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Sample records for previously reported long-lasting

  1. Ipilimumab in advanced melanoma: reports of long-lasting responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farolfi, Alberto; Ridolfi, Laura; Guidoboni, Massimo; Nicoletti, Stefania Vittoria Luisa; Piciucchi, Sara; Valmorri, Linda; Costantini, Matteo; Scarpi, Emanuela; Amadori, Dino; Ridolfi, Ruggero

    2012-06-01

    Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor prognosis; the results of chemotherapy remain unsatisfactory. Ipilimumab, an anticytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 antibody, has shown promising results in several clinical trials. In this report, advanced melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab were scored according to novel immune-related response criteria (irRC) in an attempt to capture additional response patterns and to avoid premature treatment cessation. Thirty-six heavily pretreated metastatic melanoma patients recieved ipilimumab within five international clinical trials at our Institution from May 2006 to August 2008. Disease progression was defined as an increase in tumor burden by at least 25% compared with the nadir, irrespective of any initial increase in baseline lesions or the appearance of new lesions. We report unusually long-lasting responses in patients treated with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg. An overall response was observed in six out of 30 patients (20%), a complete response in three (10%), and disease control in 11 (37%), which seemed to be of a long duration (median of 16 months; complete response 36+, 34+, and 41+ months). All irRC patterns seemed to be strongly associated with an improvement in overall survival. Interestingly, we found a correlation between the presence of a grade 3/4 immune-related adverse event and responses, time to progression, and overall survival. Ipilimumab therapy resulted in clinically meaningful responses in advanced melanoma patients, supporting the need for further irRC validation.

  2. Long lasting clinical response to chemotherapy for advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report.

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    Ridolfi, Claudio; Pasini, Giuseppe; Drudi, Fabrizio; Barzotti, Eleonora; Santelmo, Carlotta; Polselli, Antonio; Ravaioli, Alberto

    2013-01-24

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma is one of the most frequent uterine sarcomas. In the metastatic setting it is sensitive to doxorubicin, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, docetaxel and a few other drugs, but time to progression is generally short. For this reason prognosis is often poor and there are few reports in the literature of long responders. We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma who began treatment six years before the presentation of this case report and for the following six years underwent ten lines of chemotherapy, achieving excellent results and a good quality of life. Among the treatments administered we observed a long response to temolozomide, an unconventional drug for this kind of disease. Although there are few chemotherapeutic options for the management of metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma, a small number of patients have an unexpected long lasting response to treatment. For this reason further research is needed to identify new therapeutic agents and the predictive factors for the achievement of response.

  3. Long lasting clinical response to chemotherapy for advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridolfi Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Uterine leiomyosarcoma is one of the most frequent uterine sarcomas. In the metastatic setting it is sensitive to doxorubicin, ifosfamide, gemcitabine, docetaxel and a few other drugs, but time to progression is generally short. For this reason prognosis is often poor and there are few reports in the literature of long responders. Case presentation We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma who began treatment six years before the presentation of this case report and for the following six years underwent ten lines of chemotherapy, achieving excellent results and a good quality of life. Among the treatments administered we observed a long response to temolozomide, an unconventional drug for this kind of disease. Conclusion Although there are few chemotherapeutic options for the management of metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma, a small number of patients have an unexpected long lasting response to treatment. For this reason further research is needed to identify new therapeutic agents and the predictive factors for the achievement of response.

  4. Long-Lasting Response to Trabectedin in a Patient with Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria-Anna Nteli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS is a rare tumor that accounts for 1% of all uterine malignancies. In spite of adequate surgical resection of uLMS, even in the early stage, patients remain at high risk for local and distant recurrence. Therefore, the treatment of advanced uLMS represents a considerable challenge. Methods: We report the case of a 47-year-old woman who presented with uLMS with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Results: The patient underwent a total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy, which was followed by 1 year progression-free survival without adjuvant therapy. Thereafter, new lung metastases and local progression at the vaginal stump were observed. Chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin was administered. However, after 4 cycles, a CT scan revealed disease progression in the lung metastases. Subsequently, the patient was treated with trabectedin at a dose of 1.5 mg/m2 for 6 cycles resulting in complete remission of the lung metastases as well as partial remission of the mass in the vaginal stump after 9 cycles of trabectedin. The patient is currently on maintenance therapy with trabectedin and has no recurrence. Conclusion: Trabectedin seems to be an efficient option for patients with uLMS as demonstrated by a long-lasting response in a pretreated patient with an acceptable safety profile with no signs of cumulative toxicity.

  5. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  6. Lipofection of rabbit chondrocytes and long lasting expression of a lacZ reporter system in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöve, J; Fiedler, J; Huch, K; Günther, K-P; Puhl, W; Brenner, R

    2002-03-01

    Our aim was to investigate the maintenance of the transfection status of non-viral transfected chondrocytes in an alginate culture system. Chondrocytes harvested from rabbit knees were isolated by sequential digestion and cultivated in monolayer culture. At 60-70% cell density, chondrocytes were transfected with different transfection systems (FuGENE6, CaCl2, Lipofectin). A lac Z expression vector (pcDNA 3.1/Myc-His+ lacZ) was used as a reporter system. In order to improve transfection rates, hyaluronidase (4 U/ml) was used prior and during the transfection procedure. Thereafter, transfected cells were either kept in monolayer culture or embedded in alginate beads and kept in culture for up to the next 30 weeks. Transfection efficiency was maximal using FuGENE6TM/DNA at a ratio of 3:2 and hyaluronidase (4 U/ml). Transfection efficiency reached up to 40.8% (+/- 3.2%) after 36 h. In alginate beads lac Z positive cells declined to 8.5% +/- 3.3% after 4 weeks and to 4.6% +/- 3.2% after 12 weeks of culturing. After 30 weeks 3% of chondrocytes still expressed lac Z. In contrast, during culturing in monolayer, no lac Z expression was detectable after 4 weeks. Differentiation status of the chondrocytes was confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry methods. After successful gene transfer to rabbit chondrocytes the alginate system made it possible to culture lipofected chondrocytes phenotypically stable. Genetically engineered chondrocytes express the lac Z reporter gene over a period of at least 30 weeks. This transfection and culture system provides a promising tool to further investigate the over-expression of growth factors and enzyme inhibitors. Copyright 2002 OsteoArthritis Research Society International.

  7. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  8. Intermediate Leg SBLOCA - Long Lasting Pressure Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konjarek, D.; Bajs, T.; Vukovic, J.

    2010-01-01

    The basic phenomenology of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) for PWR plant is described with focus on analysis of scenario in which reactor coolant pressure decreases below secondary system pressure. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Rather detailed model of the plant was used. The break occurs in intermediate leg on lowest elevation near pump suction. The size of the break is chosen to be small enough to cause cycling of safety valves (SVs) on steam generators (SGs) for some time, but, afterwards, it is large enough to remove decay heat through the break, causing cooling the secondary side. In this case of SBLOCA, when primary pressure decreases below secondary pressure, long lasting pressure transients with significant amplitude occur. Reasons for such behavior are explained.(author).

  9. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  10. Distributional learning has immediate and long-lasting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Evidence of distributional learning, a statistical learning mechanism centered on relative frequency of exposure to different tokens, has mainly come from short-term learning and therefore does not ostensibly address the development of important learning processes. The present longitudinal study examines both short- and long-term effects of distributional learning of phonetic categories on non-native sound discrimination over a 12-month period. Two groups of listeners were exposed to a two-minute distribution of auditory stimuli in which the most frequently presented tokens either approximated or exaggerated the natural production of the speech sounds, whereas a control group listened to a piece of classical music for the same length of time. Discrimination by listeners in the two distribution groups improved immediately after the short exposure, replicating previous results. Crucially, this improvement was maintained after six and 12 months, demonstrating that distributional learning has long-lasting effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-lasting antifog plasma modification of transparent plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Palumbo, Fabio

    2014-10-08

    Antifog surfaces are necessary for any application requiring optical efficiency of transparent materials. Surface modification methods aimed toward increasing solid surface energy, even when supposed to be permanent, in fact result in a nondurable effect due to the instability in air of highly hydrophilic surfaces. We propose the strategy of combining a hydrophilic chemistry with a nanotextured topography, to tailor a long-lasting antifog modification on commercial transparent plastics. In particular, we investigated a two-step process consisting of self-masked plasma etching followed by plasma deposition of a silicon-based film. We show that the deposition of the silicon-based coatings on the flat (pristine) substrates allows a continuous variation of wettability from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic, due to a continuous reduction of carbon-containing groups, as assessed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. By depositing these different coatings on previously nanotextured substrates, the surface wettability behavior is changed consistently, as well as the condensation phenomenon in terms of microdroplets/liquid film appearance. This variation is correlated with advancing and receding water contact angle features of the surfaces. More importantly, in the case of the superhydrophilic coating, though its surface energy decreases with time, when a nanotextured surface underlies it, the wetting behavior is maintained durably superhydrophilic, thus durably antifog.

  12. Long lasting effects of chronic heavy cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestoros, Joannis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios; Skondras, Markos D; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of short-term memory impairment and schizophrenia-like symptoms in heavy and systematic cannabis users and the association between the severity of abuse and the longevity of its persistent symptoms after refraining from such use. A complete psychiatric examination and a psychometric evaluation were performed in 48 solely cannabis users. Additionally, head hair samples were analyzed and the detected cannabinoids levels were correlated with the psychometric findings. A total of 33.3% (n = 16) of the total examined cannabis users were currently imprisoned. The years of abuse ranged from 1 to 35 years and the median daily dose was 5.84.4 gr and 4.84.0 gr for prisoners (n = 16) and non prisoners (n = 32), respectively. A total of 39.6% of the users experienced hallucinations (mostly auditory), 54.2% experienced delusions (mostly ideas of reference and persecution), 85.4% had organic brain dysfunction in a test addressing visual-motor functioning and visual perception skills, and all users (100%) were found to have organic brain dysfunction in a test of visual memory immediate recall. The cannabinoid metabolite levels in the hair samples were consistent with the reported history of substance abuse and total grams of consumption for the participants below 35 years old (p cannabis users seems to be associated with cannabinoid levels in hair. The continuation of persistent symptoms 3 months after the discontinuation of cannabis abuse, was a remarkable finding. We provide evidence that chronic and heavy cannabis abuse results in long-lasting brain dysfunction in all users and in long-lasting schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms in more than half of all users. These findings suggest a reevaluation of the current classification of cannabis as a "soft narcotic" which erroneously, therefore, is typically considered harmless. (Am J Addict 2017;26:335-342). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Effective utilization period of long-lasting insecticide treated nets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the bioefficacy of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs) (PermaNet®2.0) over time and the species composition of Anopheles mosquitoes around Bahir Dar. The space spray collection method was used to determine the species composition of indoor resting Anopheles ...

  14. Long-lasting Effects of Minocycline on Behavior in Young but not Adult Fragile X Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansie, Lorraine E.; Phommahaxay, Kelly; Okusanya, Ayodeji G.; Uwadia, Jessica; Huang, Mike; Rotschafer, Sarah E.; Razak, Khaleel A.; Ethell, Douglas W.; Ethell, Iryna M.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common single-gene inherited form of intellectual disability with behaviors characteristic of autism. People with FXS display childhood seizures, hyperactivity, anxiety, developmental delay, attention deficits, and visual-spatial memory impairment, as well as a propensity for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several of these aberrant behaviors and FXS-associated synaptic irregularities also occur in “fragile X mental retardation gene” knock-out (Fmr1 KO) mice. We previously reported that minocycline promotes the maturation of dendritic spines - postsynaptic sites for excitatory synapses - in the developing hippocampus of Fmr1 KO mice, which may underlie the beneficial effects of minocycline on anxiolytic behavior in young Fmr1 KO mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of minocycline treatment in young and adult Fmr1 KO mice, and determined the dependence of behavioral improvements on short-term versus long-term minocycline administration. We found that 4 and 8 week long treatments significantly reduced locomotor activity in both young and adult Fmr1 KO mice. Some behavioral improvements persisted in young mice post-treatment, but in adults the beneficial effects were lost soon after minocycline treatment was stopped. We also show, for the first time, that minocycline treatment partially attenuates the number and severity of audiogenic seizures in Fmr1 KO mice. This report provides further evidence that minocycline treatment has immediate and long-lasting benefits on FXS-associated behaviors in the Fmr1 KO mouse model. PMID:23660195

  15. Long-lasting effects of perinatal asphyxia on exploration, memory and incentive downshift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Blanco Calvo, Eduardo; Madureira de Oliveira, Diêgo; Cuenya, Lucas; Kamenetzky, Giselle Vanesa; Mustaca, Alba Elisabeth; Barreto, George Emilio; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Milei, José; Capani, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    Perinatal asphyxia remains as one of the most important causes of death and disability in children, without an effective treatment. Moreover, little is known about the long-lasting behavioral consequences of asphyxia at birth. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate the motor, emotional and cognitive functions of adult asphyctic rats. Experimental subjects consisted of rats born vaginally (CTL), by cesarean section (C+), or by cesarean section following 19 min of asphyxia (PA). At three months of age, animals were examined in a behavioral test battery including elevated plus maze, open field, Morris water maze, and an incentive downshift procedure. Results indicated that groups did not differ in anxiety-related behaviors, although a large variability was observed in the asphyctic group and therefore, the results are not completely conclusive. In addition, PA and C+ rats showed a deficit in exploration of new environments, but to a much lesser extent in the latter group. Spatial reference and working memory impairments were also found in PA rats. Finally, when animals were downshifted from a 32% to a 4% sucrose solution, an attenuated suppression of consummatory behavior was observed in PA rats. These results confirmed and extended those reported previously about the behavioral alterations associated with acute asphyxia around birth. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-Lasting Sound-Evoked Afterdischarge in the Auditory Midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Munenori; Bishop, Deborah C; Oliver, Douglas L

    2016-02-12

    Different forms of plasticity are known to play a critical role in the processing of information about sound. Here, we report a novel neural plastic response in the inferior colliculus, an auditory center in the midbrain of the auditory pathway. A vigorous, long-lasting sound-evoked afterdischarge (LSA) is seen in a subpopulation of both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of normal hearing mice. These neurons were identified with single unit recordings and optogenetics in vivo. The LSA can continue for up to several minutes after the offset of the sound. LSA is induced by long-lasting, or repetitive short-duration, innocuous sounds. Neurons with LSA showed less adaptation than the neurons without LSA. The mechanisms that cause this neural behavior are unknown but may be a function of intrinsic mechanisms or the microcircuitry of the inferior colliculus. Since LSA produces long-lasting firing in the absence of sound, it may be relevant to temporary or chronic tinnitus or to some other aftereffect of long-duration sound.

  17. Culminating anti-malaria efforts at long lasting insecticidal net?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dhiman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are a primary method in malaria control efforts. However, a decline in the biological efficacy and physical integrity over a period of comparatively lesser time than claimed, waning of naturally acquired immunity among regular users and misuse of LLINs are serious concerns. Search and selection of literature: The literature for the current review was searched in PubMed, SCOPUS Database and Google using combined search strings of related key-words. Literature with sufficient data and information on the current subject was selected to reach a valid conclusion. Findings: The World Health Organization (WHO has emphasized that LLINs should be considered a public good for people inhabiting malaria endemic settings. LLINs exhibited a cumulative effect on the vector density and may force anthropophilic mosquito vectors to find alternative animal hosts for blood meal. However, the physical integrity and biological activity of LLINs declines faster than the anticipated time due to different operational conditions and the spread of insecticide resistance. LLINs have been successful in reducing malaria incidences by either reducing or not allowing human exposure to the vector mosquitoes, but at the same time, LLINs debilitate the natural protective immunity against malaria parasite. Misuse of LLINs for deviant purposes is common and is a serious environmental concern, as people believe that traditional methods of prevention against malaria that have enabled them to survive through a long time are effective and sufficient. Moreover, people are often ill-informed regarding the toxic effects of LLINs. Conclusions: Specific criteria for determining the serviceable life and guidelines on the safe washing and disposal of LLINs need to be developed, kept well-informed and closely monitored. Malaria case management, environment management and community awareness to reduce the misuse of LLINs are crucial

  18. FIELD TOPOLOGY ANALYSIS OF A LONG-LASTING CORONAL SIGMOID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savcheva, A. S.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first field topology analysis based on nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) models of a long-lasting coronal sigmoid observed in 2007 February with the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode. The NLFFF models are built with the flux rope insertion method and give the three-dimensional coronal magnetic field as constrained by observed coronal loop structures and photospheric magnetograms. Based on these models, we have computed horizontal maps of the current and the squashing factor Q for 25 different heights in the corona for all six days of the evolution of the region. We use the squashing factor to quantify the degree of change of the field line linkage and to identify prominent quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). We discuss the major properties of these QSL maps and devise a way to pick out important QSLs since our calculation cannot reach high values of Q. The complexity in the QSL maps reflects the high degree of fragmentation of the photospheric field. We find main QSLs and current concentrations that outline the flux rope cavity and that become characteristically S-shaped during the evolution of the sigmoid. We note that, although intermittent bald patches exist along the length of the sigmoid during its whole evolution, the flux rope remains stable for several days. However, shortly after the topology of the field exhibits hyperbolic flux tubes (HFT) on February 7 and February 12 the sigmoid loses equilibrium and produces two B-class flares and associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The location of the most elevated part of the HFT in our model coincides with the inferred locations of the two flares. Therefore, we suggest that the presence of an HFT in a coronal magnetic configuration may be an indication that the system is ready to erupt. We offer a scenario in which magnetic reconnection at the HFT drives the system toward the marginally stable state. Once this state is reached, loss of equilibrium occurs via the torus instability, producing a CME.

  19. Involvement of TrkB- and p75NTR-signaling pathways in two contrasting forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Shigeo; Tominaga-Yoshino, Keiko; Ogura, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    The repetition of experience is often necessary to establish long-lasting memory. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying this repetition-dependent consolidation of memory remain unclear. We previously observed in organotypic slice cultures of the rodent hippocampus that repeated inductions of long-term potentiation (LTP) led to a slowly developing long-lasting synaptic enhancement coupled with synaptogenesis. We also reported that repeated inductions of long-term depression (LTD) produced a long-lasting synaptic suppression coupled with synapse elimination. We proposed these phenomena as useful in vitro models for analyzing repetition-dependent consolidation. Here, we hypothesized that the enhancement and suppression are mediated by the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling pathway and the proBDNF-p75NTR pathway, respectively. When we masked the respective pathways, reversals of the enhancement and suppression resulted. These results suggest the alternative activation of the p75NTR pathway by BDNF under TrkB-masking conditions and of the TrkB pathway by proBDNF under p75NTR-masking conditions, thus supporting the aforementioned hypothesis.

  20. The optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory in physiological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manenti, Rosa; Sandrini, Marco; Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-09-15

    Episodic memory displays the largest degree of age-related decline. A noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can be used to modulate memory in physiological aging is transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). However, an aspect that has not been adequately investigated in previous studies is the optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function. Our previous studies showed episodic memory enhancement in older adults when anodal tDCS was applied over the left lateral prefrontal cortex during encoding or after memory consolidation with or without a contextual reminder. Here we directly compared the two studies to explore which of the tDCS protocols would induce longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function in older adults. In addition, we aimed to determine whether subjective memory complaints would be related to the changes in memory performance (forgetting) induced by tDCS, a relevant issue in aging research since individuals with subjective memory complaints seem to be at higher risk of later memory decline. The results showed that anodal tDCS applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder induced longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory, conceivably through reconsolidation, than anodal tDCS during encoding. Furthermore, we reported, providing new data, a moderate negative correlation between subjective memory complaints and forgetting when anodal tDCS was applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder. This study sheds light on the best-suited timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on memory function and might help the clinicians to select the most effective tDCS protocol to prevent memory decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cat odor causes long-lasting contextual fear conditioning and increased pituitary-adrenal activation, without modifying anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Abellán, Cristina; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    A single exposure to a cat or cat odors has been reported by some groups to induce contextual and auditory fear conditioning and long-lasting changes in anxiety-like behaviour, but there is no evidence for parallel changes in biological stress markers. In the present study we demonstrated in male rats that exposure to a novel environment containing a cloth impregnated with cat fur odor resulted in avoidance of the odor, lower levels of activity and higher pituitary-adrenal (PA) response as compared to those exposed to the novel environment containing a clean cloth, suggesting increased levels of stress in the former animals. When re-exposed 9 days later to the same environment with a clean cloth, previously cat fur exposed rats again showed avoidance of the cloth area and lower levels of activity, suggesting development of contextual fear conditioning, which again was associated with a higher PA activation. In contrast, unaltered both anxiety-like behaviour and PA responsiveness to an elevated plus-maze were found 7 days after cat odor exposure. It is concluded that: (i) PA activation is able to reflect both the stressful properties of cat fur odor and odor-induced contextual fear conditioning; (ii) development of cat odor-induced contextual fear conditioning is independent of the induction of long-lasting changes in anxiety-like behaviour; and (iii) greater PA activation during exposure to the odor context is not explained by non-specific sensitization of the PA axis caused by previous exposure to cat fur odor.

  2. The evaluation of neopterin and antioxidants in long lasting asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mota Pinto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a condition characterised by a chronic immunoinflammatory response to different triggers. Neopterin (NPT is synthesised by human macrophages upon stimulation with interferon-γ and is also capable of enhancing the oxidative potential of reactive oxygen species. NPT is useful for the monitoring of cell-mediated (Th1-type immune activation.This study analysed the behaviour of NPT in long lasting asthma, considering its role as a marker of Th1 environment. Allergic parameters (skin prick tests, Immunoglobin E (IgE, and eosinophil count and NPT were evaluated in an asthmatic group and in a control group. We also analysed the C Reactive Protein (CRP concentration, Total Antioxidant Status (TAS and Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme (SOD in both groups. A group of individuals aged over 65 years old was selected. It included 64 asthmatic patients (72±5 years and 41 healthy individuals (79±7 years.Blood cell counts showed statistically different median values of eosinophils (5.42±4.7 vs 2.8±2.8;p<.04, IgE (493.2±549.8 vs 85.3±194.4UI/ml; p=.000 and NPT was non-statistically decreased (2.4±2.8 vs 4.0±4.7ng/ml in allergic asthmatic patients when compared with non-allergic asthmatic patients. Both allergic and non-allergic asthmatic patients presented a statistically significant decreased expression of TAS (0.84±0.14/0.86±0.11 vs 0.91±0.10 mM and SOD (584.8±108.7/595.6±235.9 vs 822.9±179.5 when compared with normal control subjects.Our results suggest macrophage involvement in asthma pathogenesis. The deficit in antioxidant defence impacts negatively on this disease. The increase of NPT values in non-allergic asthma consolidates these affirmations and mapping this parameter should be part of the work of an analytical study panel as it may lead to allergic asthma being distinguished from nonallergic asthma. Resumo: A asma é uma doença caracterizada por uma resposta imuno-inflamatória a diferentes est

  3. Clinical features in patients with long-lasting macrophagic myofasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    Muriel eRIGOLET; Jessie eAOUIZERATE; Jessie eAOUIZERATE; Maryline eCOUETTE; Nilusha eTHANGARAJAH; Nilusha eTHANGARAJAH; Mehdi eAOUN-SEBAITI; Romain Kroum GHERARDI; Romain Kroum GHERARDI; Romain Kroum GHERARDI; Josette eCADUSSEAU; Josette eCADUSSEAU; Francois Jerome eAUTHIER; Francois Jerome eAUTHIER; Francois Jerome eAUTHIER

    2014-01-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing abnormal long-term persistence of aluminium hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients usually are middle-aged adults, mainly presenting with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and marked cognitive deficits, not related to pain, fatigue or depression. Clinical features usually correspond to that observed in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic ...

  4. Clinical Features in Patients with Long-Lasting Macrophagic Myofasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rigolet, Muriel; Aouizerate, Jessie; Couette, Maryline; Ragunathan-Thangarajah, Nilusha; Aoun-Sebaiti, Mehdi; Gherardi, Romain Kroum; Cadusseau, Josette; Authier, François Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition characterized by specific muscle lesions assessing abnormal long-term persistence of aluminum hydroxide within macrophages at the site of previous immunization. Affected patients usually are middle-aged adults, mainly presenting with diffuse arthromyalgias, chronic fatigue, and marked cognitive deficits, not related to pain, fatigue, or depression. Clinical features usually correspond to that observed in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic ...

  5. Bacterial Urease and its Role in Long-Lasting Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Iwona; Żarnowiec, Paulina; Kwinkowski, Marek; Kolesińska, Beata; Frączyk, Justyna; Kamiński, Zbigniew; Kaca, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Urease is a virulence factor found in various pathogenic bacteria. It is essential in colonization of a host organism and in maintenance of bacterial cells in tissues. Due to its enzymatic activity, urease has a toxic effect on human cells. The presence of ureolytic activity is an important marker of a number of bacterial infections. Urease is also an immunogenic protein and is recognized by antibodies present in human sera. The presence of such antibodies is connected with progress of several long-lasting diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis or urinary tract infections. In bacterial ureases, motives with a sequence and/or structure similar to human proteins may occur. This phenomenon, known as molecular mimicry, leads to the appearance of autoantibodies, which take part in host molecules destruction. Detection of antibodies-binding motives (epitopes) in bacterial proteins is a complex process. However, organic chemistry tools, such as synthetic peptide libraries, are helpful in both, epitope mapping as well as in serologic investigations. In this review, we present a synthetic report on a molecular organization of bacterial ureases - genetic as well as structural. We characterize methods used in detecting urease and ureolytic activity, including techniques applied in disease diagnostic processes and in chemical synthesis of urease epitopes. The review also provides a summary of knowledge about a toxic effect of bacterial ureases on human body and about occurrence of anti-urease antibodies in long-lasting diseases. PMID:23305365

  6. Long lasting attentional-context dependent visuomotor memory

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Hee Yeon; Bédard, Patrick; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Using a dual-task paradigm, we recently reported that visuomotor adaptation acquired under distraction of a secondary attention-demanding discrimination task could be remembered only when a similar distraction was present. In contrast, when tested without the distracting task, performance reverted to untrained levels (Song & Bédard, 2015). Here, we demonstrated that this newfound paradoxical benefits of consistent dual-task context lasts over one day, such that visuomotor memory retrieval is ...

  7. Long-Lasting Fever and Lymphadenitis: Think about F. tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Longo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of glandular tularemia that developed in a man supposedly infected by a tick bite in Western Switzerland. Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis was identified. In Europe tularemia most commonly manifests itself as ulcero-glandular or glandular disease; the diagnosis of tularemia may be delayed in glandular form where skin or mucous lesion is absent, particularly in areas which are assumed to have a low incidence of the disease.

  8. Urethrotomy has a much lower success rate than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Richard; Eisenberg, Lauren

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for simple male urethral strictures. A retrospective chart review was performed on 136 patients who underwent urethrotomy from January 1994 through March 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth and fifth urethrotomy. Patients with complex strictures (36) were excluded from the study for reasons including previous urethroplasty, neophallus or previous radiation, and 24 patients were lost to followup. Data were available for 76 patients. The stricture-free rate after the first urethrotomy was 8% with a median time to recurrence of 7 months. For the second urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 6% with a median time to recurrence of 9 months. For the third urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 9% with a median time to recurrence of 3 months. For procedures 4 and 5 stricture-free rate was 0% with a median time to recurrence of 20 and 8 months, respectively. Urethrotomy is a popular treatment for male urethral strictures. However, the performance characteristics are poor. Success rates were no higher than 9% in this series for first or subsequent urethrotomy during the observation period. Most of the patients in this series will be expected to experience failure with longer followup and the expected long-term success rate from any (1 through 5) urethrotomy approach is 0%. Urethrotomy should be considered a temporizing measure until definitive curative reconstruction can be planned. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous operation of RODOS in case of long lasting releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskob, W.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Rafat, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Under the auspices of its RTD (Research and Technological Development) Framework Programmes, the European Commission has supported the development of the RODOS (Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support) system for off-site emergency management after nuclear accidents since the end of 1989. Significant additional funds have been provided by many national RTD programmes, research institutes and industrial collaborators. In particular, the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) financially contributed to the project with emphasis an early emergency response. The ongoing RTD work under the EC's 5 th Framework Programme lead to significant extensions, modifications and new developments of both the system and the application software integrated in the RODOS system. All new functions and software components, which have been successfully tested, build the content of RODOD version PV5.0, which has been released in April 2003. One of the new key features of the RODOS system is its capability to deal with release scenarios longer than 24 hours in all its modes of application: in automatic use, the release duration is unlimited; for interactive calculations, the release has to be limited to 47 days. The environmental contamination and the corresponding doses are calculated on a daily basis and add up to get the total values. When calculating early emergency actions (such as sheltering, administration of stable iodine tablets, and evacuation), the time sequence of potential doses from previous days are used to determine weather a certain intervention level has been or will be exceeded at any time during the release and, in that way, to define areas where potential actions might have been initiated in the past. In case of long term countermeasures, the user has been given the option to consider a number of countermeasures which could be implemented during the release phase. This has increased the flexibility of the module for those

  10. An enigmatic long-lasting gamma-ray burst not accompanied by a bright supernova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, M; Chincarini, G; Panagia, N; Tagliaferri, G; Malesani, D; Testa, V; Fugazza, D; Campana, S; Covino, S; Mangano, V; Antonelli, L A; D'Avanzo, P; Hurley, K; Mirabel, I F; Pellizza, L J; Piranomonte, S; Stella, L

    2006-12-21

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short, intense flashes of soft gamma-rays coming from the distant Universe. Long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s) are believed to originate from the deaths of massive stars, mainly on the basis of a handful of solid associations between GRBs and supernovae. GRB 060614, one of the closest GRBs discovered, consisted of a 5-s hard spike followed by softer, brighter emission that lasted for approximately 100 s (refs 8, 9). Here we report deep optical observations of GRB 060614 showing no emerging supernova with absolute visual magnitude brighter than M(V) = -13.7. Any supernova associated with GRB 060614 was therefore at least 100 times fainter, at optical wavelengths, than the other supernovae associated with GRBs. This demonstrates that some long-lasting GRBs can either be associated with a very faint supernova or produced by different phenomena.

  11. A single exposure to immobilization causes long-lasting pituitary-adrenal and behavioral sensitization to mild stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Fuentes, Silvia; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-11-01

    We have previously reported that a single exposure to immobilization (IMO) in rats causes a long-term desensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to the same (homotypic) stressor. Since there are reports showing that a single exposure to other stressors causes sensitization of the HPA response to heterotypic stressors and increases anxiety-like behavior, we studied in the present work the long-term effects of IMO on behavioral and HPA response to mild superimposed stressors. In Experiments 1 and 2, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 2 h of IMO and then exposed for 5 min to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) at 1, 3 or 7 days after IMO. Blood samples were taken at 15 min after initial exposure to the EPM. Increases in anxiety-like behavior and HPA responsiveness to the EPM were found at all times post-IMO. Changes in the resting levels of HPA hormones did not explain the enhanced HPA responsiveness to the EPM (Experiment 3). In Experiments 4 and 5, we studied the effects of a single exposure to a shorter session of IMO (1 h) on behavioral and HPA responses to a brief and mild session of foot-shocks done 10 days after IMO. Neither previous IMO nor exposure to shocks in control rats modified behavior in the EPM. However, a brief session of shocks in previously IMO-exposed rats dramatically increased anxiety in the EPM. HPA and freezing responses to shocks were similar in control and previous IMO groups. Therefore, a single exposure to IMO appears to induce long-lasting HPA and behavioral sensitization to mild superimposed stressors, although the two responses are likely to be at least partially independent. Long-term effects of IMO on the susceptibility to stress-induced endocrine and emotional disturbances may be relevant to the characterization of animal models of post-traumatic stress.

  12. Efficacy of topical mosquito repellent (picaridin) plus long-lasting insecticidal nets versus long-lasting insecticidal nets alone for control of malaria : A cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluydts, V.; Durnez, L.; Heng, S.; Gryseels, C.; Canier, L.; Kim, S.; Van Roey, K.; Kerkhof, K.; Khim, N.; Mao, S.; Menard, D.; Coosemans, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective topical repellents provide personal protection against malaria, whether mass use of topical repellents in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets can contribute to a further decline of malaria is not known, particularly in areas where outdoor transmission occurs. We

  13. Long-Lasting WNT-TCF Response Blocking and Epigenetic Modifying Activities of Withanolide F in Human Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Seth

    Full Text Available The WNT-TCF signaling pathway participates in adult tissue homeostasis and repair, and is hyperactive in a number of human diseases including cancers of the colon. Whereas to date there are no antagonists approved for patient use, a potential problem for their sustained use is the blockade of WNT signaling in healthy tissues, thus provoking potentially serious co-lateral damage. Here we have screened a library of plant and microorganism small molecules for novel WNT signaling antagonists and describe withanolide F as a potent WNT-TCF response blocker. This steroidal lactone inhibits TCF-dependent colon cancer xenograft growth and mimics the effects of genetic blockade of TCF and of ivermectin, a previously reported WNT-TCF blocker. However, withanolide F is unique in that it imposes a long-lasting repression of tumor growth, WNT-TCF targets and cancer stem cell clonogenicity after drug treatment. These findings are paralleled by its modulation of chromatin regulators and its alteration of overall H3K4me1 levels. Our results open up the possibility to permanently repress essential signaling responses in cancer cells through limited treatments with small molecules.

  14. The benefits of cholinergic enhancement during perceptual learning are long-lasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel eRokem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh regulates many aspects of cognition, including attention and memory. Previous research in animal models has shown that plasticity in sensory systems often depends on the behavioral relevance of a stimulus and/or task. However, experimentally increasing ACh release in the cortex can result in experience-dependent plasticity, even in the absence of behavioral relevance. In humans, the pharmacological enhancement of ACh transmission by administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil during performance of a perceptual task increases the magnitude of perceptual learning (PL and its specificity to physical parameters of the stimuli used for training. Behavioral effects of PL have previously been shown to persist for many months. In the present study, we tested whether enhancement of PL by donepezil is also long-lasting. Healthy human subjects were trained on a motion direction discrimination task during cholinergic enhancement, and follow-up testing was performed 5-15 months after the end of training and without additional drug administration. Increases in performance associated with training under donepezil were evident in follow-up retesting, indicating that cholinergic enhancement has beneficial long-term effects on PL. These findings suggest that cholinergic enhancement of training procedures used to treat clinical disorders should improve long-term outcomes of these procedures.

  15. Effects of Educational Intervention on Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets Use in a Malarious Area, Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Madani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs have been advocated as an effective tool against malaria transmission. However, success of this community based intervention largely depends on the knowledge and practice regarding malaria and its prevention. According to the national strategy plan on evaluation of LLINs (Olyset nets, this study was conducted to determine the perceptions and practices about malaria and to improve use of LLINs in Bashagard district, one of the important foci of malaria in southeast Iran. The study area comprised 14 villages that were randomized in two clusters and designated as LLINs and untreated nets. Each of households in both clusters received two bed nets by the free distribution and delivery. After one month quantitative data collection method was used to collect information regarding the objectives of the study. On the basis of this information, an educational program was carried out in both areas to increase motivation for use of bed nets. Community knowledge and practice regarding malaria and LLIN use assessed pre- and post-educational program. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.16 software. At baseline, 77.5% of respondents in intervention and 69.4 % in control area mentioned mosquito bite as the cause of malaria, this awareness increased significantly in intervention (90.3% and control areas (87.9%, following the educational program. A significant increase also was seen in the proportion of households who used LLINs the previous night (92.5% compared with untreated nets (87.1%. Educational status was an important predictor of LLINs use. Regular use of LLIN was considerably higher than the targeted coverage (80% which recommended by World Heaths Organization. About 81.1% and 85.3% of respondents from LLIN and control areas reported that mosquito nuisance and subsequent malaria transmission were the main determinants of bed net use. These findings highlight a need for educational intervention in implementation of

  16. Long-lasting desynchronization in rat hippocampal slice induced by coordinated reset stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tass, P. A.; Barnikol, U. B.; Silchenko, A. N.; Hauptmann, C.; Speckmann, E.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In computational models it has been shown that appropriate stimulation protocols may reshape the connectivity pattern of neural or oscillator networks with synaptic plasticity in a way that the network learns or unlearns strong synchronization. The underlying mechanism is that a network is shifted from one attractor to another, so that long-lasting stimulation effects are caused which persist after the cessation of stimulation. Here we study long-lasting effects of multisite electrical stimulation in a rat hippocampal slice rendered epileptic by magnesium withdrawal. We show that desynchronizing coordinated reset stimulation causes a long-lasting desynchronization between hippocampal neuronal populations together with a widespread decrease in the amplitude of the epileptiform activity. In contrast, periodic stimulation induces a long-lasting increase in both synchronization and amplitude.

  17. Risk of long-lasting negative cognitive consequences after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Marie; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a patient who had a unipolar depression and experienced long-lasting cognitive problems after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuropsychological testing revealed lower scores on measures of learning, memory and sustained attention. These results stress the importance...

  18. Can Long-lasting Insecticide-treated Bednets with Holes Protect Children from Malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Maazou, Abani; Yamagata, Shigeo; Oumarou, Issofou; Uchida, Takako; Jg Yacouba, Honoré; Toma, Nami; Takeuchi, Rie; Kobayashi, Jun; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    Although long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets (LLINs) have been widely used for malaria control, little is known about how the condition of LLINs affects the risk of malaria infection. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria diagnosed in children under five years of age (U5). Data were collected in Boboye health district, Niger, in 2010. Surveyors conducted interviews and bednet inspections in 1,034 households. If a household had a U5 child, the surveyor asked the caregiver whether the child had experienced a fever episode in the past two weeks that entailed standard treatment for uncomplicated malaria at a healthcare facility. The authors analyzed the association between the use of LLINs with holes and caregiver-reported malaria episodes in U5 children using logistic regression, adjusted for possible confounders. Of the 1,165 children included in the analysis, approximately half (53.3%) used an intact LLIN while far fewer (10.6%) used a LLIN with holes. Compared to children using an intact LLIN, children using a LLIN with holes were significantly more likely to have a caregiver-reported malaria episode (8.7% vs. 17.1%; odds ratio: 2.23; 95% confidence interval: 1.24-4.01). In this study site, LLINs with holes were less protective than intact LLINs.

  19. Subchronic steroid administration induces long lasting changes in neurochemical and behavioral response to cocaine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailanto, Sanna; Kankaanpää, Aino; Seppälä, Timo

    2011-11-01

    The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs), such as nandrolone, is not only a problem in the world of sports but is associated with the polydrug use of non-athletes. Among other adverse effects, AAS abuse has been associated with long term or even persistent psychiatric problems. We have previously found that nandrolone decanoate treatment could produce prolonged changes in rats' brain reward circuits associated to drug dependence. The aim in this study was to evaluate whether AAS-induced neurochemical and behavioral changes are reversible. The increases in extracellular dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) concentration, as well as stereotyped behavior and locomotor activity (LMA) evoked by cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with nandrolone. The recovery period, which was needed for the DA system to return back to the basic level, was fairly long compared to the dosing period of the steroid. In the 5-HT system, the time that system needed to return back to the basal level, was even longer than in the DA system. The attenuation was still seen though there were no detectable traces of nandrolone in the blood samples. Given that accumbal outflow of DA and 5-HT, as well as LMA and stereotyped behavior are all related to reward of stimulant drugs, this study suggests that nandrolone decanoate has significant, long-lasting but reversible effects on the rewarding properties of cocaine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short and long-lasting behavioral consequences of agonistic encounters between male Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trannoy, Séverine; Penn, Jill; Lucey, Kenia; Popovic, David; Kravitz, Edward A

    2016-04-26

    In many animal species, learning and memory have been found to play important roles in regulating intra- and interspecific behavioral interactions in varying environments. In such contexts, aggression is commonly used to obtain desired resources. Previous defeats or victories during aggressive interactions have been shown to influence the outcome of later contests, revealing loser and winner effects. In this study, we asked whether short- and/or long-term behavioral consequences accompany victories and defeats in dyadic pairings between male Drosophila melanogaster and how long those effects remain. The results demonstrated that single fights induced important behavioral changes in both combatants and resulted in the formation of short-term loser and winner effects. These decayed over several hours, with the duration depending on the level of familiarity of the opponents. Repeated defeats induced a long-lasting loser effect that was dependent on de novo protein synthesis, whereas repeated victories had no long-term behavioral consequences. This suggests that separate mechanisms govern the formation of loser and winner effects. These studies aim to lay a foundation for future investigations exploring the molecular mechanisms and circuitry underlying the nervous system changes induced by winning and losing bouts during agonistic encounters.

  1. Long lasting behavior of Gd2O2S:Eu3+ phosphor synthesized by hydrothermal routine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Tao; Liu Qun; Mao Dali; Chang Chengkang

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the detailed preparation process and afterglow properties of Eu 3+ activated long lasting Gd 2 O 2 S phosphor by hydrothermal routine. Rod-like Gd(OH) 3 were firstly synthesized by hydrothermal method to serve as the precursor. Long lasting Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor was obtained by calcinating the precursor with co-activators and S powder. It was found from the results that the hydrothermally prepared Gd(OH) 3 revealed a rod-like morphology, while the calcinated Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor showed a round granular shape. The morphological change can be explained by the etching effect of the melt that was formed by the carbonate and S powder during the high temperature calcination. The obtained Gd 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ ,Ti 4+ ,Mg 2+ phosphor produced a red emission upon 243 nm UV excitation, which is a typical emission of Eu 3+ from 5 D j to 7 F j states. Long lasting behavior was observed after the UV source was switched off, due to the formation of electron traps with suitable trap depth within the matrix by the codoped Ti 4+ and Mg 2+ ions

  2. Risk Factors of Developing Long-Lasting Breast Pain After Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, Dan, E-mail: dan.lundstedt@vgregion.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gustafsson, Magnus [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmstroem, Per [Skane Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Alsadius, David [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sundberg, Agnetha [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Holmberg, Erik [Oncologic Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastases had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33-5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long-lasting

  3. Increased corticosterone in peripubertal rats leads to long-lasting alterations in social exploration and aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana eVeenit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress during childhood and adolescence enhances the risk of psychopathology later in life. We have previously shown that subjecting male rats to stress during the peripubertal period induces long-lasting effects on emotion and social behaviors. As corticosterone is increased by stress and known to exert important programming effects, we reasoned that increasing corticosterone might mimic the effects of peripubertal stress. To this end, we injected corticosterone (5 mg/kg on 7 scattered days during the peripuberty period (P28-P30, P34, P36, P40 and P42, following the same experimental schedule as for stress administration in our peripubertal paradigm. We measured play behavior in the homecage and, at adulthood, the corticosterone response to novelty and behavioral responses in tests for anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, aggression and social exploration. As compared to vehicle, corticosterone-treated animals exhibit more aggressive play behavior during adolescence, increased aggressive behavior in a resident-intruder test while reduced juvenile exploration and corticosterone reactivity at adulthood. Whereas the corticosterone treatment mimicked alterations induced by the peripuberty stress protocol in the social domain, it did not reproduce previously observed effects of peripuberty stress on increasing anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors, respectively evaluated in the elevated plus maze and the forced swim tests. Our findings indicate that increasing corticosterone levels during peripuberty might be instrumental to program alterations in the social domain observed following stress, whereas other factors might need to be recruited for the programming of long-term changes in emotionality. Our study opens the possibility that individual differences on the degree of glucocorticoid activation during peripuberty might be central to defining differences in vulnerability to develop psychopathological disorders coursing with alterations in

  4. ANABOLIC STEROIDS HAVE LONG-LASTING EFFECTS ON MALE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood. PMID:20036695

  5. TCR-contacting residues orientation and HLA-DRβ* binding preference determine long-lasting protective immunity against malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Martha P.; Suarez, Carlos F.; Varela, Yahson; Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Bermudez, Adriana; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2016-01-01

    Fully-protective, long-lasting, immunological (FPLLI) memory against Plasmodium falciparum malaria regarding immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) vaccinated into monkeys previously challenged and re-challenged 60 days later with a lethal Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum strain was found to be associated with preferential high binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1* allelic molecules of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II), rather than HLA-DRβ3*, β4*, β5* alleles. Complete PPII L 3D structure, a longer distance (26.5 Å ± 1.5 Å) between residues perfectly fitting into HLA-DRβ1*PBR pockets 1 and 9, a gauche − rotamer orientation in p8 TCR-contacting polar residue and a larger volume of polar p2 residues was also found. This data, in association with previously-described p3 and p7 apolar residues having gauche + orientation to form a perfect MHC-II-peptide-TCR complex, determines the stereo-electronic and topochemical characteristics associated with FPLLI immunological memory. - Highlights: • Stereo-electronic and topochemical rules associated with FPLLI immunological memory. • Presence of very high long-lasting antibody titres against Plasmodium falciparum Spz. • Protective memory induction associated with a binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1*. • gauche − rotamer orientation in p8 polar residue is related to is related to immunological memory.

  6. TCR-contacting residues orientation and HLA-DRβ* binding preference determine long-lasting protective immunity against malaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba, Martha P.; Suarez, Carlos F. [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas y Ambientales (UDCA), Bogotá (Colombia); Varela, Yahson [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel A.; Bermudez, Adriana [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@gmail.com [Fundación Instituto de Inmunología de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogotá D. C. (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-09-02

    Fully-protective, long-lasting, immunological (FPLLI) memory against Plasmodium falciparum malaria regarding immune protection-inducing protein structures (IMPIPS) vaccinated into monkeys previously challenged and re-challenged 60 days later with a lethal Aotus monkey-adapted P. falciparum strain was found to be associated with preferential high binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1* allelic molecules of the major histocompatibility class II (MHC-II), rather than HLA-DRβ3*, β4*, β5* alleles. Complete PPII{sub L} 3D structure, a longer distance (26.5 Å ± 1.5 Å) between residues perfectly fitting into HLA-DRβ1*PBR pockets 1 and 9, a gauche{sup −} rotamer orientation in p8 TCR-contacting polar residue and a larger volume of polar p2 residues was also found. This data, in association with previously-described p3 and p7 apolar residues having gauche{sup +} orientation to form a perfect MHC-II-peptide-TCR complex, determines the stereo-electronic and topochemical characteristics associated with FPLLI immunological memory. - Highlights: • Stereo-electronic and topochemical rules associated with FPLLI immunological memory. • Presence of very high long-lasting antibody titres against Plasmodium falciparum Spz. • Protective memory induction associated with a binding capacity to HLA-DRβ1*. • gauche{sup −} rotamer orientation in p8 polar residue is related to is related to immunological memory.

  7. Low-frequency stimulation cancels the high-frequency-induced long-lasting effects in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Pettorossi, V E; Zampolini, M

    1996-05-15

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the effects of low-frequency stimulation (LFS) of the primary vestibular afferents on the amplitude of the field potentials evoked in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN). LFS induced long-term effects, the sign of which depended on whether the vestibular neurons were previously conditioned by HFS. In unconditioned slices, LFS evoked modifications of the responses that were similar to those observed after HFS but had a smaller extension. In fact, LFS caused long-lasting potentiation of the N1 wave in the MVN ventral portion (Vp) and long-lasting depression of the N2 wave in the MVN dorsal portion (Dp), whereas it provoked small and variable effects on the N1 wave. By contrast, when the synaptic transmission was already conditioned, LFS influenced the synaptic responses oppositely, reducing or annulling the HFS long-term effects. This phenomenon was specifically induced by LFS, because HFS was not able to cause it. The involvement of NMDA receptors in mediating the LFS long-term effects was supported by the fact that AP-5 prevented their induction. In addition, the annulment of HFS long-term effects by LFS was also demonstrated by the shift in the latency of the evoked unitary potentials after LFS. In conclusion, we suggest that the reduction of the previously induced conditioning could represent a cancellation mechanism, useful to quickly adapt the vestibular system to continuous different needs and to avoid saturation.

  8. Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysiological changes in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.; Hass, Ulla

    1996-01-01

    Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysioloical changes in rats. NEUROTOXICOL TERATOL 18(1), 67-76, 1996. -Exposure for 6 h per day, 5 days per week, during a period of 6 months to the organic solvent dearomatized white spirit (0, 400, and 800 ppm) was studied ...

  9. Monitoring long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) durability to validate net serviceable life assumptions, in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakizimana, E.; Cyubahiro, B.; Rukundo, A.; Kabayiza, A.; Mutabazi, A.; Beach, R.; Patel, R.; Tongren, J.E.; Karema, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To validate assumptions about the length of the distribution–replacement cycle for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in Rwanda, the Malaria and other Parasitic Diseases Division, Rwanda Ministry of Health, used World Health Organization methods to independently confirm the three-year

  10. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bales, KL; Plotsky, PM; Young, LJ; Lim, MM; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, CS

    2007-01-01

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the lon...

  11. Long lasting protein synthesis- and activity-dependent spine shrinkage and elimination after synaptic depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmín Ramiro-Cortés

    Full Text Available Neuronal circuits modify their response to synaptic inputs in an experience-dependent fashion. Increases in synaptic weights are accompanied by structural modifications, and activity dependent, long lasting growth of dendritic spines requires new protein synthesis. When multiple spines are potentiated within a dendritic domain, they show dynamic structural plasticity changes, indicating that spines can undergo bidirectional physical modifications. However, it is unclear whether protein synthesis dependent synaptic depression leads to long lasting structural changes. Here, we investigate the structural correlates of protein synthesis dependent long-term depression (LTD mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs through two-photon imaging of dendritic spines on hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We find that induction of mGluR-LTD leads to robust and long lasting spine shrinkage and elimination that lasts for up to 24 hours. These effects depend on signaling through group I mGluRs, require protein synthesis, and activity. These data reveal a mechanism for long lasting remodeling of synaptic inputs, and offer potential insights into mental retardation.

  12. Long-Lasting Insecticide Net Ownership, Access and Use in Southwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Dinberu; Speybroeck, Niko; Duchateau, Luc; Brandt, Patrick; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel

    2017-10-27

    Introduction : A large proportion of the Ethiopian population (approximately 68%) lives in malaria risk areas. Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the malaria prevention and control strategy in the country. This study assessed the ownership, access and use of LLNs in the malaria endemic southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in southwest Ethiopia during October-November 2015, including 836 households from sixteen villages around Gilgel-Gibe dam area. Indicators of ownership, access and use of LLINs were derived following the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) guidelines. Factors associated with failure for both LLIN access and use were analysed at household level using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: The proportion of households with at least one LLIN was 82.7% (95% CI: 80.0, 85.1). However, only 68.9% (95% CI: 65.6, 71.9) had enough LLINs to cover all family members (with ≥one LLIN for every two persons). While 75.3% (95% CI: 68.4, 83.0) of the population was estimated to have accessed to LLINs, only 63.8% (95% CI: 62.3, 65.2) reported to have used a LLIN the previous night. The intra-household gap (i.e., households owning at least one LLIN, but unable to cover all family members) and the behavioral gap (i.e., household members who did not sleep under a LLIN despite having access to one) were 16.8% and 10.5%, respectively. Age, marital status and education of household heads, as well as household size and cooking using firewood were associated with the access to enough LLINs within households. Decreased access to LLINs at households was the main determinant for not achieving ≥80% household members sleeping under a LLIN the previous night. Other associated factors were household size and education level of household head. Conclusions: LLIN coverage levels in study villages remain below national targets of 100% for ownership and 80% for use. The access to

  13. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Manos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce

  14. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Thanos; Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS) robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate) is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS) turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce long

  15. Properties of 13HMF steel welded joints after long-lasting service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, M.

    2002-01-01

    Results are presented of research conducted on the 13HMF steel in the as-received condition after long-lasting service over 100000 hours. Simulation tests have been performed by means of modern research methods. The influence of thermal cycles on the microstructure (continuous cooling TTT diagrams), plastic properties (notch toughness and hardness) of simulated heat affected zones and reheat cracking resistance has been evaluated by using the thermal and strain cycle simulator. Susceptibility to thermal fatigue has been determined, the creep strength estimated and welding heat input was given, as well as the post weld heat treatment conditions of the 13HMF steel after service. properties of the welded joints made of 13HMF steel after long-lasting service are given. (author)

  16. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-03

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery. Copyright

  17. Fabrication of flower-like tin/carbon composite microspheres as long-lasting anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyung-Seok [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Yang-Kook [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung-Do, E-mail: kdsuh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of the flower-like tin/carbon (Sn/C) composite microspheres using sulfonated semi-interpenetrating polystyrene (SPS) microspheres as a carbon precursor. The sulfonation degree of SPS has great effects on the resulting particle size, morphology, amount of introduced Sn, and the carbonization yield of the microspheres after heat treatment. The obtained Sn/C composite microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused-ion beam SEM, and X-ray diffraction. The flower-like Sn/C composite electrodes exhibited higher charge-discharge capacities than those of graphite as an anode material for a lithium ion battery. In addition, they show a long lasting cyclability, even through 400 cycles. - Highlights: • Tin nanocrystals are introduced in flower-like carbon spheres with many ripples. • Long lasting cyclability is exhibited at 1 C rate up to 400 cycles. • Tin content of composite spheres depends on chemical treatment of polymer microspheres.

  18. Characteristics of long-lasting haze episodes observed in Seoul, South Korea, for 2009-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Cha, Joo Wan; Song, Seungjoo; Ryoo, Sang-Boom; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-03-01

    The meteorological, physical, chemical, and optical characteristics of long-lasting haze in Seoul were studied. Four episodes were observed between 2009 and 2014, all in winter. PM10 mass concentration (PM10), chemical species, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) were analyzed along with the synoptic meteorological conditions. During the episodes, the temporal variations of the PM10 generally proceeded from the west along the Yellow Sea. The ground-based AOD was also high in Seoul and other sites. High AOD (MODIS) distributions were observed to move from China to Korea. The high sulfate concentration, along with the high sulfur oxidation ratio value of the third and fourth episodes (Eps. 3 and 4), respectively, corroborated the possible long-range transport of air pollutants. Stagnant meteorological conditions were a reason for the occurrence of long-lasting hazes. An anticyclone system had a dominant influence on the Korean peninsula during all episodes. The air mass over China was able to rise, and that over Korea was more stagnant in terms of climatology except Ep. 2. In addition to transport from outside, locally emitted air pollutants contributed to the PM10 partly due to the stagnant conditions, during which diurnal variations in NO2 and nitrates showed similar peak times during Eps. 3 and 4. Analysis of the episodes consistently showed that the long-lasting haze episodes were influenced by both the long-range transport of air pollutants from outside Seoul, mostly from China, and the accumulation of air pollutants that were locally emitted and transformed.

