonstrating the relationship between managing cognitions about caregiving and behavioral responses to stressors, and point to the importance of addressing cognitive processes in efforts to improve caregiver health behaviors.

  10. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  11. The effects of mood upon imaginal thought.t.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, G S; Green, M

    1978-06-01

    The effects of mood upon imaginal thought were explored with a highly trained undergraduate female hypnotic subject. She was hypnotically programmed to experience free-floating anxiety or pleasure in varying degrees just before the exposure of combinations of three Blacky Pictures, and to produce dreamlike imagery in response to the Blacky stimuli while under sway of the mood. Data from 98 dream trials, separated by amnesia, indicated that the affective states clearly influenced imaginal processes. Blind ratings by a psychoanalyst showed anxiety moods to be more closely associated with primary-process features characteristic of nocturnal dreams, whereas pleasure had a relatively higher incidence of daydreamlike ratings. Empirical analysis of themes yielded significant relationships of anxiety to physical injury to the self and verbal aggression toward others; pleasure was associated with circular movements and overt sex themes.

  12. A Thought Experiment Comparing Austrian and Keynesian Stimulus Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    Full Text Available Essentially, there are two competing views of how to overcome an economy-wide recession/depression. The Austrian view understands the free-play of competition as the most potent means to overcome the short-run mismatch between an excessive boom-level of nominal wages/prices and depressed crisis-level volume of aggregate spending. In the Keynesian view, the disastrous mismatch between desired saving and planned investment inherent in capitalist economies requires the government to step in and take up the burden of spending to infuse the lacking demand for products and labor.The thought experiment presented in the paper is designed to provide the reader with a direct comparison of major analytical claims of the two competing approaches to assess the ability of each of the two to affect, positively or negatively, employment, capital accumulation, and the general standard of living/real wages.

  13. Sexuality in advanced age in Jewish thought and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Benjamin E; Weitzman, Gideon A

    2015-01-01

    Judaism has a positive attitude to sexual relations within a marriage, and views such sexual relations as important not only for procreation but also as part of the framework of marriage. This is true for any age group, and sexuality is seen as an essential element of marriage for couples of advanced age. In this article, the authors present the views of Jewish law and thought regarding sexuality among older couples. The authors illustrate this using 3 case studies of couples who sought guidance in the area of sexuality. In addition, this area of counseling benefits greatly from an ongoing relationship and dialogue between expert rabbis in the field and therapists treating older Orthodox Jewish patients for sexual dysfunction. The triad relationship of couple, therapist, and rabbi enhances the ability to treat and assist such couples to seek treatment and overcome their difficulties.

  14. [George Herbert Mead. Thought as the conversation of interior gestures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Louis

    2010-01-01

    For George Herbert Mead, thinking amounts to holding an "inner conversation of gestures ". Such a conception does not seem especially original at first glance. What makes it truly original is the "social-behavioral" approach of which it is a part, and, particularly, two ideas. The first is that the conversation in question is a conversation of gestures or attitudes, and the second, that thought and reflexive intelligence arise from the internalization of an external process supported by the social mechanism of communication: that of conduct organization. It imports then to understand what distinguishes such ideas from those of the founder of behavioral psychology, John B. Watson, for whom thinking amounts to nothing other than subvocal speech.

  15. Montext of the activity and thought of Mary Richmond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Miranda Aranda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the significance of an author and his or her work, it is essential to appropriately consider the author’s social and scientific context. Mary Richmond was one of the pioneers in a new profession that emerged at the same time as the Social Sciences. She was key in the shaping of the discipline thanks both to her own research and the influence that other more established professions and major schools of thought of the time had on her work, specifically James’ and Dewey’s Pragmatic Philosophy and the theories emerging from the University of Chicago’s Departments of Sociology and Anthropology, among them including most substantially the interactionist approaches of George Herbert Mead. All of this in an environment of economic, social and political change during the Progressive Era in the United States.

  16. Thoughts about the future of nuclear power in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.

    2008-01-01

    On November 6, 2007, the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft conferred its 30 th honorary membership upon Professor Dr. Manfred Popp. The new Honorary Member has a record of outstanding achievements in the interest of nuclear power in Germany. This commitment is also apparent from his professional career, which was devoted to this high technology with impressive scientific and technical knowledge and political acumen, perseverance and stamina. The KTG is most grateful to Professor Popp for accepting its honorary membership. The article includes a revised version of the lecture given by Professor Manfred Popp at the ceremony conferring honorary membership. The author discusses some thoughts about the future of nuclear power in Germany in the light of societal, political, technical and environmental aspects. The status and perspectives of this technology are considered also within the framework of international developments. (orig.)

  17. Everyday value conflicts and integrative complexity of thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myyry, Liisa

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the value pluralism model in everyday value conflicts, and the effect of issue context on complexity of thought. According to the cognitive manager model we hypothesized that respondents would obtain a higher level of integrative complexity on personal issues that on professional and general issues. We also explored the relations of integrative complexity to value priorities, measured by the Schwartz Value Survey, and to emotional empathy. The value pluralism model was not supported by the data collected from 126 university students from social science, business and technology. The cognitive manager model was partially confirmed by data from females but not from males. Concerning value priorities, more complex respondents had higher regard for self-transcendence values, and less complex respondents for self-enhancement values Emotional empathy was also significantly related to complexity score.

  18. Thought analysis on self-organization theories of MHD plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1992-08-01

    A thought analysis on the self-organization theories of dissipative MHD plasma is presented to lead to three groups of theories that lead to the same relaxed state of ∇ x B = λB, in order to find an essential physical picture embedded in the self-organization phenomena due to nonlinear and dissipative processes. The self-organized relaxed state due to the dissipation by the Ohm loss is shown to be formulated generally as the state such that yields the minimum dissipation rate of global auto-and/or cross-correlations between two quantities in j, B, and A for their own instantaneous values of the global correlations. (author)

  19. War, strategy, and defence: The tradition of international political thought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, D

    1986-01-01

    This major new textbook provides a survey and critique of the strands in theoretical work on international relations. Taking the avoidance or limitation of war as the central concern of IR theory, it treats the subject from both an historical and conceptual perspective. David Robertson begins his account with early natural law arguments such as those of Grotius, and then moves on to the complex moral philosophy of Kant, the more positivist developments of international law, and both the traditional and modern versions of 'just war' theory. Focusing next on the second major strand of thought, he covers the more pragmatic theorising which seeks to control war through the balance of power, collective security, and finally by nuclear deterrent.

  20. Boscovich's philosophical meditations in the history of contemporary thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, P.

    The content of Boscovich's Theoria philosophiae naturalis was well-known to his contemporaries, but both scientists and philosophers chiefly discussed it during the 19th century. The observations that Boscovich presented in this text, and that he himself defined as ``philosophicas metitationes", soon showed their being a good programme for the forthcoming atomic physics, and contributed to get rid of the mechanistic paradigm in science. In this paper I will go back to some meaningful moments of the history of Boscovich's reception in the era of contemporary philosophy, by referring to what authors such as Popper, Cassirer, Nietzsche and Fechner wrote about him. These thinkers, indeed, particularly stressed the importance of the Theoria in the history of Western thought, and showed that it can easily be evaluated beyond the plane of a pure scientific investigation.

  1. Return to the political thought of Vaz Ferreira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Aguerre

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the essential aspects of Vaz Ferreira´s political thought, wich has been less explored by analysts after his death, despite our great philosopher committed opinion with clairvoyant vision at a crucial time for the history of the Western world. Vaz Ferreira´s discarding of the great ideological systems in struggle for power; representing the opinion of Uruguay and their problems as unique cases on which all possible good faith had to be rehearsed, using reason and feeling superior, remains an ideal to considerer. To the philosopher the values on which Western Culture is built are first freedom, because that is what allows human progress in all dimensions, then equality, although both must always be present in our judgements about social problems

  2. The natural law in the thought of Jacques Maritain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel López-Casquete de Prado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the work of the French author Jacques Maritain is beyond doubt. He was one of the initiators of the personalist movement, and had a decisive influence on the Catholic Social Thought from Populorum Progressio (1967; he also inspired the emergence of a large number of Christian-inspired parties. One of the biggest highlights of his career was the participation in the preparatory works of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, sponsored by the UN in 1948. That occasion offered him an extraordinary opportunity to discuss and make living philosophy of his thesis on natural law. This paper offers a critical review of Maritains’s thinking on natural law and analyzes his participation in the UN Declaration, which guarantees the importance of his philosophical development.

  3. Theories of social mobility in the history of sociological thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Baturenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article evolution of theories of social mobility in the history of social thought from the classical period of development until the end of the XX century is analyzed. The author describes the main directions of theoretical interest of research of this problem and their peculiar features. The main questions raised by classics of the sociological theory were actual during all XX century, and empirical research of a problem of social mobility resulted in concentration of attention of scientists on more specific questions, in particular such as studying of professional career, reproduction of the social statuses that promoted emergence of separate discipline in the western sociology, so-called to “sociology of a course of life”, investigating biographic mobility.