  19. Risk of long-lasting negative cognitive consequences after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Marie; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2013-01-01

    This case study describes a patient who had a unipolar depression and experienced long-lasting cognitive problems after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuropsychological testing revealed lower scores on measures of learning, memory and sustained attention. These results stress the importance...... of informing patients who have ECT of the potential cognitive consequences of this treatment as it may influence the patients' functional capabilities. Prospective studies are needed since we do not have sufficient knowledge regarding the 3-5% of these patients who experience sustained cognitive problems....

  20. Bimodal Long-lasting Components in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Promising Electromagnetic Counterparts to Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisaka, Shota; Sakamoto, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5258 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito, E-mail: kisaka@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: kunihito.ioka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-09-10

    Long-lasting emission of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial to reveal the physical origin of the central engine as well as to detect electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star binary mergers. We investigate 65 X-ray light curves of short GRBs, which is six times more than previous studies, by combining both Swift /BAT and XRT data. The light curves are found to consist of two distinct components at >5 σ with bimodal distributions of luminosity and duration, i.e., extended (with a timescale of ≲10{sup 3} s) and plateau emission (with a timescale of ≳10{sup 3} s), which are likely the central engine activities, but not afterglows. The extended emission has an isotropic energy comparable to the prompt emission, while the plateau emission has ∼0.01–1 times this energy. Half (50%) of our sample has both components, while the other half is consistent with having both components. This leads us to conjecture that almost all short GRBs have both the extended and plateau emission. The long-lasting emission can be explained by the jets from black holes with fallback ejecta, and could power macronovae (or kilonovae) like GRB 130603B and GRB 160821B. Based on the observed properties, we quantify the detectability of EM counterparts to GWs, including the plateau emission scattered to the off-axis angle, with CALET /HXM, INTEGRAL /SPI-ACS, Fermi /GBM, MAXI /GSC, Swift /BAT, XRT, the future ISS-Lobster /WFI, Einstein Probe /WXT, and eROSITA .

  1. TACTILE STIMULATION EVOKES LONG-LASTING POTENTIATION OF PURKINJE CELL DISCHARGE IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan eKanchipuram

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar network, a precise relationship between plasticity and neuronal discharge has been predicted. However, the potential generation of persistent changes in PC spike discharge as a consequence of plasticity following natural stimulation patterns has not been clearly determined. Here we show that facial tactile stimuli organized in theta-patterns can induce stereotyped NMDA and GABA-A receptor-dependent changes in Purkinje cell (PCs and molecular layer interneuron (MLIs firing: invariably, all PCs showed a long-lasting increase (spike-related potentiation or SR-P and MLIs a long-lasting decrease (spike-related suppression or SR-S in baseline activity and spike response probability. These observations suggests that natural sensory stimulation engages multiple long-term plastic changes that are distributed along the mossy fiber – parallel fiber pathway and operate synergistically to potentiate spike generation in PCs. In contrast, theta-pattern electrical stimulation of PFs indistinctly induced SR-P and SR-S both in PCs and MLIs, suggesting that natural sensory stimulation preordinates plasticity upstream of the PF-PC synapse. All these effects occurred in the absence of complex spike changes, supporting the theoretical prediction that Purkinje cell activity is potentiated when the mossy fiber - parallel fiber system is activated in the absence of conjunctive climbing fiber activity.

  2. Norepinephrine induces pathway-specific long-lasting potentiation and depression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, D; Sarvey, J M

    1989-01-01

    The study presented here indicates that norepinephrine (NE) selectively induces long-lasting modifications of synaptically mediated responses in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal slice. A low concentration of NE (1.0 microM; in the presence of 50 microM phentolamine, an alpha-adrenergic antagonist) or a 1.0 microM concentration of the specific beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol induced long-lasting pathway-specific alterations of granule cell electrophysiological responses. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials and population spikes evoked by stimulation of the medial perforant pathway (PP) were potentiated for more than 45 min. In contrast, responses to lateral PP stimulation were depressed for the same period. Both potentiation and depression were blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (1.0 microM). These results indicate that NE can act differentially on projections to the dentate gyrus arising in the entorhinal cortex. Such selective persistent modifications of cortical circuits may be involved in processes in the mammalian brain underlying attention, learning, and memory. PMID:2734319

  3. Neonatal oxytocin manipulations have long-lasting, sexually dimorphic effects on vasopressin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, K L; Plotsky, P M; Young, L J; Lim, M M; Grotte, N; Ferrer, E; Carter, C S

    2007-01-05

    Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we examined the hypothesis that the long-lasting, developmental effects of exposure to neonatal OT or OTA might reflect changes in the expression of receptors for these peptides. On postnatal day 1, prairie voles were injected intraperitoneally with either OT (1 mg/kg), an OTA (0.1 mg/kg), saline vehicle, or were handled only. At approximately 60 days of age, vasopressin V1a receptors, OT receptors (OTR) and dopamine D2 receptor binding were quantified using receptor autoradiography in brain tissue taken from males and females. Significant treatment effects on V1a binding were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), cingulate cortex (CgCtx), mediodorsal thalamus (MdThal), medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (MPOA), and lateral septum (LS). The CgCtx, MPOA, ventral pallidum, and LS also showed significant sex by treatment interactions on V1a binding. No significant treatment or sex differences were observed for D2 receptor binding. No significant treatment difference was observed for OTR receptor binding, and only a marginal sex difference. Changes in the neuropeptide receptor expression, especially the V1a receptor, may help to explain sexually dimorphic changes in behavior that follow comparable neonatal manipulations.

  4. Blue photoluminescence and long lasting phosphorescence properties of a novel chloride phosphate phosphor: Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chuanqiang; Zhang, Jiachi; Feng, Pengfei; Duan, Yiming; Zhang, Zhiya; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    A novel blue emitting long lasting phosphorescence phosphor Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is synthesized by solid state method at 1223 K in reducing atmosphere. The afterglow emission spectrum shows one broad band centered at 441 nm due to the 5d–4f transition of Eu 2+ at six coordinated Sr(II) sites and the color coordinates are calculated to be (0.149, 0.095) which is close to the light blue region. The excitation band is in 240–430 nm and partly overlaps the solar irradiation on Earth's surface. The long lasting phosphorescence of the optimal sample doping by 0.1 mol%Eu 2+ can be recorded for about 1040 s (0.32 mcd/m 2 ). Thermoluminescence shows that there are at least three types of traps corresponding to peaks at 340 K, 382 K, 500 K, respectively. The filling and fading experiments reveal that the traps in Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ are independent. The shallow traps (340 K) essentially contribute to the visible long lasting phosphorescence, while the deep traps (382 K and 500 K) are proved to be very stable. Thus, the Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ material shows potential applications as not only a long lasting phosphorescence phosphor, but also an optical storage material. -- Highlights: • The blue long lasting phosphorescence of Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is first reported. • Filling and fading experiments are carried out for revealing natures of traps. • The afterglow mechanism for independent traps of Sr 5 (PO 4 ) 3 Cl:Eu 2+ is proposed

  5. Long-lasting effects of performance-contingent unconscious and conscious reward incentives during cued task-switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capa, Rémi L; Bouquet, Cédric A; Dreher, Jean-Claude; Dufour, André

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is often thought to interact consciously with executive control, although recent studies have indicated that motivation can also be unconscious. To date, however, the effects of unconscious motivation on high-order executive control functions have not been explored. Only a few studies using subliminal stimuli (i.e., those not related to motivation, such as an arrow to prime a response) have reported short-lived effects on high-order executive control functions. Here, building on research on unconscious motivation, in which a behavior of perseverance is induced to attain a goal, we hypothesized that subliminal motivation can have long-lasting effects on executive control processes. We investigated the impact of unconscious/conscious monetary reward incentives on evoked potentials and neural activity dynamics during cued task-switching performance. Participants performed long runs of task-switching. At the beginning of each run, a reward (50 cents or 1 cent) was displayed, either subliminally or supraliminally. Participants earned the reward contingent upon their correct responses to each trial of the run. A higher percentage of runs was achieved with higher (conscious and unconscious) than lower rewards, indicating that unconscious high rewards have long-lasting behavioral effects. Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that unconscious and conscious rewards influenced preparatory effort in task preparation, as suggested by a greater fronto-central contingent negative variation (CNV) starting at cue-onset. However, a greater parietal P3 associated with better reaction times (RTs) was observed only under conditions of conscious high reward, suggesting a larger amount of working memory invested during task performance. Together, these results indicate that unconscious and conscious motivations are similar at early stages of task-switching preparation but differ during task performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Logic of Accounting: The Case of Reporting Previous Options in Norwegian Activation Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Janne

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the enactment of client resistance in Norwegian vocational rehabilitation encounters. More specific, a practice here called "reporting previous options" is analyzed by using the resources of ethnomethodological conversation analysis (CA) in five instances as doing some sort of accounting. In response to the…

  7. Design and Optimization of Die Preforming Process for Long Last-stage Blade of Nuclear Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiaomao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The long last-stage blade is a key component of the steam turbine of nuclear conventional island. The die preforming process for a new technology that provides billets for near-net-shape roll-forging process was designed, the effects of the forging temperature, friction coefficient, flash land’s height and die’s outer fillet radius on the die forging force and forging energy were studied by using the orthogonal experiment method, the primary and secondary order of the four factors were analysed by using range analysis method, and the optimal combination of the factors was obtained. By means of numerical simulation and physical experiment, the die preforming process that can provide qualified billets for the subsequent roll-forging process was verified, and the PZS1120f electric screw press can meet the requirements of the die preforming process.

  8. Energetic ion excited long-lasting ``sword'' modes in tokamak plasmas with low magnetic shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Zhang, Ruibin; Deng, Wei; Liu, Yi

    2013-10-01

    An m/ n = 1 mode driven by trapped fast ions with a sword-shape envelope of long-lasting (for hundreds of milliseconds) magnetic perturbation signals, other than conventional fishbones, is studied in this paper. The mode is usually observed in low shear plasmas. Frequency and growth rate of the mode and its harmonics are calculated and in good agreements with observations. The radial mode structure is also obtained and compared with that of fishbones. It is found that due to fast ion driven the mode differs from magnetohydrodynamic long lived modes (LLMs) observed in MAST and NSTX. On the other hand, due to the feature of weak magnetic shear, the mode is also significantly different from fishbones. The nonlinear evolution of the mode and its comparison with fishbones are further investigated to analyze the effect of the mode on energetic particle transport and confinement.

  9. Human dignity as a component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2014-06-01

    For some decades, the concept of human dignity has been widely discussed in bioethical literature. Some authors think that this concept is central to questions of respect for human beings, whereas others are very critical of it. It should be noted that, in these debates, dignity is one component of a long-lasting and widespread conceptual construct used to support a stance on the ethical question of the moral status of an action or being. This construct has been used from Modernity onward to condemn slavery and torture as violations of human dignity. In spelling it out, we can come to a better understanding of what "dignity" means and become aware that there exists a quite useful place for this notion in our ethical thought, albeit a modest one.

  10. Legal requirements for long-lasting radioactive waste disposal; Rechtliche Anforderungen der Beseitigung hochradioaktiver langlebiger Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesselmann, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The topic of nuclear disposal has been treated in juridical regard up to now only rudimentary. To this day the federation has not met the legal obligation existing for roughly 40 years to set up a plant for the safekeeping and for the permanent storage of highly-radioactive waste. Repeatedly changed disposal-conceptual approaches have contributed perpetually to a temporal shift of the ''dumping question'' into an uncertain future. Against this background it seems necessary on to examine whether such a ''politics of ephemeral solution attempts'' is legally to be accepted (any longer). Hence, including the recently remitted site selection law the author works out extensively the removal regime applying in Germany for highly radioactive long-lasting rubbish and verifies his compatibility with the European law, the German constitutional law and the thematically relevant International treaty law.

  11. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etang, Josiane; Nwane, Philippe; Piameu, Michael; Manga, Blaise; Souop, Daniel; Awono-Ambene, Parfait

    2013-01-01

    From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), conventional treatment of nets (CTNs) or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor) and CTNs (Fendona) were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates), although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (peducation toward universal coverage of malaria vector control in Cameroon.

  12. Long-lasting injection of solar energetic electrons into the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The main sources of solar energetic particle (SEP) events are solar flares and shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While it is generally accepted that energetic protons can be accelerated by shocks, whether or not these shocks can also efficiently accelerate solar energetic electrons is still debated. In this study we present observations of the extremely widespread SEP event of 26 Dec 2013 To the knowledge of the authors, this is the widest longitudinal SEP distribution ever observed together with unusually long-lasting energetic electron anisotropies at all observer positions. Further striking features of the event are long-lasting SEP intensity increases, two distinct SEP components with the second component mainly consisting of high-energy particles, a complex associated coronal activity including a pronounced signature of a shock in radio type-II observations, and the interaction of two CMEs early in the event. Aims: The observations require a prolonged injection scenario not only for protons but also for electrons. We therefore analyze the data comprehensively to characterize the possible role of the shock for the electron event. Methods: Remote-sensing observations of the complex solar activity are combined with in situ measurements of the particle event. We also apply a graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) model to the coronagraph observations of the two associated CMEs to analyze their interaction. Results: We find that the shock alone is likely not responsible for this extremely wide SEP event. Therefore we propose a scenario of trapped energetic particles inside the CME-CME interaction region which undergo further acceleration due to the shock propagating through this region, stochastic acceleration, or ongoing reconnection processes inside the interaction region. The origin of the second component of the SEP event is likely caused by a sudden opening of the particle trap.

  13. NOVAE WITH LONG-LASTING SUPERSOFT EMISSION THAT DRIVE A HIGH ACCRETION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Collazzi, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    We identify a new class of novae characterized by the post-eruption quiescent light curve being more than roughly a factor of 10 brighter than the pre-eruption light curve. Eight novae (V723 Cas, V1500 Cyg, V1974 Cyg, GQ Mus, CP Pup, T Pyx, V4633 Sgr, and RW UMi) are separated out as being significantly distinct from other novae. This group shares a suite of uncommon properties, characterized by the post-eruption magnitude being much brighter than before eruption, short orbital periods, long-lasting supersoft emission following the eruption, a highly magnetized white dwarf (WD), and secular declines during the post-eruption quiescence. We present a basic physical picture which shows why all five uncommon properties are causally connected. In general, novae show supersoft emission due to hydrogen burning on the WD in the final portion of the eruption, and this hydrogen burning will be long-lasting if new hydrogen is poured onto the surface at a sufficient rate. Most novae do not have adequate accretion for continuous hydrogen burning, but some can achieve this if the companion star is nearby (with short orbital period) and a magnetic field channels the matter onto a small area on the WD so as to produce a locally high accretion rate. The resultant supersoft flux irradiates the companion star and drives a higher accretion rate (with a brighter post-eruption phase), which serves to keep the hydrogen burning and the supersoft flux going. The feedback loop cannot be perfectly self-sustaining, so the supersoft flux will decline over time, forcing a decline in the accretion rate and the system brightness. We name this new group after the prototype, V1500 Cyg. V1500 Cyg stars are definitely not progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. The V1500 Cyg stars have similar physical mechanisms and appearances as predicted for nova by the hibernation model, but with this group accounting for only 14% of novae.

  14. Long-lasting increase in axonal excitability after epidurally applied DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Elzbieta; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Bolzoni, Francesco; Hammar, Ingela

    2017-08-01

    Effects of direct current (DC) on nerve fibers have primarily been investigated during or just after DC application. However, locally applied cathodal DC was recently demonstrated to increase the excitability of intraspinal preterminal axonal branches for >1 h. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether DC evokes a similarly long-lasting increase in the excitability of myelinated axons within the dorsal columns. The excitability of dorsal column fibers stimulated epidurally was monitored by recording compound action potentials in peripheral nerves in acute experiments in deeply anesthetized rats. The results show that 1 ) cathodal polarization (0.8-1.0 µA) results in a severalfold increase in the number of epidurally activated fibers and 2 ) the increase in the excitability appears within seconds, 3 ) lasts for >1 h, and 4 ) is activity independent, as it does not require fiber stimulation during the polarization. These features demonstrate an unexplored form of plasticity of myelinated fibers and indicate the conditions under which it develops. They also suggest that therapeutic effects of epidural stimulation may be significantly enhanced if it is combined with DC polarization. In particular, by using DC to increase the number of fibers activated by low-intensity epidural stimuli, the low clinical tolerance to higher stimulus intensities might be overcome. The activity independence of long-lasting DC effects would also allow the use of only brief periods of DC polarization preceding epidural stimulation to increase the effect. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The study indicates a new form of plasticity of myelinated fibers. The differences in time course of DC-evoked increases in the excitability of myelinated nerve fibers in the dorsal columns and in preterminal axonal branches suggest that distinct mechanisms are involved in them. The results show that combining epidural stimulation and transspinal DC polarization may dramatically improve their outcome and

  15. Transmitter-controlled properties of α-motoneurones causing long-lasting motor discharge to brief excitatory inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, J.; Hultborn, H.; Kiehn, O.

    1986-01-01

    Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced ...... flipflops, which are set at one of two levels by short excitatory or inhibitory inputs. However, when the whole motoneuronal pool is considered, many different levels can be maintained by recruitment of new units.......Brief sensory inputs to intact conscious subjects commonly trigger complex long-lasting motor responses, in which higher cerebral mechanisms, or even voluntary action, may be integrative parts. However, long-lasting motor discharge following brief afferent stimulation is also observed in reduced...

  16. Erysipelothrix endocarditis with previous cutaneous lesion: report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion P. Rocha

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first documented case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae endocarditis in Latin America. The patient was a 51-years-old male, moderate alcoholic, with a previous history of aortic failure. He was used to fishing and cooking as a hobby and had his left hand wounded by a fish-bone. The disease began with erysipeloid form and developed to septicemia and endocarditis. He was treated with antibiotics and surgery for aortic valve replacement. There are only 46 cases of E. rhusiopathiae endocarditis reported to date. The authors wonder if several other cases might go unreported for lack of microbiological laboratorial diagnosis.

  17. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by uncontrolled cocaine intake, which is thought to be driven, at least in part, by cocaine-induced deficits in dopamine system function. A decreased ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels has been repeatedly observed as a consequence of cocaine use in humans, and preclinical work has highlighted tolerance to cocaine's effects as a primary determinant in the development of aberrant cocaine taking behaviors. Here we determined that cocaine self-administration in rats produced tolerance to the dopamine transporter-inhibiting effects of cocaine in the nucleus accumbens core, which was normalized following a 14 or 60 d abstinence period; however, although these rats appeared to be similar to controls, a single self-administered infusion of cocaine at the end of abstinence, even after 60 d, fully reinstated tolerance to cocaine's effects. A single cocaine infusion in a naive rat had no effect on cocaine potency, demonstrating that cocaine self-administration leaves the dopamine transporter in a “primed” state, which allows for cocaine-induced plasticity to be reinstated by a subthreshold cocaine exposure. Further, reinstatement of cocaine tolerance was accompanied by decreased cocaine-induced locomotion and escalated cocaine intake despite extended abstinence from cocaine. These data demonstrate that cocaine leaves a long-lasting imprint on the dopamine system that is activated by re-exposure to cocaine. Further, these results provide a potential mechanism for severe cocaine binge episodes, which occur even after sustained abstinence from cocaine, and suggest that treatments aimed at transporter sites may be efficacious in promoting binge termination following relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tolerance is a DSM-V criterion for substance abuse disorders. Abusers consistently show reduced subjective effects of cocaine concomitant with reduced effects of cocaine at its main site of action

  18. Use and acceptance of long lasting insecticidal net screens for dengue prevention in Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catrin H; Benítez-Valladares, David; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Che-Mendoza, Azael; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Selem-Salas, Celia; Chablé-Santos, Juan; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Kroeger, Axel; O'Dempsey, Timothy; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2014-08-14

    Dengue, recognized by the WHO as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in the world, is a growing problem. Currently, the only effective way of preventing dengue is vector control. Standard methods have shown limited effect, and there have been calls to develop new integrated vector management approaches. One novel tool, protecting houses with long lasting insecticidal screens on doors and windows, is being trialled in a cluster randomised controlled trial by a joint UADY/WHO TDR/IDRC study in various districts of Acapulco, Mexico, with exceptionally high levels of crime and insecurity.This study investigated the community's perspectives of long lasting insecticidal screens on doors and windows in homes and in schools, in order to ascertain their acceptability, to identify challenges to further implementation and opportunities for future improvements. This was a sequential mixed-methods study. The quantitative arm contained a satisfaction survey administered to 288 houses that had received the intervention examining their perspectives of both the intervention and dengue prevention in general. The qualitative arm consisted of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with those who had accepted the intervention and key informant interviews with: schoolteachers to discuss the use of the screens in schools, program staff, and community members who had refused the intervention. Overall satisfaction and acceptance of the screens was very high, with only some operational and technical complaints relating to screen fragility and the installation process. However, the wider social context of urban violence and insecurity was a major barrier to screen acceptance. Lack of information dissemination and community collaboration were identified as project weaknesses. The screens are widely accepted by the population, but the project implementation could be improved by reassuring the community of its legitimacy in the context of insecurity. More community engagement and better

  19. Basal Ganglia Activity Mirrors a Benefit of Action and Reward on Long-Lasting Event Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Raphael; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-12-01

    The expectation of reward is known to enhance a consolidation of long-term memory for events. We tested whether this effect is driven by positive valence or action requirements tied to expected reward. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm in young adults, novel images predicted gain or loss outcomes, which in turn were either obtained or avoided by action or inaction. After 24 h, memory for these images reflected a benefit of action as well as a congruence of action requirements and valence, namely, action for reward and inaction for avoidance. fMRI responses in the hippocampus, a region known to be critical for long-term memory function, reflected the anticipation of inaction. In contrast, activity in the putamen mirrored the congruence of action requirement and valence, whereas other basal ganglia regions mirrored overall action benefits on long-lasting memory. The findings indicate a novel type of functional division between the hippocampus and the basal ganglia in the motivational regulation of long-term memory consolidation, which favors remembering events that are worth acting for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Long-lasting solar energetic electron injection during the 26 Dec 2013 widespread SEP event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Klassen, A.; Temmer, M.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Veronig, A.

    2017-12-01

    The solar energetic particle (SEP) event on 26 Dec 2013 was detected all around the Sun by the two STEREO spacecraft and close-to-Earth observers. While the two STEREOs were separated by 59 degrees and situated at the front side of the associated large coronal event, it was a backside-event for Earth. Nevertheless, significant and long-lasting solar energetic electron anisotropies together with long rise times were observed at all three viewpoints, pointing to an extended electron injection. Although the CME-driven shock appears to account for the SEP event at a first glance a more detailed view reveals a more complex scenario: A CME-CME interaction takes place during the very early phase of the SEP event. Furthermore, four hours after the onset of the event, a second component is measured at all three viewpoints on top of the first SEP increase, mainly consisting of high energy particles. We find that the CME-driven shock alone can hardly account for the observed SEP event in total but a trapping scenario together with ongoing particle acceleration is more likely.

  1. Doping and musculoskeletal system: short-term and long-lasting effects of doping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios D; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Theocharis, Stamatios E

    2011-10-01

    Doping is a problem that has plagued the world of competition and sports for ages. Even before the dawn of Olympic history in ancient Greece, competitors have looked for artificial means to improve athletic performance. Since ancient times, athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A Prohibited List of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, β₂-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. Apart from the unethical aspect of doping, as it abrogates fair-play's principle, it is extremely important to consider the hazards it presents to the health and well-being of athletes. The referred negative effects for the athlete's health have to do, on the one hand, by the high doses of the performance-enhancing agents and on the other hand, by the relentless, superhuman strict training that the elite or amateur athletes put their muscles, bones, and joints. The purpose of this article is to highlight the early and the long-lasting consequences of the doping abuse on bone and muscle metabolism. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. Long-lasting amelioration of walking trajectory in neglect after prismatic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eRabuffetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation we explored the effect of prismatic adaptation (PA applied to the upper right limb on the walking trajectory of a neglect patient with more severe neglect in far than in near space. The patient was asked to bisect a line fixed to the floor by walking across it before and after four sessions of PA distributed over a time frame of 67 days. Gait path was analysed by means of an optoelectronic motion analysis system.The walking trajectory improved following PA and the result was maintained at follow-up, fifteen months after treatment. The improvement was greater for the predicted bisection error (estimated on the basis of the trajectory extrapolated from the first walking step then for the observed bisection error (measured at line crossing.These results show that PA may act on high level spatial representation of gait trajectory rather than on lower level sensory-motor gait components and suggest that PA may have a long lasting rehabilitative effect on neglect patients showing a deviated walking trajectory.

  3. Maternal-pup interaction disturbances induce long-lasting changes in the newborn rat pulmonary vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Yulia; Sadeghi, Sina; Pan, Jingyi; Jain, Amish; Fajardo, Andres F; McNamara, Patrick J; Belik, Jaques

    2015-11-15

    The factors accounting for the pathological maintenance of a high pulmonary vascular (PV) resistance postnatally remain elusive, but neonatal stressors may play a role in this process. Cross-fostering in the immediate neonatal period is associated with adult-onset vascular and behavioral changes, likely triggered by early-in-life stressors. In hypothesizing that fostering newborn rats induces long-lasting PV changes, we evaluated them at 14 days of age during adulthood and compared the findings with animals raised by their biological mothers. Fostering resulted in reduced maternal-pup contact time when compared with control newborns. At 2 wk of age, fostered rats exhibited reduced pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation secondary to downregulation of tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency-induced uncoupling. These changes were associated with neonatal onset-increased ANG II receptor type 1 expression, PV remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that persisted into adulthood. The pulmonary arteries of adult-fostered rats exhibited a higher contraction dose response to ANG II and thromboxane A2, the latter of which was abrogated by the oxidant scavenger Tempol. In conclusion, fostering-induced neonatal stress induces long-standing PV changes modulated via the renin-angiotensin system. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. A Beautician’s Dystonia: Long-Lasting Effect of Botulinum Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siria Di Martino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment options for dystonia are not curative but symptomatic; the treatment of choice for focal dystonias is repeated botulinum toxin injections. Here, we present the case of a 46-year-old beautician with focal dystonia in her left hand that affected her ability to work. Pharmacological treatment with clonazepam and gabapentin failed to resolve her symptoms and was discontinued due to side effects (sleepiness, gastrointestinal disorders. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (incobotulinumtoxinA, Xeomin into the extensor digitorum communis (35 U, flexor carpi radialis (35 U, and flexor digitorum superficialis (30 U muscles resulted in complete resolution of symptoms at clinical assessments at 1, 3, 6, and 10 months after the injections, confirmed by the results of surface electromyography 10 months after treatment. The patient was able to work again 1 month after treatment. No reinjection has been necessary at the last evaluation (12 months after treatment. In conclusion, botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for focal dystonia that can have long-lasting effects and can improve patients’ ability to work and quality of life.

  5. Evaluation of new tools for malaria vector control in Cameroon: focus on long lasting insecticidal nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Etang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From 2006 to 2011, biological activity of insecticides for Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS, conventional treatment of nets (CTNs or long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs was evaluated before their approval in Cameroon. The objective of the study was to select the best tools for universal malaria vector control coverage. METHODOLOGY: Bioassays were performed using WHO cones and the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Among tested products, residual activity and wash resistance of Alpha-cypermethrin LLINs (Interceptor and CTNs (Fendona were assessed during 5 months in the Ntougou neighborhood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All the 14 tested products were found effective (95-100% knockdown and mortality rates, although a significant decrease of efficacy was seen with lambda-cyhalothrinWP IRS, alpha-cypermethrin CTNs and LLINs (p< 0.05. However, the efficacy of Interceptor nets did not decrease during the 5 months evaluation, even after 25 washes (0.07

  6. Long-lasting hippocampal synaptic protein loss in a mouse model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Herrmann

    Full Text Available Despite intensive research efforts, the molecular pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and especially of the hippocampal volume loss found in the majority of patients suffering from this anxiety disease still remains elusive. We demonstrated before that trauma-induced hippocampal shrinkage can also be observed in mice exhibiting a PTSD-like syndrome. Aiming to decipher the molecular correlates of these trans-species posttraumatic hippocampal alterations, we compared the expression levels of a set of neurostructural marker proteins between traumatized and control mice at different time points after their subjection to either an electric footshock or mock treatment which was followed by stressful re-exposure in several experimental groups. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic in vivo study analyzing the long-term neuromolecular sequelae of acute traumatic stress combined with re-exposure. We show here that a PTSD-like syndrome in mice is accompanied by a long-lasting reduction of hippocampal synaptic proteins which interestingly correlates with the strength of the generalized and conditioned fear response but not with the intensity of hyperarousal symptoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine is able to counteract both the PTSD-like syndrome and the posttraumatic synaptic protein loss. Taken together, this study demonstrates for the first time that a loss of hippocampal synaptic proteins is associated with a PTSD-like syndrome in mice. Further studies will have to reveal whether these findings are transferable to PTSD patients.

  7. Long-Lasting Cranial Nerve III Palsy as a Presenting Feature of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Spataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP in which an adduction deficit and ptosis in the left eye presented several years before the polyneuropathy. A 52-year-old man presented with a 14-year history of unremitting diplopia, adduction deficit, and ptosis in the left eye. At the age of 45 a mild bilateral foot drop and impaired sensation in the four limbs appeared, with these symptoms showing a progressive course. The diagnostic workup included EMG/ENG which demonstrated reduced conduction velocity with bilateral and symmetrical sensory and motor involvement. Cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed a cytoalbuminologic dissociation. A prolonged treatment with corticosteroids allowed a significant improvement of the limb weakness. Diplopia and ptosis remained unchanged. This unusual form of CIDP presented as a long-lasting isolated cranial nerve palsy. A diagnostic workup for CIDP should therefore be performed in those patients in which an isolated and unremitting cranial nerve palsy cannot be explained by common causes.

  8. Granulomatous lobular mastitis: report of a case with previously undescribed histopathological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, R A; Reasbeck, P

    1988-10-01

    A 41-yr-old multiparous woman presented with a discrete breast lump which proved histologically to be an example of granulomatous lobular mastitis. The clinical and histological features were similar to those noted in previous reports. Additional histological features in the present case were an intense mononuclear cell infiltration of lobular and ductal epithelium, associated with nuclear fragments morphologically suggestive of apoptosis. These appearances, which have not previously been described, are illustrated, together with the more classical features of the condition well demonstrated by the present case. The novel histological features noted here suggest that the development of granulomatous lobular mastitis may be at least in part immunologically mediated, and that the cellular infiltrates seen may be a manifestation of cell-mediated destruction of mammary epithelium.

  9. Eikenella corrodens endocarditis and liver abscess in a previously healthy male, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Vøgg, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta; Permin, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male. CASE PRESENTATION...... on pneumonia treatment, a PET-CT scan was performed, which showed a large multiloculated abscess in the liver. The abscess was drained using ultrasound guidance. Culture demonstrated Eikenella corrodens. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed aortic endocarditis. The patient was treated with antibiotics...... corrodens concurrent liver abscess and endocarditis. The case report highlights that Eikenella corrodens should be considered as a cause of liver abscess. Empirical treatment of pyogenic liver abscess will most often cover Eikenella corrodens, but the recommended treatment is a third generation...

  10. Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Freeman

    Full Text Available Causes of phenotypic variation are fundamental to evolutionary ecology because they influence the traits acted upon by natural selection. One such cause of phenotypic variation is a maternal effect, which is the influence of the environment experienced by a female (and her corresponding phenotype on the phenotype of her offspring (independent of the offspring's genotype. While maternal effects are well documented, the longevity and fitness impact of these effects remains unclear because it is difficult to follow free-living individuals through their reproductive lifetimes. For long-lived species, it has been suggested that maternal effects are masked by environmental variables acting on offspring in years following the period of dependence. Our objective was to use indirect measures of maternal condition to determine if maternal effects have long-lasting influences on male offspring in two species of cervid. Because antlers are sexually selected, we used measures of antler size at time of death, 1.5-21.5 years after gestation to investigate maternal effects. We quantified antler size of 11,000 male elk and mule deer born throughout the intermountain western US (6 states over nearly 30 years. Maternal condition during development was estimated indirectly using a suite of abiotic variables known to influence condition of cervids (i.e., winter severity, spring and summer temperature, and spring and summer precipitation. Antler size of male cervids was significantly associated with our indirect measure of maternal condition during gestation and lactation. Assuming the correctness of our indirect measure, our findings demonstrate that antler size is a sexually selected trait that is influenced-into adulthood-by maternal condition. This link emphasizes the importance of considering inherited environmental effects when interpreting population dynamics or examining reproductive success of long-lived organisms.

  11. Long-lasting effect of NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on ethanol-cue association and relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Olevska, Anastasia; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that the glutamatergic system plays a crucial role in alcohol addiction and especially in relapse-like behaviour. However, results of clinical studies on compounds that influence the activity of the glutamatergic system have been disappointing so far. The aim of our study was to establish treatment conditions under which the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist memantine may produce more reliable treatment effect with respect to alcohol relapse-like behaviour. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were trained to associate several discrete stimuli with ethanol delivery. Thereafter, half of the animals received a brief memory reactivation session followed by two administrations of 20 mg/kg of memantine, while the other half received the same treatment without memory reactivation. Afterwards, a cue-induced ethanol-seeking behaviour test was performed followed by repeated extinction sessions and a reacquisition test. Our data show that administration of memantine reduced responding on the ethanol-associated lever in a cue-induced ethanol-seeking test. This reduction did not depend on whether or not a memory reactivation session was introduced prior to memantine administration. Following extinction, however, reacquisition of ethanol self-administration was only impaired in the group where memantine was given after a short memory reactivation session, showing that this schedule of drug administration produced a long-lasting disruption of the association between the conditioned stimuli and the delivery of ethanol. In conclusion, we show that memantine disrupted the drug-cue association, which consequently interfered with relapse-like behaviour supporting the possibility that memantine is a treatment option for alcoholism. Our data supports the possibility that memantine is a treatment option for alcoholism. However, the effectiveness of this drug seems to lie in its ability to disrupt conditioned behaviours and should be given in conjunction

  12. Inter-tester reliability of selected clinical tests for long-lasting temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julsvoll, Elisabeth Heggem; Vøllestad, Nina Køpke; Opseth, Gro; Robinson, Hilde Stendal

    2017-09-01

    Clinical tests used to examine patients with temporomandibular disorders vary in methodological quality, and some are not tested for reliability. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate inter-tester reliability of clinical tests and a cluster of tests used to examine patients with long-lasting temporomandibular disorders. Forty patients with pain in the temporomandibular area treated by health-professionals were included. They were between 18-70 years, had 65 symptomatic (33 right/32 left) and 15 asymptomatic joints. Two manual therapists examined all participants with selected tests. Percentage agreement and the kappa coefficient ( k ) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the tests with categorical outcomes. For tests with continuous outcomes, the relative inter-tester reliability was assessed by the intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC 3,1 , 95% CI) and the absolute reliability was calculated by the smallest detectable change (SDC). The best reliability among single tests was found for the dental stick test, the joint-sound test ( k  = 0.80-1.0) and range of mouth-opening (ICC 3,1 (95% CI) = 0.97 (0.95-0.98) and SDC = 4 mm). The reliability of cluster of tests was excellent with both four and five positive tests out of seven. The reliability was good to excellent for the clinical tests and the cluster of tests when performed by experienced therapists. The tests are feasible for use in the clinical setting. They require no advanced equipment and are easy to perform.

  13. Long-lasting cerebral functional changes following moderate dose x-radiation treatment to the scalp in childhood: an electroencephalographic power spectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, I.; Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Rinott, Y.; Yaar, M.; Modan, M.

    1982-01-01

    EEG tracings were compared in 44 young adults who received scalp x-radiation treatment for tinea capitis during childhood and 59 non-irradiated control subjects. The irradiated subjects were exposed, over 20 years previously, to a mean dose of 130 rads to the brain. Visual analysis of the EEG revealed an insignificant excess of abnormalities among the irradiated subjects compared to the controls. Power spectral density function analysis showed increased power values among the irradiated subjects, particularly in the beta wave frequencies. This finding provides further evidence for suspecting that x-irradiation during brain maturation may cause long-lasting damage to the brain tissue. (author)

  14. Impact of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets on childhood malaria morbidity: The Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sodahlon Yao K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An evaluation of the short-term impact on childhood malaria morbidity of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs to households with children aged 9-59 months as part of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign. Methods The prevalence of anaemia and malaria in children aged zero to 59 months was measured during two cross-sectional household cluster-sample surveys conducted during the peak malaria transmission, three months before (Sept 2004, n = 2521 and nine months after the campaign (Sept 2005, n = 2813 in three districts representative of Togo's three epidemiological malaria transmission regions: southern tropical coastal plains (Yoto, central fertile highlands (Ogou and northern semi-arid savannah (Tone. Results In households with children 65% in all 3 districts. Reported ITN use by children during the previous night was 35.9%, 43.8% and 80.6% in Yoto, Ogou and Tone, respectively. Rainfall patterns were comparable in both years. The overall prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia (Hb The effect was predominantly seen in children aged 18-59 months and in the two southern districts: PR (95% CI for moderate to severe anaemia and clinical malaria: Yoto 0.62 (0.44-0.88 and 0.49 (0.35-0.75; Ogou 0.54 (0.37-0.79 and 0.85 (0.57-1.27, respectively. Similar reductions occurred in children Conclusions A marked reduction in childhood malaria associated morbidity was observed in the year following mass distribution of free LLINs in two of the three districts in Togo. Sub-national level impact evaluations will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of expanding national malaria control efforts.

  15. Effectiveness of a new long-lasting insecticidal nets delivery model in two rural districts of Mozambique: a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge A H; Candrinho, Baltazar; Mendis, Chandana; Varela, Pablo; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2018-02-05

    In 2015, Mozambique piloted a new model of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) delivery in a campaign. The new delivery model was used in two rural districts were, and two others were considered as control, maintaining the old delivery model. The aim of this study is to compare the coverage of ownership and use of LLINs in intervention and control districts in Mozambique. A before-after design with control group was carried out 6 months after LLINs distribution. Using systematic probabilistic sampling, 1547 households were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. To find associations between the district categories (intervention and control) and the main outcomes of the study (LLIN ownership, use, and universal coverage achievement), odds ratio (OR) and respective confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 760 households surveyed in the intervention districts, 98.8% had at least one LLIN; of the 787 households surveyed in the control districts, 89.6% had at least one LLIN [OR: 9.7, 95% (CI 4.84-19.46)]. Around 95 and 87% of households owning at least one LLIN reported having slept under the LLIN the previous night in the intervention and control districts, respectively [OR: 3.2; 95% (CI 2.12-4.69)]. Seventy-one percent of the households surveyed achieved universal coverage in the intervention districts against 59.6% in the control districts [OR: 1.6; 95% (CI 1.33-2.03)]. The universal coverage campaign piloted with the new delivery model has increased LLINs ownership, use, and progression for reaching universal coverage targets in the community.

  16. System effectiveness of a targeted free mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Ali K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITN and long-lasting insecticidal treated nets (LLIN are important means of malaria prevention. Although there is consensus regarding their importance, there is uncertainty as to which delivery strategies are optimal for dispensing these life saving interventions. A targeted mass distribution of free LLINs to children under five and pregnant women was implemented in Zanzibar between August 2005 and January 2006. The outcomes of this distribution among children under five were evaluated, four to nine months after implementation. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in May 2006 in two districts of Zanzibar: Micheweni (MI on Pemba Island and North A (NA on Unguja Island. Household interviews were conducted with 509 caretakers of under-five children, who were surveyed for socio-economic status, the net distribution process, perceptions and use of bed nets. Each step in the distribution process was assessed in all children one to five years of age for unconditional and conditional proportion of success. System effectiveness (the accumulated proportion of success and equity effectiveness were calculated, and predictors for LLIN use were identified. Results The overall proportion of children under five sleeping under any type of treated net was 83.7% (318/380 in MI and 91.8% (357/389 in NA. The LLIN usage was 56.8% (216/380 in MI and 86.9% (338/389 in NA. Overall system effectiveness was 49% in MI and 87% in NA, and equity was found in the distribution scale-up in NA. In both districts, the predicting factor of a child sleeping under an LLIN was caretakers thinking that LLINs are better than conventional nets (OR = 2.8, p = 0.005 in MI and 2.5, p = 0.041 in NA, in addition to receiving an LLIN (OR = 4.9, p Conclusions Targeted free mass distribution of LLINs can result in high and equitable bed net coverage among children under five. However, in order to sustain high effective coverage, there

  17. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masum, Hassan; Shah, Ronak; Schroeder, Karl; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2010-12-13

    Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs) due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews.This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z's ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme) certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to readers in the malaria community, especially in developing

  18. Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Field trials have demonstrated the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets, and the WHO has recently endorsed a shift toward Long-Lasting Insecticide Treated nets (LLINs due to factors such as reduced distribution costs. However, the need for LLINs poses several challenges. Is it possible to manufacture LLINs in large quantities in the African continent, where malaria is most endemic? When production is located in low-income countries, what role is played by local funding and employment, scaling up manufacturing, and partnerships? What factors influence availability and pricing? Discussion A case study of A to Z Textiles was undertaken to answer the question of how large-scale production of LLINs can occur in a low income setting. One of the largest sources of bed nets for Africa, A to Z Textiles is Africa-based, and its Tanzanian operations have a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, along with full WHO recommendation for its nets. Our analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with key informants familiar with A to Z, site visits in Tanzania, and literature reviews. This paper discusses the history and current status of A to Z Textiles, identifies the factors that led to its success, and suggests policy considerations that could support similar initiatives in the future. Local funding, scaling up manufacturing, technology transfer, and partnerships all played important roles in A to Z’s ascent, as did perceived benefits of local employment and capacity-building. Regulatory issues and procurement rules acted as barriers. A to Z cost-effectively manufactures high-quality LLINs where malaria is most endemic. Summary With a production capacity of 30 million LLINs per year, and full WHOPES (WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme certification, A to Z Textiles demonstrates how key health goods can be successfully produced in the low-income countries that use them. Its example may be instructive and of high interest to

  19. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbachu Chinyere O

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. Results It was found that 80.5 % of the households had an LLIN and 64.4 % of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3 % of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5 % of children ≪5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1–5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. Conclusions The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  20. Examining equity in access to long-lasting insecticide nets and artemisinin-based combination therapy in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere O; Onwujekwe, Obinna E; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C; Uchegbu, Eloka; Oranuba, Joseph; Ilika, Amobi L

    2012-05-22

    In order to achieve universal health coverage, the government of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria has distributed free Long-lasting Insecticide treated Nets (LLINs) to the general population and delivered free Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to pregnant women and children less than 5 years. However, the levels of coverage with LLINS and ACTs is not clear, especially coverage of different socio-economic status (SES) population groups. This study was carried out to determine the level of coverage and access to LLINs and ACTs amongst different SES groups. A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected households in 19 local government areas of the State. Selected households had a pregnant woman and/or a child less than 5 years. The lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology was used in sampling. The questionnaire explored the availability and utilization of LLINs and ACTs from 2394 households. An asset-based SES index was used to examine the level of access of LLINS and ACTs to different SES quintiles. It was found that 80.5% of the households had an LLIN and 64.4% of the households stated that they actually used the nets the previous night. The findings showed that 42.3% of pregnant women who had fever within the past month received ACTs, while 37.5% of children<5 years old who had malaria in the past month had received ACTs. There was equity in ownership of nets for the range 1-5 nets per household. No significant SES difference was found in use of ACTs for treatment of malaria in children under five years old and in pregnant women. The free distribution of LLINs and ACTs increased household coverage of both malaria control interventions and bridged the equity gap in access to them among the most vulnerable groups.

  1. A previously unreported variant of the synostotic sagittal suture: Case report and review of salient literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison Budinich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sagittal synostosis is a rare congenital disease caused by the premature fusion of the sagittal suture. Craniosynostosis occurs for a variety of reasons, different for every case, and often the etiology is unclear but the anomaly can frequently be seen as part of Crouzon's or Apert's syndromes. Herein, we discuss a rare case of craniosynostosis where the patient presented with a, to our knowledge, a previously undescribed variant of sagittal synostosis. Case report: A 3-month-old female infant presented to a craniofacial clinic for a consultation regarding an abnormal head shape. Images of the skull were performed, demonstrating that the patient had craniosynostosis. The patient displayed no other significant symptoms besides abnormalities in head shape. The sagittal suture was found to extend into the occipital bone where it was synostotic. Conclusion: To our knowledge, a synostotic sagittal suture has not been reported that extended posteriorly it involve the occipital bone. Those who interpret imaging or operate on this part of the skull should consider such a variation. Keywords: Anatomy, Craniosynostosis, Skull, Malformation, Pediatrics

  2. Mobility of adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) after exposure to long-lasting insecticide netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored products represent an enormous economic output, but insects regularly immigrate into stored products from the surrounding landscape throughout the post-harvest supply chain. Long-lasting insecticide netting (LLIN), which usually contains an impregnated pyrethroid, has been used as part of a s...

  3. Severe and long-lasting diarrhea not recognized as adverse effect of metformin : A description of three elderly patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefeber, G.; Jansen, P.; Van Puijenbroek, E.

    Background.- As a result of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), metformin became the first choice drug for patients with diabetes. In 2009 three patients were admitted to our geriatric department for analysis of disabling long-lasting diarrhea. Metformin as causative agent was

  4. Determining and addressing obstacles to the effective use of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benziger Peter W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this project was to achieve high, sustainable levels of net coverage in a village in rural Tanzania by combining free distribution of long-lasting insecticide-impregnated nets (LLINs with community-tailored education. In Tanzania, malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although malaria bed nets have a well-established role in reducing disease burden, few rural households have access to nets, and effective use depends on personal practices and attitudes. Methods Five practices and attitudes inconsistent with effective LLIN use were identified from household interviews (n = 10. A randomized survey of villagers (n = 132 verified local prevalence of these practices and attitudes. Community leaders held an educational session for two members of every household addressing these practice and attitudes, demonstrating proper LLIN use, and emphasizing behaviour modification. Attendees received one or two LLINs per household. Surveys distributed three weeks (n = 104 and 15 months (n = 104 post-intervention assessed corrected practices and attitudes. Project efficacy was defined by correction of baseline practices and attitudes as well as high rates of reported daily net use, with statistical significance determined by chi-square test. Results Baseline interviews and surveys revealed incorrect practices and attitudes regarding 1 use of nets in dry season, 2 need to retreat LLINs, 3 children napping under nets, 4 need to repair nets, and 5 net procurement as a priority, with 53- 88.6% incorrect responses (11.4-47% correct responses. A three-week follow-up demonstrated 83-95% correct responses. Fifteen-month follow-up showed statistically significant (p Conclusions Results suggest that addressing community-specific practices and attitudes prior to LLIN distribution promotes consistent and correct use, and helps change attitudes towards bed nets as a preventative health measure. Future LLIN distributions

  5. Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) and infantile autism: Absence of previously reported point mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fon, E.A.; Sarrazin, J.; Rouleau, G.A. [Montreal General Hospital (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Autism is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome of unknown etiology. There is evidence that a deficiency in the enzyme adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL), essential for de novo purine biosynthesis, could be involved in the pathogenesis of certain cases. A point mutation in the ADSL gene, resulting in a predicted serine-to-proline substitution and conferring structural instability to the mutant enzyme, has been reported previously in 3 affected siblings. In order to determine the prevalence of the mutation, we PCR-amplified the exon spanning the site of this mutation from the genomic DNA of patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for autistic disorder. None of the 119 patients tested were found to have this mutation. Furthermore, on preliminary screening using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), no novel mutations were detected in the coding sequence of four ADSL exons, spanning approximately 50% of the cDNA. In light of these findings, it appears that mutations in the ADSL gene represent a distinctly uncommon cause of autism. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Prediction of performance in Vasaloppet through long lasting ski- ergometer and rollerski tests in cross-country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Erik; Wulff, Kristian; Jensen, Mads Rosenkilde

    2015-01-01

    -ergometer and Rollerski field tests correlate strongly with performance in Vasaloppet and therefore might be useful test tools for recreational skiers who wish to participate in long lasting c-c competitions. Keywords: Cross-country ski training, Upper body, Exercise intensity, Field test, Body composition blood lactate......The main purpose was to investigate if long lasting cross-country (c-c) test procedures could predict performance time in ‘Vasaloppet’ and secondly the effect of a 16 weeks training period on a 90 min double poling performance test. 24 moderate trained c-c skiers participated in the study...... and completed Vasaloppet. All skiers carried out pre and post training tests in a 90 minutes ski-ergometer double poling test and a 120 minutes rollerski field test on a closed paved circuit. 19 skiers provided detailed training logs that could sufficiently establish their training preparation for Vasaloppet...

  7. Mechanisms of translation control underlying long-lasting synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; Klann, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of memory formation and its persistence is a phenomenon that has been studied intensely for centuries. Memory exists in many forms and is stored in various brain regions. Generally speaking, memories are reorganized into broadly distributed cortical networks over time through systems level consolidation. At the cellular level, storage of information is believed to initially occur via altered synaptic strength by processes such as long-term potentiation. New protein synthesis is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity as well as for the formation of long-term memory. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of cap-dependent protein synthesis and is required for numerous forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. As such, the study of mTORC1 and protein factors that control translation initiation and elongation has enhanced our understanding of how the process of protein synthesis is regulated during memory formation. Herein we discuss the molecular mechanisms that regulate protein synthesis as well as pharmacological and genetic manipulations that demonstrate the requirement for proper translational control in long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory formation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. IGF-II promotes neuroprotection and neuroplasticity recovery in a long-lasting model of oxidative damage induced by glucocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Montañez, E; Millon, C; Boraldi, F; Garcia-Guirado, F; Pedraza, C; Lara, E; Santin, L J; Pavia, J; Garcia-Fernandez, M

    2017-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a naturally occurring hormone that exerts neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases and ageing. Accumulating evidence suggests that the effects of IGF-II in the brain may be explained by its binding to the specific transmembrane receptor, IGFII/M6P receptor (IGF-IIR). However, relatively little is known regarding the role of IGF-II through IGF-IIR in neuroprotection. Here, using adult cortical neuronal cultures, we investigated whether IGF-II exhibits long-term antioxidant effects and neuroprotection at the synaptic level after oxidative damage induced by high and transient levels of corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, the involvement of the IGF-IIR was also studied to elucidate its role in the neuroprotective actions of IGF-II. We found that neurons treated with IGF-II after CORT incubation showed reduced oxidative stress damage and recovered antioxidant status (normalized total antioxidant status, lipid hydroperoxides and NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase activity). Similar results were obtained when mitochondria function was analysed (cytochrome c oxidase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and subcellular mitochondrial distribution). Furthermore, neuronal impairment and degeneration were also assessed (synaptophysin and PSD-95 expression, presynaptic function and FluoroJade B® stain). IGF-II was also able to recover the long-lasting neuronal cell damage. Finally, the effects of IGF-II were not blocked by an IGF-IR antagonist, suggesting the involvement of IGF-IIR. Altogether these results suggest that, in or model, IGF-II through IGF-IIR is able to revert the oxidative damage induced by CORT. In accordance with the neuroprotective role of the IGF-II/IGF-IIR reported in our study, pharmacotherapy approaches targeting this pathway may be useful for the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive deficits (i.e., neurodegenerative disorders, depression, etc

  9. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M B; Tang, L; Zebis, M K; Krustrup, P; Hölmich, P; Wedderkopp, N; Andersen, L L; Christensen, K B; Møller, M; Thorborg, K

    2016-08-01

    Knee injuries are common in adolescent female football. Self-reported previous knee injury and low Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) are proposed to predict future knee injuries, but evidence regarding this in adolescent female football is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale score as risk factors for future knee injuries in adolescent female football. A sample of 326 adolescent female football players, aged 15-18, without knee injury at baseline, were included. Data on self-reported previous knee injury and KOOS questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (female football. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A case report: mixed thrombus formation in a previously sutured right atrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunfei, Ling; Dongxu, Li; Shuhua, Luo; Yabo, Wang; San, Deep; Changping, Gan; Ke, Lin; Qi, An

    2014-08-01

    We describe the case of a 19-year-old Chinese woman who nine months prior underwent repair of an atrial septal defect and came to our hospital with a right atrial mass attached to the anterior wall of the right atrium on transthoracic echocardiography. Pathologic examination revealed the mass was a mixed-type thrombosis with some unusual organization, which previously was not described in literature.

  11. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers: report of previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress over the course of the Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study is reported. The derivation of the study population, the gathering of health histories, the US Navy radiation protection program, and the determination of radiation exposures is described

  12. Absence of psilocybin in species of fungi previously reported to contain psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seven taxa of agarics reported in literature to contain psilocybin (viz. Psathyrella candolleana, Gymnopilus spectabilis, G. fulgens, Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina and var. californica, Rickenella fibula, R. swartzii) have been analysed for psilocybin and related tryptamines with negative results.

  13. Absence of psilocybin in species of fungi previously reported to contain psilocybin and related tryptamine derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th.W.

    1988-01-01

    Seven taxa of agarics reported in literature to contain psilocybin (viz. Psathyrella candolleana, Gymnopilus spectabilis, G. fulgens, Hygrocybe psittacina var. psittacina and var. californica, Rickenella fibula, R. swartzii) have been analysed for psilocybin and related tryptamines with negative

  14. Chronic Methamphetamine Exposure Produces a Delayed, Long-Lasting Memory Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    North, Ashley; Swant, Jarod; Salvatore, Michael F.; Gamble-George, Joyonna; Prins, Petra; Butler, Brittany; Mittal, Mukul K.; Heltsley, Rebecca; Clark, John T.; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive and neurotoxic psychostimulant. Its use in humans is often associated with neurocognitive impairment. Whether this is due to long-term deficits in short-term memory and/or hippocampal plasticity remains unclear. Recently, we reported that METH increases baseline synaptic transmission and reduces LTP in an ex vivo preparation of the hippocampal CA1 region from young mice. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a repeated neurotoxic regi...

  15. Early uneven ear input induces long-lasting differences in left-right motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Arezzo, Joseph C; Zukin, R Suzanne; Borkholder, David A; Jones, Sherri M; Frisina, Robert D; Hébert, Jean M

    2018-03-01

    How asymmetries in motor behavior become established normally or atypically in mammals remains unclear. An established model for motor asymmetry that is conserved across mammals can be obtained by experimentally inducing asymmetric striatal dopamine activity. However, the factors that can cause motor asymmetries in the absence of experimental manipulations to the brain remain unknown. Here, we show that mice with inner ear dysfunction display a robust left or right rotational preference, and this motor preference reflects an atypical asymmetry in cortico-striatal neurotransmission. By unilaterally targeting striatal activity with an antagonist of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a downstream integrator of striatal neurotransmitter signaling, we can reverse or exaggerate rotational preference in these mice. By surgically biasing vestibular failure to one ear, we can dictate the direction of motor preference, illustrating the influence of uneven vestibular failure in establishing the outward asymmetries in motor preference. The inner ear-induced striatal asymmetries identified here intersect with non-ear-induced asymmetries previously linked to lateralized motor behavior across species and suggest that aspects of left-right brain function in mammals can be ontogenetically influenced by inner ear input. Consistent with inner ear input contributing to motor asymmetry, we also show that, in humans with normal ear function, the motor-dominant hemisphere, measured as handedness, is ipsilateral to the ear with weaker vestibular input.

  16. Groin Problems in Male Soccer Players Are More Common Than Previously Reported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harøy, Joar; Clarsen, Ben; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    surveillance method developed to capture acute and overuse problems. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: We registered groin problems during a 6-week period of match congestion using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. A total of 240 players from 15 teams......BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus......, the magnitude of groin problems in soccer has probably been underestimated in previous studies based on traditional injury surveillance methods. PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of groin problems among soccer players of both sexes and among male soccer players at different levels of play through a new...

  17. Long-lasting ovulation inhibition with a new injectable progestagen ORG-2154.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, E M; De Souza, J C; Barbosa, I C; Dourado Silva, V

    1982-06-01

    A new long-acting injectable progestagen was tested in 15 women who volunteered for the study. The occurrence of ovulation was assumed by the elevation of progesterone levels above 2ng/ml following a pre-ovulatory estradiol peak. Following a 200mg injection, ovulation was inhibited in all 15 women for five to ten months. In four subjects the interval between the injection and the first progesterone peak was five months. For eight, the interval was six to eight months. In the other three women, ovulation occurred more than eight months following injection. Bleeding episodes, similar to menstruation, occurred in most patients. Bleeding intervals lasting longer than 45 days occurred in nine subjects but more prolonged amenorrhea lasting longer than 60 days was reported by only five subjects. Blood chemistry which included blood cell counts, cholesterol, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, urea nitrogen and creatinine remained within normal limits throughout the treatment.

  18. Long-lasting and transgenerational effects of an environmental enrichment on memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Junko A; Feig, Larry A

    2011-04-25

    It has long been believed that genetically determined, but not environmentally acquired, phenotypes can be inherited. However, a large number of recent studies have reported that phenotypes acquired from an animal's environment can be transmitted to the next generation. Moreover, epidemiology studies have hinted that a similar phenomenon occurs in humans. This type of inheritance does not involve gene mutations that change DNA sequence. Instead, it is thought that epigenetic changes in chromatin, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, occur. In this review, we will focus on one exciting new example of this phenomenon, transfer across generations of enhanced synaptic plasticity and memory formation induced by exposure to an "enriched" environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury Vapour Long-Lasting Exposure: Lymphocyte Muscarinic Receptors as Neurochemical Markers of Accidental Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic poisoning may result in home setting after mercury (Hg vapours inhalation from damaged devices. We report a chronic, nonoccupational Hg poisoning due to 10-year indoor exposure to mercury spillage. Case Report. A 72-year-old man with polyneuropathy of suspected toxic origin. At hospitalization, toxicological clinical evaluations confirmed the altered neurological picture documented across the last decade. Periodic blood and urine Hg levels (BHg, UHg monitoring were performed from admission (t0, until 1 year later (t2, paralleled by blood neurochemical markers assessment, that is, lymphocytes muscarinic receptors (l-MRs. At t0: BHg and UHg were 27 and 1.4 microg/L, respectively (normal values: BHg 1–4.5; UHg 0.1–4.5, associated with l-MRs increase, 185.82 femtomoL/million lymphocytes (normal range: 8.0–16.0. At t1 (two days after DMSA-mobilization test, BHg weak reduction, paralleled by UHg 3.7-fold increase, was measured together with further l-MRs enhancement (205.43 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. At t2 (eight months after two cycles of DMSA chelating therapy ending, gradual improving of clinical manifestations was accompanied by progressive decrease of BHg and UHg (4.0 and 2.8 microg/L, resp. and peripheral l-MRs neurochemical marker (24.89 femtomoL/million lymphocytes. Conclusion. l-MRs modulatory effect supports their use as peripheral neurochemical marker in Hg poisoning diagnosis and chelation therapy monitoring.

  20. Chronic pain associated with the Chikungunya Fever: long lasting burden of an acute illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallel Radhouane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is responsible for major epidemics worldwide. Autochthonous cases were recently reported in several European countries. Acute infection is thought to be monophasic. However reports on chronic pain related to CHIKV infection have been made. In particular, the fact that many of these patients do not respond well to usual analgesics suggests that the nature of chronic pain may be not only nociceptive but also neuropathic. Neuropathic pain syndromes require specific treatment and the identification of neuropathic characteristics (NC in a pain syndrome is a major step towards pain control. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study at the end of the major two-wave outbreak lasting 17 months in Réunion Island. We assessed pain in 106 patients seeking general practitioners with confirmed infection with the CHIK virus, and evaluated its impact on quality of life (QoL. Results The mean intensity of pain on the visual-analogical scale (VAS was 5.8 ± 2.1, and its mean duration was 89 ± 2 days. Fifty-six patients fulfilled the definition of chronic pain. Pain had NC in 18.9% according to the DN4 questionnaire. Conversely, about two thirds (65% of patients with NC had chronic pain. The average pain intensity was similar between patients with or without NC (6.0 ± 1.7 vs 6.1 ± 2.0. However, the total score of the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ(15.5 ± 5.2 vs 11.6 ± 5.2; p Conclusions There exists a specific chronic pain condition associated to CHIKV. Pain with NC seems to be associated with more aggressive clinical picture, more intense impact in QoL and more challenging pharmacological treatment.

  1. Pretreating mesenchymal stem cells with electrical stimulation causes sustained long-lasting pro-osteogenic effects

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    Maria Eischen-Loges

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Electrical stimulation (ES has a long history of successful use in the clinical treatment of refractory, non-healing bone fractures and has recently been proposed as an adjunct to bone tissue-engineering treatments to optimize their therapeutic potential. This idea emerged from ES’s demonstrated positive effects on stem cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and adherence to scaffolds, all cell behaviors recognized to be advantageous in Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE. In previous in vitro experiments we demonstrated that direct current ES, administered daily, accelerates Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. In the present study, we sought to define the optimal ES regimen for maximizing this pro-osteogenic effect. Methods Rat bone marrow-derived MSC were exposed to 100 mV/mm, 1 hr/day for three, seven, and 14 days, then osteogenic differentiation was assessed at Day 14 of culture by measuring collagen production, calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Results We found that exposing MSC to ES for three days had minimal effect, while seven and 14 days resulted in increased osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by significant increases in collagen and calcium deposits, and expression of osteogenic marker genes Col1a1, Osteopontin, Osterix and Calmodulin. We also found that cells treated with ES for seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long (for at least seven days after discontinuing ES exposure. Discussion This study showed that while three days of ES is insufficient to solicit pro-osteogenic effects, seven and 14 days significantly increases osteogenic differentiation. Importantly, we found that cells treated with ES for only seven days, maintained this pro-osteogenic activity long after discontinuing ES exposure. This sustained positive osteogenic effect is likely due to the enhanced expression of RunX2 and Calmodulin we observed. This

  2. Pathophysiological Role of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 in a Mouse Long-Lasting Cystitis Model Induced by an Intravesical Injection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Oyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory bladder disorders, such as interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, are associated with poor quality of life. The exact pathological processes remain unclear, but accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxidative species (ROS are involved in urinary bladder disorders. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, the most sensitive TRP channel to ROS, was shown to be responsible for urinary bladder abnormalities and hyperalgesia in an acute cystitis model. However, the roles of TRPA1 in chronic inflammatory bladder are not fully understood. We previously established a novel mouse cystitis model induced by intravesical injection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, resulting in long-lasting frequent urination, bladder inflammation, pain-related behavior, and histopathological changes. In the present study, we investigated the pathophysiological role of TRPA1 in the H2O2-induced long-lasting cystitis mouse model. Under anesthesia, 1.5% H2O2 solution was introduced transurethrally into the bladder of female wild-type (WT and TRPA1-knockout mice and maintained for 30 min. This increased the number of voids in WT mice at 1 and 7 days after injection, but reduced the number in TRPA1-knockout mice at 1 day but not 7 days after injection. Spontaneous locomotor activities (increase in freezing time and decrease in distance moved were reduced at 3 h after injection in WT mice, whereas the spontaneous visceral pain-related behaviors were attenuated in TRPA1-knockout mice. Furthermore, upregulation of c-fos mRNA in the spinal cord at 1 day after injection was observed in WT but not TRPA1-knockout mice. However, there was no difference in histopathological changes in the urinary bladder, such as edematous thickening in the submucosa, between WT and TRPA1-knockout mice at 1 or 7 days after injection. Finally, Trpa1 mRNA levels in the L5-S1 dorsal root ganglion were not altered, but levels in the urinary bladder were drastically increased

  3. Chronic methamphetamine exposure produces a delayed, long-lasting memory deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Ashley; Swant, Jarod; Salvatore, Michael F; Gamble-George, Joyonna; Prins, Petra; Butler, Brittany; Mittal, Mukul K; Heltsley, Rebecca; Clark, John T; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2013-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive and neurotoxic psychostimulant. Its use in humans is often associated with neurocognitive impairment. Whether this is due to long-term deficits in short-term memory and/or hippocampal plasticity remains unclear. Recently, we reported that METH increases baseline synaptic transmission and reduces LTP in an ex vivo preparation of the hippocampal CA1 region from young mice. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a repeated neurotoxic regimen of METH exposure in adolescent mice decreases hippocampal synaptic plasticity and produces a deficit in short-term memory. Contrary to our prediction, there was no change in the hippocampal plasticity or short-term memory when measured after 14 days of METH exposure. However, we found that at 7, 14, and 21 days of drug abstinence, METH-exposed mice exhibited a deficit in spatial memory, which was accompanied by a decrease in hippocampal plasticity. Our results support the interpretation that the deleterious cognitive consequences of neurotoxic levels of METH exposure may manifest and persist after drug abstinence. Therefore, therapeutic strategies should consider short-term as well as long-term consequences of methamphetamine exposure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Long lasting effects of daily theta burst rTMS sessions in the human amblyopic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2013-11-01

    It has been reported that a single session of 1 Hz or 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the visual cortex can temporarily improve contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. More recently, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) of the visual cortex has been found to improve contrast sensitivity in observers with normal vision. The aims of this study were to assess whether cTBS of the visual cortex could improve contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia and whether repeated sessions of cTBS would lead to more pronounced and/or longer lasting effects. cTBS was delivered to the visual cortex while patients viewed a high contrast stimulus with their non-amblyopic eye. This manipulation was designed to bias the effects of cTBS toward inputs from the amblyopic eye. Contrast sensitivity was measured before and after stimulation. The effects of one cTBS session were measured in five patients and the effects of five consecutive daily sessions were measured in four patients. Three patients were available for follow-up at varying intervals after the final session. cTBS improved amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity to high spatial frequencies (P enduring visual function improvements in adults with amblyopia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Alveolar nerve repositioning with rescue implants for management of previous treatment. A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amet, Edward M; Uehlein, Chris

    2013-12-01

    The goal of modern implant dentistry is to return patients to oral health in a rapid and predictable fashion, following a diagnostically driven treatment plan. If only a limited number of implants can be placed, or some fail and the prosthetic phase of implant dentistry is chosen to complete the patient's treatment, the final outcome may result in partial patient satisfaction and is commonly referred to as a "compromise." Previous All-on-4 implant treatment for the patient presented here resulted in a compromise, with an inadequate support system for the mandibular prosthesis and a maxillary complete denture with poor esthetics. The patient was unable to function adequately and also was disappointed with the resulting appearance. Correction of the compromised treatment consisted of bilateral inferior alveolar nerve elevation and repositioning without bone removal for lateral transposition, to gain room for rescue implants for a totally implant-supported and stabilized prosthesis. Treatment time to return the patient to satisfactory comfort, function, facial esthetics, and speech was approximately 2 weeks. The definitive mandibular prosthesis was designed for total implant support and stability with patient retrievability. Adequate space between the mandibular bar system and the soft tissue created a high water bridge effect for self-cleansing. Following a short interim mandibular healing period, the maxillary sinuses were bilaterally grafted to compensate for bone inadequacies and deficiencies for future maxillary implant reconstruction. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. [Lessons from abroad. Current and previous crisis in other countries. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra-Sicilia, Ana; Minué Lorenzo, Sergio; Artundo Purroy, Carlos; Márquez Calderón, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    The evidence available on the impact of previous crises on health reveals different patterns attributable to study designs, the characteristics of each crisis, and other factors related to the socioeconomic and political context. There is greater consensus on the mediating role of government policy responses to financial crises. These responses may magnify or mitigate the adverse effects of crises on population health. Some studies have shown a significant deterioration in some health indicators in the context of the current crisis, mainly in relation to mental health and communicable diseases. Alcohol and tobacco use have also declined in some European countries. In addition, this crisis is being used by some governments to push reforms aimed at privatizing health services, thereby restricting the right to health and healthcare. Specifically, action is being taken on the three axes that determine health system financing: the population covered, the scope of services, and the share of the costs covered. These measures are often arbitrarily implemented based on ideological decisions rather than on the available evidence and therefore adverse consequences are to be expected in terms of financial protection, efficiency, and equity. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased Symptom Reporting in Young Athletes Based on History of Previous Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Schatz, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Research documents increased symptoms in adolescents with a history of two or more concussions. This study examined baseline evaluations of 2,526 younger athletes, ages 10 to 14. Between-groups analyses examined Post Concussion Symptom Scale symptoms by concussion history group (None, One, Two+) and clusters of Physical, Cognitive, Emotional, and Sleep symptoms. Healthy younger athletes with a concussion history reported greater physical, emotional, and sleep-related symptoms than those with no history of concussion, with a greater endorsement in physical/sleep symptom clusters. Findings suggest younger athletes with a history of multiple concussions may experience residual symptoms.

  8. Long-lasting insecticidal nets are synergistic with mass drug administration for interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Eigege

    Full Text Available In central Nigeria Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF. The strategy used for interrupting LF transmission in this area is annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin, but after 8 years of MDA, entomological evaluations in sentinel villages showed continued low-grade mosquito infection rates of 0.32%. After long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN distribution by the national malaria program in late 2010, however, we were no longer able to detect infected vectors over a 24-month period. This is evidence that LLINs are synergistic with MDA in interrupting LF transmission.

  9. Smoking induces long-lasting effects through a monoamine-oxidase epigenetic regulation.

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    Jean-Marie Launay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postulating that serotonin (5-HT, released from smoking-activated platelets could be involved in smoking-induced vascular modifications, we studied its catabolism in a series of 115 men distributed as current smokers (S, never smokers (NS and former smokers (FS who had stopped smoking for a mean of 13 years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 5-HT, monoamine oxidase (MAO-B activities and amounts were measured in platelets, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA--the 5-HT/MAO catabolite--in plasma samples. Both platelet 5-HT and plasma 5-HIAA levels were correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular Framingham relative risk (P<0.01, but these correlations became non-significant after adjustment for smoking status, underlining that the determining risk factor among those taken into account in the Framingham risk calculation was smoking. Surprisingly, the platelet 5-HT content was similar in S and NS but lower in FS with a parallel higher plasma level of 5-HIAA in FS. This was unforeseen since MAO-B activity was inhibited during smoking (P<0.00001. It was, however, consistent with a higher enzyme protein concentration found in S and FS than in NS (P<0.001. It thus appears that MAO inhibition during smoking was compensated by a higher synthesis. To investigate the persistent increase in MAO-B protein concentration, a study of the methylation of its gene promoter was undertaken in a small supplementary cohort of similar subjects. We found that the methylation frequency of the MAOB gene promoter was markedly lower (P<0.0001 for S and FS vs. NS due to cigarette smoke-induced increase of nucleic acid demethylase activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is one of the first reports that smoking induces an epigenetic modification. A better understanding of the epigenome may help to further elucidate the physiopathology and the development of new therapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction. The results could have a larger impact than cardiovascular

  10. Leiomyosarcoma of the Prostate: Case Report and Review of 54 Previously Published Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos P. Vandoros

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate leiomyosarcoma is an extremely rare and highly aggressive neoplasm that accounts for less than 0.1% of primary prostate malignancies. We present a patient with primary leiomyosarcoma of the prostate and review 54 cases reported in the literature to discuss the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this uncommon tumor. Median survival was estimated at 17 months (95% C.I. 20.7–43.7 months and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates were 68%, 34%, and 26%, respectively. The only factors predictive of long-term survival were negative surgical margins and absence of metastatic disease at presentation. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for appropriate management of this dire entity.

  11. Long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence in Sr3SiO5 : Eu2+ and Sr3SiO5 : Eu2+, Dy3+ phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoyuan; Zhang Jiahua; Zhang Xia; Luo Yongshi; Wang Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    We report the observation of long lasting yellow phosphorescence and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) in Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ and Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ phosphors. The decay patterns of phosphorescence and thermoluminescence curves demonstrate that introduction of Dy 3+ into Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ can generate a large number of shallow traps and deep traps. The generated deep traps prolong the phosphorescence up to 6 h after UV irradiation. The PSL is studied under 808 nm excitation. Slow rising and falling edges of the emission in Sr 3 SiO 5 : Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ are observed, showing a retrapping process by the generated shallow traps due to co-doping Dy 3+ .

  12. Tennessee and Florida: Continuity and Change in Long-Lasting State Performance Funding Systems for Higher Education. CCRC Brief. Number 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Kevin J.; Natow, Rebecca S.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes changes over time in long-lasting state performance funding systems for higher education. It addresses two research questions: First, in what ways have long-lasting systems changed over time in funding levels, indicators used to allocate funds, and measures used for those indicators? Second, what political actors, actions, and…

  13. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy at 25 Weeks with Previous Vaginal Delivery: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa V. Kanagal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn occurs due to failure of complete development of one of the Mullerian ducts and incomplete fusion with the contralateral side. Pregnancy in a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is extremely rare and usually terminates in rupture during first or second trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosis of rudimentary horn pregnancy and its rupture in a woman with prior vaginal delivery is difficult. It can be missed in routine ultrasound scan and in majority of cases it is detected after rupture. It requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of G2PlL1 with rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 25 weeks of gestation which was misdiagnosed as intrauterine pregnancy with fetal demise by ultrasound, and termination was attempted and the case was later referred to our hospital after the patient developed hemoperitoneum and shock with a diagnosis of rupture uterus. Laparotomy revealed rupture of right rudimentary horn pregnancy with massive hemoperitoneum. Timely laparotomy, excision of the horn, and blood transfusion saved the patient.

  14. Simultaneous and long-lasting hydrophilization of inner and outer wall surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes by transferring atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Faze; Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Xu, Wenji; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xin; Xu, Sihao; Xia, Guangqing; Yang, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Plasma hydrophilization is a general method to increase the surface free energy of materials. However, only a few works about plasma modification focus on the hydrophilization of tube inner and outer walls. In this paper, we realize simultaneous and long-lasting plasma hydrophilization on the inner and outer walls of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). Specifically, an Ar atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to modify the PTFE tube’s outer wall and meanwhile to induce transferred He APP inside the PTFE tube to modify its inner wall surface. The optical emission spectrum (OES) shows that the plasmas contain many chemically active species, which are known as enablers for various applications. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the plasma hydrophilization. Results demonstrate that the wettability of the tube walls are well improved due to the replacement of the surface fluorine by oxygen and the change of surface roughness. The obtained hydrophilicity decreases slowly during more than 180 d aging, indicating a long-lasting hydrophilization. The results presented here clearly demonstrate the great potential of transferring APPs for surface modification of the tube’s inner and outer walls simultaneously. (paper)

  15. Short-Term, Intermittent Fasting Induces Long-Lasting Gut Health and TOR-Independent Lifespan Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catterson, James H; Khericha, Mobina; Dyson, Miranda C; Vincent, Alec J; Callard, Rebecca; Haveron, Steven M; Rajasingam, Arjunan; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Partridge, Linda

    2018-06-04

    Intermittent fasting (IF) can improve function and health during aging in laboratory model organisms, but the mechanisms at work await elucidation. We subjected fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) to varying degrees of IF and found that just one month of a 2-day fed:5-day fasted IF regime at the beginning of adulthood was sufficient to extend lifespan. This long-lasting, beneficial effect of early IF was not due to reduced fecundity. Starvation resistance and resistance to oxidative and xenobiotic stress were increased after IF. Early-life IF also led to higher lipid content in 60-day-old flies, a potential explanation for increased longevity. Guts of flies 40 days post-IF showed a significant reduction in age-related pathologies and improved gut barrier function. Improved gut health was also associated with reduced relative bacterial abundance. Early IF thus induced profound long-term changes. Pharmacological and genetic epistasis analysis showed that IF acted independently of the TOR pathway because rapamycin and IF acted additively to extend lifespan, and global expression of a constitutively active S6K did not attenuate the IF-induced lifespan extension. We conclude that short-term IF during early life can induce long-lasting beneficial effects, with robust increase in lifespan in a TOR-independent manner, probably at least in part by preserving gut health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Induced by Carbamazepine Treatment in a Patient Who Previously Had Carbamazepine Induced Pruritus - A Case Report -

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun Min; Park, Yoo Jung; Kim, Young Hoon; Moon, Dong Eon

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare but life-threatening skin reaction disease and carbamazepine is one of its most common causes. We report a case of SJS secondary to carbamazepine in a patient with previous pruritus due to carbamazepine which was given for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. We would like to caution all providers that carbamazepine readministration should be avoided in the patient with a previous history of SJS or adverse skin reaction. In addition, we strongly recommen...

  17. Quantifying the relationship between PM2.5 concentration, visibility and planetary boundary layer height for long-lasting haze and fog-haze mixed events in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Tian; Guo, Xueliang; Guo, Lijun; Zhang, Tianhang

    2018-01-01

    inversion layer was formed by the persistent warm and humid southwestern airflow, while the low-level inversion layer was initially produced by the surface long-wave radiation cooling in the nighttime and maintained by the reduction of surface solar radiation in the daytime. The obvious descending process of the upper-level inversion layer induced by the radiation process could be responsible for the enhancement of the low-level inversion layer and the lowering PBL height, as well as high aerosol loading for these polluted events. The reduction of surface solar radiation in the daytime could be around 35 % for the haze event and 94 % for the fog-haze mixed event. Therefore, the formation and subsequent descending processes of the upper-level inversion layer should be an important factor in maintaining and strengthening the long-lasting severe polluted events, which has not been revealed in previous publications. The interactions and feedbacks between PM2.5 concentration and PBL height linked by radiation process caused a more significant and long-lasting deterioration of air quality and visibility in fog-haze mixed events. The interactions and feedbacks of all processes were particularly strong when the PM2.5 mass concentration was larger than 150-200 µg m-3.

  18. Repeated in vivo exposure of cocaine induces long-lasting synaptic plasticity in hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yan; Mineur, Yann S; Gan, Geliang; Wang, Alex Hanxiang; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Wu, Xinyuan; Suyama, Shigetomo; de Lecea, Luis; Horvath, Tamas L; Picciotto, Marina R; Gao, Xiao-Bing

    2013-04-01

    Hypocretin (orexin), a neuropeptide synthesized exclusively in the perifornical/lateral hypothalamus, is critical for drug seeking and relapse, but it is not clear how the circuitry centred on hypocretin-producing neurons (hypocretin neurons) is modified by drugs of abuse and how changes in this circuit might alter behaviours related to drug addiction. In this study, we show that repeated, but not single, in vivo cocaine administration leads to a long-lasting, experience-dependent potentiation of glutamatergic synapses on hypocretin neurons in mice following a cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) protocol. The synaptic potentiation occurs postsynaptically and probably involves up-regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors on hypocretin neurons. Phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is also significantly increased in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated animals, suggesting that CREB-mediated pathways may contribute to synaptic potentiation in these cells. Furthermore, the potentiation of synaptic efficacy in hypocretin neurons persists during cocaine withdrawal, but reverses to baseline levels after prolonged abstinence. Finally, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) triggered by a high-frequency stimulation is facilitated in hypocretin neurons in cocaine-treated mice, suggesting that long-lasting changes in synapses onto hypocretin neurons would probably be further potentiated by other stimuli (such as concurrent environmental cues) paired with the drug. In summary, we show here that hypocretin neurons undergo experience-dependent synaptic potentiation that is distinct from that reported in other reward systems, such as the ventral tegmental area, following exposure to cocaine. These findings support the idea that the hypocretin system is important for behavioural changes associated with cocaine administration in animals and humans.

  19. The Strengthening Exercises in Shoulder Impingement trial (The SExSI-trial) investigating the effectiveness of a simple add-on shoulder strengthening exercise programme in patients with long-lasting subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Bandholm, Thomas; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2018-01-01

    with pronounced and long-lasting SIS. However, the current rehabilitation of such strength impairments may be inadequate, with novel rehabilitation programmes including exercise therapy only improving external rotation strength by 4-13%. As these previous studies are the basis of current practice, this suggests...... that the strengthening component could be inadequate in the rehabilitation of these patients, and it seems likely that more emphasis should be placed on intensifying this part of the rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a programme consisting of progressive home...... with pronounced and long-lasting SIS, diagnosed using predefined criteria. Participants will be randomised to receive either an add-on intervention of progressive home-based resistance training using an elastic band in addition to usual care or usual care alone in a 1:1 allocation ratio. The randomisation...

  20. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    '. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...... changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel....

  1. Long-lasting pathological consequences of overexpression-induced α-synuclein spreading in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Raffaella; Ulusoy, Ayse; Aboutalebi, Helia; Di Monte, Donato A

    2018-04-01

    Increased expression of α-synuclein can initiate its long-distance brain transfer, representing a potential mechanism for pathology spreading in age-related synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease. In this study, the effects of overexpression-induced α-synuclein transfer were assessed over a 1-year period after injection of viral vectors carrying human α-synuclein DNA into the rat vagus nerve. This treatment causes targeted overexpression within neurons in the dorsal medulla oblongata and subsequent diffusion of the exogenous protein toward more rostral brain regions. Protein advancement and accumulation in pontine, midbrain, and forebrain areas were contingent upon continuous overexpression, because death of transduced medullary neurons resulted in cessation of spreading. Lack of sustained spreading did not prevent the development of long-lasting pathological changes. Particularly remarkable were findings in the locus coeruleus, a pontine nucleus with direct connections to the dorsal medulla oblongata and greatly affected by overexpression-induced transfer in this model. Data revealed progressive degeneration of catecholaminergic neurons that proceeded long beyond the time of spreading cessation. Neuronal pathology in the locus coeruleus was accompanied by pronounced microglial activation and, at later times, astrocytosis. Interestingly, microglial activation was also featured in another region reached by α-synuclein transfer, the central amygdala, even in the absence of frank neurodegeneration. Thus, overexpression-induced spreading, even if temporary, causes long-lasting pathological consequences in brain regions distant from the site of overexpression but anatomically connected to it. Neurodegeneration may be a consequence of severe protein burden, whereas even a milder α-synuclein accumulation in tissues affected by protein transfer could induce sustained microglial activation. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and

  2. Do expectancies of return to work and Job satisfaction predict actual return to work in workers with long lasting LBP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Tveito, Torill H

    2016-11-17

    Musculoskeletal disorders including low back pain have major individual and socioeconomic consequences as it often leads to disability and long-term sick leave and exclusion from working life. Predictors of disability and return to work often differ, and the dominant knowledge is on predictors for prolonged sick leave and disability. Therefore it is also important to identify key predictors for return to work. The aim of the study was to assess if overall job satisfaction and expectancies of return to work predicts actual return to work after 12 months, among employees with long lasting low back pain, and to assess if there were gender differences in the predictors. Data from the Cognitive interventions and nutritional supplements trial (CINS Trial) was used. Predictors for return to work were examined in 574 employees that had been on sick leave 2-10 months for low back pain, before entering the trial. Data were analysed with multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender, and adjusted for potential confounders. Regardless of gender high expectancies were a strong and significant predictor of return to work at 12 months, while high levels of job satisfaction were not a significant predictor. There were no differences in the levels of expectancies or overall job satisfaction between men and women. However, men had in general higher odds of returning to work compared with women. Among individuals with long lasting low back pain high expectancies of returning to work were strongly associated with successful return to work. We do not know what factors influence individual expectancies of return to work. Screening expectancies and giving individuals with low expectancies interventions with a goal to change expectancies of return to work, such as CBT or self-management interventions, may contribute to increase actual return to work. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ , with registration number NCT00463970 . The trial was registered at the 18th of April 2007.

  3. The novelty-seeking phenotype modulates the long-lasting effects of intermittent ethanol administration during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Montagud-Romero

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate if a novelty-seeking phenotype mediates the long-lasting consequences of intermittent EtOH intoxication during adolescence. The hole board test was employed to classify adolescent mice as High- or Low-Novelty Seekers. Subsequently, animals were administered ethanol (1.25 or 2.5 g/kg on two consecutive days at 48-h intervals over a 14-day period. Anxiety levels--measured using the elevated plus maze- spontaneous motor activity and social interaction test were studied 3 weeks later. A different set of mice underwent the same procedure, but received only the 2.5 g/kg dose of ethanol. Three weeks later, in order to induce CPP, the same animals were administered 1 or 6 mg/kg of cocaine or 1 or 2.5 mg/kg MDMA. The results revealed a decrease in aggressive behaviors and an anxiolytic profile in HNS mice and longer latency to explore the novel object by LNS mice. Ethanol exposure enhanced the reinforcing effects of cocaine and MDMA in both groups when CPP was induced with a sub-threshold dose of the drugs. The extinguished cocaine-induced CPP (1 and 6 mg/kg was reinstated after a priming dose in HNS animals only. Our results confirm that intermittent EtOH administration during adolescence induces long-lasting effects that are manifested in adult life, and that there is an association between these effects and the novelty-seeking phenotype.

  4. Chronic sleep restriction induces long-lasting changes in adenosine and noradrenaline receptor density in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Elmenhorst, David; Weisshaupt, Angela; Wedekind, Franziska; Kroll, Tina; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E; Bauer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Although chronic sleep restriction frequently produces long-lasting behavioural and physiological impairments in humans, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we used a rat model of chronic sleep restriction to investigate the role of brain adenosine and noradrenaline systems, known to regulate sleep and wakefulness, respectively. The density of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors and β-adrenergic receptors before, during and following 5 days of sleep restriction was assessed with autoradiography. Rats (n = 48) were sleep-deprived for 18 h day(-1) for 5 consecutive days (SR1-SR5), followed by 3 unrestricted recovery sleep days (R1-R3). Brains were collected at the beginning of the light period, which was immediately after the end of sleep deprivation on sleep restriction days. Chronic sleep restriction increased adenosine A1 receptor density significantly in nine of the 13 brain areas analysed with elevations also observed on R3 (+18 to +32%). In contrast, chronic sleep restriction reduced adenosine A2a receptor density significantly in one of the three brain areas analysed (olfactory tubercle which declined 26-31% from SR1 to R1). A decrease in β-adrenergic receptors density was seen in substantia innominata and ventral pallidum which remained reduced on R3, but no changes were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction can induce long-term changes in the brain adenosine and noradrenaline receptors, which may underlie the long-lasting neurocognitive impairments observed in chronic sleep restriction. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Self-reported previous knee injury and low knee function increase knee injury risk in adolescent female football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Tang, L; Zebis, M K

    2016-01-01

    with low KOOS subscale scores (Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P time-loss knee...... questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (... as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players...

  6. How long-lasting is the post-conflict slowing after incongruent trials? Evidence from the Stroop, Simon, and flanker tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine how long-lasting the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli is. In previous research, incongruent stimuli have been used to induce a conflict because they have relevant features for two different response alternatives. So far, the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli has mainly been assessed up to one trial. In the first two experiments, we assessed the persistence of the post-conflict slowing across several trials. To this end, we presented a few incongruent stimuli among non-conflict stimuli. The results showed a consistent slowing for the first few trials immediately following the incongruent trials. In addition, a sporadic slowing was still found on later trials. In two subsequent experiments, we investigated to what extent the infrequency of incongruent trials - rather than their conflict - induced this slowing. To determine this, we used the same design as in the first two experiments, but we presented non-conflict stimuli as infrequent stimuli. The results showed a slowing on one subsequent trial, ruling out the possibility that the post-conflict slowing following incongruent trials was only caused by infrequency. Together, the findings of the present study indicate that the conflict induced by incongruent trials can have a longer lasting impact on subsequent trials than previously thought.

  7. Training Lymnaea in the presence of a predator scent results in a long-lasting ability to form enhanced long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Jeremy; Sunada, Hiroshi; Dodd, Shawn; Lukowiak, Ken

    2016-06-01

    Lymnaea exposed to crayfish effluent (CE) gain an enhanced ability to form long-term memory (LTM). We test the hypothesis that a single CE exposure and operant conditioning training leads to long lasting changes in the capability of snails to form LTM when tested in pond water four weeks later. We trained both juvenile and adult snails with a single 0.5 h training session in CE and show that LTM was present 24 h later. Snails trained in a similar manner in just pond water show no LTM. We then asked if such training in CE conferred enhanced memory forming capabilities on these snails four weeks later. That is, would LTM be formed in these snails four weeks later following a single 0.5 h training session in pond water? We found that both adult and juvenile snails previously trained in CE one month previously had enhanced LTM formation abilities. The injection of a DNA methylation blocker, 5-AZA, prior to training in adult snails blocked enhanced LTM formation four weeks later. Finally, this enhanced LTM forming ability was not passed on to the next generation of snails.

  8. Developmental exposure to the SSRI citalopram causes long-lasting behavioural effects in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Porsch-Hällström, I; Borg, B; Roufidou, C; Olsén, K H

    2018-01-01

    Selective Serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat depression in both adolescents and pregnant or breast-feeding mothers as well as in the general population. Recent research on rodents points to long-lasting behavioural effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to SSRIs which last into adulthood. In fish however, studies on effects of developmental exposure to SSRIs appears to be non-existent. In order to study effects of developmental SSRI exposure in fish, three-spine sticklebacks were exposed to 1.5 µg/l of the SSRI citalopram in the ambient water for 30 days, starting two days post-fertilisation. After approximately 100 days of remediation in clean water the fish were put through an extensive battery of behavioural tests. Feeding behaviour was tested as the number of bites against a piece of food and found to be increased in the exposed fish. Aggression levels were measured as the number of bites against a mirror image during 10 min and was also found to be significantly increased in the exposed fish. Novel tank behaviour and locomotor activity was tested in an aquarium that had a horizontal line drawn half-way between the bottom and the surface. Neither the latency to the first transition to the upper half, nor the number of transitions or the total time spent in the upper half was affected by treatment. Locomotor activity was significantly reduced in the exposed fish. The light/dark preference was tested in an aquarium where the bottom and walls were black on one side and white on the other. The number of transitions to the white side was significantly reduced in the exposed fish but there was no effect on the latency to the first transition or the total time spent in the white half. The results in the current study indicate that developmental SSRI exposure causes long-lasting behavioural effects in fish and contribute to the existing knowledge about SSRIs as environmental pollutants.

  9. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  10. Long-Lasting Cortical Reorganization as the Result of Motor Imagery of Throwing a Ball in a Virtual Tennis Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Ana M.; Petieau, Mathieu; Cevallos, Carlos; Leroy, Axelle; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize the neural signature of a motor imagery (MI) task, the present study investigates for the first time the oscillation characteristics including both of the time-frequency measurements, event related spectral perturbation and intertrial coherence (ITC) underlying the variations in the temporal measurements (event related potentials, ERP) directly related to a MI task. We hypothesize that significant variations in both of the time-frequency measurements underlie the specific changes in the ERP directly related to MI. For the MI task, we chose a simple everyday task (throwing a tennis ball), that does not require any particular motor expertise, set within the controlled virtual reality scenario of a tennis court. When compared to the rest condition a consistent, long-lasting negative fronto-central ERP wave was accompanied by significant changes in both time frequency measurements suggesting long-lasting cortical activity reorganization. The ERP wave was characterized by two peaks at about 300 ms (N300) and 1000 ms (N1000). The N300 component was centrally localized on the scalp and was accompanied by significant phase consistency in the delta brain rhythms in the contralateral central scalp areas. The N1000 component spread wider centrally and was accompanied by a significant power decrease (or event related desynchronization) in low beta brain rhythms localized in fronto-precentral and parieto-occipital scalp areas and also by a significant power increase (or event related synchronization) in theta brain rhythms spreading fronto-centrally. During the transition from N300 to N1000, a contralateral alpha (mu) as well as post-central and parieto-theta rhythms occurred. The visual representation of movement formed in the minds of participants might underlie a top-down process from the fronto-central areas which is reflected by the amplitude changes observed in the fronto-central ERPs and by the significant phase synchrony in contralateral fronto

  11. Neonatal Stress Has a Long-Lasting Sex-Dependent Effect on Anxiety-Like Behavior and Neuronal Morphology in the Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Silvana Regina; de David Antoniazzi, Caren Tatiane; Hossain, Shakhawat; Kolb, Bryan

    2018-01-01

    The long-lasting effects of early stress on brain development have been well studied. Recent evidence indicates that males and females respond differently to the same stressor. We examined the chronic effects of daily maternal separation (MS) on behavior and cerebral morphology in both male and female rats. Cognitive and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated, and neuroplastic changes in 2 subregions of the prefrontal cortex (dorsal agranular insular cortex [AID] and cingulate cortex [Cg3]) and hippocampus (CA1 and dentate gyrus) were measured in adult male and female rats. The animals were subjected to MS on postnatal day (P) 3-14 for 3 h per day. Cognitive and emotional behaviors were assessed in the object/context mismatch task, elevated plus maze, and locomotor activity test in early adulthood (P87-P95). Anatomical assessments were performed in the prefrontal cortex (i.e., cortical thickness and spine density) and hippocampus (i.e., spine density). Sex-dependent effects were observed. MS increased anxiety-related behavior only in males, whereas locomotor activity was higher in females, with no effects on cognition. MS decreased spine density in the AID and increased spine density in the CA1 area in males. Females exhibited an increase in spine density in the Cg3. Our findings confirm previous work that found that MS causes long-term behavioral and anatomical effects, and these effects were dependent on sex and the duration of MS stress. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Binge-pattern cocaine administration causes long-lasting behavioral hyperarousal but does not enhance vulnerability to single prolonged stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisieski, Michael J; Perrine, Shane A

    2017-11-01

    Cocaine use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. This could be due to vulnerability to post-traumatic symptoms conferred by previous exposure to cocaine. Therefore, we combined chronic binge-pattern cocaine with a model of psychological trauma (single prolonged stress) to determine whether the behavioral effects of psychological trauma are enhanced in cocaine-sensitized individuals. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats received 14 days of cocaine (15mg/kg/injection) or saline in a binge pattern (3 injections per day, 1h apart). Seven days after the last injection animals were exposed to traumatic stress or a control procedure. Seven days after stress, activity and anxiety-like behaviors were measured. Binge-pattern cocaine increased locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze, and both cocaine and SPS exposure increased the rapidity with which rats moved through grooming sequences. Neither binge-pattern cocaine nor SPS increased anxiety-like behaviors, and no interactions were found between binge-pattern cocaine exposure and SPS exposure. A behavioral phenotype categorization approach demonstrated that cocaine-exposed groups expressed a high incidence of hyperactivity-like symptoms. These results suggest that binge-pattern cocaine exposure causes a long-lasting hyper-exploratory phenotype but does not make individuals more vulnerable to a later traumatic stress exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Poly-functional and long-lasting anticancer immune response elicited by a safe attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vector for antigens delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Chauchet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Live-attenuated bacterial vectors for antigens delivery have aroused growing interest in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Their potency to stimulate innate immunity and to promote intracellular antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells could be exploited to elicit a strong and specific cellular immune response against tumor cells. We previously described genetically-modified and attenuated Pseudomonas aeruginosa vectors able to deliver in vivo protein antigens into antigen-presenting cells, through Type 3 secretion system of the bacteria. Using this approach, we managed to protect immunized mice against aggressive B16 melanoma development in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting. In this study, we further investigated the antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response, in terms of phenotypic and functional aspects, obtained after immunizations with a killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa attenuated vector. We demonstrated that P. aeruginosa vaccine induces a highly functional pool of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell able to infiltrate the tumor. Furthermore, multiple immunizations allowed the development of a long-lasting immune response, represented by a pool of predominantly effector memory cells which protected mice against late tumor challenge. Overall, killed but metabolically active P. aeruginosa vector is a safe and promising approach for active and specific antitumor immunotherapy.

  14. Long-lasting changes in brain activation induced by a single REAC technology pulse in Wi-Fi bands. Randomized double-blind fMRI qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Salvatore; Mura, Marco; Castagna, Alessandro; Fontani, Vania

    2014-07-11

    The aim of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate in healthy adult subjects, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), long lasting changes in brain activation patterns following administration of a single, 250 milliseconds pulse emitted with radio-electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology in the Wi-Fi bands. The REAC impulse was not administered during the scan, but after this, according to a protocol that has previously been demonstrated to be effective in improving motor control and postural balance, in healthy subjects and patients. The study was conducted on 33 healthy volunteers, performed with a 1.5 T unit while operating a motor block task involving cyclical and alternating flexion and extension of one leg. Subsequently subjects were randomly divided into a treatment and a sham treatment control group. Repeated fMRI examinations were performed following the administration of the REAC pulse or sham treatment. The Treated group showed cerebellar and ponto-mesencephalic activation components that disappeared in the second scan, while these activation components persisted in the Sham group. This study shows that a very weak signal, such as 250 milliseconds Wi-Fi pulse, administered with REAC technology, could lead to lasting effects on brain activity modification.

  15. Lack of Cetuximab induced skin toxicity in a previously irradiated field: case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Mutation, amplification or dysregulation of the EGFR family leads to uncontrolled division and predisposes to cancer. Inhibiting the EGFR represents a form of targeted cancer therapy. Case report We report the case of 79 year old gentlemen with a history of skin cancer involving the left ear who had radiation and surgical excision. He had presented with recurrent lymph node in the left upper neck. We treated him with radiation therapy concurrently with Cetuximab. He developed a skin rash over the face and neck area two weeks after starting Cetuximab, which however spared the previously irradiated area. Conclusion The etiology underlying the sparing of the previously irradiated skin maybe due to either decrease in the population of EGFR expressing cells or decrease in the EGFR expression. We raised the question that "Is it justifiable to use EGFR inhibitors for patients having recurrence in the previously irradiated field?" We may need further research to answer this question which may guide the physicians in choosing appropriate drug in this scenario. PMID:20478052

  16. On the long-lasting sequences of coral reef terraces from SE Sulawesi (Indonesia): Distribution, formation, and global significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoja, Kevin; Husson, Laurent; Bezos, Antoine; Pastier, Anne-Morwenn; Imran, Andy Muhammad; Arias-Ruiz, Camilo; Sarr, Anta-Clarisse; Elliot, Mary; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Nexer, Maëlle; Regard, Vincent; Hafidz, Abdul; Robert, Xavier; Benoit, Laurent; Delcaillau, Bernard; Authemayou, Christine; Dumoulin, Caroline; Choblet, Gaël

    2018-05-01

    Many islands of the eastern Indonesian Archipelago exhibit Late Cenozoic sequences of coral reef terraces. In SE Sulawesi, on the Tukang Besi and Buton archipelagos, we identified 23 islands bearing such sequences. Remote sensing imagery and field mapping combined to U/Th and 14C dating enable to establish a chronologic framework of the reef terrace sequences from Wangi-Wangi, Buton as well as on the neighbouring, smaller islands of Ular, Siumpu and Kadatua. We identified the terraces from the last interglacial maximum (MIS 5e) at elevations lower than 20 m except on W Kadatua where it is raised at 34 ± 5 m. Such elevations yield low to moderate Upper Pleistocene uplift rates (<0.3 mm yr-1). On SE Buton Island, a sequence culminates at 650 m and includes at least 40 undated strandlines. Next to this exceptional sequence, on the Sampolawa Peninsula, 18 strandlines culminate at 430 m. Dated samples at the base of this sequence (<40 m) yield mean Middle Pleistocene uplift rates of 0.14 ± 0.09 mm yr-1. Extrapolation of these uplift rates compared to the geological setting suggests that the sequences of the Sampolawa Peninsula provide a record of sea-level high-stands for the last 3.8 ± 0.6 Ma. The sequences on SE Buton Island therefore constitute the best preserved long-lasting geomorphic record of Plio-Quaternary sea-level stands worldwide.

  17. Performance of honey bee colonies under a long-lasting dietary exposure to sublethal concentrations of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siede, Reinhold; Faust, Lena; Meixner, Marina D; Maus, Christian; Grünewald, Bernd; Büchler, Ralph

    2017-07-01

    Substantial honey bee colony losses have occurred periodically in the last decades. The drivers for these losses are not fully understood. The influence of pests and pathogens are beyond dispute, but in addition, chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations of pesticides has been suggested to affect the performance of honey bee colonies. This study aims to elucidate the potential effects of a chronic exposure to sublethal concentrations (one realistic worst-case concentration) of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid to honey bee colonies in a three year replicated colony feeding study. Thiacloprid did not significantly affect the colony strength. No differences between treatment and control were observed for the mortality of bees, the infestation with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the infection levels of viruses. No colony losses occurred during the overwintering seasons. Furthermore, thiacloprid did not influence the constitutive expression of the immunity-related hymenoptaecin gene. However, upregulation of hymenoptaecin expression as a response to bacterial challenge was less pronounced in exposed bees than in control bees. Under field conditions, bee colonies are not adversely affected by a long-lasting exposure to sublethal concentrations of thiacloprid. No indications were found that field-realistic and higher doses exerted a biologically significant effect on colony performance. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Effective insect repellent formulation in both surfactantless and classical microemulsions with a long-lasting protection for human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Jeremy; Verdier, Marie; Touraud, Didier; Kröckel, Ulla; Geier, Martin; Rose, Andreas; Kunz, Werner

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new generation of repellent products with a long-lasting protection based on a natural component, para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). The active is first rendered soluble in a surfactantless microemulsion (H(2)O/(i)PrOH/PMD) and then in classical microemulsions. The presence of self-associated nanostructures is detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS). A synergetic system of surfactants (Cremophor) RH40 and Texapon N70) is used. Additionally, 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol and ethyl (-)-(S)-lactate are incorporated. The final product contains, as main components, 46% of H(2)O, 25% of (i)PrOH, 20% of non-H(2)O-soluble PMD, and only 4% of surfactants. Investigations of lasting protection on human volunteers are carried out using a cage test bioassay protocol and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A complete protection of 315 min is found on the test persons using the surfactantless microemulsion. An extension is observed with the final formulation to reach a mean of complete protection of 385 min. This study demonstrates that alternative formulations using a natural active instead of synthetic chemicals like N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (DEET) can be efficient for human protection against mosquitoes.

  19. Vascular impairment as a pathological mechanism underlying long-lasting cognitive dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichkova, Aleksandra; Rodriguez-Grande, Beatriz; Bar, Claire; Villega, Frederic; Konsman, Jan Pieter; Badaut, Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same injury severity. Acute trauma to the young brain likely interferes with the fine-tuned developmental processes and may give rise to long-lasting consequences on brain's function. This review will focus on cerebrovascular dysfunction as an important early event that may lead to long-term phenotypic changes in the brain after pediatric TBI. These, in turn may be associated with accelerated brain aging and cognitive dysfunction. Finally, since no effective treatments are currently available, understanding the unique pathophysiological mechanisms of pediatric TBI is crucial for the development of new therapeutic options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA Superresolution Structure of Reed-Sternberg Cells Differs Between Long-Lasting Remission Versus Relapsing Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righolt, Christiaan H; Knecht, Hans; Mai, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Recent developments in microscopy have led to superresolution microscopy images of cells. Structured illumination microscopy was used before to reveal new details in the DNA structure and the structure of the DNA-free space in the DAPI-stained cell nuclei of the Hodgkin's lymphoma HDLM-2 cell line. This study extends this technology to primary pre-treatment classical Hodgkin's lymphoma samples of ten patients. Significant differences in both the DNA structure and the structure of the DNA-free space were detected between lymphocytes and malignant cells. Both types of structures were similar for lymphocytes of different patients. When the patients were un-blinded and grouped based on their clinical outcome, either non-relapsed or relapsed, a significant difference in the DNA structure of their Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells was found. Since, RS cells develop from mono-nucleated Hodgkin (H) cells, these data suggest distinct architectural restructuring of nuclei during RS cell formation in patients going to long-lasting remission versus relapse. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1633-1637, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of intermittent glutamine supplementation on skeletal muscle is not long-lasting in very old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynial-Denis, D; Beaufrère, A-M; Mignon, M; Patureau Mirand, P

    2013-01-01

    Muscle is the major site for glutamine synthesis via glutamine synthetase (GS). This enzyme is increased 1.5-2 fold in 25-27-mo rats and may be a consequence of aging-induced stress. This stimulation is similar to the induction observed following a catabolic state such as glucocorticoid treatment (6 to 24 months). Although oral glutamine supply regulates the plasma glutamine level, nothing is known if this supplementation is interrupted before the experiment. Adult (8-mo) and very old (27-mo) female rats were exposed to intermittent glutamine supplementation for 50 % of their age lifetime. Treated rats received glutamine added to their drinking water and control rats water alone but the effect of glutamine supplementation was only studied 15 days after the last supplementation. Glutamine pretreatment discontinued 15 days before the experiment increased plasma glutamine to ~ 0.6 mM, a normal value in very old rats. However, it failed to decrease the up-regulated GS activity in skeletal muscle from very old rats. Our results suggest that long-term treatment with glutamine started before advanced age but discontinued 15 days before rat sacrifice is effective in increasing plasma glutamine to recover basal adult value and in maintaining plasma glutamine in very old rats, but has no long-lasting effect on the GS activity of skeletal muscle with advanced age.

  2. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  3. Optimized Model of Cerebral Ischemia In situ for the Long-Lasting Assessment of Hippocampal Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Rybachuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among all the brain, the hippocampus is the most susceptible region to ischemic lesion, with the highest vulnerability of CA1 pyramidal neurons to ischemic damage. This damage may cause either prompt neuronal death (within hours or with a delayed appearance (over days, providing a window for applying potential therapies to reduce or prevent ischemic impairments. However, the time course when ischemic damage turns to neuronal death strictly depends on experimental modeling of cerebral ischemia and, up to now, studies were predominantly focused on a short time-window—from hours to up to a few days post-lesion. Using different schemes of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD, the conditions taking place upon cerebral ischemia, we optimized a model of mimicking ischemic conditions in organotypical hippocampal slices for the long-lasting assessment of CA1 neuronal death (at least 3 weeks. By combining morphology and electrophysiology, we show that prolonged (30-min duration OGD results in a massive neuronal death and overwhelmed astrogliosis within a week post-OGD whereas OGD of a shorter duration (10-min triggered programmed CA1 neuronal death with a significant delay—within 2 weeks—accompanied with drastically impaired CA1 neuron functions. Our results provide a rationale toward optimized modeling of cerebral ischemia for reliable examination of potential treatments for brain neuroprotection, neuro-regeneration, or testing neuroprotective compounds in situ.

  4. The effect of massage therapy and/or exercise therapy on subacute or long-lasting neck pain--the Stockholm neck trial (STONE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillgate, Eva; Bill, Anne-Sylvie; Côté, Pierre; Viklund, Peter; Peterson, Anna; Holm, Lena W

    2015-09-16

    Neck pain is a major health problem in populations worldwide and an economic burden in modern societies due to its high prevalence and costs in terms of health care expenditures and lost productivity. Massage and exercise therapy are widely used management options for neck pain. However, there is a lack of scientific evidence regarding their effectiveness for subacute and long-lasting neck pain. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial aiming to determine the effect of massage and/or exercise therapy on subacute and long-lasting neck pain over the course of 1 year. A randomized controlled trial in which at least 600 study participants with subacute or long-lasting nonspecific neck pain will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of four treatment arms: massage therapy (A), exercise therapy (B), exercise therapy plus massage therapy (C) and advice to stay active (D). The study has an E-health approach, and study participants are being recruited through advertising with a mix of traditional and online marketing channels. Web-based self-report questionnaires measure the main outcomes at 7, 12, 26 and 52 weeks after inclusion. The primary outcomes are a clinically important improvement in pain intensity and pain-related disability at follow-up, measured with a modified version of the Chronic Pain Questionnaire (CPQ). The secondary outcomes are global improvement, health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), sick leave, drug consumption and healthcare utilization. Adverse events are measured by questionnaires at return visits to the clinic, and automated text messages (SMSes) survey neck pain intensity and pain-related disability every week over one year. The results of this study will provide clinicians and stakeholders much needed knowledge to plan medical care for subacute and long-lasting neck pain disorders. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN01453590. Date of registration: 3 July 2014.

  5. Gestational Exposure to a Viral Mimetic Poly(I:C Results in Long-Lasting Changes in Mitochondrial Function by Leucocytes in the Adult Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Giulivi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal immune activation (MIA is a potential risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ. In rodents, MIA results in changes in cytokine profiles and abnormal behaviors in the offspring that model these neuropsychiatric conditions. Given the central role that mitochondria have in immunity and other metabolic pathways, we hypothesized that MIA will result in a fetal imprinting that leads to postnatal deficits in the bioenergetics of immune cells. To this end, splenocytes from adult offspring exposed gestationally to the viral mimic poly(I:C were evaluated for mitochondrial outcomes. A significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP production was observed in poly(I:C-treated mice (45% of controls mainly attributed to a lower complex I activity. No differences were observed between the two groups in the coupling of electron transport to ATP synthesis, or the oxygen uptake under uncoupling conditions. Concanavalin A- (ConA- stimulated splenocytes from poly(I:C animals showed no statistically significant changes in cytokine levels compared to controls. The present study reports for the first time that MIA activation by poly(I:C at early gestation, which can lead to behavioral impairments in the offspring similar to SZ and ASD, leads to long-lasting effects in the bioenergetics of splenocytes of adult offspring.