  4. Thought-shape fusion in anorexia nervosa: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomsky, Adam S; de Silva, Padmal; Todd, Gillian; Treasure, Janet; Murphy, Tara

    2002-10-01

    Cognitive biases and cognitive distortions have been implicated as important factors in the development and maintenance of many disorders. The concept of thought-shape fusion (TSF) in eating disorders was developed by Shafran, Teachman, Kerry, and Rachman (British Journal of Clinical Psychology 38 (1999) 167) as a variant of thought-action fusion, described by Shafran, Thordarson and Rachman (Journal of Anxiety Disorders 10 (1996) 379). TSF occurs when thinking about eating certain types of food increases a person's estimate of their shape and/or weight, elicits a perception of moral wrongdoing, and/or makes the person feel fat. Shafran et al. (1999) examined both the psychometric and experimental properties of TSF in an undergraduate sample. This paper reports an extension of this work to a clinical group (N=20) of patients with anorexia nervosa. After completing a set of relevant questionnaires, participants were asked to think about a food which they considered extremely fattening. They were then asked to write out the sentence, "I am eating--.", inserting the name of the fattening food in the blank. After being asked to rate their anxiety, guilt, feelings about their weight, morality, etc., participants were given the opportunity to neutralize their statement in any way they chose. The majority of the participants neutralized in ways consistent with the findings of Shafran et al. (1999). The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-behavioural formulations of eating disorders, and of the influence of cognitive biases and cognitive distortions on the processing of information relevant to food, weight and shape in anorexia nervosa.

  5. 'It's everywhere!' young Swedish people's thoughts and reflections about pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Sandberg, Jonas; Hanson, Ulf; Tydén, Tanja

    2006-12-01

    Pornography is one of the most sought-after topics on the Internet, and is easily available for anyone, including children and adolescents. At youth centres, nurse-midwives have noticed that young people have different kinds of questions about sexual practices compared with a few years ago. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of thoughts and reflections about pornography consumption, and its possible influence on sexual practices, among young women and men. The staff at a youth centre in a city in central Sweden asked the visitors if they had seen pornography and if they wanted to be interviewed about their experiences. Ten young women and eight men, aged 16-23 years, participated. In-depth interviews were performed and open-ended questions about pornography and sexuality were posed. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to grounded theory. The core category 'Living with the current sexual norm' depicted how pornography created sexual expectations and demands, for instance, to perform certain sexual acts. The informants expressed contradictory feelings towards pornography and felt that sexuality was separated from intimacy. A moral attitude was described and examples of stereotypic gender roles were given. To deal with the current sexual norm, informants had different individual handling strategies and attitudes to pornography, namely liberal, normalization, distance, feminist or conservative. Limitations of this study were the small sample size and that results from a qualitative research study cannot be generalized. The results contribute to an understanding of how pornographic material can influence young peoples' thoughts, reflections and sexual behaviour. This indicates the importance, for personnel at youth centres and schools, to discuss sexual behaviour and how sexuality is portrayed in pornographic material with young people.

  6. Can Operator's Thought Be Inferred from Eye Movement Data?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Correct situation awareness (SA) has been considered a crucial key to improving performance and reducing error in NPPs. There are a lot of information sources that should be monitored in nuclear power plants (NPPs), but operators have only limited capacity of attention and memory. Operators in NPPs selectively attend to important information sources to effectively develop SA when an abnormal or accidental situation occurs. Selective attention to important information sources is continued while maintaining SA as well. The authors have developed measures of attentional resource effectiveness in information searching such as FIR (Fixation to Importance Ratio) and SAE (Selective Attention Effectiveness) which represent how effectively an operator attends to important information sources. The FIR is the ratio of attentional resources (i.e. the number and the duration of eye fixations) spent on an information source to the importance of the information source as follows: Theoretically, the SAE should approach to zero for the best effectiveness. The underlying principle of the measures is that information sources should be selectively attended to according to their informational importance. The importance of information sources depends on the state of a NPP. For example, the importance of the pressurizer level for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) is different from that for steam line break (SLB). Hence, sets of importance for information sources should be evaluated for all possible events. The FIR and the SAE have also been used as performance measures in a HMI evaluation method named 'DEMIS (Difficulty Evaluation Method in Information Searching). In this study, Operator's thought is inferred with the eye movement data during complex diagnostic tasks in NPPs. SAEs are calculated with the eye movement data for all possible events (e.g., accident, incident, or transient) in NPPs. Inference of operator thought is made by analyzing the calculated SAEs. Theoretically, the event

  7. Thought probes during prospective memory encoding: Evidence for perfunctory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Dasse, Michelle N.; Lee, Ji hae; Kurinec, Courtney A.; Tami, Claudina; Krueger, Madison L.

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 50 years, psychologists have studied prospective memory, or the ability to execute delayed intentions. Yet, there remains a gap in understanding as to whether initial encoding of the intention must be elaborative and strategic, or whether some components of successful encoding can occur in a perfunctory, transient manner. In eight studies (N = 680), we instructed participants to remember to press the Q key if they saw words representing fruits (cue) during an ongoing lexical decision task. They then typed what they were thinking and responded whether they encoded fruits as a general category, as specific exemplars, or hardly thought about it at all. Consistent with the perfunctory view, participants often reported mind wandering (42.9%) and hardly thinking about the prospective memory task (22.5%). Even though participants were given a general category cue, many participants generated specific category exemplars (34.5%). Bayesian analyses of encoding durations indicated that specific exemplars came to mind in a perfunctory manner rather than via strategic, elaborative mechanisms. Few participants correctly guessed the research hypotheses and changing from fruit category cues to initial-letter cues eliminated reports of specific exemplar generation, thereby arguing against demand characteristics in the thought probe procedure. In a final experiment, encoding duration was unrelated to prospective memory performance; however, specific-exemplar encoders outperformed general-category encoders with no ongoing task monitoring costs. Our findings reveal substantial variability in intention encoding, and demonstrate that some components of prospective memory encoding can be done “in passing.” PMID:29874277

  8. Fermionic spectral functions in backreacting p-wave superconductors at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, G.L.; Grandi, N.E.; Lugo, A.R. [Instituto de Física de La Plata - CONICET & Departamento de Física - UNLP,C.C. 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2017-04-14

    We investigate the spectral function of fermions in a p-wave superconducting state, at finite both temperature and gravitational coupling, using the AdS/CFT correspondence and extending previous research. We found that, for any coupling below a critical value, the system behaves as its zero temperature limit. By increasing the coupling, the “peak-dip-hump” structure that characterizes the spectral function at fixed momenta disappears. In the region where the normal/superconductor phase transition is first order, the presence of a non-zero order parameter is reflected in the absence of rotational symmetry in the fermionic spectral function at the critical temperature.

  9. Spectral transform and orthogonality relations for the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili I equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiti, M; Leon, J J.P.; Pempinelli, F [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Physique Mathematique

    1989-10-30

    We define a new spectral transform r(k,l) of the potential u in the time dependent Schroedinger equation (associated to the KPI equation). Orthogonality relations for the sectionally holomorphic eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger equation are used to express the spectral transform f(k,l) previously introduced by Manakov and Fokas and Ablowitz in terms of r(k,l). The main advantage of the new spectral transform r(k,l) is that its definition does not require to introduce an additional nonanalytic eigenfunction N. Characterization equations for r(k,l) are also obtained. (orig.).

  10. Spectral transform and orthogonality relations for the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili I equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiti, M.; Leon, J.J.P.; Pempinelli, F.

    1989-01-01

    We define a new spectral transform r(k,l) of the potential u in the time dependent Schroedinger equation (associated to the KPI equation). Orthogonality relations for the sectionally holomorphic eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger equation are used to express the spectral transform f(k,l) previously introduced by Manakov and Fokas and Ablowitz in terms of r(k,l). The main advantage of the new spectral transform r(k,l) is that its definition does not require to introduce an additional nonanalytic eigenfunction N. Characterization equations for r(k,l) are also obtained. (orig.)

  11. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... correlated with the pattern of confusion in categorization judgments. Listeners tended to confuse materials with similar spectral centroids, and actions with similar temporal centroids and onset densities. To confirm the influence of these different features, spectral cues were removed by applying...

  12. THE GBT 67–93.6 GHz SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY OF ORION-KL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frayer, D. T.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Meijer, M.; Hough, L.; White, S.; Norrod, R.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Simon, R.; Woody, D.; Whitehead, M.; Ford, P.; Mello, M.; Bloss, M.; Srikanth, S.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a 67–93.6 GHz spectral line survey of Orion-KL with the new 4 mm Receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The survey reaches unprecedented depths and covers the low-frequency end of the 3 mm atmospheric window which has been relatively unexplored previously. The entire spectral-line survey is published electronically for general use by the astronomical community. The calibration and performance of the 4 mm Receiver on the GBT is also summarized

  13. Electron-energy-loss spectral library and its application to materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N.J.