  6. [A Case of Dengue Fever and Subsequent Long-lasting Depression Accompanied by Alopecia in a Japanese Traveler Returning from Bali, Indonesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitani, Akihiro; Yamaya, Waka; To, Masako; Kano, Ichino; Honda-Hosono, Natsue; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Haruki, Kosuke

    2015-03-01

    Recovery from dengue fever is generally rapid and uneventful. However, recuperation is often prolonged and may be accompanied by noticeable depression. We present herein on a traveler to Indonesia who developed long-lasting depression after the classic symptoms of dengue fever such as fever, arthralgia, and macropapular rash had resolved. A previously healthy 42-year old japanese woman presented to the Travel Clinic of Seirei Yokohama Hospital with complaints of 4 days of fever, joint aches, bone pain, and a macropapular rash on her torso. She had returned from Bali 5 days previously. During her 1-week stay, one day was spent in rural, mountainous areas where she was exposed to several mosquito bites. The 1st serum sample collected 4 days after the disease onset gave positive result in the rapid dengue IgM antibody test and the rapid dengue NS1 antigen immunechromatographic test. The DENV-1 genome was detected with RT-PCR. Her 13-year old son, who had accompanied her, was also diagnosed as having dengue fever and he recovered without event. The Above-mentioned symptoms resolved within one week. However, the patient suffered from prolonged depression. She also noticed loss of hair 3 months after the disease onset Administration of a Serotonin-Noradrenalin Reuptake Inhibitor and a minor tranquillizer required to allow her requied to lead a normal life. Although she gradually felt better, it took approximately 2 years until she had recovered completely without taking any antidepressant and minor tranquillizer. It is a well-known fact in endemic countries that dengue fever could have an significant impact on the patients' mental well-being. However, it appears that physicians in non-endemic countries are not fully aware of the prolonged depression, which can occur subsequent to the acute illness. Follow-up consultations of returing travelers who have recoverd from dengu fever should be arranged to monitor their mental and emotional states closely.

  7. Environmental enrichment protects spatial learning and hippocampal neurons from the long-lasting effects of protein malnutrition early in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberto O; Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Almeida, Sebastião S; Lachat, João-José

    2017-09-29

    As early protein malnutrition has a critically long-lasting impact on the hippocampal formation and its role in learning and memory, and environmental enrichment has demonstrated great success in ameliorating functional deficits, here we ask whether exposure to an enriched environment could be employed to prevent spatial memory impairment and neuroanatomical changes in the hippocampus of adult rats maintained on a protein deficient diet during brain development (P0-P35). To elucidate the protective effects of environmental enrichment, we used the Morris water task and neuroanatomical analysis to determine whether changes in spatial memory and number and size of CA1 neurons differed significantly among groups. Protein malnutrition and environmental enrichment during brain development had significant effects on the spatial memory and hippocampal anatomy of adult rats. Malnourished but non-enriched rats (MN) required more time to find the hidden platform than well-nourished but non-enriched rats (WN). Malnourished but enriched rats (ME) performed better than the MN and similarly to the WN rats. There was no difference between well-nourished but non-enriched and enriched rats (WE). Anatomically, fewer CA1 neurons were found in the hippocampus of MN rats than in those of WN rats. However, it was also observed that ME and WN rats retained a similar number of neurons. These results suggest that environmental enrichment during brain development alters cognitive task performance and hippocampal neuroanatomy in a manner that is neuroprotective against malnutrition-induced brain injury. These results could have significant implications for malnourished infants expected to be at risk of disturbed brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Primary attributions in women suffering fibromyalgia emphasize the perception of a disruptive onset for a long-lasting pain problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedraschi, Christine; Girard, Elodie; Luthy, Christophe; Kossovsky, Michel; Desmeules, Jules; Allaz, Anne-Françoise

    2013-03-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by widespread pain. This study focuses on patients' attributions of illness and of symptom onset. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 56 women to elicit patients' views on what triggered their FM. The transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using a classical indexing technique to identify key themes. Content analysis was performed by two independent coders. Primary causal attributions fell into five categories: psychological problems (28 respondents); somatic concerns (N=12); violence/abuse during childhood (N=7), gynaecological/obstetrical problems (N=6), and fatigue (N=3). Patients' attributions were internal and external in the same proportions, more frequently unstable than stable, and more often described uncontrollable than controllable. Participants expressed decrements in self-esteem and feelings such as self-blame or despair; global perceptions of persistent pain and long-lasting problems, evoking chronicity and hopelessness; and low perceived control over their lives as well as beliefs that nothing can be done, thus increasing a feeling of guilt and vulnerability. Patients' narratives emphasized disruptive circumstances surrounding symptom onset. Attributions often referred to the psychological dimension of the events surrounding FM onset, even though some of them also had a clear somatic dimension. Many narratives mentioned successive disruptive events and suggested an increasing loss of control. Addressing these illness representations may contribute to tailor the treatment and to help patients gain self-coherency by providing means to understand pain onset but also to guide future behaviours, particularly in terms of adjustment and help-seeking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex differences in the long-lasting effects of a single exposure to immobilization stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Humberto; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    In male rats, a single exposure to a severe stressor such as immobilization (IMO) results in marked activation of the HPA axis and reduction of body weight gain. In addition, the HPA response to the same (homotypic) stressor is reduced, whereas the response to a different (heterotypic) stressor is enhanced for days. Although sex differences in the responsiveness of the HPA axis have been described, there are few studies about the influence of sex on long-lasting effects of stress. Thus, we have compared the consequences of a single exposure to IMO in male and female rats. Females showed a similar ACTH response to the first IMO associated with higher corticosterone, but they were more resistant than males to stress-induced loss of body weight. Unstressed females showed higher resting levels of ACTH and corticosterone, but they did not show the increase in the resting levels of HPA hormones observed in males on the day after IMO. During exposure to a different stressor (open-field) two days after IMO, enhanced corticosterone response and hypoactivity was observed in males, but not in females. Finally, a second exposure to IMO 8 days after the first one resulted in a reduction of the HPA response and of the negative impact on body weight as compared to the first exposure, and this protective effect was greater in females. In sum, IMO-exposed females showed a greater reduction of the response to a second IMO and appear to be more resistant than males to some of the negative impacts of IMO. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Combined laryngeal inflammation and trauma mediate long-lasting immunoreactivity response in the brainstem sensory nuclei in the rat

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    Kristina eSimonyan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatosensory feedback from the larynx plays a critical role in regulation of normal upper airway functions, such as breathing, deglutition and voice production, while altered laryngeal sensory feedback is known to elicit a variety of pathological reflex responses, including persistent coughing, dysphonia and laryngospasm. Despite its clinical impact, the central mechanisms underlying the development of pathological laryngeal responses remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of persistent vocal fold (VF inflammation and trauma, as frequent causes of long-lasting modulation of laryngeal sensory feedback, on brainstem immunoreactivity in the rat. Combined VF inflammation and trauma were induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS solution and compared to VF trauma alone from injection of vehicle solution and to controls without any VF manipulations. Using a c-fos marker, we found significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI in the bilateral intermediate/parvicellular reticular formation (IRF/PCRF with a trend in the left solitary tract nucleus (NTS only in animals with LPS-induced VF inflammation and trauma. Further, FLI in the right NTS was significantly correlated with the severity of LPS-induced VF changes. However, increased brainstem FLI response was not associated with FLI changes in the first-order neurons of the laryngeal afferents located in the nodose and jugular ganglia in either group. Our data indicate that complex VF alterations (i.e., inflammation/trauma vs. trauma alone may cause prolonged excitability of the brainstem nuclei receiving a direct sensory input from the larynx, which, in turn, may lead to (malplastic changes within the laryngeal central sensory control.

  11. Low long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs use among household members for protection against mosquito bite in kersa, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Gobena Tesfaye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, despite the increasing availability of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs, the LLINs use among LLINs owning households has not been satisfactory. Identifying the circumstances and the associated factors is necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets. We aimed to assess barriers related with LLIN use at the household level. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center (KDS-HRC from October to November 2010. A total of 2867 households were selected from a surveillance database using a simple random sampling technique. The data were collected by interviewing women, direct observation of LLINs conditions and use, and in-depth interviewing of key informants. Multivariate analysis was used to determine independent predictors of LLIN non-use. Results Of the total surveyed households, 65.5% (1879 had at least one LLIN, but 33.5% (630 LLINs owned households had used at least one LLIN the night before the survey. Low educational level of women, low awareness on malaria prevention, unavailability of separate sleeping room, LLIN colour preference, and unavailability of enough LLINs to the household members were the main barriers to LLIN use. A supplementary qualitative interview with key informants also identified that poor condition of LLINs; undermining the extent of malaria; and using the LLIN for other purposes as the main reasons for non-use. Conclusions This study indicates that only about one third of LLIN owned households are actually using at least one LLIN for protection against mosquito bite. Thus, majority of the residents are at higher risk of mosquito bite and acquiring of malaria infection. Households living in fringe zone are not benefiting from the LLIN protection. Further progress in malaria prevention can be achieved by specifically targeting populations in fringe zones and conducting focused public education to

  12. Shunt malfunction causing acute neurological deterioration in 2 patients with previously asymptomatic Chiari malformation Type I. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert; Kalhorn, Stephen; Pacione, Donato; Weiner, Howard; Wisoff, Jeffrey; Harter, David

    2009-08-01

    Patients with symptomatic Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) typically exhibit a chronic, slowly progressive disease course with evolution of symptoms. However, some authors have reported acute neurological deterioration in the setting of CM-I and acquired Chiari malformations. Although brainstem dysfunction has been documented in patients with CM-II and hydrocephalus or shunt malfunction, to the authors' knowledge only 1 report describing ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunction causing neurological deterioration in a patient with CM-I exists. The authors report on their experience with the treatment of previously asymptomatic CM-I in 2 children who experienced quite different manifestations of acute neurological deterioration secondary to VP shunt malfunction. Presumably, VP shunt malfunction created a positive rostral pressure gradient across a stenotic foramen magnum, resulting in tetraparesis from foramen magnum syndrome in 1 patient and acute ataxia and cranial nerve deficits from syringobulbia in the other. Although urgent shunt revisions yielded partial recovery of neurological function in both patients, marked improvement occurred only after posterior fossa decompression.

  13. Long-lasting insecticidal net source, ownership and use in the context of universal coverage: a household survey in eastern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateera, Fredrick; Ingabire, Chantal M; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Karinda, Parfait; Grobusch, Martin P; Mutesa, Leon; van Vugt, Michèle; Mens, Petra F

    2015-10-06

    Universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage (ULC) has reduced malaria morbidity and mortality across Africa. Although information is available on bed net use in specific groups, such as pregnant women and children under 5 years, there is paucity of data on their use among the general population. Bed net source, ownership and determinants of use among individuals from households in an eastern Rwanda community 8 months after a ULC were characterized. Using household-based, interviewer-administered questionnaires and interviewer-direct observations, data on bed net source, ownership and key determinants of net use, including demographics, socio-economic status indicators, house structure characteristics, as well as of bed net quantity, type and integrity, were collected from 1400 randomly selected households. Univariate and mixed effects logistic regression modelling was done to assess for determinants of bed net use. A total of 1410 households and 6598 individuals were included in the study. Overall, the proportion of households with at least one net was 92 % while bed net usage was reported among 72 % of household members. Of the households surveyed, a total ownership of 2768 nets was reported, of which about 96 % were reportedly LLINs received from the ULC. By interviewer-physical observation, 88 % of the nets owned were of the LLIN type with the remaining 12 % did not carry any mark to enable type recognition. The odds of bed net use were significantly lower among males and individuals: from households of low socio-economic status, from households with economic status, number of bed nets and type and number of sleeping spaces were key determinants of bed net use. To maximize impact of ULC, strategies that target males as well as those that ensure ITN coverage for all, address barriers to feasible and convenient bed net use including covering over all sleeping space types, and provide net hanging supports, are needed.

  14. Placenta Percreta Invading Broad Ligament and Parametrium in a Woman with Two Previous Cesarean Sections: A Case Report

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    Mansoureh Vahdat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of placenta accreta has dramatically increased due to increasing caesarean section rate all over the world. Placenta percreta is the most severe form of placenta accretes. It frequently results in maternal morbidity and mortality mainly caused by massive obstetric hemorrhage or emergency hysterectomy. Percreta invading into the broad ligament has rarely been previously reported. Case presenting. We presented a case of placenta percreta invading left broad ligament and parametrium in a woman with two previous cesarean sections, which led to massive intraoperative hemorrhage during hysterectomy and transient ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusion. In cases of parametrial involvement, it would be more difficult to decide whether to remove placenta or leave it in site. In surgical removal neither local excision of placental bed and uterine repair nor traditional hysterectomy is adequate if parametrium invaded by placenta. We suggest delayed elective hysterectomy in such cases. So, pregnancy-induced pelvic congestion would be decreased, we can gather an expert team of gynecologists, urologists, and vascular surgeons, we could get plenty of blood products, and we may have the chance to administer methotrexate.

  15. [Double mutant alleles in the EXT1 gene not previously reported in a teenager with hereditary multiple exostoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco; Cozar, Mónica; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana; Asteggiano, Carla G; Martínez-Domenech, Gustavo; Bracho, Ana; Sánchez, Yanira; Stock, Frances; Delgado-Luengo, Wilmer; Zara-Chirinos, Carmen; Chacín, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Hereditary forms of multiple exostoses, now called EXT1/EXT2-CDG within Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, are the most common benign bone tumors in humans and clinical description consists of the formation of several cartilage-capped bone tumors, usually benign and localized in the juxta-epiphyseal region of long bones, although wide body dissemination in severe cases is not uncommon. Onset of the disease is variable ranging from 2-3 years up to 13-15 years with an estimated incidence ranging from 1/18,000 to 1/50,000 cases in European countries. We present a double mutant alleles in the EXT1 gene not previously reported in a teenager and her family with hereditary multiple exostoses.

  16. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachan Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Methods Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY. These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. Results After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja and 99% (ANC Adjumani were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja. Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27 compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23 in Adjumani. Conclusions Targeted campaigns and routine ANC

  17. Costs and effects of two public sector delivery channels for long-lasting insecticidal nets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Kolaczinski, Kate; Kyabayinze, Daniel; Strachan, Daniel; Temperley, Matilda; Wijayanandana, Nayantara; Kilian, Albert

    2010-04-20

    In Uganda, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) have been predominantly delivered through two public sector channels: targeted campaigns or routine antenatal care (ANC) services. Their combination in a mixed-model strategy is being advocated to quickly increase LLIN coverage and maintain it over time, but there is little evidence on the efficiency of each system. This study evaluated the two delivery channels regarding LLIN retention and use, and estimated the associated costs, to contribute towards the evidence-base on LLIN delivery channels in Uganda. Household surveys were conducted 5-7 months after LLIN distribution, combining questionnaires with visual verification of LLIN presence. Focus groups and interviews were conducted to further investigate determinants of LLIN retention and use. Campaign distribution was evaluated in Jinja and Adjumani while ANC distribution was evaluated only in the latter district. Costs were calculated from the provider perspective through retrospective analysis of expenditure data, and effects were estimated as cost per LLIN delivered and cost per treated-net-year (TNY). These effects were calculated for the total number of LLINs delivered and for those retained and used. After 5-7 months, over 90% of LLINs were still owned by recipients, and between 74% (Jinja) and 99% (ANC Adjumani) were being used. Costing results showed that delivery was cheapest for the campaign in Jinja and highest for the ANC channel, with economic delivery cost per net retained and used of USD 1.10 and USD 2.31, respectively. Financial delivery costs for the two channels were similar in the same location, USD 1.04 for campaign or USD 1.07 for ANC delivery in Adjumani, but differed between locations (USD 0.67 for campaign delivery in Jinja). Economic cost for ANC distribution were considerably higher (USD 2.27) compared to campaign costs (USD 1.23) in Adjumani. Targeted campaigns and routine ANC services can both achieve high LLIN retention and use among

  18. Multipoint spacecraft observations of long-lasting poloidal Pc4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere on 1–2 May 2014

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    G. Korotova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We use magnetic field and plasma observations from the Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES spacecraft to study the spatial and temporal characteristics of long-lasting poloidal Pc4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere. The pulsations were observed after the main phase of a moderate storm during low geomagnetic activity. The pulsations occurred during various interplanetary conditions and the solar wind parameters do not seem to control the occurrence of the pulsations. The most striking feature of the Pc4 magnetic field pulsations was their occurrence at similar locations during three of four successive orbits. We used this information to study the latitudinal nodal structure of the pulsations and demonstrated that the latitudinal extent of the magnetic field pulsations did not exceed 2 Earth radii (RE. A phase shift between the azimuthal and radial components of the electric and magnetic fields was observed from ZSM  =  0.30 RE to ZSM  =  −0.16 RE. We used magnetic and electric field data from Van Allen Probes to determine the structure of ULF waves. We showed that the Pc4 magnetic field pulsations were radially polarized and are the second-mode harmonic waves. We suggest that the spacecraft were near a magnetic field null during the second orbit when they failed to observe the magnetic field pulsations at the local times where pulsations were observed on previous and successive orbits. We investigated the spectral structure of the Pc4 pulsations. Each spacecraft observed a decrease of the dominant period as it moved to a smaller L shell (stronger magnetic field strength. We demonstrated that higher frequencies occurred at times and locations where Alfvén velocities were greater, i.e., on Orbit 1. There is some evidence that the periods of the pulsations increased during the plasmasphere refilling

  19. Pushing the boundaries in liver graft utilisation in transplantation: Case report of a donor with previous bile duct injury repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Asma; Powell, James J; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplantation is a recognised treatment for extensive bile duct injuries with secondary biliary cirrhosis or recurring sepsis. However, there have been no reports of successful liver transplantation from a donor who sustained a previous bile duct injury. Here we discuss the case of a liver transplant from a 51-year-old brain dead donor who had suffered a Strasberg E1 bile duct injury and had undergone a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy 24 years prior to donation. The liver was successfully recovered and transplanted into a 56-year-old male recipient with end stage liver disease consequent to alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. The graft continues to function well 36 months post-transplant, with normal liver function tests and imaging revealing a patent hepaticojejunostomy. The potential associated vascular injuries should be identified during bench preparation whilst the management of biliary reconstruction at the time of transplant should follow the principles of biliary reconstruction in cases with biliary injuries, extending the hilar opening into the left duct. This case highlights the successful utilisation of a post bile duct injury repair liver, employing an experienced procurement team and careful bench assessment and reconstruction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Social determinants of long lasting insecticidal hammock use among the Ra-glai ethnic minority in Vietnam: implications for forest malaria control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (LLIHs are being evaluated as an additional malaria prevention tool in settings where standard control strategies have a limited impact. This is the case among the Ra-glai ethnic minority communities of Ninh Thuan, one of the forested and mountainous provinces of Central Vietnam where malaria morbidity persist due to the sylvatic nature of the main malaria vector An. dirus and the dependence of the population on the forest for subsistence--as is the case for many impoverished ethnic minorities in Southeast Asia. METHODS: A social science study was carried out ancillary to a community-based cluster randomized trial on the effectiveness of LLIHs to control forest malaria. The social science research strategy consisted of a mixed methods study triangulating qualitative data from focused ethnography and quantitative data collected during a malariometric cross-sectional survey on a random sample of 2,045 study participants. RESULTS: To meet work requirements during the labor intensive malaria transmission and rainy season, Ra-glai slash and burn farmers combine living in government supported villages along the road with a second home at their fields located in the forest. LLIH use was evaluated in both locations. During daytime, LLIH use at village level was reported by 69.3% of all respondents, and in forest fields this was 73.2%. In the evening, 54.1% used the LLIHs in the villages, while at the fields this was 20.7%. At night, LLIH use was minimal, regardless of the location (village 4.4%; forest 6.4%. DISCUSSION: Despite the free distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and LLIHs, around half the local population remains largely unprotected when sleeping in their forest plot huts. In order to tackle forest malaria more effectively, control policies should explicitly target forest fields where ethnic minority farmers are more vulnerable to malaria.

  1. External cephalic version among women with a previous cesarean delivery: report on 36 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenhaim, Haim A; Varin, Jocelyne; Boucher, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Whether or not women with a previous cesarean section should be considered for an external cephalic version remains unclear. In our study, we sought to examine the relationship between a history of previous cesarean section and outcomes of external cephalic version for pregnancies at 36 completed weeks of gestation or more. Data on obstetrical history and on external cephalic version outcomes was obtained from the C.H.U. Sainte-Justine External Cephalic Version Database. Baseline clinical characteristics were compared among women with and without a history of previous cesarean section. We used logistic regression analysis to evaluate the effect of previous cesarean section on success of external cephalic version while adjusting for parity, maternal body mass index, gestational age, estimated fetal weight, and amniotic fluid index. Over a 15-year period, 1425 external cephalic versions were attempted of which 36 (2.5%) were performed on women with a previous cesarean section. Although women with a history of previous cesarean section were more likely to be older and para >2 (38.93% vs. 15.0%), there were no difference in gestational age, estimated fetal weight, and amniotic fluid index. Women with a prior cesarean section had a success rate similar to women without [50.0% vs. 51.6%, adjusted OR: 1.31 (0.48-3.59)]. Women with a previous cesarean section who undergo an external cephalic version have similar success rates than do women without. Concern about procedural success in women with a previous cesarean section is unwarranted and should not deter attempting an external cephalic version.

  2. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L.; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C.; Dafre, Alcir L.; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O.; Rocha, Joao B.T.; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    birth. Even though the cerebral mercury concentration decreased to nearly basal levels at postnatal day 21, GSH levels, GPx and GR activities remained decreased in MeHg-exposed mice, indicating that prenatal exposure to MeHg affects the cerebral GSH antioxidant systems by inducing biochemical alterations that endure even when mercury tissue levels decrease and become indistinguishable from those noted in pups born to control dams. This study is the first to show that prenatal exposure to MeHg disrupts the postnatal development of the glutathione antioxidant system in the mouse brain, pointing to an additional molecular mechanism by which MeHg induces pro-oxidative damage in the developing CNS. Moreover, our experimental observation corroborates previous reports on the permanent functional deficits observed after prenatal MeHg exposure

  3. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    D K Mukhopadhyay; S S Basu; D Roy; N Das; F Akbar; GN Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. Methods: A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/util...

  4. miR-191 and miR-135 are required for long-lasting spine remodelling associated with synaptic long-term depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhonghua; Yu, Danni; Gu, Qin-Hua; Yang, Yanqin; Tu, Kang; Zhu, Jun; Li, Zheng

    2014-02-01

    Activity-dependent modification of dendritic spines, subcellular compartments accommodating postsynaptic specializations in the brain, is an important cellular mechanism for brain development, cognition and synaptic pathology of brain disorders. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression (NMDAR-LTD), a prototypic form of synaptic plasticity, is accompanied by prolonged remodelling of spines. The mechanisms underlying long-lasting spine remodelling in NMDAR-LTD, however, are largely unclear. Here we show that LTD induction causes global changes in miRNA transcriptomes affecting many cellular activities. Specifically, we show that expression changes of miR-191 and miR-135 are required for maintenance but not induction of spine restructuring. Moreover, we find that actin depolymerization and AMPA receptor exocytosis are regulated for extended periods of time by miRNAs to support long-lasting spine plasticity. These findings reveal a miRNA-mediated mechanism and a role for AMPA receptor exocytosis in long-lasting spine plasticity, and identify a number of candidate miRNAs involved in LTD.

  5. The Natural History of Juvenile or Subacute GM2 Gangliosidosis: 21 New Cases and Literature Review of 134 Previously Reported

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maegawa, Gustavo H. B.; Stockley, Tracy; Tropak, Michael; Banwell, Brenda; Blaser, Susan; Kok, Fernando; Giugliani, Roberto; Mahuran, Don; Clarke, Joe T. R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases caused by deficiency of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase resulting in GM2 ganglioside accumulation in brain. The purpose of this study was to delineate the natural history of the condition and identify genotype-phenotype correlations that might be helpful in predicting the course of the disease in individual patients. METHODS A cohort of 21 patients with juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis, 15 with the Tay-Sachs variant and 6 with the Sandhoff variant, was studied prospectively in 2 centers. Our experience was compared with previously published reports on 134 patients. Information about clinical features, β-hexosaminidase enzyme activity, and mutation analysis was collected. RESULTS In our cohort of patients, the mean (±SD) age of onset of symptoms was 5.3 ± 4.1 years, with a mean follow-up time of 8.4 years. The most common symptoms at onset were gait disturbances (66.7%), incoordination (52.4%), speech problems (28.6%), and developmental delay (28.6%). The age of onset of gait disturbances was 7.1 ± 5.6 years. The mean time for progression to becoming wheelchair-bound was 6.2 ± 5.5 years. The mean age of onset of speech problems was 7.0 ± 5.6 years, with a mean time of progression to anarthria of 5.6 ± 5.3 years. Muscle wasting (10.6 ± 7.4 years), proximal weakness (11.1 ± 7.7 years), and incontinence of sphincters (14.6 ± 9.7 years) appeared later in the course of the disease. Psychiatric disturbances and neuropathy were more prevalent in patients with the Sandhoff variant than in those with the Tay-Sachs variant. However, dysphagia, sphincter incontinence, and sleep problems occurred earlier in those with the Tay-Sachs variant. Cerebellar atrophy was the most common finding on brain MRI (52.9%). The median survival time among the studied and reviewed patients was 14.5 years. The genotype-phenotype correlation revealed that in patients with the Tay-Sachs variant, the presence

  6. Analysis of over 10,000 Cases finds no association between previously reported candidate polymorphisms and ovarian cancer outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Kristin L; Vierkant, Robert A; Fogarty, Zachary C

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women. In an effort to understand contributors to disease outcome, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with ovarian cancer recurrence or survival, specifically in angiogenesis, inflammation, mitosis...

  7. Changes in malaria burden and transmission in sentinel sites after the roll-out of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Reimer, Lisa J; Gideon, Gibson; Koimbu, Gussy; Barnadas, Céline; Makita, Leo; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-06-14

    Papua New Guinea exhibits a complex malaria epidemiology due to diversity in malaria parasites, mosquito vectors, human hosts, and their natural environment. Heterogeneities in transmission and burden of malaria at various scales are likely to affect the success of malaria control interventions, and vice-versa. This manuscript assesses changes in malaria prevalence, incidence and transmission in sentinel sites following the first national distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Before and after the distribution of LLINs, data collection in six purposively selected sentinel sites included clinical surveillance in the local health facility, household surveys and entomological surveys. Not all activities were carried out in all sites. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches. Diagnosis of malaria infection in humans was done by rapid diagnostic test, light microscopy and PCR for species confirmation. Following the roll-out of LLINs, the average monthly malaria incidence rate dropped from 13/1,000 population to 2/1,000 (incidence rate ratio = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.09-0.17; P < 0.001). The average population prevalence of malaria decreased from 15.7 % pre-LLIN to 4.8 % post-LLIN (adjusted odds ratio = 0.26; 95 % CI: 0.20-0.33; P < 0.001). In general, reductions in incidence and prevalence were more pronounced in infections with P. falciparum than with P. vivax. Additional morbidity indicators (anaemia, splenomegaly, self-reported fever) showed a decreasing trend in most sites. Mean Anopheles man biting rates decreased from 83 bites/person/night pre-LLIN to 31 post-LLIN (P = 0.008). Anopheles species composition differed between sites but everywhere diversity was lower post-LLIN. In two sites, post-LLIN P. vivax infections in anophelines had decreased but P. falciparum infections had increased despite the opposite observation in humans. LLIN distribution had distinct effects on P. falciparum and P. vivax. Higher resilience of

  8. Traditional nets interfere with the uptake of long-lasting insecticidal nets in the Peruvian Amazon: the relevance of net preference for achieving high coverage and use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Peeters Grietens

    Full Text Available While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru.The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses.A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2% than in those with walls (73.8% (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001.Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent, appropriate quantitative and qualitative

  9. "We are supposed to take care of it": a qualitative examination of care and repair behaviour of long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets in Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gabrielle C; Scandurra, Leah; Acosta, Angela; Koenker, Hannah; Obi, Emmanuel; Weber, Rachel

    2014-08-14

    The longevity of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) under field conditions has important implications for malaria vector control. The behaviour of bed net users, including net care and repair, may protect or damage bed nets and impact the physical integrity of nets. However, this behaviour, and the motivating and inhibiting factors, is not well understood. Qualitative research methods were used to examine behaviour, attitudes and norms around damage, care and repair of LLINs. Eighteen in-depth interviews (IDI) and six focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with LLIN users in two local government areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A brief background questionnaire with the 73 participants prior to IDIs or FGDs collected additional data on demographics, net use, and care and repair behaviour. Respondents cited that the major causes of damage to bed nets are primarily children, followed by rodents, everyday handling that is not gentle, and characteristics of sleeping spaces. Caring for nets was perceived as both preventing damage by careful handling and keeping the net clean, which may lead to over-washing of LLINs. Repairing a damaged net was considered something that net users should do and the responsibility of adults in the household. Despite this, reported frequency of net repair was low (18%). Motivations for taking care of and repairing nets centred around caring for one's family, avoiding mosquito bites, saving money, and maintaining the positive opinion of others by keeping a clean and intact net. Barriers to net care and repair related to time availability and low perceived value of bed nets or of one's health. This study provides novel and valuable insights on the perceptions and attitudes of LLIN users in Nasarawa, Nigeria on the durability of bed nets, how to care for and repair nets, and for what reasons. Communication around net care should stress proper daily storage of nets, regular net inspections, prompt repairs, and clarify misconceptions

  10. Rib cage deformity during two-stage tissue expander breast reconstruction in patient with previous radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Porčnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing two-stage breast reconstruction with tissue expander and a history of previous irradiation are predisposed to a various chest-wall deformations more than non-irradiated patients. If chest-wall depression with/without rib fracture is found intra-operatively, bigger implant should be used, with a subsequent radiologic evaluation. In the future, the development of a new, modified expander with a harder base could minimise such complications.

  11. A Case Report of Salmonella muenchen Enteritis Causing Rhabdomyolysis and Myocarditis in a Previously Healthy 26-Year-Old Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Will; Martell, Jon; Wilson, Joy S; Matsuura, Don T

    2017-04-01

    This case report examines an unusual presentation of a non-typhoidal Salmonella serovar with limited prevalence in the literature. This is the first case report to associate specifically the Salmonella muenchen serovar with rhabdomyolysis and myocarditis. This case report reviews the diagnostic criteria for myocarditis and explores the diagnostic dilemma of troponin elevation in the setting of rhabdomyolysis. It demonstrates that Salmonella muenchen has the ability to present in a broad range of individuals with complications extending beyond classical gastrointestinal symptoms. This report also concludes that diagnosis of the many possible complications from non-typhoidal Salmonella infections can be difficult due to patient comorbidities, variability in the severity of the illnesses, laboratory test limitations, and imaging limitations. When a patient presents with elevated troponins in the setting of rhabdomyolysis a careful workup should be done to evaluate for ischemic causes, myocarditis, or false elevation secondary to rhabdomyolysis.

  12. Continuation of the summarizing interim report on previous results of the Gorleben site survey as of May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    In addition to results from the 1983 interim report, this report contains, in order to supplement the surface explorations, seismic reflection measurements, hydrogeologic and seismologic investigations, sorption experiments, and studies of glacial development in the site region and of long-term safety of final waste repositories in salt domes. The site's high grade of suitability for becoming a final radioactive waste repository, the legal basis as well as quality assurance are evaluated. (orig.) [de

  13. Long-lasting novelty-induced neuronal reverberation during slow-wave sleep in multiple forebrain areas.

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    Sidarta Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of experience-dependent brain reactivation during both slow-wave (SW and rapid eye-movement (REM sleep led to the notion that the consolidation of recently acquired memory traces requires neural replay during sleep. To date, however, several observations continue to undermine this hypothesis. To address some of these objections, we investigated the effects of a transient novel experience on the long-term evolution of ongoing neuronal activity in the rat forebrain. We observed that spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal ensemble activity originally produced by the tactile exploration of novel objects recurred for up to 48 h in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, putamen, and thalamus. This novelty-induced recurrence was characterized by low but significant correlations values. Nearly identical results were found for neuronal activity sampled when animals were moving between objects without touching them. In contrast, negligible recurrence was observed for neuronal patterns obtained when animals explored a familiar environment. While the reverberation of past patterns of neuronal activity was strongest during SW sleep, waking was correlated with a decrease of neuronal reverberation. REM sleep showed more variable results across animals. In contrast with data from hippocampal place cells, we found no evidence of time compression or expansion of neuronal reverberation in any of the sampled forebrain areas. Our results indicate that persistent experience-dependent neuronal reverberation is a general property of multiple forebrain structures. It does not consist of an exact replay of previous activity, but instead it defines a mild and consistent bias towards salient neural ensemble firing patterns. These results are compatible with a slow and progressive process of memory consolidation, reflecting novelty-related neuronal ensemble relationships that seem to be context- rather than stimulus-specific. Based on our current and previous results

  14. CAR T-Cell therapy can lead to long-lasting remissions in patients with lymphoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than three years after treatment, some clinical trial participants who received CAR T-cell therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma remain in remission. These results are reported in a paper in Molecular Therapy by James Kochenderfer, M.D., of CCR's Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch. “This raises the possibility that CAR T cells can be curative for diffuse large B cell lymphoma,” Kochenderfer says.

  15. 24 CFR 1710.558 - Previously accepted state filings-notice of revocation rights on property report cover page.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... will give the purchaser written notification of purchaser's default or breach of contract and the... purchaser loses rights and interest in the lot because of the purchaser's default or breach of contract... Report prior to signing a contract or agreement, you may cancel your contract or agreement by giving...

  16. Leptotrichia endocarditis: report of two cases from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) database and review of previous cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caram, L. B.; Linefsky, J. P.; Read, K. M.; Murdoch, D. R.; Lalani, T.; Woods, C. W.; Reller, L. B.; Kanj, S. S.; Premru, M. M.; Ryan, S.; Al-Hegelan, M.; Donnio, P. Y.; Orezzi, C.; Paiva, M. G.; Tribouilloy, C.; Watkin, R.; Harris, O.; Eisen, D. P.; Corey, G. R.; Cabell, C. H.; Petti, C. A.; Gordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncion; Mestres, Carlos A.; Paré, Carlos; de la Maria, Cristina Garcia; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miró, José M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jiménez-Expósito, Maria Jesús; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falcó, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Leptotrichia species typically colonize the oral cavity and genitourinary tract. We report the first two cases of endocarditis secondary to L. goodfellowii sp. nov. Both cases were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Review of the English literature revealed only two other cases of

  17. Case report of electronic cigarettes possibly associated with eosinophilic pneumonitis in a previously healthy active-duty sailor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Darshan; Latham, Emi

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a technology that has been touted as a safe and effective alternative to traditional cigarettes. There is, however, a paucity of literature showing the adverse outcomes of e-cigarettes and a correlation with acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP). To present a possible association between e-cigarettes and AEP. A 20-year-old previously healthy man was found to develop AEP after smoking an e-cigarette. He was treated with antibiotics and steroids and his symptoms improved. Though an alternative to traditional cigarettes, e-cigarettes can have unpredictable and potentially serious adverse effects. More research needs to be conducted to determine their safety. If seeing a patient in the ED with pulmonary symptoms after use of e-cigarettes, AEP should be considered in the differential. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Limited transplantation of antigen-expressing hematopoietic stem cells induces long-lasting cytotoxic T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren L Denning

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing the ability of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs to recognize and eradicate tumor or pathogen-infected cells is a critical goal of modern immune-based therapies. Although multiple immunization strategies efficiently induce high levels of antigen-specific CTLs, the initial increase is typically followed by a rapid contraction phase resulting in a sharp decline in the frequency of functional CTLs. We describe a novel approach to immunotherapy based on a transplantation of low numbers of antigen-expressing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs following nonmyeloablative or partially myeloablative conditioning. Continuous antigen presentation by a limited number of differentiated transgenic hematopoietic cells results in an induction and prolonged maintenance of fully functional effector T cell responses in a mouse model. Recipient animals display high levels of antigen-specific CTLs four months following transplantation in contrast to dendritic cell-immunized animals in which the response typically declines at 4-6 weeks post-immunization. Majority of HSC-induced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells display central memory phenotype, efficiently kill target cells in vivo, and protect recipients against tumor growth in a preventive setting. Furthermore, we confirm previously published observation that high level engraftment of antigen-expressing HSCs following myeloablative conditioning results in tolerance and an absence of specific cytotoxic activity in vivo. In conclusion, the data presented here supports potential application of immunization by limited transplantation of antigen-expressing HSCs for the prevention and treatment of cancer and therapeutic immunization of chronic infectious diseases such as HIV-1/AIDS.

  19. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mezaine, Hani S

    2010-01-01

    We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg's spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger's from the posterior chamber.

  20. Central posterior capsule pigmentation in a patient with pigment dispersion and previous ocular trauma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mezaine Hani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 55-year-old man with unusually dense, unilateral central posterior capsule pigmentation associated with the characteristic clinical features of pigment dispersion syndrome, including a Krukenberg′s spindle and dense trabecular pigmentation in both eyes. A history of an old blunt ocular trauma probably caused separation of the anterior hyaloid from the back of the lens, thereby creating an avenue by which pigment could reach the potential space of Berger′s from the posterior chamber.

  1. Long-lasting effects of neck muscle vibration and contraction on self-motion perception of vestibular origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; Panichi, Roberto; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Biscarini, Andrea; Filippi, Guido Maria; Schieppati, Marco

    2015-10-01

    previously experienced position of head with respect to trunk. Tonic proprioceptive inflow, as might occur as a consequence of enduring or permanent head postures, can induce adaptive plastic changes in vestibular-dependent motion sensitiveness. These changes might be counteracted by vibration of selected neck muscles. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An 8-month history of meningitis in an extremely low birth weight infant? - Long-lasting Infection with Ureaplasma parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, K; Wohlleben, M; Speer, C P

    2015-02-01

    Ureaplasma spp. have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both preterm labor and neonatal morbidity including pneumonia and sepsis and the development of chronic lung disease of prematurity. Data on Ureaplasma meningitis are limited and partly controversially discussed. We report the unique case of a 9-month-old infant with progressive internal hydrocephalus of unknown origin and developmental delay due to a history of>200 days of inflammation of the central nervous system. The female extremely low birth weight infant had been referred to our hospital for ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. She had been born at 26+3 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 940 g. With the exception of a moderate respiratory distress syndrome, postnatal period had been reported uneventful. However, internal hydrocephalus had become manifest at 4 weeks of postnatal age. Intraventricular hemorrhage had not been documented by cranial ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis had repetitively revealed pronounced inflammation reflected by pleocytosis (50-86 leukocytes/μL, 60% lymphocytes), CSF protein levels of 578-1,026 mg/dL and undetectable CSF glucose. Although suggesting bacterial meningitis, microbial diagnostics had not been indicative, and empirical antibiotics had not affected the CSF findings. On admission to our hospital, CSF analysis still documented significant inflammation (125 leukocytes/μL, CSF protein 565 mg/dL, CSF glucoseUreaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. U. parvum was detected in CSF by culture and PCR, no other pathogens were isolated. On intravenous treatment with chloramphenicol, CSF profile continuously normalized, and cultures and PCR became negative. Treatment was continued for 3 weeks, and the infant was discharged after uncomplicated ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. During a 12-month observation period she has shown encouraging recovery. In preterm infants, in particular, internal hydrocephalus of

  3. Sol–gel synthesis of long-lasting phosphors CdSiO3: Mn2+, RE3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) and luminescence mechanism research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Xiaofei; Cao, Lixin; Liu, Wei; Su, Ge; Wang, Pingping; Schultz, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New long-lasting CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ , RE 3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) phosphors were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The afterglow performance of the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ , Eu 3+ phosphor was the best. ► The role of RE 3+ co-doped into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ matrix was discussed in this paper. -- Abstract: Mn 2+ and RE 3+ (RE = Tb, Eu, Nd) co-doped CdSiO 3 orange phosphors were prepared at 1050 °C by a sol–gel method. The phase and crystallinity of the synthesized materials were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The luminescence characteristics were analyzed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra, afterglow decay curves, long-lasting phosphorescence spectra, and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra. Due to the difference in co-doped rare earth ionic radii, it varied greatly in trap density and trap depth caused by the different defects deriving from RE 3+ ions co-doping into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ host. The afterglow intensity and time for these samples increased as follows: CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ 0.2%, Nd 3+ 0.8% 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Tb 3+ 0.8% 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Eu 3+ 0.3%. CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ 0.4%, Eu 3+ 0.3% had the best afterglow properties, which could be due to the proper traps formed by Eu 3+ ions co-doping into the host. The role of RE 3+ co-doped into the CdSiO 3 : Mn 2+ matrix and the possible long-lasting phosphorescence process was also discussed in this paper.

  4. A single footshock causes long-lasting hypoactivity in unknown environments that is dependent on the development of contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviu, Núria; Fuentes, Silvia; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to a single session of footshocks induces long-lasting inhibition of activity in unknown environments that markedly differ from the shock context. Interestingly, these effects are not necessarily associated to an enhanced anxiety and interpretation of this hypoactivity remains unclear. In the present experiment we further studied this phenomenon in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In a first experiment, a session of three shocks resulted in hypoactivity during exposure, 6-12days later, to three different unknown environments. This altered behaviour was not accompanied by a greater hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation, although greater HPA activation paralleling higher levels of freezing was observed in the shock context. In a second experiment we used a single shock and two procedures, one with pre-exposure to the context before the shock and another with immediate shock that did not induce contextual fear conditioning. Hypoactivity and a certain level of generalization of fear (freezing) to the unknown environments only appeared in the group that developed fear conditioning, but no evidence for enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus-maze was found in any group. The results suggest that if animals are able to associate an aversive experience with a distinct unknown environment, they would display more cautious behaviour in any unknown environment and such strategy persists despite repeated experience with different environments. This long-lasting cautious behaviour was not associated to greater HPA response to the unknown environment that was however observed in the shock context. The present findings raised some concerns about interpretation of long-lasting behavioural changes caused by brief stressors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exposure to severe stressors causes long-lasting dysregulation of resting and stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Xavier; Rotllant, David; Fuentes, Silvia; Delgado, Raúl; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Exposure to some predominantly emotional (electric shock) and systemic (interleukin-1beta) stressors has been found to induce long-term sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to further superimposed stressors. Since exposure to immobilization on wooden boards (IMO) is a severe stressor and may have interest regarding putative animal models of post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), we have characterized long-lasting effects of a single exposure to IMO and other stressors on the HPA response to the same (homotypic) and to novel (heterotypic) stressors and the putative mechanisms involved. A single exposure to IMO caused a long-lasting reduction of peripheral and central responses of the HPA axis, likely to be mediated by some brain areas, such as the lateral septum and the medial amygdala. This desensitization is not explained by changes in negative glucocorticoid feedback, and, surprisingly, it is positively related to the intensity of the stressors. In contrast, the HPA response to heterotypic stressors (novel environments) was enhanced, with maximal sensitization on the day after IMO. Sensitization progressively vanished over the course of 1-2 weeks and was not modulated by IMO-induced corticosterone release. Moreover, it could not be explained by changes in the sensitivity of the HPA axis to fast or intermediate/delayed negative feedback, as evaluated 1 week after exposure to IMO, using shock as the heterotypic stressor. Long-lasting stress-induced behavioral changes reminiscent of enhanced anxiety and HPA sensitization are likely to be parallel but partially independent phenomena, the former being apparently not related to the intensity of stressors.

  6. Repeated Transient Jets from a Warped Disk in the Symbiotic Prototype Z And: A Link to the Long-lasting Active Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopal, Augustin; Tarasova, Taya. N.; Wolf, Marek; Dubovský, Pavol A.; Kudzej, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Active phases of some symbiotic binaries survive for a long time, from years to decades. The accretion process onto a white dwarf (WD) sustaining long-lasting activity, and sometimes leading to collimated ejection, is not well understood. We present the repeated emergence of highly collimated outflows (jets) from the symbiotic prototype Z And during its 2008 and 2009–10 outbursts and suggest their link to the current long-lasting (from 2000) active phase. We monitored Z And with high-resolution spectroscopy, multicolor UBVR C—and high time resolution—photometry. The well-pronounced bipolar jets were ejected again during the 2009–10 outburst together with the simultaneous emergence of the rapid photometric variability (Δm ≈ 0.06 mag) on the timescale of hours, showing similar properties as those during the 2006 outburst. These phenomena and the measured disk–jets connection could be caused by the radiation-induced warping of the inner disk due to a significant increase of the burning WD luminosity. Ejection of transient jets by Z And around outburst maxima signals a transient accretion at rates above the upper limit of the stable hydrogen burning on the WD surface, and thus proves the nature of Z And-type outbursts. The enhanced accretion through the disk warping, supplemented by the accretion from the giant’s wind, can keep a high luminosity of the WD for a long time, until depletion of the disk. In this way, the jets provide a link to long-lasting active phases of Z And.

  7. Natural killer cells activity in a metastatic colorectal cancer patient with complete and long lasting response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaiano, Alessandro; Napolitano, Maria; Capozzi, Monica; Tafuto, Salvatore; Avallone, Antonio; Scala, Stefania

    2017-11-16

    Here we report a case of a 70-year-old man who received adjuvant chemotherapy with fluorouracile, folinic acid and oxaliplatin after a left hemicolectomy for a stage IIIb adenocarcinoma in May 2009. During follow-up he de-veloped abdominal lymphnodes metastases evidenced by positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT) scan and increase of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level. Chemotherapy with capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab was started in April 2012. Restaging showed a complete response and normalization of CEA. The patient received maintenance therapy with bevacizumab which was stopped in December 2013 for patient choice. In October 2014, a new increase in CEA was documented and PET-CT scan showed lung metastases. Analysis of RAS status revealed the absence of mutations, then the patient started a second-line chemotherapy with fluorouracile, folinic acid, irinotecan (folfiri) and panitumumab achieving, in January 2015, a complete response and normalization of CEA. Thereafter, folfiri was discontinued for toxicity; furthermore, upon the third occurrence of a grade 3 dermatologic toxicity, panitumumab was continued from June 2015 at 60% of the original dose and it was administered every three weeks. Until presentation of this case, the patient maintains a complete response, has no symptoms of disease and CEA is normal. Interestingly, this patient presented a high proportion of circulating natural killer (NK) cells (35.1%) with high cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. Study on the role of NK in patients with advanced colorectal cancer are ongoing.

  8. New type of ensemble of quasi-periodic, long-lasting VLF emissions at the auroral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manninen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new type of the series of quasi-periodic (QP very low frequency (VLF emissions in frequency range of 1–5 kHz, and not associated with geomagnetic pulsations, has been discovered at auroral latitudes (L = 5.3 during the Finnish VLF campaign (held in December 2011. At least five unusually spectacular events, each with a duration of several hours, have been observed during the night under conditions of quiet geomagnetic activity (Kp = 0–1, although QPs usually occur during the daytime. Contrary to the QP emissions typically occurring during the day, the spectral structure of these QP events represented an extended, complicated sequence of repeated discrete rising VLF signals. Their duration was about 2–3 min each, with the repetition periods ranging from ~1 min to ~10 min. Two such nighttime non-typical events are reported in this paper. The fine structure of the separated QP elements may represent a mixture of the different frequency band signals, which seem to have independent origins. It was found that the periodic signals with lower frequency appear to trigger the strong dispersive upper frequency signals. The temporal dynamics of the spectral structure of the QPs studied were significantly controlled by some disturbances in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. This finding is very important for future theoretical investigations because the generation mechanism of this new type of QP emissions is not yet understood.

  9. Minor Antigen Disparities Impede Induction of Long Lasting Chimerism and Tolerance through Bone Marrow Transplantation with Costimulation Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinda Bigenzahn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed chimerism and tolerance can be successfully induced in rodents through allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT with costimulation blockade (CB, but varying success rates have been reported with distinct models and protocols. We therefore investigated the impact of minor antigen disparities on the induction of mixed chimerism and tolerance. C57BL/6 (H2b mice received nonmyeloablative total body irradiation (3 Gy, costimulation blockade (anti-CD40L mAb and CTLA4Ig, and 2×107 bone marrow cells (BMC from either of three donor strains: Balb/c (H2d (MHC plus multiple minor histocompatibility antigen (mHAg mismatched, B10.D2 (H2d or B10.A (H2a (both MHC mismatched, but mHAg matched. Macrochimerism was followed over time by flow cytometry and tolerance was tested by skin grafting. 20 of 21 recipients of B10.D2 BMC but only 13 of 18 of Balb/c BMC and 13 of 20 of B10.A BMC developed stable long-term multilineage chimerism (p<0.05 for each donor strain versus B10.D2. Significantly superior donor skin graft survival was observed in successfully established long-term chimeras after mHAg matched BMT compared to mHAg mismatched BMT (p<0.05. Both minor and major antigen disparities pose a substantial barrier for the induction of chimerism while the maintenance of tolerance after nonmyeloablative BMT and costimulation blockade is negatively influenced by minor antigen disparities.

  10. Towards long lasting zirconia-based composites for dental implants: Transformation induced plasticity and its consequence on ceramic reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveron, Helen; Fornabaio, Marta; Palmero, Paola; Fürderer, Tobias; Adolfsson, Erik; Lughi, Vanni; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter; Montanaro, Laura; Chevalier, Jérôme

    2017-01-15

    Zirconia-based composites were developed through an innovative processing route able to tune compositional and microstructural features very precisely. Fully-dense ceria-stabilized zirconia ceramics (84vol% Ce-TZP) containing equiaxed alumina (8vol%Al 2 O 3 ) and elongated strontium hexa-aluminate (8vol% SrAl 12 O 19 ) second phases were obtained by conventional sintering. This work deals with the effect of the zirconia stabilization degree (CeO 2 in the range 10.0-11.5mol%) on the transformability and mechanical properties of Ce-TZP-Al 2 O 3 -SrAl 12 O 19 materials. Vickers hardness, biaxial flexural strength and Single-edge V-notched beam tests revealed a strong influence of ceria content on the mechanical properties. Composites with 11.0mol% CeO 2 or above exhibited the classical behaviour of brittle ceramics, with no apparent plasticity and very low strain to failure. On the contrary, composites with 10.5mol% CeO 2 or less showed large transformation-induced plasticity and almost no dispersion in strength data. Materials with 10.5mol% of ceria showed the highest values in terms of biaxial bending strength (up to 1.1GPa) and fracture toughness (>10MPa√m). In these ceramics, as zirconia transformation precedes failure, the Weibull modulus was exceptionally high and reached a value of 60, which is in the range typically reported for metals. The results achieved demonstrate the high potential of using these new strong, tough and stable zirconia-based composites in structural biomedical applications. Yttria-stabilized (Y-TZP) zirconia ceramics are increasingly used for developing metal-free restorations and dental implants. Despite their success related to their excellent mechanical resistance, Y-TZP can undergo Low Temperature Degradation which could be responsible for restoration damage or even worst the failure of the implant. Current research is focusing on strategies to improve the LTD resistance of Y-TZP or to develop alternative composites with better

  11. Genome-wide RNA profiling of long-lasting stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by Yellow Fever vaccination in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Fuertes Marraco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The live-attenuated Yellow Fever (YF vaccine YF-17D induces a broad and polyfunctional CD8 T cell response in humans. Recently, we identified a population of stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells induced by YF-17D that persists at stable frequency for at least 25 years after vaccination. The YF-17D is thus a model system of human CD8 T cell biology that furthermore allows to track and study long-lasting and antigen-specific human memory CD8 T cells. Here, we describe in detail the sample characteristics and preparation of a microarray dataset acquired for genome-wide gene expression profiling of long-lasting YF-specific stem cell-like memory CD8 T cells, compared to the reference CD8 T cell differentiation subsets from total CD8 T cells. We also describe the quality controls, annotations and exploratory analyses of the dataset. The microarray data is available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO public repository with accession number GSE65804.

  12. Environmental enrichment of young adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) in different sensory modalities has long-lasting effects on their ability to learn via specific sensory channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolivo, Vassilissa; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Sensory modalities individuals use to obtain information from the environment differ among conspecifics. The relative contributions of genetic divergence and environmental plasticity to this variance remain yet unclear. Numerous studies have shown that specific sensory enrichments or impoverishments at the postnatal stage can shape neural development, with potential lifelong effects. For species capable of adjusting to novel environments, specific sensory stimulation at a later life stage could also induce specific long-lasting behavioral effects. To test this possibility, we enriched young adult Norway rats with either visual, auditory, or olfactory cues. Four to 8 months after the enrichment period we tested each rat for their learning ability in 3 two-choice discrimination tasks, involving either visual, auditory, or olfactory stimulus discrimination, in a full factorial design. No sensory modality was more relevant than others for the proposed task per se, but rats performed better when tested in the modality for which they had been enriched. This shows that specific environmental conditions encountered during early adulthood have specific long-lasting effects on the learning abilities of rats. Furthermore, we disentangled the relative contributions of genetic and environmental causes of the response. The reaction norms of learning abilities in relation to the stimulus modality did not differ between families, so interindividual divergence was mainly driven by environmental rather than genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Insecticidal, acaricidal and repellent effects of DEET- and IR3535-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulde, Michael K; Albiez, Gunther; Nehring, Oliver

    2010-03-01

    A novel long-lasting repellent-treated net (LLRTN) has been designed by binding the skin repellents N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or IR3535, onto the fibres of bed net fabric using a new polymer-coating technique. The repellent toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of a factory-based repellent-impregnated fabric has been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks. By using this repellent-embedding impregnation technique, concentrations exceeding 10 g/m(2) could be achieved with one single polymer layer. Both DEET- and IR3535-impregnated fabrics revealed a dose-dependent insecticidal as well as acaricidal activity. One hundred percent knockdown times of DEET-treated bed nets ranged from 187.5 +/- 31.8 to 27.5 +/- 3.5 min against A. aegypti, and between 214 +/- 47 and 22.6 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, linked to a DEET concentration of 1.08 and 10.58 g/m(2), respectively. With IR3535, A. aegypti produced dose-dependent 100% knockdown times varying from 87.5 +/- 10.6 to 57.5 +/- 3.5 min and between 131.4 +/- 6.5 and 33.8 +/- 5 min against nymphal I. ricinus, respectively, linked to concentrations between 1.59 and 10.02 g/m(2). One hundred percent repellency measured by complete landing and biting protection of impregnated fabric by using the arm-in-cage test could be achieved at DEET concentrations exceeding 3.7 to 3.9 g/m(2), and for IR3535 concentrations over 10 g/m(2). One hundred percent landing and biting protection could be preserved with DEET-treated fabrics for 29 weeks at an initial concentration of 4.66 g/m(2), 54 weeks at 8.8 g/m(2), 58 weeks at 9.96 g/m(2) and 61 weeks at 10.48 g/m(2) for DEET, and 23 weeks for IR3535-treated fabric at a concentration of 10.02 g/m(2). Unlike repellent-treated fabric, a brand of a commercially available long-lasting insecticide-treated net tested containing 500 mg permethrin/m(2) did not protect from mosquito bites. First results on

  14. Conductive Hearing Loss Has Long-Lasting Structural and Molecular Effects on Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Structures of Auditory Nerve Synapses in the Cochlear Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Antunes, Flora M; Rubio, Maria E

    2016-09-28

    Sound deprivation by conductive hearing loss increases hearing thresholds, but little is known about the response of the auditory brainstem during and after conductive hearing loss. Here, we show in young adult rats that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss (i.e., earplugging) leads to hearing deficits that persist after sound levels are restored. Hearing thresholds in response to clicks and frequencies higher than 8 kHz remain increased after a 10 d recovery period. Neural output from the cochlear nucleus measured at 10 dB above threshold is reduced and followed by an overcompensation at the level of the lateral lemniscus. We assessed whether structural and molecular substrates at auditory nerve (endbulb of Held) synapses in the cochlear nucleus could explain these long-lasting changes in hearing processing. During earplugging, vGluT1 expression in the presynaptic terminal decreased and synaptic vesicles were smaller. Together, there was an increase in postsynaptic density (PSD) thickness and an upregulation of GluA3 AMPA receptor subunits on bushy cells. After earplug removal and a 10 d recovery period, the density of synaptic vesicles increased, vesicles were also larger, and the PSD of endbulb synapses was larger and thicker. The upregulation of the GluA3 AMPAR subunit observed during earplugging was maintained after the recovery period. This suggests that GluA3 plays a role in plasticity in the cochlear nucleus. Our study demonstrates that sound deprivation has long-lasting alterations on structural and molecular presynaptic and postsynaptic components at the level of the first auditory nerve synapse in the auditory brainstem. Despite being the second most prevalent form of hearing loss, conductive hearing loss and its effects on central synapses have received relatively little attention. Here, we show that 10 d of monaural conductive hearing loss leads to an increase in hearing thresholds, to an increased central gain upstream of the cochlear nucleus at

  15. Unexpected finding of T-cell lymphoma in a previously healthy 16-year-old patient after a thorax trauma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Okholm-Hansen, Anna; Brorson, Stig

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We describe the clinical course and emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The differential diagnostic difficulties have previously been described in regard to pneumonia, but to the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first case report to desc...... relevant to pediatricians, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and general practitioners....