    1983-09-01

    An electron energy loss spectral library can be an invaluable tool in materials research from a fundamental as well as a practical standpoint. Although it will not alleviate all the complications associated with quantification, this type of library can help to elucidate details of spectral profiles previously found intractable. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy. The author also wishes to express his gratitude to the organizing committee for partial financial support provided to attend this meeting.

  14. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  15. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  16. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  17. Spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Mizera, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the spectral dimension in causal set quantum gravity by simulating random walks on causal sets. In contrast to other approaches to quantum gravity, we find an increasing spectral dimension at small scales. This observation can be connected to the nonlocality of causal set theory that is deeply rooted in its fundamentally Lorentzian nature. Based on its large-scale behaviour, we conjecture that the spectral dimension can serve as a tool to distinguish causal sets that approximate manifolds from those that do not. As a new tool to probe quantum spacetime in different quantum gravity approaches, we introduce a novel dimensional estimator, the causal spectral dimension, based on the meeting probability of two random walkers, which respect the causal structure of the quantum spacetime. We discuss a causal-set example, where the spectral dimension and the causal spectral dimension differ, due to the existence of a preferred foliation. (paper)

  18. Examining spectral variations in localized lunar dark mantle deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawin, Erica; Besse, Sebastien; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Sunshine, Jessica; Head, James W.; Mazrouei, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The localized lunar dark mantle deposits (DMDs) in Alphonsus, J. Herschel, and Oppenheimer craters were analyzed using visible-near-infrared spectroscopy data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper. Spectra of these localized DMDs were analyzed for compositional and mineralogical variations within the deposits and were compared with nearby mare basalt units. Spectra of the three localized DMDs exhibited mafic absorption features indicating iron-rich compositions, although the DMDs were spectrally distinct from nearby mare basalts. All of the DMDs contained spectral signatures of glassy materials, suggesting the presence of volcanic glass in varying concentrations across the individual deposits. In addition, the albedo and spectral signatures were variable within the Alphonsus and Oppenheimer crater DMDs, suggesting variable deposit thickness and/or variations in the amount of mixing with the local substrate. Two previously unidentified localized DMDs were discovered to the northeast of Oppenheimer crater. The identification of high concentrations of volcanic glass in multiple localized DMDs in different locations suggests that the distribution of volcanic glass across the lunar surface is much more widespread than has been previously documented. The presence of volcanic glass implies an explosive, vulcanian eruption style for localized DMDs, as this allows volcanic glass to rapidly quench, inhibiting crystallization, compared to the larger hawaiian-style eruptions typical of regional DMD emplacement where black beads indicate a higher degree of crystallization. Improved understanding of the local and global distributions of volcanic glass in lunar DMDs will further constrain lunar degassing and compositional evolution throughout lunar volcanic history.

  19. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  20. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  1. Spectral measurements of loess TL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendell, H.M.; Mann, S.J.; Townsend, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Variations in thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves are reported for two loess samples when examined with broad band filters in the range 275-650 nm. Samples show striking differences in bleaching behaviour, when their TL emissions are observed in the u.v., blue, green and yellow spectral regions. The age estimates, given by the equivalent dose (ED) values, differ by up to a factor of two for analyses using the green and u.v. TL signals. These ED values also vary with prolonged room temperature storage between the bleaching and irradiation steps. The anomalies in the bleaching behaviour are interpreted in terms of changes in TL efficiency. The results have major implications for the regeneration method of TL dating for these fine-grained sediments and suggest that reliable dates obtained by it may be fortuitous. (author)

  2. Spectral properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P

    2006-01-01

    We review self-consistent spectral methods for nuclear matter calculations. The in-medium T-matrix approach is conserving and thermodynamically consistent. It gives both the global and the single-particle properties the system. The T-matrix approximation allows to address the pairing phenomenon in cold nuclear matter. A generalization of nuclear matter calculations to the super.uid phase is discussed and numerical results are presented for this case. The linear response of a correlated system going beyond the Hartree-Fock+ Random-Phase-Approximation (RPA) scheme is studied. The polarization is obtained by solving a consistent Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the coupling of dressed nucleons to an external field. We find that multipair contributions are important for the spin(isospin) response when the interaction is spin(isospin) dependent

  3. Littoral Assessment of Mine Burial Signatures (LAMBS) buried land mine/background spectral signature analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenton, A.C.; Geci, D.M.; Ray, K.J.; Thomas, C.M.; Salisbury, J.W.; Mars, J.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Witherspoon, N.H.; Holloway, J.H.; Harmon R.S.Broach J.T.Holloway, Jr. J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Rapid Overt Reconnaissance (ROR) program and the Airborne Littoral Reconnaissance Technologies (ALRT) project's LAMBS effort is to determine if electro-optical spectral discriminants exist that are useful for the detection of land mines in littoral regions. Statistically significant buried mine overburden and background signature data were collected over a wide spectral range (0.35 to 14 ??m) to identify robust spectral features that might serve as discriminants for new airborne sensor concepts. LAMBS has expanded previously collected databases to littoral areas - primarily dry and wet sandy soils - where tidal, surf, and wind conditions can severely modify spectral signatures. At AeroSense 2003, we reported completion of three buried mine collections at an inland bay, Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico beach sites.1 We now report LAMBS spectral database analyses results using metrics which characterize the detection performance of general types of spectral detection algorithms. These metrics include mean contrast, spectral signal-to-clutter, covariance, information content, and spectral matched filter analyses. Detection performance of the buried land mines was analyzed with regard to burial age, background type, and environmental conditions. These analyses considered features observed due to particle size differences, surface roughness, surface moisture, and compositional differences.

  4. Early life predictors of adolescent suicidal thoughts and adverse outcomes in two population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Dykxhoorn

    Full Text Available Understanding suicidality has proven challenging given the complex aetiology in early childhood. Being able to accurately predict groups at increased risk of developing suicidal thoughts may aid in the development of targeted prevention programs that mitigate increased vulnerability. Further, the predictors of suicidal thoughts may be shared with other outcomes in adolescence. Previous research has linked many factors to suicidality, so the objective of this study was to consider how these factors may act together to increase risk of suicidal thoughts and other non-mental health outcomes.Two longitudinal datasets were used in this analysis: the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY and the Avon Longitudinal Survey of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A Classification and Regression Tree model comprised of 75 factors describing early childhood was constructed to identify subgroups of adolescents at high risk of suicidal thoughts in the NLSCY and was validated in ALSPAC. These subgroups were investigated to see if they also had elevated rates of antisocial behaviour, substance misuse, poor physical health, poor mental health, risky health behaviours, and/or poor academic performance.The sensitivity was calculated to be 22·7%, specificity was 89·2%, positive predictive value 17·8%, and negative predictive value 91·8% and had similar accuracy in the validation dataset. The models were better at predicting other adverse outcomes compared to suicidal thoughts.There are groups of risk factors present in early life that can predict higher risk of suicidality in adolescence. Notably, these factors were also predictive of a range of adverse outcomes in adolescence.

  5. Psychometric qualities of the Thought Suppression Inventory-Revised in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, K.; Wanmaker, Sabine; Yocarini, Iris; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    Intrusive thoughts about negative events are core symptoms of several psychiatric disorders. Because current instruments for the assessment of thought suppression are unsatisfactory, we developed and evaluated the dimensionality and validity of a questionnaire that distinguishes between three major

  6. Online self-help for suicidal thoughts: 3-month follow-up results and participant evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bregje A.J. van Spijker

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Effects of online self-help for suicidal thoughts can be maintained for up to three months. Participant evaluation indicated that online self-help for suicidal thoughts is acceptable, but there is also room for improvement.

  7. Elementary principles of spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    It is a common observation that as we add particles, one by one, to a simple system, things get steadily more and more complicated. For example if the system is describable in shell-model terms, i.e., with a model space in which m particles are distributed over N single-particle states, then as long as m << N, the dimensionality increases rapidly with particle number. On the other hand, for the usual (1 + 2)-body Hamiltonian, the (m greater than or equal to 2)-particle spectrum and wave functions are determined by operators defined in the one-particle space (for the single-particle energies) and the two-particle space (for the interactions). We may say then that the input information becomes more and more fragmented as the particle number increases, the fixed amount of information being distributed over more and more matrix elements. On the other hand there arise also new simplicities whose origin is connected with the operation of statistical laws. There is a macroscopic simplicity corresponding to the fact that the smoothed spectrum takes on a characteristic shape defined by a few parameters (low-order moments) of the spectrum. There is a microscopic simplicity corresponding to a remarkable spectral rigidity which extends over the entire spectrum and guarantees us that the fluctuations from uniformity in the spectrum are small and in many cases carry little information. The purpose of spectral-distribution theory, as applied to these problems, is to deal with the complexities by taking advantage of the simplicities

  8. Spectral monitoring of AB Aur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Díaz, L. F.; Oostra, B.

    2017-07-01

    The Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá, Colombia, did a spectral monitoring during 2014 and 2015 to AB Aurigae, the brightest Herbig Ae/be star in the northern hemisphere. The aim of this project is applying spectral techniques, in order to identify specific features that could help us not only to understand how this star is forming, but also to establish a pattern to explain general star formation processes. We have recorded 19 legible spectra with a resolving power of R = 11,0000, using a 40 cm Meade telescope with an eShel spectrograph, coupled by a 50-micron optical fiber. We looked for the prominent absorption lines, the Sodium doublet at 5890Å and 5896Å, respectively and Magnesium II at 4481Å; to measure radial velocities of the star, but, we did not find a constant value. Instead, it ranges from 15 km/s to 32 km/s. This variability could be explained by means of an oscillation or pulsation of the external layers of the star. Other variabilities are observed in some emission lines: Hα, Hβ, He I at 5876Å and Fe II at 5018Å. It seems this phenomenon could be typical in stars that are forming and have a circumstellar disk around themselves. This variability is associated with the nonhomogeneous surface of the star and the interaction that it has with its disk. Results of this interaction could be seen also in the stellar wind ejected by the star. More data are required in order to look for a possible period in the changes of radial velocity of the star, the same for the variability of He I and Fe II, and phenomena present in Hα. We plan to take new data in January of 2017.