  16. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Boberg, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Tac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8.1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and Pups in the higher close groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T-4) levels during the closing period......Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent Studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone Status early in pregnancy may Cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased...... concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the Study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge or) the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (Han...

  17. Implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets: a WHO-coordinated, prospective, international, observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Immo; Bradley, John; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kafy, Hmooda Toto; Mbogo, Charles; Ismail, Bashir Adam; Bigoga, Jude D; Adechoubou, Alioun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Cook, Jackie; Malik, Elfatih M; Nkuni, Zinga José; Macdonald, Michael; Bayoh, Nabie; Ochomo, Eric; Fondjo, Etienne; Awono-Ambene, Herman Parfait; Etang, Josiane; Akogbeto, Martin; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Swain, Dipak K; Kinyari, Teresa; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Massougbodji, Achille; Okê-Sopoh, Mariam; Ogouyemi-Hounto, Aurore; Kouambeng, Celestin; Abdin, Mujahid Sheikhedin; West, Philippa; Elmardi, Khalid; Cornelie, Sylvie; Corbel, Vincent; Valecha, Neena; Mathenge, Evan; Kamau, Luna; Lines, Jonathan; Donnelly, Martin James

    2018-04-09

    Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan. Pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets were the principal form of malaria vector control in all study areas; in Sudan this approach was supplemented by indoor residual spraying. Cohorts of children from randomly selected households in each cluster were recruited and followed up by community health workers to measure incidence of clinical malaria and prevalence of infection. Mosquitoes were assessed for susceptibility to pyrethroids using the standard WHO bioassay test. Country-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. Between June 2, 2012, and Nov 4, 2016, 40 000 children were enrolled and assessed for clinical incidence during 1·4 million follow-up visits. 80 000 mosquitoes were assessed for insecticide resistance. Long-lasting insecticidal net users had lower infection prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78) and disease incidence (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 0·62, 0·41-0·94) than did non-users across a range of resistance levels. We found no evidence of an association between insecticide resistance and infection prevalence (adjusted OR 0·86, 0·70-1·06) or incidence (adjusted RR 0·89, 0·72-1·10). Users of nets, although significantly better protected than non-users, were nevertheless subject to high malaria infection risk (ranging from an average incidence in net users of 0·023, [95% CI 0·016-0·033] per person-year in India, to 0·80 [0·65-0·97] per person

  18. Ionic composition of submicron particles (PM1.0) during the long-lasting haze period in January 2013 in Wuhan, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hairong; Gong, Wei; Wang, Zuwu; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Xinming; Lv, Xiaopu; Liu, Jia; Fu, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Gan

    2014-04-01

    In January 2013, a long-lasting severe haze episode occurred in Northern and Central China; at its maximum, it covered a land area of approximately 1.4 million km(2). In Wuhan, the largest city in Central China, this event was the most severe haze episode in the 21st century. Aerosol samples of submicron particles (PM1.0) were collected during the long-lasting haze episode at an urban site and a suburban site in Wuhan to investigate the ion characteristics of PM1.0 in this area. The mass concentrations of PM1.0 and its water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) were almost at the same levels at two sites, which indicates that PM1.0 pollution occurs on a regional scale in Wuhan. WSIIs (Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-)) were the dominant chemical species and constituted up to 48.4% and 47.4% of PM1.0 at WD and TH, respectively. The concentrations of PM1.0 and WSIIs on haze days were approximately two times higher than on normal days. The ion balance calculations indicate that the particles were more acidic on haze days than on normal days. The results of the back trajectory analysis imply that the high concentrations of PM1.0 and its water-soluble inorganic ions may be caused by stagnant weather conditions in Wuhan. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Method development for the determination of arsenic by sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry using long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punrat, Eakkasit; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Kaneta, Takashi; Motomizu, Shoji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-11-15

    An automated method has been developed for determining the concentration of inorganic arsenic. The technique uses sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry with a long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. The long-lasting gold electrode was electrochemically deposited onto a screen-printed carbon electrode at a potential of -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a supporting electrolyte solution of 1M hydrochloric acid. Under optimal conditions and the applied potentials, the electrode demonstrated that it can be used for a long time without a renewal process. The linear range for the determination of arsenic(III) was 1-100 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection (LOD) in standard solutions was as low as 0.03 μg L(-1) for a deposition time of 120 s and sample volume of 1 mL. This method was used to determine the concentration of arsenic(III) in water samples with satisfactory results. The LOD in real samples was found to be 0.5 μg L(-1). In addition, speciation between arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) has been achieved with the proposed method using deposition potentials of -0.5 V and -1.5 V for the determination of the arsenic(III) concentration and the total arsenic concentration, respectively; the results were acceptable. The proposed method is an automated system that offers a less expensive alternative for determining trace amounts of inorganic arsenic. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelstad, Marta; Hansen, Pernille Reimar; Boberg, Julie; Bonnichsen, Mia; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone status early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge on the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and pups in the higher dose groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T 4 ) levels during the dosing period, and the weight and histology of the thyroid glands were severely affected. PTU exposure caused motor activity levels to decrease on PND 14, and to increase on PND 23 and in adulthood. In the adult offspring, learning and memory was impaired in the two highest dose groups when tested in the radial arm maze, and auditory function was impaired in the highest dose group. Generally, the results showed that PTU-induced hypothyroxinemia influenced the developing rat brain, and that all effects on behaviour and loss of hearing in the adult offspring were significantly correlated to reductions in T 4 during development. This supports the hypothesis that decreased T 4 may be a relevant predictor for long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity

  1. The effect of short-term treatment with lithium carbonate on the outcome of radioiodine therapy in patients with long-lasting Graves' hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulić, Vladan; Rajić, Milena; Vlajković, Marina; Ilić, Slobodan; Stević, Miloš; Kojić, Marko

    2017-12-01

    The outcome of radioiodine therapy (RIT) in Graves' hyperthyroidism (GH) mainly depends on radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake and the effective half-life of 131 I in the gland. Studies have shown that lithium carbonate (LiCO 3 ) enhances the 131 I half-life and increases the applied thyroid radiation dose without affecting the thyroid 131 I uptake. We investigated the effect of short-term treatment with LiCO 3 on the outcome of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH, its influence on the thyroid hormones levels 7 days after RIT, and possible side effects. Study prospectively included 30 patients treated with LiCO 3 and 131 I (RI-Li group) and 30 patients only with 131 I (RI group). Treatment with LiCO 3 (900 mg/day) started 1 day before RIT and continued 6 days after. Anti-thyroid drugs withdrawal was 7 days before RIT. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We defined a success of RIT as euthyroidism or hypothyroidism, and a failure as persistent hyperthyroidism. In RI-Li group, a serum level of Li was 0.571 ± 0.156 mmol/l before RIT. Serum levels of TT 4 and FT 4 increased while TSH decreased only in RI group 7 days after RIT. No toxic effects were noticed during LiCO 3 treatment. After 12 months, a success of RIT was 73.3% in RI and 90.0% in RI-Li group (P treatment with LiCO 3 as an adjunct to 131 I improves efficacy of RIT in patients with long-lasting GH. A success of RIT achieves faster in lithium-treated than in RI group. Treatment with LiCO 3 for 7 days prevents transient worsening of hyperthyroidism after RIT. Short-term use of LiCO 3 shows no toxic side effects.

  2. Synthetic sex pheromone in a long-lasting lure attracts the visceral leishmaniasis vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, for up to 12 weeks in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Bray

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Current control methodologies have not prevented the spread of visceral leishmaniasis (VL across Brazil. Here, we describe the development of a new tool for controlling the sand fly vector of the disease: a long-lasting lure, which releases a synthetic male sex pheromone, attractive to both sexes of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This device could be used to improve the effectiveness of residual insecticide spraying as a means of sand fly control, attracting L. longipalpis to insecticide-treated animal houses, where they could be killed in potentially large numbers over a number of weeks. Different lure designs releasing the synthetic pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B (CAS 183158-38-5 were field-tested in Araçatuba, São Paulo (SP. Experiments compared numbers of sand flies caught overnight in experimental chicken sheds with pheromone lures, to numbers caught in control sheds without pheromone. Prototype lures, designed to last one night, were first used to confirm the attractiveness of the pheromone in SP, and shown to attract significantly more flies to test sheds than controls. Longer-lasting lures were tested when new, and at fortnightly intervals. Lures loaded with 1 mg of pheromone did not attract sand flies for more than two weeks. However, lures loaded with 10 mg of pheromone, with a releasing surface of 15 cm2 or 7.5 cm2, attracted female L. longipalpis for up to ten weeks, and males for up to twelve weeks. Approximately five times more sand flies were caught with 7.5 cm2 10 mg lures when first used than occurred naturally in non-experimental chicken resting sites. These results demonstrate that these lures are suitably long-lasting and attractive for use in sand fly control programmes in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first sex pheromone-based technology targeting an insect vector of a neglected human disease. Further studies should explore the general applicability of this approach for combating other insect-borne diseases.

  3. Malaria in Dielmo, a Senegal village: Is its elimination possible after seven years of implementation of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélé Nyedzie Wotodjo

    Full Text Available The malaria burden has decreased significantly in recent years in Africa through the widespread use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs. However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences, the loss of immunity of exposed populations constitute among other factors, serious concerns about the future of malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated the evolution of malaria morbidity in Dielmo (Senegal before and after the implementation of LLINs.A longitudinal study was carried out in Dielmo over eight years, from July 2007 to July 2015. In July 2008, LLINs were offered to all villagers, and in July 2011 and August 2014 the LLINs were renewed. A survey on LLINs use was done each quarter of the year. Thick smears stained with Giemsa, a rapid diagnostic test (RDT and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods were performed for all cases of fever to assess malaria clinical attacks. Malaria cases were treated with ACT since June 2006.Malaria morbidity has decreased significantly since the implementation of LLINs in Dielmo, together with ACT. However, malaria resurgences have occurred twice during the seven years of LLINs use. These resurgences occurred the first time during the third year after the introduction of LLINs (aIRR (adjusted incidence-rate ratio [95%CI] = 5.90 [3.53; 9.88] p< 0.001 and a second time during the third year after the renewal of LLINs (aIRR [95%CI] = 5.60 [3.34; 9.39] p< 0.001. Sixty-nine percent (69% of the nets tested for their long-lasting insecticidal activity remained effective after 3 years of use.Good management of malaria cases by the use of ACT as first-line treatment against malaria in addition to the use of LLINs has significantly reduced malaria in Dielmo and allowed to reach the phase of pre-elimination of the disease. However, the occurrence of malaria resurgences raised serious concerns about malaria elimination, which would require additional

  4. Satisfação conjugal em casamentos de longa duração: uma construção possível Marital satisfaction in long lasting marriages: a feasible construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Betânia Paes Norgren

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O relacionamento conjugal está associado à saúde e qualidade de vida, principalmente nos anos de maturidade e velhice, embora o fato de um casamento durar não necessariamente signifique que o mesmo é satisfatório para os cônjuges. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os processos e variáveis associadas à satisfação conjugal em casamentos de longa duração, ou seja, mais de 20 anos. Trinta e oito casais paulistas responderam a um conjunto de questionários já utilizados em estudo multicultural prévio (Estados Unidos, Suécia, Alemanha, Holanda, Canadá, África do Sul, Israel e Chile. Em cerca de metade dos casais estudados, ao menos um dos cônjuges estava satisfeito. Comparando-se casais satisfeitos e insatisfeitos foi possível identificar que a satisfação aumenta quando há proximidade, estratégias adequadas de resolução de problemas, coesão, boa habilidade de comunicação, se os cônjuges estiverem satisfeitos com seu status econômico e forem praticantes de sua crença religiosa.Marital relationship is related with couple's health and quality of life, especially during the adulthood and the aging years. However, the fact that a marriage is long lasting, does not mean it is necessarily satisfactory to the partners. This paper aims to identify the processes and variables associated to satisfaction in long lasting marriages (those longer than 20 years. Thirty eight couples from São Paulo, Brazil, answered a set of questionnaires used previously in multicultural studies carried out in Sweden, USA, Germany, Canada, Netherlands, South Africa, Israel and Chile. In about half of these couples, at least one consort was found satisfied. Comparing satisfied and unsatisfied couples, it became clear that higher levels of satisfaction are found among couples who have adequate strategies for problem solving, proximity, cohesion, good communication skills; who are religiously active and satisfied with their economical status.

  5. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  6. Movement of the sacroiliac joint during the Active Straight Leg Raise test in patients with long-lasting severe sacroiliac joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Röhrl, Stephan M; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Stuge, Britt

    2017-08-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise is a functional test used in the assessment of pelvic girdle pain, and has shown to have good validity, reliability and responsiveness. The Active Straight Leg Raise is considered to examine the patients' ability to transfer load through the pelvis. It has been hypothesized that patients with pelvic girdle pain lack the ability to stabilize the pelvic girdle, probably due to instability or increased movement of the sacroiliac joint. This study examines the movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Tantalum markers were inserted in the dorsal sacrum and ilium of 12 patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain scheduled for sacroiliac joint fusion surgery. Two to three weeks later movement of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise was measured with radiostereometric analysis. Small movements were detected. There was larger movement of the sacroiliac joint of the rested leg's sacroiliac joint compared to the lifted leg's side. A mean backward rotation of 0.8° and inward tilt of 0.3° were seen in the rested leg's sacroiliac joint. The movements of the sacroiliac joints during the Active Straight Leg Raise are small. There was a small backward rotation of the innominate bone relative to sacrum on the rested leg's side. Our findings contradict an earlier understanding that a forward rotation of the lifted leg's innominate occur while performing the Active Straight Leg Raise. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Radiosteriometric analysis of movement in the sacroiliac joint during a single-leg stance in patients with long-lasting pelvic girdle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Sturesson, Bengt; Röhrl, Stephan M; Stuge, Britt

    2014-04-01

    Chamberlain's projections (anterior-posterior X-ray of the pubic symphysis) have been used to diagnose sacroiliac joint mobility during the single-leg stance test. This study examined the movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance test with precise radiostereometric analysis. Under general anesthesia, tantalum markers were inserted into the dorsal sacrum and the ilium of 11 patients with long-lasting and severe pelvic girdle pain. After two to three weeks, a radiostereometric analysis was conducted while the subjects performed a single-leg stance. Small movements were detected in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance. In both the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac join, a total of 0.5 degree rotation was observed; however, no translations were detected. There were no differences in total movement between the standing- and hanging-leg sacroiliac joint. The movement in the sacroiliac joint during the single-leg stance is small and almost undetectable by the precise radiostereometric analysis. A complex movement pattern was seen during the test, with a combination of movements in the two joints. The interpretation of the results of this study is that, the Chamberlain examination likely is inadequate in the examination of sacroiliac joint movement in patients with pelvic girdle pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of a long-lasting colloidal substrate with pH and hydrogen sulfide control capabilities to remediate TCE-contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Y T; Chen, S C; Chien, C C; Chen, C C; Kao, C M

    2015-03-02

    A long-lasting emulsified colloidal substrate (LECS) was developed for continuous carbon and nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) release to remediate trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater under reductive dechlorinating conditions. The developed LECS contained nZVI, vegetable oil, surfactants (Simple Green™ and lecithin), molasses, lactate, and minerals. An emulsification study was performed to evaluate the globule droplet size and stability of LECS. The results show that a stable oil-in-water emulsion with uniformly small droplets (0.7 μm) was produced, which could continuously release the primary substrates. The emulsified solution could serve as the dispensing agent, and nZVI particles (with diameter 100-200 nm) were distributed in the emulsion evenly without aggregation. Microcosm results showed that the LECS caused a rapid increase in the total organic carbon concentration (up to 488 mg/L), and reductive dechlorination of TCE was significantly enhanced. Up to 99% of TCE (with initial concentration of 7.4 mg/L) was removed after 130 days of operation. Acidification was prevented by the production of hydroxide ion by the oxidation of nZVI. The formation of iron sulfide reduced the odor from produced hydrogen sulfide. Microbial analyses reveal that dechlorinating bacteria existed in soils, which might contribute to TCE dechlorination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of a long-lasting bifenthrin-treated net against horticultural pests and its compatibility with the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii and the parasitic wasp Eretmocerus mundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Maria Del Mar; Colomer, Ignacio; Medina, Pilar; Fereres, Alberto; Del Estal, Pedro; Viñuela, Elisa

    2017-08-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) have been investigated recently for their use in agriculture. Depending on the insecticide, the hole size and the way they are produced, these nets can target different pests and therefore they could be interesting options for use in integrated pest management (IPM). As the information on their compatibility with beneficial fauna is practically negligible, in this work we have tested the compatibility of an experimental bifenthrin long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLITN) with Amblyseius swirskii and Eretmocerus mundus, important natural enemies of whiteflies and thrips, under laboratory, semi-field and commercial greenhouse conditions. In the laboratory, the treated net was very deleterious to adults of both natural enemies, after 72 h exposure. However, in choice tests with Y-tubes, both natural enemies were neither attracted nor repelled by the treated net and no short-term mortality was detected in individuals that had crossed it. No deleterious effects on the E. mundus beneficial capacity were detected in semi-field trials. In field trials, the LLITN proved to be compatible with A. swirskii while decreasing pest densities. Bifenthrin LLITN studied could be a valuable method for reducing pest population infestations in IPM programmes while being compatible with biocontrol agents. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Long-lasting insecticide-treated house screens and targeted treatment of productive breeding-sites for dengue vector control in Acapulco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Mendoza, Azael; Guillermo-May, Guillermo; Herrera-Bojórquez, Josué; Barrera-Pérez, Mario; Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I; Sánchez-Tejeda, Gustavo; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey; Sommerfeld, Johannes; McCall, Philip J; Kroeger, Axel; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-02-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net screens (LLIS) fitted to domestic windows and doors in combination with targeted treatment (TT) of the most productive Aedes aegypti breeding sites were evaluated for their impact on dengue vector indices in a cluster-randomised trial in Mexico between 2011 and 2013. Sequentially over 2 years, LLIS and TT were deployed in 10 treatment clusters (100 houses/cluster) and followed up over 24 months. Cross-sectional surveys quantified infestations of adult mosquitoes, immature stages at baseline (pre-intervention) and in four post-intervention samples at 6-monthly intervals. Identical surveys were carried out in 10 control clusters that received no treatment. LLIS clusters had significantly lower infestations compared to control clusters at 5 and 12 months after installation, as measured by adult (male and female) and pupal-based vector indices. After addition of TT to the intervention houses in intervention clusters, indices remained significantly lower in the treated clusters until 18 (immature and adult stage indices) and 24 months (adult indices only) post-intervention. These safe, simple affordable vector control tools were well-accepted by study participants and are potentially suitable in many regions at risk from dengue worldwide. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  11. Effectiveness and feasibility of long-lasting insecticide-treated curtains and water container covers for dengue vector control in Colombia: a cluster randomised trial.

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    Quintero, Juliana; García-Betancourt, Tatiana; Cortés, Sebastian; García, Diana; Alcalá, Lucas; González-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena; Carrasquilla, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    Long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) window and door curtains alone or in combination with LLIN water container covers were analysed regarding effectiveness in reducing dengue vector density, and feasibility of the intervention. A cluster randomised trial was conducted in an urban area of Colombia comparing 10 randomly selected control and 10 intervention clusters. In control clusters, routine vector control activities were performed. The intervention delivered first, LLIN curtains (from July to August 2013) and secondly, water container covers (from October to March 2014). Cross-sectional entomological surveys were carried out at baseline (February 2013 to June 2013), 9 weeks after the first intervention (August to October 2013), and 4-6 weeks after the second intervention (March to April 2014). Curtains were installed in 922 households and water container covers in 303 households. The Breteau index (BI) fell from 14 to 6 in the intervention group and from 8 to 5 in the control group. The additional intervention with LLIN covers for water containers showed a significant reduction in pupae per person index (PPI) (p=0.01). In the intervention group, the PPI index showed a clear decline of 71% compared with 25% in the control group. Costs were high but options for cost savings were identified. Short term impact evaluation indicates that the intervention package can reduce dengue vector density but sustained effect will depend on multiple factors. © The author 2015. The World Health Organization has granted Oxford University Press permission for the reproduction of this article.

  12. Effect of village-wide use of long-lasting insecticidal nets on visceral Leishmaniasis vectors in India and Nepal: a cluster randomized trial.

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    Picado, Albert; Das, Murari L; Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Dinesh, Diwakar S; Roy, Lalita; Rijal, Suman; Das, Pradeep; Rowland, Mark; Sundar, Shyam; Coosemans, Marc; Boelaert, Marleen; Davies, Clive R

    2010-01-26

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) control in the Indian subcontinent is currently based on case detection and treatment, and on vector control using indoor residual spraying (IRS). The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LN) has been postulated as an alternative or complement to IRS. Here we tested the impact of comprehensive distribution of LN on the density of Phlebotomus argentipes in VL-endemic villages. A cluster-randomized controlled trial with household P. argentipes density as outcome was designed. Twelve clusters from an ongoing LN clinical trial--three intervention and three control clusters in both India and Nepal--were selected on the basis of accessibility and VL incidence. Ten houses per cluster selected on the basis of high pre-intervention P. argentipes density were monitored monthly for 12 months after distribution of LN using CDC light traps (LT) and mouth aspiration methods. Ten cattle sheds per cluster were also monitored by aspiration. A random effect linear regression model showed that the cluster-wide distribution of LNs significantly reduced the P. argentipes density/house by 24.9% (95% CI 1.80%-42.5%) as measured by means of LTs. The ongoing clinical trial, designed to measure the impact of LNs on VL incidence, will confirm whether LNs should be adopted as a control strategy in the regional VL elimination programs. The entomological evidence described here provides some evidence that LNs could be usefully deployed as part of the VL control program. ClinicalTrials.gov CT-2005-015374.

  13. Early malnutrition results in long-lasting impairments in pattern-separation for overlapping novel object and novel location memories and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Georgina; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-02-17

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that malnutrition during in utero development and/or childhood induces long-lasting learning disabilities and enhanced susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. However, animal studies aimed to address this question have yielded inconsistent results due to the use of learning tasks involving negative or positive reinforces that interfere with the enduring changes in emotional reactivity and motivation produced by in utero and neonatal malnutrition. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying the learning deficits associated with malnutrition in early life remain unknown. Here we implemented a behavioural paradigm based on the combination of the novel object recognition and the novel object location tasks to define the impact of early protein-restriction on the behavioural, cellular and molecular basis of memory processing. Adult rats born to dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation, exhibited impaired encoding and consolidation of memory resulting from impaired pattern separation. This learning deficit was associated with reduced production of newly born hippocampal neurons and down regulation of BDNF gene expression. These data sustain the existence of a causal relationship between early malnutrition and impaired learning in adulthood and show that decreased adult neurogenesis is associated to the cognitive deficits induced by childhood exposure to poor nutrition.

  14. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

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    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  15. Cdk7 Is Required for Activity-Dependent Neuronal Gene Expression, Long-Lasting Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory

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    Guiqin He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, de novo gene expression driven by learning-associated neuronal activities is critical for the formation of long-term memories. However, the signaling machinery mediating neuronal activity-induced gene expression, especially the rapid transcription of immediate-early genes (IEGs remains unclear. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks are a family of serine/threonine kinases that have been firmly established as key regulators of transcription processes underling coordinated cell cycle entry and sequential progression in nearly all types of proliferative cells. Cdk7 is a subunit of transcriptional initiation factor II-H (TFIIH and the only known Cdk-activating kinase (CAK in metazoans. Recent studies using a novel Cdk7 specific covalent inhibitor, THZ1, revealed important roles of Cdk7 in transcription regulation in cancer cells. However, whether Cdk7 plays a role in the regulation of transcription in neurons remains unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that, in post-mitotic neurons, Cdk7 activity is positively correlated with neuronal activities in cultured primary neurons, acute hippocampal slices and in the brain. Cdk7 inhibition by THZ1 significantly suppressed mRNA levels of IEGs, selectively impaired long-lasting synaptic plasticity induced by 4 trains of high frequency stimulation (HFS and prevented the formation of long-term memories.

  16. Efficacy of Olyset® Plus, a new long-lasting insecticidal net incorporating permethrin and piperonyl-butoxide against multi-resistant malaria vectors [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Pennetier

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid extension of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors worldwide, manufacturers are developing new vector control tools including insecticide mixtures containing at least two active ingredients with different mode of action as part of insecticide resistance management. Olyset® Plus is a new long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN incorporating permethrin and a synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO, into its fibres in order to counteract metabolic-based pyrethroid resistance of mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of Olyset® Plus both in laboratory and field against susceptible and multi-resistant malaria vectors and compared with Olyset Net, which is a permethrin incorporated into polyethylene net. In laboratory, Olyset® Plus performed better than Olyset® Net against susceptible Anopheles gambiae strain with a 2-day regeneration time owing to an improved permethrin bleeding rate with the new incorporation technology. It also performed better than Olyset® Net against multiple resistant populations of An. gambiae in experimental hut trials in West Africa. Moreover, the present study showed evidence for a benefit of incorporating a synergist, PBO, with a pyrethroid insecticide into mosquito netting. These results need to be further validated in a large-scale field trial to assess the durability and acceptability of this new tool for malaria vector control.

  17. Double negative (CD3+ 4- 8- TCR alphabeta splenic cells from young NOD mice provide long-lasting protection against type 1 diabetes.

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    Beverly Duncan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Double negative CD3(+4(-8(- TCR alphabeta splenic cells (DNCD3 can suppress the immune responses to allo and xenografts, infectious agents, tumors, and some autoimmune disorders. However, little is known about their role in autoimmune diabetes, a disease characterized by the reduction of insulin production subsequent to destruction of pancreatic beta-cells by a polyclonal population of self-reactive T-cells. Herein, we analyzed the function and phenotype of DNCD3 splenic cells in young NOD mice predisposed to several autoimmune disorders among which, the human-like autoimmune diabetes.DNCD3 splenic cells from young NOD mice (1 provided long-lasting protection against diabetes transfer in NOD/Scid immunodeficient mice, (2 proliferated and differentiated in the spleen and pancreas of NOD/Scid mice and pre-diabetic NOD mice into IL-10-secreting T(R-1 like cells in a Th2-like environment, and (3 their anti-diabetogenic phenotype is CD3(+(CD4(-CD8(-CD28(+CD69(+CD25(low Foxp3(- iCTLA-4(-TCR alphabeta(+ with a predominant Vbeta13 gene usage.These findings delineate a new T regulatory component in autoimmune diabetes apart from that of NKT and CD4(+CD25(high Foxp3(+T-regulatory cells. DNCD3 splenic cells could be potentially manipulated towards the development of autologous cell therapies in autoimmune diabetes.

  18. [Metatropic dysplasia in a girl with c.1811_1812delinsAT mutation in exon 11 of the TRPV4 gene not previously reported].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarata-Scalisi, Francisco; Matysiak-Scholze, Uta; Heinze, Jessica; Barrera, Albaro; Lacruz-Rengel, María Angelina; Bracho, Ana; Guerrero, Yudith

    2015-01-01

    Metatropic dysplasia is a skeletal disorder with clinical heterogeneity, characterized by craniofacial dysmorphy including frontal bossing and midface hypoplasia, short trunk,progressive kyphoscoliosis and shortened limbs. The TRPV4 gene is located on 12q24.11, coding a cation channel with nonselective permeability to calcium; it is expressed and involved in many physiological processes through responses to different stimuli. Over 50 mutations in TRPV4 have been described. We present a seven months old girl with heterozygous mutation c.1811_1812delinsAT; p.I604N in intron 11 not previously reported in the TRPV4 gene and with clinical findings compatible with metatropic dysplasia.

  19. New Record of Sillago sinica (Pisces: Sillaginidae in Korean Waters, and Re-identification of Sillago parvisquamis Previously Reported from Korea as S. sinica

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    Seung Eun Bae

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A single specimen of the genus Sillago, collected from Gwangyang, Korea, in May 2009, is characterized by XI first dorsal fin spines, 3 or 4 rows of melanophore pattern along the second dorsal fin membrane, and a darkish posterior margin of the caudal fin. Our specimen was identified as Sillago sinica reported as a new species; this identification is confirmed by mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences, which show that our specimen corresponds to S. sinica (d=0.000 and differs from the congeneric species Sillago parvisquamis (d=0.170. Comparisons of Korean specimens previously reported as S. parvisquamis with specimens of S. sinica show that the S. parvisquamis specimens are actually S. sinica. We propose the new Korean name “buk-bang-jeom-bo-ri-myeol” for S. sinica.

  20. Prospective evaluation of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes following SBRT ± cetuximab for locally-recurrent, previously-irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, John A.; Heron, Dwight E.; Ferris, Robert L.; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Wegner, Rodney E.; Kalash, Ronny; Ohr, James; Kubicek, Greg J.; Burton, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has emerged as a promising salvage strategy for unresectable, previously-irradiated recurrent squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (rSCCHN). Here-in, we report the first prospective evaluation of patient-reported quality-of-life (PR-QoL) following re-irradiation with SBRT ± cetuximab for rSCCHN. Materials and methods: From November 2004 to May 2011, 150 patients with unresectable, rSCCHN in a previously-irradiated field receiving >40 Gy were treated with SBRT to 40–50 Gy in 5 fractions ± concurrent cetuximab. PR-QoL was prospectively acquired using University of Washington Quality-of-Life Revised (UW-QoL-R). Results: Overall PR-QoL, health-related PR-QoL, and select domains commonly affected by re-irradiation progressively increase following an initial 1-month decline with statistically significant improvements noted in swallowing (p = 0.025), speech (p = 0.017), saliva (p = 0.041), activity (p = 0.032) and recreation (p = 0.039). Conclusions: Especially for patients surviving >1-year, improved tumor control associated with SBRT re-irradiation may ameliorate decreased PR-QoL resulting from rSCCHN. These improvements in PR-QoL transcend all measured domains in a validated PR-QoL assessment tool independent of age, use of cetuximab, tumor volume, and interval since prior irradiation.

  1. Galantamine Prevents Long-Lasting Suppression of Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons of Soman-Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, E. A.; Alkondon, M.; Aracava, Y.; Pereira, E. F. R.; Albuquerque, E. X.

    2014-01-01

    Galantamine, a drug currently approved for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has recently emerged as an effective pretreatment against the acute toxicity and delayed cognitive deficits induced by organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, including soman. Since cognitive deficits can result from impaired glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that hippocampal glutamatergic transmission declines following an acute exposure to soman and that this effect can be prevented by galantamine. To test this hypothesis, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices obtained at 1 h, 24 h, or 6-9 days after guinea pigs were injected with: (i) 1xLD50 soman (26.3 μg/kg, s.c.); (ii) galantamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.) followed 30 min later by 1xLD50 soman, (iii) galantamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.), or (iv) saline (0.5 ml/kg, i.m.). In soman-injected guinea pigs that were not pretreated with galantamine, the frequency of EPSCs was significantly lower than that recorded from saline-injected animals. There was no correlation between the severity of soman-induced acute toxicity and the magnitude of soman-induced reduction of EPSC frequency. Pretreatment with galantamine prevented the reduction of EPSC frequency observed at 6-9 days after the soman challenge. Prevention of soman-induced long-lasting reduction of hippocampal glutamatergic synaptic transmission may be an important determinant of the ability of galantamine to counter cognitive deficits that develop long after an acute exposure to the nerve agent. PMID:25064080

  2. Synergistic Effects of Psychosocial Stress and Mild Peripheral Infection on Inducing Microglial Activation in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus and Long-Lasting Deficits in Hippocampus-Related Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Su, Chien-Chou; Sun, Li-Han; Cherng, Chianfang G.; Yu, Lung

    2018-04-30

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice. The social defeat regimen did not cause observable microglial activation in dentate gyrus (DG) 24 h after the conclusion of the regimen. Microglial activation peaked in DG 24 h following a single 1 mg/kg intra-peritoneal LPS injection. At this time point, DG microglial activation was not evident providing 0.125 mg/kg or lower of LPS was used, this dose of LPS was, thus, regarded as the “sub-threshold” in this study. Twenty-four h after the conclusion of the defeat regimen, mice received a social interaction test to determine their defeat stress susceptibility and a “sub-threshold” LPS injection. DG microglial activation was observed in the defeat-stress susceptible, but not in the resilient, mice. Furthermore, the stress-susceptible mice showed impairment in object location and Y maze tasks 24 and 72 h after the “sub-threshold” LPS injection. These results suggest that psychosocial stress, when combined with a negligible peripheral infection, may induce long-lasting hippocampus-related memory deficits exclusively in subjects susceptible to psychosocial stresses.

  3. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

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    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  4. Long-lasting effects of maternal separation on an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder: effects on memory and hippocampal oxidative stress.

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    Diehl, Luisa A; Alvares, Lucas O; Noschang, Cristie; Engelke, Douglas; Andreazza, Ana C; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto S; Quillfeldt, Jorge A; Dalmaz, Carla

    2012-04-01

    Adverse early life events, such as periodic maternal separation, may alter the normal pattern of brain development and subsequently the vulnerability to a variety of mental disorders in adulthood. Patients with a history of early adversities show higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study was undertaken to verify if repeated long-term separation of pups from dams would affect memory and oxidative stress parameters after exposure to an animal model of PTSD. Nests of Wistar rats were divided into intact and subjected to maternal separation (incubator at 32°C, 3 h/day) during post-natal days 1-10. When adults, the animals were subdivided into exposed or not to a PTSD model consisting of exposure to inescapable footshock, followed by situational reminders. One month after exposure to the shock, the animals were exposed to a memory task (Morris water maze) and another month later animals were sacrificed and DNA breaks and antioxidant enzymes activities were measured in the hippocampus. Rats exposed to shock or maternal separation plus shock showed long-lasting effects on spatial memory, spending more time in the opposite quadrant of the water maze. This effect was higher in animals subjected to both maternal separation and shock. Both shock and maternal separation induced a higher score of DNA breaks in the hippocampus. No differences were observed on antioxidant enzymes activities. In conclusion, periodic maternal separation may increase the susceptibility to the effects of a stressor applied in adulthood on performance in the water maze. Increased DNA breaks in hippocampus was induced by both, maternal separation and exposure to shock.

  5. Dendritic cells pulsed with a tumor-specific peptide induce long-lasting immunity and are effective against murine intracerebral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimberger, Amy B; Archer, Gary E; Crotty, Laura E; McLendon, Roger E; Friedman, Allan H; Friedman, Henry S; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized cells of the immune system that are capable of generating potent immune responses that are active even within the "immunologically privileged" central nervous system. However, immune responses generated by DCs have also been demonstrated to produce clinically significant autoimmunity. Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), which is a mutation specific to tumor tissue, could eliminate this risk. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that DC-based immunizations directed solely against this tumor-specific antigen, which is commonly found on tumors that originate within or metastasize to the brain, could be efficacious. C3H mice were vaccinated with DCs mixed with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate of the tumor-specific peptide, PEP-3, which spans the EGFRvIII mutation, or the random-sequence peptide, PEP-1, and were intracerebrally challenged with a syngeneic melanoma expressing a murine homologue of EGFRvIII. Systemic immunization with DCs mixed with PEP-3-keyhole limpet hemocyanin generated antigen-specific immunity. Among mice challenged with intracerebral tumors, this resulted in an approximately 600% increase in the median survival time (>300 d, P < 0.0016), relative to control values. Sixty-three percent of mice treated with DCs mixed with the tumor-specific peptide survived in the long term and 100% survived rechallenge with tumor, indicating that antitumor immunological memory was also induced. In a murine melanoma model, immunization with DCs mixed with tumor-specific peptide results in an antigen-specific immunological response that recognizes the EGFRvIII mutation, has potent antitumor efficacy against intracerebral tumors that express EGFRvIII, and results in long-lasting antitumor immunity.

  6. From intervention to impact: modelling the potential mortality impact achievable by different long-lasting, insecticide-treated net delivery strategies

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    Okell Lucy C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current target of universal access to long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLIN is 80% coverage to reduce malaria deaths by 75% by 2015. So far, campaigns have been the main channel for large-scale delivery of LLINs, however the World Health Organization has recommended that equal priority should be given to delivery via routine antenatal care (ANC and immunization systems (EPI to target pregnant women and children from birth. These various channels of LLIN delivery are targeted to children of different ages. Since risk of mortality varies with child age and LLIN effectiveness declines with net age, it was hypothesized that the age at which a child receives a new LLIN, and therefore the delivery channel, is important in optimizing the health impact of a net. Methods A simple dynamic mathematical model was developed of delivery and impact of LLINs among children under five years of age and their household members, incorporating data on age-specific malaria death rates, net use by household structure, and net efficacy over time. Results The presented analysis finds that supplementing a universal mass campaign with extra ANC delivery would achieve a 1.4 times higher mortality reduction than campaign delivery alone, reflecting that children born in the years between campaigns would otherwise have access to old nets or no nets at an age of high risk. The relative advantage of supplementary ANC delivery is still present though smaller if malaria transmission levels are lower or if there is a strong mass effect achieved by mass campaigns. Conclusion These results indicate that LLIN delivery policies must take into account the age of greatest malaria risk. Emphasis should be placed on supporting routine delivery of LLINs to young children as well as campaigns.

  7. Implementation strategies to increase access and demand of long-lasting insecticidal nets: a before-and-after study and scale-up process in Mozambique.

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    Arroz, Jorge A H; Mendis, Chandana; Pinto, Liliana; Candrinho, Baltazar; Pinto, João; Martins, Maria do Rosário O

    2017-10-25

    The universal coverage bed nets campaign is a proven health intervention promoting increased access, ownership, and use of bed nets to reduce malaria burden. This article describes the intervention and implementation strategies that Mozambique carried out recently in order to improve access and increase demand for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). A before-and-after study with a control group was used during Stage I of the implementation process. The following strategies were tested in Stage I: (1) use of coupons during household registration; (2) use of stickers to identify the registered households; (3) new LLIN ascription formula (one LLIN for every two people). In Stage II, the following additional strategies were implemented: (4) mapping and micro-planning; (5) training; and (6) supervision. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to compare and establish differences between intervened and control districts in Stage I. Main outcomes were: percentage of LLINs distributed, percentage of target households benefited. In Stage I, 87.8% (302,648) of planned LLINs were distributed in the intervention districts compared to 77.1% (219,613) in the control districts [OR: 2.14 (95% CI 2.11-2.16)]. Stage I results also showed that 80.6% (110,453) of households received at least one LLIN in the intervention districts compared to 72.8% (87,636) in the control districts [OR: 1.56 (95% CI 1.53-1.59)]. In Stage II, 98.4% (3,536,839) of the allocated LLINs were delivered, covering 98.6% (1,353,827) of the registered households. Stage I results achieved better LLINs and household coverage in districts with the newly implemented strategies. The results of stage II were also encouraging. Additional strategies adaptation is required for a wide-country LLIN campaign.

  8. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

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    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  9. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  10. Conditioned taste aversion prevents the long-lasting BDNF-induced enhancement of synaptic transmission in the insular cortex: A metaplastic effect.

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    Rivera-Olvera, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2016-04-01

    Homeostatic plasticity mechanisms dynamically adjust synaptic strengths to promote stability that is crucial for memory storage. Metaplasticity is an example of these forms of plasticity that modify the capacity of synapses to experience subsequent Hebbian modifications. In particular, training in several behavioral tasks modifies the ability to induce long-term potentiation (LTP). Recently, we have reported that prior training in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) prevents the subsequent induction of LTP generated by high frequency stimulation in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC). One of the key molecular players that underlie long-term synaptic plasticity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Previous studies from our group reported that acute microinfusion of BDNF in the IC induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic efficacy at the Bla-IC projection. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze whether CTA training modifies the ability to induce subsequent BDNF-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission in the Bla-IC projection in vivo. Accordingly, CTA trained rats received intracortical microinfusion of BDNF in order to induce lasting potentiation 48h after the aversion test. Our results show that CTA training prevents the induction of in vivo BDNF-LTP in the Bla-IC projection. The present results provide evidence that CTA modulates BDNF-dependent changes in IC synaptic strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis to the Orbit in a Coinfected HIV+ HBV+ Patient Previously Treated with Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: A Case Report

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    S. Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma rarely metastasizes to the orbit. We report a 45-year-old male, HBV+, HIV+, with a past history of a liver transplant for ELSD (end-stage liver disease with hepatocellular carcinoma and recurrent HCC, who presented with proptosis and diplopia of the left eye. CT scans of the head revealed a large, irregular mass in the left orbit causing superior and lateral destruction of the orbital bone. Biopsy specimens of the orbital tumor showed features of metastatic foci of hepatocellular carcinoma. Only 16 other cases of HCC metastasis to the orbit have been described in literature, and this is the first case in a previously transplanted HIV+, HBV+ patient.

  12. The effect of holes in long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria in Malawi: results from a case-control study.

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    Minta, Anna A; Landman, Keren Z; Mwandama, Dyson A; Shah, Monica P; Eng, Jodi L Vanden; Sutcliffe, James F; Chisaka, Joseph; Lindblade, Kim A; Mathanga, Don P; Steinhardt, Laura C

    2017-10-02

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are a cornerstone of malaria prevention. Holes develop in LLINs over time and compromise their physical integrity, but how holes affect malaria transmission risk is not well known. After a nationwide mass LLIN distribution in July 2012, a study was conducted to assess the relationship between LLIN damage and malaria. From March to September 2013, febrile children ages 6-59 months who consistently slept under LLINs (every night for 2 weeks before illness onset) were enrolled in a case-control study at Machinga District Hospital outpatient department. Cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites by microscopy while controls were negative. Digital photographs of participants' LLINs were analysed using an image-processing programme to measure holes. Total hole area was classified by quartiles and according to the World Health Organization's proportionate hole index (pHI) cut-offs [ 790 cm 2 (too torn)]. Number of holes by location and size, and total hole area, were compared between case and control LLINs using non-parametric analyses and logistic regression. Of 248 LLINs analysed, 97 (39%) were from cases. Overall, 86% of LLINs had at least one hole. The median number of holes of any size was 9 [interquartile range (IQR) 3, 22], and most holes were located in the lower halves of the nets [median 7 (IQR 2, 16)]. There were no differences in number or location of holes between LLINs used by cases and controls. The median total hole area was 10 cm 2 (IQR 2, 125) for control LLINs and 8 cm 2 (IQR 2, 47) for case LLINs (p = 0.10). Based on pHI, 109 (72%) control LLINs and 83 (86%) case LLINs were in "good" condition. Multivariable modeling showed no association between total hole area and malaria, controlling for child age, caregiver education, and iron versus thatched roof houses. LLIN holes were not associated with increased odds of malaria in this study. However, most of the LLINs were in relatively good

  13. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil's Amazon Rainforest.

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    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z; Marques-Carneiro, José E; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Andersen, Monica L; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Scorza, Carla A

    2018-01-01

    that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys , contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys . Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated.

  14. Individual and household factors associated with ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets and malaria infection in south-central Ethiopia: a case-control study.

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    Deressa, Wakgari

    2017-10-06

    A recent considerable decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is likely to be followed by changes in the practice of effective preventive measures and malaria risk factors. This study aimed to identify determinants of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) ownership and risk of malaria infection. A matched case-control study of 191 case and 377 control households was conducted between October 2014 and November 2015 in Adami Tullu district in south-central Ethiopia. Cases were microscopy or rapid diagnostic test confirmed malaria patients identified at three health centers and nine health posts, and matched on age with two neighbourhood controls. Information was collected on socio-demographic factors, house structure, knowledge on malaria and ownership of LLINs. The logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of LLINs ownership and malaria infection. All cases were infections due to either Plasmodium falciparum (71.2%) or Plasmodium vivax (28.8%). About 31% of the study households had at least one LLINs. Significant determinants of LLINs ownership were household's head malaria knowledge [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-4.22], educational status [read and write (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI 2.30-20.55), primary education or higher (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI 1.57-18.55)], farmer respondent (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.76), having ≥ 3 sleeping areas (AOR = 6.71, 95% CI 2.40-18.77) and corrugated roof type (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.36-4.58). This study was unable to identify important risk factors of malaria infection with regard to sex, household wealth index, house structure, ownership of LLINs, keeping livestock inside house, staying overnight outdoor or having malaria during the last 6 months. Household socio-economic status, educational status and knowledge on malaria were important predictors of LLINs ownership. Households with farmer respondents were less likely to own LLINs. Addressing these factors

  15. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for controlling forest malaria: a community-based trial in a rural area of central Vietnam.

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    Ngo Duc Thang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH, a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam.Thirty villages (population 18,646 were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence ( or =30%. LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted.LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action Plan include the 75% reduction of the global

  16. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia J. Guimarães Marques

    2018-01-01

    recordings revealed that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys, contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys. Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated.

  17. Long-term Potentiation Decay and Poor Long-lasting Memory Process in the Wild Rodents Proechimys from Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Marques, Marcia J.; Reyes-Garcia, Selvin Z.; Marques-Carneiro, José E.; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B.; Andersen, Monica L.; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Scorza, Fulvio A.; Scorza, Carla A.

    2018-01-01

    that LTP decays rapidly over time reaching basal levels at 90 min after theta-burst stimulation in Proechimys, contrasting to the stable LTP found in the Wistar rats which was observed throughout 3-h recording period. These findings suggest a link between the LTP decay and the lack of 24-h long-lasting memory process in Proechimys. Nevertheless, why early-phase LTP in Proechimys decays very rapidly remains to be elucidated. PMID:29410617

  18. Gz mediates the long-lasting desensitization of brain CB1 receptors and is essential for cross-tolerance with morphine

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    Rodríguez-Muñoz María

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the systemic administration of cannabinoids produces antinociception, their chronic use leads to analgesic tolerance as well as cross-tolerance to morphine. These effects are mediated by cannabinoids binding to peripheral, spinal and supraspinal CB1 and CB2 receptors, making it difficult to determine the relevance of each receptor type to these phenomena. However, in the brain, the CB1 receptors (CB1Rs are expressed at high levels in neurons, whereas the expression of CB2Rs is marginal. Thus, CB1Rs mediate the effects of smoked cannabis and are also implicated in emotional behaviors. We have analyzed the production of supraspinal analgesia and the development of tolerance at CB1Rs by the direct injection of a series of cannabinoids into the brain. The influence of the activation of CB1Rs on supraspinal analgesia evoked by morphine was also evaluated. Results Intracerebroventricular (icv administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists, WIN55,212-2, ACEA or methanandamide, generated a dose-dependent analgesia. Notably, a single administration of these compounds brought about profound analgesic tolerance that lasted for more than 14 days. This decrease in the effect of cannabinoid receptor agonists was not mediated by depletion of CB1Rs or the loss of regulated G proteins, but, nevertheless, it was accompanied by reduced morphine analgesia. On the other hand, acute morphine administration produced tolerance that lasted only 3 days and did not affect the CB1R. We found that both neural mu-opioid receptors (MORs and CB1Rs interact with the HINT1-RGSZ module, thereby regulating pertussis toxin-insensitive Gz proteins. In mice with reduced levels of these Gz proteins, the CB1R agonists produced no such desensitization or morphine cross-tolerance. On the other hand, experimental enhancement of Gz signaling enabled an acute icv administration of morphine to produce a long-lasting tolerance at MORs that persisted for more than

  19. Synergistic insecticidal and repellent effects of combined pyrethroid and repellent-impregnated bed nets using a novel long-lasting polymer-coating multi-layer technique.

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    Faulde, Michael K; Nehring, Oliver

    2012-08-01

    New and improved strategies for malaria control and prevention are urgently needed. As a contribution to an optimized personal protection strategy, a novel long-lasting insecticide and repellent-treated net (LLIRN) has been designed by binding combinations of permethrin plus N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), or insect repellent 3535 (IR3535), and etofenprox plus DEET, onto fibres of bed net fabric employing a new multi-layer polymer-coating technique. Protective repellent efficacy, toxicological effectiveness and residual activity of 12 LLIRN types have been evaluated by laboratory testing against adult Aedes aegypti. The novel multi-layer LLIRN design allowed simultaneous embedding at concentrations up to 5,930 mg/m(2) for DEET, 3,408 mg/m(2) for IR3535, 2,296 mg/m(2) for permethrin and 2,349 mg/m(2) for etofenprox, respectively. IR3535 layers prevented co-binding of additional pyrethroid-containing polymer layers, thus making pyrethroids plus DEET LLIRNs an ideal combination. All LLIRNs revealed synergistic insecticidal effects which, when measured against concentration controls of the isolated compounds, were significant in all LLIRN types designed. DEET in DEET plus permethrin LLIRNs significantly (p time from 55 to 75 %, the corresponding 100 % kill time (p time of etofenprox from 42 to 50 % (p = 0.004), the 100 % kill time from 25 to 38 % (p biting protection, even at low concentrations. One hundred percent biting and probing protection of stored LLIRNs was preserved for 83 weeks with the 5,930 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,139 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 72 weeks with the 5,002 mg/m(2) DEET and 2,349 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN, for 63 weeks with the 3,590 mg/m(2) DEET and 1,208 mg/m(2) permethrin LLRN, and for 61 weeks with the 4,711 mg/m(2) DEET and 702 mg/m(2) etofenprox LLIRN. Because 100 % bite protection with up to 75 % quicker contact toxicity of pyrethroids were documented, synergistic toxicological and repellent effects of multi-layer polymer

  20. Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal.

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    Mukhopadhyay, D K; Basu, S S; Roy, D; Das, N; Akbar, F; Sarkar, G N

    2016-03-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) is considered to be a highly effective intervention against malaria under National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme in India. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the coverage and utilization of LLIN and the factors related thereto. A survey of 1300 households was carried out in Ranibandh block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India, using lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method. Coverage/utilization of 80% was considered as minimum acceptable norm. The weighted sample size was calculated from each village of the block. The sociodemographic, economic information of the household along with the availability and use of LLIN was collected through interview and observation. In total, 7320 individuals including 840 children ≤ 5 yr were visited. Overall coverage of adequate LLIN was 65.4% (± 1.5%) and for children ≤ 5 yr, it was 60.5% (± 1.3%). Overall, 66.1% (± 1.4%) people of all ages and 63.7% (± 1.4%) children ≤ 5 yr slept under LLINs in the night before the survey. Out of 26 sub-centres, distribution of LLINs in 10 sub-centres was below the accepted norm, whereas utilization was sub-optimal in 19 sub-centres. In only 18.2% (± 0.5%) households, LLINs remained hanging during daytime. Poverty, caste, education, perception regarding malarial morbidity and preventive action of LLIN were associated significantly with the distribution of LLIN. Similarly, poverty (AOR = 2.14), threat perception regarding malarial morbidity (AOR = 1.51) and mortality (AOR = 2.52) were positively associated with the use of LLIN. Full utilization of bednets by under-fives of the households was higher in villages with sub-centres. Around two-third population of the study area was effectively covered with LLIN. Higher proportion of socially marginalized people received LLIN. Threat perception regarding malaria was directly associated with both receipt and use of LLIN. Behaviour change communication on utilization along

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccinating children in Malawi with RTS,S vaccines in comparison with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.

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    Seo, Mikyung Kelly; Baker, Peter; Ngo, Karen Ngoc-Lan

    2014-02-24

    New RTS,S malaria vaccines may soon be licensed, yet its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Before the widespread introduction of RTS,S vaccines, cost-effectiveness studies are needed to help inform governments in resource-poor settings about how best to prioritize between the new vaccine and existing malaria interventions. A Markov model simulated malaria progression in a hypothetical Malawian birth cohort. Parameters were based on published data. Three strategies were compared: no intervention, vaccination at one year, and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) at birth. Both health service and societal perspectives were explored. Health outcomes were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costed in 2012 US$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted. Three times GDP per capita ($1,095) per DALY averted was used for a cost-effectiveness threshold, whilst one times GDP ($365) was considered 'very cost-effective'. From a societal perspective the vaccine strategy was dominant. It averted 0.11 more DALYs than LLINs and 0.372 more DALYs than the no intervention strategy per person, while costing $10.04 less than LLINs and $59.74 less than no intervention. From a health service perspective the vaccine's ICER was $145.03 per DALY averted, and thus can be considered very cost-effective. The results were robust to changes in all variables except the vaccine and LLINs' duration of efficacy. Vaccines remained cost-effective even at the lowest assumed efficacy levels of 49.6% (mild malaria) and 14.2% (severe malaria), and the highest price of $15. However, from a societal perspective, if the vaccine duration efficacy was set below 2.69 years or the LLIN duration of efficacy was greater than 4.24 years then LLINs became the more cost-effective strategy. The results showed that vaccinating Malawian children with RTS,S vaccines was very cost-effective from both a societal and a

  2. Vaccination of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with poly I:C, a host defense peptide and polyphosphazine, elicits strong and long lasting cellular and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Waugh, Courtney; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Gerdts, Volker; Potter, Andrew; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2014-10-07

    Chlamydial infections are wide spread in koalas across their range and a solution to this debilitating disease has been sought for over a decade. Antibiotics are the currently accepted therapeutic measure, but are not an effective treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of some infections and a low efficacy rate. Thus, a vaccine would be an ideal way to address this infectious disease threat in the wild. Previous vaccine trials have used a three-dose regimen; however this is very difficult to apply in the field as it would require multiple capture events, which are stressful and invasive processes for the koala. In addition, it requires skilled koala handlers and a significant monetary investment. To overcome these challenges, in this study we utilized a polyphosphazine based poly I:C and a host defense peptide adjuvant combined with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) antigen to induce long lasting (54 weeks) cellular and humoral immunity in female koalas with a novel single immunizing dose. Immunized koalas produced a strong IgG response in plasma, as well as at mucosal sites. Moreover, they showed high levels of C. pecorum specific neutralizing antibodies in the plasma as well as vaginal and conjunctival secretions. Lastly, Chlamydia-specific lymphocyte proliferation responses were produced against both whole chlamydial elementary bodies and rMOMP protein, over the 12-month period. The results of this study suggest that a single dose rMOMP vaccine incorporating a poly I:C, host defense peptide and polyphosphazine adjuvant is able to stimulate both arms of the immune system in koalas, thereby providing an alternative to antibiotic treatment and/or a three-dose vaccine regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty for the Treatment of Rotator Cuff Deficiency: A Concise Follow-up, at a Minimum of 10 Years, of Previous Reports.

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    Cuff, Derek J; Pupello, Derek R; Santoni, Brandon G; Clark, Rachel E; Frankle, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    We previously evaluated 94 patients (96 shoulders) who underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a central compressive screw with 5.0-mm peripheral locking screws for baseplate fixation and a center of rotation lateral to the glenoid as treatment for end-stage rotator cuff deficiency. The purpose of this study was to report updated results at a minimum follow-up of 10 years. Forty patients (42 shoulders) were available for clinical follow-up. In the patients available for study, implant survivorship, with the end point being revision for any reason, was 90.7%. Since our 5-year report, 2 patients underwent revision surgery; 1 patient sustained a periprosthetic fracture 7 years postoperatively and 1 patient had a dislocation because of chronic shoulder instability at 8 years postoperatively. At a minimum follow-up of 10 years, the patients continued to maintain their improved outcome scores and range of motion, which were comparable with earlier follow-up evaluations. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Heterologous Two-Dose Vaccination with Simian Adenovirus and Poxvirus Vectors Elicits Long-Lasting Cellular Immunity to Influenza Virus A in Healthy Adults

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    L. Coughlan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: T-cell responses against highly conserved influenza antigens have been previously associated with protection. However, these immune responses are poorly maintained following recovery from influenza infection and are not boosted by inactivated influenza vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of two viral vectored vaccines, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1 expressing conserved influenza virus antigens, nucleoprotein (NP and matrix protein-1 (M1. We now report on the safety and long-term immunogenicity of multiple combination regimes of these vaccines in young and older adults. Methods: We conducted a Phase I open-label, randomized, multi-center study in 49 subjects aged 18–46 years and 24 subjects aged 50 years or over. Following vaccination, adverse events were recorded and the kinetics of the T cell response determined at multiple time points for up to 18 months. Findings: Both vaccines were well tolerated. A two dose heterologous vaccination regimen significantly increased the magnitude of pre-existing T-cell responses to NP and M1 after both doses in young and older adults. The fold-increase and peak immune responses after a single MVA-NP + M1 vaccination was significantly higher compared to ChAdOx1 NP + M1. In a mixed regression model, T-cell responses over 18 months were significantly higher following the two dose vaccination regimen of MVA/ChAdOx1 NP + M1. Interpretation: A two dose heterologous vaccination regimen of MVA/ChAdOx1 NP + M1 was safe and immunogenic in young and older adults, offering a promising vaccination strategy for inducing long-term broadly cross-reactive protection against influenza A. Funding Source: Medical Research Council UK, NIHR BMRC Oxford. Keywords: Influenza, T-cell responses, Influenza vaccines, Viral vectors, Adults, Older adults

  5. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention

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    Okumu Fredros O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Methods Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life® and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts. Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS or wire balls (nets only. Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr genes. Results IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1–3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. Conclusions In bioassays where sufficient contact with

  6. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Fredros O; Chipwaza, Beatrice; Madumla, Edith P; Mbeyela, Edgar; Lingamba, Geoffrey; Moore, Jason; Ntamatungro, Alex J; Kavishe, Deo R; Moore, Sarah J

    2012-11-19

    Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life®) and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts). Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS) or wire balls (nets only). Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr) genes. IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1-3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. In bioassays where sufficient contact with treated surfaces is assured, LLINs and IRS kill high

  7. Case report of right hamate hook fracture in a patient with previous fracture history of left hamate hook: is it hamate bipartite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Sandra

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamate hook fracture is a common fracture in golfers and others who play sports that involve rackets or sticks such as tennis or hockey. This patient had a previous hamate fracture in the opposing wrist along with potential features of hamate bipartite. Case presentation A 19 year old male presented with a complaint of right wrist pain on the ulnar side of the wrist with no apparent mechanism of injury. The pain came on gradually one week before being seen in the office and he reported no prior care for the complaint. His history includes traumatic left hamate hook fracture with surgical excision. Conclusion The patient was found to have marked tenderness over the hamate and with a prior fracture to the other wrist, computed tomography of the wrist was ordered revealing a fracture to the hamate hook in the right wrist. He was referred for surgical evaluation and the hook of the hamate was excised. Post-surgically, the patient was able to return to normal activity within eight weeks. This case is indicative of fracture rather than hamate bipartite. This fracture should be considered in a case of ulnar sided wrist pain where marked tenderness is noted over the hamate, especially after participation in club or racket sports.

  8. Characterization of Cladosporols from the Marine Algal-Derived Endophytic Fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides EN-399 and Configurational Revision of the Previously Reported Cladosporol Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Lei; Li, Xiao-Ming; Mándi, Attila; Antus, Sándor; Li, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yang; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-10-06

    Four new cladosporol derivatives, cladosporols F-I (1-4), the known cladosporol C (5), and its new epimer, cladosporol J (6), were isolated and identified from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides EN-399. Their structures were determined by detailed interpretation of NMR and MS data, and the absolute configurations were established on the basis of TDDFT-ECD and OR calculations. The configurational assignment of cladosporols F (1) and G (2) showed that the previously reported absolute configuration of cladosporol A and all the related cladosporols need to be revised from (4'R) to (4'S). Compounds 1-6 showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Vibrio harveyi with MIC values ranging from 4 to 128 μg/mL. Compound 3 showed significant cytotoxicity against A549, Huh7, and LM3 cell lines with IC 50 values of 5.0, 1.0, and 4.1 μM, respectively, and compound 5 showed activity against H446 cell line with IC 50 value of 4.0 μM.

  9. The CRF₁ receptor antagonist SSR125543 prevents stress-induced long-lasting sleep disturbances in a mouse model of PTSD: comparison with paroxetine and d-cycloserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbert, Julie; Beeské, Sandra; Belzung, Catherine; Griebel, Guy

    2015-02-15

    The selective CRF₁ (corticotropin releasing factor type 1) receptor antagonist SSR125543 has been previously shown to attenuate the long-term behavioral and electrophysiological effects produced by traumatic stress exposure in mice. Sleep disturbances are one of the most commonly reported symptoms by people with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study aims at investigating whether SSR125543 (10 mg/kg/day/i.p. for 2 weeks) is able to attenuate sleep/wakefulness impairment induced by traumatic stress exposure in a model of PTSD in mice using electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis. Effects of SSR125543 were compared to those of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine (10 mg/kg/day/i.p.), and the partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist, d-cycloserine (10 mg/kg/day/i.p.), two compounds which have demonstrated clinical efficacy against PTSD. Baseline EEG recording was performed in the home cage for 6h prior to the application of two electric foot-shocks of 1.5 mA. Drugs were administered from day 1 post-stress to the day preceding the second EEG recording session, performed 14 days later. Results showed that at day 14 post-stress, shocked mice displayed sleep fragmentation as shown by an increase in the occurrence of both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness bouts. The duration of wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep were not significantly affected. The stress-induced effects were prevented by repeated administration of SSR125543, paroxetine and D-cycloserine. These findings confirm further that the CRF₁ receptor antagonist SSR125543 is able to attenuate the deleterious effects of traumatic stress exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Arrhythmias and sudden death among older children and young adults following tetralogy of Fallot repair in the current era: are previously reported risk factors still applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Swati; Kovach, Julie; Singh, Harinder; Karpawich, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Young adult patients (pts) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) remain at risk for arrhythmias (Ar) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on past studies with earlier pt subsets, Ar/SCD events were associated with right ventricular (RV) systolic pressures >60 mm Hg, outflow tract gradients >20 mm Hg, and QRS duration >180 ms. However, there are limited recent studies to evaluate these risk factors in the current patient generation. Patients with TOF followed over the past 50 years were grouped by presence of any arrhythmias (group 1), absence of arrhythmias (group 2), and presence of SCD or significant ventricular arrhythmias (group 3) and correlated with current pt age, gender, age at repair, repair types, echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, electrocardiogram/Holter, hemodynamics, and electrophysiology findings. Of 109 pts, 52 were male aged 17-58 years. Of these, 59 (54%) had Ar, two of whom had SCD. These 59 pts were chronologically older at the time of analysis, with repair at an older age and wider QRS duration (78-240, mean 158 ms) when compared with those without Ar. However, there was no correlation with surgical era, surgical repair, gender, RV pressure >60 mm Hg, right ventricular outflow tract gradient >20 mm Hg, or RV end-diastolic volume on CMRI. Ar/SCD risk continues to correlate with repair age and advancing pt age. QRS duration is longer in these patients but at a shorter interval (mean 158 ms) and less RV pressure (mean 43 mm Hg) than previously reported. In the current TOF patient generation, neither surgical era, type of repair, RV outflow gradient nor RV volume correlate with Ar/SCD. Electrophysiologic testing to verify and identify arrhythmias remains clinically effective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Structural analysis of eight novel and 112 previously reported missense mutations in the interactive FXI mutation database reveals new insight on FXI deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Rebecca E; Shiltagh, Nuha; Gomez, Keith; Mellars, Gillian; Cooper, Carolyn; Perry, David J; Tuddenham, Edward G; Perkins, Stephen J

    2009-08-01

    Factor XI (FXI) functions in blood coagulation. FXI is composed of four apple (Ap) domains and a serine protease (SP) domain. Deficiency of FXI leads to an injury-related bleeding disorder, which is remarkable for the lack of correlation between bleeding symptoms and FXI coagulant activity (FXI:C). The number of mutations previously reported in our interactive web database (http://www.FactorXI.org) is now significantly increased to 183 through our new patient studies and from literature surveys. Eight novel missense mutations give a total of 120 throughout the FXI gene (F11). The most abundant defects in FXI are revealed to be those from low-protein plasma levels (Type I: CRM-) that originate from protein misfolding, rather than from functional defects (Type II: CRM+). A total of 70 Ap missense mutations were analysed using a consensus Ap domain structure generated from the FXI dimer crystal structure. This showed that all parts of the Ap domain were affected. The 47 SP missense mutations were also distributed throughout the SP domain structure. The periphery of the Ap beta-sheet structure is sensitive to structural perturbation caused by residue changes throughout the Ap domain, yet this beta-sheet is crucial for FXI dimer formation. Residues located at the Ap4:Ap4 interface in the dimer are much less directly involved. We conclude that the abundance of Type I defects in FXI results from the sensitivity of the Ap domain folding to residue changes within this, and discuss how structural knowledge of the mutations improves our understanding of FXI deficiencies.

  12. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katureebe, Agaba; Zinszer, Kate; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Charland, Katia; Kigozi, Ruth; Kilama, Maxwell; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Yeka, Adoke; Mawejje, Henry; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Donnelly, Martin J.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Smith, David L.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites. Methods and Findings Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba), moderate (Kihihi), and high transmission (Nagongera). Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a) enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR), expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690); (b) cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361); and (c) entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR), expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107). The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period

  13. A diagnostic dilemma: Left-sided appendicitis in a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvini Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Left sided acute appendicitis is a diagnostic dilemma, thus often leading to management delays. It is pertinent to remember that malrotation of the gut is more common than previously thought, and not just a disease of infancy. It is advisable to consider imaging studies while balancing the risk-benefit-ratio of radiation exposure, especially in paediatric cases to cinch the diagnosis.

  14. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  15. A novel H6N1 virus-like particle vaccine induces long-lasting cross-clade antibody immunity against human and avian H6N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Rong; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Min-Shiuh; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Yang, Yu-Chih; Wu, Chia-Ying; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Hsiao, Pei-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Avian influenza A(H6N1) virus is one of the most common viruses isolated from migrating birds and domestic poultry in many countries. The first and only known case of human infection by H6N1 virus in the world was reported in Taiwan in 2013. This led to concern that H6N1 virus may cause a threat to public health. In this study, we engineered a recombinant H6N1 virus-like particle (VLP) and investigated its vaccine effectiveness compared to the traditional egg-based whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The H6N1-VLPs exhibited similar morphology and functional characteristics to influenza viruses. Prime-boost intramuscular immunization in mice with unadjuvanted H6N1-VLPs were highly immunogenic and induced long-lasting antibody immunity. The functional activity of the VLP-elicited IgG antibodies was proved by in vitro seroprotective hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization titers against the homologous human H6N1 virus, as well as in vivo viral challenge analyses which showed H6N1-VLP immunization significantly reduced viral load in the lung, and protected against human H6N1 virus infection. Of particular note, the H6N1-VLPs but not the H6N1-WIVs were able to confer cross-reactive humoral immunity; antibodies induced by H6N1-VLP vaccine robustly inhibited the hemagglutination activities and in vitro replication of distantly-related heterologous avian H6N1 viruses. Furthermore, the H6N1-VLPs were found to elicit significantly greater anti-HA2 antibody responses in immunized mice than H6N1-WIVs. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time a novel H6N1-VLP vaccine that effectively provides broadly protective immunity against both human and avian H6N1 viruses. These results, which uncover the underlying mechanisms for induction of wide-range immunity against influenza viruses, may be useful for future influenza vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ferrocene-quinoxaline Y-shaped chromophores as fascinating second-order NLO building blocks for long lasting highly active SHG polymeric films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Kabali; Thirumoorthy, Krishnan; Dragonetti, Claudia; Marinotto, Daniele; Righetto, Stefania; Colombo, Alessia; Haukka, Matti; Palanisami, Nallasamy

    2016-07-26

    The first example of a Y-shaped ferrocene quinoxaline derivative with a surprisingly high and stable second harmonic generation (SHG) response in composite polymeric films is reported. The interesting quadratic hyperpolarizability values of different substituted Y-shaped chromophores are also investigated in solution by the EFISH technique.

  17. Are early MRI findings correlated with long-lasting symptoms following whiplash injury? A prospective trial with 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Sorensen, Joan; Andersen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    . Clinical follow-ups were performed after 3 and 12 months. Outcome parameters were neck pain, headache, neck disability and working ability. A total of 178 participants had a cervical MRI scan on average 13 days after the injury. Traumatic findings were observed in seven participants. Signs of disc......Neck pain is the cardinal symptom following whiplash injuries. The trauma mechanism could theoretically lead to both soft tissue and bone injury that could be visualised by means of MRI. From previous quite small trials it seems that MRI does not demonstrate significant tissue damage. Large...... prospectively followed cohorts are needed to identify possible clinically relevant MRI findings. The objective of this trial was to evaluate (1) the predictive value of cervical MRI after whiplash injuries and (2) the value of repeating MRI examinations after 3 months including sequences with flexion...

  18. De novo adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma presenting anew in an elderly patient with previous normal CT and MRI studies: A case report and implications on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Walker, B.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign epithelial tumors which arise from embryonic remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and Rathke’s pouch. They are thought to have a congenital origin and are histologically unique from papillary craniopharyngioma. We describe the case of an elderly male who presented with symptoms related to a large craniopharyngioma with previously normal brain magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging studies. These findings dispute the embryogenic theory that craniopharyngiomas observed in adults develop from the persistent slow growth of embryonic remnants.

  19. Androgen Receptor (AR Gene (CAGn and (GGNn Length Polymorphisms and Symptoms in Young Males With Long-Lasting Adverse Effects After Finasteride Use Against Androgenic Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Cauci, PhD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that short and/or long (CAGn and (GGNn repeats had different frequencies according to symptoms reported by patients with PFS, likely reflecting the vast array of genes modulated by the AR. This study showed a U-curvilinear profile of (CAGn repeats for skin dryness symptoms, where the two extremes exhibited a worse condition than medium repeats. Further studies are necessary to investigate the PFS pathophysiology using a precision medicine approach.

  20. Application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter and evaluation of previous pumping tests at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report, June 15, 1992--August 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.C.; Julian, S.C.; Neton, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Multi-well pumping tests have been concluded at wells MW79, MW108, and PW1 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to determine the hydraulic properties of the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA). Soil cores suggest that the RGA consists of a thin sandy facies (2 to 6 feet) at the top of a thicker (> 10 feet) gravelly facies. Previous analyses have not considered any permeability contrast between the two facies. To assess the accuracy of this assumption, TVA personnel conducted borehole flowmeter tests at wells MW108 and PW1. Well MW79 could not be tested. The high K sand unit is probably 10 times more permeable than comparable zone in the gravelly portion of the RGA. Previous analyses of the three multi-well aquifer tests do not use the same conceptual aquifer model. Data analysis for one pumping test assumed that leakance was significant. Data analysis for another pumping test assumed that a geologic boundary was significant. By collectively analyzing all three tests with the borehole flowmeter results, the inconsistency among the three pumping tests can be explained. Disparity exists because each pumping test had a different placement of observation wells relative to the high K zone delineating by flowmeter testing.

  1. Previous ISD Program Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    report. The detail required for such a review would be unwieldy and would comsume inordinate amounts of time. The result of the document review will...attempts have been made at writing specific behavioral objectives (SBOs). These, however, have proven to be inadequate in that they are not stated in... behavioral terms (e.g., "will understand," "will have a knowledge of," etc.). C. Development of CRO/CRTs? In nearly all cases, ISD teams are just

  2. Two case reports: Carcinoma of the cervix and carcinoma of the endometrium treated with radiotherapy after previous irradiation for benign uterine bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, C. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia). Department of Radiation Oncology

    1998-08-01

    In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, low doses of radiotherapy were used to treat benign uterine bleeding. The cases of two women who received this form of therapy and later developed gynaecological malignancies and had high-dose pelvic radiotherapy are presented. A 76-year-old woman with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage-II B squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix received external beam radiotherapy and intra-uterine brachytherapy and a 77-year-old woman with a FIGO stage-I B endometrial adenocarcinoma received adjuvant postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. Both women had a significant past history of low-dose-rate intra-uterine irradiation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Therefore the theoretical question of carcinogenesis was raised, and also the practical questions of what dose had previously been given and what further dose could be safely given with regard to normal tissue tolerance. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs.

  3. Two case reports: Carcinoma of the cervix and carcinoma of the endometrium treated with radiotherapy after previous irradiation for benign uterine bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.

    1998-01-01

    In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, low doses of radiotherapy were used to treat benign uterine bleeding. The cases of two women who received this form of therapy and later developed gynaecological malignancies and had high-dose pelvic radiotherapy are presented. A 76-year-old woman with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage-II B squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix received external beam radiotherapy and intra-uterine brachytherapy and a 77-year-old woman with a FIGO stage-I B endometrial adenocarcinoma received adjuvant postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. Both women had a significant past history of low-dose-rate intra-uterine irradiation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Therefore the theoretical question of carcinogenesis was raised, and also the practical questions of what dose had previously been given and what further dose could be safely given with regard to normal tissue tolerance. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  4. Long-lasting memory deficits in mice withdrawn from cocaine are concomitant with neuroadaptations in hippocampal basal activity, GABAergic interneurons and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ladrón de Guevara-Miranda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine addiction disorder is notably aggravated by concomitant cognitive and emotional pathology that impedes recovery. We studied whether a persistent cognitive/emotional dysregulation in mice withdrawn from cocaine holds a neurobiological correlate within the hippocampus, a limbic region with a key role in anxiety and memory but that has been scarcely investigated in cocaine addiction research. Mice were submitted to a chronic cocaine (20 mg/kg/day for 12 days or vehicle treatment followed by 44 drug-free days. Some mice were then assessed on a battery of emotional (elevated plus-maze, light/dark box, open field, forced swimming and cognitive (object and place recognition memory, cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, continuous spontaneous alternation behavioral tests, while other mice remained in their home cage. Relevant hippocampal features [basal c-Fos activity, GABA+, parvalbumin (PV+ and neuropeptide Y (NPY+ interneurons and adult neurogenesis (cell proliferation and immature neurons] were immunohistochemically assessed 73 days after the chronic cocaine or vehicle protocol. The cocaine-withdrawn mice showed no remarkable exploratory or emotional alterations but were consistently impaired in all the cognitive tasks. All the cocaine-withdrawn groups, independent of whether they were submitted to behavioral assessment or not, showed enhanced basal c-Fos expression and an increased number of GABA+ cells in the dentate gyrus. Moreover, the cocaine-withdrawn mice previously submitted to behavioral training displayed a blunted experience-dependent regulation of PV+ and NPY+ neurons in the dentate gyrus, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Results highlight the importance of hippocampal neuroplasticity for the ingrained cognitive deficits present during chronic cocaine withdrawal.

  5. The use of porcine small intestinal submucosa mesh (SURGISIS as a pelvic sling in a man and a woman with previous pelvic surgery: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sahaf Osama

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Closing the pelvic peritoneum to prevent the small bowel dropping into the pelvis after surgery for locally recurrent rectal cancer is important to prevent adhesions deep in the pelvis or complications of adjuvant radiotherapy. Achieving this could be difficult because sufficient native tissue is unavailable; we report on the use of small intestine submucosa extra-cellular matrix mesh in the obliteration of the pelvic brim. Case presentation We describe two cases in which submucosa extra-cellular matrix mesh was used to obliterate the pelvic brim following resection of a recurrent rectal tumour; the first patient, a 78-year-old Caucasian man, presented with small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions to a recurrent rectal tumour. The second patient, an 84-year-old Caucasian woman, presented with vaginal discharge caused by an entero-vaginal fistula due to a recurrent rectal tumour. Conclusion We report on the use of submucosa extra-cellular matrix mesh as a pelvic sling in cases where primary closure of the pelvic peritoneum is unfeasible. Its use had no infective complications and added minimal morbidity to the postoperative period. This is an original case report that would be of interest to general and colorectal surgeons.

  6. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads Andreas Bay; Kongsgaard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should...... be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using......, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both...

  7. Flow cytometry analysis of T-cell subsets in cerebrospinal fluid of narcolepsy type 1 patients with long-lasting disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moresco, Monica; Lecciso, Mariangela; Ocadlikova, Darina

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) is a central hypersomnia linked to the destruction of hypocretin-producing neurons. A great body of genetic and epidemiological data points to likely autoimmune disease aetiology. Recent reports have characterized peripheral blood T-cell subsets in NT1, whereas...... data regarding the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune cell composition are lacking. The current study aimed to characterize the T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell subsets in NT1 patients with long disease course. METHODS: Immune cell subsets from CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples...... were analysed by flow cytometry in two age-balanced and sex-balanced groups of 14 NT1 patients versus 14 healthy controls. The frequency of CSF cell groups was compared with PBMCs. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The NT1 patients did not show significant differences...

  8. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads A B; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-02-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested.

  9. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Reply to Comment by Cole-dai Et Al. on "Climatic Impact of the Long-lasting Laki Eruption: Inapplicability of Mass-independent Sulfur Isotope Composition Measurements"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Oman, Luke D.; Robock, Alan; Self, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Here we respond to the comments by Cole-Dai et al. [2014] on our article Schmidt et al. [2012]. Specifically, in response to section 2 of their reply, we argued in Schmidt et al. [2012] that based on previously published estimates of the volatile release height during the 1783-1784 C.E. Laki eruption, the lack of a sulfur massindependent fractionation (MIF) anomaly is expected. In other words, no previous study on Laki ever argued that this eruption emitted SO2 into altitudes >13-15 km. In section 2.3, Cole-Dai et al. [2014] argue that the nonzero ?33S value of their Laki sample 1 may be explained by a short-lived explosive phase at Laki during which volatiles reached the stratosphere. In Schmidt et al. [2012] in section 2, we argued in agreement with Cole-Dai et al. [2014] (section 3.1) that for a MIF anomaly to be preserved, the Laki volatiles would have had to be emitted in >20 km altitude. Our main point is that eruption column heights >20 km are unlikely based on the historical accounts and plume-rise modeling for the Laki eruption [Stothers et al., 1986; Woods, 1993; Thordarson and Self, 2003]. In Schmidt et al. [2012], we argued that to deduce a short-lived climatic impact of the Laki eruption based on the lack of a MIF anomaly and the length of the sulfate deposition in Greenland ice cores may be misleading because the climatic impact will outlast the radiative forcing of the Laki aerosol cloud. Cole-Dai et al. [2014] acknowledge the latter in their reply in section 4.2. We agreewith Cole-Dai et al. [2014] in that themagnitude and length of the climatic impact during the winter of 1783-1784 depends on the altitude of the volatile release during the eruption (sections 2.3 and 4.2). However, even if we assumed that during Laki all sulfur dioxide (SO2) would have been released in the troposphere, then the aerosol cloud would still be present in the upper troposphere during March 1784, as is evident from independent model simulations of this "tropospheric

  11. Just-in-time vaccines: Biomineralized calcium phosphate core-immunogen shell nanoparticles induce long-lasting CD8(+) T cell responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weibin; Moguche, Albanus O; Chiu, David; Murali-Krishna, Kaja; Baneyx, François

    2014-04-01

    Distributed and on-demand vaccine production could be game-changing for infectious disease treatment in the developing world by providing new therapeutic opportunities and breaking the refrigeration "cold chain". Here, we show that a fusion protein between a calcium phosphate binding domain and the model antigen ovalbumin can mineralize a biocompatible adjuvant in a single step. The resulting 50 nm calcium phosphate core-immunogen shell particles are comparable to soluble protein in inducing ovalbumin-specific antibody response and class switch recombination in mice. However, single dose vaccination with nanoparticles leads to higher expansion of ovalbumin-specific CD8(+) T cells upon challenge with an influenza virus bearing the ovalbumin-derived SIINFEKL peptide, and these cells produce high levels of IFN-γ. Furthermore, mice exhibit a robust antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell recall response when challenged with virus 8 months post-immunization. These results underscore the promise of immunogen-controlled adjuvant mineralization for just-in-time manufacturing of effective T cell vaccines. This paper reports that a fusion protein between a calcium phosphate binding domain and the model antigen ovalbumin can mineralize into a biocompatible adjuvant in a single step, enabling distributed and on-demand vaccine production and eliminating the need for refrigeration of vaccines. The findings highlight the possibility of immunogen-controlled adjuvant mineralization for just-in-time manufacturing of effective T cell vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Access to and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets and factors associated with non-use among communities in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah governorate in the Tihama region, west of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Samira M A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2017-06-09

    Universal coverage of the targeted malaria-endemic areas with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is implemented as one of the key interventions for malaria control and elimination in Yemen. In 2013, through a mass campaign, LLINs were distributed to the targeted communities in Al Hudaydah governorate. This study aimed to assess the ownership of, access to, and use of LLINs. It also aimed to identify factors associated with not using LLINs in malaria-endemic areas of Al Hudaydah in the Tihama region, west of Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four districts (Ad Durayhimi, Al Marawi'ah, Al Mansuriyah and Bayt Al Faqiah) in Al Hudaydah during February 2016. A total of 701 households were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and availability of LLINs were collected by interview and observation. Four indicators for malaria prevention using LLINs; proportion of households with at least one LLIN, proportion of households with at least one LLIN for every two people, proportion of population with access to LLINs in the surveyed households and proportion of population who slept under LLINs the previous night of the survey were calculated as indicated by Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group. Use to access ratio was assessed. Factors associated with not using LLINs among people with access were also investigated. Of 701 households with 4900 de facto population, ownership of at least one LLIN was 90.6%, while 24.1% owned at least one for every two people during the survey in 2016. The overall proportion of people with access to LLINs was 51.5% (95% CI 50.1-52.9). Only 19.0% (95% CI 17.9-20.1) slept under LLINs the night before the survey and the overall use to access ratio was 0.37. The proportions of children under 5 years of age with access to and use of LLINs were 13.7 and 42.5%, respectively. On the other hand, the proportions of pregnant women with access to and use of LLINs were 16.4 and 20

  13. Homozygous loss of function BRCA1 variant causing a Fanconi-anemia-like phenotype, a clinical report and review of previous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Bruna L; Homma, Thais K; Funari, Mariana F A; Lerario, Antônio M; Leal, Aline M; Velloso, Elvira D R P; Malaquias, Alexsandra C; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2018-03-01

    Fanconi Anemia (FA) is a rare and heterogeneous genetic syndrome. It is associated with short stature, bone marrow failure, high predisposition to cancer, microcephaly and congenital malformation. Many genes have been associated with FA. Previously, two adult patients with biallelic pathogenic variant in Breast Cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) had been identified in Fanconi Anemia-like condition. The proband was a 2.5 year-old girl with severe short stature, microcephaly, neurodevelopmental delay, congenital heart disease and dysmorphic features. Her parents were third degree cousins. Routine screening tests for short stature was normal. We conducted whole exome sequencing (WES) of the proband and used an analysis pipeline to identify rare nonsynonymous genetic variants that cause short stature. We identified a homozygous loss-of-function BRCA1 mutation (c.2709T > A; p. Cys903*), which promotes the loss of critical domains of the protein. Cytogenetic study with DEB showed an increased chromosomal breakage. We screened heterozygous parents of the index case for cancer and we detected, in her mother, a metastatic adenocarcinoma in an axillar lymph node with probable primary site in the breast. It is possible to consolidate the FA-like phenotype associated with biallelic loss-of-function BRCA1, characterized by microcephaly, short stature, developmental delay, dysmorphic face features and cancer predisposition. In our case, the WES allowed to establish the genetic cause of short stature in the context of a chromosome instability syndrome. An identification of BRCA1 mutations in our patient allowed precise genetic counseling and also triggered cancer screening for the patient and her family members. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Feline leprosy due to Candidatus 'Mycobacterium lepraefelis': Further clinical and molecular characterisation of eight previously reported cases and an additional 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Carolyn R; Malik, Richard; Globan, Maria; Reppas, George; McCowan, Christina; Fyfe, Janet A

    2017-09-01

    This paper, the last in a series of three on 'feline leprosy', provides a detailed description of disease referable to the previously unnamed species, Candidatus 'Mycobacterium lepraefelis', a close relative of the human pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Cases were sourced retrospectively and prospectively for this observational study, describing clinical, geographical and molecular microbiological data for cats definitively diagnosed with Candidatus 'M lepraefelis' infection. A total of 145 cases of feline leprosy were scrutinised; 114 'new' cases were sourced from the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL) records, veterinary pathology laboratories or veterinarians, and 31 cases were derived from six published studies. Thirty-eight cats were definitively diagnosed with Candidatus 'M lepraefelis' infection. Typically, cats tended to be middle-aged or older when first infected, with a male predilection. Affected cats typically had widespread cutaneous lesions, in some cases after initially localised disease. Advanced cases were often systemically unwell. All cats had outdoor access. The histological picture was lepromatous in the majority of patients, although two cases had tuberculoid disease. In one case that underwent necropsy, lesions were evident in the liver, spleen and lungs. Treatment was varied, although most cats received a combination of oral clarithromycin and rifampicin. Prognosis for recovery was variable, but typically poor. Candidatus 'M lepraefelis' typically causes high bacterial index (lepromatous) feline leprosy that in some cases progresses to systemic mycobacteriosis. The disease has a variable clinical course and prognosis. Many cases either died or were euthanased due to the infection. Multilocus sequence analysis reveals a heterogeneous picture and further analysis of draft genome sequencing may give clues to the taxonomy and epidemiology of this organism. Prospective treatment trials and

  15. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-12-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.

  16. Long-lasting X-ray emission from type IIb supernova 2011dh and mass-loss history of the yellow supergiant progenitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katsuda, Satoru [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Bamba, Aya [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Terada, Yukikatsu [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo 255, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi, E-mail: keiichi.maeda@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2014-04-20

    Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh, with conclusive detection of an unprecedented yellow supergiant (YSG) progenitor, provides an excellent opportunity to deepen our understanding on the massive star evolution in the final centuries toward the SN explosion. In this paper, we report on detection and analyses of thermal X-ray emission from SN IIb 2011dh at ∼500 days after the explosion on Chandra archival data, providing a solidly derived mass-loss rate of a YSG progenitor for the first time. We find that the circumstellar media should be dense, more than that expected from a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star by one order of magnitude. The emission is powered by a reverse shock penetrating into an outer envelope, fully consistent with the YSG progenitor but not with a W-R progenitor. The density distribution at the outermost ejecta is much steeper than that expected from a compact W-R star, and this finding must be taken into account in modeling the early UV/optical emission from SNe IIb. The derived mass-loss rate is ∼3 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the mass-loss velocity of ∼20 km s{sup –1} in the final ∼1300 yr before the explosion. The derived mass-loss properties are largely consistent with the standard wind mass-loss expected for a giant star. This is not sufficient to be a main driver to expel nearly all the hydrogen envelope. Therefore, the binary interaction, with a huge mass transfer having taken place at ≳ 1300 yr before the explosion, is a likely scenario to produce the YSG progenitor.

  17. Flow cytometry analysis of T-cell subsets in cerebrospinal fluid of narcolepsy type 1 patients with long-lasting disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Monica; Lecciso, Mariangela; Ocadlikova, Darina; Filardi, Marco; Melzi, Silvia; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Antelmi, Elena; Pizza, Fabio; Mignot, Emmanuel; Curti, Antonio; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) is a central hypersomnia linked to the destruction of hypocretin-producing neurons. A great body of genetic and epidemiological data points to likely autoimmune disease aetiology. Recent reports have characterized peripheral blood T-cell subsets in NT1, whereas data regarding the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune cell composition are lacking. The current study aimed to characterize the T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell subsets in NT1 patients with long disease course. Immune cell subsets from CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were analysed by flow cytometry in two age-balanced and sex-balanced groups of 14 NT1 patients versus 14 healthy controls. The frequency of CSF cell groups was compared with PBMCs. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analyses. The NT1 patients did not show significant differences of CSF immune cell subsets compared to controls, despite a trend towards higher CD4 + terminally differentiated effector memory T cells. T cells preferentially displayed a memory phenotype in the CSF compared to PBMCs. Furthermore, a reduced frequency of CD4 + terminally differentiated effector memory T cells and an increased frequency of NK CD56 bright cells was observed in PBMCs from patients compared to controls. Finally, the ratio between CSF and peripheral CD4 + terminally differentiated effector memory T cells was two-fold increased in NT1 patients versus controls. Significant differences in PBMCs and in CSF/PBMC ratios of immune cell profile were found in NT1 patients compared to healthy controls. These differences might have arisen from the different HLA status, or be primary or secondary to hypocretin deficiency. Further functional studies in patients close to disease onset are required to understand NT1 pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Jean Pierre Nabléni; Louwagie, Johanna; Pigeon, Olivier; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th) Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC) Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1) and a domestic washing (method-2) on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient. Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography. The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide. Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be effectively

  19. Comparison of the laboratory standard washing using CIPAC washing agent and the domestic washing on three recommended types of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Nabléni Ouattara

    Full Text Available One of the best ways to prevent malaria is the use of insecticide-treated bed nets. Manufacturers pursue easier, safer and more efficient nets. Hence, many studies on the efficacy and wash resistance using World Health Organization standards have been reported. The commonly used detergent is "Savon de Marseille", because it closely resembles actually used soaps. At the 54(th Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC Technical Meeting in 2010, it was suggested to replace it by a standardized "CIPAC washing agent". The aim of this study was to investigate the difference between a laboratory hand washing simulation using the CIPAC washing agent (method-1 and a domestic washing (method-2 on different bed nets, as well as the effect of the drying process on the release of active ingredient.Interceptor®, Permanet®2.0 and Netprotect® nets were used in three treatments, each repeated 20 times. The first treatment included method-1 washing and indoor drying. The second treatment included method-2 washing and indoor drying. The third treatment used method-2 washing and UV-drying. The residual insecticide contents were determined using gas chromatography.The washing procedure and the number of washes have a significant effect on the release of active ingredient. Statistically, the two washing methods have the same effect on removing the active ingredient from the Interceptor® and Permanet®2.0 net, but a significantly different influence on the Netprotect® nets. The drying process has no significant effect on the insecticide.Both washing procedures affected the amount of insecticide remaining on nets independently of the impregnation technology. The active ingredient decreases with the number of washing cycles following an exponential or logarithmic model for coated nets. The laboratory hand washing simulation had more impact on the decrease of active ingredient content of the Netprotect® nets. All net types seemed to be

  20. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after ‘junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by ‘junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general ‘read out' of mesolimbic function after ‘junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a ‘junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating ‘junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after ‘junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction. PMID:27383008

  1. Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) syndrome previously diagnosed as Seckel syndrome: report of a novel mutation of the PCNT gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piane, Maria; Della Monica, Matteo; Piatelli, Gianluca; Lulli, Patrizia; Lonardo, Fortunato; Chessa, Luciana; Scarano, Gioacchino

    2009-11-01

    We report on a 3-year-old boy with prenatal onset of proportionate dwarfism, postnatal severe microcephaly, high forehead with receded hairline, sparse scalp hair, beaked nose, mild retrognathia and hypotonia diagnosed at birth as Seckel syndrome. At age 3 years, he became paralyzed due to a cerebrovascular malformation. Based on the clinical and radiological features showing evidence of skeletal dysplasia, the diagnosis was revised to Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) syndrome. Western blot analysis of the patient's lymphoblastoid cell line lysate showed the absence of the protein pericentrin. Subsequent molecular analysis identified a novel homozygous single base insertion (c.1527_1528insA) in exon 10 of the PCNT gene, which leads to a frameshift (Treo510fs) and to premature protein truncation. PCNT mutations must be considered diagnostic of MOPD II syndrome. A possible role of pericentrin in the development of cerebral vessels is suggested. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Radiation port cutaneous metastases: Reports of two patients whose recurrent visceral cancers presented as skin lesions at the site of previous radiation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Spencer Hoyt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is associated with a variety of complications, including the development of primary skin cancers in the radiated region. However, it is rare for patients with visceral cancers who are treated with radiation therapy to subsequently develop cutaneous metastasis within the radiation port. We describe two patients with internal malignancies who developed cutaneous metastases within their radiation ports following radiotherapy. In addition, we used PubMed to perform an extensive literature review and identify additional reports of cutaneous metastasis within a radiation port. We excluded patients who developed melanoma or primary skin cancers in the radiation port. We also excluded patients with non-solid organ malignancies. Herein, we summarize the characteristics of 23 additional patients who experienced radiation port cutaneous metastases and explore possible mechanisms for the occurrence of radiation port cutaneous metastases.

  3. Late type III endoleak after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair and previous infrarenal stent graft implantation - a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyński, Jerzy; Macioch, Waldemar; Chudziński, Witold; Gałązka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) effectively improved the results of thoracic aortic aneurysm treatment. TEVAR is a less invasive procedure that can be performed under local anesthesia with shorter hospital stay. The perioperative morbidity and mortality rates are lower for endovascular than open repair, but the rate of secondary interventions is higher for TEVAR. We report a case of an elderly man with synchronous abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms. A type III dangerous endoleak was recognized 3 years after TEVAR. It was successfully repaired during an endovascular procedure. There were no new endoleaks after 12 months of follow-up. TEVAR may be the only option of treatment for risky and elderly patients. However, postoperative monitoring is necessary to exclude different types of endoleaks. Most of them undergo effective endovascular repair.

  4. 56Fe particle exposure results in a long-lasting increase in a cellular index of genomic instability and transiently suppresses adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarolis, Nathan A.; Rivera, Phillip D.; Ahn, Francisca; Amaral, Wellington Z.; LeBlanc, Junie A.; Malhotra, Shveta; Shih, Hung-Ying; Petrik, David; Melvin, Neal R.; Chen, Benjamin P. C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2014-07-01

    The high-LET HZE particles from galactic cosmic radiation pose tremendous health risks to astronauts, as they may incur sub-threshold brain injury or maladaptations that may lead to cognitive impairment. The health effects of HZE particles are difficult to predict and unfeasible to prevent. This underscores the importance of estimating radiation risks to the central nervous system as a whole as well as to specific brain regions like the hippocampus, which is central to learning and memory. Given that neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been linked to learning and memory, we investigated the response and recovery of neurogenesis and neural stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus after HZE particle exposure using two nestin transgenic reporter mouse lines to label and track radial glia stem cells (Nestin-GFP and Nestin-CreERT2/R26R:YFP mice, respectively). Mice were subjected to 56Fe particle exposure (0 or 1 Gy, at either 300 or 1000 MeV/n) and brains were harvested at early (24 h), intermediate (7 d), and/or long time points (2-3 mo) post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure resulted in a robust increase in 53BP1+ foci at both the intermediate and long time points post-irradiation, suggesting long-term genomic instability in the brain. However, 56Fe particle exposure only produced a transient decrease in immature neuron number at the intermediate time point, with no significant decrease at the long time point post-irradiation. 56Fe particle exposure similarly produced a transient decrease in dividing progenitors, with fewer progenitors labeled at the early time point but equal number labeled at the intermediate time point, suggesting a recovery of neurogenesis. Notably, 56Fe particle exposure did not change the total number of nestin-expressing neural stem cells. These results highlight that despite the persistence of an index of genomic instability, 56Fe particle-induced deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be transient. These data support

  5. Resolution of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) by correcting a lateral head translation posture following previous failed traditional chiropractic therapy: a CBP® case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Jason O; Oakley, Paul A; Moore, Robert R; Ruggeroli, Edward P; Harrison, Deed E

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP ® technique mirror image ® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the 'regional interdependence' model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint.

  6. Enhancement of CdSiO3: Tb3+ green long-lasting phosphors by co-doping with Re3+ (Re3+=Gd3+, Y3+, La3+) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Wei; Wang, Yuhua; Han, Shaochun; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Gen

    2014-01-01

    CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ long-lasting phosphors were synthesized by the conventional high temperature solid-state method. A green-light phosphorescence phenomenon, which was associated with the 5 D 4 → 7 F J (J=6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of the Tb 3+ ion, was observed. Introduction of Re 3+ (Re 3+ =Gd 3+ , Y 3+ , La 3+ ) ions, which deepens the depth (E t ) or/and increases the density (n 0 ) of traps, greatly improved the afterglow properties of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ . Possible mechanism of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ was discussed in this work. - Highlights: • CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+ , Re 3+ samples enrich the color of long-lasting afterglow phosphors in CdSiO 3 host. • Both the afterglow intensity and the lasting time are greatly enhanced for the co-doped samples, especially for Cd 0.96 SiO 3 : Tb 0.03 3+ , La 0.01 3+ . • Introduction of Re 3+ (Re 3+ =Gd 3+ , Y 3+ , La 3+ ) ions, which deepens the depth (E t ) or increase density(n 0 ) of traps, greatly improved the afterglow properties of CdSiO 3 : Tb 3+

  7. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. Keywords: Oral hygiene, Pregnancy, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.

  8. Femoral Component Revision with Use of Impaction Bone-Grafting and a Cemented Polished Stem: A Concise Follow-up, at Fifteen to Twenty Years, of a Previous Report*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Stroet, M.A.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Rijnen, W.H.C.; Slooff, T.J.J.H.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported our results for thirty-three consecutive femoral component revisions with impaction bone-grafting, performed with the X-change femoral revision system and a cemented polished Exeter stem, at a minimum of eight years of follow-up. The present updated study shows the results

  9. Nocardia harenae, an uncommon causative organism of mycetoma: report on two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch-Tronik, Nicole S; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Arenas, Roberto; Atoche, Carlos; Ochoa-Carrera, Luis A; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Manjarrez-Hernández, Angel H; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2012-08-01

    Mycetoma is the most frequently diagnosed deep mycosis in Mexico and is caused, in 86% of cases, by Nocardia brasiliensis. Worldwide, Nocardia harenae has not been previously reported as a causative agent of human mycetoma. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first two human cases of mycetoma due to N. harenae in a clinical setting. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Both cases were characterized by long-lasting mycetoma that had previously been failed to be cured and had shown resistance to therapy. However, in our hospital, a multidrug therapy proved to be effective in these cases.

  10. Control of pyrethroid and DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiae by application of indoor residual spraying or mosquito nets treated with a long-lasting organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabi Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS with support from the Global Fund and President's Malaria Initiative is providing increased opportunities for malaria control in Africa. The most cost-effective and longest-lasting residual insecticide DDT is also the most environmentally persistent. Alternative residual insecticides exist, but are too short-lived or too expensive to sustain. Dow Agrosciences have developed a microencapsulated formulation (CS of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos methyl as a cost-effective, long-lasting alternative to DDT. Methods Chlorpyrifos methyl CS was tested as an IRS or ITN treatment in experimental huts in an area of Benin where Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasiactus are resistant to pyrethroids, but susceptible to organophosphates. Efficacy and residual activity was compared to that of DDT and the pyrethroid lambdacyalothrin. Results IRS with chlorpyrifos methyl killed 95% of An. gambiae that entered the hut as compared to 31% with lambdacyhalothrin and 50% with DDT. Control of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a similar trend; although the level of mortality with chlorpyrifos methyl was lower (66% it was still much higher than for DDT (14% or pyrethroid (15% treatments. Nets impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin were compromized by resistance, killing only 30% of An. gambiae and 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Nets impregnated with chlorpyrifos methyl killed more (45% of An gambiae and 15% of Cx. quinquefasciatus, but its activity on netting was of short duration. Contact bioassays on the sprayed cement-sand walls over the nine months of monitoring showed no loss of activity of chlorpyrifos methyl, whereas lambdacyhalothrin and DDT lost activity within a few months of spraying. Conclusion As an IRS treatment against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes chlorpyrifos methyl CS outperformed DDT and lambdacyhalothrin. In IRS campaigns, chlorpyrifos methyl CS should

  11. Optical study of SrAl1.7B0.3O4:Eu, R (R=Nd, Dy) pigments with long-lasting phosphorescence for industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Benitez, J.; Andres, A. de; Marchal, M.; Cordoncillo, E.; Regi, M.V.; Escribano, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied and compared the optical properties of SrAl 1.7 B 0.3 O 4 :Eu, R (R=Nd, Dy) pigments that present long-lasting phosphorescence obtained by different synthesis techniques. Samples obtained by ceramic methods, in our laboratories and by an industrial process, present better phosphorescent properties than those obtained by sol-gel technique. Raman spectra show that grinding produces severe damage of the lattice. We have obtained and analyzed the Eu 3+ crystal field luminescence indicating that Eu 3+ is found in quite different sites comparing ceramic and sol-gel samples. Codoping, with Nd or Dy is necessary in order to reduce the Eu 3+ content, in all cases. The green luminescence band, obtained under UV illumination, can be fitted to two and three components in ceramic and sol-gel samples, respectively, due to different Eu 2+ sites. Eu-Dy samples present the longest and the most efficient phosphorescence. The time evolution of the afterglow is well described by a t -1 law, up to about 2 h, indicating that the recombination process is achieved by electron-hole tunneling

  12. Long-Lasting Production of New T and B Cells and T-Cell Repertoire Diversity in Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Who Had Undergone Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Centre Experience

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    Monica Valotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs, T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs, and T-cell repertoire diversity were evaluated in 1038 samples of 124 children with primary immunodeficiency, of whom 102 (54 with severe combined immunodeficiency and 48 with other types of immunodeficiency underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Twenty-two not transplanted patients with primary immunodeficiency were used as controls. Only data of patients from whom at least five samples were sent to the clinical laboratory for routine monitoring of lymphocyte reconstitutions were included in the analysis. The mean time of the follow-up was 8 years. The long-lasting posttransplantation kinetics of KREC and TREC production occurred similarly in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of immunodeficiency and, in both groups, the T-cell reconstitution was more efficient than in nontransplanted children. Although thymic output decreased in older transplanted patients, the degree of T-cell repertoire diversity, after an initial increase, remained stable during the observation period. However, the presence of graft-versus-host disease and ablative conditioning seemed to play a role in the time-related shaping of T-cell repertoire. Overall, our data suggest that long-term B- and T-cell reconstitution was equally achieved in children with severe combined immunodeficiency and with other types of primary immunodeficiency.