  9. Buckling feedback of the spectral calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Xingqing; Shan Wenzhi; Luo Jingyu

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the problems about buckling feedback of spectral calculations in physical calculations of the reactor and presents a useful method by which the buckling feedback of spectral calculations is implemented. The effect of the buckling feedback in spectra and the broad group cross section, convergence of buckling feedback iteration and the effect of the spectral zones dividing are discussed in the calculations. This method has been used for the physical design of HTR-10 MW Test Module

  10. Spectrally-engineered solar thermal photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David; Chan, Walker; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.; Nam, Young Suk; McEnaney, Kenneth; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-27

    A solar thermal photovoltaic device, and method of forming same, includes a solar absorber and a spectrally selective emitter formed on either side of a thermally conductive substrate. The solar absorber is configured to absorb incident solar radiation. The solar absorber and the spectrally selective emitter are configured with an optimized emitter-to-absorber area ratio. The solar thermal photovoltaic device also includes a photovoltaic cell in thermal communication with the spectrally selective emitter. The spectrally selective emitter is configured to permit high emittance for energies above a bandgap of the photovoltaic cell and configured to permit low emittance for energies below the bandgap.

  11. Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin FEM: Spectral Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, R; Omidi, O; Clarke, P L

    2014-01-01

    Materials in nature demonstrate certain spectral shapes in terms of their material properties. Since successful experimental demonstrations in 2000, metamaterials have provided a means to engineer materials with desired spectral shapes for their material properties. Computational tools are employed in two different aspects for metamaterial modeling: 1. Mircoscale unit cell analysis to derive and possibly optimize material's spectral response; 2. macroscale to analyze their interaction with conventional material. We compare two different approaches of Time-Domain (TD) and Frequency Domain (FD) methods for metamaterial applications. Finally, we discuss advantages of the TD method of Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (FEM) for spectral analysis of metamaterials

  12. Spectral features in the cosmic ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipari, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    The cosmic ray energy distributions contain spectral features, that is narrow energy regions where the slope of the spectrum changes rapidly. The identification and study of these features is of great importance to understand the astrophysical mechanisms of acceleration and propagation that form the spectra. In first approximation a spectral feature is often described as a discontinuous change in slope, however very valuable information is also contained in its width, that is the length of the energy interval where the change in spectral index develops. In this work we discuss the best way to define and parameterize the width a spectral feature, and for illustration discuss some of the most prominent known structures.

  13. Food Thought Suppression: A Matched Comparison of Obese Individuals with and without Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies of non-clinical samples suggest that purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, referred to as food thought suppression, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in obese individuals. Despite possible implications for the treatment of obesity and eating disorders, little research has examined food thought suppression in obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED). This study compared food thought suppression in 60...

  14. Endoscopic hyperspectral imaging: light guide optimization for spectral light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Craig M.; Mayes, Samuel; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2018-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a technology used in remote sensing, food processing and documentation recovery. Recently, this approach has been applied in the medical field to spectrally interrogate regions of interest within respective substrates. In spectral imaging, a two (spatial) dimensional image is collected, at many different (spectral) wavelengths, to sample spectral signatures from different regions and/or components within a sample. Here, we report on the use of hyperspectral imaging for endoscopic applications. Colorectal cancer is the 3rd leading cancer for incidences and deaths in the US. One factor of severity is the miss rate of precancerous/flat lesions ( 65% accuracy). Integrating HSI into colonoscopy procedures could minimize misdiagnosis and unnecessary resections. We have previously reported a working prototype light source with 16 high-powered light emitting diodes (LEDs) capable of high speed cycling and imaging. In recent testing, we have found our current prototype is limited by transmission loss ( 99%) through the multi-furcated solid light guide (lightpipe) and the desired framerate (20-30 fps) could not be achieved. Here, we report on a series of experimental and modeling studies to better optimize the lightpipe and the spectral endoscopy system as a whole. The lightpipe was experimentally evaluated using an integrating sphere and spectrometer (Ocean Optics). Modeling the lightpipe was performed using Monte Carlo optical ray tracing in TracePro (Lambda Research Corp.). Results of these optimization studies will aid in manufacturing a revised prototype with the newly designed light guide and increased sensitivity. Once the desired optical output (5-10 mW) is achieved then the HIS endoscope system will be able to be implemented without adding onto the procedure time.

  15. Ion spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferradas, C.; Zhang, J.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades several missions have recorded the presence of dynamic spectral features of energetic ions in the inner magnetosphere. Previous studies have reported single "nose-like" structures occurring alone and simultaneous nose-like structures (up to three). These ion structures are named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. They constitute the observational signatures of ion acceleration, transport, and loss in the global magnetosphere. The HOPE mass spectrometer onboard the Van Allen Probes measures energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet, where these ion structures are observed. We present a statistical study of nose-like structures, using 2-years measurements from the HOPE instrument. The results provide important details about the spatial distribution (dependence on geocentric distance), spectral features of the structures (differences among species), and geomagnetic conditions under which these structures occur.

  16. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ˜14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  17. Extraction of neutron spectral information from Bonner-Sphere data

    CERN Document Server

    Haney, J H; Zaidins, C S

    1999-01-01

    We have extended a least-squares method of extracting neutron spectral information from Bonner-Sphere data which was previously developed by Zaidins et al. (Med. Phys. 5 (1978) 42). A pulse-height analysis with background stripping is employed which provided a more accurate count rate for each sphere. Newer response curves by Mares and Schraube (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 366 (1994) 461) were included for the moderating spheres and the bare detector which comprise the Bonner spectrometer system. Finally, the neutron energy spectrum of interest was divided using the philosophy of fuzzy logic into three trapezoidal regimes corresponding to slow, moderate, and fast neutrons. Spectral data was taken using a PuBe source in two different environments and the analyzed data is presented for these cases as slow, moderate, and fast neutron fluences. (author)

  18. High spectral resolution infrared observations of V1057 Cygni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.; Kenyon, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    High-resolution near-infrared spectra of V1057 Cygni obtained in 1986 with the KPNO 4-m Fourier transform spectrometer provide support for a previously proposed accretion disk model. The model predicts that the observed rotational broadening of spectral lines should be smaller in the infrared than in the optical. The present observations show that V1057 Cyg rotates more slowly at 2.3 microns than at 6000 A by an amount quantitatively consistent with the simple disk models. The absence of any radial velocity variations in either the infrared or optical spectral regions supports the suggestion that the accreted material arises from a remnant disk of protostellar material. 19 references

  19. The Relationships among Calling, Religiousness, and Dysfunctional Career Thoughts in Public University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Stefanie Josephine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among calling, religiousness, and dysfunctional career thoughts. Though the cognitive processes in the career decision-making process have been a focus of research in recent years, the relationship between career thoughts and calling has only been studied once and career thoughts'…

  20. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Self-Reported Thoughts of Self-Harm and Suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althoff, R.R.; Hudziak, J.J.; Willemsen, G.; Hudziak, V.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2012-01-01

    Thoughts of self-harm and suicidal behavior are thought to be influenced by both genetics and environment. Molecular genetic studies are beginning to address the question of which genes may be involved and whether different genes may be expressed in men and women. We examined thoughts of self-harm

  1. A diagnostic dilemma: Left-sided appendicitis in a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Left sided acute appendicitis is a diagnostic dilemma, thus often leading to management delays. It is pertinent to remember that malrotation of the gut is more common than previously thought, and not just a disease of infancy. It is advisable to consider imaging studies while balancing the risk-benefit-ratio of radiation exposure, especially in paediatric cases to cinch the diagnosis.

  2. Spectrally adapted red flare tracers with superior spectral performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sadek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of bright light, with vivid color, is the primary purpose of signaling, illuminating devices, and fire control purposes. This study, reports on the development of red flame compositions with enhanced performance in terms of luminous intensity, and color quality. The light intensity and the imprint spectra of developed red flame compositions to standard NATO red tracer (R-284 NATO were measured using digital luxmeter, and UV–Vis. spectrometer. The main giving of this study is that the light intensity of standard NATO red tracer was increased by 72%, the color quality was also improved by 60% (over the red band from 650 to 780 nm. This enhanced spectral performance was achieved by means of deriving the combustion process to maximize the formation of red color emitting species in the combustion flame. Thanks to the optimum ratio of color source to color intensifier using aluminum metal fuel; this approach offered the highest intensity and color quality. Upon combustion, aluminum was found to maximize the formation SrCL (the main reactive red color emitting species and to minimize the interfering incandescent emission resulted from MgO and SrO. Quantification of active red color emitting species in the combustion flame was conducted using chemical equilibrium thermodynamic code named ICT. The improvement in red flare performance, established the rule that the color intensifier should be in the range from 10 to 15 Wt % of the total composition.

  3. Spectral analysis of full field digital mammography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, John J.; Velthuizen, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    The spectral content of mammograms acquired from using a full field digital mammography (FFDM) system are analyzed. Fourier methods are used to show that the FFDM image power spectra obey an inverse power law; in an average sense, the images may be considered as 1/f fields. Two data representations are analyzed and compared (1) the raw data, and (2) the logarithm of the raw data. Two methods are employed to analyze the power spectra (1) a technique based on integrating the Fourier plane with octave ring sectioning developed previously, and (2) an approach based on integrating the Fourier plane using rings of constant width developed for this work. Both methods allow theoretical modeling. Numerical analysis indicates that the effects due to the transformation influence the power spectra measurements in a statistically significant manner in the high frequency range. However, this effect has little influence on the inverse power law estimation for a given image regardless of the data representation or the theoretical analysis approach. The analysis is presented from two points of view (1) each image is treated independently with the results presented as distributions, and (2) for a given representation, the entire image collection is treated as an ensemble with the results presented as expected values. In general, the constant ring width analysis forms the foundation for a spectral comparison method for finding spectral differences, from an image distribution sense, after applying a nonlinear transformation to the data. The work also shows that power law estimation may be influenced due to the presence of noise in the higher frequency range, which is consistent with the known attributes of the detector efficiency. The spectral modeling and inverse power law determinations obtained here are in agreement with that obtained from the analysis of digitized film-screen images presented previously. The form of the power spectrum for a given image is approximately 1/f 2

  4. Spectral evolution of GRBs with negative spectral lag using Fermi GBM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arundhati; Chaudhury, Kishor; Sarkar, Samir K.; Bhadra, Arunava

    2018-06-01

    The positive spectral lag of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) is often explained in terms of hard-to-soft spectral evolution of GRB pulses. While positive lags of GRBs is very common, there are few GRB pulses that exhibits negative spectral lags. In the present work we examine whether negative lags of GRBs also can be interpreted in terms of spectral evolution of GRB pulses or not. Using Fermi-GBM data, we identify two GRBs, GRB 090426C and GRB 150213A, with clean pulses that exhibit negative spectral lag. An indication of soft to hard transition has been noticed for the negative spectral lag events from the spectral evolution study. The implication of the present findings on the models of GRB spectral lags are discussed.

  5. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  6. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  7. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  8. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  9. The Birth and Death of Tragedy in Nietzsche's thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S TA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Nietzsche, one of the most influential and thoughtful philosopher in the 19th century, in an attempt to reassess values, finds himself in confrontation with accepted ideas of the modern world. Therefore, in his critical review, in order to reform and revive the modern civilization and culture, he writes his first book, i.e. The Birth of Tragedy. His various intentions in this book are as following: a cultural concerns and saving the culture of his age from nihilism and the danger of falling apart, b reassessing values, c showing the opposition of Christianity and conceptual philosophy of Socrates with the nature of life, Dionysus element as well as the desire to live, d aesthetic interpretation of living and being and e viewing life from the perspective of art. Nietzsche considers the last two cases as the special features of Greek's tragic art and praises Greek's tragic age for such perspective. He admires ancient Greeks as well as their culture and thought because they are the creators of tragic art and through such creation as well as by considering Dionysus element they accepted life with all of its good and bad aspects. Nietzsche discusses two fundamental concepts of birth and death of tragedy as well. However, he views the birth and death of tragedy in two different ways a in a particular age, Greek tragedy emerged from Greek culture and became an influential factor in the development of that nation’s culture but died later on, b Nietzsche's hope in the re-emergence of Greek tragic art in the modern world lies in Wagner's music which died, too. In his view, the factors behind the death of tragedy are as following: the Socrates' conceptual philosophy and Euripides' plays, Christianity and ethicality as well as modern dialectic and Wagner himself. This article, first, tries to study Nietzsche’s important intentions in writing The Birth of Tragedy and explain such birth in the first sense emphasizing the interpretation of

  10. SOME PROBLEMS OF COMPARATIVE ONTOLOGY – EUROPEAN AND BUDDHISTS THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Kurpiewski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper supplies an introduction to the systematic comparative analysis of European and Buddhist (mainly from mahâyana tradition philosophies. It elaborates the subject with a general approach as well as expounds individual philosophical views, including Polishthinkers. What seems important, is to stress the need for such intercultural approach in contemporary way of philosophizing, it is a way to widen philosophy itself. Comparative research may be successful only if we try to avoid approach to the questionsdiscussed only from the opacity of one tradition, points of view of both sides should be taken into account. One of important method of such comparative approach is then to expound likeness and differences between the subjects analyzed, differences seems to be more important. More refined and advanced research incorporates interconnected relations: differences among what is similar and similarities among the differences.An analysis of philosophical questions themselves starts with the problems: (1 In what sense we may speak about Buddhist ontology. On one side, there are sufficient reasons to relate this concept to the Buddhist philosophy, on the another, it should be widened, comparing to European thought. (2 Does soteriological metaphysics is still metaphysics?A strict, actual comparative research takes into account such questions as: dharma theory and philosophy of being (to on; mind, consciousness in Buddhism and in phenomenology; emptiness (oeûnyatâ versus being (to on and non-being (to me on; ultimate reality; philosophy of dependent arising (pratîtyasamutpâda in opposition to philosophy of being; two truths (satyadvaya; problem of existence in both traditions. Comparisons are summed up with two kinds of conclusions. Methodological ones point at the significance of hermeneutics for better understanding of Buddhist thought. Content-related ones reveal, first of all, directional differences – so to speak – of both traditions

  11. Thought about ICRP TG84 report. What beyond it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Ohtsura

    2013-01-01

    Explained was the ICRP TG84 Report (Report of ICRP Task Group 84 on Initial Lessons Learned from the Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan vis-a-vis the ICRP System of Radiological Protection: Issues Identified from the NPP Accident in Japan and Recommendations to Improve the System of Radiation Protection; presented in October, 2012), together with author's thought about it. The Report contained 18 items and their related proposals: Inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients), Attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures, Quantifying radiation exposure, Assessing the importance of internal exposures, Managing emergency crisis, Protecting rescuers and volunteers, Responding with medical aid, Justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions, Transiting from an emergency to an existing situation, Rehabilitating evacuated areas, Categorizing public exposures due to an accident, Restricting individual doses of members of the public, Caring for infants and children, Considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos, Monitoring public protection, Dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues, and consumer products, Recognizing the importance of psychological consequences, and Fostering the sharing of information. The Report also contained 11 Recommendations of actions for the Commission to take. The author had been installed as the Chair of Radiation Council in February, 2011, just before the Accident in March, and had had to concern the definition of various post-Accident dose limits in Japan, having had often faced the inefficiency of measures. He thought the ICRP protecting system was difficult to understand due to 2 reasons: one was that the system had been written aiming at experts of radiological protection and the other, that the system had been composed not only from science but also from an incorporated standard of social values, which resulted in inconsiderateness to the general

  12. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  13. Cognitive Defusion versus Thought Distraction: A Clinical Rationale, Training, and Experiential Exercise in Altering Psychological Impacts of Negative Self-Referential Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Wendell, Johanna W.; Sheehan, Shawn T.

    2010-01-01

    Using two modes of intervention delivery, the present study compared the effects of a cognitive defusion strategy with a thought distraction strategy on the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts. One mode of intervention delivery consisted of a clinical rationale and training (i.e., Partial condition). The…

  14. Spectral affinity in protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voevodski, Konstantin; Teng, Shang-Hua; Xia, Yu

    2009-11-29

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to quickly find nodes closest to a queried vertex in any protein

  15. Spectral affinity in protein networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Shang-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI networks enable us to better understand the functional organization of the proteome. We can learn a lot about a particular protein by querying its neighborhood in a PPI network to find proteins with similar function. A spectral approach that considers random walks between nodes of interest is particularly useful in evaluating closeness in PPI networks. Spectral measures of closeness are more robust to noise in the data and are more precise than simpler methods based on edge density and shortest path length. Results We develop a novel affinity measure for pairs of proteins in PPI networks, which uses personalized PageRank, a random walk based method used in context-sensitive search on the Web. Our measure of closeness, which we call PageRank Affinity, is proportional to the number of times the smaller-degree protein is visited in a random walk that restarts at the larger-degree protein. PageRank considers paths of all lengths in a network, therefore PageRank Affinity is a precise measure that is robust to noise in the data. PageRank Affinity is also provably related to cluster co-membership, making it a meaningful measure. In our experiments on protein networks we find that our measure is better at predicting co-complex membership and finding functionally related proteins than other commonly used measures of closeness. Moreover, our experiments indicate that PageRank Affinity is very resilient to noise in the network. In addition, based on our method we build a tool that quickly finds nodes closest to a queried protein in any protein network, and easily scales to much larger biological networks. Conclusion We define a meaningful way to assess the closeness of two proteins in a PPI network, and show that our closeness measure is more biologically significant than other commonly used methods. We also develop a tool, accessible at http://xialab.bu.edu/resources/pnns, that allows the user to

  16. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  17. The contribution of thought-action fusion and thought suppression in the development of obsession-like intrusions in normal participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E

    2001-09-01

    Both thought-action fusion (TAF: i.e., a cognitive bias implying an inflated sense of responsibility for one's own thoughts) and thought suppression have been claimed to contribute to the development of obsession-like intrusions. Therefore, it seems plausible that conjunction of these phenomena results in highly intense intrusions. However, possible interactions between TAF and thought suppression have not yet been investigated experimentally. In the current study, healthy volunteers were exposed to a TAF-like intrusion. They were, then, randomly assigned to a suppression (n=21) or non-suppression condition (n=19). Next, visual analogue scales (VASs) were completed measuring anxiety, feelings of responsibility and guilt, urge to neutralise and so on. Contrary to expectation, several VAS scores were lower for participants in the suppression group than for those in the non-suppression group. Hence, it is concluded that thought suppression may, at least in the short term, alleviate discomfort caused by TAF-like intrusions.

  18. Investigation of physics thought experiments’ effects on students’ logical problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Elif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, investigation of physics thought experiments’ effects on students’ logical problem-solving skills in collaborative groups. In this context, it was requested to undergraduate students who have taken General Physics I and General Physics II to develop thought experiments in order to solve daily life problems. At the next stage, students’ thought experiments were classified according to common issues in cooperative groups and were asked to try to solve the problems by using thought experiments’ process from each group. As a result of this study; students’ thought experiments related to daily life were developed and problem solving processes have been presented in detail.

  19. Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. PMID:23751246

  20. Examining the relationship between food thought suppression and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Delay and death-thought accessibility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Christopher T; Updegraff, John A

    2015-12-01

    The dual-process component of Terror Management Theory (TMT) proposes that different types of threats lead to increases in death-thought accessibility (DTA) after different delay intervals. Experimental studies of terror management threats' effect on DTA were collected and coded for their use of explicitly death-related (vs. not explicitly death-related) threats, and for their use of delay and task-switching during the delay. Results reveal that studies using death-related threats achieved larger DTA effect-sizes when they included more task-switching or a longer delay between the threat and the DTA measurement. In contrast, studies using threats that were not explicitly death-related achieved smaller DTA effect-sizes when they included more task-switching between the threat and the DTA measurement. These findings provide partial support for the dual-process component's predictions regarding delay and DTA. Limitations and future directions are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Book citations: influence of epidemiologic thought in the academic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porta Miquel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Whilst their 'death' has often been certified, books remain highly important to most professions and academic disciplines. Analyses of citations received by epidemiologic texts may complement other views on epidemiology. The objective was to assess the number of citations received by some books of epidemiology and public health, as a first step towards studying the influence of epidemiological thought and thinking in academia. For this purpose, Institute for Scientific Information/ Thomson Scientific - Web of Science/ Web of Knowledgedatabase was consulted, in May 2006. The book by Rothman & Greenland appeared to have received the highest number of citations overall (over 8,000 and per year. The books by Kleinbaum et al, and by Breslow & Day received around 5,000 citations. In terms of citations per year the book by Sackett et al ranks 3rd, and the one by Rose, 4th of those included in this preliminary study. Other books which were influential in the classrooms collected comparatively less citations. Results offer a rich picture of the academic influences and trends of epidemiologic methods and reasoning on public health, clinical medicine and the other health, life and social sciences. They may contribute to assess epidemiologists' efforts to demarcate epidemiology and to assert epistemic authority, and to analyze some historical influences of economic, social and political forces on epidemiological research.

  3. Formal thought disorder, neuropsychology and insight in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Alvaro; McKenna, Peter J; Berrios, German E

    2009-01-01

    Information provided by patients with schizophrenia and their respective carers is used to study the descriptive psychopathology and neuropsychology of formal thought disorder (FTD). Relatively intellectually preserved schizophrenia patients (n = 31) exhibiting from no to severe positive FTD completed a self-report scale of FTD, a scale of insight as well as several tests of executive and semantic function. The patients' carers completed another scale of FTD to assess the patients' speech. FTD as self-reported by patients was significantly associated with the synonyms test performance and severity of the reality distortion dimension. FTD as assessed by a clinician and by the patients' carers was significantly associated with executive test performance and performance in a test of associative semantics. Overall insight was significantly associated with severity of the reality distortion dimension and graded naming test performance, but was not associated with self-reported FTD or severity of FTD as assessed by the clinician or carers. The self-reported experience of FTD has different clinical and neuropsychological correlates from those of FTD as assessed by clinicians and carers. The assessment of FTD by patients and carers used along with the clinician's assessment may further the study of this group of symptoms. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Thoughts on environmental actinide research-future and present situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2002-01-01

    Thoughts on environmental actinides, especially transuranium elements, are presented with emphasis on present situation and future researches. It is since 1945 that man has been in direct relationship to the significant quantities of such transuranium elements, although Pu was discovered in 1942 to exist in very small quantities in nature. Substantial amounts of these elements (Np, Pu, Am) have been distributed in the environment mainly as the result of nuclear weapon testing, followed by accident of satellite and release of radioactive substances from nuclear facilities. Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident might serve as a most recent example of such release. Considerable efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the processes involved in the transfer of radionuclides in the environment and how these can be influenced. And, many data (levels and distribution) and knowledge to understand these processes have been obtained and accumulated. The final purpose in all the research was the protection of the human being. The present trends for environmental radioactivity research (or radioecology) involves a further development of models, speciation of radionuclides, tracer studies and countermeasures of other species than man in radiological protection. Joint researches between radioecologists and specialists such as meteorology, oceanography, geology, botany, statistics and so on are more and more needed to make one of the most fascinating environmental sciences. Finally, an effort should be made to develop radioecology into a more hypothesis-oriented science, as mentioned by Platt. (author)

  5. Visual perspective in remembering and episodic future thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathleen B; Wooldridge, Cynthia L; Rice, Heather J; Berg, Jeffrey J; Szpunar, Karl K

    2016-01-01

    According to the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis, remembering and episodic future thinking are supported by a common set of constructive processes. In the present study, we directly addressed this assertion in the context of third-person perspectives that arise during remembering and episodic future thought. Specifically, we examined the frequency with which participants remembered past events or imagined future events from third-person perspectives. We also examined the different viewpoints from which third-person perspective events were remembered or imagined. Although future events were somewhat more likely to be imagined from a third-person perspective, the spatial viewpoint distributions of third-person perspectives characterizing remembered and imagined events were highly similar. These results suggest that a similar constructive mechanism may be at work when people remember events from a perspective that could not have been experienced in the past and when they imagine events from a perspective that could not be experienced in the future. The findings are discussed in terms of their consistency with--and as extensions of--the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis.

  6. Wittgenstein's personality and his relations with Freud's thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Mauro

    2002-02-01

    In this contribution the author examines the connections between Wittgenstein's personality and his attitude to Freud's psychoanalytic theories in the light of biographies of the philosopher, published exchanges of letters between him and his sisters, his 'secret' diaries from the time of the First World War, his diaries from the nineteen-thirties and the writings in which he discusses Freud and psychoanalysis. The paper quotes liberally from all these sources. Following an account of Wittgenstein's cultural and family background in Vienna and his subsequent peripatetic life, hypotheses are presented concerning his personality, sexuality and 'internal' theology, together with some ideas about his relationship with his family (in particular, his parents and sisters) and his critique of Freud's theories, with particular reference to dreams and their interpretation. Wittgenstein emerges as a highly original philosopher who is, however, emotionally disturbed and restless. His personality is found to have narcissistic aspects that moulded his behaviour and thought, and the author contends that his mental suffering caused him to apply psychological and psychoanalytic categories to his philosophy.

  7. Some thoughts on nuclear cooperation in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaloeis, Azhar

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes some thoughts of the author on the importance of the role of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region in giving significant contributions to the development of the individual countries and to the region as a whole. The paper focuses on the role of nuclear science and technology and the importance of nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, in particular to meet the challenges and opportunities in the new millennium. The paper starts off with a brief discussion on some important aspects of the Asia-Pacific region in view of its strategic location and its vast potential in terms of human and natural resources. Some of the major needs, challenges and opportunities in association with a future vision are briefly presented in terms of areas of activities that can be supported by the application of nuclear science and technology. The paper then discusses some ideas on how to further strengthen the nuclear cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, followed by some concluding remarks and suggestions. (author)

  8. Does the thought count? Gratitude understanding in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelker, Katelyn E; Kuebli, Janet E

    2014-01-01

    Gratitude, although studied throughout history by scholars from diverse backgrounds, has been largely understudied in psychology until recently. The psychological literature on gratitude is expanding, but it is still particularly limited with children. The authors compared younger (first- and second-grade students; n = 30) and older (fourth- and fifth-grade students; n = 27) children on gratitude-related ratings surrounding gift giving vignettes that included either a desirable (e.g., a birthday cupcake) or an undesirable (e.g., a melted ice cream cone) gift. Empathy was also measured. Hierarchical regressions revealed different patterns of predictors for desirable and undesirable gifts. For desirable gifts, liking significantly predicted gratitude and liking predicted effort. For undesirable gifts, older children and those who perceived the target as liking the gift more predicted higher gratitude ratings. Finally, higher gratitude rating predicted both higher ratings of giver effort (i.e., intention or how hard did the giver try to give a nice gift) and liking of the undesirable gifts. More research on children's understanding of gratitude is needed but these results suggest that school-aged children take into account givers' intentions and thoughts behind gift giving in determining feelings of gratitude. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

  9. Spirituality in the Philosophical Thought of Seyyed Hossein Nasr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Khunaeni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality for Seyyed Hossen Nasr is an inner reality that becomes a religious central in Islam. It is the esoteric dimension hidden in the reality of exoteric Islam. That view on spirituality brings Nasr to the philosophical thought that cannot be separated from religious metaphysical doctrine. Nasr argues that philosophy is more than just a ratio but also the activity of intellect that can reach the meta-cosmic nature to find the essence of truth namely the universal and eternal truth that lies behind the physical and relative truth. The philosophical efforts to find this truth are a combination of the optimizing potential of reason and intellectual intuition. Nasr refers to ḥikmah or wisdom as a kind of philosophy that combines logic and intellectual intuition. That philosophical view brings Nasr on a dualistic view of nature which not only has a cosmic dimension as such but also has a meta-cosmic dimension. This dualistic view is his fundamental reason in formulating the concept of metaphysical cosmology as a solution to the crisis of modern science that has caused a variety of ecological damage due to the secular vision.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i2.812

  10. Being thought from beyond our borders: Towards ethical global citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to the challenge of global citizenship in an age of global crisis. Citizenship has to do with where one feels �at home�, namely the space that gifts identity and life. What kind of narrative is necessary to transform global space into a home from where we can go beyond our borders to embrace the other in multidisciplinary research or interfaith praxis? The different models for multidisciplinary research are made possible by the idea that research seeks that which is beyond its borders. This search could be a common space where the different traditions can accommodate one another, but it is not a home. The dominant discourse of this common space is to seek commonality and identities across borders while being aware of but ignoring differences � identity at the expense of differences. A home founded on identity at the expense of difference will always exclude. Theology can either be interpreted as thinking beyond the borders toward the Divine, or the Divine thinking us. The Exodus, the Incarnation and the Cross are all narratives of the Other crossing borders, liberating from boundaries, deconstructing the laws and norms that exclude. The religious traditions of these sacred narratives have something to offer, namely: to be thought by the Other, to receive life and (alien identity from the Other, the gift of a home which is continuously deconstructed by the home still to come, therefore always open for the Other.

  11. A sharing in critical thought by nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks-Thomas, J; Patterson, E

    1995-09-01

    A critical analysis of nurse education programmes has revealed an overt and covert curriculum; the overt being the one underpinned by values which espouse humanism and critical thought; the covert being the one which reflects the patriarchal system and is directed by a means-end rationality. In response to this dilemma the 'curriculum revolution' mandate for change, which occurred in the latter half of the last decade, called for nurse educators to unveil, understand and criticize the assumptions and values which guided their practice, so that they, and consequently their students, could be more responsive to the needs of society, value subjective experience, acknowledge theoretical pluralism, and share an egalitarian relationship. This paper explores the formation of a 'critical collective' of nurse academics who came together believing that, 'if you always do what you've always done, you'll always get what you've already got'. The major concern of this collective was to facilitate change within their work environment, through the development of strategies, so that the ideas of the 'revolution' were not lost to the mere rhetoric of curriculum documents.

  12. Islamic Political Thought between Justice Value and the State Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed As-Sirri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the relationship between state structure and the implementing of justice in the Islamic society. The shift from caliphate system to the system of royal system starting from the Umayyad Dynasty (41-132 AH / 661-750 AD made the issue of social justice highly urgent. The main question discussed was : Is there a relationship between state structure and achieving social justice? To answer this question the paper reviews the relationship between religious authorities and political authorities in the main periods of Islamic history. Based on these relations as well as the intellectual product known as the “Heritage of Islamic Political Thought”, we concluded that the classical structure of Islamic state didn’t assure the implementing of justice. In light of the forgoing idea we could also conclude that the political islamic thought used today in context of “Arab spring” does not support the aspirations of building a modern state that assures the implementing of justice as well as variety of social, cultural and political rights.

  13. Active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation (SINDE) camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simova, E.; Rochefort, P.A., E-mail: eli.simova@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    A proof-of-concept video camera for active spectral imaging nondestructive evaluation has been demonstrated. An active multispectral imaging technique has been implemented in the visible and near infrared by using light emitting diodes with wavelengths spanning from 400 to 970 nm. This shows how the camera can be used in nondestructive evaluation to inspect surfaces and spectrally identify materials and corrosion. (author)

  14. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, Boguslaw [University of Lodz, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Lodz (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances). (orig.)

  15. Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....

  16. The X-Shooter spectral library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y. P.; Trager, S. C.; Peletier, R. F.; Lançon, A.; Prugniel, Ph.; Koleva, M.

    2012-01-01

    We are building a new spectral library with the X-Shooter instrument on ESO's VLT: XSL, the X-Shooter Spectral Library. We present our progress in building XSL, which covers the wavelength range from the near-UV to the near-IR with a resolution of R˜10000. As of now we have collected spectra for

  17. Stellar Spectral Classification with Locality Preserving Projections ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the help of computer tools and algorithms, automatic stellar spectral classification has become an area of current interest. The process of stellar spectral classification mainly includes two steps: dimension reduction and classification. As a popular dimensionality reduction technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) ...

  18. A Spectral Emissivity Library of Spoil Substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivovarník, Marek; Pikl, Miroslav; Frouz, J.; Zemek, František; Kopačková, V.; Notesco, G.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2016) E-ISSN 2306-5729 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : post-mining sites * spectral emissivity * spectral library * spoil substrates Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  19. Spectral Methods in Numerical Plasma Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Hansen, F.R.; Huld, T.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the use of spectral methods in numerical plasma simulation. As examples of the use of spectral methods, solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations in both a simple, doubly periodic region, and on an annulus will be shown. In the first case, the solution is expanded...

  20. Spectral Compressive Sensing with Polar Interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten; Dadkhahi, Hamid; F. Duarte, Marco

    2013-01-01

    . In this paper, we introduce a greedy recovery algorithm that leverages a band-exclusion function and a polar interpolation function to address these two issues in spectral compressive sensing. Our algorithm is geared towards line spectral estimation from compressive measurements and outperforms most existing...

  1. Spectral concentration in the nonrelativistic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Grosse, H.; Thaller, B.

    1982-01-01

    First order relativistic corrections to the Schroedinger operator according to Foldy and Wouthuysen are rigorously discussed in the framework of singular perturbation theory. For Coulomb plus short-range interactions we investigate the corresponding spectral properties and prove spectral concentration and existence of first order pseudoeigenvalues in the nonrelativistic limit. (Author)

  2. Spectral functions of hadrons in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Y.; Asakawa, M.; Hatsuda, T.

    2000-01-01

    Using the maximum entropy method, spectral functions of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons are extracted from lattice Monte Carlo data of the imaginary time Green's functions. The resonance and continuum structures as well as the ground state peaks are successfully obtained. Error analysis of the resultant spectral functions is also given on the basis of the Bayes probability theory. (author)

  3. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  4. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  5. Spectral analysis of bedform dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Noormets, Riko

    Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods for the an....... The proposed method overcomes the above mentioned problems of common descriptive analysis as it is an objective and straightforward mathematical process. The spectral decomposition of superimposed dunes allows a detailed description and analysis of dune patterns and migration.......Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods...... allows the application of a procedure, which has been a standard for the analysis of water waves for long times: The bathymetric signal of a cross-section of subaquatic compound dunes is approximated by the sum of a set of harmonic functions, derived by Fourier transformation. If the wavelength...

  6. Spectral statistics of 'cellular' billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkin, Boris

    2011-01-01

    For a bounded domain Ω 0 subset of R 2 whose boundary contains a number of flat pieces Γ i , i = 1, ..., l we consider a family of non-symmetric billiards Ω constructed by patching several copies of Ω 0 along Γ i s. It is demonstrated that the length spectrum of the periodic orbits in Ω is degenerate with the multiplicities determined by a matrix group G. We study the energy spectrum of the corresponding quantum billiard problem in Ω and show that it can be split into a number of uncorrelated subspectra corresponding to a set of irreducible representations α of G. Assuming that the classical dynamics in Ω 0 are chaotic, we derive a semiclassical trace formula for each spectral component and show that their energy level statistics are the same as in standard random matrix ensembles. Depending on whether α is real, pseudo-real or complex, the spectrum has either Gaussian orthogonal, Gaussian symplectic or Gaussian unitary types of statistics, respectively

  7. Spectral Interferometry with Electron Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nahid

    2016-01-01

    Interference patterns are not only a defining characteristic of waves, but also have several applications; characterization of coherent processes and holography. Spatial holography with electron waves, has paved the way towards space-resolved characterization of magnetic domains and electrostatic potentials with angstrom spatial resolution. Another impetus in electron microscopy has been introduced by ultrafast electron microscopy which uses pulses of sub-picosecond durations for probing a laser induced excitation of the sample. However, attosecond temporal resolution has not yet been reported, merely due to the statistical distribution of arrival times of electrons at the sample, with respect to the laser time reference. This is however, the very time resolution which will be needed for performing time-frequency analysis. These difficulties are addressed here by proposing a new methodology to improve the synchronization between electron and optical excitations through introducing an efficient electron-driven photon source. We use focused transition radiation of the electron as a pump for the sample. Due to the nature of transition radiation, the process is coherent. This technique allows us to perform spectral interferometry with electron microscopes, with applications in retrieving the phase of electron-induced polarizations and reconstructing dynamics of the induced vector potential. PMID:27649932

  8. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.

    2001-10-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)

  9. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T c . The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64) 3 x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature

  10. Light distribution system comprising spectral conversion means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , longer wavelength,a spectral conversion characteristics of the spectral conversion fibre being essentially determined by the spectral absorption and emission properties of the photoluminescent agent, the amount of photo- luminescent agent,and the distribution of the photoluminescent agent in the spectral......System (200, 300) for the distribution of white light, having a supply side (201, 301, 401) and a delivery side (202, 302, 402), the system being configured for guiding light with a multitude of visible wavelengths in a propagation direction P from the supply side to the distribution side...... of providing a light distribution system and a method of correcting the spectral transmission characteristics of a light distribution system are disclosed....

  11. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S

    2002-03-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature.

  12. Meson spectral functions at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzorke, I.; Karsch, F.; Laermann, E.; Petreczky, P.; Stickan, S. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    2001-10-01

    The Maximum Entropy Method provides a Bayesian approach to reconstruct the spectral functions from discrete points in Euclidean time. The applicability of the approach at finite temperature is probed with the thermal meson correlation function. Furthermore the influence of fuzzing/smearing techniques on the spectral shape is investigated. We present first results for meson spectral functions at several temperatures below and above T{sub c}. The correlation functions were obtained from quenched calculations with Clover fermions on large isotropic lattices of the size (24 - 64){sup 3} x 16. We compare the resulting pole masses with the ones obtained from standard 2-exponential fits of spatial and temporal correlation functions at finite temperature and in the vacuum. The deviation of the meson spectral functions from free spectral functions is examined above the critical temperature. (orig.)

  13. Understanding of thought bubbles as mental representations in children with autism: implications for theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Sharyn; Durkin, Kevin

    2004-12-01

    Standard false belief tasks indicate that normally developing children do not fully develop a theory of mind until the age of 4 years and that children with autism have an impaired theory of mind. Recent evidence, however, suggests that children as young as 3 years of age understand that thought bubbles depict mental representations and that these can be false. Twelve normally developing children and 11 children with autism were tested on a standard false belief task and a number of tasks that employed thought bubbles to represent mental states. While the majority of normally developing children and children with autism failed the standard false belief task, they understood that (i) thought bubbles represent thought, (ii) thought bubbles can be used to infer an unknown reality, (iii) thoughts can be different, and (iv) thoughts can be false. These results indicate that autistic children with a relatively low verbal mental age may be capable of understanding mental representations.

  14. LT^2C^2: A language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Figueira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a theoretical effort to connect the theory of program size to psychology by implementing a concrete language of thought with Turing-computable Kolmogorov complexity (LT^2C^2 satisfying the following requirements: 1 to be simple enough so that the complexity of any given finite binary sequence can be computed, 2 to be based on tangible operations of human reasoning (printing, repeating,. . . , 3 to be sufficiently powerful to generate all possible sequences but not too powerful as to identify regularities which would be invisible to humans. We first formalize LT^2C^2, giving its syntax and semantics, and defining an adequate notion of program size. Our setting leads to a Kolmogorov complexity function relative to LT^2C^2 which is computable in polynomial time, and it also induces a prediction algorithm in the spirit of Solomonoff’s inductive inference theory. We then prove the efficacy of this language by investigating regularities in strings produced by participants attempting to generate random strings. Participants had a profound understanding of randomness and hence avoided typical misconceptions such as exaggerating the number of alternations. We reasoned that remaining regularities would express the algorithmic nature of human thoughts, revealed in the form of specific patterns. Kolmogorov complexity relative to LT^2C^2 passed three expected tests examined here: 1 human sequences were less complex than control PRNG sequences, 2 human sequences were not stationary showing decreasing values of complexity resulting from fatigue 3 each individual showed traces of algorithmic stability since fitting of partial data was more effective to predict subsequent data than average fits. This work extends on previous efforts to combine notions of Kolmogorov complexity theory and algorithmic information theory to psychology, by explicitly proposing a language which may describe the patterns of human thoughts.Received: 12

  15. Bakhtinian Thought and the Defence of Narrative: Overcoming Universalism and Relativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Owen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of recalcitrant global problems such as the prevalence of various levels and forms of inequality and increased environmental destruction, there is a growing recognition of the limitations, epistemological, political, social, cultural, ethical and ecological, of the modes of thought that have dominantly governed and continue to govern our worldview. The modernist project, despite various attempts to give voice to those previously denied, has come under criticism for tendencies to totalise experience and overlook or exclude differences. On the other hand, the postmodernist glorification of difference and tendency to isolate and fragment has generated a kind of debilitating uncertainty in the form of absolute relativism rendering any pursuit of meaning meaningless. Alongside the recognition of these limitations are attempts to overcome the negative effects of these modes of understanding and to create new ways of understanding ourselves, our relationship to others, human and non-human and to the larger world process in which we find ourselves. Despite the supposed opposition between the modern and postmodern projects, the two share in common the tendency to undermine another mode of understanding that by its very nature both precludes and succeeds them. The mode of understanding referred to is narrative understanding which has the potential to pave a middle way between modernity’s totalising exclusions and postmodernity’s fragmenting nihilism, furthermore when the narrative approach is seriously undertaken it becomes clear that the formerly polarised dominant modes of thought are part of a wider, more heterogeneous process. The following article examines and highlights in detail some of the problems surrounding the modern and postmodern modes of thought in order to demonstrate the usefulness of narrative theory in overcoming these problems. In order to augment the defence of narrative theory this article also draws considerably from

  16. Differences in clinical intrusive thoughts between obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Godoy-Ávila, Antonio; Gavino-Lázaro, Aurora; Freeston, Mark H

    2017-11-01

    Differences and similarities between intrusive thoughts typical of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis are relevant for their differential diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment. Previous research in non-clinical samples pointed out the relevance of some process variables, such as responsibility, guilt, or neutralization strategies. This research is aimed to investigate the differences and similarities between clinical obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions in some of these process variables. A second aim is to identify models based on these variables that could reliably differentiate between them. Three groups of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 35; 60% women, mean age 38.57), generalized anxiety disorder (n = 36; 61.1% women, mean age 41.50), and hypochondriasis (n = 34; 70.6% women, mean age 31.59) were evaluated using the Cognitive Intrusions Questionnaire-Transdiagnostic Version (Romero-Sanchiz, Nogueira-Arjona, Godoy-Ávila, Gavino-Lázaro, & Freeston, ). The results showed that some appraisals (e.g., responsibility or egodystonicity), emotions (e.g., guilt or insecurity), neutralization strategies, and other variables (e.g., verbal content or trigger from body sensation) are relevant for the discrimination between obsessions, worries, and illness intrusions. The results also showed 3 stable models based on these variables for the discrimination between these thoughts. The implication of these results in the diagnosis, formulation, and psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and hypochondriasis is discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Further Food for Thought on the "ABS Guide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper replies to points raised by the editors of the "ABS Guide", Huw Morris, Charles Harvey, Aidan Kelly and Michael Rowlinson (2011) "Accounting Education: an international journal", 20(6), pp. 561-573) in response to a paper published in a previous issue of "Accounting Education" (Hussain, S. (2011)…

  18. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  19. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  20. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.