  13. To assess whether indoor residual spraying can provide additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets in The Gambia: study protocol for a two-armed cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker David

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, there has been mounting interest in scaling-up vector control against malaria in Africa. It needs to be determined if indoor residual spraying (IRS with DDT will provide significant marginal protection against malaria over current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and prompt treatment in a controlled trial, given that DDT is currently the most persistent insecticide for IRS. Methods A 2 armed cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to assess whether DDT IRS and LLINs combined provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in rural Gambia. Each cluster will be a village, or a group of small adjacent villages; all clusters will receive LLINs and half will receive IRS in addition. Study children, aged 6 months to 13 years, will be enrolled from all clusters and followed for clinical malaria using passive case detection to estimate malaria incidence for 2 malaria transmission seasons in 2010 and 2011. This will be the primary endpoint. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light and exit traps followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and the prevalence of anaemia. Discussion Practical issues concerning intervention implementation, as well as the potential benefits and risks of the study, are discussed. Trial Registration ISRCTN01738840 - Spraying And Nets Towards malaria Elimination (SANTE

  14. HIV risk perception and testing behaviours among men having sex with men (MSM) reporting potential transmission risks in the previous 12 months from a large online sample of MSM living in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ulrich; Gassowski, Martyna; Drewes, Jochen

    2016-10-22

    HIV testing and serostatus awareness are essential to implement biomedical strategies (treatment as prevention; oral chemoprophylaxis), and for effective serostatus-based behaviours (HIV serosorting; strategic positioning). The analysis focuses on the associations between reported sexual risks, the perceived risk for HIV infection, and HIV testing behaviour in order to identify the most relevant barriers for HIV test uptake among MSM living in Germany. MSM were recruited to a nationwide anonymous online-survey in 2013 on MSM social networking/dating sites. Questions covered testing behaviours, reasons for testing decisions, and HIV risk perception (5-point scale). Additional questions addressed arguments in favour of home/ home collection testing (HT). Using descriptive statistics and logistic regression we compared men reporting recent HIV testing (RT; previous 12 month) with men never tested (NT) in a subsample not previously diagnosed with HIV and reporting ≥2 episodes of condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) with a non-steady partner of unknown HIV serostatus in the previous 12 months. The subsample consisted of 775 RT (13 % of RT) and 396 NT (7 % of NT). The number of CLAI episodes in the last 12 months with non-steady partners of unknown HIV status did not differ significantly between the groups, but RT reported significantly higher numbers of partners (>5 AI partners: 65 vs. 44 %). While perceived risks regarding last AI were comparable between the groups, 49vs. 30 % NT were risks (67 %) and routine testing (49 %) were the most common testing reasons for RT, while the strong belief not to be infected (59 %) and various worries (41 %) and fears of testing positive (35 %) were predominant reasons of NT. Greater anonymity (aOR 3.2; 2.4-4.4), less embarrassment, (aOR 2.8; 1.9-4.1), and avoiding discussions on sexual behaviour (aOR 1.6; 1.1-2.2) were emphasized in favour of HT by NT. Perceived partner knowledge and reasons reflecting perceived gay- and

  15. Successful adalimumab treatment of a psoriasis vulgaris patient with hemodialysis for renal failure: A case report and a review of the previous reports on biologic treatments for psoriasis patients with hemodialysis for renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakari, Yoshiyuki; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Toshiya; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Shimada-Omori, Ryoko; Nasu-Tamabuchi, Mei; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of biologic treatments have been established in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis, but there are few reports on biologic therapy for patients with psoriasis complicated by end-stage renal failure on hemodialysis (HD). In this report, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of adalimumab for patients with severe psoriasis on HD. A 46-year-old Japanese man with a 14-year history of psoriasis was referred to our clinic in September 2009. He had developed hypertension and renal failure during a 7-year history of cyclosporin treatment. With the infliximab treatment, he achieved 75% improvement of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score within 3 months from the PASI of 42.3 before the treatment. However, his renal failure gradually deteriorated, and HD was initiated at 1 year after the introduction of infliximab. Because of hydration during the i.v. injection of infliximab, he developed pulmonary edema with every infliximab treatment after starting HD. We switched to ustekinumab treatment, but his psoriasis was not improved. Then, we switched to adalimumab and achieved a PASI-100 response within 2 months. The patient received adalimumab treatment for more than a year without any adverse effects. In addition to our case, five articles reported cases of psoriasis patients with renal failure on HD who were treated with biologics. The psoriatic lesions were improved by biologics in these cases, and no severe adverse effects on the renal function were reported. Thus, biologics are a reasonable treatment option for patients with severe psoriasis with renal failure on HD. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Large-scale implementation of disease control programmes: a cost-effectiveness analysis of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net distribution channels in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya-a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Elvis; Were, Vincent; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Niessen, Louis; Buff, Ann M; Kariuki, Simon

    2016-11-21

    Historically, Kenya has used various distribution models for long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) with variable results in population coverage. The models presently vary widely in scale, target population and strategy. There is limited information to determine the best combination of distribution models, which will lead to sustained high coverage and are operationally efficient and cost-effective. Standardised cost information is needed in combination with programme effectiveness estimates to judge the efficiency of LLIN distribution models and options for improvement in implementing malaria control programmes. The study aims to address the information gap, estimating distribution cost and the effectiveness of different LLIN distribution models, and comparing them in an economic evaluation. Evaluation of cost and coverage will be determined for 5 different distribution models in Busia County, an area of perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya. Cost data will be collected retrospectively from health facilities, the Ministry of Health, donors and distributors. Programme-effectiveness data, defined as the number of people with access to an LLIN per 1000 population, will be collected through triangulation of data from a nationally representative, cross-sectional malaria survey, a cross-sectional survey administered to a subsample of beneficiaries in Busia County and LLIN distributors' records. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis will be used for the evaluation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a health-systems perspective, and cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated using bootstrapping techniques. The study has been evaluated and approved by Kenya Medical Research Institute, Scientific and Ethical Review Unit (SERU number 2997). All participants will provide written informed consent. The findings of this economic evaluation will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  17. A single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin that produces reduced food and water intake induces long-lasting expression of corticotropin-releasing factor, arginine vasopressin, and proopiomelanocortin in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bo-Hyun; Hong, Chang Gwun; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Shin, Seung Keon; Kang, Seungwoo; Lee, Kuem-Ju; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Min-Soo; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism by which a single administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) reduces food and water intake is unclear. We examined whether such a food and water intake-reducing single administration of TCDD induced changes in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), arginine vasopressin (AVP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression in rat brain. To observe time-dependent changes in these neuropeptides, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given TCDD (50 μg/kg) and terminated 1, 2, 4, or 7 days later. In addition, to observe dose-dependent changes in feeding and neuropeptides, rats were also given a range of TCDD doses (12.5, 25, or 50 μg/kg) and terminated 14 days later. TCDD suppressed food and water intake over 14 days in a dose-dependent manner. TCDD treatment also increased CRF and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus, respectively, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These increases were related to decreased food intake following TCDD administration. TCDD treatment increased AVP and CRF mRNA levels in the PVN, and these increases were related to decreased water intake. Interestingly, the increases in CRF, AVP and POMC expression were observed 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration. These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration

  18. Long-lasting spatial learning and memory impairments caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion associate with a dynamic change of HCN1/HCN2 expression in hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pan; Lu, Yun; Li, Changjun; Zhou, Mei; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; He, Zhi; Guo, Lianjun

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes learning and memory impairments and increases the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways, yet the mechanisms underlying the disease process remained unclear particularly in a temporal manner. We performed permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) to induce CCH. To determine whether hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are altered at different stages of cognitive impairment caused by CCH, adult male SD rats were randomly distributed into sham-operated 4, 8 and 12weeks group, 2VO 4, 8 and 12weeks group. Learning and memory performance were evaluated with Morris water maze (MWM) and long-term potentiation (LTP) was used to address the underlying synaptic mechanisms. Expression of NeuN, HCN1 and HCN2 in hippocampal CA1, DG and CA3 areas was quantified by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Our data showed that CCH induced a remarkable spatial learning and memory deficits in rats of 2VO 4, 8, and 12weeks group although neuronal loss only occurred after 4weeks of 2VO surgery in CA1. In addition, a significant reduction of HCN1 surface expression in CA1 was observed in the group that suffered 4weeks ischemia but neither 8 nor 12weeks. However, HCN2 surface expression in CA1 increased throughout the ischemia time-scales (4, 8 and 12w). Our findings indicate spatial learning and memory deficits in the CCH model are associated with disturbed HCN1 and HCN2 surface expression in hippocampal CA1. The altered patterns of both HCN1 and HCN2 surface expression may be implicated in the early stage (4w) of spatial learning and memory impairments; and the stable and long-lasting impairments of spatial learning and memory may partially attribute to the up-regulated HCN2 surface expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV risk perception and testing behaviours among men having sex with men (MSM reporting potential transmission risks in the previous 12 months from a large online sample of MSM living in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Marcus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing and serostatus awareness are essential to implement biomedical strategies (treatment as prevention; oral chemoprophylaxis, and for effective serostatus-based behaviours (HIV serosorting; strategic positioning. The analysis focuses on the associations between reported sexual risks, the perceived risk for HIV infection, and HIV testing behaviour in order to identify the most relevant barriers for HIV test uptake among MSM living in Germany. Methods MSM were recruited to a nationwide anonymous online-survey in 2013 on MSM social networking/dating sites. Questions covered testing behaviours, reasons for testing decisions, and HIV risk perception (5-point scale. Additional questions addressed arguments in favour of home/ home collection testing (HT. Using descriptive statistics and logistic regression we compared men reporting recent HIV testing (RT; previous 12 month with men never tested (NT in a subsample not previously diagnosed with HIV and reporting ≥2 episodes of condomless anal intercourse (CLAI with a non-steady partner of unknown HIV serostatus in the previous 12 months. Results The subsample consisted of 775 RT (13 % of RT and 396 NT (7 % of NT. The number of CLAI episodes in the last 12 months with non-steady partners of unknown HIV status did not differ significantly between the groups, but RT reported significantly higher numbers of partners (>5 AI partners: 65 vs. 44 %. While perceived risks regarding last AI were comparable between the groups, 49vs. 30 % NT were <30 years, lived more often in towns/villages <100,000 residents (60 vs. 39 %, were less out-particularly towards care providers-about being attracted to men (aOR 10.1; 6.9–14.8, more often identified as bisexual (aOR 3.5; 2.5–4.8, and reported lower testing intentions (aOR 0.08; 0.06–0.11. Perceived risks (67 % and routine testing (49 % were the most common testing reasons for RT, while the strong belief not to be infected

  20. Estimation of insecticide persistence, biological activity and mosquito resistance to PermaNet® 2 long-lasting insecticidal nets over three to 32 months of use in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshebo, Gedeon Yohannes; Graves, Patricia M; Smith, Stephen C; Wills, Aprielle B; Damte, Mesele; Endeshaw, Tekola; Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Gebre, Teshome; Mosher, Aryc W; Patterson, Amy E; Emerson, Paul M

    2014-03-06

    Information is needed on the expected durability of insecticidal nets under operational conditions. The persistence of insecticidal efficacy is important to estimate the median serviceable life of nets under field conditions and to plan for net replacement. Deltamethrin residue levels were evaluated by the proxy method of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on 189 nets used for three to six months from nine sites, 220 nets used for 14-20 months from 11 sites, and 200 nets used for 26-32 months from ten sites in Ethiopia. A random sample of 16.5-20% of nets from each time period (total 112 of 609 nets) were tested by bioassay with susceptible mosquitoes, and nets used for 14-20 months and 26-32 months were also tested with wild caught mosquitoes. Mean insecticide levels estimated by X-ray fluorescence declined by 25.9% from baseline of 66.2 (SD 14.6) mg/m2 at three to six months to 44.1 (SD 21.2) mg/m2 at 14-20 months and by 30.8% to 41.1 (SD 18.9) mg/m2 at 26-32 months. More than 95% of nets retained greater than 10 mg/m2 of deltamethrin and over 79% had at least 25 mg/m2 at all time periods. By bioassay with susceptible Anopheles, mortality averaged 89.0% on 28 nets tested at three to six months, 93.3% on 44 nets at 14-20 months and 94.1% on 40 nets at 26-32 months. With wild caught mosquitoes, mortality averaged 85.4% (range 79.1 to 91.7%) at 14-20 months but had dropped significantly to 47.2% (39.8 to 54.7%) at 26-32 months. Insecticide residue level, as estimated by X-ray fluorescence, declined by about one third between three and six months and 14-20 months, but remained relatively stable and above minimum requirements thereafter up to 26-32 months. The insecticidal activity of PermaNet® 2.0 long-lasting insecticidal nets in the specified study area may be considered effective to susceptible mosquitoes at least for the duration indicated in this study (32 months). However, results indicated that resistance in the wild population is already rendering nets with

  1. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  2. Validation of previously reported predictors for radiation-induced hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy, a post hoc analysis from a Phase III randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertbutsayanukul, Chawalit; Kitpanit, Sarin; Prayongrat, Anussara; Kannarunimit, Danita; Netsawang, Buntipa; Chakkabat, Chakkapong

    2018-05-10

    This study aimed to validate previously reported dosimetric parameters, including thyroid volume, mean dose, and percentage thyroid volume, receiving at least 40, 45 and 50 Gy (V40, V45 and V50), absolute thyroid volume spared (VS) from 45, 50 and 60 Gy (VS45, VS50 and VS60), and clinical factors affecting the development of radiation-induced hypothyroidism (RHT). A post hoc analysis was performed in 178 euthyroid nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients from a Phase III study comparing sequential versus simultaneous-integrated boost intensity-modulated radiation therapy. RHT was determined by increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with or without reduced free thyroxin, regardless of symptoms. The median follow-up time was 42.5 months. The 1-, 2- and 3-year freedom from RHT rates were 78.4%, 56.4% and 43.4%, respectively. The median latency period was 21 months. The thyroid gland received a median mean dose of 53.5 Gy. Female gender, smaller thyroid volume, higher pretreatment TSH level (≥1.55 μU/ml) and VS60 treatment planning.

  3. Sedimentary facies analysis of a high-frequency, small-scale, peritidal carbonate sequence in the Lower Jurassic of the Tripolis carbonate unit (central western Crete, Greece: Long-lasting emergence and fossil laminar dolocretes horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotini A. Pomoni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines a Lower Jurassic (late Liassic cyclic lagoonal–peritidal stratigraphic unit outcropping in central western Crete (Tripolis unit, which corresponds to the eastern (internal part of the mainland Gavrovo-Tripolis platform, the most significant external platform of the Hellenides. The studied Tripolis carbonate sequence consists of meter-scale, shallowing-upward successions of restricted inner-carbonate platform facies, including cyclically repeated subtidal, intertidal and supratidal facies, that are separated by erosion surfaces (elementary cycles. Each cycle starts with relatively open-marine facies, which are overlain by shallower, more restricted facies (tidal flat progradation. The lithofacies association includes dolomitic intraclastic–peloidal–bioclastic wackestones–packstones/floatstones and grainstones/rudstones dominated by a restricted shallow-marine fauna (bivalves, gastropods, ostracods and seldom benthic foraminifers, representing a shallow subtidal to intertidal, moderately high-energy environment within an inner-platform setting (peritidal environment to restricted lagoon. This lithofacies association has been intermittently subaerially exposed and has undergone diagenetic processes in an inter- or supratidal environment, exhibiting features of vadose diagenesis and pedogenesis due to long-lasting exposure along certain horizons. The peritidal facies are capped by dolocretes controlled by root-activities (laminar dolocretes, peloidal–pisoid dolocretes and massive dolocretes, marking the end of each depositional cycle, and, thus, distinguishing the successive episodes of a prolonged subaerial exposure period and birth of paleosol horizons. Dolocretes consist a diagenetic facies, characterized by several vadose and pedogenic fabrics, including fenestral cavities with geopetal structures, “flower spar” to blocky sparry cement in primary pores, micritic coatings, crudely pelleted walls, alveolar

  4. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  5. The influence of general anesthesia on the brain in aged patients with previous ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Yasuaki; Kayama, Takamasa; Kondo, Rei; Oki, Masato; Takaoka, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    following total gastrectomy. Except for various surgeries performed under general anesthesia with long-lasting hypotension and hypocapnia, general anesthesia has no effect on the brain in aged patients with previous ischemic cerebrovascular disease without occlusion or severe stenosis of the main artery in the brain. (author)

  6. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  7. Posesión, retención y uso de mosquiteros tratados con insecticidas de larga duración luego de un año de su distribución en Loreto, Perú Long-lasting insecticide - treated bednet ownership, retention and usage one year after their distribution in Loreto, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Rosas-Aguirre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la posesión, retención y uso de mosquiteros tratados con insecticida de larga duración (MTILD luego de un año de su distribución en Loreto, Perú. Materiales y métodos. De julio a septiembre de 2007 se distribuyeron 26 185 MTILD Olyset Net® en 194 comunidades objetivo de Loreto, que protegieron a 45 331 personas. Posteriormente, se realizaron visitas de monitoreo (primera en diciembre de 2007 y segunda en julio de 2008 a los hogares de una muestra de 60 comunidades objetivo (30,9% del total, colectándose mediante un cuestionario semiestructurado los datos necesarios para el cálculo de indicadores de posesión, retención y uso de los MTILD. Resultados. En ambas visitas, la posesión de MTILD en hogares fue elevada (99,9% y 98,7%, respectivamente. La razón MTILD/persona disminuyó de 0,58 al momento de la distribución a 0,51 en la segunda visita, estimándose una retención al año de MTILD de 87%. En la primera visita, 99,0% de los niños Objectives. To assess long-lasting insecticide - treated bednet (LLITN ownership, retention and usage one year after their distribution in Loreto, Peru. Materials and methods. From July to September 2007, 26,185 LLITNs Olyset Net ® were delivered in 194 targeted communities in the Peruvian Amazon region, covering 45,331 people. Two cross-sectional community-based surveys in December 2007 and July 2008 were undertaken in a sample of 60 targeted communities (30.9% out of the total. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect necessary data to calculate LLITN ownership, retention and usage indicators. Results. High LLITN household ownership was showed in both surveys (99.9% and 98.7%, respectively. LLITN/ person ratio decreased from 0.58 at the end of the LLITN delivery to 0.51 in the second survey, estimating LLITN retention of 87% after 1 year of intervention. In the first survey, 99.0% of all children <5 years and 96,0% of pregnant women slept under a LLITN the previous

  8. The Effects of the SUN Project on Teacher Knowledge and Self-Efficacy Regarding Biological Energy Transfer Are Significant and Long-Lasting: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives. These materials were designed to help learners understand why electrons move in a hydrogen explosion and hydrogen fuel cell, so they could ultimately understand the rationale for energy transfer in the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. High school biology teachers attended a 2-wk Students Understanding eNergy (SUN) workshop during a randomized controlled trial. These treatment group teachers then took hydrogen fuel cells, manipulatives, and other materials into their regular biology classrooms. In this paper, we report significant gains in teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer in the treatment group versus randomized controls. Significant effects on treatment group teacher knowledge and self-efficacy were found not only post–SUN workshop but even 1 yr later. Teacher knowledge was measured with both a multiple-choice exam and a drawing with a written explanation. Teacher confidence in their ability to teach biological energy transfer was measured by a modified form of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, In-Service A. Professional development implications regarding this topic are discussed. PMID:23737635

  9. A case report of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy left-side gastropexy to resolve a recurrent gastric dilatation in a dog previously treated with right-side gastropexy for gastric dilatation volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Giuseppe; Cinti, Filippo; Pietra, Marco; Capitani, Ombretta; Valentini, Simona

    2014-12-01

    A 6-year-old, large-breed, female dog was evaluated for gastric dilatation (GD). The dog was affected by GD volvulus, which had been surgically treated with gastric derotation and right incisional gastropexy. Recurrence of GD appeared 36 hours after surgery. The dilatation was immediately treated with an orogastric probe but still recurred 4 times. Therefore, a left-side gastropexy by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed to prevent intermittent GD. After PEG tube placement, the patient recovered rapidly without side effects. Several techniques of gastropexy have been described as a prophylactic method for gastric dilatation volvulus, but to the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of left-sided PEG gastropexy performed in a case of canine GD recurrence after an incisional right gastropexy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Can the collection of expired long-lasting insecticidal nets reduce their coverage and use? Sociocultural aspects related to LLIN life cycle management and use in four districts in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanantsoa, Ambinina; Wilson-Barthes, Marta; Rahenintsoa, Rindra; Hoibak, Sarah; Ranaivoharimina, Harilala; Rahelimalala, Martha Delphine; Rakotomanga, Avotiana; Finlay, Alyssa; Muela Ribera, Joan; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2017-10-10

    There is growing awareness of the likely impact increased numbers of LLINs will have on the environment, if not disposed of or recycled appropriately. As part of a World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) pilot study to assess environmentally-sound and cost-effective LLIN recycling strategies, the USAID-Deliver Project collected 22,559 used bed nets in Madagascar. A social science study was conducted to provide data on socio-cultural factors related to collection and replacement of LLINs, including impact on primary and other net uses. Ethnographic exploratory research was carried out following the pilot USAID-Deliver net collection and recycling campaign in Betioky, Tsihombe, Fenerive Est and Ambanja districts of Madagascar, triangulating participant observation, interviewing and group discussions. Sampling was theoretical and data analysis was a continuous and iterative process concurrent to data collection. Final analysis was conducted using NVivo10. The following themes emerged as contributing to the success of collecting expired LLINs in the community for recycling purposes: (i) net adequacy and preference: characteristic differences between collected and newly distributed nets lead to communities' reticence to relinquish old nets before confirming new nets were appropriate for intended use. Where newly distributed nets failed to meet local requirements, this was expected to increase alternative uses and decrease household turn over. (ii) Net collection strategies: the net collection campaign brought net use out of the private sphere and into the public arena. Net owners reported feeling ashamed when presenting damaged nets in public for collection, leading to reduced net relinquishment. (iii) Net lifecycle: communities perceived nets as being individually owned and economic value was attributed both to good-condition nets for sleeping and to worn nets for alternative/secondary purposes. Collecting nets at the stage of

  11. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  12. Quality of life with palbociclib plus fulvestrant in previously treated hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: patient-reported outcomes from the PALOMA-3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, N; Iyer, S; Turner, N; Cristofanilli, M; Ro, J; André, F; Loi, S; Verma, S; Iwata, H; Bhattacharyya, H; Puyana Theall, K; Bartlett, C H; Loibl, S

    2016-06-01

    In the PALOMA-3 study, palbociclib plus fulvestrant demonstrated improved progression-free survival compared with fulvestrant plus placebo in hormone receptor-positive, HER2- endocrine-resistant metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This analysis compared patient-reported outcomes (PROs) between the two treatment groups. Patients were randomized 2 : 1 to receive palbociclib 125 mg/day orally for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off (n = 347) plus fulvestrant (500 mg i.m. per standard of care) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 174). PROs were assessed on day 1 of cycles 1-4 and of every other subsequent cycle starting with cycle 6 using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and its breast cancer module, QLQ-BR23. High scores (range 0-100) could indicate better functioning/quality of life (QoL) or worse symptom severity. Repeated-measures mixed-effect analyses were carried out to compare on-treatment overall scores and changes from baseline between treatment groups while controlling for baseline. Between-group comparisons of time to deterioration in global QoL and pain were made using an unstratified log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model. Questionnaire completion rates were high at baseline and during treatment (from baseline to cycle 14, ≥95.8% in each group completed ≥1 question on the EORTC QLQ-C30). On treatment, estimated overall global QoL scores significantly favored the palbociclib plus fulvestrant group [66.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 64.5-67.7 versus 63.0, 95% CI 60.6-65.3; P = 0.0313]. Significantly greater improvement from baseline in pain was also observed in this group (-3.3, 95% CI -5.1 to -1.5 versus 2.0, 95% CI -0.6 to 4.6; P = 0.0011). No significant differences were observed for other QLQ-BR23 functioning domains, breast or arm symptoms. Treatment with palbociclib plus fulvestrant significantly delayed deterioration in global QoL (P < 0.025) and pain (P < 0.001) compared with fulvestrant alone. Palbociclib plus fulvestrant allowed patients to maintain good Qo

  13. A long-lasting wireless stimulator for small mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D Hentall

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The chronic effects of electrical stimulation in unrestrained awake rodents are best studied with a wireless neural stimulator that can operate unsupervised for several weeks or more. A robust, inexpensive, easily built, cranially implantable stimulator was developed to explore the restorative effects of brainstem stimulation after neurotrauma. Its connectorless electrodes directly protrude from a cuboid epoxy capsule containing all circuitry and power sources. This physical arrangement prevents fluid leaks or wire breakage and also simplifies and speeds implantation. Constant-current pulses of high compliance (34 volts are delivered from a step-up voltage regulator under microprocessor control. A slowly pulsed magnetic field controls activation state and stimulation parameters. Program status is signaled to a remote reader by interval-modulated infrared pulses. Capsule size is limited by the two batteries. Silver oxide batteries rated at 8 milliamp-hours were used routinely in 8 mm wide, 15 mm long and 4 mm high capsules. Devices of smaller contact area (5 by 12 mm but taller (6 mm were created for mice. Microstimulation of the rat’s raphe nuclei with intermittent 5-minute (50% duty cycle trains of 30 µA, 1 ms pulses at 8 or 24 Hz frequency during 12 daylight hours lasted 21.1 days ±0.8 (mean ± standard error, Kaplan-Meir censored estimate, n=128. Extended lifetimes (>6 weeks, no failures, n=16 were achieved with larger batteries (44 milliamp-hours in longer (18 mm, taller (6 mm capsules. The circuit and electrode design are versatile; simple modifications allowed durable constant-voltage stimulation of the rat’s sciatic nerve through a cylindrical cathode from a subcutaneous pelvic capsule. Devices with these general features can address in small mammals many of the biological and technical questions arising neurosurgically with prolonged peripheral or deep brain stimulation.

  14. INFLUENCE OF LONG LASTING FREEZING TO BAKING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šmitalová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodstuff adapted by freezing is able to use for final setting immediately and its important contribution is sparing of working action and time connected to their next setting in our households or in catering corporations. In frame of this topic some baking experiment were realized with application of the main component – smooth wheat flour T 650 and the raw yeasting. It was monitored the baking quality of loafs made of fresh dough and loafs made of dough which was frozen one, two, three, four, five, six and nine months in -18°C. The biggest decline of the quality of bread made from frozen dough was monitored right after the first month. Decline of its size was 19.0%. Strong decline of size was monitored after five months (18.1% and after six months of storage in freezer (23.8%. Decline of baking quality during storage was mainly caused by declining activity of yeasts and by the loss of their yeasty ability. These conditions cased gradual decline of the solidity of the dough.

  15. Binding of long-lasting local anesthetics to lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoit, Jean-Xavier; Le Guen, Régine; Beloeil, Hélène; Benhamou, Dan

    2009-02-01

    Rapid infusion of lipid emulsion has been proposed to treat local anesthetic toxicity. The authors wanted to test the buffering properties of two commercially available emulsions made of long- and of long- and medium-chain triglycerides. Using the shake-flask method, the authors measured the solubility and binding of racemic bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine to diluted Intralipid (Fresenius Kabi, Paris, France) and Medialipide (B-Braun, Boulogne, France). The apparent distribution coefficient expressed as the ratio of mole fraction was 823 +/- 198 and 320 +/- 65 for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively, at 500 mg in the Medialipide/buffer emulsion; and 1,870 +/- 92 and 1,240 +/- 14 for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively, in the Intralipid/buffer emulsion. Decreasing the pH from 7.40 to 7.00 of the Medialipide/buffer emulsion led to a decrease in ratio of molar concentration from 121 +/- 3.8 to 46 +/- 2.8 for bupivacaine, and to a lesser extent from 51 +/- 4.0 to 31 +/- 1.6 for ropivacaine. The capacity of the 1% emulsions was 871 and 2,200 microM for the 1% Medialipide and Intralipid emulsions, respectively. The dissociation constant was 818 and 2,120 microM for racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine, respectively. Increasing the temperature from 20 to 37 degrees C led to a greater increase in affinity for ropivacaine (55%) than for bupivacaine (27%). When the pH of the buffer was decreased from 7.40 to 7.00, the affinity was decreased by a factor of 1.68, similar for both anesthetics. The solubility of long-acting local anesthetics in lipid emulsions and the high capacity of binding of these emulsions most probably explain their clinical efficacy in case of toxicity. The long-chain triglyceride emulsion Intralipid appears to be about 2.5 times more efficacious than the 50/50 medium-chain/long-chain Medialipide emulsion. Also, because of their higher hydrophobicity, racemic bupivacaine and levobupivacaine seem to clear more rapidly than ropivacaine.

  16. Replacement of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets in Malarious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Microwave Synthesis of a Long-Lasting Phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filhol, Jean-Sebastien; Zitoun, David; Bernaud, Laurent; Manteghetti, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Efficient glow-in-the-dark materials are usually difficult to synthesize and need complex experiments with long reaction times that are not appropriate for conventional lab teaching. Therefore, we describe a new experimental procedure that allows the production of one of the most efficient "glow-in-the-dark" materials (SrAl[subscript 2]O[subscript…

  18. Radio-labelling of long-lasting erythropoietin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guoxia; Zeng Xianyin; Bao Lun; Xu Xiankun; Chen Zhiyu; Liu Xianyi

    2004-01-01

    The study is designed to investigate the labelling of LL-EPO, purification of labelled compound, and therefore, to prepare the labelled LL-EPO with high purity and biological activity. LL-EPO was labelled with 125 I by the common used chloramine-T and the modified two-phase chloramine-T method, respectively. The labelled compound was purified by both gel filtration and ultrafiltration method, respectively. The purity of the labelled LL-EPO was determined by both trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and SDS-PAGE method, and the biological activity was determined by the reticulocyte counting method. The results demonstrated that the iodine incorporation and specific radioactivities were 89% and 5.82 x 10 5 Bq·μg -1 for LL-EPO labelled by the modified two-phase chloramine-T method and were 20.65% and 3.62 x 10 5 Bq·μg -1 for LL-EPO labelled by the common used chloramine-T method, respectively. The purity of labelled LL-EPO purified by both gel filtration and ultrafiltration were over 96% with TCA method purification. The labelled LL-EPO showed two bands with Rf of 0.28 and 0.49, respectively, which is identical to that of standard LL-EPO through SDS-PAGE. There was no loss of biological activity of LL-EPO after labelling as determined by reticulocyte counting method

  19. Nicotine Modulates the Long-Lasting Storage of Fear Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ramon H.; Radiske, Andressa; Kohler, Cristiano A.; Gonzalez, Maria Carolina; Bevilaqua, Lia R.; Rossato, Janine I.; Medina, Jorge H.; Cammarota, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Late post-training activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-hippocampus dopaminergic loop controls the entry of information into long-term memory (LTM). Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) modulate VTA function, but their involvement in LTM storage is unknown. Using pharmacological and behavioral tools, we found that…

  20. Etc. The Long-Lasting Defining Device: Unravelling the Mysteryi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    It is used on a large scale in monolingual dictionaries for native speakers and ..... self-taught: having learned a skill or subject by reading about it, practising it, etc. .... synthesis: the act of combining separate ideas, beliefs, styles, etc.; a mixture or ..... safeguard: a law, rule, plan, etc. that protects someone or sth from harm or ...

  1. Is Case Management Effective for Long-Lasting Suicide Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Wu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2015-01-01

    Case management services have been implemented in suicide prevention programs. To investigate whether case management is an effective strategy for reducing the risks of repeated suicide attempts and completed suicides in a city with high suicide rates in northern Taiwan. The Suicide Prevention Center of Keelung City (KSPC) was established in April 2005. Subjects included a consecutive sample of individuals (N = 2,496) registered in KSPC databases between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, with at least one episode of nonfatal self-harm. Subjects were tracked for the duration of the study. Of all the subjects, 1,013 (40.6%) received case management services; 416 (16.7%) had at least one other deliberate self-harm episode and 52 (2.1%) eventually died by suicide. No significant differences were found in the risks of repeated self-harm and completed suicides between suicide survivors who received case management and those who refused the services. However, a significant reduction in suicide rates was found after KSPC was established. Findings suggest that case management services might not reduce the risks of suicide repetition among suicide survivors during long-term follow-up. Future investigation is warranted to determine factors impacting the downward trend of suicide rates.

  2. Long lasting effect of physical stress on the LVEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewinski, W.; Stefaniak, B.; Poniatowicz-Frasunek, E.; Tarkowska, A.

    2003-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have shown that exercise can deteriorate myocardial contractile function. The aim of this study was to examine whether the decrease of LVEF measured with gated SPECT lasts as long as 3 hours after exercise. 46 patients with CAD and a control group comprising 10 healthy subjects were studied. All patients underwent myocardial perfusion gated SPECT with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin at rest and during stress. SPECT was started 1 hour p.i. at rest and twice - 1 hour and 3 hours after injection at stress. LVEF values were calculated by the method of Germano, using QGS software. LVEF values measured at all time points were significantly lower in CAD patients than in control group. In normals mean LVEF values 1 h after rest injection were similar to those obtained 1 and 3 hours after stress injection (59.0 ± 4.1 v. 60.0 ± 5.9 v. 58.0 ± 4.6, respectively; p > 0.05). One hour post exercise a decrease of LVEF was observed in 2 patients and 3 hours after injection also in 2 patients. CAD subjects showed slightly lower LVEF values determined 1h after stress than 1 hour after rest injection (50.8 ± 13.6 v. 49.3 ± 12.8; p < 0.05). More expressed reduction of LVEF was observed 3 hours after stress injection as compared to both rest and stress study (50.8 ± 13.6 v. 46.0 ± 12.2; p < 0.001 and 49.3 ± 12.8 v. 6.0 ± 12.2; p < 0.001, respectively). One hour post exercise, a decrease of LVEF values was observed in 18 patients and 3 hours after injection in 36 patients out of 46. In the majority of patients with CAD physical stress applied for the purposes of myocardial perfusion SPECT study results in an impairment of the LV function. The impairment of the LVEF caused by physical stress is observed 1 hour after exercise, but it increases markedly in frequency and grows stronger during the next 2 hours. Patients with CAD who underwent cardiac examination connected with physical stress should remain under observation for several hours after termination of exercise. (author)

  3. Microcapsules: Reverse Sonoporation and Long-lasting, Safe Contrast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, Steven; Dicker, Stephen; Small, Eleanor; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Hahn, Stephan A.; Mleczko, Michał; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg

    We present a novel vehicle designed to serve the dual roles of enhanced ultrasound contrast and ultrasound-triggered drug delivery. The vehicle is comprised of a microcapsule that is filled with water in whose aqueous core a population of freely floating, phospholipid-coated microbubbles is suspended. At ultrasound intensities below the inertial cavitation threshold of the microbubbles, the microbubbles provide enhanced ultrasound contrast. The measured contrast is comparable in strength with SonoVue®. Encapsulation of microbubbles within microcapsules putatively eliminates - or at least significantly slows - dissolution of gas in the bulk aqueous medium, thereby avoiding disappearance of microbubbles that would otherwise occur due to pressure-induced gas diffusion across the surfactant monolayer coating the microbubble-water interface. Results suggest that our vehicle might provide longer lasting contrast in a clinical setting. We demonstrate that encapsulation of the microbubbles within microcapsules causes at least a doubling of the ultrasound intensity necessary to induce inertial cavitation. Moreover, no cell death was observed when cells were insonified in the presence of microbubble-containing microcapsules, whereas appreciable cell death occurs with unencapsulated microbubbles. These results point toward a potential safety benefit during ultrasound contrast imaging by using encapsulated microbubbles. Studies are underway to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound-triggered release of drug from the microcapsules, owing to inertial- or stable-cavitation, or both. Whereas leakage from polymeric microcapsule shells, such as poly(lactic acid), seemingly requires shell rupture and is exceedingly difficult to achieve, leakage across a lipid bilayer microcapsule shells appears feasible. Leakage across a bilayer shell has the additional benefit that the leakage mechanism can be tuned via phase behavior (liquid-ordered versus liquid-disordered) and cavitation mechanism (stable versus inertial).

  4. Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) an

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin FAYYAZI; Ali KHAJEH; Hosein ESFAHANI

    2012-01-01

    Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) and probably secondary methemoglobinemia, following the ingestion of fava beans.

  5. The influence of previous low back trouble, general health, and working conditions on future sick-listing because of low back trouble. A 15-year follow-up study of risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing caused by low back trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C F; Monrad, T; Biering-Sørensen, F; Darre, E; Deis, A; Kryger, P

    1999-08-01

    A 15-year follow-up study. To find risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble and to evaluate which variables were the most important indicators of work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. The initial data were obtained from a health survey conducted in a general population from the Municipality of Glostrup, Denmark. The follow-up data included information from the Central Person Register, the Early Retirement Pension Register, and a postal questionnaire regarding self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble. An epidemiologic study, in which logistic regression analyses were used for evaluation of the data. The model used consisted of the variable in question, age, gender, and previous experience of low back trouble, along with interactions. It was found that 22 of 37 variables were risk indicators for later self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble during the preceding year or the 7 years before the date of follow-up evaluation. In analyzing the most significant variables simultaneously, it was found that information from the initial investigation about sick-listing in general during the previous 10 years, sciatic pain, use of analgesics for low back trouble, previous sick-listing because of low back trouble, and occupation were the most important risk indicators for self-reported work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. Findings showed that the strongest prognostic indicators of later sick-listing because of low back trouble involve information from the person about previous sick-listing behavior in general and previous experience of low back trouble episodes, especially if these had been accompanied by sciatic pain, use of analgesics, or previous low back trouble sick-listing.

  6. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  7. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  8. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  9. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  10. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  11. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  12. Avaliação eletromiográfica do músculo masseter em pessoas com paralisia facial periférica de longa duração Masseter muscle electromyographic assessment in subject with long lasting facial palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rahal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a atividade elétrica do músculo masseter em pessoas com paralisia facial periférica de longa duração. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo seis sujeitos de ambos os sexos, com paralisia facial há pelo menos doze meses, sem queixas mastigatórias e sem disfunção temporomandibular e com pelo menos seis dentes em cada hemiarcada. Todos preencheram um questionário de anamnese e em seguida foram submetidos à eletromiografia de superfície dos masseteres de ambos os lados. As provas eletromiográficas foram: posição habitual com lábios fechados, apertamento dentário, mastigação habitual e unilateral à direita e à esquerda com uva passa. RESULTADOS: em todas as provas eletromiográficas não foram observadas diferenças significantes (p=0,05 entre os lados com e sem paralisia facial. CONCLUSÃO: observou-se com o presente estudo que a força do músculo masseter não sofre influência da paralisia facial de longa duração.PURPOSE: to check the masseter electrical activity in long lasting facial paralysis patients. METHODS: six subjects, with facial paralysis for over a period of twelve months, males and females, took part in this study. Patients should not show any masticatory complaints or have any diagnoses of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction, having at least six teeth in each half dental ridge. All subjects filled out a questionnaire regarding oral habits and were assessed by surface electromyography of the masseter muscle of both sides. Electromyographic records were taken with lips closed at rest, teeth tightness, besides usual mastication, and unilateral mastication on both sides with raisins. RESULTS: in all electromyographic tests there were no statistically significant differences (p=0.05 between both sides, with and without facial paralysis. CONCLUSION: it was observed that the strength of the masseter muscle is not under the influence of long lasting facial paralysis.

  13. Previously undiagnosed hemophilia patient with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Atalay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial bleeding in hemophilia patients is a rare but a mortal complication. Diagnosis of hemophilia in adulthood is an uncommon occurrence. In this case report an adult patient with intracranial hemorrhage is presented.

  14. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  15. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  16. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  17. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  18. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ormary Barberi Ruiz; María Dolores Pesántez Palacios

    2017-01-01

    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  19. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  20. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  1. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormary Barberi Ruiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP of the National University of Education (UNAE of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials, pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subject nature of the pre professional practice and the demand of socio educational contexts where the practices have been emerging to resize them. By relating these elements allowed conceiving the modeling of the processes of the pre-professional practices for the development of professional skills of future teachers through four components: contextual projective, implementation (tutoring, accompaniment (teaching couple and monitoring (meetings at the beginning, during and end of practice. The initial training of teachers is inherent to teaching (academic and professional training, research and links with the community, these are fundamental pillars of Ecuadorian higher education.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  3. Low back pain in military recruits in relation to social background and previous low back pain. A cross-sectional and prospective observational survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidick Flemming

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally, studies on the etiology of low back pain have been carried out in adult populations. However, since low back pain often appears early in life, more research on young populations is needed. This study focuses on the importance of social background factors and previous low back pain in the development of low back pain in military recruits. Methods During a three-month period, Danish military recruits with different social backgrounds live and work under the same conditions. Thus, there is an opportunity to investigate the influence of social background on the development of low back pain, when persons are removed from their usual environment and submitted to a number of new stressors. In addition, the importance of the recruits' previous low back pain history in relation to low back pain during military service was studied. This was done by means of questionnaires to 1,711 recruits before and after this three-month period. Results Sedentary occupation was negatively associated with long-lasting low back pain (>30 days during the past year at baseline with an odds ratios of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.33–0.90. This effect vanished during service. Having parents with higher education increased the risk of low back pain during service (OR: 1.9;1.2–3.0, for the highest educated group, but not of the consequences (leg pain and exemption from duty, whereas high IQ decreased the risk of these consequences (odds ratios as low as 0.2;0.1–0.8 for exemption from duty in the group with highest IQ. Long-lasting low back pain prior to service increased the risk of long-lasting low back pain (OR: 4.8;2.1–10.8, leg pain (OR: 3.3;1.3–8.3 and exemption from duty during service (OR: 5.9;2.4–14.8. Conclusion Sedentary occupation is negatively associated with low back pain at baseline. This protective effect disappears, when the person becomes physically active. For predicting trouble related to the low back during service, the

  4. Evaluation report n.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, B.; Portal, R.

    2003-06-01

    The researches on radioactive waste management carried out in France according to the three ways of the 1991 law (separation and transmutation, deep geologic disposal, long lasting conditioning and storage), aim at offering a set of solutions than can be used partially or as a whole for the long living radioactive waste of high or medium activity. This 9. issue of the annual evaluation report of National Commission of Evaluation (CNE) makes a status of the advances of the researches in this domain. It is shared in 7 chapters dealing with: 1 - the activities of the CNE (scientific hearings and reports, meetings); 2 - the strategic trends and the researches (global strategic trends of nuclear energy development in France, 2003-2006 research strategies and programs, working groups, analysis of radionuclides hierarchization, studies of nuclear system scenarios, development of the Alliances common simulation tool, national inventory of radioactive wastes, containers, sanitary problems); 3 - researches on separation and transmutation (general framework, deep separation, transmutation fuels and targets, transmutation and hybrid systems, future reactors, Gedepeon working group); 4 - researches on deep geologic disposal (researches strategy and program, concept, modeling, status of 2001 studies and works, building of the Bure underground laboratory and program of researches, Forpro working group, Granite 2002 dossier, Andra's international collaborations); 5 - researches on wastes conditioning and long lasting storage of wastes and spent fuels (strategy and programs, glass matrices, new conditioning matrices for separate elements, containers and interfaces between disposal and storage, long-lasting storage); 6 - transverse working groups: Nomade, Practis and Momas; 7 - status of foreign researches and realizations (OECD coordinated researches, SAFIR 2 report (Belgium), international institutions). Five appendixes and a glossary complete the document. (J.S.)

  5. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  6. Changes in the dominance hierarchy of captive female Japanese macaques as a consequence of merging two previously established groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily J; Weladji, Robert B; Paré, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups. There was no significant correlation between individual ranks in the old groups (groups A and B) and their ranks in the new group (group AB), indicating a significant change in the hierarchy. Alliances between kin appeared to be important in determining rank; when the sister of the dominant female was removed from group AB, the hierarchy changed significantly a second time. The average standardized rank of individuals added later in the formation process of group AB was not different from those added earlier. Ranks in the group AB did correlate with age of individual at the beginning of the field season, but not at the end, after the shift in hierarchy occurred. Zoo management must be aware of the consequences small changes in a social group can have when removing and transferring individuals in both primates and in other social species. Zoo Biol. 35:505-512, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Early physical training improves long-lasting prognosis following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats%早期运动训练改善新生大鼠缺氧缺血性脑损伤远期预后的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏; 欧阳福连; 周细中; 方素珍; 蔡颖谦; 吴秋萍; 曾其毅

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨早期运动训练对新生大鼠缺氧缺血性脑损伤远期神经功能、病理改变、空间学习记忆能力、感觉运动功能、超微结构的影响. 方法 90只7d龄SD大鼠按随机数字表法分为康复组、对照组和假手术组,每组各30只.康复组和对照组制备成新生儿缺氧缺血性脑损伤模型,且康复组于缺氧缺血性脑损伤后7d开始每天给予抓握、旋转、行走、平衡等训练.4周后对各组大鼠进行神经功能评分,尼氏染色计数海马CA1区和皮层神经元数量,并检测突触素、c-fos表达水平;水迷宫及感觉运动功能测检测各组大鼠空间学习记忆能力和感觉运动功能,透射电镜观察海马和皮层突触和神经元超微结构变化. 结果 在运动训练时第14、21、28天康复组大鼠的神经功能评分和假手术组大鼠的神经功能评分均明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对照组大鼠左侧海马CA1区及皮层尼氏染色阳性神经元数目较康复组和假手术组明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).康复组大鼠海马CA1区和皮层突触素、c-fos表达水平明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).康复组大鼠空间学习记忆能力、皮层感觉运动功能均明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).透射电镜下显示对照组大鼠海马和皮层突触损伤严重,神经毡区突触减少,突触前膨大肿胀、轮廓不清晰,突触小泡溶解、空泡形成,突触后致密区变薄、薄厚不均,而康复组未见明显异常. 结论 早期运动训练可减少缺氧缺血性脑损伤后海马和皮层神经元损伤,增强突触可塑性,从而改善远期神经功能,突触素和c-fos在海马和皮层表达增强可能是其改善的机制之一.%Objective To investigate the effect of early physical training on long-lasting neurological function,pathology changes,spatial learning and memory abilities,sensorimotor function and

  8. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  9. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Richard; Kohles, Joseph D; Babbitt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT) of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV) ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP) use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p 90% at Month 10). In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.

  10. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  11. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously undiagnosed sickle cell hemoglobinopathy African child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen, Onakpoya Oluwatoyin; Ajite, K. O.; Oyelami, O. A.; Asaleye, C. M.; Adeoye, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    Bone infarction involving the orbit in sickle cell disease is not common. Bilateral orbital infarction in a previously undiagnosed sickle cell hemoglobinopathy has not been previously reported. In this report, we present a case of an 11-year-old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without previous history of sickle cell hemoglobinopathy. PMID:23901183

  12. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  13. First sternocostal degenerative arthritis with intrarticular fluid collection. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalazonitis, Athanasios N; Condilis, Nicolas; Tilentzoglou, Anastasia C; Pontikis, John; Tzovara, Joannie

    2006-01-01

    A rare case with clinical condition of first sternocostal degenerative arthritis with intra-articular fluid collection that developed after long-lasting intense exercise (weight-lifting) for twenty years is reported. Imaging findings and differential diagnoses of the case are presented.

  14. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  15. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  16. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  17. 77 FR 44113 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150... to the manufacturer. This action was prompted by a report from the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel...

  18. Azadirachtin poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyadurai, Ramya; Surekha, V; Sathyendra, Sowmya; Paul Wilson, Benny; Gopinath, K G

    2010-10-01

    The use of neem-based products is widespread in the Indian Subcontinent. Neem-based pesticides obtained from neem kernels are considered natural and safe. The toxic effects of ingestion and overdose of this pesticide in adults have not been described in this literature. We report the case of a 35-year-old lady who had consumed Azadirachtin in an attempt of deliberate self-harm. The patient had features of neurotoxicity because of Azadirachtin requiring intensive medical care with mechanical ventilation. The patient survived the overdose with no long-lasting side effects of the toxin.

  19. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  20. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  1. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  2. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  3. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  4. 75 FR 54215 - Agency Request for Approval of a Previously Approved Information Collection(s): Uniform...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... about our intention to request Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval to renew a previously... because of management and oversight responsibilities of the agency imposed by OMB Circular 2 CFR 215 (A... Department has terminated Financial Status Report (SF-269 and SF-269A) and Federal Cash Transactions Report...

  5. Report to the CCT on COOMET comparison COOMET.T-K3.1 (previously COOMET.T-S1): Key regional comparison of the national standards of temperature in the range from the triple point of water to the freezing point of zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhodun, A. I.

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the CIPM MRA, a first COOMET comparison "Comparison of the ITS-90 realizations in the range from 0.01 °C to 429.7485 °C (from the triple point of water to the freezing point of zinc)", registered in the KCDB under the identifier "COOMET.T-K3", was carried out in 2005-2007. Four national metrology institutes took part in this comparison: VNIIM (Russian Federation), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Republic of Belarus) and NSC IM (Ukraine), and two of them (VNIIM and SMU) ensured the linkage with key comparisons CCT-K3 and CCT-K4, in order to disseminate the metrological equivalence to the measurement standards of NSC IM and BelGIM. NSC IM, however, had to withdraw its results, and at the meeting of Technical Committee T-10 of COOMET it was decided to carry out a supplementary bilateral comparison between VNIIM and the NSC IM for realization of the ITS-90 in the same range of temperature. This was registered in the KCDB under the identifier COOMET.T-S1 and measurements were performed in 2008-2009. From the results presented in this report, it is possible to draw the conclusion that the COOMET supplementary comparison COOMET.T-S1 demonstrates the CMC uncertainties claimed by the NSC IM for the melting point of gallium 0.236 mK (k = 2), and the freezing points of indium 1.040 mK (k = 2), tin 0.858 mK (k = 2) and zinc 0.944 mK (k = 2). In September 2012 the Working Group on key Comparisons (WG 7) of the CCT upgraded this comparison to a COOMET key comparison of the 'CCT-K3' type. It is now identified as COOMET.T-K3.1. In April 2013 this report was superseded by item 03006 in the Technical Supplement of 2013. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  6. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  7. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  8. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  9. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  10. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  11. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  12. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  13. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  14. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  15. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  16. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  17. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  18. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  19. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  20. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  1. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  2. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted material. 154.302 Section 154.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... concurrently with the rate change filing. There must be furnished to the Director, Office of Energy Market...

  3. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  4. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  5. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  6. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  7. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  8. Upon Further Review: V. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Updated results are given for nine asteroids previously reported from the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO). The original images were re-measured to obtain new data sets using the latest version of MPO Canopus photometry software, analysis tools, and revised techniques for linking multiple observing runs covering several days to several weeks. Results that were previously not reported or were moderately different were found for 1659 Punkajarju, 1719 Jens, 1987 Kaplan, 2105 Gudy, 2961 Katsurahama, 3285 Ruth Wolfe, 3447 Burckhalter, 7816 Hanoi, and (34817) 2000 SE116. This is one in a series of papers that will examine results obtained during the initial years of the asteroid lightcurve program at PDO.

  9. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (P<0.001). No ECV-associated complications occurred in women with previous cesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  11. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed.

  12. Stewart-Treves syndrome – case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Koper

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Chronic lymphedema, mainly due to total mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection for breast cancer, can induce development of rare and highly malignant cutaneous angiosarcoma. This condition is called Stewart-Treves syndrome (STS. There are only about 400 cases of STS reported in the literature. The long-term prognosis is poor; 5-year survival is up to 10%. Limb amputation appears to be the treatment of choice. Objective . To present a case of Stewart-Treves syndrome with a fatal outcome, which developed 12 years after mastectomy with lymphadenectomy. Case report . A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our department for confluent purpuric macules, hemorrhagic blisters, and violaceous-black nodules, involving the whole left arm and forearm, with chronic severe lymphedema of the extremity. She had a history of left-sided breast cancer 12 years previously, treated with mastectomy with excision of axillary lymph nodes; subsequently, the failure of lymph drainage and lymph stasis developed. Histopathological examination of the tumor was consistent with angiosarcoma. The patient was disqualified from a surgical procedure due to the late stage of malignancy and died approximately a month later. Conclusions . Given unsatisfactory treatment options, the prevention of long-lasting lymphedema is crucial to improve prognosis of patients with breast cancer.

  13. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  14. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  15. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  16. Cytomegalovirus establishes a latent reservoir and triggers long-lasting inflammation in the eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Voigt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of Ebola and Zika have highlighted the possibility that viruses may cause enduring infections in tissues like the eye, including the neural retina, which have been considered immune privileged. Whether this is a peculiarity of exotic viruses remains unclear, since the impact of more common viral infections on neural compartments has not been examined, especially in immunocompetent hosts. Cytomegalovirus is a common, universally distributed pathogen, generally innocuous in healthy individuals. Whether in immunocompetent hosts cytomegalovirus can access the eye, and reside there indefinitely, was unknown. Using the well-established murine cytomegalovirus infection model, we show that systemic infection of immunocompetent hosts results in broad ocular infection, chronic inflammation and establishment of a latent viral pool in the eye. Infection leads to infiltration and accumulation of anti-viral CD8+ T cells in the eye, and to the development of tissue resident memory T cells that localize to the eye, including the retina. These findings identify the eye as an unexpected reservoir for cytomegalovirus, and suggest that common viruses may target this organ more frequently than appreciated. Notably, they also highlight that infection triggers sustained inflammatory responses in the eye, including the neural retina.

  17. On discrete stochastic processes with long-lasting time dependence in the variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, S. M. D.

    2008-11-01

    In this manuscript, we analytically and numerically study statistical properties of an heteroskedastic process based on the celebrated ARCH generator of random variables whose variance is defined by a memory of qm-exponencial, form (eqm=1 x=ex). Specifically, we inspect the self-correlation function of squared random variables as well as the kurtosis. In addition, by numerical procedures, we infer the stationary probability density function of both of the heteroskedastic random variables and the variance, the multiscaling properties, the first-passage times distribution, and the dependence degree. Finally, we introduce an asymmetric variance version of the model that enables us to reproduce the so-called leverage effect in financial markets.

  18. Architectural design of diamond-like carbon coatings for long-lasting joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2013-07-01

    Surface engineering through the application of super-hard, low-friction coatings as a potential approach for increasing the durability of metal-on-metal replacements is attracting significant attention. In this study innovative design strategies are proposed for the development of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings against the damage caused by wear particles on the joint replacements. Finite element modeling is used to analyze stress distributions induced by wear particles of different sizes in the newly-designed coating in comparison to its conventional monolithic counterpart. The critical roles of architectural design in regulating stress concentrations and suppressing crack initiation within the coatings is elucidated. Notably, the introduction of multilayer structure with graded modulus is effective in modifying the stress field and reducing the magnitude and size of stress concentrations in the DLC diamond-like-carbon coatings. The new design is expected to greatly improve the load-carrying ability of surface coatings on prosthetic implants, in addition to the provision of damage tolerance through crack arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-lasting repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates electroencephalography oscillation in patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Ziyuan; Yang, Yi; Guo, Yongkun; Xu, Ruxiang; Gao, Xiaorong; Li, Xiaoli; He, Jianghong

    2017-10-18

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied for the treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). Timely and accurate assessments of its modulation effects are very useful. This study evaluated rTMS modulation effects on electroencephalography (EEG) oscillation in patients with chronic DOC. Eighteen patients with a diagnosis of DOC lasting more than 3 months were recruited. All patients received one session of 10-Hz rTMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and then 12 of them received consecutive rTMS treatment everyday for 20 consecutive days. Resting-state EEGs were recorded before the experiment (T0) after one session of rTMS (T1) and after the entire treatment (T2). The JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised scale scores were also recorded at the time points. Our data showed that application of 10-Hz rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex decreased low-frequency band power and increased high-frequency band power in DOC patients, especially in minimal conscious state patients. Considering the correlation of the EEG spectrum with the consciousness level of patients with DOC, quantitative EEG might be useful for assessment of the effect of rTMS in DOC patients.

  20. A memory like a female Fur Seal: long-lasting recognition of pup's voice by mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mathevon

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In colonial mammals like fur seals, mutual vocal recognition between mothers and their pup is of primary importance for breeding success. Females alternate feeding sea-trips with suckling periods on land, and when coming back from the ocean, they have to vocally find their offspring among numerous similar-looking pups. Young fur seals emit a 'mother-attraction call' that presents individual characteristics. In this paper, we review the perceptual process of pup's call recognition by Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis mothers. To identify their progeny, females rely on the frequency modulation pattern and spectral features of this call. As the acoustic characteristics of a pup's call change throughout the lactation period due to the growing process, mothers have thus to refine their memorization of their pup's voice. Field experiments show that female Fur Seals are able to retain all the successive versions of their pup's call.Em mamíferos coloniais como as focas, o reconhecimento vocal mútuo entre as mães e seu filhote é de importância primordial para o sucesso reprodutivo. As fêmeas alternam viagens de alimentação no mar com períodos de amamentação em terra e, quando voltam à colônia, elas devem achar vocalmente seu filhote no meio de muitos outros visualmente semelhantes. As jovens focas emitem um ''grito de atração da mãe'' que apresenta características individuais. Examinamos aqui o processo perceptual do reconhecimento do grito do filhote pela mãe numa população sub-antártica da foca Arctocephalus tropicalis. Para identificar seu filhote as fêmeas se baseiam no padrão da freqüência de modulação e outras características espectrais deste grito. Como os parâmetros acústicos do grito de um filhote mudam ao longo do período de amamentação por causa do seu crescimento, as mães precisam de uma memorização refinada da voz de seu filhote. Experiências de campo mostram que as fêmeas desta espécie são capazes de se lembrar de todas as versões sucessivas do grito de seu filhote.

  1. A memory like a female Fur Seal: long-lasting recognition of pup's voice by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevon, Nicolas; Charrier, Isabelle; Aubin, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    In colonial mammals like fur seals, mutual vocal recognition between mothers and their pup is of primary importance for breeding success. Females alternate feeding sea-trips with suckling periods on land, and when coming back from the ocean, they have to vocally find their offspring among numerous similar-looking pups. Young fur seals emit a 'mother-attraction call' that presents individual characteristics. In this paper, we review the perceptual process of pup's call recognition by Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis mothers. To identify their progeny, females rely on the frequency modulation pattern and spectral features of this call. As the acoustic characteristics of a pup's call change throughout the lactation period due to the growing process, mothers have thus to refine their memorization of their pup's voice. Field experiments show that female Fur Seals are able to retain all the successive versions of their pup's call.

  2. Cocaine Self-Administration Produces Long-Lasting Alterations in Dopamine Transporter Responses to Cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Fordahl, Steve C.; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by uncontrolled cocaine intake, which is thought to be driven, at least in part, by cocaine-induced deficits in dopamine system function. A decreased ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine levels has been repeatedly observed as a consequence of cocaine use in humans, and preclinical work has highlighted tolerance to cocaine's effects as a primary determinant in the development of aberrant cocaine taking behaviors. Her...

  3. Short Lives with Long-Lasting Effects: Filopodia Protrusions in Neuronal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leondaritis

    Full Text Available The branching behaviors of both dendrites and axons are part of a neuronal maturation process initiated by the generation of small and transient membrane protrusions. These are highly dynamic, actin-enriched structures, collectively called filopodia, which can mature in neurons to form stable branches. Consequently, the generation of filopodia protrusions is crucial during the formation of neuronal circuits and involves the precise control of an interplay between the plasma membrane and actin dynamics. In this issue of PLOS Biology, Hou and colleagues identify a Ca2+/CaM-dependent molecular machinery in dendrites that ensures proper targeting of branch formation by activation of the actin nucleator Cobl.

  4. Rapid Water Transport by Long-Lasting Modon Eddy Pairs in the Southern Midlatitude Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Miller, Peter I.

    2017-12-01

    Water in the ocean is generally carried with the mean flow, mixed by eddies, or transported westward by coherent eddies at speeds close to the long baroclinic Rossby wave speed. Modons (dipole eddy pairs) are a theoretically predicted exception to this behavior, which can carry water to the east or west at speeds much larger than the Rossby wave speed, leading to unusual transports of heat, nutrients, and carbon. We provide the first observational evidence of such rapidly moving modons propagating over large distances. These modons are found in the midlatitude oceans around Australia, with one also seen in the South Atlantic west of the Agulhas region. They can travel at more than 10 times the Rossby wave speed of 1-2 cm s-1 and typically persist for about 6 months carrying their unusual water mass properties with them, before splitting into individual vortices, which can persist for many months longer.

  5. Long-lasting neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to xylene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viabili...... are planned to investigate whether neurobehavioral effects resulting from prenatal xylene exposure can interact with neurophysiological aging processes. (C) 1997 Inter Press, Inc....

  6. Brain 18F-FDG PET Metabolic Abnormalities in Patients with Long-Lasting Macrophagic Myofascitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Gucht, Axel; Aoun Sebaiti, Mehdi; Guedj, Eric; Aouizerate, Jessie; Yara, Sabrina; Gherardi, Romain K; Evangelista, Eva; Chalaye, Julia; Cottereau, Anne-Ségolène; Verger, Antoine; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Abulizi, Mukedaisi; Itti, Emmanuel; Authier, François-Jérôme

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize brain metabolic abnormalities in patients with macrophagic myofascitis (MMF) and the relationship with cognitive dysfunction through the use of PET with 18 F-FDG. Methods: 18 F-FDG PET brain imaging and a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests were performed in 100 consecutive MMF patients (age [mean ± SD], 45.9 ± 12 y; 74% women). Images were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM12). Through the use of analysis of covariance, all 18 F-FDG PET brain images of MMF patients were compared with those of a reference population of 44 healthy subjects similar in age (45.4 ± 16 y; P = 0.87) and sex (73% women; P = 0.88). The neuropsychological assessment identified 4 categories of patients: those with no significant cognitive impairment ( n = 42), those with frontal subcortical (FSC) dysfunction ( n = 29), those with Papez circuit dysfunction ( n = 22), and those with callosal disconnection ( n = 7). Results: In comparison with healthy subjects, the whole population of patients with MMF exhibited a spatial pattern of cerebral glucose hypometabolism ( P glucose hypometabolism that was most marked in MMF patients with FSC dysfunction. Further studies are needed to determine whether this pattern could represent a diagnostic biomarker of MMF in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and cognitive dysfunction. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  7. The long-lasting customs (longa consuetudine and the public interests (utilitas publica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of creating the Roman Empire as well as thereafter during the struggle for its existence, the following question emerges: to which extent should be the acceding nations allowed to practice their deeply embedded customary rules? This question is important also nowadays in times of creation of the European Union and its unified legal system. In terms of the use of customs Rome has been changing its attitude depending on important changes in the society. In times of a rise, during the period of Republic, Rome was deciding on whether it will allow or forbid the acceding nations to continue living by their own customs and religious rules. Later, when the roman citizenship has been given to all inhabitants of the Empire by Caracalla's Edict (in the 212. year, a liberal approach has been taken. In the constitution of Alexander Sever, as well as in the fragments of the classical lawyers one can read about the obligation of the judge to take into account the customs. However, when the Empire got into a serious crisis and barbarian people came onto the roman land, a general boundary has been set towards the use of longlasting customs: these customs could be used, and potentially even have the force of a law, as long as they did not jeopardize the interests of the Empire (utilitas publica. The analyzed rules on the question can the potential future heirs dispose with the future heritage (the goods of a living person - bonis viventis in the classical, post-classical and Justinian's law, points onto the fact that the postclassical cutomary rules, that were not in conflict with the interests of the Empire, contributed even to the changes of the rules of the classical roman law. In the taken example, the classical rule according to which the disposal with future heritage is null and void, is modified under the influence of a German custom in a way that, property division and disposal with the divided property by future heirs was allowed, provided the future de cuius gave his consent. However, when adopting this rule the law maker took into account the selfish interests of the Empire as well: the conversion of 'dead capital' into a 'live capital', from which the heirs could fulfill their fiscal duties. Hence, this custom was accepted not only because it was not in conflict with the public interests, but because it served its purpose.

  8. Nerve Agent Induced Status Epilepticus: From Seizure Onset to Long Lasting Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-31

    enhancement of glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission in the mouse amygdala. J Neurophysiol 86:463-74 30. Barik J, Wonnacott S. 2006...reduces neurodegeneration in the amygdala but not in the hippocampus during epileptogenesis. Amino Acids 38: 189-97 235. Quarta D, Naylor CG, Barik

  9. Long-lasting stability of vaccinia virus (orthopoxvirus) in food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essbauer, S; Meyer, H; Porsch-Ozcürümez, M; Pfeffer, M

    2007-01-01

    Poxviruses are known to remain infectious in the scabs of patients for months to years. The aim of this study was to investigate viral stability in storm water, food or gauze spiked with vaccinia virus strain Munich 1 (VACV M1). Storm water, storm water supplemented with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or potting soil was stored at two different temperatures (refrigerator, room temperature; 4 degrees C/25 degrees C). In addition, we analysed the viability of VACV M1 on the surface of bread, salad, sausages and gauze bandages stored at 4 degrees C. Samples were titrated in MA 104 cells and the presence of viral DNA was demonstrated by orthopoxvirus-specific PCRs. After 2 weeks, reisolation of VACV M1 from all kinds of food, bandage and water samples except for storm water supplemented with potting soil was possible. Viral DNA was detected in almost all samples by PCR. Prolonged experiments with VACV M1-spiked storm water and storm water supplemented with FCS revealed that samples kept at 4.5 degrees C are infectious for up to 166 days. Our data demonstrate that VACV M1 has a longlasting stability in water and food. The results obtained during this study should be taken into account for risk assessment calculations for poxvirus transmission. Implying that variola virus and vaccinia virus behave in a similar way, our data call for sophisticated countermeasures in cases of a variola release in biological warfare.

  10. Long-Lasting Crossmodal Cortical Reorganization Triggered by Brief Postnatal Visual Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Olivier; Dormal, Giulia; de Heering, Adelaide; Lepore, Franco; Lewis, Terri L; Maurer, Daphne

    2015-09-21

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that transient visual deprivation early in life, even for a very short period, permanently alters the response properties of neurons in the visual cortex and leads to corresponding behavioral visual deficits. While it is acknowledged that early-onset and longstanding blindness leads the occipital cortex to respond to non-visual stimulation, it remains unknown whether a short and transient period of postnatal visual deprivation is sufficient to trigger crossmodal reorganization that persists after years of visual experience. In the present study, we characterized brain responses to auditory stimuli in 11 adults who had been deprived of all patterned vision at birth by congenital cataracts in both eyes until they were treated at 9 to 238 days of age. When compared to controls with typical visual experience, the cataract-reversal group showed enhanced auditory-driven activity in focal visual regions. A combination of dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian model selection indicated that this auditory-driven activity in the occipital cortex was better explained by direct cortico-cortical connections with the primary auditory cortex than by subcortical connections. Thus, a short and transient period of visual deprivation early in life leads to enduring large-scale crossmodal reorganization of the brain circuitry typically dedicated to vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Etc. The long-lasting defining device: Unravelling the mystery i | Alzi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive analytical study reveals the way 'etc.' is used in EFL learner's dictionaries and brings to light some unknown evidence regarding its frequency of occurrence. The bald statis-tics prepared on the use of 'etc.' in the macrostructure and microstructure of a cross-section of four learner's dictionaries show that it has ...

  12. Long-lasting cough in an adult German population: incidence, symptoms, and related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Raphael; Riffelmann, Marion; Kennerknecht, Nicole; Hülße, Christel; Littmann, Martina; O'Brien, Judith; von Kries, Rüdiger; von König, Carl Heinz Wirsing

    2018-04-01

    Studies of the incidence of pertussis in adults have shown that it accounts for only 5-15% cases of prolonged coughing. We assessed the burden of suffering related to prolonged coughing and tried to identify further causative agents. Based on a sentinel study with 35 general practitioners in two German cities (Krefeld, Rostock), with 3,946 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, we estimated the incidence of prolonged coughing in adults. In 975 of these outpatients, PCR and/or serology for adenovirus, Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus A and rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were performed. Treatment data were extracted for a subgroup of 138 patients. Descriptive statistics, including Kaplan-Maier curves were generated. Yearly incidence ranged between 1.4 and 2.1% per population in the two cities. Adult patients sought medical attention only after a median of 3 weeks of coughing. Irrespective of smoking and unrelated to the identified pathogens, the median duration of coughing was 6 weeks, with an interquartile range of 4-11 weeks. In 48.3% of patients, possible pathogens were identified, among which adenovirus (15.1%), RSV (7.5%), B. pertussis (5.6%), and influenza viruses (4.0%) were most often found. Symptoms were not indicative of a specific agent and a total of 64% of patients received antibiotics. Prolonged adult coughing requiring medical attention prompts substantial healthcare use. Apart from B. pertussis, a broad range of pathogens was associated with the symptoms. However, patients sought medical attention too late to guide efficacious therapeutic interventions using the diagnostic tests.

  13. The novelty-seeking phenotype modulates the long-lasting effects of adolescent MDMA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Vaccaro, Sonia; Arenas, M Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Miñarro, José

    2015-03-15

    Exposure to drugs such as ethanol or cocaine during adolescence induces alterations in the central nervous system that are modulated by the novelty-seeking trait. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of this trait on the long-term effects of MDMA administration during adolescence on spontaneous behavior and conditioned rewarding effects in adulthood. Adolescent mice were classified as high or low novelty seekers (HNS or LNS) according to the hole-board test and received either MDMA (0, 10 or 20mg/kg PND 33-42) or saline. Three weeks later, having entered adulthood (PND>68), one set of mice performed the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests, while another set performed the conditioning place preference (CPP) test induced by cocaine-(1mg/kg) or MDMA-(1mg/kg). Only HNS mice treated with MDMA during adolescence acquired CPP in adulthood with a non-effective dose of cocaine or MDMA. Although it did not produce changes in motor activity, exposure to MDMA during adolescence was associated with more aggressive behaviors (threat and attack) and increased social contacts in HNS mice, while an anxiolytic effect was noted in LNS mice pre-treated with the highest dose of MDMA (20mg/kg). Administration of MDMA (10 or 20mg/kg) induced a decrease in DA levels in the striatum in LNS mice only and lower striatal serotonin levels in mice treated with the highest MDMA dose. Our findings show that adolescent MDMA exposure results in higher sensitivity to the conditioned reinforcing properties of MDMA and cocaine in adult HNS mice, which suggests that the relationship between exposure to MDMA in adolescence and a higher probability of substance is a feature of high novelty seekers only. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Short- and long-lasting consequences of novelty, deviance, and surprise on brain and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schomaker, J.; Meeter, M.

    2015-01-01

    When one encounters a novel stimulus this sets off a cascade of brain responses, activating several neuromodulatory systems. As a consequence novelty has a wide range of effects on cognition; improving perception and action, increasing motivation, eliciting exploratory behavior, and promoting

  15. Short- and long-lasting consequences of novelty, deviance and surprise on brain and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2015-08-01

    When one encounters a novel stimulus this sets off a cascade of brain responses, activating several neuromodulatory systems. As a consequence novelty has a wide range of effects on cognition; improving perception and action, increasing motivation, eliciting exploratory behavior, and promoting learning. Here, we review these benefits and how they may arise in the brain. We propose a framework that organizes novelty's effects on brain and cognition into three groups. First, novelty can transiently enhance perception. This effect is proposed to be mediated by novel stimuli activating the amygdala and enhancing early sensory processing. Second, novel stimuli can increase arousal, leading to short-lived effects on action in the first hundreds of milliseconds after presentation. We argue that these effects are related to deviance, rather than to novelty per se, and link them to activation of the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine system. Third, spatial novelty may trigger the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, promoting dopamine release in the hippocampus, having longer-lasting effects, up to tens of minutes, on motivation, reward processing, and learning and memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. LONG-LASTING SUPERNORMAL CONDUCTION-VELOCITY AFTER SUSTAINED MAXIMAL ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION IN HUMAN MUSCLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHOEVEN, JH; VANWEERDEN, TW; ZWARTS, MJ

    Local muscle fatigue (1 min maximal voluntary contraction) and recovery were studied by means of surface and invasive EMG on elbow flexors to record the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), median power frequency (MPF), integrated EMG (IEMG), and force. The main finding was a

  17. A long-lasting pandemic: diseases caused by dust containing silica: Italy within the international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, F; Baldasseroni, A

    2005-01-01

    Diseases caused by dust containing silica represent an exemplary case study in the field of work-related diseases and in the history of the discovery of chronic industrial disease and its relationship to industrial society. Both dust and steam are indissolubly linked to the Industrial Revolution which everywhere was expected to replace slaves with masses of proletarians alike lesser gods. The identification of different nosological entities of dust-related diseases, the discovery that the most harmful dust particles in gold mines were invisible, insurance compensation and the development of the silicosis threshold limit value were all subjects of intense political negotiation that accompanied, with the connivance of doctors and scientists, a compromise between the health of workers and the economic health of industry. The preference for damage compensation (insurance system) over risk prevention (industrial hygienic measures) was also asserted and maintained in post-war Italy. Decline and modification of silicosis in Italy proceeded at the same rate as the introduction and subsequent application of more effective preventative legislation, especially with the protest movements of the working class at the end of the 1960s, together with the elimination of entire sectors of industrial activities, first those specialising in extraction and then the metallurgy.

  18. Hippocampal infusions of apolipoprotein E peptides induce long-lasting cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, Donnie; Klein, Rebecca C; Yakel, Jerrel L; Levin, Edward D

    2009-04-29

    The inheritance of the varepsilon4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) and cholinergic system dysfunction have long been associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, in vitro studies have established a direct link between ApoE and cholinergic function in that synthetic peptides containing segments of the ApoE protein (ApoE(133-149) and ApoE(141-148)) interact with alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the hippocampus. This raises the possibility that ApoE peptides may contribute to cognitive impairment in AD in that the hippocampus plays a key role in cognitive functioning. To test this, we acutely infused ApoE peptides into the ventral hippocampus of female Sprague-Dawley rats and assessed the resultant effects on radial-arm maze choice accuracy over a period of weeks after the infusion. Local ventral hippocampal infusion of ApoE peptides caused significant cognitive impairment in radial-arm maze learning that persisted several weeks after the acute infusion. This persisting deficit may be an important model for understanding the relationship between ApoE protein-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment as well as serve as a platform for the development of new therapies to avoid neurotoxicity and cognitive decline.

  19. BPP-5a produces a potent and long-lasting NO-dependent antihypertensive effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianzer, Danielle; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Fraga, Fabiana Costa; Lautner, Roberto Queiroga; Guerreiro, Juliano Rodrigo; Machado, Leonor Tapias; Mendes, Elizabeth Pereira; de Camargo, Andônio Carlos Martins; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2011-12-01

    The bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs) are oligopeptides found in different animal venoms. BPPs isolated from Bothrops jararaca venom were the first natural inhibitors described for somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). They were used in the structural modeling for captopril development, a classical ACE inhibitor widely used to treat human hypertension. We evaluated the effect of BPP-5a on cardiovascular parameters of conscious Wistar (WTs) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). In SHR, BPP-5a showed potent cardiovascular effects, at doses ranging from 0.47 to 710 nmol/kg. The maximal changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were found at the dose of 2.37 nmol/kg (Δ MAP: -38 ± 4 mmHg, p BPP-5a upon argininosuccinate synthetase and B(1), B(2), AT(1), AT(2) or Mas receptors. Ex vivo assays showed that BPP-5a induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated aortic rings of SHRs and WTs. Although the BPP-5a is considered an ACE inhibitor, our results indicate that its antihypertensive effect is exerted via a unique target, a nitric-oxide-dependent mechanism.

  20. Long lasting fish contamination with 90Sr of Ignalina NPP water cooling basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusauskiene-Duz, R.; Gudeliene, I.

    2003-01-01

    Between the nourishment chains in hydro ecosystem the main role have chain water-fish-man, because amount of 90 Sr in fish muscle is limited. 90 Sr accumulation and distribution between the fish organs and tissues was studied. It was found that the main way of 90 Sr enter to the Ignalina NPP water cooling basin fish is adsorption processes which is more active than that of absorption. Established regularities of distribution between the fish organs and tissues, which depends on the fish nourishment type and their species. We determined that 90 Sr activity in fish muscles increase from spring to autumn: in Rutilus rutilus - 8, Abramis brama - 6, Perca fluviatilis - 2,7 and Esox lucius - 22,3 times. We determined that 90 Sr activity in fish muscles is 24 times lower than permissible' standard. It was determined that 90 Sr activity in fish gonads is 2 times higher than that in muscles and depends on fish species. (author)

  1. Long lasting persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis Subsp. israelensis (Bti in mosquito natural habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tilquin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The detrimental effects of chemical insecticides on the environment and human health have lead to the call for biological alternatives. Today, one of the most promising solutions is the use of spray formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti in insect control programs. As a result, the amounts of Bti spread in the environment are expected to increase worldwide, whilst the common belief that commercial Bti is easily cleared from the ecosystem has not yet been clearly established. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: In this study, we aimed to determine the nature and origin of the high toxicity toward mosquito larvae found in decaying leaf litter collected in several natural mosquito breeding sites in the Rhône-Alpes region. From the toxic fraction of the leaf litter, we isolated B. cereus-like bacteria that were further characterized as B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis using PCR amplification of specific toxin genes. Immunological analysis of these Bti strains showed that they belong to the H14 group. We finally used amplified length polymorphism (AFLP markers to show that the strains isolated from the leaf litter were closely related to those present in the commercial insecticide used for field application, and differed from natural worldwide genotypes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results raise the issue of the persistence, potential proliferation and environmental accumulation of human-spread Bti in natural mosquito habitats. Such Bti environmental persistence may lengthen the exposure time of insects to this bio-insecticide, thereby increasing the risk of resistance acquisition in target insects, and of a negative impact on non-target insects.

  2. National long-lasting effect of endonasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery clipping for epistaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen Gede, Lisbeth; Aanaes, Kasper; Collatz, Helle

    2013-01-01

    We consider sphenopalatine artery ligation to be a safe and effective treatment of posterior epistaxis as the long-term need for revision surgery and the complication rates are low. Surgery should be considered earlier in the treatment of posterior epistaxis....

  3. Long-lasting functional disabilities in patients who recover from coma after cardiac operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A; Nair, Shona; Bussière, Miguel; Nathan, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Uncertainty regarding the long-term functional outcome of patients who awaken from coma after cardiac operations is difficult for families and physicians and may delay rehabilitation. We studied the long-term functional status of these patients to determine if duration of coma predicted outcome. We followed 71 patients who underwent cardiac operations; recovered their ability to respond to verbal commands after coma associated with postoperative stroke, encephalopathy, and/or seizures; and were discharged from the hospital. The Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was used to assess functional disability 2 to 4 years after discharge. Outcomes were classified as favorable (GOSE scores 7 and 8) and unfavorable (GOSE scores 1-6). Of 71 patients identified, 39 were interviewed, 15 died, 1 refused to be interviewed, and 16 were lost to follow-up. Of the 54 patients with completed GOSE evaluations, only 15 (28%) had favorable outcomes. Among patients with unfavorable outcomes, 15 (28%) died, 14 (26%) survived with moderate disabilities, and 10 (18%) had severe disabilities. Factors associated with unfavorable outcomes were increases in duration of coma (p = 0.007), time in intensive care (p = 0.006), length of hospitalization (p = 0.004), and postoperative serum creatine kinase levels (p = 0.006). Only duration of coma was an independent predictor of unfavorable outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.008-1.537; p = 0.042). Patients with durations of coma greater than 4 days were more likely to have unfavorable outcomes (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.3-21.3; p = 0.02). Two thirds of comatose patients who survived to discharge after cardiac operations had unfavorable long-term functional outcomes. A longer duration of unconsciousness is a predictor of unfavorable outcome. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward Patient Specific Long Lasting Metallic Implants for Mandibular Segmental Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges

    Mandibular defects may result from tumor resection, trauma, or inflammation. The goals of mandibular reconstruction surgeries are to restore mandible function and aesthetics. To this end, surgeons use a combination of bone grafts and metallic implants. These implants have drastically different mechanical properties than the surrounding bone. As a result, the stress distribution in the mandible changes after surgery. The long-term abnormal stress/strain distribution may lead to either graft failure due to bone resorption as a result of stress shielding, or hardware failure due to stress concentrations. During the healing period of six to nine months it is important that complete immobilization, bringing mandibular micro-motion down to the level of 200-500 mum during chewing, is achieved. After this period it is desired that bone undergo normal stress for long-term success of the treatment. Although current high stiffness fixation hardware accomplishes this immobilization during the healing period, the hardware continues to alter the normal stress-strain trajectory seen during chewing once the engrafted bone heals. Over the long-term, the immobilized and stress-shielded engrafted bone tends to resorb. On the other hand, hardware fracturing or/and screw loosening is observed as the stress is concentrated at certain locations on the hardware. Equally as important is the permanent loss of chewing power due to the altered stress-strain relationships. The first stage of this research is to study the problems encountered following a mandibular segmental defect reconstructive surgery. To this end, we constructed a finite element model of a healthy mandible, which includes cortical and cancellous bone, teeth (enamel and dentin components), and the periodontal ligament. Using this model, we studied a healthy adult mandible under maximum molar bite force for stress, strain, displacement, and reaction force distribution. For mandibular segmental defect reconstruction the current standard of care consists of the use of Surgical Grade 5 titanium also known as Ti-6Al-4V hardware and either a single or double fibula barrel vascularized bone graft. We expanded our model to simulate the effects of this surgery. The expanded model includes both single and double barrel fibular bone graft repair of a right M1-M3 containing section of the mandible, Ti-6Al-4V fixation hardware and screws. We found that the stiffness mismatch between the fixation hardware and the bone causes stress shielding on the host mandible and the bone graft, and stress concentration at the fixation hardware and screws. The simulations results show that while a double-barrel graft is preferred, in the long-term it does not create the optimal outcome due to the abnormal stress pattern. To improve the long-term outcome with metallic implants it is essential to recreate the normal stress pattern. To achieve this outcome we investigated the use of porous nitinol as a substitute for the currently used titanium hardware. While NiTi already has a lower stiffness than titanium, it is possible to add porosity to further reduce the stiffness to be closer to that of cortical bone. The ultimate goal is to create fixation hardware that has sufficient stiffness for immobilization while recreating the normal stress pattern in the bone. Using a finite element model of devices fabricated from Surgical Grade 5 titanium and NiTi, we have found that stiffness-tuned NiTi hardware with conventional geometries should result in recreation of normal stress-strain trajectories and better treatment outcome. Finally, to further improve the outcome, we suggest the use of a two-stage mechanism Bone Bandaid which supports both the immobilization/healing and regenerative phases of mandibular segmental defect treatment. This device is made of two materials. The stiff Ti-6Al-4V portion provides the support during the healing period and is disengaged afterwards. The second material is a NiTi wire-frame to facilitate normal stress distribution after the initial healing period. The titanium part of this fixation hardware is released following radiological verification that the surgical osteotomies have healed. The release procedure is performed under local anesthetic via a microsurgical tool. With the titanium fixation hardware no longer functional, the NiTi webbing would act as a superstructure, like a skin, to the underlying grafted cortical bone. This device facilitates stress transduction through the normal stress-strain trajectories, allows restoration of power, drives cortical bone remodeling and strengthening, provides long-term strength, and a good bone bed for dental implants. If bone chips are used, instead of single or double bone graft, the webbing is more likely to support the bone chips while they are being incorporated with the mandible. We have performed computer simulation to investigate the two stages of the operation of the device. Our FEA results indicate that the Bone Bandaid supports both the immobilization needed during healing and the distribution of stress through the engrafted bone once it has healed. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Tracking explicit and implicit long-lasting traces of fearful memories in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Pau Alexander; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky; Nicolás, Berta; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2014-12-01

    Recent accounts of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) suggest that the encoding of an episode within a fearful context generates different implicit and explicit memory representations. Whilst implicit memory traces include the associated emotional states, explicit traces include a recoding into an abstract or gist-based structural context of the episode. Theoretically, the long-term preservation of implicit memory traces may facilitate the often untreatable memory intrusions in PTSD. Here, we tracked in two experiments how implicit and explicit memory traces for fearful episodes dissociate and evolve over time. Subjects (N=86) were presented with semantically-related word-lists in a contextual fear paradigm and tested for explicit memories either immediately (i.e., 30 min) or after a delay (i.e., 1 or 2 weeks) with a verbal recognition task. Skin Conductance Response (SCR) was used to assess implicit memory responses. Subjects showed high memory accuracy for words when tested immediately after encoding. At test, SCR was higher during the presentation of verbatim but not gist-based words encoded in a fearful context, and remained unchanged after 2 weeks, despite subjects being unaware of words' encoding context. We found no clear evidence of accurate explicit memory traces for the fearful or neutral contexts of words presented during encoding, either 30 min or 2 weeks afterwards. These findings indicate that the implicit, but not the explicit, memory trace of a fearful context of an episode can be detected at long-term through SCR and is dissociated from the gist-based memory. They may have implicationstowards the understanding of how the processing of fearful memoriescould lead to PTSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Lasting Fieldwork, Ethnographic Restitution and "Engaged Anthropology" in Romani Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Federica

    2017-01-01

    The history of relationships between Roma/Sinti and non-Roma/non-Sinti is marked and crossed by negative features and trails: anti-ziganismus, asymmetric power relationships within institutions and the absence of social justice in the school toward Romani minorities. This article--starting from the negative aspects of the inter-ethnic relations…

  7. Long-lasting floods buffer the thermal regime of the Pampas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houspanossian, Javier; Kuppel, Sylvain; Nosetto, Marcelo; Di Bella, Carlos; Oricchio, Patricio; Barrucand, Mariana; Rusticucci, Matilde; Jobbágy, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    The presence of large water masses influences the thermal regime of nearby land shaping the local climate of coastal areas by the ocean or large continental lakes. Large surface water bodies have an ephemeral nature in the vast sedimentary plains of the Pampas (Argentina) where non-flooded periods alternate with flooding cycles covering up to one third of the landscape for several months. Based on temperature records from 17 sites located 1 to 700 km away from the Atlantic coast and MODIS land surface temperature data, we explore the effects of floods on diurnal and seasonal thermal ranges as well as temperature extremes. In non-flooded periods, there is a linear increase of mean diurnal thermal range (DTR) from the coast towards the interior of the region (DTR increasing from 10 to 16 K, 0.79 K/100 km, r 2 = 0.81). This relationship weakens during flood episodes when the DTR of flood-prone inland locations shows a decline of 2 to 4 K, depending on surface water coverage in the surrounding area. DTR even approaches typical coastal values 500 km away from the ocean in the most flooded location that we studied during the three flooding cycles recorded in the study period. Frosts-free periods, a key driver of the phenology of both natural and cultivated ecosystems, are extended by up to 55 days during floods, most likely as a result of enhanced ground heat storage across the landscape ( 2.7 fold change in day-night heat transfer) combined with other effects on the surface energy balance such as greater night evaporation rates. The reduced thermal range and longer frost-free periods affect plant growth development and may offer an opportunity for longer crop growing periods, which may not only contribute to partially compensating for regional production losses caused by floods, but also open avenues for flood mitigation through higher plant evapotranspirative water losses.

  8. "The Great Transformation" and Suicide: Local and Long-Lasting Effects of 1930 Bank Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Robert D.; Levchak, Phil; Schultz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Depression-era bank suspensions and failures are conceptualized as products of the first part of what Polanyi (1994) called "The Great Transformation," which involved an imbalanced institutional arrangement in which the economy dominated other institutions. Relying on Durkheim (1897/1951) and Merton (1938, 1968), it is argued that these…

  9. Long lasting perfume--a review of synthetic musks in WWTPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Silva, José Avelino; Ratola, Nuno; Santos, Lúcia; Alves, Arminda

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic musks have been used for a long time in personal care and household products. In recent years, this continuous input has increased considerably, to the point that they were recognized as emerging pollutants by the scientific community, due to their persistence in the environment, and hazardous potential to ecosystems even at low concentrations. The number of studies in literature describing their worldwide presence in several environmental matrices is growing, and many of them indicate that the techniques employed for their safe removal tend to be ineffective. This is the case of conventional activated sludge treatment plants (WWTPs), where considerable loads of synthetic musks enter mainly through domestic sewage. This review paper compiles and discusses the occurrence of these compounds in the sewage, effluents and sludge, main concentration levels and phase distributions, as well as the efficiency of the different methodologies of removal applied in these treatment facilities. To the present day, it has been demonstrated that WWTPs lack the ability to remove musks completely. This shows a clear need to develop new effective and cost-efficient remediation approaches and foresees potential for further improvements in this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of oxymorphazone in frogs: long lasting antinociception in vivo, and apparently irreversible binding in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benyhe, S.; Hoffman, G.; Varga, E.; Hosztafi, S.; Toth, G.; Borsodi, A.; Wollemann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Oxymorphazone was found to be a relatively weak antinociceptive drug in intact frog (Rana esculenta) when acetic acid was used as pain stimulus. Frogs remained analgesic for at least 48 hrs following oxymorphazone administration. The ligand increased the latency of wiping reflex in spinal frogs too. There effects were blocked by naloxone. In equilibrium binding studies (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone had high affinity to the opioid receptors of frog brain and spinal cord as well. Kinetic experiments show that only 25% of the bound (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone is readily dissociable. Preincubation of the membranes with labeled oxymorphazone results in a washing resistant inhibition of the opioid binding sites. At least 70% of the (/sup 3/H)oxymorphazone specific binding is apparently irreversible after reaction at 5 nM ligand concentration, and this can be enhanced by a higher concentration of tritiated ligand.

  11. Shed a light in fatigue detection with near-infrared spectroscopy during long-lasting driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pan, Boan; Li, Kai; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Fatigue driving is one of the leading roles to induce traffic accident and injury, which urgently desires a novel technique to monitor the fatigue level at driving. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is capable of noninvasive monitoring brain-activities-related hemodynamic responses. Here, we developed a fINRS imager and setup a classic psychological experiment to trigger visual divided attention which varied responding to driving fatigue, and attempted to record the drive-fatigue-level correlated hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. 7 volunteers were recruited to take 7 hours driving and the experimental test was repeated every 1 hour and 8 times in total. The hemodynamic response were extracted and graphed with pseudo image. The analysis on the relationship between the fNIRS-measured hemodynamic response and fatigue level finally displayed that the oxyhemoglobin concentration in one channel of left prefrontal lobe increased with driving duration in significant correlation. And the spatial pattern of hemodynamic response in the prefrontal lobe varied with driving duration as well. The findings indicated the potential of fNIRSmeasured hemodynamic index in some sensitive spot of prefrontal lobe as a driving fatigue indicator and the promising use of fNIRS in traffic safety field.

  12. Waste wood incineration: long-lasting, environment-friendly and CO2-neutral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The economic aspects of energy production from waste wood are evaluated. Heating systems based on the incineration of wood have been considerably improved recently. Several aspects of the incineration of waste wood are reviewed: the implications with regard to the greenhouse effect, the calorific value of wood, the incineration process, and the cost price calculation of energy production by waste wood incineration. In conclusion is stated that energy production by waste wood incineration is a valuable economic alternative for heat production by oil products, especially in view of the current anti-pollution taxes in Belgium. (A.S.)

  13. Intermittent hypercapnia induces long-lasting ventilatory plasticity to enhance CO2 responsiveness to overcome dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Bryan Patrick

    The ability of the brain to detect (central CO2 chemosensitivity) and respond to (central CO2 chemoresponsiveness) changes in tissue CO2/pH, is a homeostatic process essential for mammalian life. Dysfunction of the serotonin (5-HT) mechanisms compromises ventilatory CO 2 chemosensitivity/responsiveness and may enhance vulnerability to pathologies such as the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The laboratory of Dr. Michael Harris has shown medullary raphe contributions to central chemosensitivity involving both 5-HT- and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated mechanisms. I tested the hypothesis that postnatal exposure to mild intermittent hypercapnia (IHc) induces respiratory plasticity, due in part to strengthening of bicuculline- and saclofen-sensitive mechanisms (GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists respectively). Rats were exposed to IHc-pretreatment (8 cycles of 5 % CO2) for 5 days beginning at postnatal day 12 (P12). I subsequently assessed CO2 responsiveness using an in situ perfused brainstem preparation. Hypercapnic responses were determined with and without pharmacological manipulation. In addition, IHc-pretreatment effectiveness was tested for its ability to overcome dysfunction in the CO2 responsiveness induced by a dietary tryptophan restriction. This dysfunctional CO2 responsiveness has been suggested to arise from a chronic, partial 5-HT reduction imparted by the dietary restriction. Results show IHc-pretreatment induced plasticity sufficient for CO2 responsiveness despite removal of otherwise critical ketanserin-sensitive mechanisms. CO2 responsiveness following IHc-pretreatment was absent if ketanserin was combined with bicuculline and saclofen, indicating that the plasticity was dependent upon bicuculline- and saclofen-sensitive mechanisms. IHc--induced plasticity was also capable of overcoming the ventilatory defects associated with maternal dietary restriction. Duration of IHc-induced plasticity was also investigated and found to last far into life (up to P65). Furthermore, I performed experiments to investigate if IHc-induced plasticity was more robust at a specific developmental period. No such critical period was identified as IHc-pretreatment induced robust respiratory plasticity when administered at all developmental periods tested (P12-16, P21-25 and P36-0). I propose that IHc-induced plasticity may be able to reduce the severity of reflex dysfunctions underlying pathologies such as SIDS.

  14. Long Lasting Microvascular Tone Alteration in Rat Offspring Exposed In Utero to Maternal Hyperglycaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Vessières

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is not only determined by conventional risk factors in adulthood, but also by early life events which may reprogram vascular function. To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal programming of vascular tone in offspring and its evolution during adulthood, we investigated vascular reactivity of third order mesenteric arteries from diabetic mother offspring (DMO and control mother offspring (CMO aged 3 and 18 months. In arteries isolated from DMO the relaxation induced by prostacyclin analogues was reduced in both 3- and 18-month old animals although endothelium (acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was reduced in 18-month old DMO only. Endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside relaxation was not affected. Pressure-induced myogenic tone, which controls local blood flow, was reduced in 18-month old CMO compared to 3-month old CMO. Interestingly, myogenic tone was maintained at a high level in 18-month old DMO even though agonist-induced vasoconstriction was not altered. These perturbations, in 18-months old DMO rats, were associated with an increased pMLC/MLC, pPKA/PKA ratio and an activated RhoA protein. Thus, we highlighted perturbations in the reactivity of resistance mesenteric arteries in DMO, at as early as 3 months of age, followed by the maintenance of high myogenic tone in older rats. These modifications are in favour of excessive vasoconstrictor tone. These results evidenced a fetal programming of vascular functions of resistance arteries in adult rats exposed in utero to maternal diabetes, which could explain a re-setting of vascular functions and, at least in part, the occurrence of hypertension later in life.

  15. Long-lasting modulation of feature integration by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Rueter, Johannes; Jolij, Jacob; Hermens, Frouke; Kammer, Thomas; Herzog, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    The human brain analyzes a visual object first by basic feature detectors. On the objects way to a conscious percept, these features are integrated in subsequent stages of the visual hierarchy. The time course of this feature integration is largely unknown. To shed light on the temporal dynamics of

  16. Long-lasting inhibitory effects of fetal liver mesenchymal stem cells on T-lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giuliani

    Full Text Available Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC are multipotent progenitor cells that have transient immunomodulatory properties on Natural Killer (NK cells, Dendritic Cells (DC, and T cells. This study compared the use of MSC isolated from bone marrow and fetal liver (FL-MSC to determine which displayed the most efficient immunosuppressive effects on T cell activation. Although both types of MSC exhibit similar phenotype profile, FL-MSC displays a much more extended in vitro life-span and immunomodulatory properties. When co-cultured with CD3/CD28-stimulated T cells, both BM-MSC and FL-MSC affected T cell proliferation by inhibiting their entry into the cell cycle, by inducing the down-regulation of phospho-retinoblastoma (pRb, cyclins A and D1, as well as up-regulating p27(kip1 expression. The T cell inhibition by MSC was not due to the soluble HLA-G5 isoform, but to the surface expression of HLA-G1, as shown by the need of cell-cell contact and by the use of neutralizing anti-HLA-G antibodies. To note, in a HLA-G-mediated fashion, MSC facilitated the expansion of a CD4(low/CD8(low T subset that had decreased secretion of IFN-γ, and an induced secretion of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Because of their longer lasting in vitro immunosuppressive properties, mainly mediated by HLA-G, and their more efficient induction of IL-10 production and T cell apoptosis, fetal liver MSC could be considered a new tool for MSC therapy to prevent allograft rejection.

  17. Treatment of hemifacial spasm with botulinum toxin type a: effective, long lasting and well tolerated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Mette Batisti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Hemifacial spasm (HFS is a common movement disorder characterized by involuntary tonic or clonic contractions of the muscles innervated by the facial nerve. Objective To evaluate the long-term effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A in the treatment of HFS. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients treated at the Movement Disorders Outpatient Clinic in the Neurology Service, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, from 2009 to 2013 was carried out. A total of 550 BTX-A injections were administered to 100 HFS patients. Results Mean duration of improvement following each injection session was 3.1 months, mean latency to detection of improvement was 7.1 days and mean success rate was 94.7%. Patients were evaluated at an interval of 5.8 months after each application. Adverse effects, which were mostly minor, were observed in 37% of the patients at least once during follow-up. The most frequent was ptosis (35.1%. Conclusion Treatment of HFS with BTX-A was effective, sustainable and safe and had minimal, well-tolerated side effects.

  18. Long-lasting modulation of feature integration by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnowski, Frank; Rueter, Johannes; Jolij, Jacob; Hermens, Frouke; Kammer, Thomas; Herzog, Michael H.

    The human brain analyzes a visual object first by basic feature detectors. On the objects way to a conscious percept, these features are integrated in subsequent stages of the visual hierarchy. The time course of this feature integration is largely unknown. To shed light on the temporal dynamics of

  19. Long-lasting masculinizing effects of postnatal androgens on myelin governed by the brain androgen receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Ghanem, Charly; Degerny, Cindy; Hussain, Rashad; Liere, Philippe; Pianos, Antoine; Tourpin, Sophie; Habert, René; Schumacher, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The oligodendrocyte density is greater and myelin sheaths are thicker in the adult male mouse brain when compared with females. Here, we show that these sex differences emerge during the first 10 postnatal days, precisely at a stage when a late wave of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells arises and starts differentiating. Androgen levels, analyzed by gas chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry, were higher in males than in females during this period. Treating male pups with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, or female pups with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT), revealed the importance of postnatal androgens in masculinizing myelin and their persistent effect into adulthood. A key role of the brain AR in establishing the sexual phenotype of myelin was demonstrated by its conditional deletion. Our results uncover a new persistent effect of postnatal AR signaling, with implications for neurodevelopmental disorders and sex differences in multiple sclerosis. PMID:29107990

  20. Studies on long-lasting consequences of prenatal exposure to anticonvulsant drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessens, A. B.; Boer, K.; Koppe, J. G.; van de Poll, N. E.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.

    1994-01-01

    Based on neonatal examination at birth, it has been estimated that epileptic women have a 2-3 times greater risk of giving birth to an infant with congenital anomalies. But anticonvulsant drugs may also have more subtle influences on the developing foetus which are not visible at birth but only

  1. Population biology of two rare fern species: long-life and long-lasting stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucharová, Anna; Münzbergová, Z.; Tájek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 8 (2010), s. 1260-1271 ISSN 0002-9122 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/112/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ferns * life cycle * naturally rare species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  2. Chronic grouped social restriction triggers long-lasting immune system adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Rui; Hou, Gonglin; Song, Liuwei; Zhang, Jianming; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2017-05-16

    Chronic stress triggers rigorous psychological and physiological changes, including immunological system adaptations. However, the effects of long-term social restriction on human immune system have not been investigated. The present study is to investigate the effect of chronic stress on immune changes in human blood, with the stress stimuli controlled.10 male volunteers were group isolated from the modern society in a 50-meter-square room for 150 days, with enriched nutrition and good living conditions provided. Serum examination of immune system markers demonstrated numerous changes in different aspects of the immune functions. The changes were observed as early as 30 days and could last for another 150 days after the termination of the restriction period (300 days' time point). The results strongly argued for the adaptation of immunological system under chronic social restriction stress in adult human, preceding a clear change in psychological conditions. The changes of these immune system factors could as well act as the serum biomarkers in clinical early-diagnosis of stress-related disorders.

  3. The pathogenicity of genetic variants previously associated with left ventricular non-compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Yeganeh; Jabbari, Javad; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a rare cardiomyopathy. Many genetic variants have been associated with LVNC. However, the number of the previous LVNC-associated variants that are common in the background population remains unknown. The aim of this study was to provide...... an updated list of previously reported LVNC-associated variants with biologic description and investigate the prevalence of LVNC variants in healthy general population to find false-positive LVNC-associated variants. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Human Gene Mutation Database and PubMed were systematically...... searched to identify all previously reported LVNC-associated variants. Thereafter, the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), that both represent the background population, was searched for all variants. Four in silico prediction tools were assessed to determine...

  4. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  5. Possible pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection in a previously healthy child after a near-drowning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Magdalena M; Lippmann, Norman; Kobelt, Louise; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Ritter, Lutz; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a previously healthy 17-month-old boy who developed pulmonary mucormycosis after a near-drowning incident in a goose pond. The patient survived without neurological sequelae and recovered, under treatment with amphotericin B, from the rare and often invasive fungal infection with Rhizopus spp., usually occurring in immunodeficient patients.

  6. Reading Aloud: Does Previous Trial History Modulate the Joint Effects of Stimulus Quality and Word Frequency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Shannon; Besner, Derek

    2013-01-01

    No one would argue with the proposition that how we process events in the world is strongly affected by our experience. Nonetheless, recent experience (e.g., from the previous trial) is typically not considered in the analysis of timed cognitive performance in the laboratory. Masson and Kliegl (2013) reported that, in the context of the lexical…

  7. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with cleft lip and palate: A rare, previously unreported association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kannan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, also called Pre Excitation Syndrome, is characterized by an extra pathway that conducts the electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles without the normal delay. We are reporting a case of WPW syndrome with a cleft lip and palate, which is a rare association and previously unreported in literature.

  8. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain : Findings From 19 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of

  9. Effects of previous growth hormone excess and current medical treatment for acromegaly on cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, Pauline; Koerts, Janneke; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Tucha, Oliver; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van Beek, Andre P.

    2012-01-01

    Background In untreated acromegaly patients, decreased cognitive functioning is reported to be associated with the degree of growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 excess. Whether previous GH excess or current medical treatment for acromegaly specifically affects cognition remains unclear. The aim of this

  10. Iodine-131 induced hepatotoxicity in previously healthy patients with Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhummon, Navina Priya; Tohooloo, Bhavna; Qu, Shen

    2013-01-01

    To describe the association of the rare and serious complication of liver toxicity in previously healthy Grave's disease (GD) patients after the treatment with radioactive iodine (131)I (RAI). We report the clinical, laboratory and pathologic findings of 2 cases of severe liver toxicity associated with the treatment with RAI in previously healthy patients with GD. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations excluded viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatous disease, primary biliary disease, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and heart failure. Case 1: A previously healthy 52-years old man reportedly having a typical GD but following RAI treatment, concomitantly developed severe liver toxicity that required 1 week of treatment in hospital. Case 2: A previously healthy 34-years old woman is reported as having a typical GD but developed jaundice following RAI treatment that required several weeks of in hospital treatment in the hepato-biliary department. In both cases, the liver dysfunction resolved after intensive treatment with hepato-protective agents. In this report the therapeutic considerations as well as the pathogenetic possibilities are reviewed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the association observed, which is rare but may be severe and should be considered in any case of thyrotoxicosis where a liver dysfunction develops after the treatment with radioactive iodine (131)I.

  11. Iodine-131 induced hepatotoxicity in previously healthy patients with Grave’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the association of the rare and serious complication of liver toxicity in previously healthy Grave’s disease (GD) patients after the treatment with radioactive iodine 131I (RAI). Case presentation We report the clinical, laboratory and pathologic findings of 2 cases of severe liver toxicity associated with the treatment with RAI in previously healthy patients with GD. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations excluded viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatous disease, primary biliary disease, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and heart failure. Case 1: A previously healthy 52-years old man reportedly having a typical GD but following RAI treatment, concomitantly developed severe liver toxicity that required 1 week of treatment in hospital. Case 2: A previously healthy 34-years old woman is reported as having a typical GD but developed jaundice following RAI treatment that required several weeks of in hospital treatment in the hepato-biliary department. In both cases, the liver dysfunction resolved after intensive treatment with hepato-protective agents. In this report the therapeutic considerations as well as the pathogenetic possibilities are reviewed. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the association observed, which is rare but may be severe and should be considered in any case of thyrotoxicosis where a liver dysfunction develops after the treatment with radioactive iodine 131I. PMID:23497434

  12. Long-term effects of previous oxandrolone treatment in adult women with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freriks, K.; Sas, T.C.J.; Traas, M.A.F.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Heijer, M. den; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Wit, J.M.; Alfen-van der Velden, J. van; Otten, B.J.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Gotthardt, M.; Dejonckere, P.H.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Menke, L.A.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Short stature is a prominent feature of Turner syndrome (TS), which is partially overcome by GH treatment. We have previously reported the results of a trial on the effect of oxandrolone (Ox) in girls with TS. Ox in a dose of 0.03 mg/kg per day (Ox 0.03) significantly increased adult

  13. Long-term effects of previous oxandrolone treatment in adult women with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Freriks (Kim); T.C.J. Sas (Theo); T. Traas (Theo); R.T. Netea-Maier (Romana ); M. den Heijer (Martin); A.R.M.M. Hermus (Ad); J.M. Wit (Jan); J.A.E.M. Van Alfen-van Der Velden (Janiëlle A. E.); B.J. Otten (Barto); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); M. Gotthardt (Martin); P.H. Dejonckere (Philippe); G.R.J. Zandwijken (Gladys); L.A. Menke (Leonie); H.J.L.M. Timmers

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Short stature is a prominent feature of Turner syndrome (TS), which is partially overcome by GH treatment. We have previously reported the results of a trial on the effect of oxandrolone (Ox) in girls with TS. Ox in a dose of 0.03 mg/kg per day (Ox 0.03) significantly

  14. Pulmonary carcinosarcoma initially presenting as invasive aspergillosis: a case report of previously unreported combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Thien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carcinosarcoma of the lung is a malignant tumor composed of a mixture of carcinoma and sarcoma elements. The carcinomatous component is most commonly squamous followed by adenocarcinoma. The sarcomatous component commonly comprises the bulk of the tumor and shows poorly differentiated spindle cell features. Foci of differentiated sarcomatous elements such as chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma may be seen. Aspergillus pneumonia is the most common form of invasive aspergillosis and occurs mainly in patients with malignancy, immunocompromizing or debilitating diseases. Patients with Aspergillus pneumonia present with fever, cough, chest pain and occasionally hemoptysis. Tissue examination is the most reliable method for diagnosis, and mortality rate is high. We describe a case of primary carcinosarcoma of the lung concurrently occurring with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a 66-year old patient.

  15. Non-detection of Previously Reported Transits of HD 97658b with MOST Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    The radial velocity-discovered exoplanet HD 97658b was recently announced to transit, with a derived planetary radius of 2.93 ± 0.28 R ⊕. As a transiting super-Earth orbiting a bright star, this planet would make an attractive candidate for additional observations, including studies of its atmosp...

  16. Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-09-01

    A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  17. MCNP HPGe detector benchmark with previously validated Cyltran model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, I D; Russ, W R; Bronson, F

    2009-05-01

    An exact copy of the detector model generated for Cyltran was reproduced as an MCNP input file and the detection efficiency was calculated similarly with the methodology used in previous experimental measurements and simulation of a 280 cm(3) HPGe detector. Below 1000 keV the MCNP data correlated to the Cyltran results within 0.5% while above this energy the difference between MCNP and Cyltran increased to about 6% at 4800 keV, depending on the electron cut-off energy.

  18. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  19. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  20. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  1. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  2. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. [ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neykova, K; Dimitrova, V; Dimitrov, R; Vakrilova, L

    2016-01-01

    To analyze pregnancy outcome in patients who were on antithrombotic medication (AM) because of previous pregnancy with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The studied group (SG) included 21 pregnancies in 15 women with history of previous IUGR. The patients were on low dose aspirin (LDA) and/or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Pregnancy outcome was compared to the one in two more groups: 1) primary group (PG) including the previous 15 pregnancies with IUGR of the same women; 2) control group (CG) including 45 pregnancies of women matched for parity with the ones in the SG, with no history of IUGR and without medication. The SG, PG and CG were compared for the following: mean gestational age (g.a.) at birth, mean birth weight (BW), proportion of cases with early preeclampsia (PE), IUGR (total, moderate, and severe), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), neonatal death (NND), admission to NICU, cesarean section (CS) because of chronic or acute fetal distress (FD) related to IUGR, PE or placental abruption. Student's t-test was applied to assess differences between the groups. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The differences between the SG and the PG regarding mean g. a. at delivery (33.7 and 29.8 w.g. respectively) and the proportion of babies admitted to NICU (66.7% vs. 71.4%) were not statistically significant. The mean BW in the SG (2114,7 g.) was significantly higher than in the PG (1090.8 g.). In the SG compared with the PG there were significantly less cases of IUFD (14.3% and 53.3% respectively), early PE (9.5% vs. 46.7%) moderate and severe IUGR (10.5% and 36.8% vs. 41.7% and 58.3%). Neonatal mortality in the SG (5.6%) was significantly lower than in the PG (57.1%), The proportion of CS for FD was not significantly different--53.3% in the SG and 57.1% in the PG. On the other hand, comparison between the SG and the CG demonstrated significantly lower g.a. at delivery in the SG (33.7 vs. 38 w.g.) an lower BW (2114 vs. 3094 g

  4. The Kavirondo Escarpment: a previously unrecognized site of high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite only a limited effort there, we report several new atlas square occurrences, presence of the local and poorly known Rock Cisticola Cisticola emini and a significant range extension for the Stone Partridge Ptilopachus petrosus. Our short visits indicate high avian species richness is associated with the escarpment and ...

  5. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidental papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases including Graves' disease is a known phenomenon. However, the management of these patients remains an issue of concern and controversy for those who care for them. We report a case of metastatic paillary carcinoma of ...

  6. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  7. Corneal perforation after conductive keratoplasty with previous refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Titze, Patrik; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-12-01

    A 56-year-old woman had conductive keratoplasty (CK) for residual hyperopia and astigmatism. Three years before the procedure, the patient had arcuate keratotomy, followed by laser in situ keratomileusis 2 years later for high astigmatism correction in both eyes. During CK, a corneal perforation occurred in the right eye; during the postoperative examination, an iris perforation and anterior subcapsule opacification were seen beneath the perforation site. The perforation was managed with a bandage contact lens and an antibiotic-steroid ointment; it had a negative Seidel sign by the third day. The surgery in the left eye was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 and the best corrected visual acuity 20/20 in both eyes with a significant improvement in corneal topography. Care must be taken to prevent CK-treated spots from coinciding with areas in the corneal stroma that might have been altered by previous refractive procedures.

  8. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  9. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones affect every cell in the human body, and the cardiovascular changes associated with increased levels of thyroid hormones are especially well described. As an example, short-term hyperthyroidism has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart, leading to a hyperdynamic...... with CVD, LD and DM both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Although the design used does not allow a stringent distinction between cause and effect, the findings indicate a possible direct association between hyperthyroidism and these morbidities, or vice versa....... vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions...

  10. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  11. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  12. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  13. [Bentall operation after previous repair of tetralogy of Fallot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballore, Luca; Tramontin, Corrado; Manca, Paolo; Tocco, Stefania; Lixi, Giovanni; Matta, Gildo; Cirio, Emiliano Maria; Martelli, Valentino

    2007-04-01

    Pathologies that involve the ascending aorta are described in case reports of patients after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot. Here, we present a case report. Preoperative tests showed an aortic ratio of > 1.5. The patient was operated on replacement of the ascending aorta according to the Bentall technique. At present, the guidelines for replacement of the ascending aorta recommend an aortic ratio of > 1.5 and in case of Marfan syndrome of > 1.3. In these patient subsets, cystic medial necrosis and an increased risk of aortic dissection have been described. Therefore, as for Marfan syndrome, why an aortic ratio of >1.3 should not be considered a proper surgical indication also for these patients?

  14. Lithopaedon Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction with a Previous Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of a 25 year old lady Para 4 + 0 gravida 5, who was referred to Kisii level 5 hospital from a district hospital with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction and a four year history of an intra-abdominal mass. A year prior to the admission she conceived and delivered vaginally at home but the baby died a few ...

  15. [Parathyroid cancer in a patient with previous history of hypernephroma: a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Navarro, J; Mendoza, E; Mateos, P; Cereceda, A; Coca, S

    2007-01-01

    We report the clinical case of a 55 year-old male patient, with a previous history of nephrectomy by hypernephroma sixteen years ago, first presenting hypercalcemia and rising of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. A localization study revealed an intrathyroid nodule with cystic appearance. After undergoing a hemi-thyroidectomy, the patient is diagnosed with parathyroid carcinoma. This article analyzes previously published cases presenting parathyroidal pathologies associated with hypernephroma. A broader differential diagnosis--including the screening of parathyroidal pathologies should be considered in patients with hypercalcemia and hypernephroma.

  16. The Relationship of Lumbar Multifidus Muscle Morphology to Previous, Current, and Future Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J; Kjær, Per; Fritz, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    of LBP after five and nine years.Summary of Background Data. Although low back pain (LBP) is a major source of disease burden, the biologic determinants of LBP are poorly understood.Methods. Participants were 40-year-old adults randomly sampled from a Danish population and followed-up at ages 45 and 49....... At each time point, participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and reported ever having had LBP, LBP in the previous year, non-trivial LBP in the previous year, or a history of pain radiating into the legs. Pixel intensity and frequencies from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images identified...

  17. Mediastinal involvement in lymphangiomatosis: a previously unreported MRI sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikas; Shah, Sachit; Barnacle, Alex; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Brock, Penelope [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Harper, John I. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Dermatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare systemic disorder affecting children. Due to its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical, histological and imaging features, establishing the diagnosis of multifocal lymphangiomatosis can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to describe a new imaging sign in this disorder: paraspinal soft tissue and signal abnormality at MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging, clinical and histopathological findings in a cohort of eight children with thoracic involvement from this condition. Evidence of paraspinal chest disease was identified at MRI and CT in all eight of these children. The changes comprise heterogeneous intermediate-to-high signal parallel to the thoracic vertebrae on T2-weighted sequences at MRI, with abnormal paraspinal soft tissue at CT and plain radiography. Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder with a broad range of clinicopathological and imaging features. MRI allows complete evaluation of disease extent without the use of ionising radiation and has allowed us to describe a previously unreported imaging sign in this disorder, namely, heterogeneous hyperintense signal in abnormal paraspinal tissue on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  18. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarct