WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously mapped faults

  1. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  2. Insurance Applications of Active Fault Maps Showing Epistemic Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, G.

    2005-12-01

    Insurance loss modeling for earthquakes utilizes available maps of active faulting produced by geoscientists. All such maps are subject to uncertainty, arising from lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history. Field work to undertake geological fault investigations drains human and monetary resources, and this inevitably limits the resolution of fault parameters. Some areas are more accessible than others; some may be of greater social or economic importance than others; some areas may be investigated more rapidly or diligently than others; or funding restrictions may have curtailed the extent of the fault mapping program. In contrast with the aleatory uncertainty associated with the inherent variability in the dynamics of earthquake fault rupture, uncertainty associated with lack of knowledge of fault geometry and rupture history is epistemic. The extent of this epistemic uncertainty may vary substantially from one regional or national fault map to another. However aware the local cartographer may be, this uncertainty is generally not conveyed in detail to the international map user. For example, an area may be left blank for a variety of reasons, ranging from lack of sufficient investigation of a fault to lack of convincing evidence of activity. Epistemic uncertainty in fault parameters is of concern in any probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard, not least in insurance earthquake risk applications. A logic-tree framework is appropriate for incorporating epistemic uncertainty. Some insurance contracts cover specific high-value properties or transport infrastructure, and therefore are extremely sensitive to the geometry of active faulting. Alternative Risk Transfer (ART) to the capital markets may also be considered. In order for such insurance or ART contracts to be properly priced, uncertainty should be taken into account. Accordingly, an estimate is needed for the likelihood of surface rupture capable of causing severe damage. Especially where a

  3. Fault diagnosis of rotating machine by isometric feature mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yun; Li, Benwei; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wen; Wang, Zibin

    2013-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) are well-known linear dimensionality reductions for fault classification. However, since they are linear methods, they perform not well for high-dimensional data that has the nonlinear geometric structure. As kernel extension of PCA, Kernel PCA is used for nonlinear fault classification. However, the performance of Kernel PCA largely depends on its kernel function which can only be empirically selected from finite candidates. Thus, a novel rotating machine fault diagnosis approach based on geometrically motivated nonlinear dimensionality reduction named isometric feature mapping (Isomap) is proposed. The approach can effectively extract the intrinsic nonlinear manifold features embedded in high-dimensional fault data sets. Experimental results with rotor and rolling bearing data show that the proposed approach overcomes the flaw of conventional fault pattern recognition approaches and obviously improves the fault classification performance.

  4. Risk-based fault detection using Self-Organizing Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hongyang; Khan, Faisal; Garaniya, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of modern systems is increasing rapidly and the dominating relationships among system variables have become highly non-linear. This results in difficulty in the identification of a system's operating states. In turn, this difficulty affects the sensitivity of fault detection and imposes a challenge on ensuring the safety of operation. In recent years, Self-Organizing Maps has gained popularity in system monitoring as a robust non-linear dimensionality reduction tool. Self-Organizing Map is able to capture non-linear variations of the system. Therefore, it is sensitive to the change of a system's states leading to early detection of fault. In this paper, a new approach based on Self-Organizing Map is proposed to detect and assess the risk of fault. In addition, probabilistic analysis is applied to characterize the risk of fault into different levels according to the hazard potential to enable a refined monitoring of the system. The proposed approach is applied on two experimental systems. The results from both systems have shown high sensitivity of the proposed approach in detecting and identifying the root cause of faults. The refined monitoring facilitates the determination of the risk of fault and early deployment of remedial actions and safety measures to minimize the potential impact of fault. - Highlights: • A new approach based on Self-Organizing Map is proposed to detect faults. • Integration of fault detection with risk assessment methodology. • Fault risk characterization into different levels to enable focused system monitoring

  5. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, P.

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project "Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine" supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  6. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project ''Grid fault and designbasis for wind turbine'' supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  7. Structural Mapping Along the Central San Andreas Fault-zone Using Airborne Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio, K. D.; Bedrosian, P.; Ball, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    Investigations of active fault zones typically focus on either surface expressions or the associated seismogenic zones. However, the largely aseismic upper kilometer can hold significant insight into fault-zone architecture, strain partitioning, and fault-zone permeability. Geophysical imaging of the first kilometer provides a link between surface fault mapping and seismically-defined fault zones and is particularly important in geologically complex regions with limited surface exposure. Additionally, near surface imaging can provide insight into the impact of faulting on the hydrogeology of the critical zone. Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods offer a unique opportunity to collect a spatially-large, detailed dataset in a matter of days, and are used to constrain subsurface resistivity to depths of 500 meters or more. We present initial results from an AEM survey flown over a 60 kilometer long segment of the central San Andreas Fault (SAF). The survey is centered near Parkfield, California, the site of the SAFOD drillhole, which marks the transition between a creeping fault segment to the north and a locked zone to the south. Cross sections with a depth of investigation up to approximately 500 meters highlight the complex Tertiary and Mesozoic geology that is dismembered by the SAF system. Numerous fault-parallel structures are imaged across a more than 10 kilometer wide zone centered on the surface trace. Many of these features can be related to faults and folds within Plio-Miocene sedimentary rocks found on both sides of the fault. Northeast of the fault, rocks of the Mesozoic Franciscan and Great Valley complexes are extremely heterogeneous, with highly resistive volcanic rocks within a more conductive background. The upper 300 meters of a prominent fault-zone conductor, previously imaged to 1-3 kilometers depth by magnetotellurics, is restricted to a 20 kilometer long segment of the fault, but is up to 4 kilometers wide in places. Elevated fault

  8. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 2: MAIN STAGES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is to complete the description of the special mapping method which theoretical basis and principles were published in [Seminsky, 2014]. With reference to data on the Ulirba site located in Priolkhonie (Western Pribaikalie, the content of special mapping is reviewed in detail. The method is based on paragenetical analysis of abundant jointing which specific feature is the lack of any visible displacement indicators. There are three stages in the special mapping method (Fig. 3 as follows:Stage I: Preparation and analysis of previously published data on the regional fault structure (Fig. 1, А–Г, establishment of a networks of stations to conduct structural geological monitoring and mass measurements of joints, re­cord of rock data (Fig. 2, А, general state of the fault network (Fig. 1, Д–З, fracture density (Fig. 2, Б and, if any, structures of the above-jointing level (Fig. 1, Е, З; Fig. 2, А.Stage II is aimed at processing of field data and includes activities in four groups (II.1–II.4 as follows: Group II.1: construction of circle diagrams, specification of characteristics of joint systems and their typical scatters (Fig. 4, А, identification of simple (generally tipple paragenesises, and determination of dynamic settings of their formation (translocal rank (Table 1, evaluation of densities and complexity of the joint networks, analysis of their spacial patterns within the site under mapping, and identification of the most intensively destructed zones in the rock massif (Fig. 2, Б–В. Group II.2: comparison of jointing diagrams with reference ones showing joint poles (Fig. 4, Б–В; Е–З; Л–Н, and, in case of their satisfactory correlation, making a conclusion of potential formation of a specific joint pattern in the local zone of strike-slip, normal faulting or reverse faulting (Fig. 4,  Г–Д, И–К, О–П; Fig. 5; Fig. 7, Б, and determination of relative age relationships between such zones on

  9. Can diligent and extensive mapping of faults provide reliable estimates of the expected maximum earthquakes at these faults? No. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, P.

    2010-12-01

    The hope expressed in the title question above can be contradicted in 5 ways, listed below. To summarize, an earthquake rupture can be larger than anticipated either because the fault system has not been fully mapped, or because the rupture is not limited to the pre-existing fault network. 1. Geologic mapping of faults is always incomplete due to four limitations: (a) Map-scale limitation: Faults below a certain (scale-dependent) apparent offset are omitted; (b) Field-time limitation: The most obvious fault(s) get(s) the most attention; (c) Outcrop limitation: You can't map what you can't see; and (d) Lithologic-contrast limitation: Intra-formation faults can be tough to map, so they are often assumed to be minor and omitted. If mapping is incomplete, fault traces may be longer and/or better-connected than we realize. 2. Fault trace “lengths” are unreliable guides to maximum magnitude. Fault networks have multiply-branching, quasi-fractal shapes, so fault “length” may be meaningless. Naming conventions for main strands are unclear, and rarely reviewed. Gaps due to Quaternary alluvial cover may not reflect deeper seismogenic structure. Mapped kinks and other “segment boundary asperities” may be only shallow structures. Also, some recent earthquakes have jumped and linked “separate” faults (Landers, California 1992; Denali, Alaska, 2002) [Wesnousky, 2006; Black, 2008]. 3. Distributed faulting (“eventually occurring everywhere”) is predicted by several simple theories: (a) Viscoelastic stress redistribution in plate/microplate interiors concentrates deviatoric stress upward until they fail by faulting; (b) Unstable triple-junctions (e.g., between 3 strike-slip faults) in 2-D plate theory require new faults to form; and (c) Faults which appear to end (on a geologic map) imply distributed permanent deformation. This means that all fault networks evolve and that even a perfect fault map would be incomplete for future ruptures. 4. A recent attempt

  10. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark); Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul; Cutululis, N.A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU, Wind Enegy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need for such investigations. The grid connection requirements for wind turbines have increased significantly during the last 5-10 years. Especially the requirements for wind turbines to stay connected to the grid during and after voltage sags, imply potential challenges in the design of wind turbines. These requirements pose challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. The goal of this report is to present a mapping of different grid fault types and their frequency in different countries. The report provides also a detailed overview of the Low Voltage Ride-Through Capabilities for wind turbines in different relevant countries. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. (au)

  11. Eastern Denali Fault surface trace map, eastern Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Adrian M.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2017-05-04

    We map the 385-kilometer (km) long surface trace of the right-lateral, strike-slip Denali Fault between the Totschunda-Denali Fault intersection in Alaska, United States and the village of Haines Junction, Yukon, Canada. In Alaska, digital elevation models based on light detection and ranging and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data enabled our fault mapping at scales of 1:2,000 and 1:10,000, respectively. Lacking such resources in Yukon, we developed new structure-from-motion digital photogrammetry products from legacy aerial photos to map the fault surface trace at a scale of 1:10,000 east of the international border. The section of the fault that we map, referred to as the Eastern Denali Fault, did not rupture during the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake (moment magnitude 7.9). Seismologic, geodetic, and geomorphic evidence, along with a paleoseismic record of past ground-rupturing earthquakes, demonstrate Holocene and contemporary activity on the fault, however. This map of the Eastern Denali Fault surface trace complements other data sets by providing an openly accessible digital interpretation of the location, length, and continuity of the fault’s surface trace based on the accompanying digital topography dataset. Additionally, the digitized fault trace may provide geometric constraints useful for modeling earthquake scenarios and related seismic hazard.

  12. Semi-automatic mapping of fault rocks on a Digital Outcrop Model, Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Southern Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vho, Alice; Bistacchi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    A quantitative analysis of fault-rock distribution is of paramount importance for studies of fault zone architecture, fault and earthquake mechanics, and fluid circulation along faults at depth. Here we present a semi-automatic workflow for fault-rock mapping on a Digital Outcrop Model (DOM). This workflow has been developed on a real case of study: the strike-slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ). It consists of a fault zone exhumed from ca. 10 km depth, hosted in granitoid rocks of Adamello batholith (Italian Southern Alps). Individual seismogenic slip surfaces generally show green cataclasites (cemented by the precipitation of epidote and K-feldspar from hydrothermal fluids) and more or less well preserved pseudotachylytes (black when well preserved, greenish to white when altered). First of all, a digital model for the outcrop is reconstructed with photogrammetric techniques, using a large number of high resolution digital photographs, processed with VisualSFM software. By using high resolution photographs the DOM can have a much higher resolution than with LIDAR surveys, up to 0.2 mm/pixel. Then, image processing is performed to map the fault-rock distribution with the ImageJ-Fiji package. Green cataclasites and epidote/K-feldspar veins can be quite easily separated from the host rock (tonalite) using spectral analysis. Particularly, band ratio and principal component analysis have been tested successfully. The mapping of black pseudotachylyte veins is more tricky because the differences between the pseudotachylyte and biotite spectral signature are not appreciable. For this reason we have tested different morphological processing tools aimed at identifying (and subtracting) the tiny biotite grains. We propose a solution based on binary images involving a combination of size and circularity thresholds. Comparing the results with manually segmented images, we noticed that major problems occur only when pseudotachylyte veins are very thin and discontinuous. After

  13. Geologic strip map along the Hines Creek Fault showing evidence for Cenozoic displacement in the western Mount Hayes and northeastern Healy quadrangles, eastern Alaska Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Hanshaw, Maiana N.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the Hines Creek Fault and the adjacent Trident Glacier and McGinnis Glacier Faults to the north in the eastern Alaska Range, Alaska, reveals that these faults were active during the Cenozoic. Previously, the Hines Creek Fault, which is considered to be part of the strike-slip Denali Fault system (Ridgway and others, 2002; Nokleberg and Richter, 2007), was interpreted to have been welded shut during the intrusion of the Upper Cretaceous Buchanan Creek pluton (Wahrhaftig and others, 1975; Gilbert, 1977; Sherwood and Craddock, 1979; Csejtey and others, 1992). Our geologic mapping along the west- to west-northwest-striking Hines Creek Fault in the northeastern Healy quadrangle and central to northwestern Mount Hayes quadrangle reveals that (1) the Buchanan Creek pluton is truncated by the Hines Creek Fault and (2) a tectonic collage of fault-bounded slices of various granitic plutons, metagabbro, metabasalt, and sedimentary rock of the Pingston terrane occurs south of the Hines Creek Fault.

  14. SPECIALIZED MAPPING OF CRUSTAL FAULT ZONES. PART 1: BASIC THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zh. Seminsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of shear zones have included collection of data on fractures showing no indication of displacement which are termed as 'blank' fractures. A method aimed at mapping fault structures and stress fields has been developed on the basis of results of paragenetic analysis of measurements of abundant fractures. The method is termed as 'specialized mapping', firstly, due to its specific structural goal so that to distinguish it from the conventional geological mapping of regions in nature, and, secondly, because of the specific procedure applied to refer to fractures as references to decipher fault-block patterns of natural regions. In Part 1, basic theoretical concepts and principles of specialized mapping are described. Part 2 is being prepared for publication in one of the next issues of the journal; it will cover stages of the proposed method and describe some of the cases of its application.In terms of general organizational principles, specialized mapping is similar to other methods based on structural paragenetic analysis and differs from such methods in types of paragenesises viewed as references to reveal crustal fault zones. Such paragenesises result from stage-by-stage faulting (Fig 2 and Fig. 7 during which stress fields of the 2nd order are regularly changeable within the shear zone. According to combined experimental and natural data, a complete paragenesis of fractures in the shear zone includes a major (1st order fault plane and fractures of other seven types, R, R’, n, n’, t, t’ and T (2nd order (Fig. 4 and Fig 8. At the fracture level, each of them corresponds to a paragenesis including three nearly perpendicular systems of early ruptures (Fig. 1, which are based on two classical patterns of conjugated fractures, one of which is consistent with the position of the fault plane (Fig. 3. Taking into account that strike-slip, reverse and normal faults are similar in terms of mechanics (i.e. they are formed due to

  15. Interpretive geophysical fault map across the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Geophysical data collected along 29 traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada reveal anomalies associated with known fault sand indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. Geophysical interpretations indicate that Midway Valley is characterized by several known and previously unknown faults, that the existence of the Yucca Wash fault is equivocal, and that the central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous low-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect numerous small-scale faults. Gravity and magnetic data also reveal several large-amplitude anomalies that reflect larger-scale faulting along the margins of the central block

  16. Fault-tolerant 3D Mapping with Application to an Orchard Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Blanke, Mogens; Rusu, Radu Bogan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a geometric reasoning method for dealing with noise as well as faults present in 3D depth maps. These maps are acquired using stereo-vision sensors, but our framework makes no assumption about the origin of the underlying data. The method is based on observations made on ...... of comprehensive 3D maps for an agricultural robot operating in an orchard....

  17. Mapping of Fault-Tolerant Applications with Transparency on Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2006-01-01

    if it does not affect operation of other processes. Transparent recovery has the advantage of fault containment, improved debugability and less memory needed to store the fault-tolerant schedules. However, it will introduce additional delays that can lead to violations of the timing constraints...... is driven by a heuristic that is able to estimate the worst-case schedule length and indicate whether a certain mapping alternative is schedulable...

  18. Clustering of the Self-Organizing Map based Approach in Induction Machine Rotor Faults Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TOUMI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-Organizing Maps (SOM is an excellent method of analyzingmultidimensional data. The SOM based classification is attractive, due to itsunsupervised learning and topology preserving properties. In this paper, theperformance of the self-organizing methods is investigated in induction motorrotor fault detection and severity evaluation. The SOM is based on motor currentsignature analysis (MCSA. The agglomerative hierarchical algorithms using theWard’s method is applied to automatically dividing the map into interestinginterpretable groups of map units that correspond to clusters in the input data. Theresults obtained with this approach make it possible to detect a rotor bar fault justdirectly from the visualization results. The system is also able to estimate theextent of rotor faults.

  19. High-frequency maximum observable shaking map of Italy from fault sources

    KAUST Repository

    Zonno, Gaetano; Basili, Roberto; Meroni, Fabrizio; Musacchio, Gemma; Mai, Paul Martin; Valensise, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    We present a strategy for obtaining fault-based maximum observable shaking (MOS) maps, which represent an innovative concept for assessing deterministic seismic ground motion at a regional scale. Our approach uses the fault sources supplied for Italy by the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources, and particularly by its composite seismogenic sources (CSS), a spatially continuous simplified 3-D representation of a fault system. For each CSS, we consider the associated Typical Fault, i. e., the portion of the corresponding CSS that can generate the maximum credible earthquake. We then compute the high-frequency (1-50 Hz) ground shaking for a rupture model derived from its associated maximum credible earthquake. As the Typical Fault floats within its CSS to occupy all possible positions of the rupture, the high-frequency shaking is updated in the area surrounding the fault, and the maximum from that scenario is extracted and displayed on a map. The final high-frequency MOS map of Italy is then obtained by merging 8,859 individual scenario-simulations, from which the ground shaking parameters have been extracted. To explore the internal consistency of our calculations and validate the results of the procedure we compare our results (1) with predictions based on the Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion equations for an earthquake of M w 7.1, (2) with the predictions of the official Italian seismic hazard map, and (3) with macroseismic intensities included in the DBMI04 Italian database. We then examine the uncertainties and analyse the variability of ground motion for different fault geometries and slip distributions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. High-frequency maximum observable shaking map of Italy from fault sources

    KAUST Repository

    Zonno, Gaetano

    2012-03-17

    We present a strategy for obtaining fault-based maximum observable shaking (MOS) maps, which represent an innovative concept for assessing deterministic seismic ground motion at a regional scale. Our approach uses the fault sources supplied for Italy by the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources, and particularly by its composite seismogenic sources (CSS), a spatially continuous simplified 3-D representation of a fault system. For each CSS, we consider the associated Typical Fault, i. e., the portion of the corresponding CSS that can generate the maximum credible earthquake. We then compute the high-frequency (1-50 Hz) ground shaking for a rupture model derived from its associated maximum credible earthquake. As the Typical Fault floats within its CSS to occupy all possible positions of the rupture, the high-frequency shaking is updated in the area surrounding the fault, and the maximum from that scenario is extracted and displayed on a map. The final high-frequency MOS map of Italy is then obtained by merging 8,859 individual scenario-simulations, from which the ground shaking parameters have been extracted. To explore the internal consistency of our calculations and validate the results of the procedure we compare our results (1) with predictions based on the Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion equations for an earthquake of M w 7.1, (2) with the predictions of the official Italian seismic hazard map, and (3) with macroseismic intensities included in the DBMI04 Italian database. We then examine the uncertainties and analyse the variability of ground motion for different fault geometries and slip distributions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont - Faults and Contacts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The bedrock geology was last mapped at a statewide scale 50 years ago at a scale of 1:250,000 (Doll and others, 1961). The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale...

  2. MAP Fault Localization Based on Wide Area Synchronous Phasor Measurement Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yagang; Wang, Zengping

    2015-02-01

    In the research of complicated electrical engineering, the emergence of phasor measurement units (PMU) is a landmark event. The establishment and application of wide area measurement system (WAMS) in power system has made widespread and profound influence on the safe and stable operation of complicated power system. In this paper, taking full advantage of wide area synchronous phasor measurement information provided by PMUs, we have carried out precise fault localization based on the principles of maximum posteriori probability (MAP). Large numbers of simulation experiments have confirmed that the results of MAP fault localization are accurate and reliable. Even if there are interferences from white Gaussian stochastic noise, the results from MAP classification are also identical to the actual real situation.

  3. Colorado Late Cenozoic Fault and Fold Database and Internet Map Server: User-friendly technology for complex information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K.S.; Pattyn, G.J.; Morgan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Internet mapping applications for geologic data allow simultaneous data delivery and collection, enabling quick data modification while efficiently supplying the end user with information. Utilizing Web-based technologies, the Colorado Geological Survey's Colorado Late Cenozoic Fault and Fold Database was transformed from a monothematic, nonspatial Microsoft Access database into a complex information set incorporating multiple data sources. The resulting user-friendly format supports easy analysis and browsing. The core of the application is the Microsoft Access database, which contains information compiled from available literature about faults and folds that are known or suspected to have moved during the late Cenozoic. The database contains nonspatial fields such as structure type, age, and rate of movement. Geographic locations of the fault and fold traces were compiled from previous studies at 1:250,000 scale to form a spatial database containing information such as length and strike. Integration of the two databases allowed both spatial and nonspatial information to be presented on the Internet as a single dataset (http://geosurvey.state.co.us/pubs/ceno/). The user-friendly interface enables users to view and query the data in an integrated manner, thus providing multiple ways to locate desired information. Retaining the digital data format also allows continuous data updating and quick delivery of newly acquired information. This dataset is a valuable resource to anyone interested in earthquake hazards and the activity of faults and folds in Colorado. Additional geologic hazard layers and imagery may aid in decision support and hazard evaluation. The up-to-date and customizable maps are invaluable tools for researchers or the public.

  4. System Analysis by Mapping a Fault-tree into a Bayesian-network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, B.; Deng, C.; Wang, Y. H.; Tang, L. H.

    2018-05-01

    In view of the limitations of fault tree analysis in reliability assessment, Bayesian Network (BN) has been studied as an alternative technology. After a brief introduction to the method for mapping a Fault Tree (FT) into an equivalent BN, equations used to calculate the structure importance degree, the probability importance degree and the critical importance degree are presented. Furthermore, the correctness of these equations is proved mathematically. Combining with an aircraft landing gear’s FT, an equivalent BN is developed and analysed. The results show that richer and more accurate information have been achieved through the BN method than the FT, which demonstrates that the BN is a superior technique in both reliability assessment and fault diagnosis.

  5. Hydrothermal fault zone mapping using seismic and electrical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onacha, Stephen Alumasa

    This dissertation presents a new method of using earthquakes and resistivity data to characterize permeable hydrothermal reservoirs. The method is applied to field examples from Casa Diablo in the Long Valley Caldera, California; Mt. Longonot, Kenya; and Krafla, Iceland. The new method has significant practical value in the exploration and production of geothermal energy. The method uses P- and S-wave velocity, S-wave polarization and splitting magnitude, resistivity and magnetotelluric (MT) strike directions to determine fracture-porosity and orientation. The conceptual model used to characterize the buried, fluid-circulating fault zones in hydrothermal systems is based on geological and fracture models. The method has been tested with field earthquake and resistivity data; core samples; temperature measurements; and, for the case of Krafla, with a drilled well. The use of resistivity and microearthquake measurements is based on theoretical formulation of shared porosity, anisotropy and polarization. The relation of resistivity and a double porosity-operator is solved using a basis function. The porosity-operator is used to generate a correlation function between P-wave velocity and resistivity. This correlation is then used to generate P-wave velocity from 2-D resistivity models. The resistivity models are generated from magnetotelluric (MT) by using the Non-Linear Conjugate Gradient (NLCG) inversion method. The seismic and electrical measurements used come from portable, multi station microearthquake (MEQ) monitoring networks and multi-profile, MT and transient electromagnetic (TEM) observation campaigns. The main conclusions in this dissertation are listed below: (1) Strong evidence exists for correlation between MT strike direction and anisotropy and MEQ S-wave splitting at sites close to fluid-filled fracture zones. (2) A porosity operator generated from a double porosity model has been used to generate valid P-wave velocity models from resistivity data. This

  6. Soil-Gas Radon Anomaly Map of an Unknown Fault Zone Area, Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Kaweewong, C.; Imurai, W.; Pondthai, P.

    2015-12-01

    Soil-gas radon concentration anomaly map was constructed to help detect an unknown subsurface fault location in San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand where a 5.1-magnitude earthquake took place in December 2006. It was suspected that this earthquake may have been associated with an unrecognized active fault in the area. In this study, soil-gas samples were collected from eighty-four measuring stations covering an area of approximately 50 km2. Radon in soil-gas samples was quantified using Scintrex Radon Detector, RDA-200. The samplings were conducted twice: during December 2014-January 2015 and March 2015-April 2015. The soil-gas radon map obtained from this study reveals linear NNW-SSE trend of high concentration. This anomaly corresponds to the direction of the prospective fault system interpreted from satellite images. The findings from this study support the existence of this unknown fault system. However a more detailed investigation should be conducted in order to confirm its geometry, orientation and lateral extent.

  7. Manifold Learning with Self-Organizing Mapping for Feature Extraction of Nonlinear Faults in Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for extracting the low-dimensional feature automatically with self-organization mapping manifold is proposed for the detection of rotating mechanical nonlinear faults (such as rubbing, pedestal looseness. Under the phase space reconstructed by single vibration signal, the self-organization mapping (SOM with expectation maximization iteration algorithm is used to divide the local neighborhoods adaptively without manual intervention. After that, the local tangent space alignment algorithm is adopted to compress the high-dimensional phase space into low-dimensional feature space. The proposed method takes advantages of the manifold learning in low-dimensional feature extraction and adaptive neighborhood construction of SOM and can extract intrinsic fault features of interest in two dimensional projection space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the Lorenz system was simulated and rotation machinery with nonlinear faults was obtained for test purposes. Compared with the holospectrum approaches, the results reveal that the proposed method is superior in identifying faults and effective for rotating machinery condition monitoring.

  8. Fault-Tolerant and Elastic Streaming MapReduce with Decentralized Coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumbhare, Alok [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Simmhan, Yogesh [Indian Inst. of Technology (IIT), Bangalore (India); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The MapReduce programming model, due to its simplicity and scalability, has become an essential tool for processing large data volumes in distributed environments. Recent Stream Processing Systems (SPS) extend this model to provide low-latency analysis of high-velocity continuous data streams. However, integrating MapReduce with streaming poses challenges: first, the runtime variations in data characteristics such as data-rates and key-distribution cause resource overload, that inturn leads to fluctuations in the Quality of the Service (QoS); and second, the stateful reducers, whose state depends on the complete tuple history, necessitates efficient fault-recovery mechanisms to maintain the desired QoS in the presence of resource failures. We propose an integrated streaming MapReduce architecture leveraging the concept of consistent hashing to support runtime elasticity along with locality-aware data and state replication to provide efficient load-balancing with low-overhead fault-tolerance and parallel fault-recovery from multiple simultaneous failures. Our evaluation on a private cloud shows up to 2:8 improvement in peak throughput compared to Apache Storm SPS, and a low recovery latency of 700 -1500 ms from multiple failures.

  9. Deciphering Stress State of Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma and Kansas Based on High-resolution Stress Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Chen, X.; Haffener, J.; Trugman, D. T.; Carpenter, B.; Reches, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Induced seismicity in Oklahoma and Kansas delineates clear fault trends. It is assumed that fluid injection reactivates faults which are optimally oriented relative to the regional tectonic stress field. We utilized recently improved earthquake locations and more complete focal mechanism catalogs to quantitatively analyze the stress state of seismogenic faults with high-resolution stress maps. The steps of analysis are: (1) Mapping the faults by clustering seismicity using a nearest-neighbor approach, manually picking the fault in each cluster and calculating the fault geometry using principal component analysis. (2) Running a stress inversion with 0.2° grid spacing to produce an in-situ stress map. (3) The fault stress state is determined from fault geometry and a 3D Mohr circle. The parameter `understress' is calculated to quantify the criticalness of these faults. If it approaches 0, the fault is critically stressed; while understress=1 means there is no shear stress on the fault. Our results indicate that most of the active faults have a planar shape (planarity>0.8), and dip steeply (dip>70°). The fault trends are distributed mainly in conjugate set ranges of [50°,70°] and [100°,120°]. More importantly, these conjugate trends are consistent with mapped basement fractures in southern Oklahoma, suggesting similar basement features from regional tectonics. The fault length data shows a loglinear relationship with the maximum earthquake magnitude with an expected maximum magnitude range from 3.2 to 4.4 for most seismogenic faults. Based on 3D local Mohr circle, we find that 61% of the faults have low understress (0.5) are located within highest-rate injection zones and therefore are likely to be influenced by high pore pressure. The faults that hosted the largest earthquakes, M5.7 Prague and M5.8 Pawnee are critically stressed (understress 0.2). These differences may help in understanding earthquake sequences, for example, the predominantly aftershock

  10. Fault specific GIS based seismic hazard maps for the Attica region, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannakis, G.; Papanikolaou, I. D.; Roberts, G.

    2018-04-01

    Traditional seismic hazard assessment methods are based on the historical seismic records for the calculation of an annual probability of exceedance for a particular ground motion level. A new fault-specific seismic hazard assessment method is presented, in order to address problems related to the incompleteness and the inhomogeneity of the historical records and to obtain higher spatial resolution of hazard. This method is applied to the region of Attica, which is the most densely populated area in Greece, as nearly half of the country's population lives in Athens and its surrounding suburbs, in the Greater Athens area. The methodology is based on a database of 24 active faults that could cause damage to Attica in case of seismic rupture. This database provides information about the faults slip rates, lengths and expected magnitudes. The final output of the method is four fault-specific seismic hazard maps, showing the recurrence of expected intensities for each locality. These maps offer a high spatial resolution, as they consider the surface geology. Despite the fact that almost half of the Attica region lies on the lowest seismic risk zone according to the official seismic hazard zonation of Greece, different localities have repeatedly experienced strong ground motions during the last 15 kyrs. Moreover, the maximum recurrence for each intensity occurs in different localities across Attica. Highest recurrence for intensity VII (151-156 times over 15 kyrs, or up to a 96 year return period) is observed in the central part of the Athens basin. The maximum intensity VIII recurrence (115 times over 15 kyrs, or up to a 130 year return period) is observed in the western part of Attica, while the maximum intensity IX (73-77/15 kyrs, or a 195 year return period) and X (25-29/15 kyrs, or a 517 year return period) recurrences are observed near the South Alkyonides fault system, which dominates the strong ground motions hazard in the western part of the Attica mainland.

  11. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard risk maps in Mexico City and Morelia, central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Solano-Rojas, D.; Hernández-Espriu, J.; Cigna, F.; Wdowinski, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Falorni, G.; Bohane, A.; Colombo, D.

    2012-12-01

    Subsidence and surface faulting have affected urban areas in Central Mexico for decades and the process has intensified as a consequence of urban sprawl and economic growth. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and in several cities it is becoming a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. Despite its potential for damaging housing, and other urban infrastructure, the economic impact of this phenomena is poorly known, in part because detailed, city-wide subsidence induced faulting risk maps have not been published before. Nevertheless, modern remote sensing techniques are most suitable for this task. We present the results of a risk analysis for subsidence induced surface faulting in two cities in central Mexico: Morelia and Mexico City. Our analysis in Mexico City and Morelia is based on a risk matrix using the horizontal subsidence gradient from a Persistent Scatterer InSAR (Morelia) and SqueeSAR (Mexico City) analysis and 2010 census population distribution data from Mexico's National Institute of Statistics and Geography. Defining subsidence induced surface faulting vulnerability within these urbanized areas is best determined using both magnitude and horizontal subsidence gradient. Our Morelia analysis (597,000 inhabitants with localized subsidence rates up to 80 mm/yr) shows that 7% of the urbanized area is under a high to very high risk level, and 14% of its population (11.7% and 2.3% respectively) lives within these areas. In the case of the Mexico City (15'490,000 inhabitants for the

  12. Fault detection of sensors in nuclear reactors using self-organizing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Paulo Roberto; Tiago, Graziela Marchi [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bueno, Elaine Inacio [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: martinez@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work a Fault Detection System was developed based on the self-organizing maps methodology. This method was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN using a database generated by a theoretical model of the reactor. The IEA-R1 research reactor is a pool type reactor of 5 MW, cooled and moderated by light water, and uses graphite and beryllium as reflector. The theoretical model was developed using the Matlab Guide toolbox. The equations are based in the IEA-R1 mass and energy inventory balance and physical as well as operational aspects are taken into consideration. In order to test the model ability for fault detection, faults were artificially produced. As the value of the maximum calibration error for special thermocouples is +- 0.5 deg C, it had been inserted faults in the sensor signals with the purpose to produce the database considered in this work. The results show a high percentage of correct classification, encouraging the use of the technique for this type of industrial application. (author)

  13. Fault detection of sensors in nuclear reactors using self-organizing maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Paulo Roberto; Tiago, Graziela Marchi; Bueno, Elaine Inacio; Pereira, Iraci Martinez

    2011-01-01

    In this work a Fault Detection System was developed based on the self-organizing maps methodology. This method was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN using a database generated by a theoretical model of the reactor. The IEA-R1 research reactor is a pool type reactor of 5 MW, cooled and moderated by light water, and uses graphite and beryllium as reflector. The theoretical model was developed using the Matlab Guide toolbox. The equations are based in the IEA-R1 mass and energy inventory balance and physical as well as operational aspects are taken into consideration. In order to test the model ability for fault detection, faults were artificially produced. As the value of the maximum calibration error for special thermocouples is +- 0.5 deg C, it had been inserted faults in the sensor signals with the purpose to produce the database considered in this work. The results show a high percentage of correct classification, encouraging the use of the technique for this type of industrial application. (author)

  14. Rapid mapping of ultrafine fault zone topography with structure from motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kendra; Nissen, Edwin; Saripalli, Srikanth; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; McGarey, Patrick; Scharer, Katherine M.; Williams, Patrick; Blisniuk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Structure from Motion (SfM) generates high-resolution topography and coregistered texture (color) from an unstructured set of overlapping photographs taken from varying viewpoints, overcoming many of the cost, time, and logistical limitations of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and other topographic surveying methods. This paper provides the first investigation of SfM as a tool for mapping fault zone topography in areas of sparse or low-lying vegetation. First, we present a simple, affordable SfM workflow, based on an unmanned helium balloon or motorized glider, an inexpensive camera, and semiautomated software. Second, we illustrate the system at two sites on southern California faults covered by existing airborne or terrestrial LiDAR, enabling a comparative assessment of SfM topography resolution and precision. At the first site, an ∼0.1 km2 alluvial fan on the San Andreas fault, a colored point cloud of density mostly >700 points/m2 and a 3 cm digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from 233 photos collected ∼50 m above ground level. When a few global positioning system ground control points are incorporated, closest point vertical distances to the much sparser (∼4 points/m2) airborne LiDAR point cloud are mostly 530 points/m2 and a 2 cm DEM and orthophoto were produced from 450 photos taken from ∼60 m above ground level. Closest point vertical distances to existing terrestrial LiDAR data of comparable density are mostly geomorphic offsets related to past earthquakes as well as rapid response mapping or long-term monitoring of faulted landscapes.

  15. Fault Specific Seismic Hazard Maps as Input to Loss Reserves Calculation for Attica Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannakis, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Zimbidis, Alexandros; Roberts, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    Greece is prone to various natural disasters, such as wildfires, floods, landslides and earthquakes, due to the special environmental and geological conditions dominating in tectonic plate boundaries. Seismic is the predominant risk, in terms of damages and casualties in the Greek territory. The historical record of earthquakes in Greece has been published from various researchers, providing useful data in seismic hazard assessment of Greece. However, the completeness of the historical record in Greece, despite being one of the longest worldwide, reaches only 500 years for M ≥ 7.3 and less than 200 years for M ≥ 6.5. Considering that active faults in the area have recurrence intervals of a few hundred to several thousands of years, it is clear that many active faults have not been activated during the completeness period covered by the historical records. New Seismic Hazard Assessment methodologies tend to follow fault specific approaches where seismic sources are geologically constrained active faults, in order to address problems related to the historical records incompleteness, obtain higher spatial resolution and calculate realistic source locality distances, since seismic sources are very accurately located. Fault specific approaches provide quantitative assessments as they measure fault slip rates from geological data, providing a more reliable estimate of seismic hazard. We used a fault specific seismic hazard assessment approach for the region of Attica. The method of seismic hazard mapping from geological fault throw-rate data combined three major factors: Empirical data which combine fault rupture lengths, earthquake magnitudes and coseismic slip relationships. The radiuses of VI, VII, VIII and IX isoseismals on the Modified Mercalli (MM) intensity scale. Attenuation - amplification functions for seismic shaking on bedrock compared to basin filling sediments. We explicitly modeled 22 active faults that could affect the region of Attica, including

  16. Landslide susceptibility mapping for a part of North Anatolian Fault Zone (Northeast Turkey) using logistic regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Gökhan; aytekin, mustafa; banu ikizler, sabriye; angın, zekai

    2013-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault is know as one of the most active and destructive fault zone which produced many earthquakes with high magnitudes. Along this fault zone, the morphology and the lithological features are prone to landsliding. However, many earthquake induced landslides were recorded by several studies along this fault zone, and these landslides caused both injuiries and live losts. Therefore, a detailed landslide susceptibility assessment for this area is indispancable. In this context, a landslide susceptibility assessment for the 1445 km2 area in the Kelkit River valley a part of North Anatolian Fault zone (Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey) was intended with this study, and the results of this study are summarized here. For this purpose, geographical information system (GIS) and a bivariate statistical model were used. Initially, Landslide inventory maps are prepared by using landslide data determined by field surveys and landslide data taken from General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration. The landslide conditioning factors are considered to be lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, topographical elevation, distance to streams, distance to roads and distance to faults, drainage density and fault density. ArcGIS package was used to manipulate and analyze all the collected data Logistic regression method was applied to create a landslide susceptibility map. Landslide susceptibility maps were divided into five susceptibility regions such as very low, low, moderate, high and very high. The result of the analysis was verified using the inventoried landslide locations and compared with the produced probability model. For this purpose, Area Under Curvature (AUC) approach was applied, and a AUC value was obtained. Based on this AUC value, the obtained landslide susceptibility map was concluded as satisfactory. Keywords: North Anatolian Fault Zone, Landslide susceptibility map, Geographical Information Systems, Logistic Regression Analysis.

  17. Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanhyo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively.

  18. Fast Computation of Ground Motion Shaking Map base on the Modified Stochastic Finite Fault Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W.; Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.

    2012-12-01

    Rapidly regional MMI mapping soon after a moderate-large earthquake is crucial to loss estimation, emergency services and planning of emergency action by the government. In fact, many countries show different degrees of attention on the technology of rapid estimation of MMI , and this technology has made significant progress in earthquake-prone countries. In recent years, numerical modeling of strong ground motion has been well developed with the advances of computation technology and earthquake science. The computational simulation of strong ground motion caused by earthquake faulting has become an efficient way to estimate the regional MMI distribution soon after earthquake. In China, due to the lack of strong motion observation in network sparse or even completely missing areas, the development of strong ground motion simulation method has become an important means of quantitative estimation of strong motion intensity. In many of the simulation models, stochastic finite fault model is preferred to rapid MMI estimating for its time-effectiveness and accuracy. In finite fault model, a large fault is divided into N subfaults, and each subfault is considered as a small point source. The ground motions contributed by each subfault are calculated by the stochastic point source method which is developed by Boore, and then summed at the observation point to obtain the ground motion from the entire fault with a proper time delay. Further, Motazedian and Atkinson proposed the concept of Dynamic Corner Frequency, with the new approach, the total radiated energy from the fault and the total seismic moment are conserved independent of subfault size over a wide range of subfault sizes. In current study, the program EXSIM developed by Motazedian and Atkinson has been modified for local or regional computations of strong motion parameters such as PGA, PGV and PGD, which are essential for MMI estimating. To make the results more reasonable, we consider the impact of V30 for the

  19. Analysis of Fault Permeability Using Mapping and Flow Modeling, Hickory Sandstone Aquifer, Central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto Camargo, Jorge E., E-mail: jorge.nietocamargo@aramco.com; Jensen, Jerry L., E-mail: jjensen@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Reservoir compartments, typical targets for infill well locations, are commonly created by faults that may reduce permeability. A narrow fault may consist of a complex assemblage of deformation elements that result in spatially variable and anisotropic permeabilities. We report on the permeability structure of a km-scale fault sampled through drilling a faulted siliciclastic aquifer in central Texas. Probe and whole-core permeabilities, serial CAT scans, and textural and structural data from the selected core samples are used to understand permeability structure of fault zones and develop predictive models of fault zone permeability. Using numerical flow simulation, it is possible to predict permeability anisotropy associated with faults and evaluate the effect of individual deformation elements in the overall permeability tensor. We found relationships between the permeability of the host rock and those of the highly deformed (HD) fault-elements according to the fault throw. The lateral continuity and predictable permeability of the HD fault elements enhance capability for estimating the effects of subseismic faulting on fluid flow in low-shale reservoirs.

  20. Geologic map and cross sections of the Embudo Fault Zone in the Southern Taos Valley, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Paul W.; Kelson, Keith I.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Peggy S.; Aby, Scott B.; Felix, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The southern Taos Valley encompasses the physiographic and geologic transition zone between the Picuris Mountains and the San Luis Basin of the Rio Grande rift. The Embudo fault zone is the rift transfer structure that has accommodated the kinematic disparities between the San Luis Basin and the Española Basin during Neogene rift extension. The eastern terminus of the transfer zone coincides with the intersection of four major fault zones (Embudo, Sangre de Cristo, Los Cordovas, and Picuris-Pecos), resulting in an area of extreme geologic and hydrogeologic complexities in both the basin-fill deposits and the bedrock. Although sections of the Embudo fault zone are locally exposed in the bedrock of the Picuris Mountains and in the late Cenozoic sedimentary units along the top of the Picuris piedmont, the full proportions of the fault zone have remained elusive due to a pervasive cover of Quaternary surficial deposits. We combined insights derived from the latest geologic mapping of the area with deep borehole data and high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity models to develop a detailed stratigraphic/structural model of the rift basin in the southern Taos Valley area. The four fault systems in the study area overlap in various ways in time and space. Our geologic model states that the Picuris-Pecos fault system exists in the basement rocks (Picuris formation and older units) of the rift, where it is progressively down dropped and offset to the west by each Embudo fault strand between the Picuris Mountains and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. In this model, the Miranda graben exists in the subsurface as a series of offset basement blocks between the Ponce de Leon neighborhood and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. In the study area, the Embudo faults are pervasive structures between the Picuris Mountains and the Rio Pueblo de Taos, affecting all geologic units that are older than the Quaternary surficial deposits. The Los Cordovas faults are thought to represent the late Tertiary to

  1. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard Zonation Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry and Horizontal Gradient Mapping in Mexican Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Cigna, F.; Osmanoglu, B.; Dixon, T.; Wdowinski, S.

    2011-12-01

    Subsidence and faulting have affected Mexico city for more than a century and the process is becoming widespread throughout larger urban areas in central Mexico. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and will certainly become a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. In all studied cases stratigraphy of the uppermost sediment strata and the structure of the underlying volcanic rocks impose a much different subsidence pattern which is most suitable for imaging through satellite geodetic techniques. We present examples from several cities in central Mexico: a) Mexico-Chalco. Very high rates of subsidence, up to 370 mm/yr are observed within this lacustrine environment surrounded by Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic structures. b) Aguascalientes where rates up to 90 mm/yr in the past decade are observed, is controlled by a stair stepped N-S trending graben that induces nucleation of faults along the edges of contrasting sediment package thicknesses. c) Morelia presents subsidence rates as high as 80 mm/yr. Differential deformation is observed across major basin-bounding E-W trending faults and with higher subsidence rates on their hanging walls, where the thickest sequences of compressible Quaternary sediments crop out. Our subsidence and faulting study in urban areas of central Mexico is based on a horizontal gradient analysis using displacement maps from Persistent Scatterer InSAR that allows definition of areas with high vulnerability to surface faulting. Correlation of the surface subsidence pattern

  2. Atomic mapping of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in transparent conducting BaSnO3-based thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Y; Tang, Y L; Zhu, Y L; Suriyaprakash, J; Xu, Y B; Liu, Y; Gao, B; Cheong, S-W; Ma, X L

    2015-11-03

    Doped BaSnO3 has arisen many interests recently as one of the promising transparent conducting oxides for future applications. Understanding the microstructural characteristics are crucial for the exploration of relevant devices. In this paper, we investigated the microstructural features of 0.001% La doped BaSnO3 thin film using both conventional and aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes. Contrast analysis shows high densities of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in the film, which are on {100} planes with translational displacements of 1/2a  . Atomic EELS element mappings reveal that the Ruddlesden-Popper faults are Ba-O layer terminated, and two kinds of kink structures at the Ruddlesden-Popper faults with different element distributions are also demonstrated. Quantitative analysis on lattice distortions of the Ruddlesden-Popper faults illustrates that the local lattice spacing poses a huge increment of 36%, indicating that large strains exist around the Ruddlesden-Popper faults in the film.

  3. Mapping the Qademah Fault with Traveltime, Surface-wave, and Resistivity Tomograms

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-08-19

    Traveltime, surface-wave, and resistivity tomograms are used to track the buried Qademah fault located near King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC), Saudi Arabia. The fault location is confirmed by the 1) resistivity tomogram obtained from an electrical resistivity experiment, 2) the refraction traveltime tomogram, 3) the reflection image computed from 2D seismic data set recorded at the northern part of the fault, and 4) the surface-wave tomogram.

  4. Mapping the Qademah Fault with Traveltime, Surface-wave, and Resistivity Tomograms

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-01-01

    Traveltime, surface-wave, and resistivity tomograms are used to track the buried Qademah fault located near King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC), Saudi Arabia. The fault location is confirmed by the 1) resistivity tomogram obtained from an electrical resistivity experiment, 2) the refraction traveltime tomogram, 3) the reflection image computed from 2D seismic data set recorded at the northern part of the fault, and 4) the surface-wave tomogram.

  5. Mapping the geothermal potential of fault zones in the Belgium-Netherlands border region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveless, S.; Pluymaekers, M.P.D.; Lagrou, D.; Boever, E. de; Doornenbal, H.; Laenen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Faults can determine the success or failure of low enthalpy geothermal projects. This is due to their capacity to behave as pathways or baffles to geothermal water (or both simultaneously) and their prevalence throughout the subsurface. Here we present an initial assessment of the possibility for

  6. Task Mapping and Bandwidth Reservation for Mixed Hard/Soft Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saraswat, Prabhat Kumar; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    reserved for the servers determines the quality of service (QoS) for soft tasks. CBS enforces temporal isolation, such that soft task overruns do not affect the timing guarantees of hard tasks. Transient faults in hard tasks are tolerated using checkpointing with rollback recovery. We have proposed a Tabu...

  7. Quaternary layer anomalies around the Carlsberg Fault zone mapped with high-resolution shear-wave seismics south of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammann, Janina; Hübscher, Christian; Nielsen, Lars

    Fault zone. The portable compact vibrator source ElViS III S8 was used to acquire a 1150 m long seismic section on the island Amager, south of Copenhagen. The shallow subsurface in the investigation area is dominated by Quaternary glacial till deposits in the upper 5-11 m and Danian limestone below....... In the shear-wave profile, we imaged the 30 m of the upward continuation of the Carlsberg Fault zone. In our area of investigation, the fault zone appears to comprise normal block faults and one reverse block fault showing the complexity of the fault zone. The observed faults appear to affect both the Danian...

  8. Eddy current loss analysis of open-slot fault-tolerant permanent-magnet machines based on conformal mapping method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jinghua; Luo, Jianhua; Lei, Qian; Bian, Fangfang

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposed an analytical method, based on conformal mapping (CM) method, for the accurate evaluation of magnetic field and eddy current (EC) loss in fault-tolerant permanent-magnet (FTPM) machines. The aim of modulation function, applied in CM method, is to change the open-slot structure into fully closed-slot structure, whose air-gap flux density is easy to calculate analytically. Therefore, with the help of Matlab Schwarz-Christoffel (SC) Toolbox, both the magnetic flux density and EC density of FTPM machine are obtained accurately. Finally, time-stepped transient finite-element method (FEM) is used to verify the theoretical analysis, showing that the proposed method is able to predict the magnetic flux density and EC loss precisely.

  9. Characterizing the potential for fault reactivation related to CO2 injection through subsurface structural mapping and stress field analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, D.; Bidgoli, T.; Taylor, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    South-central Kansas has experienced an unprecedented increase in seismic activity since 2013. The spatial and temporal relationship of the seismicity with brine disposal operations has renewed interest in the role of fluids in fault reactivation. This study focuses on determining the suitability of CO2 injection into a Cambro-Ordovician reservoir for long-term storage and a Mississippian reservoir for enhanced oil recovery in Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. Our approach for determining the potential for induced seismicity has been to (1) map subsurface faults and estimate in-situ stresses, (2) perform slip and dilation tendency analysis to identify optimally-oriented faults relative to the estimated stress field, and (3) monitor surface deformation through cGPS data and InSAR imaging. Through the use of 3D seismic reflection data, 60 near vertical, NNE-striking faults have been identified. The faults range in length from 140-410 m and have vertical separations of 3-32m. A number of faults appear to be restricted to shallow intervals, while others clearly cut the top basement reflector. Drilling-induced tensile fractures (N=78) identified from image logs and inversion of earthquake focal mechanism solutions (N=54) are consistent with the maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) oriented ~E-W. Both strike-slip and normal-slip fault plane solutions for earthquakes near the study area suggest that SHmax and Sv may be similar in magnitude. Estimates of stress magnitudes using step rate tests (Shmin = 2666 psi), density logs (Sv = 5308 psi), and calculations from wells with drilling induced tensile fractures (SHmax = 4547-6655 psi) are determined at the gauge depth of 4869ft. Preliminary slip and dilation tendency analysis indicates that faults striking 0°-20° are stable, whereas faults striking 26°-44° may have a moderate risk for reactivation with increasing pore-fluid pressure.

  10. Tools for Developing a Quality Management Program: Proactive Tools (Process Mapping, Value Stream Mapping, Fault Tree Analysis, and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the concepts of quality management (QM) and quality assurance (QA), as well as the current state of QM and QA practices in radiotherapy. A systematic approach incorporating a series of industrial engineering-based tools is proposed, which can be applied in health care organizations proactively to improve process outcomes, reduce risk and/or improve patient safety, improve through-put, and reduce cost. This tool set includes process mapping and process flowcharting, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), value stream mapping, and fault tree analysis (FTA). Many health care organizations do not have experience in applying these tools and therefore do not understand how and when to use them. As a result there are many misconceptions about how to use these tools, and they are often incorrectly applied. This article describes these industrial engineering-based tools and also how to use them, when they should be used (and not used), and the intended purposes for their use. In addition the strengths and weaknesses of each of these tools are described, and examples are given to demonstrate the application of these tools in health care settings

  11. Characterizing the Potential for Injection-Induced Fault Reactivation Through Subsurface Structural Mapping and Stress Field Analysis, Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Drew R.; Bidgoli, Tandis S.; Taylor, Michael H.

    2017-12-01

    Kansas, like other parts of the central U.S., has experienced a recent increase in seismicity. Correlation of these events with brine disposal operations suggests pore fluid pressure increases are reactivating preexisting faults, but rigorous evaluation at injection sites is lacking. Here we determine the suitability of CO2 injection into the Cambrian-Ordovician Arbuckle Group for long-term storage and into a Mississippian reservoir for enhanced oil recovery in Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. To determine the potential for injection-induced earthquakes, we map subsurface faults and estimate in situ stresses, perform slip and dilation tendency analyses to identify well-oriented faults relative to the estimated stress field, and determine the pressure changes required to induce slip at reservoir and basement depths. Three-dimensional seismic reflection data reveal 12 near-vertical faults, mostly striking NNE, consistent with nodal planes from moment tensor solutions from recent earthquakes in the region. Most of the faults cut both reservoirs and several clearly penetrate the Precambrian basement. Drilling-induced fractures (N = 40) identified from image logs and inversion of earthquake moment tensor solutions (N = 65) indicate that the maximum horizontal stress is approximately EW. Slip tendency analysis indicates that faults striking <020° are stable under current reservoir conditions, whereas faults striking 020°-049° may be prone to reactivation with increasing pore fluid pressure. Although the proposed injection volume (40,000 t) is unlikely to reactive faults at reservoir depths, high-rate injection operations could reach pressures beyond the critical threshold for slip within the basement, as demonstrated by the large number of injection-induced earthquakes west of the study area.

  12. Mapping of the surface rupture induced by the M 7.3 Kumamoto Earthquake along the Eastern segment of Futagawa fault using image correlation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhtari, N.; Glennie, C. L.; Fielding, E. J.; Liang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Near field surface deformation is vital to understanding the shallow fault physics of earthquakes but near-field deformation measurements are often sparse or not reliable. In this study, we use the Co-seismic Image Correlation (COSI-Corr) technique to map the near-field surface deformation caused by the M 7.3 April 16, 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Kyushu, Japan. The surface rupture around the Eastern segment of Futagawa fault is mapped using a pair of panchromatic 1.5 meter resolution SPOT 7 images. These images were acquired on January 16 and April 29, 2016 (3 months before and 13 days after the earthquake respectively) with close to nadir (less than 1.5 degree off nadir) viewing angle. The two images are ortho-rectified using SRTM Digital Elevation Model and further co-registered using tie points far away from the rupture field. Then the COSI-Corr technique is utilized to produce an estimated surface displacement map, and a horizontal displacement vector field is calculated which supplies a seamless estimate of near field displacement measurements along the Eastern segment of the Futagawa fault. The COSI-Corr estimated displacements are then compared to other existing displacement observations from InSAR, GPS and field observations.

  13. Design of fault simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)], E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca; Sayed, Hanaa E.; Osunleke, Ajiboye S. [Okayama University, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Division of Industrial Innovation Sciences Department of Intelligent Systems Engineering, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Masanobu, Hara [AspenTech Japan Co., Ltd., Kojimachi Crystal City 10F, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Fault simulator is proposed to understand and evaluate all possible fault propagation scenarios, which is an essential part of safety design and operation design and support of chemical/production processes. Process models are constructed and integrated with fault models, which are formulated in qualitative manner using fault semantic networks (FSN). Trend analysis techniques are used to map real time and simulation quantitative data into qualitative fault models for better decision support and tuning of FSN. The design of the proposed fault simulator is described and applied on experimental plant (G-Plant) to diagnose several fault scenarios. The proposed fault simulator will enable industrial plants to specify and validate safety requirements as part of safety system design as well as to support recovery and shutdown operation and disaster management.

  14. Geological Mapping and Identification of Active Fault in Site Candidate of Nuclear Power Plant Installation at Ketapang Area and Its Surroundings, Madura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Lilik-Subiantoro; Kurnia-Setiawan-W; Agus-Sutriyono; P Widito

    2004-01-01

    The result of economical study about demand of electric and water supply in Madura Island in 2015 will increase double for domestic or support industry in Madura Island which have to be solved sooner. One way which is considered to solve the problem is Desalination with nuclear electrical plant. In order to support the installation of nuclear Desalination plant, it is needed site free or far from active fault. Active fault is mainly factor to reject the area on site selection process. Aim of the research is to get geological information and identify of active fault in the site candidate of nuclear Desalination plant at Ketapang area and its surrounding by interpretation of air photos and Landsat imagery, geological and structure geological mapping as well as trenching. The lithology of Ketapang and Sokobana site candidate consists of reef and chalky limestone with form of morphology is undulating hills. Structurally, research areas forms a mono cline with east-westerly trending axis, plunging 10 o to E, the direction of strike is W-E, dip 10 o -30 o to the north. This research concludes that an active fault was not found in the area. (author)

  15. Seismicity and Tectonics of the West Kaibab Fault Zone, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgus, J. T.; Brumbaugh, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The West Kaibab Fault Zone (WKFZ) is the westernmost bounding structure of the Kaibab Plateau of northern Arizona. The WKFZ is a branching complex of high angle, normal faults downthrown to the west. There are three main faults within the WKFZ, the Big Springs fault with a maximum of 165 m offset, the Muav fault with 350 m of displacement, and the North Road fault having a maximum throw of approximately 90 m. Mapping of geologically recent surface deposits at or crossing the fault contacts indicates that the faults are likely Quaternary with the most recent offsets occurring one of the most seismically active areas in Arizona and lies within the Northern Arizona Seismic Belt (NASB), which stretches across northern Arizona trending NW-SE. The data set for this study includes 156 well documented events with the largest being a M5.75 in 1959 and including a swarm of seven earthquakes in 2012. The seismic data set (1934-2014) reveals that seismic activity clusters in two regions within the study area, the Fredonia cluster located in the NW corner of the study area and the Kaibab cluster located in the south central portion of the study area. The fault plane solutions to date indicate NE-SW to EW extension is occurring in the study area. Source relationships between earthquakes and faults within the WKFZ have not previously been studied in detail. The goal of this study is to use the seismic data set, the available data on faults, and the regional physiography to search for source relationships for the seismicity. Analysis includes source parameters of the earthquake data (location, depth, and fault plane solutions), and comparison of this output to the known faults and areal physiographic framework to indicate any active faults of the WKFZ, or suggested active unmapped faults. This research contributes to a better understanding of the present nature of the WKFZ and the NASB as well.

  16. A combined approach based on MAF analysis and AHP method to fault detection mapping: A case study from a gas field, southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Sima; Asghari, Omid; Khah, Nasser Keshavarz Faraj

    2018-01-01

    A combined geostatitical methodology based on Min/Max Auto-correlation Factor (MAF) analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is presented to generate a suitable Fault Detection Map (FDM) through seismic attributes. Five seismic attributes derived from a 2D time slice obtained from data related to a gas field located in southwest of Iran are used including instantaneous amplitude, similarity, energy, frequency, and Fault Enhancement Filter (FEF). The MAF analysis is implemented to reduce dimension of input variables, and then AHP method is applied on three obtained de-correlated MAF factors as evidential layer. Three Decision Makers (DMs) are used to construct PCMs for determining weights of selected evidential layer. Finally, weights obtained by AHP were multiplied in normalized valued of each alternative (MAF layers) and the concluded weighted layers were integrated in order to prepare final FDM. Results proved that applying algorithm proposed in this study generate a map more acceptable than the each individual attribute and sharpen the non-surface discontinuities as well as enhancing continuity of detected faults.

  17. Fault morphology of the lyo Fault, the Median Tectonic Line Active Fault System

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 秀昭

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the various fault features of the lyo fault and depicted fault lines or detailed topographic map. The results of this paper are summarized as follows; 1) Distinct evidence of the right-lateral movement is continuously discernible along the lyo fault. 2) Active fault traces are remarkably linear suggesting that the angle of fault plane is high. 3) The lyo fault can be divided into four segments by jogs between left-stepping traces. 4) The mean slip rate is 1.3 ~ ...

  18. Geological Mapping and Investigation into a Proposed Syn-rift Alluvial Fan Deposit in the Kerpini Fault Block, Greece.

    OpenAIRE

    Hadland, Sindre

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum geosciences engineering The Kerpini Fault Block is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Corinth rift system. The rift system consists of several east-west orientated half-grabens with associated syn-rift sediments. Kerpini Fault Block is one of the southernmost half-grabens within the rift systems, and is composed of several different stratigraphic units. The stratigraphic framework consists of a complex interaction of several stratigraphic units. One of...

  19. Active faults, paleoseismology, and historical fault rupture in northern Wairarapa, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, E.R.; Van Dissen, R.; Berryman, K.R.; Kelsey, H.M.; Cashman, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Active faulting in the upper plate of the Hikurangi subduction zone, North Island, New Zealand, represents a significant seismic hazard that is not yet well understood. In northern Wairarapa, the geometry and kinematics of active faults, and the Quaternary and historical surface-rupture record, have not previously been studied in detail. We present the results of mapping and paleoseismicity studies on faults in the northern Wairarapa region to document the characteristics of active faults and the timing of earthquakes. We focus on evidence for surface rupture in the 1855 Wairarapa (M w 8.2) and 1934 Pahiatua (M w 7.4) earthquakes, two of New Zealand's largest historical earthquakes. The Dreyers Rock, Alfredton, Saunders Road, Waitawhiti, and Waipukaka faults form a northeast-trending, east-stepping array of faults. Detailed mapping of offset geomorphic features shows the rupture lengths vary from c. 7 to 20 km and single-event displacements range from 3 to 7 m, suggesting the faults are capable of generating M >7 earthquakes. Trenching results show that two earthquakes have occurred on the Alfredton Fault since c. 2900 cal. BP. The most recent event probably occurred during the 1855 Wairarapa earthquake as slip propagated northward from the Wairarapa Fault and across a 6 km wide step. Waipukaka Fault trenches show that at least three surface-rupturing earthquakes have occurred since 8290-7880 cal. BP. Analysis of stratigraphic and historical evidence suggests the most recent rupture occurred during the 1934 Pahiatua earthquake. Estimates of slip rates provided by these data suggest that a larger component of strike slip than previously suspected is occurring within the upper plate and that the faults accommodate a significant proportion of the dextral component of oblique subduction. Assessment of seismic hazard is difficult because the known fault scarp lengths appear too short to have accommodated the estimated single-event displacements. Faults in the region are

  20. Mapping the b-values along the Longmenshan fault zone before and after the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, China, MS 8.0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Zhao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The b-value in the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution, which is assumed to be related to stress heterogeneity or asperities, was mapped along the Longmenshan fault zone which accommodated the 12 May 2008, Wenchuan, MS 8.0 earthquake. Spatial distributions of b-value before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, respectively, were compared with the slip distribution of the mainshock. It is shown that the mainshock rupture nucleated near to, but not within, the high-stress (low b-value asperity in the south part of the Longmenshan fault, propagating north-eastward to the relatively low stress (high b-value region. Due to the significant difference between the rupture process results from different sources, the comparison between slip distribution and pre-seismic b-value distribution leads to only conclusion of the rule-of-thumb. The temporal change of b-value before the mainshock shows a weak trend of decreasing, being hard to be used as an indicator of the approaching of the mainshock. Distribution of b-values for the aftershocks relates the termination of the mainshock rupture to the harder patch along the Longmenshan fault to the north.

  1. Reconnaissance geophysics to locate major faults in clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.D.; Hallam, J.R.; Raines, M.G.; Rainsbury, M.P.; Greenwood, P.G.; Busby, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Trial surveys using resistivity, seismic refraction and electromagnetic techniques have been carried out at two potential research sites on Jurassic clays. A previously unknown major fault has been detected at Down Ampney and mapped during the main survey to a precision of 5 to 10 metres by resistivity profiling using a Schlumberger array, optimized from pre-existing data and model studies. The fault is identified by a strong characteristic signature which results from the fault displacement and a zone of disturbance within the clay. This method is rapid, provides high resolution and permits immediate field interpretation

  2. Mapping offshore portions of the Khlong Marui and Ranong faults in Thailand: Implications for seismic hazards in the Thai peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, H.; Furlong, K.; Pananont, P.; Krastel, S.; Nhongkai, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Thailand experiences Mw 10.1016/S0191- 8141(01)00080-3 Watkinson, I., Elders, C., & Hall, R. (2008). The kinematic history of the Khlong Marui and Ranong Faults, southern Thailand. Journal of Structural Geology, 30, 1554-1571. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2008.09.001

  3. High-resolution mapping based on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture paleoseismic offsets along the Altyn-Tagh fault, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingxing; Xu, Xiwei; Klinger, Yann; van der Woerd, Jerome; Tapponnier, Paul

    2017-08-15

    The recent dramatic increase in millimeter- to centimeter- resolution topographic datasets obtained via multi-view photogrammetry raises the possibility of mapping detailed offset geomorphology and constraining the spatial characteristics of active faults. Here, for the first time, we applied this new method to acquire high-resolution imagery and generate topographic data along the Altyn Tagh fault, which is located in a remote high elevation area and shows preserved ancient earthquake surface ruptures. A digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 0.065 m and an orthophoto with a resolution of 0.016 m were generated from these images. We identified piercing markers and reconstructed offsets based on both the orthoimage and the topography. The high-resolution UAV data were used to accurately measure the recent seismic offset. We obtained the recent offset of 7 ± 1 m. Combined with the high resolution satellite image, we measured cumulative offsets of 15 ± 2 m, 20 ± 2 m, 30 ± 2 m, which may be due to multiple paleo-earthquakes. Therefore, UAV mapping can provide fine-scale data for the assessment of the seismic hazards.

  4. Width and dip of the southern San Andreas Fault at Salt Creek from modeling of geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, Victoria; Athens, Noah D.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Fuis, Gary S.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.; Reynolds, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the geometry and width of the southernmost stretch of the San Andreas Fault zone using new gravity and magnetic data along line 7 of the Salton Seismic Imaging Project. In the Salt Creek area of Durmid Hill, the San Andreas Fault coincides with a complex magnetic signature, with high-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic anomalies superposed on a broader magnetic anomaly that is at least 5 km wide centered 2–3 km northeast of the fault. Marine magnetic data show that high-frequency magnetic anomalies extend more than 1 km west of the mapped trace of the San Andreas Fault. Modeling of magnetic data is consistent with a moderate to steep (> 50 degrees) northeast dip of the San Andreas Fault, but also suggests that the sedimentary sequence is folded west of the fault, causing the short wavelength of the anomalies west of the fault. Gravity anomalies are consistent with the previously modeled seismic velocity structure across the San Andreas Fault. Modeling of gravity data indicates a steep dip for the San Andreas Fault, but does not resolve unequivocally the direction of dip. Gravity data define a deeper basin, bounded by the Powerline and Hot Springs Faults, than imaged by the seismic experiment. This basin extends southeast of Line 7 for nearly 20 km, with linear margins parallel to the San Andreas Fault. These data suggest that the San Andreas Fault zone is wider than indicated by its mapped surface trace.

  5. Wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Johnson, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    In this updated edition of a previous wind turbine fault detection and fault tolerant control challenge, we present a more sophisticated wind turbine model and updated fault scenarios to enhance the realism of the challenge and therefore the value of the solutions. This paper describes...

  6. Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel lymph node mapping in Japanese patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities. Comparison with previously investigated Japanese lymphatic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Shuichi; Nagahata, Morio

    2010-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN) and lymphatic drainage were identified by lymphoscintigraphy using 99m Tc-phytate in order to map the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities, and to compare the results with an atlas of Japanese lymphatic anatomy. Sentinel lymphoscintigraphs of 18 patients with malignant skin neoplasms of the lower extremities (9 men, 9 women; age range 45-84 years, mean age 66 years) were analyzed retrospectively, and the LNs detected were identified as SLNs or secondary nodes. The patterns of lymphatic drainage were divided into three different categories: initial drainage into inguinal LN without visualization of popliteal LNs (inguinal type), initial drainage into popliteal LNs and then into intrapelvic LNs (popliteal type), and initial drainage into both popliteal and inguinal LNs (inguinal and popliteal type). More than half of the cases were the inguinal and popliteal type, as both inguinal and popliteal LNs were identified as SLNs. In the cases in which the hallux and its surrounding area were injected, all were the inguinal type and popliteal LNs were not visualized. In one case, only dynamic images detected lymphatic drainage without visualization of popliteal LNs. In contrast to the previously published literature on Japanese lymphatic anatomy, SLN lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However, in agreement with currently accepted anatomy, only the great saphenous lymphatic vessel drained the skin of the hallux and its surrounding area. The present results suggest that it is important to confirm lymphatic drainage in order to identify SLNs in the lower extremities. The patterns of lymphatic drainage from the skin of the foot were divided into three different categories. In contrast to previously published Japanese lymphatic anatomy, lymphatic drainage from the skin of the lower extremities was wide and overlapping in many areas. However

  7. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS-1 imagery using snow enhancement techniques. [geological fault maps of Massachusetts and Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The applications of ERTS-1 imagery for geological fracture mapping regardless of season has been repeatedly confirmed. The enhancement provided by a differential cover of snow increases the number and length of fracture-lineaments which can be detected with ERTS-1 data and accelerates the fracture mapping process for a variety of practical applications. The geological mapping benefits of the program will be realized in geographic areas where data are most needed - complex glaciated terrain and areas of deep residual soils. ERTS-1 derived fracture-lineament maps which provide detail well in excess of existing geological maps are not available in the Massachusetts-Connecticut area. The large quantity of new data provided by ERTS-1 may accelerate and improve field mapping now in progress in the area. Numerous other user groups have requested data on the techniques. This represents a major change in operating philosophy for groups who to data judged that snow obscured geological detail.

  8. Using Earthquake Analysis to Expand the Oklahoma Fault Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. C.; Evans, S. C.; Walter, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS) is compiling a comprehensive Oklahoma Fault Database (OFD), which includes faults mapped in OGS publications, university thesis maps, and industry-contributed shapefiles. The OFD includes nearly 20,000 fault segments, but the work is far from complete. The OGS plans on incorporating other sources of data into the OFD, such as new faults from earthquake sequence analyses, geologic field mapping, active-source seismic surveys, and potential fields modeling. A comparison of Oklahoma seismicity and the OFD reveals that earthquakes in the state appear to nucleate on mostly unmapped or unknown faults. Here, we present faults derived from earthquake sequence analyses. From 2015 to present, there has been a five-fold increase in realtime seismic stations in Oklahoma, which has greatly expanded and densified the state's seismic network. The current seismic network not only improves our threshold for locating weaker earthquakes, but also allows us to better constrain focal plane solutions (FPS) from first motion analyses. Using nodal planes from the FPS, HypoDD relocation, and historic seismic data, we can elucidate these previously unmapped seismogenic faults. As the OFD is a primary resource for various scientific investigations, the inclusion of seismogenic faults improves further derivative studies, particularly with respect to seismic hazards. Our primal focus is on four areas of interest, which have had M5+ earthquakes in recent Oklahoma history: Pawnee (M5.8), Prague (M5.7), Fairview (M5.1), and Cushing (M5.0). Subsequent areas of interest will include seismically active data-rich areas, such as the central and northcentral parts of the state.

  9. Faults Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Through the study of faults and their effects, much can be learned about the size and recurrence intervals of earthquakes. Faults also teach us about crustal...

  10. Newport-Inglewood-Carlsbad-Coronado Bank Fault System Nearshore Southern California: Testing models for Quaternary deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. T.; Sorlien, C. C.; Cormier, M.; Bauer, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The San Andreas fault system is distributed across hundreds of kilometers in southern California. This transform system includes offshore faults along the shelf, slope and basin- comprising part of the Inner California Continental Borderland. Previously, offshore faults have been interpreted as being discontinuous and striking parallel to the coast between Long Beach and San Diego. Our recent work, based on several thousand kilometers of deep-penetration industry multi-channel seismic reflection data (MCS) as well as high resolution U.S. Geological Survey MCS, indicates that many of the offshore faults are more geometrically continuous than previously reported. Stratigraphic interpretations of MCS profiles included the ca. 1.8 Ma Top Lower Pico, which was correlated from wells located offshore Long Beach (Sorlien et. al. 2010). Based on this age constraint, four younger (Late) Quaternary unconformities are interpreted through the slope and basin. The right-lateral Newport-Inglewood fault continues offshore near Newport Beach. We map a single fault for 25 kilometers that continues to the southeast along the base of the slope. There, the Newport-Inglewood fault splits into the San Mateo-Carlsbad fault, which is mapped for 55 kilometers along the base of the slope to a sharp bend. This bend is the northern end of a right step-over of 10 kilometers to the Descanso fault and about 17 km to the Coronado Bank fault. We map these faults for 50 kilometers as they continue over the Mexican border. Both the San Mateo - Carlsbad with the Newport-Inglewood fault and the Coronado Bank with the Descanso fault are paired faults that form flower structures (positive and negative, respectively) in cross section. Preliminary kinematic models indicate ~1km of right-lateral slip since ~1.8 Ma at the north end of the step-over. We are modeling the slip on the southern segment to test our hypothesis for a kinematically continuous right-lateral fault system. We are correlating four

  11. Novel Coupled Thermochronometric and Geochemical Investigation of Blind Geothermal Resources in Fault-Controlled Dilational Corners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, Daniel [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Geothermal plays in extensional and transtensional tectonic environments have long been a major target in the exploration of geothermal resources and the Dixie Valley area has served as a classic natural laboratory for this type of geothermal plays. In recent years, the interactions between normal faults and strike-slip faults, acting either as strain relay zones have attracted significant interest in geothermal exploration as they commonly result in fault-controlled dilational corners with enhanced fracture permeability and thus have the potential to host blind geothermal prospects. Structural ambiguity, complications in fault linkage, etc. often make the selection for geothermal exploration drilling targets complicated and risky. Though simplistic, the three main ingredients of a viable utility-grade geothermal resource are heat, fluids, and permeability. Our new geological mapping and fault kinematic analysis derived a structural model suggest a two-stage structural evolution with (a) middle Miocene N -S trending normal faults (faults cutting across the modern range), - and tiling Olio-Miocene volcanic and sedimentary sequences (similar in style to East Range and S Stillwater Range). NE-trending range-front normal faulting initiated during the Pliocene and are both truncating N-S trending normal faults and reactivating some former normal faults in a right-lateral fashion. Thus the two main fundamental differences to previous structural models are (1) N-S trending faults are pre-existing middle Miocene normal faults and (2) these faults are reactivated in a right-later fashion (NOT left-lateral) and kinematically linked to the younger NE-trending range-bounding normal faults (Pliocene in age). More importantly, this study provides the first constraints on transient fluid flow through the novel application of apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 4He/3He thermochronometry in the geothermally active Dixie Valley area in Nevada.

  12. Subsurface mapping of Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS), Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Inferred structural features using borehole data and spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamisaiye, O. A.; Eriksson, P. G.; Van Rooy, J. L.; Brynard, H. M.; Foya, S.; Billay, A. Y.; Nxumalo, V.

    2017-08-01

    Faults and other structural features within the mafic-ultramafic layers of the Bushveld Complex have been a major issue mainly for exploration and mine planning. This study employed a new approach in detecting faults with both regional and meter scale offsets, which was not possible with the usually applied structure contour mapping. Interpretations of faults from structural and isopach maps were previously based on geological experience, while meter-scale faults were virtually impossible to detect from such maps. Spatial analysis was performed using borehole data primarily. This resulted in the identification of previously known structures and other hitherto unsuspected structural features. Consequently, the location, trends, and geometry of faults and some regional features within the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) that might not be easy to detect through field mapping are adequately described in this study.

  13. Fault finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    A fault finder for locating faults along a high voltage electrical transmission line. Real time monitoring of background noise and improved filtering of input signals is used to identify the occurrence of a fault. A fault is detected at both a master and remote unit spaced along the line. A master clock synchronizes operation of a similar clock at the remote unit. Both units include modulator and demodulator circuits for transmission of clock signals and data. All data is received at the master unit for processing to determine an accurate fault distance calculation.

  14. Why the 2002 Denali fault rupture propagated onto the Totschunda fault: implications for fault branching and seismic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David P.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Dawson, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    The propagation of the rupture of the Mw7.9 Denali fault earthquake from the central Denali fault onto the Totschunda fault has provided a basis for dynamic models of fault branching in which the angle of the regional or local prestress relative to the orientation of the main fault and branch plays a principal role in determining which fault branch is taken. GeoEarthScope LiDAR and paleoseismic data allow us to map the structure of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection and evaluate controls of fault branching from a geological perspective. LiDAR data reveal the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection is structurally simple with the two faults directly connected. At the branch point, 227.2 km east of the 2002 epicenter, the 2002 rupture diverges southeast to become the Totschunda fault. We use paleoseismic data to propose that differences in the accumulated strain on each fault segment, which express differences in the elapsed time since the most recent event, was one important control of the branching direction. We suggest that data on event history, slip rate, paleo offsets, fault geometry and structure, and connectivity, especially on high slip rate-short recurrence interval faults, can be used to assess the likelihood of branching and its direction. Analysis of the Denali-Totschunda fault intersection has implications for evaluating the potential for a rupture to propagate across other types of fault intersections and for characterizing sources of future large earthquakes.

  15. Structural character of the northern segment of the Paintbrush Canyon fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Spengler, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed mapping of exposed features along the northern part of the Paintbrush Canyon fault was initiated to aid in construction of the computer-assisted three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model of Yucca Mountain, to contribute to kinematic reconstruction of the tectonic history of the Paintbrush Canyon fault, and to assist in the interpretation of geophysical data from Midway Valley. Yucca Mountain is segmented into relatively intact blocks of east-dipping Miocene volcanic strata, bounded by north-striking, west-dipping high-angle normal faults. The Paintbrush Canyon fault, representing the easternmost block-bounding normal fault, separates Fran Ridge from Midway Valley and continues northward across Yucca Wash to at least the southern margin of the Timber Mountain Caldera complex. South of Yucca Wash, the Paintbrush Canyon Fault is largely concealed beneath thick Quaternary deposits. Bedrock exposures to the north reveal a complex fault, zone, displaying local north- and west-trending grabens, and rhombic pull-apart features. The fault scarp, discontinuously exposed along a mapped length of 8 km north of Yucca Wash, dips westward by 41 degrees to 74 degrees. Maximum vertical offset of the Rhyolite of Comb Peak along the fault measures about 210 m in Paintbrush Canyon and, on the basis of drill hole information, vertical offset of the Topopoah Spring Tuff is about 360 m near the northern part of Fran Ridge. Observed displacement along the fault in Paintbrush Canyon is down to the west with a component of left-lateral oblique slip. Unlike previously proposed tectonic models, strata adjacent to the fault dip to the east. Quaternary deposits do not appear displaced along the fault scarp north of Yucca Wash, but are displaced in trenches south of Yucca Wash

  16. Gently dipping normal faults identified with Space Shuttle radar topography data in central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and some implications for fault mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Space-shuttle radar topography data from central Sulawesi, Indonesia, reveal two corrugated, domal landforms, covering hundreds to thousands of square kilometers, that are bounded to the north by an abrupt transition to typical hilly to mountainous topography. These domal landforms are readily interpreted as metamorphic core complexes, an interpretation consistent with a single previous field study, and the abrupt northward transition in topographic style is interpreted as marking the trace of two extensional detachment faults that are active or were recently active. Fault dip, as determined by the slope of exhumed fault footwalls, ranges from 4?? to 18??. Application of critical-taper theory to fault dip and hanging-wall surface slope, and to similar data from several other active or recently active core complexes, suggests a theoretical limit of three degrees for detachment-fault dip. This result appears to conflict with the dearth of seismological evidence for slip on faults dipping less than ~. 30??. The convex-upward form of the gently dipping fault footwalls, however, allows for greater fault dip at depths of earthquake initiation and dominant energy release. Thus, there may be no conflict between seismological and mapping studies for this class of faults. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Comparison of Cenozoic Faulting at the Savannah River Site to Fault Characteristics of the Atlantic Coast Fault Province: Implications for Fault Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study compares the faulting observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity with the faults of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province and concludes that both sets of faults exhibit the same general characteristics and are closely associated. Based on the strength of this association it is concluded that the faults observed on the Savannah River Site and vicinity are in fact part of the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province. Inclusion in this group means that the historical precedent established by decades of previous studies on the seismic hazard potential for the Atlantic Coastal Fault Province is relevant to faulting at the Savannah River Site. That is, since these faults are genetically related the conclusion of ''not capable'' reached in past evaluations applies.In addition, this study establishes a set of criteria by which individual faults may be evaluated in order to assess their inclusion in the Atlantic Coast Fault Province and the related association of the ''not capable'' conclusion

  18. LAMPF first-fault identifier for fast transient faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, A.R.; Hill, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The LAMPF accelerator is presently producing 800-MeV proton beams at 0.5 mA average current. Machine protection for such a high-intensity accelerator requires a fast shutdown mechanism, which can turn off the beam within a few microseconds of the occurrence of a machine fault. The resulting beam unloading transients cause the rf systems to exceed control loop tolerances and consequently generate multiple fault indications for identification by the control computer. The problem is to isolate the primary fault or cause of beam shutdown while disregarding as many as 50 secondary fault indications that occur as a result of beam shutdown. The LAMPF First-Fault Identifier (FFI) for fast transient faults is operational and has proven capable of first-fault identification. The FFI design utilized features of the Fast Protection System that were previously implemented for beam chopping and rf power conservation. No software changes were required

  19. Vipava fault (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available During mapping of the already accomplished Razdrto – Senožeče section of motorway and geologic surveying of construction operations of the trunk road between Razdrto and Vipava in northwestern part of External Dinarides on the southwestern slope of Mt. Nanos, called Rebrnice, a steep NW-SE striking fault was recognized, situated between the Predjama and the Ra{a faults. The fault was named Vipava fault after the Vipava town. An analysis of subrecent gravitational slips at Rebrnice indicates that they were probably associated with the activity of this fault. Unpublished results of a repeated levelling line along the regional road passing across the Vipava fault zone suggest its possible present activity. It would be meaningful to verify this by appropriate geodetic measurements, and to study the actual gravitational slips at Rebrnice. The association between tectonics and gravitational slips in this and in similar extreme cases in the areas of Alps and Dinarides points at the need of complex studying of geologic proceses.

  20. The Sundance fault: A newly recognized shear zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spengler, R.W.; Braun, C.A.; Martin, L.G.; Weisenberg, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ongoing detailed mapping at a scale of 1:240 of structural features within the potential repository area indicates the presence of several previously unrecognized structural features. Minor north-trending west-side-down faults occur east and west of the Ghost Dance fault and suggest a total width of the Ghost Dance fault system of nearly 366 m (1200 ft). A zone of near-vertical N30 degrees - 40 degrees W - trending faults, at least 274 m (900 ft) wide, has been identified in the northern part of our study area and may traverse across the proposed repository area. On the basis of a preliminary analysis of available data, we propose to name this zone the ''Sundance fault system'' and the dominant structure, occurring near the middle of the zone, the ''Sundance fault.'' Some field relations suggest left-stepping deflections of north-trending faults along a preexisting northwest-trending structural fabric. Other field observations suggest that the ''Sundance fault system'' offsets the Ghost Dance fault system in an apparent right lateral sense by at least 52 m (170 ft). Additional detailed field studies, however, are needed to better understand structural complexities at Yucca Mountain

  1. Deformation around basin scale normal faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Faults in the earth crust occur within large range of scales from microscale over mesoscopic to large basin scale faults. Frequently deformation associated with faulting is not only limited to the fault plane alone, but rather forms a combination with continuous near field deformation in the wall rock, a phenomenon that is generally called fault drag. The correct interpretation and recognition of fault drag is fundamental for the reconstruction of the fault history and determination of fault kinematics, as well as prediction in areas of limited exposure or beyond comprehensive seismic resolution. Based on fault analyses derived from 3D visualization of natural examples of fault drag, the importance of fault geometry for the deformation of marker horizons around faults is investigated. The complex 3D structural models presented here are based on a combination of geophysical datasets and geological fieldwork. On an outcrop scale example of fault drag in the hanging wall of a normal fault, located at St. Margarethen, Burgenland, Austria, data from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements, detailed mapping and terrestrial laser scanning were used to construct a high-resolution structural model of the fault plane, the deformed marker horizons and associated secondary faults. In order to obtain geometrical information about the largely unexposed master fault surface, a standard listric balancing dip domain technique was employed. The results indicate that for this normal fault a listric shape can be excluded, as the constructed fault has a geologically meaningless shape cutting upsection into the sedimentary strata. This kinematic modeling result is additionally supported by the observation of deformed horizons in the footwall of the structure. Alternatively, a planar fault model with reverse drag of markers in the hanging wall and footwall is proposed. Deformation around basin scale normal faults. A second part of this thesis investigates a large scale normal fault

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of fault creep across an active salt system, Canyonlands National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, K.; Mueller, K. J.; Furuya, M.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2017-12-01

    First order conditions that control creeping behavior on faults include the strength of faulted materials, fault maturity and stress changes associated with seismic cycles. We present mapping of surface strain from differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) of actively creeping faults in Eastern Utah that form by reactivation of older joints and faults. A nine-year record of displacement across the region using descending ERS scenes from 1992-2001 suggests maximum slip rates of 1 mm/yr. Time series analysis shows near steady rates across the region consistent with the proposed ultra-weak nature of these faults as suggested by their dilating nature, based on observations of sinkholes, pit chains and recently opened fissures along their lengths. Slip rates along the faults in the main part of the array are systematically faster with closer proximity to the Colorado River Canyon, consistent with mechanical modeling of the boundary conditions that control the overall salt system. Deeply incised side tributaries coincide with and control the edges of the region with higher strain rates. Comparison of D:L scaling at decadal scales in fault bounded grabens (as defined by InSAR) with previous measurements of total slip (D) to length (L) is interpreted to suggest that faults reached nearly their current lengths relatively quickly (i.e. displaying low displacement to length scaling). We argue this may then have been followed by along strike slip distributions where the centers of the grabens slip more rapidly than their endpoints, resulting in a higher D:L ratio over time. InSAR mapping also points to an increase in creep rates in overlap zones where two faults became hard-linked at breached relay ramps. Additionally, we see evidence for soft-linkage, where displacement profiles along a graben coincide with obvious fault segments. While an endmember case (ultra-weak faults sliding above a plastic substrate), structures in this region highlight mechanical

  3. Geophysical and isotopic mapping of preexisting crustal structures that influenced the location and development of the San Jacinto fault zone, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; Morton, D.M.; Kistler, R.W.; Matti, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the role of preexisting crustal structure within the Peninsular Ranges batholith on determining the location of the San Jacinto fault zone by analysis of geophysical anomalies and initial strontium ratio data. A 1000-km-long boundary within the Peninsular Ranges batholith, separating relatively mafic, dense, and magnetic rocks of the western Peninsular Ranges batholith from the more felsic, less dense, and weakly magnetic rocks of the eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith, strikes north-northwest toward the San Jacinto fault zone. Modeling of the gravity and magnetic field anomalies caused by this boundary indicates that it extends to depths of at least 20 km. The anomalies do not cross the San Jacinto fault zone, but instead trend northwesterly and coincide with the fault zone. A 75-km-long gradient in initial strontium ratios (Sri) in the eastern Peninsular Ranges batholith coincides with the San Jacinto fault zone. Here rocks east of the fault are characterized by Sri greater than 0.706, indicating a source of largely continental crust, sedimentary materials, or different lithosphere. We argue that the physical property contrast produced by the Peninsular Ranges batholith boundary provided a mechanically favorable path for the San Jacinto fault zone, bypassing the San Gorgonio structural knot as slip was transferred from the San Andreas fault 1.0-1.5 Ma. Two historical M6.7 earthquakes may have nucleated along the Peninsular Ranges batholith discontinuity in San Jacinto Valley, suggesting that Peninsular Ranges batholith crustal structure may continue to affect how strain is accommodated along the San Jacinto fault zone. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  4. Analysis of the relationship of automatically and manually extracted lineaments from DEM and geologically mapped tectonic faults around the Main Ethiopian Rift and the Ethiopian highlands, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusák, Michal; Krbcová, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 5-17 ISSN 0300-5402 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : azimuth * faults * lineaments * Main Ethiopian Rift * morphometry Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography

  5. Wilshire fault: Earthquakes in Hollywood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummon, Cheryl; Schneider, Craig L.; Yeats, Robert S.; Dolan, James F.; Sieh, Kerry E.; Huftile, Gary J.

    1994-04-01

    The Wilshire fault is a potentially seismogenic, blind thrust fault inferred to underlie and cause the Wilshire arch, a Quaternary fold in the Hollywood area, just west of downtown Los Angeles, California. Two inverse models, based on the Wilshire arch, allow us to estimate the location and slip rate of the Wilshire fault, which may be illuminated by a zone of microearthquakes. A fault-bend fold model indicates a reverse-slip rate of 1.5-1.9 mm/yr, whereas a three-dimensional elastic-dislocation model indicates a right-reverse slip rate of 2.6-3.2 mm/yr. The Wilshire fault is a previously unrecognized seismic hazard directly beneath Hollywood and Beverly Hills, distinct from the faults under the nearby Santa Monica Mountains.

  6. Latest Rate, Extent, and Temporal Evolution of Growth Faulting over Greater Houston Region Revealed by Multi- Band InSAR Time-Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, F.; Lu, Z.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Growth faults are common and continue to evolve throughout the unconsolidated sediments of Greater Houston (GH) region in Texas. Presence of faults can induce localized surface displacements, aggravate localized subsidence, and discontinue the integrity of ground water flow. Property damages due to fault creep have become more evident during the past few years over the GH area, portraying the necessity of further study of these faults. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been proven to be effective in mapping creep along and/or across faults. However, extracting a short wavelength, as well as small amplitude of the creep signal (about 10-20 mm/year) from long time span interferograms is extremely difficult, especially in agricultural or vegetated areas. This paper aims to map and monitor the latest rate, extent, and temporal evolution of faulting at a highest spatial density over GH region using an improved Multi-temporal InSAR (MTI) technique. The method, with maximized usable signal and correlation, has the ability to identify and monitor the active faults to provide an accurate and elaborate image of the faults. In this study, two neighboring ALOS tracks and Sentinel-1A datasets are used. Many zones of steep phase gradients and/or discontinuities have been recognized from the long term velocity maps by both ALOS (2007-2011) and Sentinei-1A (2015-2017) imagery. Not only those previously known faults position but also the new fault traces that have not been mapped by other techniques are imaged by our MTI technique. Fault damage and visible cracking of ground were evident at most locations through our field survey. The discovery of new fault activation, or faults moved from earlier locations is a part of the Big Barn Fault and Conroe fault system, trending from southwest to northeast between Hockley and Conroe. The location of area of subsidence over GH is also shrinking and migrating toward the northeast (Montgomery County) after 2000. The

  7. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  8. SDEM modelling of fault-propagation folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Egholm, D.L.; Poulsen, Jane Bang

    2009-01-01

    and variations in Mohr-Coulomb parameters including internal friction. Using SDEM modelling, we have mapped the propagation of the tip-line of the fault, as well as the evolution of the fold geometry across sedimentary layers of contrasting rheological parameters, as a function of the increased offset......Understanding the dynamics and kinematics of fault-propagation-folding is important for evaluating the associated hydrocarbon play, for accomplishing reliable section balancing (structural reconstruction), and for assessing seismic hazards. Accordingly, the deformation style of fault-propagation...... a precise indication of when faults develop and hence also the sequential evolution of secondary faults. Here we focus on the generation of a fault -propagated fold with a reverse sense of motion at the master fault, and varying only the dip of the master fault and the mechanical behaviour of the deformed...

  9. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of design optimization for fault- tolerant hard real-time systems. In particular, our focus is on the handling of transient faults using both checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication. Fault tolerant schedules are generated based on a conditional...... process graph representation. The formulated system synthesis approaches decide the assignment of fault-tolerance policies to processes, the optimal placement of checkpoints and the mapping of processes to processors, such that multiple transient faults are tolerated, transparency requirements...

  10. Fault kinematics and localised inversion within the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex, SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, I.; Omosanya, K. O.; Lippard, S. J.; Johansen, S. E.

    2018-04-01

    The areas bounding the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex are affected by complex tectonic evolution. In this work, the history of fault growth, reactivation, and inversion of major faults in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex and the Ringvassøy Loppa Fault Complex is interpreted from three-dimensional seismic data, structural maps and fault displacement plots. Our results reveal eight normal faults bounding rotated fault blocks in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Both the throw-depth and displacement-distance plots show that the faults exhibit complex configurations of lateral and vertical segmentation with varied profiles. Some of the faults were reactivated by dip-linkages during the Late Jurassic and exhibit polycyclic fault growth, including radial, syn-sedimentary, and hybrid propagation. Localised positive inversion is the main mechanism of fault reactivation occurring at the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. The observed structural styles include folds associated with extensional faults, folded growth wedges and inverted depocentres. Localised inversion was intermittent with rifting during the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous at the boundaries of the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex to the Finnmark Platform. Additionally, tectonic inversion was more intense at the boundaries of the two fault complexes, affecting Middle Triassic to Early Cretaceous strata. Our study shows that localised folding is either a product of compressional forces or of lateral movements in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex. Regional stresses due to the uplift in the Loppa High and halokinesis in the Tromsø Basin are likely additional causes of inversion in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex.

  11. Fault-related clay authigenesis along the Moab Fault: Implications for calculations of fault rock composition and mechanical and hydrologic fault zone properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solum, J.G.; Davatzes, N.C.; Lockner, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of clays in fault rocks influences both the mechanical and hydrologic properties of clay-bearing faults, and therefore it is critical to understand the origin of clays in fault rocks and their distributions is of great importance for defining fundamental properties of faults in the shallow crust. Field mapping shows that layers of clay gouge and shale smear are common along the Moab Fault, from exposures with throws ranging from 10 to ???1000 m. Elemental analyses of four locations along the Moab Fault show that fault rocks are enriched in clays at R191 and Bartlett Wash, but that this clay enrichment occurred at different times and was associated with different fluids. Fault rocks at Corral and Courthouse Canyons show little difference in elemental composition from adjacent protolith, suggesting that formation of fault rocks at those locations is governed by mechanical processes. Friction tests show that these authigenic clays result in fault zone weakening, and potentially influence the style of failure along the fault (seismogenic vs. aseismic) and potentially influence the amount of fluid loss associated with coseismic dilation. Scanning electron microscopy shows that authigenesis promotes that continuity of slip surfaces, thereby enhancing seal capacity. The occurrence of the authigenesis, and its influence on the sealing properties of faults, highlights the importance of determining the processes that control this phenomenon. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. New Perspectives on Active Tectonics: Observing Fault Motion, Mapping Earthquake Strain Fields, and Visualizing Seismic Events in Multiple Dimensions Using Satellite Imagery and Geophysical Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, R.; Blom, R.

    1994-01-01

    By rapidly alternating displays of SPOT satellite images acquired on 27 July 1991 and 25 July 1992 we are able to see spatial details of terrain movements along fault breaks associated with the 28 June 1992 Landers, California earthquake that are virtually undetectable by any other means.

  13. Deformation associated with continental normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resor, Phillip G.

    Deformation associated with normal fault earthquakes and geologic structures provide insights into the seismic cycle as it unfolds over time scales from seconds to millions of years. Improved understanding of normal faulting will lead to more accurate seismic hazard assessments and prediction of associated structures. High-precision aftershock locations for the 1995 Kozani-Grevena earthquake (Mw 6.5), Greece image a segmented master fault and antithetic faults. This three-dimensional fault geometry is typical of normal fault systems mapped from outcrop or interpreted from reflection seismic data and illustrates the importance of incorporating three-dimensional fault geometry in mechanical models. Subsurface fault slip associated with the Kozani-Grevena and 1999 Hector Mine (Mw 7.1) earthquakes is modeled using a new method for slip inversion on three-dimensional fault surfaces. Incorporation of three-dimensional fault geometry improves the fit to the geodetic data while honoring aftershock distributions and surface ruptures. GPS Surveying of deformed bedding surfaces associated with normal faulting in the western Grand Canyon reveals patterns of deformation that are similar to those observed by interferometric satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) for the Kozani Grevena earthquake with a prominent down-warp in the hanging wall and a lesser up-warp in the footwall. However, deformation associated with the Kozani-Grevena earthquake extends ˜20 km from the fault surface trace, while the folds in the western Grand Canyon only extend 500 m into the footwall and 1500 m into the hanging wall. A comparison of mechanical and kinematic models illustrates advantages of mechanical models in exploring normal faulting processes including incorporation of both deformation and causative forces, and the opportunity to incorporate more complex fault geometry and constitutive properties. Elastic models with antithetic or synthetic faults or joints in association with a master

  14. Active, capable, and potentially active faults - a paleoseismic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, M.N.

    2000-01-01

    Maps of faults (geologically defined source zones) may portray seismic hazards in a wide range of completeness depending on which types of faults are shown. Three fault terms - active, capable, and potential - are used in a variety of ways for different reasons or applications. Nevertheless, to be useful for seismic-hazards analysis, fault maps should encompass a time interval that includes several earthquake cycles. For example, if the common recurrence in an area is 20,000-50,000 years, then maps should include faults that are 50,000-100,000 years old (two to five typical earthquake cycles), thus allowing for temporal variability in slip rate and recurrence intervals. Conversely, in more active areas such as plate boundaries, maps showing faults that are Group II-2 Project on Major Active Faults of the World our maps and database will show five age categories and four slip rate categories that allow one to select differing time spans and activity rates for seismic-hazard analysis depending on tectonic regime. The maps are accompanied by a database that describes evidence for Quaternary faulting, geomorphic expression, and paleoseismic parameters (slip rate, recurrence interval and time of most recent surface faulting). These maps and databases provide an inventory of faults that would be defined as active, capable, and potentially active for seismic-hazard assessments.

  15. 3D Constraints On Fault Architecture and Strain Distribution of the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon and San Onofre Trend Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Driscoll, N. W.; Kent, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Inner California Borderlands (ICB) is situated off the coast of southern California and northern Baja. The structural and geomorphic characteristics of the area record a middle Oligocene transition from subduction to microplate capture along the California coast. Marine stratigraphic evidence shows large-scale extension and rotation overprinted by modern strike-slip deformation. Geodetic and geologic observations indicate that approximately 6-8 mm/yr of Pacific-North American relative plate motion is accommodated by offshore strike-slip faulting in the ICB. The farthest inshore fault system, the Newport-Inglewood Rose Canyon (NIRC) Fault is a dextral strike-slip system that is primarily offshore for approximately 120 km from San Diego to the San Joaquin Hills near Newport Beach, California. Based on trenching and well data, the NIRC Fault Holocene slip rate is 1.5-2.0 mm/yr to the south and 0.5-1.0 mm/yr along its northern extent. An earthquake rupturing the entire length of the system could produce an Mw 7.0 earthquake or larger. West of the main segments of the NIRC Fault is the San Onofre Trend (SOT) along the continental slope. Previous work concluded that this is part of a strike-slip system that eventually merges with the NIRC Fault. Others have interpreted this system as deformation associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust Fault purported to underlie most of the region. In late 2013, we acquired the first high-resolution 3D Parallel Cable (P-Cable) seismic surveys of the NIRC and SOT faults as part of the Southern California Regional Fault Mapping project. Analysis of stratigraphy and 3D mapping of this new data has yielded a new kinematic fault model of the area that provides new insight on deformation caused by interactions in both compressional and extensional regimes. For the first time, we can reconstruct fault interaction and investigate how strain is distributed through time along a typical strike-slip margin using 3D constraints on fault

  16. The Pawnee earthquake as a result of the interplay among injection, faults and foreshocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Nakata, Nori; Pennington, Colin; Haffener, Jackson; Chang, Jefferson C; He, Xiaohui; Zhan, Zhongwen; Ni, Sidao; Walter, Jacob I

    2017-07-10

    The Pawnee M5.8 earthquake is the largest event in Oklahoma instrument recorded history. It occurred near the edge of active seismic zones, similar to other M5+ earthquakes since 2011. It ruptured a previously unmapped fault and triggered aftershocks along a complex conjugate fault system. With a high-resolution earthquake catalog, we observe propagating foreshocks leading to the mainshock within 0.5 km distance, suggesting existence of precursory aseismic slip. At approximately 100 days before the mainshock, two M ≥ 3.5 earthquakes occurred along a mapped fault that is conjugate to the mainshock fault. At about 40 days before, two earthquakes clusters started, with one M3 earthquake occurred two days before the mainshock. The three M ≥ 3 foreshocks all produced positive Coulomb stress at the mainshock hypocenter. These foreshock activities within the conjugate fault system are near-instantaneously responding to variations in injection rates at 95% confidence. The short time delay between injection and seismicity differs from both the hypothetical expected time scale of diffusion process and the long time delay observed in this region prior to 2016, suggesting a possible role of elastic stress transfer and critical stress state of the fault. Our results suggest that the Pawnee earthquake is a result of interplay among injection, tectonic faults, and foreshocks.

  17. Using focal mechanism solutions to correlate earthquakes with faults in the Lake Tahoe-Truckee area, California and Nevada, and to help design LiDAR surveys for active-fault reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Lindsay, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    trace of both the Polaris fault and the Dog Valley fault system are within composite swaths defined by overlapping seismo-lineaments. Composite seismo-lineaments indicate that multiple historic earthquakes might be associated with a fault. This apparently successful correlation of earthquakes with faults in an area where geologic mapping is good suggests another use for SLAM in areas where fault mapping is incomplete, inadequate or made particularly difficult because of vegetative cover. If no previously mapped fault exists along a composite swath generated using well constrained focal mechanism solutions, the swath might be used to guide the design of a LiDAR survey in support of reconnaissance for the causative fault. The acquisition and geomorphic analysis of LiDAR data along a compound seismo-lineament swath might reveal geomorphic evidence of a previously unrecognized fault trace that is worthy of additional field study.

  18. Detailed mapping and rupture implications of the 1 km releasing bend in the Rodgers Creek Fault at Santa Rosa, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Langenheim, Victoria; Williams, Robert; Hitchcock, Christopher S.; DeLong, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) topography reveals for the first time the trace of the Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) through the center of Santa Rosa, the largest city in the northern San Francisco Bay area. Vertical deformation of the Santa Rosa Creek floodplain expresses a composite pull‐apart basin beneath the urban cover that is part of a broader 1‐km‐wide right‐releasing bend in the fault. High‐resolution geophysical data illuminate subsurface conditions that may be responsible for the complex pattern of surface faulting, as well as for the distribution of seismicity and possibly for creep behavior. We identify a dense, magnetic basement body bounded by the RCF beneath Santa Rosa that we interpret as a strong asperity, likely part of a larger locked patch of the fault to the south. A local increase in frictional resistance associated with the basement body appears to explain (1) distributed fault‐normal extension above where the RCF intersects the body; (2) earthquake activity around the northern end of the body, notably the 1969 ML 5.6 and 5.7 events and aftershocks; and (3) creep rates on the RCF that are higher to the north of Santa Rosa than to the south. There is a significant probability of a major earthquake on the RCF in the coming decades, and earthquakes associated with the proposed asperity have the potential to release seismic energy into the Cotati basin beneath Santa Rosa, already known from damaging historical earthquakes to produce amplified ground shaking.

  19. Late Quaternary offset of alluvial fan surfaces along the Central Sierra Madre Fault, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgette, Reed J.; Hanson, Austin; Scharer, Katherine M.; Midttun, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    The Sierra Madre Fault is a reverse fault system along the southern flank of the San Gabriel Mountains near Los Angeles, California. This study focuses on the Central Sierra Madre Fault (CSMF) in an effort to provide numeric dating on surfaces with ages previously estimated from soil development alone. We have refined previous geomorphic mapping conducted in the western portion of the CSMF near Pasadena, CA, with the aid of new lidar data. This progress report focuses on our geochronology strategy employed in collecting samples and interpreting data to determine a robust suite of terrace surface ages. Sample sites for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating techniques were selected to be redundant and to be validated through relative geomorphic relationships between inset terrace levels. Additional sample sites were selected to evaluate the post-abandonment histories of terrace surfaces. We will combine lidar-derived displacement data with surface ages to estimate slip rates for the CSMF.

  20. The Devils Mountain Fault zone: An active Cascadia upper plate zone of deformation, Pacific Northwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Greene, H. Gary

    2018-02-01

    The Devils Mountain Fault Zone (DMFZ) extends east to west from Washington State to just south of Victoria, British Columbia, in the northern Strait of Juan de Fuca of Canada and the USA. Recently collected geophysical data were used to map this fault zone in detail, which show the main fault trace, and associated primary and secondary (conjugate) strands, and extensive northeast-southwest oriented folding that occurs within a 6 km wide deformation zone. The fault zone has been active in the Holocene as seen in the offset and disrupted upper Quaternary strata, seafloor displacement, and deformation within sediment cores taken close to the seafloor expression of the faults. Data suggest that the present DMFZ and the re-activated Leech River Fault may be part of the same fault system. Based on the length and previously estimated slip rates of the fault zone in Washington State, the DMFZ appears to have the potential of producing a strong earthquake, perhaps as large as magnitude 7.5 or greater, within 2 km of the city of Victoria.

  1. SAR-revealed slip partitioning on a bending fault plane for the 2014 Northern Nagano earthquake at the northern Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Morishita, Yu; Yarai, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    By applying conventional cross-track synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and multiple aperture InSAR techniques to ALOS-2 data acquired before and after the 2014 Northern Nagano, central Japan, earthquake, a three-dimensional ground displacement field has been successfully mapped. Crustal deformation is concentrated in and around the northern part of the Kamishiro Fault, which is the northernmost section of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line. The full picture of the displacement field shows contraction in the northwest-southeast direction, but northeastward movement along the fault strike direction is prevalent in the northeast portion of the fault, which suggests that a strike-slip component is a significant part of the activity of this fault, in addition to a reverse faulting. Clear displacement discontinuities are recognized in the southern part of the source region, which falls just on the previously known Kamishiro Fault trace. We inverted the SAR and GNSS data to construct a slip distribution model; the preferred model of distributed slip on a two-plane fault surface shows a combination of reverse and left-lateral fault motions on a bending east-dipping fault surface with a dip of 30° in the shallow part and 50° in the deeper part. The hypocenter falls just on the estimated deeper fault plane where a left-lateral slip is inferred, whereas in the shallow part, a reverse slip is predominant, which causes surface ruptures on the ground. The slip partitioning may be accounted for by shear stress resulting from a reverse fault slip with left-lateral component at depth, for which a left-lateral slip is suppressed in the shallow part where the reverse slip is inferred. The slip distribution model with a bending fault surface, instead of a single fault plane, produces moment tensor solution with a non-double couple component, which is consistent with the seismically estimated mechanism.

  2. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw

    2005-01-01

    the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal......We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent...... earthquakes indicate that this area is tectonically active. A seismic refraction study across the Carlsberg Fault shows that the fault zone is a low-velocity zone and marks a change in seismic velocity structure. A normal incidence reflection seismic section shows a coincident flower-like structure. We have...

  3. Optimal fault signal estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Niemann, H.H.; Saberi, A.; Sannuti, P.

    2002-01-01

    We consider here both fault identification and fault signal estimation. Regarding fault identification, we seek either exact or almost fault identification. On the other hand, regarding fault signal estimation, we seek either $H_2$ optimal, $H_2$ suboptimal or Hinfinity suboptimal estimation. By

  4. Dynamic rupture simulation of the 2017 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura (New Zealand) earthquake: Is spontaneous multi-fault rupture expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, R.; Kaneko, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The coseismic rupture of the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake propagated over the distance of 150 km along the NE-SW striking fault system in the northern South Island of New Zealand. The analysis of In-SAR, GPS and field observations (Hamling et al., 2017) revealed that the most of the rupture occurred along the previously mapped active faults, involving more than seven major fault segments. These fault segments, mostly dipping to northwest, are distributed in a quite complex manner, manifested by fault branching and step-over structures. Back-projection rupture imaging shows that the rupture appears to jump between three sub-parallel fault segments in sequence from the south to north (Kaiser et al., 2017). The rupture seems to be terminated on the Needles fault in Cook Strait. One of the main questions is whether this multi-fault rupture can be naturally explained with the physical basis. In order to understand the conditions responsible for the complex rupture process, we conduct fully dynamic rupture simulations that account for 3-D non-planar fault geometry embedded in an elastic half-space. The fault geometry is constrained by previous In-SAR observations and geological inferences. The regional stress field is constrained by the result of stress tensor inversion based on focal mechanisms (Balfour et al., 2005). The fault is governed by a relatively simple, slip-weakening friction law. For simplicity, the frictional parameters are uniformly distributed as there is no direct estimate of them except for a shallow portion of the Kekerengu fault (Kaneko et al., 2017). Our simulations show that the rupture can indeed propagate through the complex fault system once it is nucleated at the southernmost segment. The simulated slip distribution is quite heterogeneous, reflecting the nature of non-planar fault geometry, fault branching and step-over structures. We find that optimally oriented faults exhibit larger slip, which is consistent with the slip model of Hamling et al

  5. Application of Fault Tree Analysis and Fuzzy Neural Networks to Fault Diagnosis in the Internet of Things (IoT) for Aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingyi; Zhen, Zhumi; Yu, Huihui; Xu, Jing

    2017-01-14

    In the Internet of Things (IoT) equipment used for aquaculture is often deployed in outdoor ponds located in remote areas. Faults occur frequently in these tough environments and the staff generally lack professional knowledge and pay a low degree of attention in these areas. Once faults happen, expert personnel must carry out maintenance outdoors. Therefore, this study presents an intelligent method for fault diagnosis based on fault tree analysis and a fuzzy neural network. In the proposed method, first, the fault tree presents a logic structure of fault symptoms and faults. Second, rules extracted from the fault trees avoid duplicate and redundancy. Third, the fuzzy neural network is applied to train the relationship mapping between fault symptoms and faults. In the aquaculture IoT, one fault can cause various fault symptoms, and one symptom can be caused by a variety of faults. Four fault relationships are obtained. Results show that one symptom-to-one fault, two symptoms-to-two faults, and two symptoms-to-one fault relationships can be rapidly diagnosed with high precision, while one symptom-to-two faults patterns perform not so well, but are still worth researching. This model implements diagnosis for most kinds of faults in the aquaculture IoT.

  6. Application of Fault Tree Analysis and Fuzzy Neural Networks to Fault Diagnosis in the Internet of Things (IoT for Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyi Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Internet of Things (IoT equipment used for aquaculture is often deployed in outdoor ponds located in remote areas. Faults occur frequently in these tough environments and the staff generally lack professional knowledge and pay a low degree of attention in these areas. Once faults happen, expert personnel must carry out maintenance outdoors. Therefore, this study presents an intelligent method for fault diagnosis based on fault tree analysis and a fuzzy neural network. In the proposed method, first, the fault tree presents a logic structure of fault symptoms and faults. Second, rules extracted from the fault trees avoid duplicate and redundancy. Third, the fuzzy neural network is applied to train the relationship mapping between fault symptoms and faults. In the aquaculture IoT, one fault can cause various fault symptoms, and one symptom can be caused by a variety of faults. Four fault relationships are obtained. Results show that one symptom-to-one fault, two symptoms-to-two faults, and two symptoms-to-one fault relationships can be rapidly diagnosed with high precision, while one symptom-to-two faults patterns perform not so well, but are still worth researching. This model implements diagnosis for most kinds of faults in the aquaculture IoT.

  7. The transtensional offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault: Fault zone geometry, late Pleistocene to Holocene sediment deposition, shallow deformation patterns, and asymmetric basin growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Goldfinger, Chris

    2017-01-01

    We mapped an ~120 km offshore portion of the northern San Andreas fault (SAF) between Point Arena and Point Delgada using closely spaced seismic reflection profiles (1605 km), high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (~1600 km2), and marine magnetic data. This new data set documents SAF location and continuity, associated tectonic geomorphology, shallow stratigraphy, and deformation. Variable deformation patterns in the generally narrow (∼1 km wide) fault zone are largely associated with fault trend and with transtensional and transpressional fault bends.We divide this unique transtensional portion of the offshore SAF into six sections along and adjacent to the SAF based on fault trend, deformation styles, seismic stratigraphy, and seafloor bathymetry. In the southern region of the study area, the SAF includes a 10-km-long zone characterized by two active parallel fault strands. Slip transfer and long-term straightening of the fault trace in this zone are likely leading to transfer of a slice of the Pacific plate to the North American plate. The SAF in the northern region of the survey area passes through two sharp fault bends (∼9°, right stepping, and ∼8°, left stepping), resulting in both an asymmetric lazy Z–shape sedimentary basin (Noyo basin) and an uplifted rocky shoal (Tolo Bank). Seismic stratigraphic sequences and unconformities within the Noyo basin correlate with the previous 4 major Quaternary sea-level lowstands and record basin tilting of ∼0.6°/100 k.y. Migration of the basin depocenter indicates a lateral slip rate on the SAF of 10–19 mm/yr for the past 350 k.y.Data collected west of the SAF on the south flank of Cape Mendocino are inconsistent with the presence of an offshore fault strand that connects the SAF with the Mendocino Triple Junction. Instead, we suggest that the SAF previously mapped onshore at Point Delgada continues onshore northward and transitions to the King Range thrust.

  8. Intra-caldera active fault: An example from the Mw 7.0 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, S.; Murakami, T.; Takahashi, N.

    2017-12-01

    A NE-trending 30-km-long surface rupture with up to 2.4 m dextral slip emerged during the Mw=7.0 16 April 2016 Kumamoto earthquake along the previously mapped Futagawa and northern Hinagu fault systems. The 5-km-long portion of the northeast rupture end, which was previously unidentified, crossed somma and extended to the 20-km-diameter Aso Caldera, one of the major active volcanoes, central Kyushu. We here explore geologic exposures of interplays of active faulting and active volcanism, and then argue the Futagawa fault system has been influenced by the ring fault system associated with the caldera forming gigantic eruptions since 270 ka, last of which occurred 90 ka ejecting a huge amount of ignimbrite. To understand the interplays, together with the mapping of the 2016 rupture, we employed an UAV to capture numerous photos of the exposures along the canyon and developed 3D orthochromatic topographic model using PhotoScan. One-hundred-meter-deep Kurokawa River canyon by the Aso Caldera rim exposes two lava flow units of 50 ka vertically offset by 10 m by the Futatawa fault system. Reconstructions of the collapsed bridges across the Kurokawa River also reveal cross sections of a 30-meter-high tectonic bulge and 10-m-scale negative flower structure deformed by the frequent fault movements. We speculate two fault developing models across the Aso Caldera. One is that the NE edge of the Futagawa fault system was cut and reset by the caldera forming ring fault, which indicates the 3-km-long rupture extent within the Aso Caldera would be a product of the fault growth since the last Aso-4 eruption of 90 ka. It enables us to estimate the 33 mm/yr of the fault propagation speed. An alternative model is that subsurface rupture of the Kumamoto earthquake extended further to the NE rim, the other side of the caldera edge, which is partially supported by the geodetic and seismic inversions. With respect to the model, the clear surface rupture of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

  9. Radon anomalies along faults in North of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tamimi, M.H.; Abumurad, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon emanation was sampled in five locations in a limestone quarry area using SSNTDs CR-39. Radon levels in the soil air at four different well-known traceable fault planes were measured along a traverse line perpendicular to each of these faults. Radon levels at the fault were higher by a factor of 3-10 than away from the faults. However, some sites have broader shoulders than the others. The method was applied along a fifth inferred fault zone. The results show anomalous radon level in the sampled station near the fault zone, which gave a radon value higher by three times than background. This study draws its importance from the fact that in Jordan many cities and villages have been established over an intensive faulted land. Also, our study has considerable implications for the future radon mapping. Moreover, radon gas is proved to be a good tool for fault zones detection

  10. Misbheaving Faults: The Expanding Role of Geodetic Imaging in Unraveling Unexpected Fault Slip Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, W. D.; Briggs, R.

    2015-12-01

    Geodetic imaging techniques enable researchers to "see" details of fault rupture that cannot be captured by complementary tools such as seismology and field studies, thus providing increasingly detailed information about surface strain, slip kinematics, and how an earthquake may be transcribed into the geological record. For example, the recent Haiti, Sierra El Mayor, and Nepal earthquakes illustrate the fundamental role of geodetic observations in recording blind ruptures where purely geological and seismological studies provided incomplete views of rupture kinematics. Traditional earthquake hazard analyses typically rely on sparse paleoseismic observations and incomplete mapping, simple assumptions of slip kinematics from Andersonian faulting, and earthquake analogs to characterize the probabilities of forthcoming ruptures and the severity of ground accelerations. Spatially dense geodetic observations in turn help to identify where these prevailing assumptions regarding fault behavior break down and highlight new and unexpected kinematic slip behavior. Here, we focus on three key contributions of space geodetic observations to the analysis of co-seismic deformation: identifying near-surface co-seismic slip where no easily recognized fault rupture exists; discerning non-Andersonian faulting styles; and quantifying distributed, off-fault deformation. The 2013 Balochistan strike slip earthquake in Pakistan illuminates how space geodesy precisely images non-Andersonian behavior and off-fault deformation. Through analysis of high-resolution optical imagery and DEMs, evidence emerges that a single fault map slip as both a strike slip and dip slip fault across multiple seismic cycles. These observations likewise enable us to quantify on-fault deformation, which account for ~72% of the displacements in this earthquake. Nonetheless, the spatial distribution of on- and off-fault deformation in this event is highly spatially variable- a complicating factor for comparisons

  11. Eigenvector of gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips considering fault type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Shigekazu

    2017-12-01

    The dips of boundaries in faults and caldera walls play an important role in understanding their formation mechanisms. The fault dip is a particularly important parameter in numerical simulations for hazard map creation as the fault dip affects estimations of the area of disaster occurrence. In this study, I introduce a technique for estimating the fault dip using the eigenvector of the observed or calculated gravity gradient tensor on a profile and investigating its properties through numerical simulations. From numerical simulations, it was found that the maximum eigenvector of the tensor points to the high-density causative body, and the dip of the maximum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the normal fault. It was also found that the minimum eigenvector of the tensor points to the low-density causative body and that the dip of the minimum eigenvector closely follows the dip of the reverse fault. It was shown that the eigenvector of the gravity gradient tensor for estimating fault dips is determined by fault type. As an application of this technique, I estimated the dip of the Kurehayama Fault located in Toyama, Japan, and obtained a result that corresponded to conventional fault dip estimations by geology and geomorphology. Because the gravity gradient tensor is required for this analysis, I present a technique that estimates the gravity gradient tensor from the gravity anomaly on a profile.

  12. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These ...

  13. Methodology for Designing Fault-Protection Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barltrop, Kevin; Levison, Jeffrey; Kan, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for designing fault-protection (FP) software for autonomous spacecraft. The methodology embodies and extends established engineering practices in the technical discipline of Fault Detection, Diagnosis, Mitigation, and Recovery; and has been successfully implemented in the Deep Impact Spacecraft, a NASA Discovery mission. Based on established concepts of Fault Monitors and Responses, this FP methodology extends the notion of Opinion, Symptom, Alarm (aka Fault), and Response with numerous new notions, sub-notions, software constructs, and logic and timing gates. For example, Monitor generates a RawOpinion, which graduates into Opinion, categorized into no-opinion, acceptable, or unacceptable opinion. RaiseSymptom, ForceSymptom, and ClearSymptom govern the establishment and then mapping to an Alarm (aka Fault). Local Response is distinguished from FP System Response. A 1-to-n and n-to- 1 mapping is established among Monitors, Symptoms, and Responses. Responses are categorized by device versus by function. Responses operate in tiers, where the early tiers attempt to resolve the Fault in a localized step-by-step fashion, relegating more system-level response to later tier(s). Recovery actions are gated by epoch recovery timing, enabling strategy, urgency, MaxRetry gate, hardware availability, hazardous versus ordinary fault, and many other priority gates. This methodology is systematic, logical, and uses multiple linked tables, parameter files, and recovery command sequences. The credibility of the FP design is proven via a fault-tree analysis "top-down" approach, and a functional fault-mode-effects-and-analysis via "bottoms-up" approach. Via this process, the mitigation and recovery strategy(s) per Fault Containment Region scope (width versus depth) the FP architecture.

  14. An L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar study on the Ganos section of the north Anatolian fault zone between 2007 and 2011: Evidence for along strike segmentation and creep in a shallow fault patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Michele, Marcello; Ergintav, Semih; Aochi, Hideo; Raucoules, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We utilize L-band interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data in this study to retrieve a ground velocity map for the near field of the Ganos section of the north Anatolian fault (NAF) zone. The segmentation and creep distribution of this section, which last ruptured in 1912 to generate a moment magnitude (Mw)7.3 earthquake, remains incompletely understood. Because InSAR processing removes the mean orbital plane, we do not investigate large scale displacements due to regional tectonics in this study as these can be determined using global positioning system (GPS) data, instead concentrating on the close-to-the-fault displacement field. Our aim is to determine whether, or not, it is possible to retrieve robust near field velocity maps from stacking L-band interferograms, combining both single and dual polarization SAR data. In addition, we discuss whether a crustal velocity map can be used to complement GPS observations in an attempt to discriminate the present-day surface displacement of the Ganos fault (GF) across multiple segments. Finally, we characterize the spatial distribution of creep on shallow patches along multiple along-strike segments at shallow depths. Our results suggest the presence of fault segmentation along strike as well as creep on the shallow part of the fault (i.e. the existence of a shallow creeping patch) or the presence of a smoother section on the fault plane. Data imply a heterogeneous fault plane with more complex mechanics than previously thought. Because this study improves our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the GF, our results have implications for local seismic hazard assessment.

  15. Spatial analysis of hypocenter to fault relationships for determining fault process zone width in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Roberts, Barry L.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Coburn, Timothy C.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary investigation areas (PIA) for a potential repository of high-level radioactive waste must be evaluated by NUMO with regard to a number of qualifying factors. One of these factors is related to earthquakes and fault activity. This study develops a spatial statistical assessment method that can be applied to the active faults in Japan to perform such screening evaluations. This analysis uses the distribution of seismicity near faults to define the width of the associated process zone. This concept is based on previous observations of aftershock earthquakes clustered near active faults and on the assumption that such seismic activity is indicative of fracturing and associated impacts on bedrock integrity. Preliminary analyses of aggregate data for all of Japan confirmed that the frequency of earthquakes is higher near active faults. Data used in the analysis were obtained from NUMO and consist of three primary sources: (1) active fault attributes compiled in a spreadsheet, (2) earthquake hypocenter data, and (3) active fault locations. Examination of these data revealed several limitations with regard to the ability to associate fault attributes from the spreadsheet to locations of individual fault trace segments. In particular, there was no direct link between attributes of the active faults in the spreadsheet and the active fault locations in the GIS database. In addition, the hypocenter location resolution in the pre-1983 data was less accurate than for later data. These pre-1983 hypocenters were eliminated from further analysis

  16. Spatial analysis of hypocenter to fault relationships for determining fault process zone width in Japan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Roberts, Barry L.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Coburn, Timothy C. (Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX)

    2004-09-01

    Preliminary investigation areas (PIA) for a potential repository of high-level radioactive waste must be evaluated by NUMO with regard to a number of qualifying factors. One of these factors is related to earthquakes and fault activity. This study develops a spatial statistical assessment method that can be applied to the active faults in Japan to perform such screening evaluations. This analysis uses the distribution of seismicity near faults to define the width of the associated process zone. This concept is based on previous observations of aftershock earthquakes clustered near active faults and on the assumption that such seismic activity is indicative of fracturing and associated impacts on bedrock integrity. Preliminary analyses of aggregate data for all of Japan confirmed that the frequency of earthquakes is higher near active faults. Data used in the analysis were obtained from NUMO and consist of three primary sources: (1) active fault attributes compiled in a spreadsheet, (2) earthquake hypocenter data, and (3) active fault locations. Examination of these data revealed several limitations with regard to the ability to associate fault attributes from the spreadsheet to locations of individual fault trace segments. In particular, there was no direct link between attributes of the active faults in the spreadsheet and the active fault locations in the GIS database. In addition, the hypocenter location resolution in the pre-1983 data was less accurate than for later data. These pre-1983 hypocenters were eliminated from further analysis.

  17. Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.; Smith, C.F.

    1984-09-01

    Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability

  18. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  19. Fault-weighted quantification method of fault detection coverage through fault mode and effect analysis in digital I&C systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Lee, Seung Jun, E-mail: sjlee420@unist.ac.kr; Jung, Wondea

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • We developed the fault-weighted quantification method of fault detection coverage. • The method has been applied to specific digital reactor protection system. • The unavailability of the module had 20-times difference with the traditional method. • Several experimental tests will be effectively prioritized using this method. - Abstract: The one of the most outstanding features of a digital I&C system is the use of a fault-tolerant technique. With an awareness regarding the importance of thequantification of fault detection coverage of fault-tolerant techniques, several researches related to the fault injection method were developed and employed to quantify a fault detection coverage. In the fault injection method, each injected fault has a different importance because the frequency of realization of every injected fault is different. However, there have been no previous studies addressing the importance and weighting factor of each injected fault. In this work, a new method for allocating the weighting to each injected fault using the failure mode and effect analysis data was proposed. For application, the fault-weighted quantification method has also been applied to specific digital reactor protection system to quantify the fault detection coverage. One of the major findings in an application was that we may estimate the unavailability of the specific module in digital I&C systems about 20-times smaller than real value when we use a traditional method. The other finding was that we can also classify the importance of the experimental case. Therefore, this method is expected to not only suggest an accurate quantification procedure of fault-detection coverage by weighting the injected faults, but to also contribute to an effective fault injection experiment by sorting the importance of the failure categories.

  20. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  1. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  2. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  3. Vertical slip rates of active faults of southern Albania inferred from river terraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Guzmán

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial terraces of Shkumbin, Devoll, Osum and Vjosa rivers (southern Albania and northwestern Greece are studied in order to quantify the vertical slip rates of the large active faults of the Dinaric-Albanic-Hellenic Alpine fold belt. The spatial and temporal variations of the incision rates along these rivers were estimated from the geomorphological mapping of the Quaternary sediments, the geometry and the dating of the terraces. Eleven terraces levels were identified in Albania from 68 geochronological ages already published or acquired for this work. The five lower terraces of the four studied rivers are well dated (10 new and 23 already published ages. These terraces are younger than 30 ka and their remnants are numerous. Their restoration allows estimating the regional trend of incision rate and the identification of local shifts. We argue that these shifts are linked to the active tectonics when they coincide with the faults already mapped by previous authors. Vertical slip rates for eight active faults in southern Albania are thus estimated for the last 19 ka and vary from ~0.1 to ~2 mm/a. The Lushnje Tepelene Thrust, that extends more than 120 kilometers, has a throw rate that varies from 0.2 to 0.8 mm/a, whereas the active faults of the extensional domain are segmented but are very active, with throw rates reaching locally 2 mm/a.

  4. Detecting and diagnosing SSME faults using an autoassociative neural network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.; Dietz, W. E.; Kiech, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    An effort is underway at the University of Tennessee Space Institute to develop diagnostic expert system methodologies based on the analysis of patterns of behavior of physical mechanisms. In this approach, fault diagnosis is conceptualized as the mapping or association of patterns of sensor data to patterns representing fault conditions. Neural networks are being investigated as a means of storing and retrieving fault scenarios. Neural networks offer several powerful features in fault diagnosis, including (1) general pattern matching capabilities, (2) resistance to noisy input data, (3) the ability to be trained by example, and (4) the potential for implementation on parallel computer architectures. This paper presents (1) an autoassociative neural network topology, i.e. the network input and output is identical when properly trained, and hence learning is unsupervised; (2) the training regimen used; and (3) the response of the system to inputs representing both previously observed and unkown fault scenarios. The effects of noise on the integrity of the diagnosis are also evaluated.

  5. Reliability of Coulomb stress changes inferred from correlated uncertainties of finite-fault source models

    KAUST Repository

    Woessner, J.

    2012-07-14

    Static stress transfer is one physical mechanism to explain triggered seismicity. Coseismic stress-change calculations strongly depend on the parameterization of the causative finite-fault source model. These models are uncertain due to uncertainties in input data, model assumptions, and modeling procedures. However, fault model uncertainties have usually been ignored in stress-triggering studies and have not been propagated to assess the reliability of Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) calculations. We show how these uncertainties can be used to provide confidence intervals for co-seismic ΔCFS-values. We demonstrate this for the MW = 5.9 June 2000 Kleifarvatn earthquake in southwest Iceland and systematically map these uncertainties. A set of 2500 candidate source models from the full posterior fault-parameter distribution was used to compute 2500 ΔCFS maps. We assess the reliability of the ΔCFS-values from the coefficient of variation (CV) and deem ΔCFS-values to be reliable where they are at least twice as large as the standard deviation (CV ≤ 0.5). Unreliable ΔCFS-values are found near the causative fault and between lobes of positive and negative stress change, where a small change in fault strike causes ΔCFS-values to change sign. The most reliable ΔCFS-values are found away from the source fault in the middle of positive and negative ΔCFS-lobes, a likely general pattern. Using the reliability criterion, our results support the static stress-triggering hypothesis. Nevertheless, our analysis also suggests that results from previous stress-triggering studies not considering source model uncertainties may have lead to a biased interpretation of the importance of static stress-triggering.

  6. Quaternary Geology and Surface Faulting Hazard: Active and Capable Faults in Central Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.

    2015-12-01

    The 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.1), in central Italy, raised the issue of surface faulting hazard in Italy, since large urban areas were affected by surface displacement along the causative structure, the Paganica fault. Since then, guidelines for microzonation were drew up that take into consideration the problem of surface faulting in Italy, and laying the bases for future regulations about related hazard, similarly to other countries (e.g. USA). More specific guidelines on the management of areas affected by active and capable faults (i.e. able to produce surface faulting) are going to be released by National Department of Civil Protection; these would define zonation of areas affected by active and capable faults, with prescriptions for land use planning. As such, the guidelines arise the problem of the time interval and general operational criteria to asses fault capability for the Italian territory. As for the chronology, the review of the international literature and regulatory allowed Galadini et al. (2012) to propose different time intervals depending on the ongoing tectonic regime - compressive or extensional - which encompass the Quaternary. As for the operational criteria, the detailed analysis of the large amount of works dealing with active faulting in Italy shows that investigations exclusively based on surface morphological features (e.g. fault planes exposition) or on indirect investigations (geophysical data), are not sufficient or even unreliable to define the presence of an active and capable fault; instead, more accurate geological information on the Quaternary space-time evolution of the areas affected by such tectonic structures is needed. A test area for which active and capable faults can be first mapped based on such a classical but still effective methodological approach can be the central Apennines. Reference Galadini F., Falcucci E., Galli P., Giaccio B., Gori S., Messina P., Moro M., Saroli M., Scardia G., Sposato A. (2012). Time

  7. Off-fault tip splay networks: a genetic and generic property of faults indicative of their long-term propagation, and a major component of off-fault damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, C.; Manighetti, I.; Gaudemer, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Faults grow over the long-term by accumulating displacement and lengthening, i.e., propagating laterally. We use fault maps and fault propagation evidences available in literature to examine geometrical relations between parent faults and off-fault splays. The population includes 47 worldwide crustal faults with lengths from millimeters to thousands of kilometers and of different slip modes. We show that fault splays form adjacent to any propagating fault tip, whereas they are absent at non-propagating fault ends. Independent of parent fault length, slip mode, context, etc, tip splay networks have a similar fan shape widening in direction of long-term propagation, a similar relative length and width (~30 and ~10 % of parent fault length, respectively), and a similar range of mean angles to parent fault (10-20°). Tip splays more commonly develop on one side only of the parent fault. We infer that tip splay networks are a genetic and a generic property of faults indicative of their long-term propagation. We suggest that they represent the most recent damage off-the parent fault, formed during the most recent phase of fault lengthening. The scaling relation between parent fault length and width of tip splay network implies that damage zones enlarge as parent fault length increases. Elastic properties of host rocks might thus be modified at large distances away from a fault, up to 10% of its length. During an earthquake, a significant fraction of coseismic slip and stress is dissipated into the permanent damage zone that surrounds the causative fault. We infer that coseismic dissipation might occur away from a rupture zone as far as a distance of 10% of the length of its causative fault. Coseismic deformations and stress transfers might thus be significant in broad regions about principal rupture traces. This work has been published in Comptes Rendus Geoscience under doi:10.1016/j.crte.2015.05.002 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631071315000528).

  8. Iowa Bedrock Faults

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This fault coverage locates and identifies all currently known/interpreted fault zones in Iowa, that demonstrate offset of geologic units in exposure or subsurface...

  9. Layered Fault Management Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sztipanovits, Janos

    2004-01-01

    ... UAVs or Organic Air Vehicles. The approach of this effort was to analyze fault management requirements of formation flight for fleets of UAVs, and develop a layered fault management architecture which demonstrates significant...

  10. Fault detection and isolation in systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The problem of fault detection and isolation of parametric faults is considered in this paper. A fault detection problem based on parametric faults are associated with internal parameter variations in the dynamical system. A fault detection and isolation method for parametric faults is formulated...

  11. Slip rate on the San Diego trough fault zone, inner California Borderland, and the 1986 Oceanside earthquake swarm revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Holly F.; Conrad, James E.; Paull, C.K.; McGann, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The San Diego trough fault zone (SDTFZ) is part of a 90-km-wide zone of faults within the inner California Borderland that accommodates motion between the Pacific and North American plates. Along with most faults offshore southern California, the slip rate and paleoseismic history of the SDTFZ are unknown. We present new seismic reflection data that show that the fault zone steps across a 5-km-wide stepover to continue for an additional 60 km north of its previously mapped extent. The 1986 Oceanside earthquake swarm is located within the 20-km-long restraining stepover. Farther north, at the latitude of Santa Catalina Island, the SDTFZ bends 20° to the west and may be linked via a complex zone of folds with the San Pedro basin fault zone (SPBFZ). In a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), we measure and date the coseismic offset of a submarine channel that intersects the fault zone near the SDTFZ–SPBFZ junction. We estimate a horizontal slip rate of about 1:5 0:3 mm=yr over the past 12,270 yr.

  12. Preliminary Monitoring of Soil gas Radon in Potentially Active Faults, San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondthai, P.; Udphuay, S.

    2013-05-01

    The magnitude of 5.1 Mw earthquake occurred in San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand in December 2006 was considered an uncommon event due to the fact that there was no statistical record of such significant earthquake in the area. Therefore the earthquake might have been associated with a potentially active fault zone within the area. The objective of this study is to measure soil gas radon across this unknown fault zone within the Chiang Mai Basin, northern Thailand. Two profiles traversing the expected fault zone of soil gas radon measurements have been monitored, using TASTRAK solid state track nuclear detectors (SSNTDs). Radon signals from three periods of measurement show a distinctive consistent spatial distribution pattern. Anomalous radon areas along the profiles are connected to fault locations previously interpreted from other geophysical survey results. The increased radon signal changes from the radon background level with the signal-to-background ratio above 3 are considered anomalous. Such pattern of radon anomaly supports the existence of the faults. The radon measurement, therefore is a powerful technique in mapping active fault zone.

  13. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  14. Nature and continuity of the Sundance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Day, Warren C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the detailed geologic mapping (1:2,400 scale) that was performed in the northern part of the potential nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the nature and extent of the Sundance Fault zone and to evaluate structural relations between the Sundance and other faults

  15. Constraining fault activity by investigating tectonically-deformed Quaternary palaeoshorelines using a synchronous correlation method: the Capo D'Orlando Fault as a case study (NE Sicily, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschis, Marco; Roberts, Gerald P.; Robertson, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Long-term curstal extension rates, accommodated by active normal faults, can be constrained by investigating Late Quaternary vertical movements. Sequences of marine terraces tectonically deformed by active faults mark the interaction between tectonic activity, sea-level changes and active faulting throughout the Quaternary (e.g. Armijo et al., 1996, Giunta et al, 2011, Roberts et al., 2013). Crustal deformation can be calculated over multiple seismic cycles by mapping Quaternary tectonically-deformed palaeoshorelines, both in the hangingwall and footwall of active normal faults (Roberts et al., 2013). Here we use a synchronous correlation method between palaeoshorelines elevations and the ages of sea-level highstands (see Roberts et al., 2013 for further details) which takes advantage of the facts that (i) sea-level highstands are not evenly-spaced in time, yet must correlate with palaeoshorelines that are commonly not evenly-spaced in elevation, and (ii) that older terraces may be destroyed and/or overprinted by younger highstands, so that the next higher or lower paleoshoreline does not necessarily correlate with the next older or younger sea-level highstand. We investigated a flight of Late Quaternary marine terraces deformed by normal faulting as a result of the Capo D'Orlando Fault in NE Sicily (e.g. Giunta et al., 2011). This fault lies within the Calabrian Arc which has experienced damaging seismic events such as the 1908 Messina Straits earthquake ~ Mw 7. Our mapping and previous mapping (Giunta et al. (2011) demonstrate that the elevations of marine terraces inner edges change along the strike the NE - SW oriented normal fault. This confirms active deformation on the Capo D'Orlando Fault, strongly suggesting that it should be added into the Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS, Basili et al., 2008). Giunta et al. (2011) suggested that uplift rates and hence faults lip-rates vary through time for this examples. We update the ages assigned to

  16. Fault tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, B.

    1981-01-01

    Fault tolerance involves the provision of strategies for error detection damage assessment, fault treatment and error recovery. A survey is given of the different sorts of strategies used in highly reliable computing systems, together with an outline of recent research on the problems of providing fault tolerance in parallel and distributed computing systems. (orig.)

  17. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  18. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  19. Loading of the San Andreas fault by flood-induced rupture of faults beneath the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Kilb, Debi; Luttrell, Karen; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The southern San Andreas fault has not experienced a large earthquake for approximately 300 years, yet the previous five earthquakes occurred at ~180-year intervals. Large strike-slip faults are often segmented by lateral stepover zones. Movement on smaller faults within a stepover zone could perturb the main fault segments and potentially trigger a large earthquake. The southern San Andreas fault terminates in an extensional stepover zone beneath the Salton Sea—a lake that has experienced periodic flooding and desiccation since the late Holocene. Here we reconstruct the magnitude and timing of fault activity beneath the Salton Sea over several earthquake cycles. We observe coincident timing between flooding events, stepover fault displacement and ruptures on the San Andreas fault. Using Coulomb stress models, we show that the combined effect of lake loading, stepover fault movement and increased pore pressure could increase stress on the southern San Andreas fault to levels sufficient to induce failure. We conclude that rupture of the stepover faults, caused by periodic flooding of the palaeo-Salton Sea and by tectonic forcing, had the potential to trigger earthquake rupture on the southern San Andreas fault. Extensional stepover zones are highly susceptible to rapid stress loading and thus the Salton Sea may be a nucleation point for large ruptures on the southern San Andreas fault.

  20. Fault-Tolerant NDE Data Reduction Framework, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A distributed fault tolerant nondestructive evaluation (NDE) data reduction framework is proposed in which large NDE datasets are mapped to thousands to millions of...

  1. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the stress field caused by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress, where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  2. Stress field of a dislocating inclined fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Wang, T.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, analytical expressions of the stress field given rise by a rectangular dislocating fault of an arbitrary dip in a semi-infinite elastic medium for the case of unequal Lame constants are derived. The results of computations for the stress fields on the ground surface of an inclined strike-slip and an inclined dip-slip fault are represented by contour maps. The effects of the Poisson Ratio of the medium, the dip angle, upper and lower boundaries of the faults on the stress field at the surface have been discussed. As an application, the contour maps for shear stress and hydrostatic stress of near fields of the Tonghai (1970), Haicheng, (1975) and Tangshan (1976) earthquakes have been calculated and compared with the spatial distributions of strong aftershocks of these earthquakes. It is found that most of the strong aftershocks are distributed in the regions of tensional stress where the hydrostatic stress is positive.

  3. Concatenated codes for fault tolerant quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.; Zurek, W.

    1995-05-01

    The application of concatenated codes to fault tolerant quantum computing is discussed. We have previously shown that for quantum memories and quantum communication, a state can be transmitted with error {epsilon} provided each gate has error at most c{epsilon}. We show how this can be used with Shor`s fault tolerant operations to reduce the accuracy requirements when maintaining states not currently participating in the computation. Viewing Shor`s fault tolerant operations as a method for reducing the error of operations, we give a concatenated implementation which promises to propagate the reduction hierarchically. This has the potential of reducing the accuracy requirements in long computations.

  4. Scissoring Fault Rupture Properties along the Median Tectonic Line Fault Zone, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M.; Nishizaka, N.; Onishi, K.; Sakamoto, J.; Takahashi, K.

    2017-12-01

    structures of the MTLFZ based on newly obtained data and previous research results. And then, we discuss how the relationship between the surface fault geometry and the deep subsurface structures changes through the MTLFZ which is under the heterogeneous regional stress condition.

  5. Microstructural investigations on carbonate fault core rocks in active extensional fault zones from the central Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, Silvia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Storti, Fabrizio

    2017-04-01

    The study of the microstructural and petrophysical evolution of cataclasites and gouges has a fundamental impact on both hydraulic and frictional properties of fault zones. In the last decades, growing attention has been payed to the characterization of carbonate fault core rocks due to the nucleation and propagation of coseismic ruptures in carbonate successions (e.g., Umbria-Marche 1997, L'Aquila 2009, Amatrice 2016 earthquakes in Central Apennines, Italy). Among several physical parameters, grain size and shape in fault core rocks are expected to control the way of sliding along the slip surfaces in active fault zones, thus influencing the propagation of coseismic ruptures during earthquakes. Nevertheless, the role of grain size and shape distribution evolution in controlling the weakening or strengthening behavior in seismogenic fault zones is still not fully understood also because a comprehensive database from natural fault cores is still missing. In this contribution, we present a preliminary study of seismogenic extensional fault zones in Central Apennines by combining detailed filed mapping with grain size and microstructural analysis of fault core rocks. Field mapping was aimed to describe the structural architecture of fault systems and the along-strike fault rock distribution and fracturing variations. In the laboratory we used a Malvern Mastersizer 3000 granulometer to obtain a precise grain size characterization of loose fault rocks combined with sieving for coarser size classes. In addition, we employed image analysis on thin sections to quantify the grain shape and size in cemented fault core rocks. The studied fault zones consist of an up to 5-10 m-thick fault core where most of slip is accommodated, surrounded by a tens-of-meters wide fractured damage zone. Fault core rocks consist of (1) loose to partially cemented breccias characterized by different grain size (from several cm up to mm) and variable grain shape (from very angular to sub

  6. Delineation of fault systems on Langeland, Denmark based on AEM data and boreholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Westergaard, Joakim Hollenbo; Pytlich, Anders

    in the fault systems can be observed in the AEM data as a low resistivity layer that clearly distinguish from the underlying and surrounding high resistivity fresh water saturated limestone (footwall block) and the overlying glacial clay till. Soil descriptions from a borehole confirm that the low resistivity...... with boreholes, three fault systems in the northern part of the island of Langeland, Denmark are mapped. Two of the fault systems were unknown prior to the mapping campaign. The two unknown fault systems are interpreted as a normal fault and graben structures, respectively. The presence of the hanging-wall block...

  7. Extent and distribution of aseismic slip on the Ismetpaşa segment of the North Anatolian Fault (Turkey) from Persistent Scatterer InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cetin, Esra

    2014-07-01

    We use the Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI) technique with elastic dislocation models and geology along the creeping section of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) at Ismetpaşa, to map and deduce the velocity field and the aseismic slip distribution. Revealing the spatiotemporal nature of the creep helped us associate the creep with potential lithological controls, hence providing a new perspective to better understand the underlying causes and mechanisms. The PSI analysis of Envisat ASAR images between 2003 and 2010 reveals a clear picture of surface creep along the fault and a new interseismic velocity field transitioning gradually between the creeping and the locked fault sections. The creep rate is found to fluctuate along a 100 km long section of the fault in a manner similar to that along the Hayward fault, reaching a maximum of ∼20±2 mm/yr, close to the far field plate velocity (∼25±1.5 mm/yr). At Ismetpaşa, it is in the range of 8±2 mm/yr, consistent with the previous geodetic observations. The creeping section appears to extend 30 km further east than those previously reported. Modeling of the PSI data reveals a heterogeneous creep distribution at depth with two main patches confined mostly to the uppermost 5 km portion of the seismogenic crust, releasing annually 6.2 × 1016 Nm (Mw=5.1) geodetic moment. Our analysis combined with previous studies suggests that creep might have commenced as postseismic deformation following the 1944 earthquake and has evolved to stable fault creep with time. There is a correlation between aseismic surface creep and the geology along the fault as it is in major part associated to rocks with low frictional strength such as the andesitic-basaltic, limestone, and serpentine bodies within the fault zone. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  8. New evidence for Oligocene to Recent slip along the San Juan fault, a terrane-bounding structure within the Cascadia forearc of southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrichhausen, N.; Morell, K. D.; Regalla, C.; Lynch, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Active forearc deformation in the southern Cascadia subduction zone is partially accommodated by faults in the upper crust in both Washington state and Oregon, but until recently, these types of active forearc faults have not been documented in the northern part of the Cascadia forearc on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Here we present new evidence for Quaternary slip on the San Juan fault that indicates that this terrane-bounding structure has been reactivated since its last documented slip in the Eocene. Field work targeted by newly acquired hi-resolution lidar topography reveals a deformed debris flow channel network developed within colluvium along the central portion of the San Juan fault, consistent with a surface-rupturing earthquake with 1-2 m of offset since deglaciation 13 ka. Near the western extent of the San Juan fault, marine sediments are in fault contact with mélange of the Pandora Peak Unit. These marine sediments are likely Oligocene or younger in age, given their similarity in facies and fossil assemblages to nearby outcrops of the Carmanah Group sediments, but new dating using strontium isotope stratigraphy will confirm this hypothesis. If these sediments are part of the Carmanah Group, they occur further east and at a higher elevation than previously documented. The presence of Oligocene or younger marine sediments, more than 400 meters above current sea level, requires a substantial amount of Neogene rock uplift that could have been accommodated by slip on the San Juan fault. A preliminary analysis of fault slickensides indicates a change in slip sense from left-lateral to normal along the strike of the fault. Until further mapping and analysis is completed, however, it remains unclear whether this kinematic change reflects spatial and/or temporal variability. These observations suggest that the San Juan fault is likely part of a network of active faults accommodating forearc strain on Vancouver Island. With the recent discovery of

  9. Identification of active fault using analysis of derivatives with vertical second based on gravity anomaly data (Case study: Seulimeum fault in Sumatera fault system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hududillah, Teuku Hafid; Simanjuntak, Andrean V. H.; Husni, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Gravity is a non-destructive geophysical technique that has numerous application in engineering and environmental field like locating a fault zone. The purpose of this study is to spot the Seulimeum fault system in Iejue, Aceh Besar (Indonesia) by using a gravity technique and correlate the result with geologic map and conjointly to grasp a trend pattern of fault system. An estimation of subsurface geological structure of Seulimeum fault has been done by using gravity field anomaly data. Gravity anomaly data which used in this study is from Topex that is processed up to Free Air Correction. The step in the Next data processing is applying Bouger correction and Terrin Correction to obtain complete Bouger anomaly that is topographically dependent. Subsurface modeling is done using the Gav2DC for windows software. The result showed a low residual gravity value at a north half compared to south a part of study space that indicated a pattern of fault zone. Gravity residual was successfully correlate with the geologic map that show the existence of the Seulimeum fault in this study space. The study of earthquake records can be used for differentiating the active and non active fault elements, this gives an indication that the delineated fault elements are active.

  10. Crustal Seismicity and Geomorphic Observations of the Chiripa-Haciendas Fault System: The Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver of Western Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. C.; Montero Pohly, W. K.; Araya, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    It has recently been shown that contemporary northwest motion of the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica reflects a tectonic sliver that includes much of the upper-plate arc, referred to as the Guanacaste Volcanic Arc Sliver (GVAS). Here we characterize historical seismicity and geomorphic expressions of faults that define the northeastern margin of the GVAS. Several crustal earthquakes and their aftershocks provide constraints on the geometry and/or kinematics of the fault system. These include the Armenia earthquake of July 12, 2011, the Bijagua earthquake of January 27, 2002, the Tilarán earthquake of April 13, 1973 and two much older events. We summarize these earthquakes in the context of recent fault mapping and focal mechanism solutions, and suggest that most of the deformation can be explained by slip on steeply dipping NW-striking fault planes accommodating dextral slip. Streams that cross the major fault traces we have mapped also show deflections consistent with dextral slip. These include map-view apparent offsets of 6.5 km for the Haciendas River, 1.0 km for the Orosi River and 0.6 km for the Pizote River. Although preservation is poor, we document stream terrace risers that reveal truncations and/or offsets consistent with dextral slip. Additional constraints on the fault system are apparent as it is traced into Lake Nicaragua. Previous workers have shown that earthquake clusters accommodate a combination of dextral slip on NW-strike faults and sinistral slip NE-strike faults, the latter described as part of a system of bookshelf fault blocks. Whether the northeastern margin of the GVAS under Lake Nicaragua is a single fault strand or an array of bookshelf blocks remains an open question. An equally important gap in our understanding is the kinematic link of the fault system to the east where the GVAS originates. Our results set the stage for expanded studies that will be essential to understanding the relative contributions of Cocos Ridge collision and

  11. Complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the state of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Gerda A.

    1993-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity anomaly map is part of a folio of maps of Colorado cosponsored by the National Mineral Resources Assessment Program (NAMRAP) and the National Geologic Mapping Program (COGEOMAP) and was produced to assist in studies of the mineral resource potential and tectonic setting of the State. Previous compilations of about 12,000 gravity stations by Behrendt and Bajwa (1974a,b) are updated by this map. The data was reduced at a 2.67 g/cm3 and the grid contoured at 3 mGal intervals. This map will aid in the mineral resource assessment by indicating buried intrusive complexes, volcanic fields, major faults and shear zones, and sedimentary basins; helping to identify concealed geologic units; and identifying localities that might be hydrothermically altered or mineralized.

  12. Evidence of Multiple Ground-rupturing Earthquakes in the Past 4000 Years along the Pasuruan Fault, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marliyani, G. I.; Arrowsmith, R.; Helmi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Instrumental and historical records of earthquakes, supplemented by paleoeseismic constraints can help reveal the earthquake potential of an area. The Pasuruan fault is a high angle normal fault with prominent youthful scarps cutting young deltaic sediments in the north coast of East Java, Indonesia and may pose significant hazard to the densely populated region. This fault has not been considered a significant structure, and mapped as a lineament with no sense of motion. Information regarding past earthquakes along this fault is not available. The fault is well defined both in the imagery and in the field as a ~13km long, 2-50m-high scarp. Open and filled fractures and natural exposures of the south-dipping fault plane indicate normal sense of motion. We excavated two fault-perpendicular trenches across a relay ramp identified during our surface mapping. Evidence for past earthquakes (documented in both trenches) includes upward fault termination with associated fissure fills, colluvial wedges and scarp-derived debris, folding, and angular unconformities. The ages of the events are constrained by 23 radiocarbon dates on detrital charcoal. We calibrated the dates using IntCal13 and used Oxcal to build the age model of the events. Our preliminary age model indicates that since 2006±134 B.C., there has been at least five ground rupturing earthquakes along the fault. The oldest event identified in the trench however, is not well-dated. Our modeled 95th percentile ranges of the next four earlier earthquakes (and their mean) are A.D. 1762-1850 (1806), A.D. 1646-1770 (1708), A.D. 1078-1648 (1363), and A.D. 726-1092 (909), yielding a rough recurrence rate of 302±63 yrs. These new data imply that Pasuruan fault is more active than previously thought. Additional well-dated earthquakes are necessary to build a solid earthquake recurrence model. Rupture along the whole section implies a minimum earthquake magnitude of 6.3, considering 13km as the minimum surface rupture

  13. Fault tolerant control for uncertain systems with parametric faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2006-01-01

    A fault tolerant control (FTC) architecture based on active fault diagnosis (AFD) and the YJBK (Youla, Jarb, Bongiorno and Kucera)parameterization is applied in this paper. Based on the FTC architecture, fault tolerant control of uncertain systems with slowly varying parametric faults...... is investigated. Conditions are given for closed-loop stability in case of false alarms or missing fault detection/isolation....

  14. Research of Two Different Impulsive Faults of Rolling Element Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhinong; Xing Chenghong; Feng Kun; Gao Jinji

    2012-01-01

    Fans and pumps are key machines in process industries such as petrochemical and petroleum industries. Their faults can be catastrophic and result in costly downtime. Bearing fault is almost the most common fault of fans and pumps as rolling element bearings are widely used in these machines. Hence, condition monitoring and diagnosis of bearings are important. Two different impulsive faults of bearings have been observed and studied in previous research. The first fault presents very clear impulsive symptom in envelope spectrum, but the bearing can work for a long time. The other fault shows relatively indistinct symptom, but the bearing will break down in a short time. To overcome the problems of inaccurate diagnosis, a combinational approach based on an impulsive energy indicator and traditional enveloping analysis is proposed in this paper. This approach discriminate these two faults well and can support the maintenance decision for the machines with rolling element bearings.

  15. Dynamical instability produces transform faults at mid-ocean ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerya, Taras

    2010-08-27

    Transform faults at mid-ocean ridges--one of the most striking, yet enigmatic features of terrestrial plate tectonics--are considered to be the inherited product of preexisting fault structures. Ridge offsets along these faults therefore should remain constant with time. Here, numerical models suggest that transform faults are actively developing and result from dynamical instability of constructive plate boundaries, irrespective of previous structure. Boundary instability from asymmetric plate growth can spontaneously start in alternate directions along successive ridge sections; the resultant curved ridges become transform faults within a few million years. Fracture-related rheological weakening stabilizes ridge-parallel detachment faults. Offsets along the transform faults change continuously with time by asymmetric plate growth and discontinuously by ridge jumps.

  16. Preliminary Use of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to Investigate Seismogenic Faulting in the Grand Canyon Area, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.; Cleveland, D. M.; Prochnow, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    This is a progress report on our application of the Seismo-Lineament Analysis Method (SLAM) to the eastern Grand Canyon area of northern Arizona. SLAM is a new integrated method for identifying potentially seismogenic faults using earthquake focal-mechanism solutions, geomorphic analysis and field work. There are two nodal planes associated with any double-couple focal-mechanism solution, one of which is thought to coincide with the fault that produced the earthquake; the slip vector is normal to the other (auxiliary) plane. When no uncertainty in the orientation of the fault-plane solution is reported, we use the reported vertical and horizontal uncertainties in the focal location to define a tabular uncertainty volume whose orientation coincides with that of the fault-plane solution. The intersection of the uncertainty volume and the ground surface (represented by the DEM) is termed a seismo-lineament. An image of the DEM surface is illuminated perpendicular to the strike of the seismo- lineament to accentuate geomorphic features within the seismo-lineament that may be related to seismogenic faulting. This evaluation of structural geomorphology is repeated for several different azimuths and elevations of illumination. A map is compiled that includes possible geomorphic indicators of faulting as well as previously mapped faults within each seismo-lineament, constituting a set of hypotheses for the possible location of seismogenic fault segments that must be evaluated through fieldwork. A fault observed in the field that is located within a seismo-lineament, and that has an orientation and slip characteristics that are statistically compatible with the fault-plane solution, is considered potentially seismogenic. We compiled a digital elevation model (DEM) of the Grand Canyon area from published data sets. We used earthquake focal-mechanism solutions produced by David Brumbaugh (2005, BSSA, v. 95, p. 1561-1566) for five M > 3.5 events reported between 1989 and 1995

  17. Validation of Helicopter Gear Condition Indicators Using Seeded Fault Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula; Brandon, E. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    A "seeded fault test" in support of a rotorcraft condition based maintenance program (CBM), is an experiment in which a component is tested with a known fault while health monitoring data is collected. These tests are performed at operating conditions comparable to operating conditions the component would be exposed to while installed on the aircraft. Performance of seeded fault tests is one method used to provide evidence that a Health Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) can replace current maintenance practices required for aircraft airworthiness. Actual in-service experience of the HUMS detecting a component fault is another validation method. This paper will discuss a hybrid validation approach that combines in service-data with seeded fault tests. For this approach, existing in-service HUMS flight data from a naturally occurring component fault will be used to define a component seeded fault test. An example, using spiral bevel gears as the targeted component, will be presented. Since the U.S. Army has begun to develop standards for using seeded fault tests for HUMS validation, the hybrid approach will be mapped to the steps defined within their Aeronautical Design Standard Handbook for CBM. This paper will step through their defined processes, and identify additional steps that may be required when using component test rig fault tests to demonstrate helicopter CI performance. The discussion within this paper will provide the reader with a better appreciation for the challenges faced when defining a seeded fault test for HUMS validation.

  18. The mechanics of fault-bend folding and tear-fault systems in the Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Nathan Philip

    map-based structural restoration techniques, we find that the tear faults have distinct displacement patterns that distinguish them from conventional strike-slip faults and reflect their roles in accommodating displacement gradients within the fold-and-thrust belt.

  19. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  20. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in parts of southern California. [penninsular ranges, Garlock fault, Salton Trough area, and western Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator); Lamar, D. L.; Gazley, C., Jr.; Lamar, J. V.; Stratton, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Four previously unknown faults were discovered in basement terrane of the Peninsular Ranges. These have been named the San Ysidro Creek fault, Thing Valley fault, Canyon City fault, and Warren Canyon fault. In addition fault gouge and breccia were recognized along the San Diego River fault. Study of features on Skylab imagery and review of geologic and seismic data suggest that the risk of a damaging earthquake is greater along the northwestern portion of the Elsinore fault than along the southeastern portion. Physiographic indicators of active faulting along the Garlock fault identifiable in Skylab imagery include scarps, linear ridges, shutter ridges, faceted ridges, linear valleys, undrained depressions and offset drainage. The following previously unrecognized fault segments are postulated for the Salton Trough Area: (1) An extension of a previously known fault in the San Andreas fault set located southeast of the Salton Sea; (2) An extension of the active San Jacinto fault zone along a tonal change in cultivated fields across Mexicali Valley ( the tonal change may represent different soil conditions along opposite sides of a fault). For the Skylab and LANDSAT images studied, pseudocolor transformations offer no advantages over the original images in the recognition of faults in Skylab and LANDSAT images. Alluvial deposits of different ages, a marble unit and iron oxide gossans of the Mojave Mining District are more readily differentiated on images prepared from ratios of individual bands of the S-192 multispectral scanner data. The San Andreas fault was also made more distinct in the 8/2 and 9/2 band ratios by enhancement of vegetation differences on opposite sides of the fault. Preliminary analysis indicates a significant earth resources potential for the discrimination of soil and rock types, including mineral alteration zones. This application should be actively pursued.

  1. Aftershocks illuminate the 2011 Mineral, Virginia, earthquake causative fault zone and nearby active faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J. Wright; Shah, Anjana K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Snyder, Stephen L.; Carter, Aina M

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of temporary seismic stations after the 2011 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake produced a well-recorded aftershock sequence. The majority of aftershocks are in a tabular cluster that delineates the previously unknown Quail fault zone. Quail fault zone aftershocks range from ~3 to 8 km in depth and are in a 1-km-thick zone striking ~036° and dipping ~50°SE, consistent with a 028°, 50°SE main-shock nodal plane having mostly reverse slip. This cluster extends ~10 km along strike. The Quail fault zone projects to the surface in gneiss of the Ordovician Chopawamsic Formation just southeast of the Ordovician–Silurian Ellisville Granodiorite pluton tail. The following three clusters of shallow (<3 km) aftershocks illuminate other faults. (1) An elongate cluster of early aftershocks, ~10 km east of the Quail fault zone, extends 8 km from Fredericks Hall, strikes ~035°–039°, and appears to be roughly vertical. The Fredericks Hall fault may be a strand or splay of the older Lakeside fault zone, which to the south spans a width of several kilometers. (2) A cluster of later aftershocks ~3 km northeast of Cuckoo delineates a fault near the eastern contact of the Ordovician Quantico Formation. (3) An elongate cluster of late aftershocks ~1 km northwest of the Quail fault zone aftershock cluster delineates the northwest fault (described herein), which is temporally distinct, dips more steeply, and has a more northeastward strike. Some aftershock-illuminated faults coincide with preexisting units or structures evident from radiometric anomalies, suggesting tectonic inheritance or reactivation.

  2. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  3. New Geologic Data on the Seismic Risks of the Most Dangerous Fault on Shore in Central Japan, the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Active Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, K.; Kondo, H.; Toda, S.; Takada, K.; Kinoshita, H.

    2006-12-01

    Ten years have past since the first official assessment of the long-term seismic risks of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka tectonic line active fault system (ISTL) in 1996. The disaster caused by the1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken-Nanbu) earthquake urged the Japanese government to initiated a national project to assess the long-term seismic risks of on-shore active faults using geologic information. ISTL was the first target of the 98 significant faults and the probability of a M7 to M8 event turned out to be the highest among them. After the 10 years of continued efforts to understand the ISTL, now it is getting ready to revise the assessment. Fault mapping and segmentation: The most active segment of the Gofukuji fault (~1 cm/yr left-lateral strike slip, R=500~800 yrs.) had been maped only for less than 10 km. Adjacent segments were much less active. This large slip on such a short segment was contradictory. However, detailed topographic study including Lidar survey revealed the length of the Gofukuji fault to be 25 km or more. High slip rate with frequent earthquakes may be restricted to the Gofukuji fault while the 1996 assessment modeled frequent >100 km rupture scenario. The geometry of the fault is controversial especially on the left-lateral strike-slip section of the ISTL. There are two models of high-angle Middel ISTL and low-angle Middle ISTL with slip partitioning. However, all geomorphic and shallow geologic data supports high-angle almost pure strike slip on the faults in the Middle ISTL. CRIEPI's 3- dimensional trenching in several sites as well as the previous results clearly demonstrated repeated pure strike-slip offset during past a few events. In Middle ISTL, there is no evidence of recent activity of pre-existing low-angle thrust faults that are inferred to be active from shallow seismic survey. Separation of high (~3000 m) mountain ranges and low (lack of reliable time constraints on past earthquakes. In order to solve this problem, we have carried out intensive

  4. Paleoseismology and tectonic geomorphology of the Pallatanga fault (Central Ecuador), a major structure of the South-American crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, Stéphane; Audin, Laurence; Winter, Thierry; Alvarado, Alexandra; Pilatasig Moreno, Luis; Taipe, Mercedes; Reyes, Pedro; Kauffmann, Paul; Yepes, Hugo

    2015-05-01

    The Pallatanga fault (PF) is a prominent NNE-SSW strike-slip fault crossing Central Ecuador. This structure is suspected to have hosted large earthquakes, including the 1797 Riobamba event which caused severe destructions to buildings and a heavy death toll (more than 12,000 people), as well as widespread secondary effects like landsliding, liquefaction and surface cracking. The scope of this study is to evaluate the seismic history of the fault through a paleoseismological approach. This work also aims at improving the seismotectonic map of this part of the Andes through a new mapping campaign and, finally, aims at improving the seismic hazard assessment. We show that the PF continues to the north of the previously mapped fault portion in the Western Cordillera (Rumipamba-Pallatanga portion) into the Inter-Andean Valley (Riobamba basin). Field evidences of faulting are numerous, ranging from a clear geomorphological signature to fault plane outcrops. Along the western side of the Riobamba basin, the strike-slip component seems predominant along several fault portions, with a typical landscape assemblage (dextral offsets of valleys, fluvial terrace risers and generation of linear pressure ridges). In the core of the inter-Andean valley, the main fault portion exhibits a vertical component along the c. 100 m-high cumulative scarp. The presence of such an active fault bounding the western suburbs of Riobamba drastically increases the seismic risk for this densely inhabited and vulnerable city. To the east (Peltetec Massif, Cordillera Real), the continuation of the Pallatanga fault is suspected, but not definitely proved yet. Based on the analysis of three trenches, we state that the Rumipamba-Pallatanga section of the PF experienced 4 (maybe 5) Holocene to Historical strong events (Mw > 7). The coseismic behavior of the fault is deduced from the occurrence of several colluvial wedges and layers associated with the fault activity and interbedded within the organic

  5. Postglacial faulting and paleoseismicity in the Landsjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1988-10-01

    Post-glacial fault scarps, up to about 20 m in height and forming a 50 km long fault set with a SSW-NNE orientation, occur in the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden. By trenching across the fault scarps it has been possible to date fault movement relative to the Quaternary stratigraphy. It is concluded that the fault scarps generally developed as single event movements shortly after the deglaciation about 9000 years ago. At one location there are indications that minor fault movements may have occurred earlier during a previous glaciation but this is uncertain. The fault scarps are, at least partially, developed in strongly fractured and chemically weathered zones of presumed pre-Quaternary age. To judge from the appearance of the bedrock fault scarps, and the deformation of the Quaternary deposits, the faults are reverse and have dips between some 40-50 0 and the vertical. The faulting was co-seismic and earthquakes in the order of M 6.5-7.0, or higher, are inferred from fault dimensions and the distribution of seismically triggered landslides in a wider region. Distortions in different types of sediment, interpreted as caused by the influence of seismic shock, occur frequently in the area. Examples of these are briefly described. (orig.)

  6. Effect of stacking faults on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of hcp Co: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, C J; Szunyogh, L; Evans, R F L; Chantrell, R W

    2013-07-24

    In terms of the fully relativistic screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method we investigate the effect of stacking faults on the magnetic properties of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) cobalt. In particular, we consider the formation energy and the effect on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of four different stacking faults in hcp cobalt-an intrinsic growth fault, an intrinsic deformation fault, an extrinsic fault and a twin-like fault. We find that the intrinsic growth fault has the lowest formation energy, in good agreement with previous first-principles calculations. With the exception of the intrinsic deformation fault which has a positive impact on the MAE, we find that the presence of a stacking fault generally reduces the MAE of bulk Co. Finally, we consider a pair of intrinsic growth faults and find that their effect on the MAE is not additive, but synergic.

  7. Gravity Field Interpretation for Major Fault Depth Detection in a Region Located SW- Qa’im / Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhah Mahmood Shakir Al-Khafaji

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the qualitative and quantitative interpretation of Bouguer gravity anomaly data for a region located to the SW of Qa’im City within Anbar province by using 2D- mapping methods. The gravity residual field obtained graphically by subtracting the Regional Gravity values from the values of the total Bouguer anomaly. The residual gravity field processed in order to reduce noise by applying the gradient operator and 1st directional derivatives filtering. This was helpful in assigning the locations of sudden variation in Gravity values. Such variations may be produced by subsurface faults, fractures, cavities or subsurface facies lateral variations limits. A major fault was predicted to extend with the direction NE-SW. This fault is mentioned by previous studies as undefined subsurface fault depth within the sedimentary cover rocks. The results of this research that were obtained by gravity quantitative interpretation find that the depth to this major fault plane center is about 2.4 Km.

  8. The relationship of near-surface active faulting to megathrust splay fault geometry in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, S.; Liberty, L. M.; Haeussler, P. J.; Northrup, C.; Pratt, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    We interpret regionally extensive, active faults beneath Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, to be structurally linked to deeper megathrust splay faults, such as the one that ruptured in the 1964 M9.2 earthquake. Western PWS in particular is unique; the locations of active faulting offer insights into the transition at the southern terminus of the previously subducted Yakutat slab to Pacific plate subduction. Newly acquired high-resolution, marine seismic data show three seismic facies related to Holocene and older Quaternary to Tertiary strata. These sediments are cut by numerous high angle normal faults in the hanging wall of megathrust splay. Crustal-scale seismic reflection profiles show splay faults emerging from 20 km depth between the Yakutat block and North American crust and surfacing as the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults. A distinct boundary coinciding beneath the Hinchinbrook Entrance causes a systematic fault trend change from N30E in southwestern PWS to N70E in northeastern PWS. The fault trend change underneath Hinchinbrook Entrance may occur gradually or abruptly and there is evidence for similar deformation near the Montague Strait Entrance. Landward of surface expressions of the splay fault, we observe subsidence, faulting, and landslides that record deformation associated with the 1964 and older megathrust earthquakes. Surface exposures of Tertiary rocks throughout PWS along with new apatite-helium dates suggest long-term and regional uplift with localized, fault-controlled subsidence.

  9. New Constraints on Late Pleistocene - Holocene Slip Rates and Seismic Behavior Along the Panamint Valley Fault Zone, Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W.; Kirby, E.; McDonald, E.; Walker, J.; Gosse, J.

    2008-12-01

    Space-time patterns of seismic strain release along active fault systems can provide insight into the geodynamics of deforming lithosphere. Along the eastern California shear zone, fault systems south of the Garlock fault appear to have experienced an ongoing pulse of seismic activity over the past ca. 1 kyr (Rockwell et al., 2000). Recently, this cluster of seismicity has been implicated as both cause and consequence of the oft-cited discrepancy between geodetic velocities and geologic slip rates in this region (Dolan et al., 2007; Oskin et al., 2008). Whether other faults within the shear zone exhibit similar behavior remains uncertain. Here we report the preliminary results of new investigations of slip rates and seismic history along the Panamint Valley fault zone (PVFZ). The PVFZ is characterized by dextral, oblique-normal displacement along a moderately to shallowly-dipping range front fault. Previous workers (Zhang et al., 1990) identified a relatively recent surface rupture confined to a ~25 km segment of the southern fault zone and associated with dextral displacements of ~3 m. Our mapping reveals that youthful scarps ranging from 2-4 m in height are distributed along the central portion of the fault zone for at least 50 km. North of Ballarat, a releasing jog in the fault zone forms a 2-3 km long embayment. Displacement of debris-flow levees and channels along NE-striking faults that confirm that displacement is nearly dip-slip, consistent with an overall transport direction toward ~340°, and affording an opportunity to constrain fault displacement directly from the vertical offset of alluvial surfaces of varying age. At the mouth of Happy Canyon, the frontal fault strand displaces a fresh debris-flow by ~3-4 m; soil development atop the debris-flow surface is incipient to negligible. Radiocarbon ages from logs embedded in the flow matrix constrain the timing of the most recent event to younger than ~ 600 cal yr BP. Older alluvial surfaces, such as that

  10. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  11. Modeling of HVAC operational faults in building performance simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Rongpeng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Discuss significance of capturing operational faults in existing buildings. •Develop a novel feature in EnergyPlus to model operational faults of HVAC systems. •Compare three approaches to faults modeling using EnergyPlus. •A case study demonstrates the use of the fault-modeling feature. •Future developments of new faults are discussed. -- Abstract: Operational faults are common in the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems of existing buildings, leading to a decrease in energy efficiency and occupant comfort. Various fault detection and diagnostic methods have been developed to identify and analyze HVAC operational faults at the component or subsystem level. However, current methods lack a holistic approach to predicting the overall impacts of faults at the building level—an approach that adequately addresses the coupling between various operational components, the synchronized effect between simultaneous faults, and the dynamic nature of fault severity. This study introduces the novel development of a fault-modeling feature in EnergyPlus which fills in the knowledge gap left by previous studies. This paper presents the design and implementation of the new feature in EnergyPlus and discusses in detail the fault-modeling challenges faced. The new fault-modeling feature enables EnergyPlus to quantify the impacts of faults on building energy use and occupant comfort, thus supporting the decision making of timely fault corrections. Including actual building operational faults in energy models also improves the accuracy of the baseline model, which is critical in the measurement and verification of retrofit or commissioning projects. As an example, EnergyPlus version 8.6 was used to investigate the impacts of a number of typical operational faults in an office building across several U.S. climate zones. The results demonstrate that the faults have significant impacts on building energy performance as well as on occupant

  12. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  13. Illite authigenesis during faulting and fluid flow - a microstructural study of fault rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Thomas; Viola, Giulio; van der Lelij, Roelant; Margreth, Annina

    2017-04-01

    Authigenic illite can form synkinematically during slip events along brittle faults. In addition it can also crystallize as a result of fluid flow and associated mineral alteration processes in hydrothermal environments. K-Ar dating of illite-bearing fault rocks has recently become a common tool to constrain the timing of fault activity. However, to fully interpret the derived age spectra in terms of deformation ages, a careful investigation of the fault deformation history and architecture at the outcrop-scale, ideally followed by a detailed mineralogical analysis of the illite-forming processes at the micro-scale, are indispensable. Here we integrate this methodological approach by presenting microstructural observations from the host rock immediately adjacent to dated fault gouges from two sites located in the Rolvsnes granodiorite (Bømlo, western Norway). This granodiorite experienced multiple episodes of brittle faulting and fluid-induced alteration, starting in the Mid Ordovician (Scheiber et al., 2016). Fault gouges are predominantly associated with normal faults accommodating mainly E-W extension. K-Ar dating of illites separated from representative fault gouges constrains deformation and alteration due to fluid ingress from the Permian to the Cretaceous, with a cluster of ages for the finest (middle Jurassic. At site one, high-resolution thin section structural mapping reveals a complex deformation history characterized by several coexisting types of calcite veins and seven different generations of cataclasite, two of which contain a significant amount of authigenic and undoubtedly deformation-related illite. At site two, fluid ingress along and adjoining the fault core induced pervasive alteration of the host granodiorite. Quartz is crosscut by calcite veinlets whereas plagioclase, K-feldspar and biotite are almost completely replaced by the main alteration products kaolin, quartz and illite. Illite-bearing micro-domains were physically separated by

  14. Fault zone structure and kinematics from lidar, radar, and imagery: revealing new details along the creeping San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, S.; Donnellan, A.; Pickering, A.

    2017-12-01

    Aseismic fault creep, coseismic fault displacement, distributed deformation, and the relative contribution of each have important bearing on infrastructure resilience, risk reduction, and the study of earthquake physics. Furthermore, the impact of interseismic fault creep in rupture propagation scenarios, and its impact and consequently on fault segmentation and maximum earthquake magnitudes, is poorly resolved in current rupture forecast models. The creeping section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) in Central California is an outstanding area for establishing methodology for future scientific response to damaging earthquakes and for characterizing the fine details of crustal deformation. Here, we describe how data from airborne and terrestrial laser scanning, airborne interferometric radar (UAVSAR), and optical data from satellites and UAVs can be used to characterize rates and map patterns of deformation within fault zones of varying complexity and geomorphic expression. We are evaluating laser point cloud processing, photogrammetric structure from motion, radar interferometry, sub-pixel correlation, and other techniques to characterize the relative ability of each to measure crustal deformation in two and three dimensions through time. We are collecting new and synthesizing existing data from the zone of highest interseismic creep rates along the SAF where a transition from a single main fault trace to a 1-km wide extensional stepover occurs. In the stepover region, creep measurements from alignment arrays 100 meters long across the main fault trace reveal lower rates than those in adjacent, geomorphically simpler parts of the fault. This indicates that deformation is distributed across the en echelon subsidiary faults, by creep and/or stick-slip behavior. Our objectives are to better understand how deformation is partitioned across a fault damage zone, how it is accommodated in the shallow subsurface, and to better characterize the relative amounts of fault creep

  15. Characterization of leaky faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao.

    1990-05-01

    Leaky faults provide a flow path for fluids to move underground. It is very important to characterize such faults in various engineering projects. The purpose of this work is to develop mathematical solutions for this characterization. The flow of water in an aquifer system and the flow of air in the unsaturated fault-rock system were studied. If the leaky fault cuts through two aquifers, characterization of the fault can be achieved by pumping water from one of the aquifers, which are assumed to be horizontal and of uniform thickness. Analytical solutions have been developed for two cases of either a negligibly small or a significantly large drawdown in the unpumped aquifer. Some practical methods for using these solutions are presented. 45 refs., 72 figs., 11 tabs

  16. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  17. Preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area northeast of Victorville, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Black Mountain area is in the Mojave Desert about 20 km northeast of Victorville, California. The geology of this area is of interest primarily for its excellent exposures of the early Mesozoic Fairview Valley Formation, a sequence of weakly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks including a thick, commercially important unit of limestone conglomerate that has been mined for cement at Black Mountain Quarry for several decades. Recent geochronologic work has shown that the Fairview Valley Formation is probably of Early Jurassic age. This preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area depicts the stratigraphic and structural relations of the Fairview Valley Formation and the associated rocks, most notably the overlying Sidewinder Volcanics of Early(?), Middle, and Late(?) Jurassic age. The map is based on new field studies by the author designed to clarify details of the stratigraphy and structure unresolved by previous investigations. The map is considered preliminary because the ages of some geologic units critical for a satisfactory understanding of the stratigraphic and structural framework remain unknown. The map area also includes a segment of the Helendale Fault, one of several faults of known or inferred late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement that make up the Eastern California Shear Zone. The fault is marked by aligned northeast-facing scarps in Pleistocene or older alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock units. Relations in the map area suggest that right-lateral displacement on the Helendale Fault probably does not exceed 2 km, a conclusion compatible with previous estimates of displacement on this fault based on relations both within and outside the Black Mountain area.

  18. Perspective View, San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The prominent linear feature straight down the center of this perspective view is California's famous San Andreas Fault. The image, created with data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), will be used by geologists studying fault dynamics and landforms resulting from active tectonics. This segment of the fault lies west of the city of Palmdale, Calif., about 100 kilometers (about 60 miles) northwest of Los Angeles. The fault is the active tectonic boundary between the North American plate on the right, and the Pacific plate on the left. Relative to each other, the Pacific plate is moving away from the viewer and the North American plate is moving toward the viewer along what geologists call a right lateral strike-slip fault. Two large mountain ranges are visible, the San Gabriel Mountains on the left and the Tehachapi Mountains in the upper right. Another fault, the Garlock Fault lies at the base of the Tehachapis; the San Andreas and the Garlock Faults meet in the center distance near the town of Gorman. In the distance, over the Tehachapi Mountains is California's Central Valley. Along the foothills in the right hand part of the image is the Antelope Valley, including the Antelope Valley California Poppy Reserve. The data used to create this image were acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000.This type of display adds the important dimension of elevation to the study of land use and environmental processes as observed in satellite images. The perspective view was created by draping a Landsat satellite image over an SRTM elevation model. Topography is exaggerated 1.5 times vertically. The Landsat image was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.SRTM uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour

  19. Quaternary faulting in the Tatra Mountains, evidence from cave morphology and fault-slip analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Szczygieł Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Tectonically deformed cave passages in the Tatra Mts (Central Western Carpathians) indicate some fault activity during the Quaternary. Displacements occur in the youngest passages of the caves indicating (based on previous U-series dating of speleothems) an Eemian or younger age for those faults, and so one tectonic stage. On the basis of stress analysis and geomorphological observations, two different mechanisms are proposed as responsible for the development of these displacements. The firs...

  20. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  1. Lateral Offset Quality Rating along Low Slip Rate Faults: Application to the Alhama de Murcia Fault (SE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ferrater

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard assessment of strike-slip faults is based partly on the identification and mapping of landforms laterally offset due to fault activity. The characterization of these features affected by slow-moving faults is challenging relative to studies emphasizing rapidly slipping faults. We propose a methodology for scoring fault offsets based on subjective and objective qualities. We apply this methodology to the Alhama de Murcia fault (SE Iberian Peninsula where we identify 138 offset features that we mapped on a high-resolution (0.5 × 0.5 m pixel size Digital Elevation Model (DEM. The amount of offset, the uncertainty of the measurement, the subjective and objective qualities, and the parameters that affect objective quality are independent variables, suggesting that our methodological scoring approach is good. Based on the offset measurements and qualifications we calculate the Cumulative Offset Probability Density (COPD for the entire fault and for each fault segment. The COPD for the segments differ from each other. Tentative interpretation of the COPDs implies that the slip rate varies from one segment to the other (we assume that channels with the same amount of offset were incised synchronously. We compare the COPD with climate proxy curves (aligning using the very limited age control to test if entrenchment events are coincident with climatic changes. Channel incision along one of the traces in Lorca-Totana segment may be related to transitions from glacial to interglacial periods.

  2. Stratigraphic record of Pliocene-Pleistocene basin evolution and deformation within the Southern San Andreas Fault Zone, Mecca Hills, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, James C.; Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Housen, Bernard A.; Dimitroff, Cassidy W.; Messé, Graham T.

    2017-11-01

    A thick section of Pliocene-Pleistocene nonmarine sedimentary rocks exposed in the Mecca Hills, California, provides a record of fault-zone evolution along the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas fault (SAF). Geologic mapping, measured sections, detailed sedimentology, and paleomagnetic data document a 3-5 Myr history of deformation and sedimentation in this area. SW-side down offset on the Painted Canyon fault (PCF) starting 3.7 Ma resulted in deposition of the Mecca Conglomerate southwest of the fault. The lower member of the Palm Spring Formation accumulated across the PCF from 3.0 to 2.6 Ma during regional subsidence. SW-side up slip on the PCF and related transpressive deformation from 2.6 to 2.3 Ma created a time-transgressive angular unconformity between the lower and upper members of the Palm Spring Formation. The upper member accumulated in discrete fault-bounded depocenters until initiation of modern deformation, uplift, and basin inversion starting at 0.7 Ma. Some spatially restricted deposits can be attributed to the evolution of fault-zone geometric complexities. However, the deformation events at ca. 2.6 Ma and 0.7 Ma are recorded regionally along 80 km of the SAF through Coachella Valley, covering an area much larger than mapped fault-zone irregularities, and thus require regional explanations. We therefore conclude that late Cenozoic deformation and sedimentation along the SAF in Coachella Valley has been controlled by a combination of regional tectonic drivers and local deformation due to dextral slip through fault-zone complexities. We further propose a kinematic link between the 2.6-2.3 Ma angular unconformity and a previously documented but poorly dated reorganization of plate-boundary faults in the northern Gulf of California at 3.3-2.0 Ma. This analysis highlights the potential for high-precision chronologies in deformed terrestrial deposits to provide improved understanding of local- to regional-scale structural controls on basin

  3. Seismic Hazard Analysis on a Complex, Interconnected Fault Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M. T.; Field, E. H.; Milner, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    In California, seismic hazard models have evolved from simple, segmented prescriptive models to much more complex representations of multi-fault and multi-segment earthquakes on an interconnected fault network. During the development of the 3rd Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3), the prevalence of multi-fault ruptures in the modeling was controversial. Yet recent earthquakes, for example, the Kaikora earthquake - as well as new research on the potential of multi-fault ruptures (e.g., Nissen et al., 2016; Sahakian et al. 2017) - have validated this approach. For large crustal earthquakes, multi-fault ruptures may be the norm rather than the exception. As datasets improve and we can view the rupture process at a finer scale, the interconnected, fractal nature of faults is revealed even by individual earthquakes. What is the proper way to model earthquakes on a fractal fault network? We show multiple lines of evidence that connectivity even in modern models such as UCERF3 may be underestimated, although clustering in UCERF3 mitigates some modeling simplifications. We need a methodology that can be applied equally well where the fault network is well-mapped and where it is not - an extendable methodology that allows us to "fill in" gaps in the fault network and in our knowledge.

  4. Analysis of the fault geometry of a Cenozoic salt-related fault close to the D-1 well, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenoe Clausen, O.; Petersen, K.; Korstgaard, A.

    1995-12-31

    A normal detaching fault in the Norwegian-Danish Basin around the D-1 well (the D-1 faults) has been mapped using seismic sections. The fault has been analysed in detail by constructing backstripped-decompacted sections across the fault, contoured displacement diagrams along the fault, and vertical displacement maps. The result shows that the listric D-1 fault follows the displacement patterns for blind normal faults. Deviations from the ideal displacement pattern is suggested to be caused by salt-movements, which is the main driving mechanisms for the faulting. Zechstein salt moves primarily from the hanging wall to the footwall and is superposed by later minor lateral flow beneath the footwall. Back-stripping of depth-converted and decompacted sections results in an estimation of the salt-surface and the shape of the fault through time. This procedure then enables a simple modelling of the hanging wall deformation using a Chevron model with hanging wall collapse along dipping surfaces. The modelling indicates that the fault follows the salt surface until the Middle Miocene after which the offset on the fault also may be accommodated along the Top Chalk surface. (au) 16 refs.

  5. Geophysical Characterization of the Hilton Creek Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, A. K.; Macy, K. P.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Polet, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Long Valley Caldera straddles the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada Batholith and the western edge of the Basin and Range Province, and represents one of the largest caldera complexes on Earth. The caldera is intersected by numerous fault systems, including the Hartley Springs Fault System, the Round Valley Fault System, the Long Valley Ring Fault System, and the Hilton Creek Fault System, which is our main region of interest. The Hilton Creek Fault System appears as a single NW-striking fault, dipping to the NE, from Davis Lake in the south to the southern rim of the Long Valley Caldera. Inside the caldera, it splays into numerous parallel faults that extend toward the resurgent dome. Seismicity in the area increased significantly in May 1980, following a series of large earthquakes in the vicinity of the caldera and a subsequent large earthquake swarm which has been suggested to be the result of magma migration. A large portion of the earthquake swarms in the Long Valley Caldera occurs on or around the Hilton Creek Fault splays. We are conducting an interdisciplinary geophysical study of the Hilton Creek Fault System from just south of the onset of splay faulting, to its extension into the dome of the caldera. Our investigation includes ground-based magnetic field measurements, high-resolution total station elevation profiles, Structure-From-Motion derived topography and an analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms and statistics. Preliminary analysis of topographic profiles, of approximately 1 km in length, reveals the presence of at least three distinct fault splays within the caldera with vertical offsets of 0.5 to 1.0 meters. More detailed topographic mapping is expected to highlight smaller structures. We are also generating maps of the variation in b-value along different portions of the Hilton Creek system to determine whether we can detect any transition to more swarm-like behavior towards the North. We will show maps of magnetic anomalies, topography

  6. Characterizing the structural maturity of fault zones using high-resolution earthquake locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, C.; Waldhauser, F.; Scholz, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    We use high-resolution earthquake locations to characterize the three-dimensional structure of active faults in California and how it evolves with fault structural maturity. We investigate the distribution of aftershocks of several recent large earthquakes that occurred on immature faults (i.e., slow moving and small cumulative displacement), such as the 1992 (Mw7.3) Landers and 1999 (Mw7.1) Hector Mine events, and earthquakes that occurred on mature faults, such as the 1984 (Mw6.2) Morgan Hill and 2004 (Mw6.0) Parkfield events. Unlike previous studies which typically estimated the width of fault zones from the distribution of earthquakes perpendicular to the surface fault trace, we resolve fault zone widths with respect to the 3D fault surface estimated from principal component analysis of local seismicity. We find that the zone of brittle deformation around the fault core is narrower along mature faults compared to immature faults. We observe a rapid fall off of the number of events at a distance range of 70 - 100 m from the main fault surface of mature faults (140-200 m fault zone width), and 200-300 m from the fault surface of immature faults (400-600 m fault zone width). These observations are in good agreement with fault zone widths estimated from guided waves trapped in low velocity damage zones. The total width of the active zone of deformation surrounding the main fault plane reach 1.2 km and 2-4 km for mature and immature faults, respectively. The wider zone of deformation presumably reflects the increased heterogeneity in the stress field along complex and discontinuous faults strands that make up immature faults. In contrast, narrower deformation zones tend to align with well-defined fault planes of mature faults where most of the deformation is concentrated. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that surface fault traces become smoother, and thus fault zones simpler, as cumulative fault slip increases.

  7. Fault Management Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Haste, Deepak; Moore, Craig

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of metrics to measure the effectiveness of fault management. Fault management refers here to the operational aspect of system health management, and as such is considered as a meta-control loop that operates to preserve or maximize the system's ability to achieve its goals in the face of current or prospective failure. As a suite of control loops, the metrics to estimate and measure the effectiveness of fault management are similar to those of classical control loops in being divided into two major classes: state estimation, and state control. State estimation metrics can be classified into lower-level subdivisions for detection coverage, detection effectiveness, fault isolation and fault identification (diagnostics), and failure prognosis. State control metrics can be classified into response determination effectiveness and response effectiveness. These metrics are applied to each and every fault management control loop in the system, for each failure to which they apply, and probabilistically summed to determine the effectiveness of these fault management control loops to preserve the relevant system goals that they are intended to protect.

  8. Earthquake Probability Assessment for the Active Faults in Central Taiwan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rui Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Frequent high seismic activities occur in Taiwan due to fast plate motions. According to the historical records the most destructive earthquakes in Taiwan were caused mainly by inland active faults. The Central Geological Survey (CGS of Taiwan has published active fault maps in Taiwan since 1998. There are 33 active faults noted in the 2012 active fault map. After the Chi-Chi earthquake, CGS launched a series of projects to investigate the details to better understand each active fault in Taiwan. This article collected this data to develop active fault parameters and referred to certain experiences from Japan and the United States to establish a methodology for earthquake probability assessment via active faults. We consider the active faults in Central Taiwan as a good example to present the earthquake probability assessment process and results. The appropriate “probability model” was used to estimate the conditional probability where M ≥ 6.5 and M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes. Our result shows that the highest earthquake probability for M ≥ 6.5 earthquake occurring in 30, 50, and 100 years in Central Taiwan is the Tachia-Changhua fault system. Conversely, the lowest earthquake probability is the Chelungpu fault. The goal of our research is to calculate the earthquake probability of the 33 active faults in Taiwan. The active fault parameters are important information that can be applied in the following seismic hazard analysis and seismic simulation.

  9. Fault isolability conditions for linear systems with additive faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...

  10. Fault Analysis in Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Joye, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s researchers noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements naturally present in packaging material could cause bits to flip in sensitive areas of electronic chips. Research into the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductors, an area of particular interest in the aerospace industry, led to methods of hardening electronic devices designed for harsh environments. Ultimately various mechanisms for fault creation and propagation were discovered, and in particular it was noted that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault attacks. Preventing fault attacks without

  11. Fault tolerant control based on active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2005-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis (AFD) method will be considered in this paper in connection with a Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) architecture based on the YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing controllers. The architecture consists of a fault diagnosis (FD) part and a controller reconfiguration (CR......) part. The FTC architecture can be applied for additive faults, parametric faults, and for system structural changes. Only parametric faults will be considered in this paper. The main focus in this paper is on the use of the new approach of active fault diagnosis in connection with FTC. The active fault...... diagnosis approach is based on including an auxiliary input in the system. A fault signature matrix is introduced in connection with AFD, given as the transfer function from the auxiliary input to the residual output. This can be considered as a generalization of the passive fault diagnosis case, where...

  12. Quaternary Slip History for the Agua Blanca Fault, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Rockwell, T. K.; Fletcher, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Agua Blanca Fault (ABF) is the primary structure accommodating San Andreas-related right-lateral slip across the Peninsular Ranges of northern Baja California. Activity on this fault influences offshore faults that parallel the Pacific coast from Ensenada to Los Angeles and is a potential threat to communities in northern Mexico and southern California. We present a detailed Quaternary slip history for the ABF, including new quantitative constraints on geologic slip rates, slip-per-event, the timing of most recent earthquake, and the earthquake recurrence interval. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of clasts from offset fluvial geomorphic surfaces at 2 sites located along the western, and most active, section of the ABF yield preliminary slip rate estimates of 2-4 mm/yr and 3 mm/yr since 20 ka and 2 ka, respectively. Fault zone geomorphology preserved at the younger site provides evidence for right-lateral surface displacements measuring 2.5 m in the past two ruptures. Luminescence dating of an offset alluvial fan at a third site is in progress, but is expected to yield a slip rate relevant to the past 10 kyr. Adjacent to this third site, we excavated 2 paleoseismic trenches across a sag pond formed by a right step in the fault. Preliminary radiocarbon dates indicate that the 4 surface ruptures identified in the trenches occurred in the past 6 kyr, although additional dating should clarify earthquake timing and the mid-Holocene to present earthquake recurrence interval, as well as the likely date of the most recent earthquake. Our new slip rate estimates are somewhat lower than, but comparable within error to, previous geologic estimates based on soil morphology and geodetic estimates from GPS, but the new record of surface ruptures exposed in the trenches is the most complete and comprehensively dated earthquake history yet determined for this fault. Together with new and existing mapping of tectonically generated geomorphology along the ABF, our constraints

  13. New Evidence for Quaternary Strain Partitioning Along the Queen Charlotte Fault System, Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M. A. L.; Miller, N. C.; Brothers, D. S.; Kluesner, J.; Haeussler, P. J.; Conrad, J. E.; Andrews, B. D.; Ten Brink, U. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) is a fast-moving ( 53 mm/yr) transform plate boundary fault separating the Pacific Plate from the North American Plate along western Canada and southeastern Alaska. New high-resolution bathymetric data along the fault show that the QCF main trace accommodates nearly all strike-slip plate motion along a single narrow deformation zone, though questions remain about how and where smaller amounts of oblique convergence are accommodated along-strike. Obliquity and convergence rates are highest in the south, where the 2012 Haida Gwaii, British Columbia MW 7.8 thrust earthquake was likely caused by Pacific underthrusting. In the north, where obliquity is lower, aftershocks from the 2013 Craig, Alaska MW 7.5 strike-slip earthquake also indicate active convergent deformation on the Pacific (west) side of the plate boundary. Off-fault structures previously mapped in legacy crustal-scale seismic profiles may therefore be accommodating part of the lesser amounts of Quaternary convergence north of Haida Gwaii. Between 2015 and 2017, the USGS acquired more than 8,000 line-km of offshore high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) data along the QCF to better understand plate boundary deformation. The new MCS data show evidence for Quaternary deformation associated with a series of elongate ridges located within 30 km of the QCF main trace on the Pacific side. These ridges are anticlinal structures flanked by growth faults, with recent deformation and active fluid flow characterized by seafloor scarps and seabed gas seeps at ridge crests. Structural and morphological evidence for contractional deformation decreases northward along the fault, consistent with a decrease in Pacific-North America obliquity along the plate boundary. Preliminary interpretations suggest that plate boundary transpression may be partitioned into distinctive structural domains, in which convergent stress is accommodated by margin-parallel thrust faulting, folding, and ridge

  14. Homogeneity of small-scale earthquake faulting, stress, and fault strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardebeck, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Small-scale faulting at seismogenic depths in the crust appears to be more homogeneous than previously thought. I study three new high-quality focal-mechanism datasets of small (M angular difference between their focal mechanisms. Closely spaced earthquakes (interhypocentral distance faults of many orientations may or may not be present, only similarly oriented fault planes produce earthquakes contemporaneously. On these short length scales, the crustal stress orientation and fault strength (coefficient of friction) are inferred to be homogeneous as well, to produce such similar earthquakes. Over larger length scales (???2-50 km), focal mechanisms become more diverse with increasing interhypocentral distance (differing on average by 40-70??). Mechanism variability on ???2- to 50 km length scales can be explained by ralatively small variations (???30%) in stress or fault strength. It is possible that most of this small apparent heterogeneity in stress of strength comes from measurement error in the focal mechanisms, as negligibble variation in stress or fault strength (<10%) is needed if each earthquake is assigned the optimally oriented focal mechanism within the 1-sigma confidence region. This local homogeneity in stress orientation and fault strength is encouraging, implying it may be possible to measure these parameters with enough precision to be useful in studying and modeling large earthquakes.

  15. Active tectonics of the Seattle fault and central Puget sound, Washington - Implications for earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.Y.; Dadisman, S.V.; Childs, J. R.; Stanley, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    We use an extensive network of marine high-resolution and conventional industry seismic-reflection data to constrain the location, shallow structure, and displacement rates of the Seattle fault zone and crosscutting high-angle faults in the Puget Lowland of western Washington. Analysis of seismic profiles extending 50 km across the Puget Lowland from Lake Washington to Hood Canal indicates that the west-trending Seattle fault comprises a broad (4-6 km) zone of three or more south-dipping reverse faults. Quaternary sediment has been folded and faulted along all faults in the zone but is clearly most pronounced along fault A, the northernmost fault, which forms the boundary between the Seattle uplift and Seattle basin. Analysis of growth strata deposited across fault A indicate minimum Quaternary slip rates of about 0.6 mm/yr. Slip rates across the entire zone are estimated to be 0.7-1.1 mm/yr. The Seattle fault is cut into two main segments by an active, north-trending, high-angle, strike-slip fault zone with cumulative dextral displacement of about 2.4 km. Faults in this zone truncate and warp reflections in Tertiary and Quaternary strata and locally coincide with bathymetric lineaments. Cumulative slip rates on these faults may exceed 0.2 mm/yr. Assuming no other crosscutting faults, this north-trending fault zone divides the Seattle fault into 30-40-km-long western and eastern segments. Although this geometry could limit the area ruptured in some Seattle fault earthquakes, a large event ca. A.D. 900 appears to have involved both segments. Regional seismic-hazard assessments must (1) incorporate new information on fault length, geometry, and displacement rates on the Seattle fault, and (2) consider the hazard presented by the previously unrecognized, north-trending fault zone.

  16. Paleoseismology of Sinistral-Slip Fault System, Focusing on the Mae Chan Fault, on the Shan Plateau, SE Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtiss, E. R.; Weldon, R. J.; Wiwegwin, W.; Weldon, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Shan Plateau, which includes portions of Myanmar, China, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam lies between the dextral NS-trending Sagaing and SE-trending Red River faults and contains 14 active E-W sinistral-slip faults, including the Mae Chan Fault (MCF) in northern Thailand. The last ground-rupturing earthquake to occur on the broader sinistral fault system was the M6.8 Tarlay earthquake in Myanmar in March 2011 on the Nam Ma fault immediately north of the MCF the last earthquake to occur on the MCF was a M4.0 in the 5th century that destroyed the entire city of Wiang Yonok (Morley et al., 2011). We report on a trenching study of the MCF, which is part of a broader study to create a regional seismic hazard map of the entire Shan Plateau. By studying the MCF, which appears to be representative of the sinistral faults, and easy to work on, we hope to characterize both it and the other unstudied faults in the system. As part of a paleoseismology training course we dug two trenches at the Pa Tueng site on the MCF, within an offset river channel and the trenches exposed young sediment with abundant charcoal (in process of dating), cultural artifacts, and evidence for the last two (or three) ground-rupturing earthquakes on the fault. We hope to use the data from this site to narrow the recurrence interval, which is currently to be 2,000-4,000 years and the slip rate of 1-2 mm/year, being developed at other sites on the fault. By extrapolating the data of the MCF to the other faults we will have a better understanding of the whole fault system. Once we have characterized the MCF, we plan to use geomorphic offsets and strain rates from regional GPS to relatively estimate the activity of the other faults in this sinistral system.

  17. Geologic map of the Vail West quadrangle, Eagle County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Lidke, David J.; Grunwald, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    This new 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vail West 7.5' quadrangle, as part of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of the stratigraphy, structure, and geologic hazards in the area on the southwest flank of the Gore Range. Bedrock strata include Miocene tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and undivided Early(?) Proterozoic metasedimentary and igneous rocks. Tuffaceous rocks are found in fault-tilted blocks. Only small outliers of the Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, and Chinle Formation exist above the redbeds of the Permian-Pennsylvanian Maroon Formation and Pennsylvanian Minturn Formation, which were derived during erosion of the Ancestral Front Range east of the Gore fault zone. In the southwestern area of the map, the proximal Minturn facies change to distal Eagle Valley Formation and the Eagle Valley Evaporite basin facies. The Jacque Mountain Limestone Member, previously defined as the top of the Minturn Formation, cannot be traced to the facies change to the southwest. Abundant surficial deposits include Pinedale and Bull Lake Tills, periglacial deposits, earth-flow deposits, common diamicton deposits, common Quaternary landslide deposits, and an extensive, possibly late Pliocene landslide deposit. Landscaping has so extensively modified the land surface in the town of Vail that a modified land-surface unit was created to represent the surface unit. Laramide movement renewed activity along the Gore fault zone, producing a series of northwest-trending open anticlines and synclines in Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, parallel to the trend of the fault zone. Tertiary down-to-the-northeast normal faults are evident and are parallel to similar faults in both the Gore Range and the Blue River valley to the northeast; presumably these are related to extensional deformation that occurred during formation of the northern end of the

  18. A low-angle detachment fault revealed: Three-dimensional images of the S-reflector fault zone along the Galicia passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuba, C. Nur; Gray, Gary G.; Morgan, Julia K.; Sawyer, Dale S.; Shillington, Donna J.; Reston, Tim J.; Bull, Jonathan M.; Jordan, Brian E.

    2018-06-01

    A new 3-D seismic reflection volume over the Galicia margin continent-ocean transition zone provides an unprecedented view of the prominent S-reflector detachment fault that underlies the outer part of the margin. This volume images the fault's structure from breakaway to termination. The filtered time-structure map of the S-reflector shows coherent corrugations parallel to the expected paleo-extension directions with an average azimuth of 107°. These corrugations maintain their orientations, wavelengths and amplitudes where overlying faults sole into the S-reflector, suggesting that the parts of the detachment fault containing multiple crustal blocks may have slipped as discrete units during its late stages. Another interface above the S-reflector, here named S‧, is identified and interpreted as the upper boundary of the fault zone associated with the detachment fault. This layer, named the S-interval, thickens by tens of meters from SE to NW in the direction of transport. Localized thick accumulations also occur near overlying fault intersections, suggesting either non-uniform fault rock production, or redistribution of fault rock during slip. These observations have important implications for understanding how detachment faults form and evolve over time. 3-D seismic reflection imaging has enabled unique insights into fault slip history, fault rock production and redistribution.

  19. Structural setting and kinematics of Nubian fault system, SE Western Desert, Egypt: An example of multi-reactivated intraplate strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakran, Shawky; Said, Said Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    Detailed surface geological mapping and subsurface seismic interpretation have been integrated to unravel the structural style and kinematic history of the Nubian Fault System (NFS). The NFS consists of several E-W Principal Deformation Zones (PDZs) (e.g. Kalabsha fault). Each PDZ is defined by spectacular E-W, WNW and ENE dextral strike-slip faults, NNE sinistral strike-slip faults, NE to ENE folds, and NNW normal faults. Each fault zone has typical self-similar strike-slip architecture comprising multi-scale fault segments. Several multi-scale uplifts and basins were developed at the step-over zones between parallel strike-slip fault segments as a result of local extension or contraction. The NNE faults consist of right-stepping sinistral strike-slip fault segments (e.g. Sin El Kiddab fault). The NNE sinistral faults extend for long distances ranging from 30 to 100 kms and cut one or two E-W PDZs. Two nearly perpendicular strike-slip tectonic regimes are recognized in the NFS; an inactive E-W Late Cretaceous - Early Cenozoic dextral transpression and an active NNE sinistral shear.

  20. ON MIND MAPS: PREVIOUS IDEAS TO A RESEARCH PROPOUSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Flórez Miranda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Después de un diagnóstico poco alentador sobre las competencias lecto-escritoras de los estudiantes, fenómeno al que llama: ";Síndrome del pensamiento inmaduro";, el autor propone el uso de los llamados ";signos-herramienta"; de la teoría socio-cultural de Vigotsky. Con base en sus ideas, acerca de la posibilidad de utilizar vías de rodeo para superar algunas dificultades cognitivas de los estudiantes, propone la herramienta de los mapas mentales, cuya eficacia ha probado, durante su práctica docente.

  1. Energy-Aware Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Schedules for Real-Time Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Kåre Harbo; Pop, Paul; Izosimov, Viacheslav

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a design optimisation tool for distributed embedded real-time systems that 1) decides mapping, fault-tolerance policy and generates a fault-tolerant schedule, 2) is targeted for hard real-time, 3) has hard reliability goal, 4) generates static schedule for processes and messages......, 5) provides fault-tolerance for k transient/soft faults, 6) optimises for minimal energy consumption, while considering impact of lowering voltages on the probability of faults, 7) uses constraint logic programming (CLP) based implementation....

  2. Quaternary Fault Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains locations and information on faults and associated folds in the United States that are believed to be sources of M>6 earthquakes during the...

  3. Automatic fault tracing of active faults in the Sutlej valley (NW-Himalayas, India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, C.; Faber, R.; Hager, C.; Grasemann, B.

    2003-04-01

    In the Sutlej Valley the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS) is actively extruding between the Munsiari Thrust (MT) at the base, and the Karcham Normal Fault (KNF) at the top. The clear evidences for ongoing deformation are brittle faults in Holocene lake deposits, hot springs activity near the faults and dramatically younger cooling ages within the LHCS (Vannay and Grasemann, 2001). Because these brittle fault zones obviously influence the morphology in the field we developed a new method for automatically tracing the intersections of planar fault geometries with digital elevation models (Faber, 2002). Traditional mapping techniques use structure contours (i.e. lines or curves connecting points of equal elevation on a geological structure) in order to construct intersections of geological structures with topographic maps. However, even if the geological structure is approximated by a plane and therefore structure contours are equally spaced lines, this technique is rather time consuming and inaccurate, because errors are cumulative. Drawing structure contours by hand makes it also impossible to slightly change the azimuth and dip direction of the favoured plane without redrawing everything from the beginning on. However, small variations of the fault position which are easily possible by either inaccuracies of measurement in the field or small local variations in the trend and/or dip of the fault planes can have big effects on the intersection with topography. The developed method allows to interactively view intersections in a 2D and 3D mode. Unlimited numbers of planes can be moved separately in 3 dimensions (translation and rotation) and intersections with the topography probably following morphological features can be mapped. Besides the increase of efficiency this method underlines the shortcoming of classical lineament extraction ignoring the dip of planar structures. Using this method, areas of active faulting influencing the morphology, can be

  4. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.

    1999-01-01

    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  5. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

    2011-03-24

    The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

  6. Active Fault Near-Source Zones Within and Bordering the State of California for the 1997 Uniform Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.D.; Toppozada, Tousson R.; Cao, T.; Cramer, C.H.; Reichle, M.S.; Bryant, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The fault sources in the Project 97 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the state of California were used to construct maps for defining near-source seismic coefficients, Na and Nv, incorporated in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (ICBO 1997). The near-source factors are based on the distance from a known active fault that is classified as either Type A or Type B. To determine the near-source factor, four pieces of geologic information are required: (1) recognizing a fault and determining whether or not the fault has been active during the Holocene, (2) identifying the location of the fault at or beneath the ground surface, (3) estimating the slip rate of the fault, and (4) estimating the maximum earthquake magnitude for each fault segment. This paper describes the information used to produce the fault classifications and distances.

  7. NO-FAULT COMPENSATION FOR MEDICAL INJURIES: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Puteri Nemie

    2014-12-01

    As an alternative to the tort or fault-based system, a no-fault compensation system has been viewed as having the potential to overcome problems inherent in the tort system by providing fair, speedy and adequate compensation for medically injured victims. Proponents of the suggested no-fault compensation system have argued that this system is more efficient in terms of time and money, as well as in making the circumstances in which compensation is paid, much clearer. However, the arguments against no-fault compensation systems are mainly on issues of funding difficulties, accountability and deterrence, particularly, once fault is taken out of the equation. Nonetheless, the no-fault compensation system has been successfully implemented in various countries but, at the same time, rejected in some others, as not being implementable. In the present trend, the no-fault system seems to fit the needs of society by offering greater access to justice for medically injured victims and providing a clearer "road map" towards obtaining suitable redress. This paper aims at providing the readers with an overview of the characteristics of the no fault compensation system and some examples of countries that have implemented it. Qualitative Research-Content Analysis. Given the many problems and hurdles posed by the tort or fault-based system, it is questionable that it can efficiently play its role as a mechanism that affords fair and adequate compensation for victims of medical injuries. However, while a comprehensive no-fault compensation system offers a tempting alternative to the tort or fault-based system, to import such a change into our local scenario requires a great deal of consideration. There are major differences, mainly in terms of social standing, size of population, political ideology and financial commitment, between Malaysia and countries that have successfully implemented no-fault systems. Nevertheless, implementing a no-fault compensation system in Malaysia is not

  8. Spatiotemporal patterns of fault slip rates across the Central Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Dylan H.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Finkel, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns in fault slip rates through time and space are examined across the transition from the Sierra Nevada to the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. At each of four sites along the eastern Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone between 38 and 39° N latitude, geomorphic markers, such as glacial moraines and outwash terraces, are displaced by a suite of range-front normal faults. Using geomorphic mapping, surveying, and 10Be surface exposure dating, mean fault slip rates are defined, and by utilizing markers of different ages (generally, ~ 20 ka and ~ 150 ka), rates through time and interactions among multiple faults are examined over 10 4-10 5 year timescales. At each site for which data are available for the last ~ 150 ky, mean slip rates across the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone have probably not varied by more than a factor of two over time spans equal to half of the total time interval (~ 20 ky and ~ 150 ky timescales): 0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 (mode and 95% CI) at both Buckeye Creek in the Bridgeport basin and Sonora Junction; and 0.4 + 0.3/-0.1 mm year - 1 along the West Fork of the Carson River at Woodfords. Data permit rates that are relatively constant over the time scales examined. In contrast, slip rates are highly variable in space over the last ~ 20 ky. Slip rates decrease by a factor of 3-5 northward over a distance of ~ 20 km between the northern Mono Basin (1.3 + 0.6/-0.3 mm year - 1 at Lundy Canyon site) to the Bridgeport Basin (0.3 ± 0.1 mm year - 1 ). The 3-fold decrease in the slip rate on the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone northward from Mono Basin is indicative of a change in the character of faulting north of the Mina Deflection as extension is transferred eastward onto normal faults between the Sierra Nevada and Walker Lane belt. A compilation of regional deformation rates reveals that the spatial pattern of extension rates changes along strike of the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane belt. South of the Mina Deflection

  9. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  10. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkamali, M. S.; Keshavarz FK, N.; Bakhtiari, M. R.

    2013-02-01

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results.

  11. Fault zone identification in the eastern part of the Persian Gulf based on combined seismic attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkamali, M S; Keshavarz FK, N; Bakhtiari, M R

    2013-01-01

    Faults, as main pathways for fluids, play a critical role in creating regions of high porosity and permeability, in cutting cap rock and in the migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir. Therefore, accurate identification of fault zones is very important in maximizing production from petroleum traps. Image processing and modern visualization techniques are provided for better mapping of objects of interest. In this study, the application of fault mapping in the identification of fault zones within the Mishan and Aghajari formations above the Guri base unconformity surface in the eastern part of Persian Gulf is investigated. Seismic single- and multi-trace attribute analyses are employed separately to determine faults in a vertical section, but different kinds of geological objects cannot be identified using individual attributes only. A mapping model is utilized to improve the identification of the faults, giving more accurate results. This method is based on combinations of all individual relevant attributes using a neural network system to create combined attributes, which gives an optimal view of the object of interest. Firstly, a set of relevant attributes were separately calculated on the vertical section. Then, at interpreted positions, some example training locations were manually selected in each fault and non-fault class by an interpreter. A neural network was trained on combinations of the attributes extracted at the example training locations to generate an optimized fault cube. Finally, the results of the fault and nonfault probability cube were estimated, which the neural network applied to the entire data set. The fault probability cube was obtained with higher mapping accuracy and greater contrast, and with fewer disturbances in comparison with individual attributes. The computed results of this study can support better understanding of the data, providing fault zone mapping with reliable results. (paper)

  12. Heterogeneity in the Fault Damage Zone: a Field Study on the Borrego Fault, B.C., Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeijer, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Dorsey, M. T.; Browning, J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Aben, F. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Brantut, N.

    2017-12-01

    The nature and distribution of damage around faults, and its impacts on fault zone properties has been a hot topic of research over the past decade. Understanding the mechanisms that control the formation of off fault damage can shed light on the processes during the seismic cycle, and the nature of fault zone development. Recent published work has identified three broad zones of damage around most faults based on the type, intensity, and extent of fracturing; Tip, Wall, and Linking damage. Although these zones are able to adequately characterise the general distribution of damage, little has been done to identify the nature of damage heterogeneity within those zones, often simplifying the distribution to fit log-normal linear decay trends. Here, we attempt to characterise the distribution of fractures that make up the wall damage around seismogenic faults. To do so, we investigate an extensive two dimensional fracture network exposed on a river cut platform along the Borrego Fault, BC, Mexico, 5m wide, and extending 20m from the fault core into the damage zone. High resolution fracture mapping of the outcrop, covering scales ranging three orders of magnitude (cm to m), has allowed for detailed observations of the 2D damage distribution within the fault damage zone. Damage profiles were obtained along several 1D transects perpendicular to the fault and micro-damage was examined from thin-sections at various locations around the outcrop for comparison. Analysis of the resulting fracture network indicates heterogeneities in damage intensity at decimetre scales resulting from a patchy distribution of high and low intensity corridors and clusters. Such patchiness may contribute to inconsistencies in damage zone widths defined along 1D transects and the observed variability of fracture densities around decay trends. How this distribution develops with fault maturity and the scaling of heterogeneities above and below the observed range will likely play a key role in

  13. Pen Branch fault: Confirmatory drilling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, A.; Coruh, C.; Costain, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Confirmatory Drilling Project is the final investigation under the Pen Branch Fault Program initiated to determine the capability of the Pen Branch fault (PBF) to release seismic energy. This investigation focused on a small zone over the fault where previously collected seismic reflection data had indicated the fault deforms the subsurface at 150 msec (with reference to an 80 m reference datum). Eighteen drill holes, 2 to basement and the others to 300 ft, were arranged in a scatter pattern over the fault. To adequately define configuration of the layers deformed by the fault boreholes were spaced over a zone of 800 ft, north to south. The closely spaced data were to confirm or refute the existence of flat lying reflectors observed in seismic reflection data and to enable the authors to identify and correlate lithologic layers with seismic reflection data. Results suggest that deformation by the fault in sediments 300 ft deep ad shallower is subtle. Corroboration of the geologic interpretation with the seismic reflection profile is ongoing but preliminary results indicate that specific reflectors can be assigned to lithologic layers. A large amplitude package of reflections below a flat lying continuous reflection at 40 msec can be correlated with a lithology that corresponds to carbonate sediments in geologic cross-section. Further, data also show that a geologic layer as shallow as 30 ft can be traced on these seismic data over the same subsurface distance where geologic cross-section shows corresponding continuity. The subsurface structure is thus corroborated by both methods at this study site

  14. "3D_Fault_Offsets," a Matlab Code to Automatically Measure Lateral and Vertical Fault Offsets in Topographic Data: Application to San Andreas, Owens Valley, and Hope Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, N.; Gaudemer, Y.; Manighetti, I.; Serreau, L.; Vincendeau, A.; Dominguez, S.; Mattéo, L.; Malavieille, J.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring fault offsets preserved at the ground surface is of primary importance to recover earthquake and long-term slip distributions and understand fault mechanics. The recent explosion of high-resolution topographic data, such as Lidar and photogrammetric digital elevation models, offers an unprecedented opportunity to measure dense collections of fault offsets. We have developed a new Matlab code, 3D_Fault_Offsets, to automate these measurements. In topographic data, 3D_Fault_Offsets mathematically identifies and represents nine of the most prominent geometric characteristics of common sublinear markers along faults (especially strike slip) in 3-D, such as the streambed (minimum elevation), top, free face and base of channel banks or scarps (minimum Laplacian, maximum gradient, and maximum Laplacian), and ridges (maximum elevation). By calculating best fit lines through the nine point clouds on either side of the fault, the code computes the lateral and vertical offsets between the piercing points of these lines onto the fault plane, providing nine lateral and nine vertical offset measures per marker. Through a Monte Carlo approach, the code calculates the total uncertainty on each offset. It then provides tools to statistically analyze the dense collection of measures and to reconstruct the prefaulted marker geometry in the horizontal and vertical planes. We applied 3D_Fault_Offsets to remeasure previously published offsets across 88 markers on the San Andreas, Owens Valley, and Hope faults. We obtained 5,454 lateral and vertical offset measures. These automatic measures compare well to prior ones, field and remote, while their rich record provides new insights on the preservation of fault displacements in the morphology.

  15. Fault condition stress analysis of NET 16 TF coil model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, C.T.J.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the design process of the NET/ITER toroidal field coils (TFCs), the mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has to be analysed in some detail. Under fault conditions, either electrical or mechanical, the magnetic loading of the coils becomes extreme and further mechanical failure of parts of the overall structure might occur (e.g. failure of the coil, gravitational support, intercoil structure). The mechanical behaviour of the magnetic system under fault conditions has been analysed with a finite element model of the complete TFC system. The analysed fault conditions consist of: a thermal fault, electrical faults and mechanical faults. The mechanical faults have been applied simultaneously with an electrical fault. This report described the work carried out to create the finite element model of 16 TFCs and contains an extensive presentation of the results, obtained with this model, of a normal operating condition analysis and 9 fault condition analyses. Chapter 2-5 contains a detailed description of the finite element model, boundary conditions and loading conditions of the analyses made. Chapters 2-4 can be skipped if the reader is only interested in results. To understand the results presented chapter 6 is recommended, which contains a detailed description of all analysed fault conditions. The dimensions and geometry of the model correspond to the status of the NET/ITER TFC design of May 1990. Compared with previous models of the complete magnetic system, the finite element model of 16 TFCs is 'detailed', and can be used for linear elastic analysis with faulted loads. (author). 8 refs.; 204 figs.; 134 tabs

  16. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  17. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  18. New geologic slip rates for the Agua Blanca Fault, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    Within the southern San Andreas transform plate boundary system, relatively little is known regarding active faulting in northern Baja California, Mexico, or offshore along the Inner Continental Borderland. The inner offshore system appears to be fed from the south by the Agua Blanca Fault (ABF), which strikes northwest across the Peninsular Ranges of northern Baja California. Therefore, the geologic slip rate for the ABF also provides a minimum slip rate estimate for the offshore system, which is connected to the north to faults in the Los Angeles region. Previous studies along the ABF determined slip rates of ~4-6 mm/yr (~10% of relative plate motion). However, these rates relied on imprecise age estimates and offset geomorphic features of a type that require these rates to be interpreted as minima, allowing for the possibility that the slip rate for the ABF may be greater. Although seismically quiescent, the surface trace of the ABF clearly reflects Holocene activity, and given its connectivity with the offshore fault system, more quantitative slip rates for the ABF are needed to better understand earthquake hazard for both US and Mexican coastal populations. Using newly acquired airborne LiDAR, we have mapped primary and secondary fault strands along the segmented western 70 km of the ABF. Minimal development has left the geomorphic record of surface slip remarkably well preserved, and we have identified abundant evidence meter to km scale right-lateral displacement, including new Late Quaternary slip rate sites. We verified potential reconstructions at each site during summer 2015 fieldwork, and selected an initial group of three high potential slip rate sites for detailed mapping and geochronologic analyses. Offset landforms, including fluvial terrace risers, alluvial fans, and incised channel fill deposits, record displacements of ~5-80 m, and based on minimal soil development, none appear older than early Holocene. To quantitatively constrain landform ages

  19. Active Fault Isolation in MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    isolation is based directly on the input/output s ignals applied for the fault detection. It is guaranteed that the fault group includes the fault that had occurred in the system. The second step is individual fault isolation in the fault group . Both types of isolation are obtained by applying dedicated......Active fault isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop MIMO system s are considered in this paper. The fault isolation consists of two steps. T he first step is group- wise fault isolation. Here, a group of faults is isolated from other pos sible faults in the system. The group-wise fault...

  20. Fault-Related Controls on Upward Hydrothermal Flow: An Integrated Geological Study of the Têt Fault System, Eastern Pyrénées (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Taillefer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The way faults control upward fluid flow in nonmagmatic hydrothermal systems in extensional context is still unclear. In the Eastern Pyrénées, an alignment of twenty-nine hot springs (29°C to 73°C, along the normal Têt fault, offers the opportunity to study this process. Using an integrated multiscale geological approach including mapping, remote sensing, and macro- and microscopic analyses of fault zones, we show that emergence is always located in crystalline rocks at gneiss-metasediments contacts, mostly in the Têt fault footwall. The hot springs distribution is related to high topographic reliefs, which are associated with fault throw and segmentation. In more detail, emergence localizes either (1 in brittle fault damage zones at the intersection between the Têt fault and subsidiary faults or (2 in ductile faults where dissolution cavities are observed along foliations, allowing juxtaposition of metasediments. Using these observations and 2D simple numerical simulation, we propose a hydrogeological model of upward hydrothermal flow. Meteoric fluids, infiltrated at high elevation in the fault footwall relief, get warmer at depth because of the geothermal gradient. Topography-related hydraulic gradient and buoyancy forces cause hot fluid rise along permeability anisotropies associated with lithological juxtapositions, fracture, and fault zone compositions.

  1. Fault Detection for Industrial Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fault-relevant KPCA algorithm is proposed. Then the fault detection approach is proposed based on the fault-relevant KPCA algorithm. The proposed method further decomposes both the KPCA principal space and residual space into two subspaces. Compared with traditional statistical techniques, the fault subspace is separated based on the fault-relevant influence. This method can find fault-relevant principal directions and principal components of systematic subspace and residual subspace for process monitoring. The proposed monitoring approach is applied to Tennessee Eastman process and penicillin fermentation process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Characterization of the San Andreas Fault near Parkfield, California by fault-zone trapped waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Vidale, J.; Cochran, E.

    2003-04-01

    In October, 2002, coordinated by the Pre-EarthScope/SAFOD, we conducted an extensive seismic experiment at the San Andreas fault (SAF), Parkfield to record fault-zone trapped waves generated by explosions and microearthquakes using dense linear seismic arrays of 52 PASSCAL 3-channel REFTEKs deployed across and along the fault zone. We detonated 3 explosions within and out of the fault zone during the experiment, and also recorded other 13 shots of PASO experiment of UWM/RPI (Thurber and Roecker) detonated around the SAFOD drilling site at the same time. We observed prominent fault-zone trapped waves with large amplitudes and long duration following S waves at stations close to the main fault trace for sources located within and close to the fault zone. Dominant frequencies of trapped waves are 2-3 Hz for near-surface explosions and 4-5 Hz for microearthquakes. Fault-zone trapped waves are relatively weak on the north strand of SAF for same sources. In contrast, seismograms registered for both the stations and shots far away from the fault zone show a brief S wave and lack of trapped waves. These observations are consistent with previous findings of fault-zone trapped waves at the SAF [Li et al., 1990; 1997], indicating the existence of a well-developed low-velocity waveguide along the main fault strand (principal slip plan) of the SAF. The data from denser arrays and 3-D finite-difference simulations of fault-zone trapped waves allowed us to delineate the internal structure, segmentation and physical properties of the SAF with higher resolution. The trapped-wave inferred waveguide on the SAF Parkfield segment is ~150 m wide at surface and tapers to ~100 m at seismogenic depth, in which Q is 20-50 and S velocities are reduced by 30-40% from wall-rock velocities, with the greater velocity reduction at the shallow depth and to southeast of the 1966 M6 epicenter. We interpret this low-velocity waveguide on the SAF main strand as being the remnant of damage zone caused

  3. Large-magnitude Dextral Slip on the Wairarapa Fault, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, D. W.; Little, T.

    2004-12-01

    Dextral slip associated with an 1855 Ms 8.0+ event on the Wairarapa fault near Wellington, New Zealand was reported to be 12+/-1 m along a rupture length of at least 148km (Grapes, 1999), one of the largest single-event strike-slip offsets documented worldwide. Initial results from a new study involving detailed neotectonic mapping and microtopographic surveys of offset landforms (including many beheaded, inactive streams) strongly suggest that dextral slip was as much as 50% greater than previously measured. 1855 surface ruptures were mapped with certainty where a linear scarp characterized by steep slopes (30-90°) and exposed alluvium cuts across active or inactive stream channels. The fifteen individual strands comprising the Wairarapa fault zone that we have mapped to date are 1200+/-700 m long and typically left-stepping. Slip in the stepover zones between these strands is distributed amongst two or more ruptures and intervening anticlines, a situation that causes along-strike variations in slip and which locally complicates the interpretation of 1855 displacement. We focused on seven of the best-preserved sites where low-discharge streams are disrupted by the fault zone, including five that had been previously attributed by Grapes (1999) to coseismic slip during the 1855 earthquake. One of these (Pigeon Bush) includes two sequentially displaced, now beheaded linear stream channels, oriented perpendicular to the fault scarp, that preserve distinct offsets with respect to a single deeply incised, originally contiguous gorge on the opposite side of the fault. To quantify the minimum fault displacements at each site, we made 1:500 scale topographic maps employing n = 2,000-10,000 points collected with GPS and laser instrumentation. Measured dextral slip values, here attributed to the 1855 earthquake, include 16.4+/-1.0m (Hinaburn), 12.9+/-2.0m (Cross Creek), 17.2+/-2.5m (Lake Meadows), 18.7+/-1.0m (Pigeon Bush), 13.0+/-1.5m (Pigeon Bush 2), 15.1+/-1.0m (Pigeon

  4. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Post-Pennsylvanian reactivation along the Washita Valley fault, southern Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanArsdale, R.; Ward, C.; Cox, R.

    1989-06-01

    Surface exposures of faults of the Washita Valley fault (WVF) system in Garvin, Murray, Carter, and Johnston counties of southern Oklahoma were studied to determine if there has been post-Pennsylvanian fault reactivation and to determine if there has been any Quaternary fault movement. This was undertaken through field mapping, by dating alluvium which overlies the faults, and by logging trenches excavated across the WVF. In northern Murray County and southern Garvin County (site A), the WVF displaces Late-Pennsylvanian Oscar Group showing post-Pennsylvanian movement; however, no faulting was observed in 2000 year old alluvium of Wildhorse Creek along strike of the WVF. Three sites (B, C, and D) are located within the Arbuckle Mountains. Faulting of Virgilian age Vanoss Conglomerate and Vanoss Shale reveal post-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) activity along a subsidiary fault in northern Murray County (site B). A 12000 to 15000 year old terrace at this site is unfaulted. Absence of any fault related features in paleosols which overly the WVF along the Washita River (site C) show that the fault has not been active during the last 1570 /+-/ 190 years in southern Murray County. Similarly, absence of any fault related features along Oil Creek (site D) indicates that the WVF has not been active during the last 1810 /+-/ 80 years in northern Carter and Johnston Counties. Faults in the Antlers Sandstone in southern Johnston County (site E) reveal post-Lower Cretaceous reactivation of the WVF. 49 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  6. Study on conditional probability of surface rupture: effect of fault dip and width of seismogenic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N.

    2017-12-01

    The conditional probability of surface ruptures is affected by various factors, such as shallow material properties, process of earthquakes, ground motions and so on. Toda (2013) pointed out difference of the conditional probability of strike and reverse fault by considering the fault dip and width of seismogenic layer. This study evaluated conditional probability of surface rupture based on following procedures. Fault geometry was determined from the randomly generated magnitude based on The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (2017) method. If the defined fault plane was not saturated in the assumed width of the seismogenic layer, the fault plane depth was randomly provided within the seismogenic layer. The logistic analysis was performed to two data sets: surface displacement calculated by dislocation methods (Wang et al., 2003) from the defined source fault, the depth of top of the defined source fault. The estimated conditional probability from surface displacement indicated higher probability of reverse faults than that of strike faults, and this result coincides to previous similar studies (i.e. Kagawa et al., 2004; Kataoka and Kusakabe, 2005). On the contrary, the probability estimated from the depth of the source fault indicated higher probability of thrust faults than that of strike and reverse faults, and this trend is similar to the conditional probability of PFDHA results (Youngs et al., 2003; Moss and Ross, 2011). The probability of combined simulated results of thrust and reverse also shows low probability. The worldwide compiled reverse fault data include low fault dip angle earthquake. On the other hand, in the case of Japanese reverse fault, there is possibility that the conditional probability of reverse faults with less low dip angle earthquake shows low probability and indicates similar probability of strike fault (i.e. Takao et al., 2013). In the future, numerical simulation by considering failure condition of surface by the source

  7. Nanoscale Roughness of Faults Explained by the Scale-Dependent Yield Stress of Geologic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, C.; Brodsky, E. E.; Carpick, R. W.; Goldsby, D. L.; Pharr, G.; Oliver, W.

    2017-12-01

    Despite significant differences in their lithologies and slip histories, natural fault surfaces exhibit remarkably similar scale-dependent roughness over lateral length scales spanning 7 orders of magnitude, from microns to tens of meters. Recent work has suggested that a scale-dependent yield stress may result in such a characteristic roughness, but experimental evidence in favor of this hypothesis has been lacking. We employ an atomic force microscope (AFM) operating in intermittent-contact mode to map the topography of the Corona Heights fault surface. Our experiments demonstrate that the Corona Heights fault exhibits isotropic self-affine roughness with a Hurst exponent of 0.75 +/- 0.05 at all wavelengths from 60 nm to 10 μm. If yield stress controls roughness, then the roughness data predict that yield strength varies with length scale as λ-0.25 +/ 0.05. To test the relationship between roughness and yield stress, we conducted nanoindentation tests on the same Corona Heights sample and a sample of the Yair Fault, a carbonate fault surface that has been previously characterized by AFM. A diamond Berkovich indenter tip was used to indent the samples at a nominally constant strain rate (defined as the loading rate divided by the load) of 0.2 s-1. The continuous stiffness method (CSM) was used to measure the indentation hardness (which is proportional to yield stress) and the elastic modulus of the sample as a function of depth in each test. For both samples, the yield stress decreases with increasing size of the indents, a behavior consistent with that observed for many engineering materials and recently for other geologic materials such as olivine. The magnitude of this "indentation size effect" is best described by a power-law with exponents of -0.12 +/- 0.06 and -0.18 +/- 0.08 for the Corona Heights and Yair Faults, respectively. These results demonstrate a link between surface roughness and yield stress, and suggest that fault geometry is the physical

  8. Morphology and slip rate of the Hurunui section of the Hope Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langridge, R.M.; Berryman, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Hurunui section of the Hope Fault is a newly defined, 42 km long geomorphic fault section which extends from Harper Pass to the Hope-Boyle River confluence. Reconnaissance mapping along the Hurunui section from Hope Shelter to Harper Pass provided new data on its location, geomorphology, displacement, and slip rate. More than 200 previously published field observations of dextrally and vertically displaced landforms along the fault provide data on the distribution of displacement along the fault trace. Five radiocarbon dates found in association with offset geomorphic features are presented and two new measures of dextral slip rate are calculated. At McKenzie Stream, a late Holocene fan complex is cut by the Hope Fault. Young abandoned and active channels on this surface show dextral offsets of up to 22 ± 2 m along a south-facing scarp with a height of up to 5 m. Woody litter from a unit in this complex has yielded a radiocarbon age of 2331 ± 55 yr BP and a corresponding minimum horizontal slip rate of 8.1-11.0 mm/yr. At Macs Knob, large dextral deflections of stream catchments are linked to episodes of glacial resetting of the landscape. Correlation of the offset of 'Macs stream' (166 ± 17 m) with a post-Aranuian age peat (10,782 ± 60 yr BP) yields a maximum horizontal slip rate of 13.0 ± 1.5 mm/yr. The single-event dextral displacement, based on offset stream channels at McKenzie fan, is 3.2-3.8 m (av. c. 3.4 m). The ratio of dextral to vertical slip is c. 7 ± 2:1, indicating that the Hope Fault has a dominantly strike-slip sense of motion. The average recurrence interval for the last 5-7 events (i.e., to produce 19-24 m slip at McKenzie fan) is 310-490 yr. The age of the most recent surface-rupturing earthquake at this site is not known, though felt effects, fault scaling, and landscape arguments indicate it was not the AD 1888 North Canterbury earthquake. (author). 48 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  9. FAULT TOLERANCE IN JOB SCHEDULING THROUGH FAULT MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK USING SOA IN GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Indhumathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development in computing resources has enhanced the recital of computers and abridged their costs. This accessibility of low cost prevailing computers joined with the fame of the Internet and high-speed networks has leaded the computing surroundings to be mapped from dispersed to grid environments. Grid is a kind of dispersed system which supports the allotment and harmonized exploit of geographically dispersed and multi-owner resources, autonomously from their physical form and site, in vibrant practical organizations that carve up the similar objective of decipher large-scale applications. Thus any type of failure can happen at any point of time and job running in grid environment might fail. Therefore fault tolerance is an imperative and demanding concern in grid computing as the steadiness of individual grid resources may not be guaranteed. In order to build computational grids more effectual and consistent fault tolerant system is required. In order to accomplish the user prospect in terms of recital and competence, the Grid system desires SOA Fault Management Framework for the sharing of tasks with fault tolerance. A Fault Management Framework endeavor to pick up the response time of user’s proposed applications by ensures maximal exploitation of obtainable resources. The main aim is to avert, if probable, the stipulation where some processors are congested by means of a set of tasks while others are flippantly loaded or even at leisure.

  10. Quaternary faulting in the Tatra Mountains, evidence from cave morphology and fault-slip analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tectonically deformed cave passages in the Tatra Mts (Central Western Carpathians indicate some fault activity during the Quaternary. Displacements occur in the youngest passages of the caves indicating (based on previous U-series dating of speleothems an Eemian or younger age for those faults, and so one tectonic stage. On the basis of stress analysis and geomorphological observations, two different mechanisms are proposed as responsible for the development of these displacements. The first mechanism concerns faults that are located above the valley bottom and at a short distance from the surface, with fault planes oriented sub-parallel to the slopes. The radial, horizontal extension and vertical σ1 which is identical with gravity, indicate that these faults are the result of gravity sliding probably caused by relaxation after incision of valleys, and not directly from tectonic activity. The second mechanism is tilting of the Tatra Mts. The faults operated under WNW-ESE oriented extension with σ1 plunging steeply toward the west. Such a stress field led to normal dip-slip or oblique-slip displacements. The faults are located under the valley bottom and/or opposite or oblique to the slopes. The process involved the pre-existing weakest planes in the rock complex: (i in massive limestone mostly faults and fractures, (ii in thin-bedded limestone mostly inter-bedding planes. Thin-bedded limestones dipping steeply to the south are of particular interest. Tilting toward the N caused the hanging walls to move under the massif and not toward the valley, proving that the cause of these movements was tectonic activity and not gravity.

  11. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  12. Fault Tolerant Computer Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    For many years, most computer architects have pursued one primary goal: performance. Architects have translated the ever-increasing abundance of ever-faster transistors provided by Moore's law into remarkable increases in performance. Recently, however, the bounty provided by Moore's law has been accompanied by several challenges that have arisen as devices have become smaller, including a decrease in dependability due to physical faults. In this book, we focus on the dependability challenge and the fault tolerance solutions that architects are developing to overcome it. The two main purposes

  13. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  14. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited

  15. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  16. Contribution of gravity data and Sentinel-1 image for structural mapping. Case of Beni Mellal Atlas and Beni Moussa plain (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutirame, Ikram; Boukdir, Ahmed; Akhssas, Ahmed; Boutirame, Fatima; Manar, Ahmed; Aghzzaf, Brahim

    2018-05-01

    The present work is a combined study of gravity and Sentine-1 data for fracture mapping in the karstic massif of Beni Mellal Atlas and the adjacent plain of Beni Moussa. In order to locate the various faults that contribute to the study area structuring, the gravimetric contacts analysis method, based on the joint use of the horizontal gradient and the upward continuation at different altitudes, has been applied to the gravity data. To optimize the structural mapping in the study area, the gravimetric lineaments obtained were completed and correlated with the lineaments got from Sentinel-1 image. Four faults families of NE-SW; E-O; N-S and NWSE directions have been highlighted. There fault families are perfectly combined with the studied area's surface water network, moreover, they corroborate with the previous geological and structural studies.

  17. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the 'cautiousness' of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the 'precaution faults' having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a 'precaution fault'. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  18. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the `cautiousness` of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the `precaution faults` having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a `precaution fault`. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  19. A fault-tolerant software strategy for digital systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, E. F.; Webb, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques developed for producing fault-tolerant software are described. Tolerance is required because of the impossibility of defining fault-free software. Faults are caused by humans and can appear anywhere in the software life cycle. Tolerance is effected through error detection, damage assessment, recovery, and fault treatment, followed by return of the system to service. Multiversion software comprises two or more versions of the software yielding solutions which are examined by a decision algorithm. Errors can also be detected by extrapolation from previous results or by the acceptability of results. Violations of timing specifications can reveal errors, or the system can roll back to an error-free state when a defect is detected. The software, when used in flight control systems, must not impinge on time-critical responses. Efforts are still needed to reduce the costs of developing the fault-tolerant systems.

  20. Fault management and systems knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Pilots are asked to manage faults during flight operations. This leads to the training question of the type and depth of system knowledge required to respond to these faults. Based on discussions with multiple airline operators, there is agreement th...

  1. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  2. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  3. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  4. InSAR velocity field across the North Anatolian Fault (eastern Turkey): Implications for the loading and release of interseismic strain accumulation

    KAUST Repository

    Cakir, Ziyadin

    2014-10-01

    We use the Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) technique with the European Space Agency\\'s Envisat and ERS SAR data acquired on three neighboring descending tracks (T350, T078, and T307) to map the interseismic strain accumulation along a ~225 km long, NW-SE trending section of the North Anatolian Fault that ruptured during the 1939, 1942, and 1943 earthquakes in eastern Turkey. We derive a line-of-sight velocity map of the region with a high spatial resolution and accuracy which, together with the maps of earthquake surface ruptures, shed light on the style of continental deformation and the relationships between the loading and release of interseismic strain along segmented continental strike-slip faults. In contrast with the geometric complexities at the ground surface that appear to control rupture propagation of the 1939 event, modeling of the high-resolution PS-InSAR velocity field reveals a fairly linear and narrow throughgoing shear zone with an overall 20 ± 3 mm/yr slip rate above an unexpectedly shallow 7 ± 2 km locking depth. Such a shallow locking depth may result from the postseismic effects following recent earthquakes or from a simplified model that assumes a uniform degree of locking with depth on the fault. A narrow throughgoing shear zone supports the thick lithosphere model in which continental strike-slip faults are thought to extend as discrete shear zones through the entire crust. Fault segmentation previously reported from coseismic surface ruptures is thus likely inherited from heterogeneities in the upper crust that either preexist and/or develop during coseismic rupture propagation. The geometrical complexities that apparently persist for long periods may guide the dynamic rupture propagation surviving thousands of earthquake cycles.

  5. Documentation for Initial Seismic Hazard Maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In response to the urgent need for earthquake-hazard information after the tragic disaster caused by the moment magnitude (M) 7.0 January 12, 2010, earthquake, we have constructed initial probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Haiti. These maps are based on the current information we have on fault slip rates and historical and instrumental seismicity. These initial maps will be revised and improved as more data become available. In the short term, more extensive logic trees will be developed to better capture the uncertainty in key parameters. In the longer term, we will incorporate new information on fault parameters and previous large earthquakes obtained from geologic fieldwork. These seismic hazard maps are important for the management of the current crisis and the development of building codes and standards for the rebuilding effort. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates in the Hispaniola region is a complex zone of deformation. The highly oblique ~20 mm/yr convergence between the two plates (DeMets and others, 2000) is partitioned between subduction zones off of the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola and strike-slip faults that transect the northern and southern portions of the island. There are also thrust faults within the island that reflect the compressional component of motion caused by the geometry of the plate boundary. We follow the general methodology developed for the 1996 U.S. national seismic hazard maps and also as implemented in the 2002 and 2008 updates. This procedure consists of adding the seismic hazard calculated from crustal faults, subduction zones, and spatially smoothed seismicity for shallow earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff-zone earthquakes. Each one of these source classes will be described below. The lack of information on faults in Haiti requires many assumptions to be made. These assumptions will need to be revisited and reevaluated as more fieldwork and research are accomplished. We made two sets of

  6. Survey contents and their significance to the preliminary investigation areas for the HLW geological disposal. In the case of identification and assessment of active faults in the survey area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Haruo

    2004-01-01

    Geological environment has cumulatively received diverse crustal movements having various time and spatial scales in the long earth history. For the HLW disposal, the geological stability around the investigation site should be examined and assessed in each individual time and spatial scale. Along the northern margin of Izu Peninsula where the highest rate of crustal movement is observed in Japan, the change of extensive stress field affected to local tectonics had taken for several hundred thousand years at the collision of Izu block in early Pleistocene. Therefore, there is little potential of sudden occurrence of new disturbance in the evaluation period of a hundred thousand years. The active fault survey in the preliminary investigation areas should indispensably reexamine the existence of the faults because of the low reliability of previously published active fault maps. Engineering answer should be requested for the accommodation to small fault and fractures in the host rocks. Although there is little potential for the occurrence of a new active fault in the non-faulted region, it is necessary to check the potential of new fracture occurrence in the stress concentrated region using the distribution of coulomb failure stress change. (author)

  7. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-01-01

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone is the one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  8. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  9. Detection of active faults using data fusion techniques : case study, Psachna Island of Evoia, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gountromichou, Chrysa; Pohl, Christine; Ehlers, Manfred

    2002-01-01

    The identification of active faults (faults potentially capable to trigger an earthquake) is important for a seismically active country like Greece. Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis were used in order to detect, map and characterize the tectonic structures of Psachna town and the

  10. Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in

  11. Integration of InSAR and GIS in the Study of Surface Faults Caused by Subsidence-Creep-Fault Processes in Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila-Olivera, Jorge A.; Farina, Paolo; Garduno-Monroy, Victor H.

    2008-01-01

    In Celaya city, Subsidence-Creep-Fault Processes (SCFP) began to become visible at the beginning of the 1980s with the sprouting of the crackings that gave rise to the surface faults 'Oriente' and 'Poniente'. At the present time, the city is being affected by five surface faults that display a preferential NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the regional faulting system 'Taxco-San Miguel de Allende'. In order to study the SCFP in the city, the first step was to obtain a map of surface faults, by integrating in a GIS field survey and an urban city plan. The following step was to create a map of the current phreatic level decline in city with the information of deep wells and using the 'kriging' method in order to obtain a continuous surface. Finally the interferograms maps resulted of an InSAR analysis of 9 SAR images covering the time interval between July 12 of 2003 and May 27 of 2006 were integrated to a GIS. All the maps generated, show how the surface faults divide the city from North to South, in two zones that behave in a different way. The difference of the phreatic level decline between these two zones is 60 m; and the InSAR study revealed that the Western zone practically remains stable, while sinkings between the surface faults 'Oriente' and 'Universidad Pedagogica' are present, as well as in portions NE and SE of the city, all of these sinkings between 7 and 10 cm/year

  12. Introduction to fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Lambert, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    An elementary, engineering oriented introduction to fault tree analysis is presented. The basic concepts, techniques and applications of fault tree analysis, FTA, are described. The two major steps of FTA are identified as (1) the construction of the fault tree and (2) its evaluation. The evaluation of the fault tree can be qualitative or quantitative depending upon the scope, extensiveness and use of the analysis. The advantages, limitations and usefulness of FTA are discussed

  13. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years the wind turbine industry has focused on optimizing the cost of energy. One of the important factors in this is to increase reliability of the wind turbines. Advanced fault detection, isolation and accommodation are important tools in this process. Clearly most faults are deal...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....

  14. Geology and structure of the North Boqueron Bay-Punta Montalva Fault System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig Silva, Coral Marie

    The North Boqueron Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone is an active fault system that cuts across the Lajas Valley in southwestern Puerto Rico. The fault zone has been recognized and mapped based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (ML < 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions and structural field data suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east-west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults oriented mostly toward the northeast. Evidence for recent displacement consists of fractures and small normal faults oriented mostly northeast found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, Areas of preferred erosion, within the alluvial fan, trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the on-land projection of the North Boqueron Bay Fault. Beyond the faulted alluvial fan and southeast of the Lajas Valley, the Northern Boqueron Bay Fault joins with the Punta Montalva Fault. The Punta Montalva Fault is defined by a strong topographic WNW lineament along which stream channels are displaced left laterally 200 meters and Miocene strata are steeply tilted to the south. Along the western end of the fault zone in northern Boqueron Bay, the older strata are only tilted 3° south and are covered by flat lying Holocene sediments. Focal mechanisms solutions along the western end suggest NW-SE shortening, which is inconsistent with left lateral strain partitioning along the fault zone. The limited deformation of older strata and inconsistent strain partitioning may be explained by a westerly propagation of the fault system from the southwest end. The limited geomorphic structural expression along the North Boqueron Bay Fault segment

  15. Geometry and kinematics of adhesive wear in brittle strike-slip fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark T.

    2005-05-01

    Detailed outcrop surface mapping in Late Paleozoic cataclastic strike-slip faults of coastal Maine shows that asymmetric sidewall ripouts, 0.1-200 m in length, are a significant component of many mapped faults and an important wall rock deformation mechanism during faulting. The geometry of these structures ranges from simple lenses to elongate slabs cut out of the sidewalls of strike-slip faults by a lateral jump of the active zone of slip during adhesion along a section of the main fault. The new irregular trace of the active fault after this jump creates an indenting asperity that is forced to plow through the adjoining wall rock during continued adhesion or be cut off by renewed motion along the main section of the fault. Ripout translation during adhesion sets up the structural asymmetry with trailing extensional and leading contractional ends to the ripout block. The inactive section of the main fault trace at the trailing end can develop a 'sag' or 'half-graben' type geometry due to block movement along the scallop-shaped connecting ramp to the flanking ripout fault. Leading contractional ramps can develop 'thrust' type imbrication and forces the 'humpback' geometry to the ripout slab due to distortion of the inactive main fault surface by ripout translation. Similar asymmetric ripout geometries are recognized in many other major crustal scale strike-slip fault zones worldwide. Ripout structures in the 5-500 km length range can be found on the Atacama fault system of northern Chile, the Qujiang and Xiaojiang fault zones in western China, the Yalakom-Hozameen fault zone in British Columbia and the San Andreas fault system in southern California. For active crustal-scale faults the surface expression of ripout translation includes a coupled system of extensional trailing ramps as normal oblique-slip faults with pull-apart basin sedimentation and contractional leading ramps as oblique thrust or high angle reverse faults with associated uplift and erosion. The

  16. Row fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  17. Fault isolation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three major areas that are considered in the development of an overall maintenance scheme of computer equipment are described. The areas of concern related to fault isolation techniques are: the programmer (or user), company and its policies, and the manufacturer of the equipment.

  18. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S. A.

    This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...

  19. Collection and analysis of existing information on applicability of investigation methods for estimation of beginning age of faulting in present faulting pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Ryosuke; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Tanikawa, Shin-ichi; Nakayasu, Akio; Niizato, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Takenobu; Aoki, Michinori; Sekiya, Ayako

    2011-12-01

    In the field of R and D programs of a geological disposal of high level radioactive waste, it is great importance to develop a set of investigation and analysis techniques for the assessment of long-term geosphere stability over a geological time, which means that any changes of geological environment will not significantly impact on the long-term safety of a geological disposal system. In Japanese archipelago, crustal movements are so active that uplift and subsidence are remarkable in recent several hundreds of thousands of years. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the long-term geosphere stability taking into account a topographic change caused by crustal movements. One of the factors for the topographic change is the movement of an active fault, which is a geological process to release a strain accumulated by plate motion. A beginning age of the faulting in the present faulting pattern suggests the beginning age of neotectonic activities around the active fault, and also provides basic information to identifying the stage of a geomorphic development of mountains. Therefore, the age of faulting in the present faulting pattern is important information to estimate a topographic change in the future on the mountain regions of Japan. In this study, existing information related to methods for the estimation of the beginning age of the faulting in the present faulting pattern on the active fault were collected and reviewed. A principle of method, noticing points and technical know-hows in the application of the methods, data uncertainty, and so on were extracted from the existing information. Based on these extracted information, task-flows indicating working process on the estimation of the beginning age for the faulting of the active fault were illustrated on each method. Additionally, the distribution map of the beginning age with accuracy of faulting in the present faulting pattern on the active fault was illustrated. (author)

  20. Fault-Related Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L.

    2001-12-01

    Beyond the study of historical surface faulting events, this work investigates the possibility, in specific cases, of identifying pre-historical events whose memory survives in myths and legends. The myths of many famous sacred places of the ancient world contain relevant telluric references: "sacred" earthquakes, openings to the Underworld and/or chthonic dragons. Given the strong correspondence with local geological evidence, these myths may be considered as describing natural phenomena. It has been possible in this way to shed light on the geologic origin of famous myths (Piccardi, 1999, 2000 and 2001). Interdisciplinary researches reveal that the origin of several ancient sanctuaries may be linked in particular to peculiar geological phenomena observed on local active faults (like ground shaking and coseismic surface ruptures, gas and flames emissions, strong underground rumours). In many of these sanctuaries the sacred area is laid directly above the active fault. In a few cases, faulting has affected also the archaeological relics, right through the main temple (e.g. Delphi, Cnidus, Hierapolis of Phrygia). As such, the arrangement of the cult site and content of relative myths suggest that specific points along the trace of active faults have been noticed in the past and worshiped as special `sacred' places, most likely interpreted as Hades' Doors. The mythological stratification of most of these sanctuaries dates back to prehistory, and points to a common derivation from the cult of the Mother Goddess (the Lady of the Doors), which was largely widespread since at least 25000 BC. The cult itself was later reconverted into various different divinities, while the `sacred doors' of the Great Goddess and/or the dragons (offspring of Mother Earth and generally regarded as Keepers of the Doors) persisted in more recent mythologies. Piccardi L., 1999: The "Footprints" of the Archangel: Evidence of Early-Medieval Surface Faulting at Monte Sant'Angelo (Gargano, Italy

  1. Fault-tolerant computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Cin, M.; Hohl, W.

    1991-01-01

    Tests, Diagnosis and Fault Treatment were chosen as the guiding themes of the conference. However, the scope of the conference included reliability, availability, safety and security issues in software and hardware systems as well. The sessions were organized for the conference which was completed by an industrial presentation: Keynote Address, Reconfiguration and Recover, System Level Diagnosis, Voting and Agreement, Testing, Fault-Tolerant Circuits, Array Testing, Modelling, Applied Fault Tolerance, Fault-Tolerant Arrays and Systems, Interconnection Networks, Fault-Tolerant Software. One paper has been indexed separately in the database. (orig./HP)

  2. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  3. Network Fault Diagnosis Using DSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Hao; Yan Pu-liu; Chen Xiao; Wu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Difference similitude matrix (DSM) is effective in reducing information system with its higher reduction rate and higher validity. We use DSM method to analyze the fault data of computer networks and obtain the fault diagnosis rules. Through discretizing the relative value of fault data, we get the information system of the fault data. DSM method reduces the information system and gets the diagnosis rules. The simulation with the actual scenario shows that the fault diagnosis based on DSM can obtain few and effective rules.

  4. THE ACTIVE FAULTS OF EURASIA DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Bachmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the technique used to create and maintain the Active Faults of Eurasia Database (AFED based on the uniform format that ensures integrating the materials accumulated by many researchers, inclu­ding the authors of the AFED. The AFED includes the data on more than 20 thousand objects: faults, fault zones and associated structural forms that show the signs of latest displacements in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The geographical coordinates are given for each object. The AFED scale is 1:500000; the demonstration scale is 1:1000000. For each object, the AFED shows two kinds of characteristics: justification attributes, and estimated attributes. The justification attributes inform the AFED user about an object: the object’s name; morphology; kinematics; the amplitudes of displacement for different periods of time; displacement rates estimated from the amplitudes; the age of the latest recorded signs of activity, seismicity and paleoseismicity; the relationship of the given objects with the parameters of crustal earthquakes; etc. The sources of information are listed in the AFED appendix. The estimated attributes are represented by the system of indices reflecting the fault kinematics according to the classification of the faults by types, as accepted in structural geology, and includes three ranks of the Late Quaternary movements and four degrees of reliability of identifying the structures as active ones. With reference to the indices, the objects can be compared with each other, considering any of the attributes, or with any other digitized information. The comparison can be performed by any GIS software. The AFED is an efficient tool for obtaining the information on the faults and solving general problems, such as thematic mapping, determining the parameters of modern geodynamic processes, estima­ting seismic and other geodynamic hazards, identifying the tectonic development trends in the Pliocene–Quaternary stage of

  5. Recent tectonic stress field, active faults and geothermal fields (hot-water type) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tianfeng

    1984-10-01

    It is quite probable that geothermal fields of the hot-water type in China do not develop in the absence of recently active faults. Such active faults are all controlled by tectonic stress fields. Using the data of earthquake fault-plane solutions, active faults, and surface thermal manifestations, a map showing the recent tectonic stress field, and the location of active faults and geothermal fields in China is presented. Data collected from 89 investigated prospects with geothermal manifestations indicate that the locations of geothermal fields are controlled by active faults and the recent tectonic stress field. About 68% of the prospects are controlled by tensional or tensional-shear faults. The angle between these faults and the direction of maximum compressive stress is less than 45°, and both tend to be parallel. About 15% of the prospects are controlled by conjugate faults. Another 14% are controlled by compressive-shear faults where the angle between these faults and the direction maximum compressive stress is greater than 45°.

  6. Evaluation of Wind Farm Controller based Fault Detection and Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    detection and isolation and fault tolerant control has previously been proposed. Based on this model, and international competition on wind farm FDI was organized. The contributions were presented at the IFAC World Congress 2014. In this paper the top three contributions to this competition are shortly......In the process of lowering cost of energy of power generated by wind turbines, some focus has been drawn towards fault detection and isolation and as well as fault tolerant control of wind turbines with the purpose of increasing reliability and availability of the wind turbines. Most modern wind...

  7. Fault Lines in American Culture: The Case for Civic Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, H. Michael; Van Scotter, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The social landscape of the United States can be mapped by using a series of cultural fault lines. This topography portrays conditions that descriptions of the surface fail to illuminate. Many of these schisms are the by-product of ideological positions that diminish personal responsibility and thoughtful civic discourse. If left unattended, these…

  8. Evidence for Strong Controls from Preexisting Structures on Border Fault Development and Basin Evolution in the Malawi Rift from 3D Lacustrine Refraction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, N. J.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C.; Nyblade, A.; McCartney, T.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.

    2017-12-01

    A long-standing debate surrounds controls on the development and ultimately abandonment of basin bounding border faults. The Malawi Rift in the the Western Branch of the East African Rift System presents an ideal location to investigate normal fault development. The rift is composed of a series of half graben basins bound by large border faults, which cross several terranes and pre-existing features. To delineate rift basin structure, we undertook 3D first arrival tomography across the North and Central basins of the Malawi Rift based on seismic refraction data acquired in Lake Malawi. The resulting 3D velocity model allows for the first-ever mapping of 3D basin structure in the Western Branch of the EAR. We estimate fault displacement profiles along the two border faults and find that each accommodated 7.2 km of throw. Previous modeling studies suggest that given the significant lengths (>140 km) and throws of these faults, they may be nearing their maximum dimensions or may have already been abandoned. While both faults accommodate similar throws, their lengths differ by 40 km, likely due to the influence of both preexisting basement fabric and large-scale preexisting structures crossing the rift. Over 4 km of sediment exists where the border faults overlap in the accommodation zone indicating that these faults likely established their lengths early. Portions of both basins contain packages of sediment with anomalously fast velocities (> 4 km/s), which we interpret to represent sediment packages from prior rifting episodes. In the Central Basin, this preexisting sediment traces along the inferred offshore continuation of the Karoo-aged Ruhuhu Basin that intersects Lake Malawi at the junction between the North and Central basins. This feature may have influenced the length of the border fault bounding the Central Basin. In the North Basin, the preexisting sediment is thicker ( 4 km) and likely represents the offshore continuation of a series of preexisting rift

  9. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, Paolo; Liberi, Francesca; Caldarella, Martina; Nurminen, Fiia-Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH) along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike-slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9). Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding). For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r) and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ) were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ˜ 2150 m on the footwall and ˜ 3100 m on the hanging wall). Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( > ˜ 50 % at distances guidelines). In the absence of such a very detailed study (basic SM, i.e. Level 1 SM of Italian guidelines) a width of ˜ 840 m (90 % probability from "simple thrust" database of distributed ruptures, excluding B-M, F-S and Sy fault ruptures) is suggested to be sufficiently precautionary. For more detailed SM, where the fault is carefully mapped, one must consider that the highest SFRH is concentrated in a narrow zone, ˜ 60 m in width, that should be considered as a fault avoidance zone (more than one-third of the distributed ruptures are expected to occur within this zone). The fault rupture hazard zones should be asymmetric compared to the trace

  10. Is lithostatic loading important for the slip behavior and evolution of normal faults in the Earth's crust?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Pollard, David D.

    1999-01-01

    Normal faults growing in the Earth's crust are subject to the effects of an increasing frictional resistance to slip caused by the increasing lithostatic load with depth. We use three-dimensional (3-D) boundary element method numerical models to evaluate these effects on planar normal faults with variable elliptical tip line shapes in an elastic solid. As a result of increasing friction with depth, normal fault slip maxima for a single slip event are skewed away from the fault center toward the upper fault tip. There is a correspondingly greater propagation tendency at the upper tip. However, the tall faults that would result from such a propagation tendency are generally not observed in nature. We show how mechanical interaction between laterally stepping fault segments significantly competes with the lithostatic loading effect in the evolution of a normal fault system, promoting lateral propagation and possibly segment linkage. Resultant composite faults are wider than they are tall, resembling both 3-D seismic data interpretations and previously documented characteristics of normal fault systems. However, this effect may be greatly complemented by the influence of a heterogeneous stratigraphy, which can control fault nucleation depth and inhibit fault propagation across the mechanical layering. Our models demonstrate that although lithostatic loading may be an important control on fault evolution in relatively homogeneous rocks, the contribution of lithologic influences and mechanical interaction between closely spaced, laterally stepping faults may predominate in determining the slip behavior and propagation tendency of normal faults in the Earth's crust. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union

  11. The Evergreen basin and the role of the Silver Creek fault in the San Andreas fault system, San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Graymer, Russell W.; Williams, Robert; Ponce, David A.; Mankinen, Edward A.; Stephenson, William J.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The Evergreen basin is a 40-km-long, 8-km-wide Cenozoic sedimentary basin that lies mostly concealed beneath the northeastern margin of the Santa Clara Valley near the south end of San Francisco Bay (California, USA). The basin is bounded on the northeast by the strike-slip Hayward fault and an approximately parallel subsurface fault that is structurally overlain by a set of west-verging reverse-oblique faults which form the present-day southeastward extension of the Hayward fault. It is bounded on the southwest by the Silver Creek fault, a largely dormant or abandoned fault that splays from the active southern Calaveras fault. We propose that the Evergreen basin formed as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in the right step from the Silver Creek fault to the Hayward fault during a time when the Silver Creek fault served as a segment of the main route by which slip was transferred from the central California San Andreas fault to the Hayward and other East Bay faults. The dimensions and shape of the Evergreen basin, together with palinspastic reconstructions of geologic and geophysical features surrounding it, suggest that during its lifetime, the Silver Creek fault transferred a significant portion of the ∼100 km of total offset accommodated by the Hayward fault, and of the 175 km of total San Andreas system offset thought to have been accommodated by the entire East Bay fault system. As shown previously, at ca. 1.5–2.5 Ma the Hayward-Calaveras connection changed from a right-step, releasing regime to a left-step, restraining regime, with the consequent effective abandonment of the Silver Creek fault. This reorganization was, perhaps, preceded by development of the previously proposed basin-bisecting Mount Misery fault, a fault that directly linked the southern end of the Hayward fault with the southern Calaveras fault during extinction of pull-apart activity. Historic seismicity indicates that slip below a depth of 5 km is mostly transferred from the Calaveras

  12. Design Optimization of Time- and Cost-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to the design optimization of fault-tolerant embedded systems for safety-critical applications. Processes are statically scheduled and communications are performed using the time-triggered protocol. We use process re-execution and replication for tolerating...... transient faults. Our design optimization approach decides the mapping of processes to processors and the assignment of fault-tolerant policies to processes such that transient faults are tolerated and the timing constraints of the application are satisfied. We present several heuristics which are able...

  13. Late Quaternary paleoseismicity and seismic potential of the Yilan-Yitong Fault Zone in NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongyuan; Yin, Na; Shu, Peng; Li, Jincheng; Wei, Qinghai; Min, Wei; Zhang, Peizhen

    2018-01-01

    The Yilan-Yitong Fault Zone (YYFZ), which is composed of two nearly parallel branches with a spacing of 5-30 km and a length of ∼1100 km, is considered to be the key branch of the Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (TLFZ) in NE China. It was traditionally believed that the YYFZ experienced weak activity or was inactive during the Late Quaternary, without the capability to generate strong earthquakes (M ≥ 7), based on the absence of typical outcrops and large historical or instrumental earthquakes (M > 6). However, our paleoseismic study shows that the YYFZ is the primary seismotectonic structure (M ≥ 7) that poses significant earthquake threats to NE China. The synthesis of data collected from geologic investigations, geomorphic mapping, trench logging and the dating of samples indicates that the YYFZ is an active structure that has undergone segmented strong tectonic deformation since the Late Quaternary with a characteristic assemblage of landforms, including linear scarps and troughs, offset or deflected streams, linear sag ponds, small horsts and grabens. The latest ruptures of the YYFZ migrated from previous boundary faults into the basin interior, forming a left-stepping en echelon pattern in plain view, and the kinematics of these events in the Late Quaternary were dominated by reverse dextral slipping. Multi-segment cluster faulting might have occurred during three cluster periods, i.e., ∼34750-35812 a BP, ∼21700-22640 a BP, and ∼4000 a BP-present, which implies that the recurrence interval of large earthquakes along the YYFZ may be as long as tens of thousands of years.

  14. Deploying correct fault loop in distance protection of multiple-circuit shared tower transmission lines with different voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2018-01-01

    Combined faults occurring between different voltage levels in overhead lines present a challenge for distance protection. Previous work has shown that such faults most often appears as single phase to ground (SPTG) faults in a normal type of overhead line. However, it is not obvious that distance...... relays will identify and select the correct fault loop according to being similar to SPTG, as all six fault loops get excited when combined faults occur. This paper presents a study where two distance relays of different manufactures are tested using transient replay and secondary test equipment...

  15. Continental deformation accommodated by non-rigid passive bookshelf faulting: An example from the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An

    2016-05-01

    Collision-induced continental deformation commonly involves complex interactions between strike-slip faulting and off-fault deformation, yet this relationship has rarely been quantified. In northern Tibet, Cenozoic deformation is expressed by the development of the > 1000-km-long east-striking left-slip Kunlun, Qinling, and Haiyuan faults. Each have a maximum slip in the central fault segment exceeding 10s to ~ 100 km but a much smaller slip magnitude (~bookshelf-fault model for the Cenozoic tectonic development of northern Tibet. Our model, quantitatively relating discrete left-slip faulting to distributed off-fault deformation during regional clockwise rotation, explains several puzzling features, including the: (1) clockwise rotation of east-striking left-slip faults against the northeast-striking left-slip Altyn Tagh fault along the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, (2) alternating fault-parallel extension and shortening in the off-fault regions, and (3) eastward-tapering map-view geometries of the Qimen Tagh, Qaidam, and Qilian Shan thrust belts that link with the three major left-slip faults in northern Tibet. We refer to this specific non-rigid bookshelf-fault system as a passive bookshelf-fault system because the rotating bookshelf panels are detached from the rigid bounding domains. As a consequence, the wallrock of the strike-slip faults deforms to accommodate both the clockwise rotation of the left-slip faults and off-fault strain that arises at the fault ends. An important implication of our model is that the style and magnitude of Cenozoic deformation in northern Tibet vary considerably in the east-west direction. Thus, any single north-south cross section and its kinematic reconstruction through the region do not properly quantify the complex deformational processes of plateau formation.

  16. Optimal Design of Rectification Circuit in Electronic Circuit Fault Self-repair Based on EHW and RBT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junbin; CAI Jinyan; MENG Yafeng

    2018-01-01

    Reliability of traditional electronic circuit is improved mainly by redundant fault-tolerant technol-ogy with large hardware resource consumption and limited fault self-repair capability. In complicated environment, electronic circuit faults appear easily. If on-site immedi-ate repair is not implemented, normal running of elec-tronic system will be directly affected. In order to solve these problems, Evolvable hardware (EHW) technology is widely used. The conventional EHW has some bottlenecks. The optimal design of Rectification circuit (RTC) is fur-ther researched on the basis of the previously proposed fault self-repair based on EHW and Reparation balance technology (RBT). Fault sets are selected by fault danger degree and fault coverage rate. The optimal designed RTC can completely repair faults in the fault set. Simulation re-sults prove that it has higher self-repair capability and less hardware resource.

  17. The continuation of the Kazerun fault system across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Homayon

    2009-08-01

    The Kazerun (or Kazerun-Qatar) fault system is a north-trending dextral strike-slip fault zone in the Zagros mountain belt of Iran. It probably originated as a structure in the Panafrican basement. This fault system played an important role in the sedimentation and deformation of the Phanerozoic cover sequence and is still seismically active. No previous studies have reported the continuation of this important and ancient fault system northward across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. The Isfahan fault system is a north-trending dextral strike-slip fault across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone that passes west of Isfahan city and is here recognized for the first time. This important fault system is about 220 km long and is seismically active in the basement as well as the sedimentary cover sequence. This fault system terminates to the south near the Main Zagros Thrust and to the north at the southern boundary of the Urumieh-Dokhtar zone. The Isfahan fault system is the boundary between the northern and southern parts of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, which have fundamentally different stratigraphy, petrology, geomorphology, and geodynamic histories. Similarities in the orientations, kinematics, and geologic histories of the Isfahan and Kazerun faults and the way they affect the magnetic basement suggest that they are related. In fact, the Isfahan fault is a continuation of the Kazerun fault across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone that has been offset by about 50 km of dextral strike-slip displacement along the Main Zagros Thrust.

  18. Fault diagnostics of dynamic system operation using a fault tree based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurdle, E.E.; Bartlett, L.M.; Andrews, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    For conventional systems, their availability can be considerably improved by reducing the time taken to restore the system to the working state when faults occur. Fault identification can be a significant proportion of the time taken in the repair process. Having diagnosed the problem the restoration of the system back to its fully functioning condition can then take place. This paper expands the capability of previous approaches to fault detection and identification using fault trees for application to dynamically changing systems. The technique has two phases. The first phase is modelling and preparation carried out offline. This gathers information on the effects that sub-system failure will have on the system performance. Causes of the sub-system failures are developed in the form of fault trees. The second phase is application. Sensors are installed on the system to provide information about current system performance from which the potential causes can be deduced. A simple system example is used to demonstrate the features of the method. To illustrate the potential for the method to deal with additional system complexity and redundancy, a section from an aircraft fuel system is used. A discussion of the results is provided.

  19. Slip Potential of Faults in the Fort Worth Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, P.; Osmond, J.; Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Similar to other areas of the southcentral United States, the Fort Worth Basin of NE Texas has experienced an increase in the rate of seismicity which has been attributed to injection of waste water in deep saline aquifers. To assess the hazard of induced seismicity in the basin we have integrated new data on location and character of previously known and unknown faults, stress state, and pore pressure to produce an assessment of fault slip potential which can be used to investigate prior and ongoing earthquake sequences and for development of mitigation strategies. We have assembled data on faults in the basin from published sources, 2D and 3D seismic data, and interpretations provided from petroleum operators to yield a 3D fault model with 292 faults ranging in strike-length from 116 to 0.4 km. The faults have mostly normal geometries, all cut the disposal intervals, and most are presumed to cut into the underlying crystalline and metamorphic basement. Analysis of outcrops along the SW flank of the basin assist with geometric characterization of the fault systems. The interpretation of stress state comes from integration of wellbore image and sonic data, reservoir stimulation data, and earthquake focal mechanisms. The orientation of SHmax is generally uniform across the basin but stress style changes from being more strike-slip in the NE part of the basin to normal faulting in the SW part. Estimates of pore pressure come from a basin-scale hydrogeologic model as history-matched to injection test data. With these deterministic inputs and appropriate ranges of uncertainty we assess the conditional probability that faults in our 3D model might slip via Mohr-Coulomb reactivation in response to increases in injected-related pore pressure. A key component of the analysis is constraining the uncertainties associated with each of the principal parameters. Many of the faults in the model are interpreted to be critically-stressed within reasonable ranges of uncertainty.

  20. Faults in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel; Thomas, Gaël; Saha, Suman

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Chou et al. published a study of faults found by applying a static analyzer to Linux versions 1.0 through 2.4.1. A major result of their work was that the drivers directory contained up to 7 times more of certain kinds of faults than other directories. This result inspired a number...... of development and research efforts on improving the reliability of driver code. Today Linux is used in a much wider range of environments, provides a much wider range of services, and has adopted a new development and release model. What has been the impact of these changes on code quality? Are drivers still...... a major problem? To answer these questions, we have transported the experiments of Chou et al. to Linux versions 2.6.0 to 2.6.33, released between late 2003 and early 2010. We find that Linux has more than doubled in size during this period, but that the number of faults per line of code has been...

  1. Criteria for Seismic Splay Fault Activation During Subduction Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedontney, N.; Templeton, E.; Bhat, H.; Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    material, so we build on previous work by incorporating the effect of strength contrasts between the basal and splay faults. The relative weakness of the basal fault is often attributed to high pore pressures, which lowers the effective normal stress and brings the basal fault closer to failure. We vary the initial stress state, while maintaining a constant principal stress orientation, to see how the closeness to failure affects the branching behavior for a variety of branch step-up angles.

  2. Seismogenic faulting in the Meruoca granite, NE Brazil, consistent with a local weak fracture zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CATARINA A. MOURA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of earthquakes occurred in 2008 in the Meruoca granitic pluton, located in the northwestern part of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. A seismological study defined the seismic activity occurring along the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault, a 081° striking, 8 km deep structure. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between this seismic activity and geological structures in the Meruoca granite. We carried out geological mapping in the epicentral area, analyzed the mineralogy of fault rocks, and compared the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault with geological data. We concluded that the seismically-defined fault coincides with ∼E–W-striking faults observed at outcrop scale and a swarm of Mesozoic basalt dikes. We propose that seismicity reactivated brittle structures in the Meruoca granite. Our study highlights the importance of geological mapping and mineralogical analysis in order to establish the relationships between geological structures and seismicity at a given area.

  3. Seismogenic faulting in the Meruoca granite, NE Brazil, consistent with a local weak fracture zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Ana Catarina A; De Oliveira, Paulo H S; Ferreira, Joaquim M; Bezerra, Francisco H R; Fuck, Reinhardt A; Do Nascimento, Aderson F

    2014-12-01

    A sequence of earthquakes occurred in 2008 in the Meruoca granitic pluton, located in the northwestern part of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil. A seismological study defined the seismic activity occurring along the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault, a 081° striking, 8 km deep structure. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between this seismic activity and geological structures in the Meruoca granite. We carried out geological mapping in the epicentral area, analyzed the mineralogy of fault rocks, and compared the seismically-defined Riacho Fundo fault with geological data. We concluded that the seismically-defined fault coincides with ∼E-W-striking faults observed at outcrop scale and a swarm of Mesozoic basalt dikes. We propose that seismicity reactivated brittle structures in the Meruoca granite. Our study highlights the importance of geological mapping and mineralogical analysis in order to establish the relationships between geological structures and seismicity at a given area.

  4. Fault condition recognition of rolling bearing in bridge crane based on PSO–KPCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When the rolling bearing in bridge crane gets out of order and often accompanies with occurrence of nonlinear behaviours, its fault information is weak and it is difficult to extract fault features and to distinguish diverse failure modes. Kernel principal component analysis (KPCA may realize nonlinear mapping to solve nonlinear problems. In the paper the particle swarm optimization (PSO)is applied to optimization of kernel function parameter to reduce its bind set-up. The optimal mathematical model of kernel parameters is constructed by means of thought of fisher discriminate functions .And then it is used to bridge crane rolling bearing simulated faults recognition. The simulation results show that KPCA optimized by PSO can effectively classify fault conditions of rolling bearing. It can be concluded that non-linear mapping capability of KPCA after its function parameter by PSO is greatly improved and the KPCA-PSO is very suit for slight and incipient mechanical fault condition recognition.

  5. Study on reliability analysis based on multilevel flow models and fault tree method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Yang Ming

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel flow models (MFM) and fault tree method describe the system knowledge in different forms, so the two methods express an equivalent logic of the system reliability under the same boundary conditions and assumptions. Based on this and combined with the characteristics of MFM, a method mapping MFM to fault tree was put forward, thus providing a way to establish fault tree rapidly and realizing qualitative reliability analysis based on MFM. Taking the safety injection system of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant as an example, its MFM was established and its reliability was analyzed qualitatively. The analysis result shows that the logic of mapping MFM to fault tree is correct. The MFM is easily understood, created and modified. Compared with the traditional fault tree analysis, the workload is greatly reduced and the modeling time is saved. (authors)

  6. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  7. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  8. Large earthquakes and creeping faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ruth A.

    2017-01-01

    Faults are ubiquitous throughout the Earth's crust. The majority are silent for decades to centuries, until they suddenly rupture and produce earthquakes. With a focus on shallow continental active-tectonic regions, this paper reviews a subset of faults that have a different behavior. These unusual faults slowly creep for long periods of time and produce many small earthquakes. The presence of fault creep and the related microseismicity helps illuminate faults that might not otherwise be located in fine detail, but there is also the question of how creeping faults contribute to seismic hazard. It appears that well-recorded creeping fault earthquakes of up to magnitude 6.6 that have occurred in shallow continental regions produce similar fault-surface rupture areas and similar peak ground shaking as their locked fault counterparts of the same earthquake magnitude. The behavior of much larger earthquakes on shallow creeping continental faults is less well known, because there is a dearth of comprehensive observations. Computational simulations provide an opportunity to fill the gaps in our understanding, particularly of the dynamic processes that occur during large earthquake rupture and arrest.

  9. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  10. Interseismic Strain Accumulation of the Gazikoy-Saros segment (Ganos fault) of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havazli, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.

    2017-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is one of the most active continental transform faults in the world. A westward migrating earthquake sequence has started in 1939 in Erzincan and the last two events of this sequence occurred in 1999 in Izmit and Duzce manifesting the importance of NAFZ on the seismic hazard potential of the region. NAFZ exhibits slip rates ranging from 14-30 mm/yr along its 1500 km length with a right lateral strike slip characteristic. In the East of the Marmara Sea, the NAFZ splits into two branches. The Gazikoy-Saros segment (Ganos Fault) is the westernmost and onshore segment of the northern branch. The ENE-WSW oriented Ganos Fault is seismically active. It produced a Ms 7.2 earthquake in 1912, which was followed by several large aftershocks, including Ms 6.3 and Ms 6.9 events. Since 1912, the Ganos Fault did not produce any significant earthquakes (> M 5), in contrast to its adjacent segments, which produced 20 M>5 earthquakes, including a M 6.7 event, offshore in Gulf of Saros. Interseismic strain accumulation along the Ganos Fault was assessed from sparse GPS measurements along a single transect located perpendicular to the fault zone, suggesting strain accumulation rate of 20-25 mm/yr. Insofar, InSAR studies, based on C-band data, didn't produce conclusive results due to low coherence over the fault zone area, which is highly vegetated. In this study, we present a detailed interseismic velocity map of the Ganos Fault zone derived from L-band InSAR observations. We use 21 ALOS PALSAR scenes acquired over a 5-year period, from 2007 to 2011. We processed the ALOS data using the PySAR software, which is the University of Miami version of the Small Baseline (SB) method. The L-band observations enabled us to overcome the coherence issue in the study area. Our initial results indicate a maximum velocity of 15 mm/yr across the fault zone. The high spatial resolution of the InSAR-based interseismic velocity map will enable us to better to

  11. Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reheis, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs

  12. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  13. Plate rotations, fault slip rates, fault locking, and distributed deformation in northern Central America from 1999-2017 GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A. P.; DeMets, C.; Briole, P.; Cosenza, B.; Flores, O.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Hernandez, D.; Kostoglodov, V.; La Femina, P. C.; Lord, N. E.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; McCaffrey, R.; Molina, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Staller, A.; Rogers, R.

    2017-12-01

    We describe plate rotations, fault slip rates, and fault locking estimated from a new 100-station GPS velocity field at the western end of the Caribbean plate, where the Motagua-Polochic fault zone, Middle America trench, and Central America volcanic arc faults converge. In northern Central America, fifty-one upper-plate earthquakes caused approximately 40,000 fatalities since 1900. The proximity of main population centers to these destructive earthquakes and the resulting loss of human life provide strong motivation for studying the present-day tectonics of Central America. Plate rotations, fault slip rates, and deformation are quantified via a two-stage inversion of daily GPS position time series using TDEFNODE modeling software. In the first stage, transient deformation associated with three M>7 earthquakes in 2009 and 2012 is estimated and removed from the GPS position time series. In Stage 2, linear velocities determined from the corrected GPS time series are inverted to estimate deformation within the western Caribbean plate, slip rates along the Motagua-Polochic faults and faults in the Central America volcanic arc, and the gradient of extension in the Honduras-Guatemala wedge. Major outcomes of the second inversion include the following: (1) Confirmation that slip rates on the Motagua fault decrease from 17-18 mm/yr at its eastern end to 0-5 mm/yr at its western end, in accord with previous results. (2) A transition from moderate subduction zone locking offshore from southern Mexico and parts of southern Guatemala to weak or zero coupling offshore from El Salvador and parts of Nicaragua along the Middle America trench. (3) Evidence for significant east-west extension in southern Guatemala between the Motagua fault and volcanic arc. Our study also shows evidence for creep on the eastern Motagua fault that diminishes westward along the North America-Caribbean plate boundary.

  14. Which Fault Segments Ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and Which Did Not? New Evidence from Near‐Fault 3D Surface Displacements Derived from SAR Image Offsets

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Guangcai; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Klinger, Yann

    2017-01-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured a complex thrust‐faulting system at the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau and west of Sichuan basin. Though the earthquake has been extensively studied, several details about the earthquake, such as which fault segments were activated in the earthquake, are still not clear. This is in part due to difficult field access to the fault zone and in part due to limited near‐fault observations in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations because of decorrelation. In this study, we address this problem by estimating SAR image offsets that provide near‐fault ground displacement information and exhibit clear displacement discontinuities across activated fault segments. We begin by reanalyzing the coseismic InSAR observations of the earthquake and then mostly eliminate the strong ionospheric signals that were plaguing previous studies by using additional postevent images. We also estimate the SAR image offsets and use their results to retrieve the full 3D coseismic surface displacement field. The coseismic deformation from the InSAR and image‐offset measurements are compared with both Global Positioning System and field observations. The results indicate that our observations provide significantly better information than previous InSAR studies that were affected by ionospheric disturbances. We use the results to present details of the surface‐faulting offsets along the Beichuan fault from the southwest to the northeast and find that there is an obvious right‐lateral strike‐slip component (as well as thrust faulting) along the southern Beichuan fault (in Yingxiu County), which was strongly underestimated in earlier studies. Based on the results, we provide new evidence to show that the Qingchuan fault was not ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a topic debated in field observation studies, but show instead that surface faulting occurred on a northward extension of the Beichuan fault during

  15. Which Fault Segments Ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake and Which Did Not? New Evidence from Near‐Fault 3D Surface Displacements Derived from SAR Image Offsets

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Guangcai

    2017-03-15

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured a complex thrust‐faulting system at the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau and west of Sichuan basin. Though the earthquake has been extensively studied, several details about the earthquake, such as which fault segments were activated in the earthquake, are still not clear. This is in part due to difficult field access to the fault zone and in part due to limited near‐fault observations in Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations because of decorrelation. In this study, we address this problem by estimating SAR image offsets that provide near‐fault ground displacement information and exhibit clear displacement discontinuities across activated fault segments. We begin by reanalyzing the coseismic InSAR observations of the earthquake and then mostly eliminate the strong ionospheric signals that were plaguing previous studies by using additional postevent images. We also estimate the SAR image offsets and use their results to retrieve the full 3D coseismic surface displacement field. The coseismic deformation from the InSAR and image‐offset measurements are compared with both Global Positioning System and field observations. The results indicate that our observations provide significantly better information than previous InSAR studies that were affected by ionospheric disturbances. We use the results to present details of the surface‐faulting offsets along the Beichuan fault from the southwest to the northeast and find that there is an obvious right‐lateral strike‐slip component (as well as thrust faulting) along the southern Beichuan fault (in Yingxiu County), which was strongly underestimated in earlier studies. Based on the results, we provide new evidence to show that the Qingchuan fault was not ruptured in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, a topic debated in field observation studies, but show instead that surface faulting occurred on a northward extension of the Beichuan fault during

  16. Real-time fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhiwei; Ding, Steven X.; Cecati, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This "Special Section on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control" of the IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics is motivated to provide a forum for academic and industrial communities to report recent theoretic/application results in real-time monitoring, diagnosis, and fault-tolerant design, and exchange the ideas about the emerging research direction in this field. Twenty-three papers were eventually selected through a strict peer-reviewed procedure, which represent the mo...

  17. Revised seismic hazard map for the Kyrgyz Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kevin; Ullah, Shahid; Parolai, Stefano; Walker, Richard; Pittore, Massimiliano; Free, Matthew; Fourniadis, Yannis; Villiani, Manuela; Sousa, Luis; Ormukov, Cholponbek; Moldobekov, Bolot; Takeuchi, Ko

    2017-04-01

    As part of a seismic risk study sponsored by the World Bank, a revised seismic hazard map for the Kyrgyz Republic has been produced, using the OpenQuake-engine developed by the Global Earthquake Model Foundation (GEM). In this project, an earthquake catalogue spanning a period from 250 BCE to 2014 was compiled and processed through spatial and temporal declustering tools. The territory of the Kyrgyz Republic was divided into 31 area sources defined based on local seismicity, including a total area covering 200 km from the border. The results are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). In addition, macroseismic intensity estimates, making use of recent intensity prediction equations, were also provided, given that this measure is still widely used in Central Asia. In order to accommodate the associated epistemic uncertainty, three ground motion prediction equations were used in a logic tree structure. A set of representative earthquake scenarios were further identified based on historical data and the nature of the considered faults. The resulting hazard map, as expected, follows the country's seismicity, with the highest levels of hazard in the northeast, south and southwest of the country, with an elevated part around the centre. When considering PGA, the hazard is slightly greater for major urban centres than in previous works (e.g., Abdrakhmatov et al., 2003), although the macroseismic intensity estimates are less than previous studies, e.g., Ulomov (1999). For the scenario assessments, the examples that most affect the urban centres assessed are the Issyk Ata fault (in particular for Bishkek), the Chilik and Kemin faults (in particular Balykchy and Karakol), the Ferghana Valley fault system (in particular Osh, Jalah-Abad and Uzgen), the Oinik Djar fault (Naryn) and the central and western Talas-Ferghanafaukt (Talas). Finally, while site effects (in particular, those dependent on the upper-most geological structure) have an obvious effect on the

  18. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan

    2017-05-31

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  19. Imaging of Subsurface Faults using Refraction Migration with Fault Flooding

    KAUST Repository

    Metwally, Ahmed Mohsen Hassan; Hanafy, Sherif; Guo, Bowen; Kosmicki, Maximillian Sunflower

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel method for imaging shallow faults by migration of transmitted refraction arrivals. The assumption is that there is a significant velocity contrast across the fault boundary that is underlain by a refracting interface. This procedure, denoted as refraction migration with fault flooding, largely overcomes the difficulty in imaging shallow faults with seismic surveys. Numerical results successfully validate this method on three synthetic examples and two field-data sets. The first field-data set is next to the Gulf of Aqaba and the second example is from a seismic profile recorded in Arizona. The faults detected by refraction migration in the Gulf of Aqaba data were in agreement with those indicated in a P-velocity tomogram. However, a new fault is detected at the end of the migration image that is not clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram. This result is similar to that for the Arizona data where the refraction image showed faults consistent with those seen in the P-velocity tomogram, except it also detected an antithetic fault at the end of the line. This fault cannot be clearly seen in the traveltime tomogram due to the limited ray coverage.

  20. Ray-map migration of transmitted surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-08-25

    Near-surface normal faults can sometimes separate two distinct zones of velocity heterogeneity, where the medium on one side of the fault has a faster velocity than on the other side. Therefore, the slope of surface-wave arrivals in a common-shot gather should abruptly change near the surface projection of the fault. We present ray-map imaging method that migrates transmitted surface waves to the fault plane, and therefore it roughly estimates the orientation, depth, and location of the near-surface fault. The main benefits of this method are that it is computationally inexpensive and robust in the presence of noise.

  1. Automated fault extraction and classification using 3-D seismic data for the Ekofisk field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Signer, C.; Nickel, M.; Randen, T.; Saeter, T.; Soenneland, H.H.

    1998-12-31

    Mapping of fractures is important for the prediction of fluid flow in many reservoir types. The fluid flow depends mainly on the efficiency of the reservoir seals. Improved spatial mapping of the open and closed fracture systems will allow a better prediction of the fluid flow pattern. The primary objectives of this paper is to present fracture characterization at the reservoir scale combined with seismic facies mapping. The complexity of the giant Ekofisk field on the Norwegian continental shelf provides an ideal framework for testing the validity and the applicability of an automated seismic fault and fracture detection and mapping tool. The mapping of the faults can be based on seismic attribute grids, which means that attribute-responses related to faults are extracted along key horizons which were interpreted in the reservoir interval. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Active fault research in India: achievements and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithila Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the progress made towards active fault research in India. An 8 m high scarp running for more than 80 km in the Rann of Kachchh is the classical example of the surface deformation caused by the great earthquake (1819 Kachchh earthquake. Integration of geological/geomorphic and seismological data has led to the identification of 67 active faults of regional scale, 15 in the Himalaya, 17 in the adjoining foredeep with as many as 30 neotectonic faults in the stable Peninsular India. Large-scale trenching programmes coupled with radiometric dates have begun to constraint the recurrence period of earthquakes; of the order of 500–1000 years for great earthquakes in the Himalaya and 10,000 years for earthquakes of >M6 in the Peninsular India. The global positioning system (GPS data in the stand alone manner have provided the fault parameters and length of rupture for the 2004 Andaman Sumatra earthquakes. Ground penetration radar (GPR and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR techniques have enabled detection of large numbers of new active faults and their geometries. Utilization of modern technologies form the central feature of the major programme launched by the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India to prepare geographic information system (GIS based active fault maps for the country.

  3. Improving Security for SCADA Sensor Networks with Reputation Systems and Self-Organizing Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Blesa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The reliable operation of modern infrastructures depends on computerized systems and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA systems, which are also based on the data obtained from sensor networks. The inherent limitations of the sensor devices make them extremely vulnerable to cyberwarfare/cyberterrorism attacks. In this paper, we propose a reputation system enhanced with distributed agents, based on unsupervised learning algorithms (self-organizing maps, in order to achieve fault tolerance and enhanced resistance to previously unknown attacks. This approach has been extensively simulated and compared with previous proposals.

  4. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferjan Ormeling

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  5. Summary and conclusions of the faults-in-clay project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallam, J.R.; Brightman, M.A.; Jackson, P.D.; Sen, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises a research project carried out by the British Geological Survey, in cooperation with ISMES of Italy, into the geophysical detection of faults in clay formations and the determination of the hydrogeological effects of such faults on the groundwater flow regime. Following evaluation of potential research sites, an extensive programme of investigations was conducted at Down Ampney, Gloucester, where the Oxford Clay formation is underlain by the aquifers of the Great Oolite Limestone group. A previously unknown fault of 50 m throw was identified and delineated by electrical resistivity profiling; the subsequent development of a technique utilising measurements of total resistance improved the resolution of the fault 'location' to an accuracy of better than one metre. Marked anisotropy of the clay resistivities complicates conventional geophysical interpretation, but gives rise to a characteristic anomaly across the steeply inclined strata in the fault zone. After exploratory core drilling, an array of 13 boreholes was designed and completed for cross-hole seismic tomography and hydrogeological measurement and testing. The groundwater heads in the clays were found to be in disequilibrium with those in the aquifers, as a result of water supply abstraction. The indication is that the hydraulic conductivity of the fault zone is higher than that of the surrounding clay by between one and two orders of magnitude. Methodologies for the general investigation of faults in clay are discussed. (Author)

  6. What is Fault Tolerant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Frei, C. W.; Kraus, K.

    2000-01-01

    Faults in automated processes will often cause undesired reactions and shut-down of a controlled plant, and the consequences could be damage to the plant, to personnel or the environment. Fault-tolerant control is the synonym for a set of recent techniques that were developed to increase plant...... availability and reduce the risk of safety hazards. Its aim is to prevent that simple faults develop into serious failure. Fault-tolerant control merges several disciplines to achieve this goal, including on-line fault diagnosis, automatic condition assessment and calculation of remedial actions when a fault...... is detected. The envelope of the possible remedial actions is wide. This paper introduces tools to analyze and explore structure and other fundamental properties of an automated system such that any redundancy in the process can be fully utilized to enhance safety and a availability....

  7. Geometric-kinematic characteristics of the main faults in the W-SW of the Lut Block (SE Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi Boshrabadi, Ahmad; Khatib, Mohamad Mahdi; Raeesi, Mohamad; Mousavi, Seyed Morteza; Djamour, Yahya

    2018-03-01

    The area to the W-SW of the Lut Block in Iran has experienced numerous historical and recent destructive earthquakes. We examined a number of faults in this area that have high potential for generating destructive earthquakes. In this study a number of faults are introduced and named for the first time. These new faults are Takdar, Dehno, Suru, Hojat Abad, North Faryab, North Kahnoj, Heydarabad, Khatun Abad and South Faryab. For a group of previously known faults, their mechanism and geological offsets are investigated for the first time. This group of faults include East Nayband, West Nayband, Sardueiyeh, Dalfard, Khordum, South Jabal-e-Barez, and North Jabal-e-Barez. The N-S fault systems of Sabzevaran, Gowk, and Nayband induce slip on the E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE fault systems. The faulting patterns appear to preserve different stages of fault development. We investigated the distribution of active faults and the role that they play in accommodating tectonic strain in the SW-Lut. In the study area, the fault systems with en-echelon arrangement create structures such as restraining and releasing stepover, fault bend and pullapart basin. The main mechanism for fault growth in the region seems to be 'segment linkage of preexisting weaknesses' and also for a limited area through 'process zone'. Estimations are made for the likely magnitudes of separate or combined failure of the fault segments. Such magnitudes are used in hazard analysis of the region.

  8. Groundwater penetrating radar and high resolution seismic for locating shallow faults in unconsolidated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Faults in shallow, unconsolidated sediments, particularly in coastal plain settings, are very difficult to discern during subsurface exploration yet have critical impact to groundwater flow, contaminant transport and geotechnical evaluations. This paper presents a case study using cross-over geophysical technologies in an area where shallow faulting is probable and known contamination exists. A comparison is made between Wenner and dipole-dipole resistivity data, ground penetrating radar, and high resolution seismic data. Data from these methods were verified with a cone penetrometer investigation for subsurface lithology and compared to existing monitoring well data. Interpretations from these techniques are compared with actual and theoretical shallow faulting found in the literature. The results of this study suggests that (1) the CPT study, combined with the monitoring well data may suggest that discontinuities in correlatable zones may indicate that faulting is present (2) the addition of the Wenner and dipole-dipole data may further suggest that offset zones exist in the shallow subsurface but not allow specific fault planes or fault stranding to be mapped (3) the high resolution seismic data will image faults to within a few feet of the surface but does not have the resolution to identify the faulting on the scale of our models, however it will suggest locations for upward continuation of faulted zones (4) offset 100 MHz and 200 MHz CMP GPR will image zones and features that may be fault planes and strands similar to our models (5) 300 MHz GPR will image higher resolution features that may suggest the presence of deeper faults and strands, and (6) the combination of all of the tools in this study, particularly the GPR and seismic may allow for the mapping of small scale, shallow faulting in unconsolidated sediments

  9. Interseismic strain accumulation and the earthquake potential on the southern San Andreas fault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, Yuri

    2006-06-22

    The San Andreas fault in California is a mature continental transform fault that accommodates a significant fraction of motion between the North American and Pacific plates. The two most recent great earthquakes on this fault ruptured its northern and central sections in 1906 and 1857, respectively. The southern section of the fault, however, has not produced a great earthquake in historic times (for at least 250 years). Assuming the average slip rate of a few centimetres per year, typical of the rest of the San Andreas fault, the minimum amount of slip deficit accrued on the southern section is of the order of 7-10 metres, comparable to the maximum co-seismic offset ever documented on the fault. Here I present high-resolution measurements of interseismic deformation across the southern San Andreas fault system using a well-populated catalogue of space-borne synthetic aperture radar data. The data reveal a nearly equal partitioning of deformation between the southern San Andreas and San Jacinto faults, with a pronounced asymmetry in strain accumulation with respect to the geologically mapped fault traces. The observed strain rates confirm that the southern section of the San Andreas fault may be approaching the end of the interseismic phase of the earthquake cycle.

  10. Research on Fault Diagnosis for Pumping Station Based on T-S Fuzzy Fault Tree and Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Bi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of fault diagnosis for pumping station, such as the complex structure, multiple mappings, and numerous uncertainties, a new approach combining T-S fuzzy gate fault tree and Bayesian network (BN is proposed. On the one hand, traditional fault tree method needs the logical relationship between events and probability value of events and can only represent the events with two states. T-S fuzzy gate fault tree method can solve these disadvantages but still has weaknesses in complex reasoning and only one-way reasoning. On the other hand, the BN is suitable for fault diagnosis of pumping station because of its powerful ability to deal with uncertain information. However, it is difficult to determine the structure and conditional probability tables of the BN. Therefore, the proposed method integrates the advantages of the two methods. Finally, the feasibility of the method is verified through a fault diagnosis model of the rotor in the pumping unit, the accuracy of the method is verified by comparing with the methods based on traditional Bayesian network and BP neural network, respectively, when the historical data is sufficient, and the results are more superior to the above two when the historical data is insufficient.

  11. Earthquakes and faults in southern California (1970-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.; Walter, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The map depicts both active and inactive faults and earthquakes magnitude 1.5 to 7.3 in southern California (1970–2010). The bathymetry was generated from digital files from the California Department of Fish And Game, Marine Region, Coastal Bathymetry Project. Elevation data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Database. Landsat satellite image is from fourteen Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper scenes collected between 2009 and 2010. Fault data are reproduced with permission from 2006 California Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey data. The earthquake data are from the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center.

  12. Advanced cloud fault tolerance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumangali, K.; Benny, Niketa

    2017-11-01

    Cloud computing has become a prevalent on-demand service on the internet to store, manage and process data. A pitfall that accompanies cloud computing is the failures that can be encountered in the cloud. To overcome these failures, we require a fault tolerance mechanism to abstract faults from users. We have proposed a fault tolerant architecture, which is a combination of proactive and reactive fault tolerance. This architecture essentially increases the reliability and the availability of the cloud. In the future, we would like to compare evaluations of our proposed architecture with existing architectures and further improve it.

  13. Deep rock damage in the San Andreas Fault revealed by P- and S-type fault-zone-guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L.; Malin, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Damage to fault-zone rocks during fault slip results in the formation of a channel of low seismic-wave velocities. Within such channels guided seismic waves, denoted by Fg, can propagate. Here we show with core samples, well logs and Fg-waves that such a channel is crossed by the SAFOD (San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth) borehole at a depth of 2.7 km near Parkfield, California, USA. This laterally extensive channel extends downwards to at least half way through the seismogenic crust, more than about 7 km. The channel supports not only the previously recognized Love-type- (FL) and Rayleigh-type- (FR) guided waves, but also a new fault-guided wave, which we name FF. As recorded 2.7 km underground, FF is normally dispersed, ends in an Airy phase, and arrives between the P- and S-waves. Modelling shows that FF travels as a leaky mode within the core of the fault zone. Combined with the drill core samples, well logs and the two other types of guided waves, FF at SAFOD reveals a zone of profound, deep, rock damage. Originating from damage accumulated over the recent history of fault movement, we suggest it is maintained either by fracturing near the slip surface of earthquakes, such as the 1857 Fort Tejon M 7.9, or is an unexplained part of the fault-creep process known to be active at this site.

  14. Fault distribution in the Precambrian basement of South Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Nystuen, Johan Petter; Olesen, Odleiv

    2018-03-01

    Mapping of the structural pattern by remote sensing methods (Landsat, SPOT, aerial photography, potential field data) and field study of selected structural elements shows that the cratonic basement of South Norway is strongly affected by a regular lineament pattern that encompasses fault swarms of different orientation, age, style, attitude and frequency. Albeit counting numerous fault and fracture populations, the faults are not evenly distributed and N-S to NNE-SSW/NNW-SSE and NE-SE/ENE-WSW-systems are spatially dominant. N-S to NNW-SSE structures can be traced underneath the Caledonian nappes to the Western Gneiss Region in western and central South Norway, emphasizing their ancient roots. Dyke swarms of different ages are found within most of these zones. Also, the Østfold, Oslo-Trondheim and the Mandal-Molde lineament zones coincide with trends of Sveconorwegian post-collision granites. We conclude that the N-S-trend includes the most ancient structural elements, and that the trend can be traced back to the Proterozoic (Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian) orogenic events. Some of the faults may have been active in Neoproterozoic times as marginal faults of rift basins at the western margin of Baltica. Remnants of such fault activity have survived in the cores of many of the faults belonging to this system. The ancient systems of lineaments were passively overridden by the Caledonian fold-and-thrust system and remained mostly, but note entirely inactive throughout the Sub-Cambrian peneplanation and the Caledonian orogenic collapse in the Silurian-Devonian. The system was reactivated in extension from Carboniferous times, particularly in the Permian with the formation of the Oslo Rift and parts of it remain active to the Present, albeit by decreasing extension and fault activity.

  15. Final Technical Report: PV Fault Detection Tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Christian Birk [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The PV Fault Detection Tool project plans to demonstrate that the FDT can (a) detect catastrophic and degradation faults and (b) identify the type of fault. This will be accomplished by collecting fault signatures using different instruments and integrating this information to establish a logical controller for detecting, diagnosing and classifying each fault.

  16. High stresses stored in fault zones: example of the Nojima fault (Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Boullier

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade pulverized rocks have been described on outcrops along large active faults and attributed to damage related to a propagating seismic rupture front. Questions remain concerning the maximal lateral distance from the fault plane and maximal depth for dynamic damage to be imprinted in rocks. In order to document these questions, a representative core sample of granodiorite located 51.3 m from the Nojima fault (Japan that was drilled after the Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe earthquake is studied by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD and high-resolution X-ray Laue microdiffraction. Although located outside of the Nojima damage fault zone and macroscopically undeformed, the sample shows pervasive microfractures and local fragmentation. These features are attributed to the first stage of seismic activity along the Nojima fault characterized by laumontite as the main sealing mineral. EBSD mapping was used in order to characterize the crystallographic orientation and deformation microstructures in the sample, and X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure elastic strain and residual stresses on each point of the mapped quartz grain. Both methods give consistent results on the crystallographic orientation and show small and short wavelength misorientations associated with laumontite-sealed microfractures and alignments of tiny fluid inclusions. Deformation microstructures in quartz are symptomatic of the semi-brittle faulting regime, in which low-temperature brittle plastic deformation and stress-driven dissolution-deposition processes occur conjointly. This deformation occurred at a 3.7–11.1 km depth interval as indicated by the laumontite stability domain. Residual stresses are calculated from deviatoric elastic strain tensor measured using X-ray Laue microdiffraction using the Hooke's law. The modal value of the von Mises stress distribution is at 100 MPa and the mean at 141 MPa. Such stress values are comparable to

  17. High stresses stored in fault zones: example of the Nojima fault (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullier, Anne-Marie; Robach, Odile; Ildefonse, Benoît; Barou, Fabrice; Mainprice, David; Ohtani, Tomoyuki; Fujimoto, Koichiro

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade pulverized rocks have been described on outcrops along large active faults and attributed to damage related to a propagating seismic rupture front. Questions remain concerning the maximal lateral distance from the fault plane and maximal depth for dynamic damage to be imprinted in rocks. In order to document these questions, a representative core sample of granodiorite located 51.3 m from the Nojima fault (Japan) that was drilled after the Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake is studied by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and high-resolution X-ray Laue microdiffraction. Although located outside of the Nojima damage fault zone and macroscopically undeformed, the sample shows pervasive microfractures and local fragmentation. These features are attributed to the first stage of seismic activity along the Nojima fault characterized by laumontite as the main sealing mineral. EBSD mapping was used in order to characterize the crystallographic orientation and deformation microstructures in the sample, and X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure elastic strain and residual stresses on each point of the mapped quartz grain. Both methods give consistent results on the crystallographic orientation and show small and short wavelength misorientations associated with laumontite-sealed microfractures and alignments of tiny fluid inclusions. Deformation microstructures in quartz are symptomatic of the semi-brittle faulting regime, in which low-temperature brittle plastic deformation and stress-driven dissolution-deposition processes occur conjointly. This deformation occurred at a 3.7-11.1 km depth interval as indicated by the laumontite stability domain. Residual stresses are calculated from deviatoric elastic strain tensor measured using X-ray Laue microdiffraction using the Hooke's law. The modal value of the von Mises stress distribution is at 100 MPa and the mean at 141 MPa. Such stress values are comparable to the peak strength of a

  18. Fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  19. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L [Centre of Technology and Systems Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Nova University of Lisbon Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Suarez, P; Alvarez, A, E-mail: jmmp@fct.unl.p [' Benito Mahedero' Group of Electrical Applications of Superconductors Escuela de IngenierIas Industrials, University of Extremadura Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  20. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L; Suarez, P; Alvarez, A

    2010-01-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  1. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettis, William [William Lettis & Associates, Inc.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  3. Fault Localization for Synchrophasor Data using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN, R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU data, a nonlinear method is proposed for fault location in complex power systems. Resorting to the scaling factor, the derivative for a polynomial kernel is obtained. Then, the contribution of each variable to the T2 statistic is derived to determine whether a bus is the fault component. Compared to the previous Principal Component Analysis (PCA based methods, the novel version can combat the characteristic of strong nonlinearity, and provide the precise identification of fault location. Computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the improved performance in recognizing the fault component and evaluating its propagation across the system based on the proposed method.

  4. Deeper penetration of large earthquakes on seismically quiescent faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junle; Lapusta, Nadia

    2016-06-10

    Why many major strike-slip faults known to have had large earthquakes are silent in the interseismic period is a long-standing enigma. One would expect small earthquakes to occur at least at the bottom of the seismogenic zone, where deeper aseismic deformation concentrates loading. We suggest that the absence of such concentrated microseismicity indicates deep rupture past the seismogenic zone in previous large earthquakes. We support this conclusion with numerical simulations of fault behavior and observations of recent major events. Our modeling implies that the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in Southern California penetrated below the seismogenic zone by at least 3 to 5 kilometers. Our findings suggest that such deeper ruptures may occur on other major fault segments, potentially increasing the associated seismic hazard. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Miocene Tectonics at the Pannonian - Carpathian Transition: The Bogdan Voda - Dragos Voda fault system, northern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, M.; Gröger, H.; Marin, M.; Schmid, S. M.; Fügenschuh, B.

    2003-04-01

    Tertiary tectonics in the Pannonian-Carpathian transition zone was dominated by opposed rotations of Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia, separated by the Mid-Hungarian lineament (MHL). While in the Pannonian basin the MHL is well known from geophysical and borehole data, its northeastern continuation remains a matter of discussion. Our field based study, located in the Maramures mountains of northern Romania, provides new kinematic data from the Bogdan Voda fault, a first order candidate for the prolongation of the MHL to the northeast. In the Burdigalian, the Pienides (unmetamorphic flysch nappes) were emplaced onto the autochthonous Paleogene flysch units. Kinematic data consistently indicate top to the SE-directed thrusting of the Pienides and selected imbrications in the autochthonous units. Between Langhian and Tortonian these thrust contacts were offset by the E-W trending Bogdan Voda fault and its eastern continuation, the Dragos-Voda fault. These two faults share a common polyphase history, at least since the Burdigalian. Kinematic data derived from mesoscale faults indicate sinistral strike-slip displacement, in good agreement with kinematics inferred from map view. The NE-SW trending Greben fault, another fault of regional importance, was coevally active as a normal fault. From stratigraphic arguments major activity of this fault system is constrained to the time interval between 16.4-10 Ma. While deformation is strongly concentrated in the sedimentary units, the easterly located basement units are affected by abundant minor faults of similar kinematics covering a wide area. These SW-NE trending strike slip faults feature a normal component and resemble an imbricate fan geometry. Since Burdigalian thrusting is consistently SE-directed on either side of the Bogdan-Dragos Voda fault, major post-Burdigalian differential rotations can be excluded for the northern and southern block respectively. Hydrothermal veins within Pannonian volcanic units are aligned along the

  6. Integrating Near Fault Observatories (NFO) for EPOS Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2015-04-01

    Following the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) project vision aimed at creating a pan-European infrastructure for Earth sciences to support science for a more sustainable society, we are working on the integration of Near-Fault Observatories (NFOs). NFOs are state of the art research infrastructures consisting of advanced networks of multi-parametric sensors continuously monitoring the chemical and physical processes related to the common underlying earth instabilities governing active faults evolution and the genesis of earthquakes. Such a methodological approach, currently applicable only at the local scale (areas of tens to few hundreds of kilometres), is based on extremely dense networks and less common instruments deserving an extraordinary work on data quality control and multi-parameter data description. These networks in fact usually complement regional seismic and geodetic networks (typically with station spacing of 50-100km) with high-density distributions of seismic, geodetic, geochemical and geophysical sensors located typically within 10-20 km of active faults where large earthquakes are expected in the future. In the initial phase of EPOS-IP, seven NFO nodes will be linked: the Alto Tiberina and Irpinia Observatories in Italy, the Corinth Observatory in Greece, the South-Iceland Seismic Zone, the Valais Observatory in Switzerland, Marmara Sea GEO Supersite in Turkey (EU MARSite) and the Vrancea Observatory in Romania. Our work is aimed at establishing standards and integration within this first core group of NFOs while other NFOs are expected to be installed in the next years adopting the standards established and developed within the EPOS Thematic Core Services (TCS). The goal of our group is to build upon the initial development supported by these few key national observatories coordinated under previous EU projects (NERA and REAKT), inclusive and harmonised TCS supporting the installation over the next decade of tens of near-fault

  7. Deformed Fluvial Terraces of Little Rock Creek Capture Off-Fault Strain Adjacent to the Mojave Section of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, A.; Scharer, K. M.; Cowgill, E.

    2017-12-01

    Examining discrepancies between geodetic and geomorphic slip-rates along major strike-slip faults is essential for understanding both fault behavior and seismic hazard. Recent work on major strike-slip faults has highlighted off-fault deformation and its potential impact on fault slip rates. However, the extent of off-fault deformation along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) remains largely uncharacterized. Along the Mojave section of the SAF, Little Rock Creek drains from south to north across the fault and has cut into alluvial terraces abandoned between 15 and 30 ka1. The surfaces offer a rare opportunity to both characterize how right-lateral slip has accumulated along the SAF over hundreds of seismic cycles, and investigate potential off-fault deformation along secondary structures, where strain accumulates at slower rates. Here we use both field observations and DEM analysis of B4 lidar data to map alluvial and tectonic features, including 9 terrace treads that stand up to 80 m above the modern channel. We interpret the abandonment and preservation of the fluvial terraces to result from episodic capture of Little Rock Creek through gaps in a shutter ridge north of the fault, followed by progressive right deflection of the river course during dextral slip along the SAF. Piercing lines defined by fluvial terrace risers suggest that the amount of right slip since riser formation ranges from 400m for the 15-ka-riser to 1200m for the 30-ka-riser. Where they are best-preserved NE of the SAF, terraces are also cut by NE-facing scarps that trend parallel to the SAF in a zone extending up to 2km from the main fault. Exposures indicate these are fault scarps, with both reverse and normal stratigraphic separation. Geomorphic mapping reveals deflections of both channel and terrace risers (up to 20m) along some of those faults suggesting they could have accommodated a component of right-lateral slip. We estimated the maximum total amount of strike-slip motion recorded by the

  8. Analysis of large fault trees based on functional decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contini, Sergio; Matuzas, Vaidas

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of the Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD) approach in fault tree analysis, a significant enhancement has been achieved with respect to previous approaches, both in terms of efficiency and accuracy of the overall outcome of the analysis. However, the exponential increase of the number of nodes with the complexity of the fault tree may prevent the construction of the BDD. In these cases, the only way to complete the analysis is to reduce the complexity of the BDD by applying the truncation technique, which nevertheless implies the problem of estimating the truncation error or upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability. This paper describes a new method to analyze large coherent fault trees which can be advantageously applied when the working memory is not sufficient to construct the BDD. It is based on the decomposition of the fault tree into simpler disjoint fault trees containing a lower number of variables. The analysis of each simple fault tree is performed by using all the computational resources. The results from the analysis of all simpler fault trees are re-combined to obtain the results for the original fault tree. Two decomposition methods are herewith described: the first aims at determining the minimal cut sets (MCS) and the upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability; the second can be applied to determine the exact value of the top-event unavailability. Potentialities, limitations and possible variations of these methods will be discussed with reference to the results of their application to some complex fault trees.

  9. Analysis of large fault trees based on functional decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contini, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.contini@jrc.i [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, 21020 Ispra (Italy); Matuzas, Vaidas [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen, 21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2011-03-15

    With the advent of the Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD) approach in fault tree analysis, a significant enhancement has been achieved with respect to previous approaches, both in terms of efficiency and accuracy of the overall outcome of the analysis. However, the exponential increase of the number of nodes with the complexity of the fault tree may prevent the construction of the BDD. In these cases, the only way to complete the analysis is to reduce the complexity of the BDD by applying the truncation technique, which nevertheless implies the problem of estimating the truncation error or upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability. This paper describes a new method to analyze large coherent fault trees which can be advantageously applied when the working memory is not sufficient to construct the BDD. It is based on the decomposition of the fault tree into simpler disjoint fault trees containing a lower number of variables. The analysis of each simple fault tree is performed by using all the computational resources. The results from the analysis of all simpler fault trees are re-combined to obtain the results for the original fault tree. Two decomposition methods are herewith described: the first aims at determining the minimal cut sets (MCS) and the upper and lower bounds of the top-event unavailability; the second can be applied to determine the exact value of the top-event unavailability. Potentialities, limitations and possible variations of these methods will be discussed with reference to the results of their application to some complex fault trees.

  10. Time-predictable model application in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of faults in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the probability distribution function relating to the recurrence interval and the occurrence time of the previous occurrence of a fault, a time-dependent model of a particular fault for seismic hazard assessment was developed that takes into account the active fault rupture cyclic characteristics during a particular lifetime up to the present time. The Gutenberg and Richter (1944 exponential frequency-magnitude relation uses to describe the earthquake recurrence rate for a regional source. It is a reference for developing a composite procedure modelled the occurrence rate for the large earthquake of a fault when the activity information is shortage. The time-dependent model was used to describe the fault characteristic behavior. The seismic hazards contribution from all sources, including both time-dependent and time-independent models, were then added together to obtain the annual total lifetime hazard curves. The effects of time-dependent and time-independent models of fault [e.g., Brownian passage time (BPT and Poisson, respectively] in hazard calculations are also discussed. The proposed fault model result shows that the seismic demands of near fault areas are lower than the current hazard estimation where the time-dependent model was used on those faults, particularly, the elapsed time since the last event of the faults (such as the Chelungpu fault are short.

  11. Characterization of Quaternary and suspected Quaternary faults, regional studies, Nevada and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bucknam, R.C.; Crone, A.J.; Haller, K.M.; Machette, M.N.; Personius, S.F.; Barnhard, T.P.; Cecil, M.J.; Dart, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents the results of geologic studies that help define the Quaternary history of selected faults in the region around Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These results are relevant to the seismic-design basis of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The relevancy is based, in part, on a need for additional geologic data that became apparent in ongoing studies that resulted in the identification of 51 relevant and potentially relevant individual and compound faults and fault zones in the 100-km-radius region around the Yucca Mountain site. Geologic data used to characterize the regional faults and fault zones as relevant or potentially relevant seismic sources includes age and displacement information, maximum fault lengths, and minimum distances between the fault and the Yucca Mountain site. For many of the regional faults, no paleoseismic field studies have previously been conducted, and age and displacement data are sparse to nonexistent. In November 1994, the Branch of Earthquake and Landslide Hazards entered into two Memoranda of Agreement with the Yucca Mountain Project Branch to conduct field reconnaissance, analysis, and interpretation of six relevant and six potentially relevant regional faults. This report describes the results of study of those faults exclusive of those in the Pahrump-Stewart Valley-Ash Meadows-Amargosa Valley areas. We also include results of a cursory study of faults on the west flank of the Specter Range and in the northern part of the Last Chance Range. A four-phase strategy was implemented for the field study.

  12. Faulted terrace risers place new constraints on the late Quaternary slip rate for the central Altyn Tagh fault, northwest Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R.D.; Cowgill, E.; Arrowsmith, J.R.; Chen, X.; Sharp, W.D.; Cooper, K.M.; Wang, X.-F.

    2011-01-01

    The active, left-lateral Altyn Tagh fault defines the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China. To clarify late Quaternary temporal and spatial variations in slip rate along the central portion of this fault system (85??-90??E), we have more than doubled the number of dated offset markers along the central Altyn Tagh fault. In particular, we determined offset-age relations for seven left-laterally faulted terrace risers at three sites (Kelutelage, Yukuang, and Keke Qiapu) spanning a 140-km-long fault reach by integrating surficial geologic mapping, topographic surveys (total station and tripod-light detection and ranging [T-LiDAR]), and geochronology (radiocarbon dating of organic samples, 230Th/U dating of pedogenic carbonate coatings on buried clasts, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide exposure age dating applied to quartz-rich gravels). At Kelutelage, which is the westernmost site (37.72??N, 86.67??E), two faulted terrace risers are offset 58 ?? 3 m and 48 ?? 4 m, and formed at 6.2-6.1 ka and 5.9-3.7 ka, respectively. At the Yukuang site (38.00??N, 87.87??E), four faulted terrace risers are offset 92 ?? 12 m, 68 ?? 6 m, 55 ?? 13 m, and 59 ?? 9 m and formed at 24.2-9.5 ka, 6.4-5.0 ka, 5.1-3.9 ka, and 24.2-6.4 ka, respectively. At the easternmost site, Keke Qiapu (38.08??N, 88.12??E), a faulted terrace riser is offset 33 ?? 6 m and has an age of 17.1-2.2 ka. The displacement-age relationships derived from these markers can be satisfied by an approximately uniform slip rate of 8-12 mm/yr. However, additional analysis is required to test how much temporal variability in slip rate is permitted by this data set. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  13. The August 24th 2016 Accumoli earthquake: surface faulting and Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD in the Monte Vettore area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Aringoli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On August 24th 2016 a Mw=6.0 earthquake hit central Italy, with the epicenter located at the boundaries between Lazio, Marche, Abruzzi and Umbria regions, near the village of Accumoli (Rieti, Lazio. Immediately after the mainshock, this geological survey has been focused on the earthquake environmental effects related to the tectonic reactivation of the previously mapped active fault (i.e. primary, as well as secondary effects mostly related to the seismic shaking (e.g. landslides and fracturing in soil and rock.This paper brings data on superficial effects and some preliminary considerations about the interaction and possible relationship between surface faulting and the occurrence of Deep-Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD along the southern and western slope of Monte Vettore.

  14. Lithium-Ion Cell Fault Detection by Single-Point Impedance Diagnostic and Degradation Mechanism Validation for Series-Wired Batteries Cycled at 0 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey T. Love

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The utility of a single-point impedance-based technique to monitor the state-of-health of a pack of four 18650 lithium-ion cells wired in series (4S was demonstrated in a previous publication. This work broadens the applicability of the single-point monitoring technique to identify temperature induced faults within 4S packs at 0 °C by two distinct discharge cut-off thresholds: individual cell cut-off and pack voltage cut-off. The results show how the single-point technique applied to a 4S pack can identify cell faults induced by low temperature degradation when plotted on a unique state-of-health map. Cell degradation is validated through an extensive incremental capacity technique to quantify capacity loss due to low temperature cycling and investigate the underpinnings of cell failure.

  15. Earthquake Clustering on the Bear River Fault—Influence of Preexisting Structure on the Rupture Behavior of a New Normal Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, S.; Schwartz, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Bear River normal fault is located on the eastern margin of basin and range extension in the Rocky Mountains of Utah and Wyoming. Interpretation of paleoseismic data from three sites supports the conclusion of an earlier study (West, 1993) that the fault, which appears to have reactivated a thrust ramp in the Sevier orogenic belt, first ruptured to the surface in the late Holocene. Our observations provide evidence and additional age control for two previously identified large earthquakes ( 4500 and 3000 yr B.P.) and for a newly recognized earthquake that occurred c. 200-300 yr B.P. (after development of a topsoil above a deposit with a date of A.D. 1630 and before the beginning of the historical period in 1850). These earthquakes, which were likely high-stress-drop events, cumulatively produced about 6-8 m of net vertical displacement on a zone 40 km long and up to 5 km wide. The complexity and evolution of rupture at the south end of the fault, mapped in detail using airborne lidar imagery, is strongly influenced by interaction with the Uinta arch, an east-west-trending (orthogonal) basement-cored uplift. The relatively rapid flurry of strain release and high slip rate ( 2 mm/yr), which make the Bear River fault one of the most active in the Basin and Range, occurred in a region of low crustal extension (geodetic velocity of 7) that should be considered for seismic hazard analysis.

  16. Sedimentation of Jurassic fan-delta wedges in the Xiahuayuan basin reflecting thrust-fault movements of the western Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengfa; Liu, Shaofeng; Zhuang, Qitian; Steel, Ronald J.

    2018-06-01

    Mesozoic thrusting within the Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt of North China resulted in a series of fault-bounded intramontane basins whose infill and evolution remain poorly understood. In particular, the bounding faults and adjacent sediment accumulations along the western segments of the belt are almost unstudied. A sedimentological and provenance analysis of the Lower Jurassic Xiahuayuan Formation and the Upper Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation have been mapped to show two distinctive clastic wedges: an early Jurassic wedge representing a mass-flow-dominated, Gilbert-type fan delta with a classic tripartite architecture, and an late Jurassic shoal-water fan delta without steeply inclined strata. The basinward migration of the fan-delta wedges, together with the analysis of their conglomerate clast compositions, paleocurrent data and detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra, strongly suggest that the northern-bounding Xuanhuan thrust fault controlled their growth during accumulation of the Jiulongshan Formation. Previous studies have suggested that the fan-delta wedge of the Xiahuayuan Formation was also syntectonic, related to movement on the Xuanhua thrust fault. Two stages of thrusting therefore exerted an influence on the formation and evolution of the Xiahuayuan basin during the early-late Jurassic.

  17. Fault Management Design Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Development of dependable systems relies on the ability of the system to determine and respond to off-nominal system behavior. Specification and development of these fault management capabilities must be done in a structured and principled manner to improve our understanding of these systems, and to make significant gains in dependability (safety, reliability and availability). Prior work has described a fundamental taxonomy and theory of System Health Management (SHM), and of its operational subset, Fault Management (FM). This conceptual foundation provides a basis to develop framework to design and implement FM design strategies that protect mission objectives and account for system design limitations. Selection of an SHM strategy has implications for the functions required to perform the strategy, and it places constraints on the set of possible design solutions. The framework developed in this paper provides a rigorous and principled approach to classifying SHM strategies, as well as methods for determination and implementation of SHM strategies. An illustrative example is used to describe the application of the framework and the resulting benefits to system and FM design and dependability.

  18. Structural characteristics and implication on tectonic evolution of the Daerbute strike-slip fault in West Junggar area, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kongyou; Pei, Yangwen; Li, Tianran; Wang, Xulong; Liu, Yin; Liu, Bo; Ma, Chao; Hong, Mei

    2018-03-01

    migration and initiation of the splay faults (e.g., the Great Jurassic Trough fault and the 973-pluton fault). These results indicate that there were probably two periods of faulting deformation for the Daerbute fault. By integrating our study with previous studies, we speculate that the Daerbute fault experienced a two-phase strike-slip faulting deformation, commencing with the initial dextral strike-slip faulting in mid-late Permian, and then being inversed to sinistral strike-slip faulting since the Triassic. The results of this study can provide useful insights for the regional tectonics and local hydrocarbon exploration.

  19. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations along Dipping Faults, with a focus on the Wasatch Fault Zone, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, K.; Moschetti, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    We study dynamic rupture and ground motion from dip-slip faults in regions that have high-seismic hazard, such as the Wasatch fault zone, Utah. Previous numerical simulations have modeled deterministic ground motion along segments of this fault in the heavily populated regions near Salt Lake City but were restricted to low frequencies ( 1 Hz). We seek to better understand the rupture process and assess broadband ground motions and variability from the Wasatch Fault Zone by extending deterministic ground motion prediction to higher frequencies (up to 5 Hz). We perform simulations along a dipping normal fault (40 x 20 km along strike and width, respectively) with characteristics derived from geologic observations to generate a suite of ruptures > Mw 6.5. This approach utilizes dynamic simulations (fully physics-based models, where the initial stress drop and friction law are imposed) using a summation by parts (SBP) method. The simulations include rough-fault topography following a self-similar fractal distribution (over length scales from 100 m to the size of the fault) in addition to off-fault plasticity. Energy losses from heat and other mechanisms, modeled as anelastic attenuation, are also included, as well as free-surface topography, which can significantly affect ground motion patterns. We compare the effect of material structure and both rate and state and slip-weakening friction laws have on rupture propagation. The simulations show reduced slip and moment release in the near surface with the inclusion of plasticity, better agreeing with observations of shallow slip deficit. Long-wavelength fault geometry imparts a non-uniform stress distribution along both dip and strike, influencing the preferred rupture direction and hypocenter location, potentially important for seismic hazard estimation.

  20. The role of basement inheritance faults in the recent fracture system of the inner shelf around Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro-González, A.; Bárcenas, P.; Vázquez, J. T.; Díaz-Del-Río, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fractures associated with volcanic rock outcrops on the inner shelf of Alboran Island, Western Mediterranean, were mapped on the basis of a side-scan sonar mosaic. Absolute maximum fracture orientation frequency is NW SE to NNW SSE, with several sub-maxima oriented NNE SSW, NE SW and ENE WSW. The origin of the main fracture systems in Neogene and Quaternary rocks of the Alboran Basin (south Spain) appears to be controlled by older structures, namely NE SW and WNW ESE to NW SE faults which cross-cut the basement. These faults, pre-Tortonian in origin, have been reactivated since the early Neogene in the form of strike-slip and extensional movements linked to the recent stress field in this area. Fracture analysis of volcanic outcrops on the inner continental shelf of Alboran Island suggests that the shelf has been deformed into a narrow shear zone limited by two NE SW-trending, sub-parallel high-angle faults, the main orientation and density of which have been influenced by previous WNW ESE to NW SE basement fractures.

  1. Accelerometer having integral fault null

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-08-01

    An improved accelerometer is introduced. It comprises a transducer responsive to vibration in machinery which produces an electrical signal related to the magnitude and frequency of the vibration; and a decoding circuit responsive to the transducer signal which produces a first fault signal to produce a second fault signal in which ground shift effects are nullified.

  2. Fault-Tolerant Vision for Vehicle Guidance in Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus

    , and aiding sensors such as GPS provide means to detect and isolate single faults in the system. In addition, learning is employed to adapt the system to variational changes in the natural environment. 3D vision is enhanced by learning texture and color information. Intensity gradients on small neighborhoods...... dropout of 3D vision, faults in classification, or other defects, redundant information should be utilized. Such information can be used to diagnose faulty behavior and to temporarily continue operation with a reduced set of sensors when faults or artifacts occur. Additional sensors include GPS receivers...... and inertial sensors. To fully utilize the possibilities in 3D vision, the system must also be able to learn and adapt to changing environments. By learning features of the environment new diagnostic relations can be generated by creating redundant feed-forward information about crop location. Also, by mapping...

  3. Constraining the Distribution of Vertical Slip on the South Heli Shan Fault (Northeastern Tibet) From High-Resolution Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Haiyun; Zheng, Wenjun; Ge, Weipeng; Zhang, Peizhen; Zeng, Jiangyuan; Yu, Jingxing

    2018-03-01

    Reconstruction of the along-fault slip distribution provides an insight into the long-term rupture patterns of a fault, thereby enabling more accurate assessment of its future behavior. The increasing wealth of high-resolution topographic data, such as Light Detection and Ranging and photogrammetric digital elevation models, allows us to better constrain the slip distribution, thus greatly improving our understanding of fault behavior. The South Heli Shan Fault is a major active fault on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we built a 2 m resolution digital elevation model of the South Heli Shan Fault based on high-resolution GeoEye-1 stereo satellite imagery and then measured 302 vertical displacements along the fault, which increased the measurement density of previous field surveys by a factor of nearly 5. The cumulative displacements show an asymmetric distribution along the fault, comprising three major segments. An increasing trend from west to east indicates that the fault has likely propagated westward over its lifetime. The topographic relief of Heli Shan shows an asymmetry similar to the measured cumulative slip distribution, suggesting that the uplift of Heli Shan may result mainly from the long-term activity of the South Heli Shan Fault. Furthermore, the cumulative displacements divide into discrete clusters along the fault, indicating that the fault has ruptured in several large earthquakes. By constraining the slip-length distribution of each rupture, we found that the events do not support a characteristic recurrence model for the fault.

  4. Fault isolatability conditions for linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we shall show that an unlimited number of additive single faults can be isolated under mild conditions if a general isolation scheme is applied. Multiple faults are also covered. The approach is algebraic and is based on a set representation of faults, where all faults within a set...... the faults have occurred. The last step is a fault isolation (FI) of the faults occurring in a specific fault set, i.e. equivalent with the standard FI step. A simple example demonstrates how to turn the algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions into explicit algorithms for designing filter banks, which...

  5. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2005-01-01

    We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the nuclear reactor. The Upcheon fault zone is exposed close to the Ulzin nuclear reactor. The space-time pattern of fault activity on the Upcheon fault deduced from ESR dating of fault gouge can be summarised as follows : this fault zone was reactivated between fault breccia derived from Cretaceous sandstone and tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 2 Ma, 1.5 Ma and 1 Ma ago. After those movements, the Upcheon fault was reactivated between Cretaceous sandstone and fault breccia zone about 800 ka ago. This fault zone was reactivated again between fault breccia derived form Cretaceous sandstone and Tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 650 ka and after 125 ka ago. These data suggest that the long-term(200-500 k.y.) cyclic fault activity of the Upcheon fault zone continued into the Pleistocene. In the Ulzin area, ESR dates from the NW and EW trend faults range from 800 ka to 600 ka NE and EW trend faults were reactivated about between 200 ka and 300 ka ago. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 400 ka and 50 ka. Results of this research suggest the fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor fault activity continued into the Pleistocene. One ESR date near the Youngkwang nuclear reactor is 200 ka

  6. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    LBNL, in consultation with the EPA, expanded upon a previous study by injecting directly into a 3D representation of a hypothetical fault zone located in the geologic units between the shale-gas reservoir and the drinking water aquifer.

  7. Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs.

  8. Arc fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  9. Arc fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  10. Probabilistic assessment of faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foden, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is the process by which the probability (or frequency of occurrence) of reactor fault conditions which could lead to unacceptable consequences is assessed. The basic objective of a PSA is to allow a judgement to be made as to whether or not the principal probabilistic requirement is satisfied. It also gives insights into the reliability of the plant which can be used to identify possible improvements. This is explained in the article. The scope of a PSA and the PSA performed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC) for the Heysham II and Torness AGRs and Sizewell-B PWR are discussed. The NNC methods for hazards, common cause failure and operator error are mentioned. (UK)

  11. Surface faults in the gulf coastal plain between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.

    1979-01-01

    Displacement of the land surface by faulting is widespread in the Houston-Galveston region, an area which has undergone moderate to severe land subsidence associated with fluid withdrawal (principally water, and to a lesser extent, oil and gas). A causative link between subsidence and fluid extraction has been convincingly reported in the published literature. However, the degree to which fluid withdrawal affects fault movement in the Texas Gulf Coast, and the mechanism(s) by which this occurs are as yet unclear. Faults that offset the ground surface are not confined to the large (>6000-km2) subsidence “bowl” centered on Houston, but rather are common and characteristic features of Gulf Coast geology. Current observations and conclusions concerning surface faults mapped in a 35,000-km2 area between Victoria and Beaumont, Texas (which area includes the Houston subsidence bowl) may be summarized as follows: (1) Hundreds of faults cutting the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments exposed in the coastal plain have been mapped. Many faults lie well outside the Houston-Galveston region; of these, more than 10% are active, as shown by such features as displaced, fractured, and patched road surfaces, structural failure of buildings astride faults, and deformed railroad tracks. (2) Complex patterns of surface faults are common above salt domes. Both radial patterns (for example, in High Island, Blue Ridge, Clam Lake, and Clinton domes) and crestal grabens (for example, in the South Houston and Friendswood-Webster domes) have been recognized. Elongate grabens connecting several known and suspected salt domes, such as the fault zone connecting Mykawa, Friendswood-Webster, and Clear Lake domes, suggest fault development above rising salt ridges. (3) Surface faults associated with salt domes tend to be short (10 km), occur singly or in simple grabens, have gently sinuous traces, and tend to lie roughly parallel to the ENE-NE “coastwise” trend common to regional growth

  12. The Cottage Grove fault system (Illinois Basin): Late Paleozoic transpression along a Precambrian crustal boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchek, A.B.; McBride, J.H.; Nelson, W.J.; Leetaru, H.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois has long been interpreted as an intracratonic dextral strike-slip fault system. We investigated its structural geometry and kinematics in detail using (1) outcrop data, (2) extensive exposures in underground coal mines, (3) abundant borehole data, and (4) a network of industry seismic reflection profiles, including data reprocessed by us. Structural contour mapping delineates distinct monoclines, broad anticlines, and synclines that express Paleozoic-age deformation associated with strike slip along the fault system. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, prominent near-vertical faults that cut the entire Paleozoic section and basement-cover contact branch upward into outward-splaying, high-angle reverse faults. The master fault, sinuous along strike, is characterized along its length by an elongate anticline, ???3 km wide, that parallels the southern side of the master fault. These features signify that the overall kinematic regime was transpressional. Due to the absence of suitable piercing points, the amount of slip cannot be measured, but is constrained at less than 300 m near the ground surface. The Cottage Grove fault system apparently follows a Precambrian terrane boundary, as suggested by magnetic intensity data, the distribution of ultramafic igneous intrusions, and patterns of earthquake activity. The fault system was primarily active during the Alleghanian orogeny of Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time, when ultramatic igneous magma intruded along en echelon tensional fractures. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  13. Orogen-scale uplift in the central Italian Apennines drives episodic behaviour of earthquake faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, P A; Phillips, R J; Roberts, G P; McCaffrey, K; Zijerveld, L J J; Gregory, L C; Faure Walker, J; Wedmore, L N J; Dunai, T J; Binnie, S A; Freeman, S P H T; Wilcken, K; Shanks, R P; Huismans, R S; Papanikolaou, I; Michetti, A M; Wilkinson, M

    2017-03-21

    Many areas of the Earth's crust deform by distributed extensional faulting and complex fault interactions are often observed. Geodetic data generally indicate a simpler picture of continuum deformation over decades but relating this behaviour to earthquake occurrence over centuries, given numerous potentially active faults, remains a global problem in hazard assessment. We address this challenge for an array of seismogenic faults in the central Italian Apennines, where crustal extension and devastating earthquakes occur in response to regional surface uplift. We constrain fault slip-rates since ~18 ka using variations in cosmogenic 36 Cl measured on bedrock scarps, mapped using LiDAR and ground penetrating radar, and compare these rates to those inferred from geodesy. The 36 Cl data reveal that individual faults typically accumulate meters of displacement relatively rapidly over several thousand years, separated by similar length time intervals when slip-rates are much lower, and activity shifts between faults across strike. Our rates agree with continuum deformation rates when averaged over long spatial or temporal scales (10 4  yr; 10 2  km) but over shorter timescales most of the deformation may be accommodated by fault array. We attribute the shifts in activity to temporal variations in the mechanical work of faulting.

  14. Early (pre–8 Ma) fault activity and temporal strain accumulation in the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Bull, J.M.; Scrutton, R.A.

    -reflection profiles within the central Indian Ocean demonstrate that compressional activity started much earlier than previously thought, at around 15.4-13.9 Ma. From reconstructions of fault activity histories, it is shown that 12% of the total reverse fault...

  15. A fault tree analysis strategy using binary decision diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, Karen A.; Andrews, John D.

    2002-01-01

    The use of binary decision diagrams (BDDs) in fault tree analysis provides both an accurate and efficient means of analysing a system. There is a problem, however, with the conversion process of the fault tree to the BDD. The variable ordering scheme chosen for the construction of the BDD has a crucial effect on its resulting size and previous research has failed to identify any scheme that is capable of producing BDDs for all fault trees. This paper proposes an analysis strategy aimed at increasing the likelihood of obtaining a BDD for any given fault tree, by ensuring the associated calculations are as efficient as possible. The method implements simplification techniques, which are applied to the fault tree to obtain a set of 'minimal' subtrees, equivalent to the original fault tree structure. BDDs are constructed for each, using ordering schemes most suited to their particular characteristics. Quantitative analysis is performed simultaneously on the set of BDDs to obtain the top event probability, the system unconditional failure intensity and the criticality of the basic events

  16. Rapid Response Fault Drilling Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian M. Saffer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available New information about large earthquakes can be acquired by drilling into the fault zone quickly following a large seismic event. Specifically, we can learn about the levels of friction and strength of the fault which determine the dynamic rupture, monitor the healing process of the fault, record the stress changes that trigger aftershocks and capture important physical and chemical properties of the fault that control the rupture process. These scientific and associated technical issues were the focus of a three-day workshop on Rapid Response Fault Drilling: Past, Present, and Future, sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The meeting drewtogether forty-four scientists representing ten countries in Tokyo, Japan during November 2008. The group discussed the scientific problems and how they could be addressed through rapid response drilling. Focused talks presented previous work on drilling after large earthquakes and in fault zones in general, as well as the state of the art of experimental techniques and measurement strategies. Detailed discussion weighed the tradeoffs between rapid drilling andthe ability to satisfy a diverse range of scientific objectives. Plausible drilling sites and scenarios were evaluated. This is a shortened summary of the workshop report that discusses key scientific questions, measurement strategies, and recommendations. This report can provide a starting point for quickly mobilizing a drilling program following future large earthquakes. The full report can be seen at http://www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~rapid/.

  17. Fault tolerance of the NIF power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Anderson, R.; Boyes, J.

    1995-01-01

    The tolerance of the circuit topology proposed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) power conditioning system to specific fault conditions is investigated. A new pulsed power circuit is proposed for the NIF which is simpler and less expensive than previous ICF systems. The inherent fault modes of the new circuit are different from the conventional approach, and must be understood to ensure adequate NIF system reliability. A test-bed which simulates the NIF capacitor module design was constructed to study the circuit design. Measurements from test-bed experiments with induced faults are compared with results from a detailed circuit model. The model is validated by the measurements and used to predict the behavior of the actual NIF module during faults. The model can be used to optimize fault tolerance of the NIF module through an appropriate distribution of circuit inductance and resistance. The experimental and modeling results are presented, and fault performance is compared with the ratings of pulsed power components. Areas are identified which require additional investigation

  18. Holocene and latest Pleistocene oblique dextral faulting on the southern Inyo Mountains fault, Owens Lake basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, S.N.; Jayko, A.S.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Inyo Mountains fault (IMF) is a more or less continuous range-front fault system, with discontinuous late Quaternary activity, at the western base of the Inyo Mountains in Owens Valley, California. The southern section of the IMF trends ???N20??-40?? W for at least 12 km at the base of and within the range front near Keeler in Owens Lake basin. The southern IMF cuts across a relict early Pliocene alluvial fan complex, which has formed shutter ridges and northeast-facing scarps, and which has dextrally offset, well-developed drainages indicating long-term activity. Numerous fault scarps along the mapped trace are northeast-facing, mountain-side down, and developed in both bedrock and younger alluvium, indicating latest Quaternary activity. Latest Quaternary multiple- and single-event scarps that cut alluvium range in height from 0.5 to 3.0 m. The penultimate event on the southern IMF is bracketed between 13,310 and 10,590 cal years B.P., based on radiocarbon dates from faulted alluvium and fissure-fill stratigraphy exposed in a natural wash cut. Evidence of the most recent event is found at many sites along the mapped fault, and, in particular, is seen in an ???0.5-m northeast-facing scarp and several right-stepping en echelon ???0.5-m-deep depressions that pond fine sediment on a younger than 13,310 cal years B.P. alluvial fan. A channel that crosses transverse to this scarp is dextrally offset 2.3 ?? 0.8 m, providing a poorly constrained oblique slip rate of 0.1-0. 3 m/ k.y. The identified tectonic geomorphology and sense of displacement demonstrate that the southern IMF accommodates predominately dextral slip and should be integrated into kinematic fault models of strain distribution in Owens Valley.

  19. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik

    2000-03-01

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results

  20. Absolute age determination of quaternary faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Chang Sik; Lee, Seok Hoon; Choi, Man Sik [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-03-15

    To constrain the age of neotectonic fault movement, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, U-series disequilibrium, C-14 and Be-10 methods were applied to the fault gouges, fracture infillings and sediments from the Malbang, Ipsil, Wonwonsa faults faults in the Ulsan fault zone, Yangsan fault in the Yeongdeog area and southeastern coastal area. Rb-Sr and K-Ar data imply that the fault movement of the Ulan fault zone initiated at around 30 Ma and preliminary dating result for the Yang san fault is around 70 Ma in the Yeongdeog area. K-Ar and U-series disequilibrium dating results for fracture infillings in the Ipsil fault are consistent with reported ESR ages. Radiocarbon ages of quaternary sediments from the Jeongjari area are discordant with stratigraphic sequence. Carbon isotope data indicate a difference of sedimentry environment for those samples. Be-10 dating results for the Suryum fault area are consistent with reported OSL results.

  1. Geometry and Kinematics of the Lopukangri Fault System: Implications for Internal Deformation of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Taylor, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    We present geologic mapping and structural data from the Lopukangri fault system in south-central Tibet that sheds light on the geometry, kinematics and spatial characteristics of deformation in western Tibet and the western Himalaya. The Lopukangri fault system strikes N09E and extends 150 km from the Lhasa terrane into the Tethyan fold-thrust belt at 84.5° N. Geologic mapping shows that the deformation is accommodated by a northwest dipping oblique fault system, which accommodates both right-lateral and normal dip-slip movement, consistent with right-lateral separations of Quaternary surficial deposits. The fault system juxtaposes amphibolite-grade rocks in its footwall against greenschist-grade rocks in its hanging wall. Deformation is distributed over a 4 km wide zone that predominately records right-lateral normal slip in ductile and brittle shear fabrics. The fault system right-laterally separates the Gangdese batholith, Kailas conglomerate, Great Counter thrust, and the Tethyan fold-thrust belt for 15 km. Age estimates of the Kailas conglomerate in the Kailas region implies that the Lopukangri fault system initiated after the Early Miocene( 23Ma). The observation that the Lopukangri fault system cuts the Indus-Yaly suture zone, rules out active strike-slip faulting along it at this locality. To assess the role of the Lopukangri fault system in accommodating strain within western Tibet, we compare our results with fault-slip data and structural geometries from the Karakoram and Dangardzong (Thakkhola graben) fault systems. The Dangardzong fault shares similar kinematics with the Lopukangri fault system, both display a significant component of right-slip. Although the two faults do not strike into one another, they may be linked via a transfer zone. The Karakoram fault accommodates right-lateral slip in which a portion of the total slip extends from the Tibetan plateau into the Himalayan thrust belt via right-stepover structures. Fault slip data from the

  2. Subaru FATS (fault tracking system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegar, Tom W.; Noumaru, Junichi

    2000-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope requires a fault tracking system to record the problems and questions that staff experience during their work, and the solutions provided by technical experts to these problems and questions. The system records each fault and routes it to a pre-selected 'solution-provider' for each type of fault. The solution provider analyzes the fault and writes a solution that is routed back to the fault reporter and recorded in a 'knowledge-base' for future reference. The specifications of our fault tracking system were unique. (1) Dual language capacity -- Our staff speak both English and Japanese. Our contractors speak Japanese. (2) Heterogeneous computers -- Our computer workstations are a mixture of SPARCstations, Macintosh and Windows computers. (3) Integration with prime contractors -- Mitsubishi and Fujitsu are primary contractors in the construction of the telescope. In many cases, our 'experts' are our contractors. (4) Operator scheduling -- Our operators spend 50% of their work-month operating the telescope, the other 50% is spent working day shift at the base facility in Hilo, or day shift at the summit. We plan for 8 operators, with a frequent rotation. We need to keep all operators informed on the current status of all faults, no matter the operator's location.

  3. Geologic Map of the Thaumasia Region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Janes M.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Hare, Trent M.

    2001-01-01

    ). The medium-resolution Viking images used for mapping and base preparation also formed the basis of the 1:2,000,000 scale subquadrangle series. Earlier geologic maps of all or parts of the region include: (1) maps of the Phoenicis Lacus, Coprates, Thaumasia, and Argyre quadrangles at 1:5,000,000 scale based mainly on Mariner 9 images (respectively, Masursky and others, 1978; McCauley, 1978; McGill, 1978; and Hodges, 1980), (2) the global map of Mars at 1:25,000,000 (Scott and Carr, 1978) compiled largely from the 1:5,000,000 scale geologic maps, (3) maps showing lava flows in the Tharsis region at 1:2,000,000 scale compiled from Viking and Mariner 9 images (Scott, 1981; Scott and Tanaka, 1981a, b; Scott and others, 1981), (4) the map of the western equatorial region of Mars at 1:15,000,000 scale based on Viking images (Scott and Tanaka, 1986), and (5) the map of the Valles Marineris region at 1:2,000,000 scale compiled from Viking images (Witbeck and others, 1991). The previous maps have described the overall geology and geomorphology of the region but have not unraveled the detailed stratigraphy and complex evolution of this unique and geologically diverse martian province. The main purpose of this comprehensive mapping project is to reconstruct the stratigraphic, structural, and erosional histories of the Thaumasia region. The region is the last major province of the Tharsis region to undergo detailed structural mapping using Viking images; its history is essential to documenting the overall tectonic history of Tharsis. Other provinces of Tharsis that have been structurally mapped include Syria Planum (Tanaka and Davis, 1988), Tempe Terra and Ulysses Patera (Scott and Dohm, 1990b), and Alba Patera (Tanaka, 1990). Another primary mapping objective is to determine the region's volcanic history and assess the relations among fault systems and volcanoes (Wise and others, 1979; Scott and Tanaka, 1980; Whitford-Stark, 1982; Scott and Dohm, 1990a). A secondary mapping

  4. Directional filtering for linear feature enhancement in geophysical maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sykes, M.P.; Das, U.C.

    2000-01-01

    Geophysical maps of data acquired in ground and airborne surveys are extensively used for mineral, groundwater, and petroleum exploration. Lineaments in these maps are often indicative of contacts, basement faulting, and other tectonic features of interest. To aid the interpretation of these maps, a

  5. Dynamics of fault slip near the stability transition combining laboratory and numerical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele Veedu, D.; Giorgetti, C.; Scuderi, M. M.; Barbot, S.; Marone, C.; Collettini, C.

    2017-12-01

    Frictional stability controls the seismogenic potential of faults. Laboratory (1) and theoretical (2) studies document and predict the conditions under which fault slip is seismic or aseismic. However, the full gamut of fault slip behavior near the stable/unstable boundary is still poorly known. Here, we combine insight from laboratory and numerical experiments to identify the wide spectrum of frictional instabilities around that transition, including slow-slip events, period-multiplying events, and chaos. We present a synoptic picture of the dynamics of fault slip in a bifurcation diagram obtained from a series of laboratory and numerical experiments. We compare the laboratory observations with spring-slider and finite-fault numerical models. In the laboratory, we vary the stiffness of the system by modulating the stress field around the experimental fault. In the numerical experiments, we vary the characteristic weakening distance to explore a range of critical nucleation sizes. Contrarily to previously found (3), complex fault dynamics can be obtained with a rate-and-state constitutive law with a single state variable. While the dynamics of fault slip is complicated on large faults by the presence of morphological and rheological heterogeneities, the range of instabilities identified in the laboratory is reminiscent of the variety of slow and fast earthquakes found along subduction zones (4). The accord between laboratory data and theoretical models affords more realistic predictions of fault behavior at slow slip speeds. (1) Scuderi et al., (2016), (2) Ruina (1983), (3) Gu & Wong (1994), (4) Obara & Kato (2016)

  6. Architecture of thrust faults with alongstrike variations in fault-plane dip: anatomy of the Lusatian Fault, Bohemian Massif

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coubal, Miroslav; Adamovič, Jiří; Málek, Jiří; Prouza, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 3 (2014), s. 183-208 ISSN 1802-6222 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : fault architecture * fault plane geometry * drag structures * thrust fault * sandstone * Lusatian Fault Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2014

  7. Preliminary paleoseismic observations along the western Denali fault, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R. D.; Schwartz, D. P.; Rood, D. H.; Reger, R.; Wolken, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Denali fault in south-central Alaska, from Mt. McKinley to the Denali-Totschunda fault branch point, accommodates ~9-12 mm/yr of the right-lateral component of oblique convergence between the Pacific/Yakutat and North American plates. The eastern 226 km of this fault reach was part of the source of the 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake. West of the 2002 rupture there is evidence of two large earthquakes on the Denali fault during the past ~550-700 years but the paleoearthquake chronology prior to this time is largely unknown. To better constrain fault rupture parameters for the western Denali fault and contribute to improved seismic hazard assessment, we performed helicopter and ground reconnaissance along the southern flank of the Alaska Range between the Nenana Glacier and Pyramid Peak, a distance of ~35 km, and conducted a site-specific paleoseismic study. We present a Quaternary geologic strip map along the western Denali fault and our preliminary paleoseismic results, which include a differential-GPS survey of a displaced debris flow fan, cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages for boulders on this fan, and an interpretation of a trench across the main trace of the fault at the same site. Between the Nenana Glacier and Pyramid Peak, the Denali fault is characterized by prominent tectonic geomorphic features that include linear side-hill troughs, mole tracks, anastamosing composite scarps, and open left-stepping fissures. Measurements of offset rills and gullies indicate that slip during the most recent earthquake was between ~3 and 5 meters, similar to the average displacement in the 2002 earthquake. At our trench site, ~ 25 km east of the Parks Highway, a steep debris fan is displaced along a series of well-defined left-stepping linear fault traces. Multi-event displacements of debris-flow and snow-avalanche channels incised into the fan range from 8 to 43 m, the latter of which serves as a minimum cumulative fan offset estimate. The trench, excavated into

  8. Comparison of γ-ray intensity distribution around Hira fault with spatial pattern of major and/or sub fault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tatsuya; Mino, Kazuo; Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Katsura, Ikuo

    1999-01-01

    Major active faults generally consist of systems of a number of fractures with various dimensions, and contain a lot of ground water. Rn gas, moving with underground water, tends to accumulate along faults and emit γ-ray while it decays down to Pb through Bi. Therefore, it has been shown by a number of works that γ-ray intensity is generally high near the core of the major active fault and the γ-ray survey is one of the effective methods to look for the core of the major active fault. However, around the area near the tips of faults, a number of complicated sub-fault systems and the corresponding complicated geological structures are often seen and it has not been investigated well about what can be the relationship between the intensity distribution of γ-ray and the fault systems. In order to investigate the relationship in an area near the tips of major faults well, therefore, we carried out the γ-ray survey at about 1,100 sites in an area of about 2 km x 2 km that has the tips of the two major right lateral faults with significant thrusting components. We also investigated the lineaments by using the topographic map published in 1895 when artificial construction was seldom seen in the area and we can easily see the natural topography. In addition, we carried out the γ-ray survey in an area far from the fault tip to compare with the results in the area with the fault tips. Then: (1) we reconfirmed that in the case of the middle of the major active fault, γ-ray intensity is high in the limited area just adjacent to the core of the fault. (2) However, we found that in the case of the tip of the major active fault, high γ-ray intensity is seen in much wider area with clear lineaments that is inferred to be developed associated with the movement of the major faults. (author)

  9. Analysis and optimization of fault-tolerant embedded systems with hardened processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izosimov, Viacheslav; Polian, Ilia; Pop, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to the design optimization of fault-tolerant hard real-time embedded systems, which combines hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. We trade-off between selective hardening in hardware and process reexecution in software to provide the required levels...... of fault tolerance against transient faults with the lowest-possible system costs. We propose a system failure probability (SFP) analysis that connects the hardening level with the maximum number of reexecutions in software. We present design optimization heuristics, to select the fault......-tolerant architecture and decide process mapping such that the system cost is minimized, deadlines are satisfied, and the reliability requirements are fulfilled....

  10. Evaluation of the location and recency of faulting near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.

    2002-01-17

    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  11. Evaluation of the location and recency of faulting near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  12. Evaluation of the Location and Recency of Faulting Near Prospective Surface Facilities in Midway Valley, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Angell, M.M.; Thomas, A.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Gibson, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of surface faulting that may pose a hazard to prospective surface facilities is an important element of the tectonic studies for the potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository in southwestern Nevada. For this purpose, a program of detailed geologic mapping and trenching was done to obtain surface and near-surface geologic data that are essential for determining the location and recency of faults at a prospective surface-facilities site located east of Exile Hill in Midway Valley, near the eastern base of Yucca Mountain. The dominant tectonic features in the Midway Valley area are the north- to northeast-trending, west-dipping normal faults that bound the Midway Valley structural block-the Bow Ridge fault on the west side of Exile Hill and the Paint-brush Canyon fault on the east side of the valley. Trenching of Quaternary sediments has exposed evidence of displacements, which demonstrate that these block-bounding faults repeatedly ruptured the surface during the middle to late Quaternary. Geologic mapping, subsurface borehole and geophysical data, and the results of trenching activities indicate the presence of north- to northeast-trending faults and northwest-trending faults in Tertiary volcanic rocks beneath alluvial and colluvial sediments near the prospective surface-facilities site. North to northeast-trending faults include the Exile Hill fault along the eastern base of Exile Hill and faults to the east beneath the surficial deposits of Midway Valley. These faults have no geomorphic expression, but two north- to northeast-trending zones of fractures exposed in excavated profiles of middle to late Pleistocene deposits at the prospective surface-facilities site appear to be associated with these faults. Northwest-trending faults include the West Portal and East Portal faults, but no disruption of Quaternary deposits by these faults is evident. The western zone of fractures is associated with the Exile Hill fault. The eastern

  13. Associators in generalized octonionic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, C.J.; Joshi, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    Generalizing previous work, it is shown that structural transitions are a general property of a large class of octonionic maps. They can thus be used as an indicator of non-associativity in an octonionic map. 7 refs., ills

  14. Integration of InSAR and GIS in the Study of Surface Faults Caused by Subsidence-Creep-Fault Processes in Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Olivera, Jorge A.; Farina, Paolo; Garduño-Monroy, Victor H.

    2008-05-01

    In Celaya city, Subsidence-Creep-Fault Processes (SCFP) began to become visible at the beginning of the 1980s with the sprouting of the crackings that gave rise to the surface faults "Oriente" and "Poniente". At the present time, the city is being affected by five surface faults that display a preferential NNW-SSE direction, parallel to the regional faulting system "Taxco-San Miguel de Allende". In order to study the SCFP in the city, the first step was to obtain a map of surface faults, by integrating in a GIS field survey and an urban city plan. The following step was to create a map of the current phreatic level decline in city with the information of deep wells and using the "kriging" method in order to obtain a continuous surface. Finally the interferograms maps resulted of an InSAR analysis of 9 SAR images covering the time interval between July 12 of 2003 and May 27 of 2006 were integrated to a GIS. All the maps generated, show how the surface faults divide the city from North to South, in two zones that behave in a different way. The difference of the phreatic level decline between these two zones is 60 m; and the InSAR study revealed that the Western zone practically remains stable, while sinkings between the surface faults "Oriente" and "Universidad Pedagógica" are present, as well as in portions NE and SE of the city, all of these sinkings between 7 and 10 cm/year.

  15. Fault Features Extraction and Identification based Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, B; Sun, G D; Zhang L Y; Wang J G; HU, J

    2017-01-01

    For the fault classification model based on extreme learning machine (ELM), the diagnosis accuracy and stability of rolling bearing is greatly influenced by a critical parameter, which is the number of nodes in hidden layer of ELM. An adaptive adjustment strategy is proposed based on vibrational mode decomposition, permutation entropy, and nuclear kernel extreme learning machine to determine the tunable parameter. First, the vibration signals are measured and then decomposed into different fault feature models based on variation mode decomposition. Then, fault feature of each model is formed to a high dimensional feature vector set based on permutation entropy. Second, the ELM output function is expressed by the inner product of Gauss kernel function to adaptively determine the number of hidden layer nodes. Finally, the high dimension feature vector set is used as the input to establish the kernel ELM rolling bearing fault classification model, and the classification and identification of different fault states of rolling bearings are carried out. In comparison with the fault classification methods based on support vector machine and ELM, the experimental results show that the proposed method has higher classification accuracy and better generalization ability. (paper)

  16. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  17. A comparative study on the landslide susceptibility mapping using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from faults, lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), sediment transport index (STI), stream power ... economic losses and creating high maintenance costs, are ..... evidence method to landslide susceptibility map- ping using ...

  18. 20 CFR 410.561b - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 410.561b Section 410.561b Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.561b Fault. Fault as used in without fault (see § 410...

  19. Fault Detection for Diesel Engine Actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Bøgh, S.A.; Jørgensen, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur.......Feedback control systems are vulnerable to faults in control loop sensors and actuators, because feedback actions may cause abrupt responses and process damage when faults occur....

  20. 22 CFR 17.3 - Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fault. 17.3 Section 17.3 Foreign Relations...) § 17.3 Fault. A recipient of an overpayment is without fault if he or she performed no act of... agency may have been at fault in initiating an overpayment will not necessarily relieve the individual...

  1. Active fault diagnosis by temporary destabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis method for parametric or multiplicative faults is proposed. The method periodically adds a term to the controller that for a short period of time renders the system unstable if a fault has occurred, which facilitates rapid fault detection. An illustrative example is given....

  2. From fault classification to fault tolerance for multi-agent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Potiron, Katia; Taillibert, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Faults are a concern for Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) designers, especially if the MAS are built for industrial or military use because there must be some guarantee of dependability. Some fault classification exists for classical systems, and is used to define faults. When dependability is at stake, such fault classification may be used from the beginning of the system's conception to define fault classes and specify which types of faults are expected. Thus, one may want to use fault classification for MAS; however, From Fault Classification to Fault Tolerance for Multi-Agent Systems argues that

  3. Design of fault detectors using ℋ∞ optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of detecting and/or isolating faults in dynamical systems is assessed. In contrast to previous approaches, the residual vector is considered to be a design variable as a free transfer function in addition to the actual filter which is supposed to minimize the residual. Some main...... directions are suggested, and a numerical algorithm implementing part of these is proposed....

  4. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazlee Azil Illias

    Full Text Available It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN and particle swarm optimisation (PSO techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  5. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, Hazlee Azil; Chai, Xin Rui; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim; Mokhlis, Hazlie

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  6. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works. PMID:26103634

  7. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Wu, Wenling; Feng, Dengguo

    CLEFIA is a new 128-bit block cipher proposed by SONY corporation recently. The fundamental structure of CLEFIA is a generalized Feistel structure consisting of 4 data lines. In this paper, the strength of CLEFIA against the differential fault attack is explored. Our attack adopts the byte-oriented model of random faults. Through inducing randomly one byte fault in one round, four bytes of faults can be simultaneously obtained in the next round, which can efficiently reduce the total induce times in the attack. After attacking the last several rounds' encryptions, the original secret key can be recovered based on some analysis of the key schedule. The data complexity analysis and experiments show that only about 18 faulty ciphertexts are needed to recover the entire 128-bit secret key and about 54 faulty ciphertexts for 192/256-bit keys.

  8. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  9. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  10. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted margin, and its significance for understanding the Panvel flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Hrishikesh; Pundalik, Ashwin; D'souza, Joseph; Sheth, Hetu; Lobo, Keegan Carmo; D'souza, Kyle; Patel, Vanit

    2017-02-01

    The Panvel flexure is a 150-km long tectonic structure, comprising prominently seaward-dipping Deccan flood basalts, on the western Indian rifted margin. Given the active tectonic faulting beneath the Panvel flexure zone inferred from microseismicity, better structural understanding of the region is needed. The geology of Elephanta Island in the Mumbai harbour, famous for the ca. mid-6th century A.D. Hindu rock-cut caves in Deccan basalt (a UNESCO World Heritage site) is poorly known. We describe a previously unreported but well-exposed fault zone on Elephanta Island, consisting of two large faults dipping steeply east-southeast and producing easterly downthrows. Well-developed slickensides and structural measurements indicate oblique slip on both faults. The Elephanta Island fault zone may be the northern extension of the Alibag-Uran fault zone previously described. This and two other known regional faults (Nhava-Sheva and Belpada faults) indicate a progressively eastward step-faulted structure of the Panvel flexure, with the important result that the individual movements were not simply downdip but also oblique-slip and locally even rotational (as at Uran). An interesting problem is the normal faulting, block tectonics and rifting of this region of the crust for which seismological data indicate a normal thickness (up to 41.3 km). A model of asymmetric rifting by simple shear may explain this observation and the consistently landward dips of the rifted margin faults.

  11. Faulting in eastern New Mexico: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-08-01

    This area in eastern New Mexico is being studied because of its proximity to a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Regional and local tectonics must be thoroughly understood in order to be able to predict future tectonic activities in the site region. Hydrogeologic studies indicate that ground-water recharge, for regional deep and shallow aquifer systems, occurs primarily within the study area. Regional, easterly ground-water flow may be significantly affected by the spacing, orientation, and character of faults identified in this report. The tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is developed from information from 660 exploratory wells. A history of recurrent tectonic movements is evident, beginning possibly in the late Precambrian and extending into the late Cenozoic. The nature of the evidence includes the lateral and vertical distribution and the lithology of these deposits. The results are presented mainly as isopach and structure contour maps and as structural cross sections. The Paleozoic tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is similar and related to the history of the Texas Panhandle. Differences occur primarily in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic histories; tectonic uplift persisted for longer periods and faults show evidence of repeated movements in eastern New Mexico. This is probably a result of the proximity of the area to the Laramide and Basin and Range deformational events. 442 refs., 35 figs

  12. Qademah Fault Passive Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this field trip we collect passive data to 1. Convert passive to surface waves 2. Locate Qademah fault using surface wave migration INTRODUCTION: In this field trip we collected passive data for several days. This data will be used to find the surface waves using interferometry and then compared to active-source seismic data collected at the same location. A total of 288 receivers are used. A 3D layout with 5 m inline intervals and 10 m cross line intervals is used, where we used 12 lines with 24 receivers at each line. You will need to download the file (rec_times.mat), it contains important information about 1. Field record no 2. Record day 3. Record month 4. Record hour 5. Record minute 6. Record second 7. Record length P.S. 1. All files are converted from original format (SEG-2) to matlab format P.S. 2. Overlaps between records (10 to 1.5 sec.) are already removed from these files

  13. Exposing the faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)

  14. Feature fusion using kernel joint approximate diagonalization of eigen-matrices for rolling bearing fault identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbin; He, Bing; Liu, Fang; Lu, Siliang; Zhao, Yilei

    2016-12-01

    Fault pattern identification is a crucial step for the intelligent fault diagnosis of real-time health conditions in monitoring a mechanical system. However, many challenges exist in extracting the effective feature from vibration signals for fault recognition. A new feature fusion method is proposed in this study to extract new features using kernel joint approximate diagonalization of eigen-matrices (KJADE). In the method, the input space that is composed of original features is mapped into a high-dimensional feature space by nonlinear mapping. Then, the new features can be estimated through the eigen-decomposition of the fourth-order cumulative kernel matrix obtained from the feature space. Therefore, the proposed method could be used to reduce data redundancy because it extracts the inherent pattern structure of different fault classes as it is nonlinear by nature. The integration evaluation factor of between-class and within-class scatters (SS) is employed to depict the clustering performance quantitatively, and the new feature subset extracted by the proposed method is fed into a multi-class support vector machine for fault pattern identification. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experimental vibration signals with different bearing fault types and severities. Results of several cases show that the KJADE algorithm is efficient in feature fusion for bearing fault identification.

  15. Fault-tolerant rotary actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Delbert

    2006-10-17

    A fault-tolerant actuator module, in a single containment shell, containing two actuator subsystems that are either asymmetrically or symmetrically laid out is provided. Fault tolerance in the actuators of the present invention is achieved by the employment of dual sets of equal resources. Dual resources are integrated into single modules, with each having the external appearance and functionality of a single set of resources.

  16. Static Decoupling in fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index......An algebraic approach is given for a design of a static residual weighting factor in connection with fault detection. A complete parameterization is given of the weighting factor which will minimize a given performance index...

  17. Diagnosis and fault-tolerant control

    CERN Document Server

    Blanke, Mogens; Lunze, Jan; Staroswiecki, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Fault-tolerant control aims at a gradual shutdown response in automated systems when faults occur. It satisfies the industrial demand for enhanced availability and safety, in contrast to traditional reactions to faults, which bring about sudden shutdowns and loss of availability. The book presents effective model-based analysis and design methods for fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control. Architectural and structural models are used to analyse the propagation of the fault through the process, to test the fault detectability and to find the redundancies in the process that can be used to ensure fault tolerance. It also introduces design methods suitable for diagnostic systems and fault-tolerant controllers for continuous processes that are described by analytical models of discrete-event systems represented by automata. The book is suitable for engineering students, engineers in industry and researchers who wish to get an overview of the variety of approaches to process diagnosis and fault-tolerant contro...

  18. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  19. Passive fault current limiting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  20. Performance Estimation and Fault Diagnosis Based on Levenberg–Marquardt Algorithm for a Turbofan Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the schemes of accurate and computationally efficient performance estimation and fault diagnosis for turbofan engines has become a new research focus and challenges. It is able to increase reliability and stability of turbofan engine and reduce the life cycle costs. Accurate estimation of turbofan engine performance counts on thoroughly understanding the components’ performance, which is described by component characteristic maps and the fault of each component can be regarded as the change of characteristic maps. In this paper, a novel method based on a Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm is proposed to enhance the fidelity of the performance estimation and the credibility of the fault diagnosis for the turbofan engine. The presented method utilizes the LM algorithm to figure out the operating point in the characteristic maps, preparing for performance estimation and fault diagnosis. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated for estimating performance parameters in the transient case with Rayleigh process noise and Gaussian measurement noise. The comparison among the extended Kalman filter (EKF method, the particle filter (PF method and the proposed method is implemented in the abrupt fault case and the gradual degeneration case and it has been shown that the proposed method has the capability to lead to more accurate result for performance estimation and fault diagnosis of turbofan engine than current popular EKF and PF diagnosis methods.

  1. Fault Slip Partitioning in the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane Belt: Pliocene to Late Pleistocene Contraction Across the Mina Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Stockli, D.; Gosse, J.

    2007-12-01

    Two different mechanisms have been proposed for fault slip transfer between the subparallel NW-striking dextral- slip faults that dominant the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ)-Walker Lane Belt (WLB). In the northern WLB, domains of sinistral-slip along NE-striking faults and clockwise block rotation within a zone of distributed deformation accommodated NW-dextral shear. A somewhat modified version of this mechanism was also proposed for the Mina deflection, southern WLB, whereby NE-striking sinistral faults formed as conjugate faults to the primary zone of NW-dextral shear; clockwise rotation of the blocks bounding the sinistral faults accommodated dextral slip. In contrast, in the northern ECSZ and Mina deflection, domains of NE-striking pure dip-slip normal faults, bounded by NW-striking dextral-slip faults, exhibited no rotation; the proposed mechanism of slip transfer was one of right-stepping, high angle normal faults in which the magnitude of extension was proportional to the amount of strike-slip motion transferred. New geologic mapping, tectonic geomorphologic, and geochronologic data from the Queen Valley area, southern Mina deflection constrain Pliocene to late Quaternary fault geometries, slip orientations, slip magnitudes, and slip rates that bear on the mechanism of fault slip transfer from the relatively narrow northern ECSZ to the broad deformation zone that defines the Mina deflection. Four different fault types and orientations cut across the Queen Valley area: (1) The NE-striking normal-slip Queen Valley fault; (2) NE-striking sinistral faults; (3) the NW-striking dextral Coyote Springs fault, which merges into (4) a set of EW-striking thrust faults. (U-Th)/He apatite and cosmogenic radionuclide data, combined with magnitude of fault offset measurements, indicate a Pliocene to late Pleistocene horizontal extension rate of 0.2-0.3 mm/yr across the Queen Valley fault. Our results, combined with published slip rates for the dextral White Mountain

  2. RECENT GEODYNAMICS OF FAULT ZONES: FAULTING IN REAL TIME SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Kuzmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent deformation processes taking place in real time are analyzed on the basis of data on fault zones which were collected by long-term detailed geodetic survey studies with application of field methods and satellite monitoring.A new category of recent crustal movements is described and termed as parametrically induced tectonic strain in fault zones. It is shown that in the fault zones located in seismically active and aseismic regions, super intensive displacements of the crust (5 to 7 cm per year, i.e. (5 to 7·10–5 per year occur due to very small external impacts of natural or technogenic / industrial origin.The spatial discreteness of anomalous deformation processes is established along the strike of the regional Rechitsky fault in the Pripyat basin. It is concluded that recent anomalous activity of the fault zones needs to be taken into account in defining regional regularities of geodynamic processes on the basis of real-time measurements.The paper presents results of analyses of data collected by long-term (20 to 50 years geodetic surveys in highly seismically active regions of Kopetdag, Kamchatka and California. It is evidenced by instrumental geodetic measurements of recent vertical and horizontal displacements in fault zones that deformations are ‘paradoxically’ deviating from the inherited movements of the past geological periods.In terms of the recent geodynamics, the ‘paradoxes’ of high and low strain velocities are related to a reliable empirical fact of the presence of extremely high local velocities of deformations in the fault zones (about 10–5 per year and above, which take place at the background of slow regional deformations which velocities are lower by the order of 2 to 3. Very low average annual velocities of horizontal deformation are recorded in the seismic regions of Kopetdag and Kamchatka and in the San Andreas fault zone; they amount to only 3 to 5 amplitudes of the earth tidal deformations per year.A ‘fault

  3. Using Magnetics and Topography to Model Fault Splays of the Hilton Creek Fault System within the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cristofaro, J. L.; Polet, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hilton Creek Fault (HCF) is a range-bounding extensional fault that forms the eastern escarpment of California's Sierra Nevada mountain range, near the town of Mammoth Lakes. The fault is well mapped along its main trace to the south of the Long Valley Caldera (LVC), but the location and nature of its northern terminus is poorly constrained. The fault terminates as a series of left-stepping splays within the LVC, an area of active volcanism that most notably erupted 760 ka, and currently experiences continuous geothermal activity and sporadic earthquake swarms. The timing of the most recent motion on these fault splays is debated, as is the threat posed by this section of the Hilton Creek Fault. The Third Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF3) model depicts the HCF as a single strand projecting up to 12km into the LVC. However, Bailey (1989) and Hill and Montgomery-Brown (2015) have argued against this model, suggesting that extensional faulting within the Caldera has been accommodated by the ongoing volcanic uplift and thus the intracaldera section of the HCF has not experienced motion since 760ka.We intend to map the intracaldera fault splays and model their subsurface characteristics to better assess their rupture history and potential. This will be accomplished using high-resolution topography and subsurface geophysical methods, including ground-based magnetics. Preliminary work was performed using high-precision Nikon Nivo 5.C total stations to generate elevation profiles and a backpack mounted GEM GS-19 proton precession magnetometer. The initial results reveal a correlation between magnetic anomalies and topography. East-West topographic profiles show terrace-like steps, sub-meter in height, which correlate to changes in the magnetic data. Continued study of the magnetic data using Oasis Montaj 3D modeling software is planned. Additionally, we intend to prepare a high-resolution terrain model using structure-from-motion techniques

  4. Do mesoscale faults in a young fold belt indicate regional or local stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokado, Akihiro; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi

    2017-04-01

    The result of paleostress analyses of mesoscale faults is usually thought of as evidence of a regional stress. On the other hand, the recent advancement of the trishear modeling has enabled us to predict the deformation field around fault-propagation folds without the difficulty of assuming paleo mechanical properties of rocks and sediments. We combined the analysis of observed mesoscale faults and the trishear modeling to understand the significance of regional and local stresses for the formation of mesoscale faults. To this end, we conducted the 2D trishear inverse modeling with a curved thrust fault to predict the subsurface structure and strain field of an anticline, which has a more or less horizontal axis and shows a map-scale plane strain perpendicular to the axis, in the active fold belt of Niigata region, central Japan. The anticline is thought to have been formed by fault-propagation folding under WNW-ESE regional compression. Based on the attitudes of strata and the positions of key tephra beds in Lower Pleistocene soft sediments cropping out at the surface, we obtained (1) a fault-propagation fold with the fault tip at a depth of ca. 4 km as the optimal subsurface structure, and (2) the temporal variation of deformation field during the folding. We assumed that mesoscale faults were activated along the direction of maximum shear strain on the faults to test whether the fault-slip data collected at the surface were consistent with the deformation in some stage(s) of folding. The Wallace-Bott hypothesis was used to estimate the consistence of faults with the regional stress. As a result, the folding and the regional stress explained 27 and 33 of 45 observed faults, respectively, with the 11 faults being consistent with the both. Both the folding and regional one were inconsistent with the remaining 17 faults, which could be explained by transfer faulting and/or the gravitational spreading of the growing anticline. The lesson we learnt from this work was

  5. Constant Fault Slip-Rates Over Hundreds of Millenia Constrained By Deformed Quaternary Palaeoshorelines: the Vibo and Capo D'Orlando Faults, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschis, M.; Roberts, G.; Robertson, J.; Houghton, S.; Briant, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Whether slip-rates on active faults accumulated over multiple seismic events is constant or varying over tens to hundreds of millenia timescales is an open question that can be addressed through study of deformed Quaternary palaeoshorelines. It is important to know the answer so that one can judge whether shorter timescale measurements (e.g. Holocene palaeoseismology or decadal geodesy) are suitable for determining earthquake recurrence intervals for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment or more suitable for studying temporal earthquake clustering. We present results from the Vibo Fault and the Capo D'Orlando Fault, that lie within the deforming Calabrian Arc, which has experienced damaging seismic events such as the 1908 Messina Strait earthquake ( Mw 7) and the 1905 Capo Vaticano earthquake ( Mw 7). These normal faults deform uplifted Late Quaternary palaeoshorelines, which outcrop mainly within their hangingwalls, but also partially in their footwalls, showing that a regional subduction and mantle-related uplift outpaces local fault-related subsidence. Through (1) field and DEM-based mapping of palaeoshorelines, both up flights of successively higher, older inner edges, and along the strike of the faults, and (2) utilisation of synchronous correlation of non-uniformly-spaced inner edge elevations with non-uniformly spaced sea-level highstand ages, we show that slip-rates decrease towards fault tips and that slip-rates have remained constant since 340 ka (given the time resolution we obtain). The slip-rates for the Capo D'Orlando Fault and Vibo Fault are 0.61mm/yr and 1mm/yr respectively. We show that the along-strike gradients in slip-rate towards fault tips differ for the two faults hinting at fault interaction and also discuss this in terms of other regions of extension like the Gulf of Corinth, Greece, where slip-rate has been shown to change through time through the Quaternary. We make the point that slip-rates may change through time as fault systems grow

  6. Periodic pulsing of characteristic microearthquakes on the San Andreas fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Robert M; McEvilly, Thomas V

    2004-01-09

    Deep fault slip information from characteristically repeating microearthquakes reveals previously unrecognized patterns of extensive, large-amplitude, long-duration, quasiperiodic repetition of aseismic events along much of a 175-kilometer segment of the central San Andreas fault. Pulsing occurs both in conjunction with and independent of transient slip from larger earthquakes. It extends to depths of approximately 10 to 11 kilometers but may be deeper, and it may be related to similar phenomena occurring in subduction zones. Over much of the study area, pulse onset periods also show a higher probability of larger earthquakes, which may provide useful information for earthquake forecasting.

  7. Topic Correlation Analysis for Bearing Fault Diagnosis Under Variable Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shen, Fei; Yan, Ruqiang

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a Topic Correlation Analysis (TCA) based approach for bearing fault diagnosis. In TCA, Joint Mixture Model (JMM), a model which adapts Probability Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), is constructed first. Then, JMM models the shared and domain-specific topics using “fault vocabulary” . After that, the correlations between two kinds of topics are computed and used to build a mapping matrix. Furthermore, a new shared space spanned by the shared and mapped domain-specific topics is set up where the distribution gap between different domains is reduced. Finally, a classifier is trained with mapped features which follow a different distribution and then the trained classifier is tested on target bearing data. Experimental results justify the superiority of the proposed approach over the stat-of-the-art baselines and it can diagnose bearing fault efficiently and effectively under variable operating conditions.

  8. Fault Diagnosis Method of Polymerization Kettle Equipment Based on Rough Sets and BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerizing production process is a typical complex controlled object, with complexity features, such as nonlinear, multivariable, strong coupling, and large time-delay. Aiming at the real-time fault diagnosis and optimized monitoring requirements of the large-scale key polymerization equipment of PVC production process, a real-time fault diagnosis strategy is proposed based on rough sets theory with the improved discernibility matrix and BP neural networks. The improved discernibility matrix is adopted to reduct the attributes of rough sets in order to decrease the input dimensionality of fault characteristics effectively. Levenberg-Marquardt BP neural network is trained to diagnose the polymerize faults according to the reducted decision table, which realizes the nonlinear mapping from fault symptom set to polymerize fault set. Simulation experiments are carried out combining with the industry history datum to show the effectiveness of the proposed rough set neural networks fault diagnosis method. The proposed strategy greatly increased the accuracy rate and efficiency of the polymerization fault diagnosis system.

  9. Fault diagnosis of direct-drive wind turbine based on support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, X L; Jiang, D X; Li, S H; Chen, J

    2011-01-01

    A fault diagnosis method of direct-drive wind turbine based on support vector machine (SVM) and feature selection is presented. The time-domain feature parameters of main shaft vibration signal in the horizontal and vertical directions are considered in the method. Firstly, in laboratory scale five experiments of direct-drive wind turbine with normal condition, wind wheel mass imbalance fault, wind wheel aerodynamic imbalance fault, yaw fault and blade airfoil change fault are carried out. The features of five experiments are analyzed. Secondly, the sensitive time-domain feature parameters in the horizontal and vertical directions of vibration signal in the five conditions are selected and used as feature samples. By training, the mapping relation between feature parameters and fault types are established in SVM model. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is verified through experimental data. The results show that the proposed method is effective in identifying the fault of wind turbine. It has good classification ability and robustness to diagnose the fault of direct-drive wind turbine.

  10. Study on active faults in the Izu Peninsula using α track etch method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, K.; Ikeda, K.; Takahashi, M.; Nagata, S.; Yanagihara, C.

    1981-01-01

    The α track etch method, which is one of the geochemical survey methods for the mapping and detection of active faults and the evaluation of their activities, has been applied to ten sites for the purpose of the earthquake prediction research program. The method conventionally measures relative radon concentration in the soil gas by counting the number of tracks per cm 2 .day on a small piece of plastic film (cellulose nitrate) which is sensitive to α-ray radiation. As the result of the track measurement on many survey lines crossing ten active faults including earthquake faults in the Izu Peninsula, the following was clarified: 1. The peak of track number appears mostly on fault lines but sometimes shifts from it. The line connecting peaks on the several survey lines corresponds to the strike of fault. 2. Relative position between the peak and the fault line on the surface suggests the type of fault, normal or reverse. 3. The track number observed on thin Quaternary strata is generally larger than that on thick Quaternary strata at an active fault concerned. This fact shows that the rising time of radon gas is controlled by the thickness of covering strata. (author)

  11. Hypothesis for the mechanics and seismic behaviour of low-angle normal faults: the example of the Altotiberina fault Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Collettini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Widespread mapping of low-angle normal faults in areas of former continental extension continues to prompt debate as to whether such structures may be seismically active at very low dips (? <30 °in the upper continental crust.The Northern Apennines provide an example where an active low-angle normal fault (Altotiberina fault, ATFcan be studied.A set of commercial seismic reflection profiles plus deep boreholes have been used to constrain the geometry of the fault at depth.These data have been integrated with a microseismic survey showing that part of the microseismicity (M <3.0is consistent with the geometry of the ATF as imaged by depth converted seismic reflection profiles.Frictional fault mechanics under Byerlee ?s friction coefficient and vertical ? 1 (constrained from the inversion of the focal mechanismsdefines the peculiar condition for reactivation of the ATF:small values of differential stress,? 1 ?? 3 <28 MPa,relatively high value of tensile strength of the fault surrounding rocks (T ~10 MPaand tensile fluid overpressure P f >? 3 (i.e.? v >0.93.The short-lived attainment of P f >? 3 along small fault portions,in an area characterised by large amounts of CO2,account for the microseismic activity located along the ATF,which occurs on rupture surfaces in the range of 10 ??10 ? 3 km 2..

  12. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  13. Paleoseismic study of the Cathedral Rapids fault in the northern Alaska Range near Tok, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, R. D.; Farrell, R.; Carver, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Cathedral Rapids fault extends ~40 km between the Tok and Robertson River valleys and is the easternmost fault in a series of active south-dipping imbricate thrust faults which bound the northern flank of the Alaska Range. Collectively, these faults accommodate a component of convergence transferred north of the Denali fault and related to the westward (counterclockwise) rotation of the Wrangell Block driven by relative Pacific/North American plate motion along the eastern Aleutian subduction zone and Fairweather fault system. To the west, the system has been defined as the Northern Foothills Fold and Thrust Belt (NFFTB), a 50-km-wide zone of east-west trending thrust faults that displace Quaternary deposits and have accommodated ~3 mm/yr of shortening since latest Pliocene time (Bemis, 2004). Over the last several years, the eastward extension of the NFFTB between Delta Junction and the Canadian border has been studied by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys to better characterize faults that may affect engineering design of the proposed Alaska-Canada natural gas pipeline and other infrastructure. We summarize herein reconnaissance field observations along the western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault. The western part of the Cathedral Rapids fault extends 21 km from Sheep Creek to Moon Lake and is characterized by three roughly parallel sinuous traces that offset glacial deposits of the Illinoian to early Wisconsinan Delta glaciations and the late Wisconsinan Donnelly glaciation, as well as, Holocene alluvial deposits. The northern trace of the fault is characterized by an oversteepened, beveled, ~2.5-m-high scarp that obliquely cuts a Holocene alluvial fan and projects into the rangefront. Previous paleoseismic studies along the eastern part of the Cathedral Rapids fault and Dot “T” Johnson fault indicate multiple latest Pleistocene and Holocene earthquakes associated with anticlinal folding and thrust faulting (Carver et al., 2010

  14. Modeling 3D Dynamic Rupture on Arbitrarily-Shaped faults by Boundary-Conforming Finite Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Zhu, H.; Luo, Y.; Chen, X.

    2008-12-01

    We use a new finite difference method (FDM) and the slip-weakening law to model the rupture dynamics of a non-planar fault embedded in a 3-D elastic media with free surface. The new FDM, based on boundary- conforming grid, sets up the mapping equations between the curvilinear coordinate and the Cartesian coordinate and transforms irregular physical space to regular computational space; it also employs a higher- order non-staggered DRP/opt MacCormack scheme which is of low dispersion and low dissipation so that the high accuracy and stability of our rupture modeling are guaranteed. Compared with the previous methods, not only we can compute the spontaneous rupture of an arbitrarily shaped fault, but also can model the influence of the surface topography on the rupture process of earthquake. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we compared our results and other previous results, and found out they matched perfectly. Thanks to the boundary-conforming FDM, problems such as dynamic rupture with arbitrary dip, strike and rake over an arbitrary curved plane can be handled; and supershear or subshear rupture can be simulated with different parameters such as the initial stresses and the critical slip displacement Dc. Besides, our rupture modeling is economical to be implemented owing to its high efficiency and does not suffer from displacement leakage. With the help of inversion data of rupture by field observations, this method is convenient to model rupture processes and seismograms of natural earthquakes.

  15. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  16. Fault Analysis in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye

    Fault analysis in solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a fundamental task to increase reliability, efficiency and safety in PV systems. Conventional fault protection methods usually add fuses or circuit breakers in series with PV components. But these protection devices are only able to clear faults and isolate faulty circuits if they carry a large fault current. However, this research shows that faults in PV arrays may not be cleared by fuses under some fault scenarios, due to the current-limiting nature and non-linear output characteristics of PV arrays. First, this thesis introduces new simulation and analytic models that are suitable for fault analysis in PV arrays. Based on the simulation environment, this thesis studies a variety of typical faults in PV arrays, such as ground faults, line-line faults, and mismatch faults. The effect of a maximum power point tracker on fault current is discussed and shown to, at times, prevent the fault current protection devices to trip. A small-scale experimental PV benchmark system has been developed in Northeastern University to further validate the simulation conclusions. Additionally, this thesis examines two types of unique faults found in a PV array that have not been studied in the literature. One is a fault that occurs under low irradiance condition. The other is a fault evolution in a PV array during night-to-day transition. Our simulation and experimental results show that overcurrent protection devices are unable to clear the fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition". However, the overcurrent protection devices may work properly when the same PV fault occurs in daylight. As a result, a fault under "low irradiance" and "night-to-day transition" might be hidden in the PV array and become a potential hazard for system efficiency and reliability.

  17. Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive engines. ... Five faults have been simulated on the MVEM, including three sensor faults, one component fault and one actuator fault. The three sensor faults ... Keywords: Automotive engine, independent RBFNN model, RBF neural network, fault detection

  18. Transpressive mantle uplift at large offset oceanic transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Briais, A.; Brunelli, D.; Ligi, M.; Sichel, S. E.; Campos, T.

    2017-12-01

    Large-offset transform faults deform due to changes in plate motions and local processes. At the St. Paul transform, in the Equatorial Atlantic, a large body of ultramafic rocks composed of variably serpentinized and mylonitized peridotites is presently being tectonically uplifted. We recently discovered that the origin of the regional mantle uplift is linked to long-standing compressive stresses along the transform fault (1). A positive flower structure, mainly made of mylonitized mantle rocks, can be recognized on the 200 km large push-up ridge. Compressive earthquakes mechanisms reveal seismically active thrust faults on the southern flank of the ridge . The regional transpressive stress field affects a large portion of the ridge segment south of the transform, as revealed by the presence of faults and dykes striking obliquely to the direction of the central ridge axis. A smaller thrust, affecting recent sediments, was mapped south of this segment, suggesting a regional active compressive stress field. The transpressive stress field is interpreted to derive from the propagation of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) segment into the transform domain as a response to the enhanced melt supply at the ridge axis. The propagation forced the migration and segmentation of the transform fault southward and the formation of restraining step-overs. The process started after a counterclockwise change in plate motion at 11 Ma initially resulting in extensive stress of the transform domain. A flexural transverse ridge formed in response. Shortly after plate reorganization, the MAR segment started to propagate southwards due to the interaction of the ridge and the Sierra Leone thermal anomaly. 1- Maia et al., 2016. Extreme mantle uplift and exhumation along a transpressive transform fault Nat. Geo. doi:10.1038/ngeo2759

  19. Holocene rupture of the Repongaere Fault, Gisborne : implications for Raukumara Peninsula deformation and impact on the Waipaoa sedimentary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.R.; Marden, M.; Palmer, A.; Litchfield, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Repongaere Fault is one of a series of active normal faults within the Raukumara Peninsula, eastern North Island, New Zealand. These faults appear to form in response to rapid uplift of the Raukumara Range and related extensional strain. However, the activity of these normal faults is poorly constrained. This paper presents new mapping of the active surface trace of the Repongaere Fault, c. 18 km northwest of Gisborne, and the results of two paleoseismic trenches. These results are then used to assess the seismic hazard posed by this fault and impacts on the Waipaoa Sedimentary System in which the fault is situated. Active traces can be mapped for c. 4.5 km, but we infer the surface rupture length to be at least 9 km. Tephras within the trenches constrain the timing of the most recent surface rupture event to have occurred during deposition of the Waimihia Tephra (c. 3400 cal. yr BP), and at least one event in the period c. 13 800-C5470 cal. yr BP, with single-event displacements of ≥0.4-1.1 m. From these data a mean dip-slip rate of c. 0.1 mm/yr and a maximum recurrence interval of 4490-6900 yr, can be calculated. If the Repongaere Fault is representative of other Raukumara Peninsula normal faults, then this relatively low rate of activity supports the interpretation that these faults are not contributing significantly to the deformation of the Raukumara Peninsula. The low rate of activity is also consistent with the very localised evidence for landscape impacts, a calculated moderate M w of 6.3-6.7, and the fault's location within the lower part of the Waipaoa River catchment. Together, these observations suggest that Repongaere Fault earthquakes have minimal, localised impact on the Waipaoa Sedimentary System. (author). 64 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Differential Extension, Displacement Transfer, and the South to North Decrease in Displacement on the Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley Fault System, Western Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopody, D. T.; Oldow, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The northwest-striking Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley (FC-FLV) fault system stretches for >250 km from southeastern California to western Nevada, forms the eastern boundary of the northern segment of the Eastern California Shear Zone, and has contemporary displacement. The FC-FLV fault system initiated in the mid-Miocene (10-12 Ma) and shows a south to north decrease in displacement from a maximum of 75-100 km to less than 10 km. Coeval elongation by extension on north-northeast striking faults within the adjoining blocks to the FC-FLV fault both supply and remove cumulative displacement measured at the northern end of the transcurrent fault system. Elongation and displacement transfer in the eastern block, constituting the southern Walker Lane of western Nevada, exceeds that of the western block and results in the net south to north decrease in displacement on the FC-FLV fault system. Elongation in the eastern block is accommodated by late Miocene to Pliocene detachment faulting followed by extension on superposed, east-northeast striking, high-angle structures. Displacement transfer from the FC-FLV fault system to the northwest-trending faults of the central Walker Lane to the north is accomplished by motion on a series of west-northwest striking transcurrent faults, named the Oriental Wash, Sylvania Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain fault systems. The west-northwest striking transcurrent faults cross-cut earlier detachment structures and are kinematically linked to east-northeast high-angle extensional faults. The transcurrent faults are mapped along strike for 60 km to the east, where they merge with north-northwest faults forming the eastern boundary of the southern Walker Lane. The west-northwest trending transcurrent faults have 30-35 km of cumulative left-lateral displacement and are a major contributor to the decrease in right-lateral displacement on the FC-FLV fault system.

  1. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boncio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike–slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding. For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ∼ 2150 m on the footwall and  ∼  3100 m on the hanging wall. Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( >   ∼  50 % at distances  <   ∼  250 m. The widest WRZ are recorded where sympathetic slip (Sy on distant faults occurs, and/or where bending-moment (B-M or flexural-slip (F-S fault ruptures, associated with large-scale folds (hundreds of metres to kilometres in wavelength, are present. A positive relation between the earthquake magnitude and the total WRZ is evident, while a clear correlation between the vertical displacement on the principal fault and the total WRZ is not found. The distribution of surface ruptures is fitted with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Earthquake Stress Drop on Gofar Transform Fault, East Pacific Rise: Implications for Fault Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, P. A.; Boettcher, M. S.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    During the last five seismic cycles on Gofar transform fault on the East Pacific Rise, the largest earthquakes (6.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 6.2) have repeatedly ruptured the same fault segment (rupture asperity), while intervening fault segments host swarms of microearthquakes. Previous studies on Gofar have shown that these segments of low (≤10%) seismic coupling contain diffuse zones of seismicity and P-wave velocity reduction compared with the rupture asperity; suggesting heterogeneous fault properties control earthquake behavior. We investigate the role systematic differences in material properties have on earthquake rupture along Gofar using waveforms from ocean bottom seismometers that recorded the end of the 2008 Mw 6.0 seismic cycle.We determine stress drop for 117 earthquakes (2.4 ≤ Mw ≤ 4.2) that occurred in and between rupture asperities from corner frequency derived using an empirical Green's function spectral ratio method and seismic moment obtained by fitting the omega-square source model to the low frequency amplitude of earthquake spectra. We find stress drops from 0.03 to 2.7 MPa with significant spatial variation, including 2 times higher average stress drop in the rupture asperity compared to fault segments with low seismic coupling. We interpret an inverse correlation between stress drop and P-wave velocity reduction as the effect of damage on earthquake rupture. Earthquakes with higher stress drops occur in more intact crust of the rupture asperity, while earthquakes with lower stress drops occur in regions of low seismic coupling and reflect lower strength, highly fractured fault zone material. We also observe a temporal control on stress drop consistent with log-time healing following the Mw 6.0 mainshock, suggesting a decrease in stress drop as a result of fault zone damage caused by the large earthquake.

  3. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  4. Fault Diagnosis for Engine Based on Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-Stage Extreme Learning Machine (SS-ELM is presented to dispose of the mechanical fault diagnosis in this paper. Based on it, the traditional mapping type of extreme learning machine (ELM has been changed and the eigenvectors extracted from signal processing methods are directly regarded as outputs of the network’s hidden layer. Then the uncertainty that training data transformed from the input space to the ELM feature space with the ELM mapping and problem of the selection of the hidden nodes are avoided effectively. The experiment results of diesel engine fault diagnosis show good performance of the SS-ELM algorithm.

  5. The Relationships of Subparallel Synthetic Faults and Pre-existing Structures in the Central Malawi Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S.; Mendez, K.; Beresh, S. C. M.; Mynatt, W. G.; Elifritz, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Atekwana, E. A.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Chisenga, C.; Gondwe, S.; Mkumbura, M.; Kalaguluka, D.; Kalindekafe, L.; Salima, J.

    2017-12-01

    from the SRTM. Additionally the basement fabrics and faults will be delineated using a combination of aeromagnetic and SRTM data to show the relationship between the surface expression and the expression at depth of the fault scarp. Finally, all remote sensing interpretations are compared to our structural field mapping to confirm our interpretations.

  6. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    Full Text Available Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for

  7. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery.

  8. Fault trees for diagnosis of system fault conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, H.E.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1977-01-01

    Methods for generating repair checklists on the basis of fault tree logic and probabilistic importance are presented. A one-step-ahead optimization procedure, based on the concept of component criticality, minimizing the expected time to diagnose system failure is outlined. Options available to the operator of a nuclear power plant when system fault conditions occur are addressed. A low-pressure emergency core cooling injection system, a standby safeguard system of a pressurized water reactor power plant, is chosen as an example illustrating the methods presented

  9. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  10. Fault Rock Zones Characterisation - Final report. TRUE-1 Continuation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2010-11-01

    At the conclusion of the TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale experimental programmes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory one remaining identified uncertainty was the in situ internal structure of conductive structures, and in particular the in situ material properties of unconsolidated fault gouge of such conductive structures. With the aim of reducing these uncertainties an experimental program has been conducted at depth in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Four conductive structures in the immediate vicinity of the Aespoe tunnel were identified for further study. Following basic geometrical and geological modelling based on tunnel observations, geological/ mineralogical and hydrogeological investigations in four boreholes at each site, epoxy resin was injected in selected packed off borehole sections containing the structure. Following a sufficient time for curing of the epoxy, the injected borehole 72 mm sections were overcored with a 300 mm core barrel. Customised techniques were employed to section the core in the borehole and for its retrieval out of the borehole. Following basic geological mapping, selected overcores were sectioned and were subject to image analysis to assess the pore structure using a variety of different descriptive geometrical attributes. In addition, an attempt was made to infer the porosity of the fault rock (including fault gouge) using binary images. Since analysis has been made on multiple slices of impregnated rock it is also possible to crudely map the 3D variability of a given entity. It was furthermore identified that porosity estimates, which range from some 10-70% are, apart from being dependent on the penetration of the epoxy, dependent on the resolution of the given image, the size of the averaging window, and the porosity components contained therein. The obtained quantifications of porosity can therefore only be regarded as ball-park relative porosities of a complete fault rock zones. It does not, however, provide firm

  11. Fault Rock Zones Characterisation - Final report. TRUE-1 Continuation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (ed.) (Conterra AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    At the conclusion of the TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale experimental programmes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory one remaining identified uncertainty was the in situ internal structure of conductive structures, and in particular the in situ material properties of unconsolidated fault gouge of such conductive structures. With the aim of reducing these uncertainties an experimental program has been conducted at depth in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Four conductive structures in the immediate vicinity of the Aespoe tunnel were identified for further study. Following basic geometrical and geological modelling based on tunnel observations, geological/ mineralogical and hydrogeological investigations in four boreholes at each site, epoxy resin was injected in selected packed off borehole sections containing the structure. Following a sufficient time for curing of the epoxy, the injected borehole 72 mm sections were overcored with a 300 mm core barrel. Customised techniques were employed to section the core in the borehole and for its retrieval out of the borehole. Following basic geological mapping, selected overcores were sectioned and were subject to image analysis to assess the pore structure using a variety of different descriptive geometrical attributes. In addition, an attempt was made to infer the porosity of the fault rock (including fault gouge) using binary images. Since analysis has been made on multiple slices of impregnated rock it is also possible to crudely map the 3D variability of a given entity. It was furthermore identified that porosity estimates, which range from some 10-70% are, apart from being dependent on the penetration of the epoxy, dependent on the resolution of the given image, the size of the averaging window, and the porosity components contained therein. The obtained quantifications of porosity can therefore only be regarded as ball-park relative porosities of a complete fault rock zones. It does not, however, provide firm

  12. Fracture mapping for radionuclide migration studies in the Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.; Springer, J.

    1981-05-01

    As part of LLNL's program on radionuclide migration through fractured rock, major geologic discontinuities have been mapped and characterized at the 420 m level in the Climax Stock, adjacent to LLNL's Spent Fuel Test. Persistence or continuity of features was the principal sampling criterion, and ninety major fractures and faults were mapped in the main access and tail drifts. Although the purpose and nature of this study was different from previous fracture surveys in the Climax Stock, the results are generally consistent in that three predominant fracture sets are identified: NW strike/vertical, NE strike/vertical, NW strike/subhorizontal. The frequency of major features in the main access drift is somewhat higher than in the tail drift. Those mapped in the main access drift are generally braided, stepped, or en echelon, while those in the tail drift appear to be more distinct and planar. Several of the fractures in the tail drift lie in the NE/vertical set, while most form an entirely different set oriented N5E/55NW. Subhorizontal fractures were common to both drifts. An area of seepage associated with some of these low-angle features was mapped in the main access drift

  13. Fault-tolerant architecture: Evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Kisner, R.A.

    1992-08-01

    The design and reliability of four fault-tolerant architectures that may be used in nuclear power plant control systems were evaluated. Two architectures are variations of triple-modular-redundant (TMR) systems, and two are variations of dual redundant systems. The evaluation includes a review of methods of implementing fault-tolerant control, the importance of automatic recovery from failures, methods of self-testing diagnostics, block diagrams of typical fault-tolerant controllers, review of fault-tolerant controllers operating in nuclear power plants, and fault tree reliability analyses of fault-tolerant systems

  14. Fault Isolation for Shipboard Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2010-01-01

    Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation of a containe......Fault detection and fault isolation for in-service decision support systems for marine surface vehicles will be presented in this paper. The stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are modeled in the frequency domain. The paper takes as an example fault isolation...... to the quality of decisions given to navigators....

  15. An architecture for fault tolerant controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    degradation in the sense of guaranteed degraded performance. A number of fault diagnosis problems, fault tolerant control problems, and feedback control with fault rejection problems are formulated/considered, mainly from a fault modeling point of view. The method is illustrated on a servo example including......A general architecture for fault tolerant control is proposed. The architecture is based on the (primary) YJBK parameterization of all stabilizing compensators and uses the dual YJBK parameterization to quantify the performance of the fault tolerant system. The approach suggested can be applied...

  16. Fault estimation - A standard problem approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a range of optimization based approaches to fault diagnosis. A variety of fault diagnosis problems are reformulated in the so-called standard problem set-up introduced in the literature on robust control. Once the standard problem formulations are given, the fault diagnosis...... problems can be solved by standard optimization techniques. The proposed methods include (1) fault diagnosis (fault estimation, (FE)) for systems with model uncertainties; FE for systems with parametric faults, and FE for a class of nonlinear systems. Copyright...

  17. Earthquake geology of the Bulnay Fault (Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Magali; Ritz, Jean-Franciois; Prentice, Carol S.; Vassallo, Ricardo; Braucher, Regis; Larroque, Christophe; Arzhannikova, A.; Arzhanikov, S.; Mahan, Shannon; Massault, M.; Michelot, J-L.; Todbileg, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Bulnay earthquake of July 23, 1905 (Mw 8.3-8.5), in north-central Mongolia, is one of the world's largest recorded intracontinental earthquakes and one of four great earthquakes that occurred in the region during the 20th century. The 375-km-long surface rupture of the left-lateral, strike-slip, N095°E trending Bulnay Fault associated with this earthquake is remarkable for its pronounced expression across the landscape and for the size of features produced by previous earthquakes. Our field observations suggest that in many areas the width and geometry of the rupture zone is the result of repeated earthquakes; however, in those areas where it is possible to determine that the geomorphic features are the result of the 1905 surface rupture alone, the size of the features produced by this single earthquake are singular in comparison to most other historical strike-slip surface ruptures worldwide. Along the 80 km stretch, between 97.18°E and 98.33°E, the fault zone is characterized by several meters width and the mean left-lateral 1905 offset is 8.9 ± 0.6 m with two measured cumulative offsets that are twice the 1905 slip. These observations suggest that the displacement produced during the penultimate event was similar to the 1905 slip. Morphotectonic analyses carried out at three sites along the eastern part of the Bulnay fault, allow us to estimate a mean horizontal slip rate of 3.1 ± 1.7 mm/yr over the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. In parallel, paleoseismological investigations show evidence for two earthquakes prior to the 1905 event with recurrence intervals of ~2700-4000 years.

  18. Beam dynamics calculations for fault-tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biarrotte, J.L.; Uriot, D.

    2007-10-01

    The European Transmutation Demonstration requires a high-power proton accelerator operating in CW mode. This accelerator is also expected to have a very limited number of unexpected beam interruptions per year. To reach such an ambitious goal, it is clear that reliability-oriented design practices need to be followed from the early stage of components design and fault-tolerance capabilities have to be introduced to the maximum extent. The goal of this document is precisely to investigate in more details the fault-tolerance capability of the XT-ADS linac. From previous analysis, it appears that if nothing is done, a cavity's failure leads in nearly all the cases to a complete beam loss, due to the non-relativistic varying velocity of the particles. To avoid such a total beam loss, it is clear that some kind of retuning has to be performed to compensate the lack of acceleration due to the faulty cavity. We have to identify and develop fast failure recovery scenarios to ensure that such retuning can be performed in less than 1 second. 2 ways are investigated. The first way is to stop the beam to achieve the retuning (Scenario 1). The other way is to try to perform the retuning without stopping the beam (Scenario 2). The present analysis demonstrates on the beam dynamics point of view that a fast retuning procedure can be envisaged without stopping the beam (Scenario 2). Nevertheless, this Scenario 2 implies stringent specifications, especially on: - the fault detection time, that has to be extremely short (order of magnitude: 100 μs) and - the margins required on the accelerating field and RF power point of view, that are higher than in Scenario 1

  19. An experimental study of the influence of stress history on fault slip during injection of supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuss, Robert J.; Wiseall, Andrew C.; Tamayo-Mas, Elena; Harrington, Jon F.

    2018-04-01

    The injection of super-critical CO2 into a depleted reservoir will alter the pore pressure of the basin, which if sufficiently perturbed could result in fault slip. Therefore, knowledge of the acceptable pressure limits is required in order to maintain fault stability. A two-part laboratory study was conducted on fully saturated kaolinite fault gouge to investigate this issue. Previously, we showed that fault slip occurred once pore-pressure within the gouge was sufficient to overcome the normal stress acting on the fault. For kaolinite, this behaviour occurred at a pressure similar to the yield stress. The current study shows that following a slow-reduction in the maximum principal stress, as would be expected through changes in effective stress, the reactivation pressure shows a stress memory. Consequently, the pressure necessary to initiate fault slip is similar to that required at the maximum stress encountered. Therefore, fault slip is at least partially controlled by the previous maximum stress and not the current stress state. During the slow reduction in normal stress, the flow characteristics of the fault remain unchanged until pore-pressure exceeds shear stress and does not increase significantly until it exceeds normal stress. This results in fault slip, which slows the rate of flow increase as shear is an effective self-sealing mechanism. These observations lead to the conclusion that stress history is a vital parameter when considering fault stability.

  20. Maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin-Nan; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Luco, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) relationships for shallow crustal earthquakes in the western United States predict a rotated geometric mean of horizontal spectral demand, termed GMRotI50, and not maximum spectral demand. Differences between strike-normal, strike-parallel, geometric-mean, and maximum spectral demands in the near-fault region are investigated using 147 pairs of records selected from the NGA strong motion database. The selected records are for earthquakes with moment magnitude greater than 6.5 and for closest site-to-fault distance less than 15 km. Ratios of maximum spectral demand to NGA-predicted GMRotI50 for each pair of ground motions are presented. The ratio shows a clear dependence on period and the Somerville directivity parameters. Maximum demands can substantially exceed NGA-predicted GMRotI50 demands in the near-fault region, which has significant implications for seismic design, seismic performance assessment, and the next-generation seismic design maps. Strike-normal spectral demands are a significantly unconservative surrogate for maximum spectral demands for closest distance greater than 3 to 5 km. Scale factors that transform NGA-predicted GMRotI50 to a maximum spectral demand in the near-fault region are proposed.

  1. Geologic Map of the Hellas Region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Gregory J.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    and mapped (table 1). The new classification scheme includes broad, geographically related categories and local, geologically and geomorphically related subgroups. Because of our mapping at larger scale, many of our map units were incorporated within larger units of the global-scale mapping (see table 1). Available Viking images of the Hellas region vary greatly in several aspects, which has complicated the task of producing a consistent photogeologic map. Best available image resolution ranges from about 30 to 300 m/pixel from place to place. Many images contain haze caused by dust clouds, and contrast and shading vary among images because of dramatic seasonal changes in surface albedo, opposing sun azimuths, and solar inclination. Enhancement of selected images on a computer-display system has greatly improved our ability to observe key geologic relations in several areas. Determination of the geologic history of the region includes reconstruction of the origin and sequence of formation, deformation, and modification of geologic units constituting (1) the impact-basin rim and surrounding highlands, (2) volcanic and channel assemblages on the northeast and south sides of the basin, (3) interior basin deposits, and (4) slope and surficial materials throughout the map area. Various surface modifications are attributed to volcanic, fluvial, eolian, mass-wasting, and possibly glacial and periglacial processes. Structures include basin faults (mostly inferred), wrinkle ridges occurring mainly in volcanic terrains and interior plains, volcanic collapse craters, and impact craters. Our interpretations in some cases rely on previous work, but in many significant cases we have offered new interpretations that we believe are more consistent with the observations documented by our mapping. Our primary intent for this mapping has been to elucidate the history of emplacement and modification of Hellas Planitia materials, which form the basis for analysis of their r

  2. Integrated fault tree development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are utilized in the nuclear industry to perform safety analyses of complex defense-in-depth systems. A major effort in PRA development is fault tree construction. The Integrated Fault Tree Environment (IFTREE) is an interactive, graphics-based tool for fault tree design. IFTREE provides integrated building, editing, and analysis features on a personal workstation. The design philosophy of IFTREE is presented, and the interface is described. IFTREE utilizes a unique rule-based solution algorithm founded in artificial intelligence (AI) techniques. The impact of the AI approach on the program design is stressed. IFTREE has been developed to handle the design and maintenance of full-size living PRAs and is currently in use

  3. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones: Phase I, 2nd Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Black, Bill; Biraud, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    This is the year-end report of the 2nd year of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix 3. Literature survey of published information on the relationship between geologic and hydrologic characteristics of faults was conducted. The survey concluded that it may be possible to classify faults by indicators based on various geometric and geologic attributes that may indirectly relate to the hydrologic property of faults. Analysis of existing information on the Wildcat Fault and its surrounding geology was performed. The Wildcat Fault is thought to be a strike-slip fault with a thrust component that runs along the eastern boundary of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is believed to be part of the Hayward Fault system but is considered inactive. Three trenches were excavated at carefully selected locations mainly based on the information from the past investigative work inside the LBNL property. At least one fault was encountered in all three trenches. Detailed trench mapping was conducted by CRIEPI (Central Research Institute for Electric Power Industries) and LBNL scientists. Some intriguing and puzzling discoveries were made that may contradict with the published work in the past. Predictions are made regarding the hydrologic property of the Wildcat Fault based on the analysis of fault structure. Preliminary conceptual models of the Wildcat Fault were proposed. The Wildcat Fault appears to have multiple splays and some low angled faults may be part of the flower structure. In parallel, surface geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity survey and seismic reflection profiling along three lines on the north and south of the LBNL site. Because of the steep terrain, it was difficult to find optimum locations for survey lines as it is desirable for them to be as

  4. Update: San Andreas Fault experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Satellite laser ranging techniques are used to monitor the broad motion of the tectonic plates comprising the San Andreas Fault System. The San Andreas Fault Experiment, (SAFE), has progressed through the upgrades made to laser system hardware and an improvement in the modeling capabilities of the spaceborne laser targets. Of special note is the launch of the Laser Geodynamic Satellite, LAGEOS spacecraft, NASA's only completely dedicated laser satellite in 1976. The results of plate motion projected into this 896 km measured line over the past eleven years are summarized and intercompared.

  5. Faulting at Mormon Point, Death Valley, California: A low-angle normal fault cut by high-angle faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Charles; Serpa, Laura; Pavlis, Terry L.

    1993-04-01

    New geophysical and fault kinematic studies indicate that late Cenozoic basin development in the Mormon Point area of Death Valley, California, was accommodated by fault rotations. Three of six fault segments recognized at Mormon Point are now inactive and have been rotated to low dips during extension. The remaining three segments are now active and moderately to steeply dipping. From the geophysical data, one active segment appears to offset the low-angle faults in the subsurface of Death Valley.

  6. Fault-tolerant system for catastrophic faults in AMR sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambrano Constantini, A.C.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    Anisotropic Magnetoresistance angle sensors are widely used in automotive applications considered to be safety-critical applications. Therefore dependability is an important requirement and fault-tolerant strategies must be used to guarantee the correct operation of the sensors even in case of

  7. Three-dimensional distribution and hydrogeological properties of the Omagari fault in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Eiichi; Yasue, Ken-ichi; Tsukuwi, Routa; Tanaka, Takenobu; Matsuo, Koichi; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Matsuo, Shigeaki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the geological structure and hydrogeological properties of the Omagari Fault in Neogene siliceous sedimentary rocks of the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, by geological mapping, borehole investigations, reflection seismic survey, and audio-frequency magnetotelluric survey. As a result of the investigation, the 3-D distribution of the Fault was clarified and the following were shown. In addition, the magnetotelluric survey in particular was effective for mapping of the 3-D distribution and hydrogeological properties of the fault. The Omagari Fault has a fault zone, about 120 m wide, that consists mainly of the damage zone, and has a permeable structure. The magnetotelluric survey shows several high-resistivity zones, one of which corresponds to the Omagari Fault inferred from the reflection seismic surveys. The high resistivity zones are correlative with the concentration zones of low-saline water, which suggests infiltration of ground water through the permeable Omagari Fault zone. The Omagari Fault over-steps at the earth surface and at the same time is converging in subsurface zones. (author)

  8. The hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Italian Southern Alps) through the seismic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, A.; Mittempergher, S.; Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Garofalo, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The 600 m-thick, strike slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ) experienced several hundred seismic slip events at c. 8 km depth, well-documented by numerous pseudotachylytes, was then exhumed and is now exposed in beautiful and very continuous outcrops. The fault zone was also characterized by hydrous fluid flow during the seismic cycle, demonstrated by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites. We have characterized the GLFZ with > 2 km of scanlines and semi-automatic mapping of faults and fractures on several photogrammetric 3D Digital Outcrop Models (3D DOMs). This allowed us obtaining 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models, based on robust probability density functions for parameters of fault and fracture sets, and simulating the fault zone hydraulic properties. In addition, the correlation between evidences of fluid flow and the fault/fracture network parameters have been studied with a geostatistical approach, allowing generating more realistic time-varying permeability models of the fault zone. Based on this dataset, we have developed a FEM hydraulic model of the GLFZ for a period of some tens of years, covering one seismic event and a postseismic period. The higher permeability is attained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when fractures are (re)opened by off-fault deformation, then permeability decreases in the postseismic due to fracture sealing. The flow model yields a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern and a marked channelling of fluid flow in the inner part of the fault zone, due to permeability anisotropy related to the spatial arrangement of different fracture sets. Amongst possible seismological applications of our study, we will discuss the possibility to evaluate the coseismic fracture intensity due to off-fault damage, and the heterogeneity and evolution of mechanical parameters due to fluid-rock interaction.

  9. Smoothing of Fault Slip Surfaces by Scale Invariant Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascher-Cousineau, K.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Fault slip surface roughness plays a determining role in the overall strength, friction, and dynamic behavior of fault systems. Previous wear models and field observations suggest that roughness decreases with increasing displacement. However, measurements have yet to isolate the effect of displacement from other possible controls, such as lithology or tectonic setting. In an effort to understand the effect of displacement, we present comprehensive qualitative and quantitative description of the evolution of fault slip surfaces in and around the San-Rafael Desert, S.E. Utah, United States. In the study area, faults accommodated regional extension at shallow (1 to 3 km) depth and are hosted in the massive, well-sorted, high-porosity Navajo and Entrada sandstones. Existing displacement profiles along with tight displacement controls readily measureable in the field, combined with uniform lithology and tectonic history, allowed us to isolate for the effect of displacement during the embryonic stages of faulting (0 to 60 m in displacement). Our field observations indicate a clear compositional and morphological progression from isolated joints or deformation bands towards smooth, continuous, and mirror-like fault slip surfaces with increasing displacement. We scanned pristine slip surfaces with a white light interferometer, a laser scanner, and a ground-based LiDAR. We produce and analyses more than 120 individual scans of fault slip surfaces. Results for the surfaces with the best displacement constraints indicate that roughness as defined by the power spectral density at any given length scale decreases with displacement according to a power law with an exponent of -1. Roughness measurements associated with only maximum constraints on displacements corroborate this result. Moreover, maximum roughness for any given fault is bounded by a primordial roughness corresponding to that of joint surfaces and deformation band edges. Building upon these results, we propose a

  10. Generalized stacking fault energies of alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Song; Hu, Qing-Miao; Kwon, Se Kyun; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2014-07-02

    The generalized stacking fault energy (γ surface) provides fundamental physics for understanding the plastic deformation mechanisms. Using the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation, we calculate the γ surface for the disordered Cu-Al, Cu-Zn, Cu-Ga, Cu-Ni, Pd-Ag and Pd-Au alloys. Studying the effect of segregation of the solute to the stacking fault planes shows that only the local chemical composition affects the γ surface. The calculated alloying trends are discussed using the electronic band structure of the base and distorted alloys.Based on our γ surface results, we demonstrate that the previous revealed 'universal scaling law' between the intrinsic energy barriers (IEBs) is well obeyed in random solid solutions. This greatly simplifies the calculations of the twinning measure parameters or the critical twinning stress. Adopting two twinnability measure parameters derived from the IEBs, we find that in binary Cu alloys, Al, Zn and Ga increase the twinnability, while Ni decreases it. Aluminum and gallium yield similar effects on the twinnability.

  11. Intelligent fault diagnosis of rolling bearing based on kernel neighborhood rough sets and statistical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiao Ran; Zhang, You Yun; Zhu, Yong Sheng [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2012-09-15

    Intelligent fault diagnosis benefits from efficient feature selection. Neighborhood rough sets are effective in feature selection. However, determining the neighborhood value accurately remains a challenge. The wrapper feature selection algorithm is designed by combining the kernel method and neighborhood rough sets to self-adaptively select sensitive features. The combination effectively solves the shortcomings in selecting the neighborhood value in the previous application process. The statistical features of time and frequency domains are used to describe the characteristic of the rolling bearing to make the intelligent fault diagnosis approach work. Three classification algorithms, namely, classification and regression tree (CART), commercial version 4.5 (C4.5), and radial basis function support vector machines (RBFSVM), are used to test UCI datasets and 10 fault datasets of rolling bearing. The results indicate that the diagnostic approach presented could effectively select the sensitive fault features and simultaneously identify the type and degree of the fault.

  12. Intelligent fault diagnosis of rolling bearing based on kernel neighborhood rough sets and statistical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiao Ran; Zhang, You Yun; Zhu, Yong Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent fault diagnosis benefits from efficient feature selection. Neighborhood rough sets are effective in feature selection. However, determining the neighborhood value accurately remains a challenge. The wrapper feature selection algorithm is designed by combining the kernel method and neighborhood rough sets to self-adaptively select sensitive features. The combination effectively solves the shortcomings in selecting the neighborhood value in the previous application process. The statistical features of time and frequency domains are used to describe the characteristic of the rolling bearing to make the intelligent fault diagnosis approach work. Three classification algorithms, namely, classification and regression tree (CART), commercial version 4.5 (C4.5), and radial basis function support vector machines (RBFSVM), are used to test UCI datasets and 10 fault datasets of rolling bearing. The results indicate that the diagnostic approach presented could effectively select the sensitive fault features and simultaneously identify the type and degree of the fault

  13. Fault Management Assistant (FMA), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — S&K Aerospace (SKA) proposes to develop the Fault Management Assistant (FMA) to aid project managers and fault management engineers in developing better and more...

  14. A contribution to better understanding of structural characteristics and tectonic phases of the Boč region, Periadriatic Fault Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Žibret

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine properties of the tectonic contact between Permian/Mesozoic limestones and less competent Miocene clastites on the northeastern foothill of the Boč Mt. Because fault planes signifiantly mark the relief, this contact was studied by a detailed structural mapping, which showed that the Boč Mt. is limited by subvertical faults in its northeastern part. To ensure that mapped subvertical contact is compatible with regional geodynamics of the area, additionally paleostress analysis of fault-slip data was performed. Four individual paleostress tensor groups were documented in a wider Boč area and compared by published structural data from the border zone between Alps, Dinarides and Pannonian Basin. The oldest paleostress tensor group (Phase 1 is likely of Lower and Middle Miocene age and indicates SW-NE extension accommodated by W-E to WNW-ESE striking normal faults. Phase 2 can be correlated with Middle to Late Miocene NW-SE to WNWESE directed extension accommodated by NNE-SSW striking normal faults. Phase 3 is correlated with Late Miocene W-E directed contraction accommodated by N-S striking sinistral faults and NNE-SSW to NE-SW striking dextral faults. The youngest paleostress tensor group (Phase 4 fis well with Pliocene to Quaternary NNW-SSE to N-S directed contraction accommodated by NW-SE to W-E striking dextral faults and NE-SW striking reverse faults. Since the documented paleostress phases fis well with the geodynamic processes of the Alps-Dinarides-Carpathians territory the subvertical border in the northeastern part of Boč Mt. seems to be an acceptable structural solution. The study is important because the study area is located at interaction zone between two major Alpine fault systems: the Periadriatic and the Lavanttal faults.

  15. A summary of the active fault investigation in the extension sea area of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault , N-S direction fault in south west Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we carried out two sets of active fault investigation by the request from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in the sea area of the extension of Kikugawa fault and the Nishiyama fault. We want to clarify the five following matters about both active faults based on those results. (1)Fault continuity of the land and the sea. (2) The length of the active fault. (3) The division of the segment. (4) Activity characteristics. In this investigation, we carried out a digital single channel seismic reflection survey in the whole area of both active faults. In addition, a high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection survey was carried out to recognize the detailed structure of a shallow stratum. Furthermore, the sampling with the vibrocoring to get information of the sedimentation age was carried out. The reflection profile of both active faults was extremely clear. The characteristics of the lateral fault such as flower structure, the dispersion of the active fault were recognized. In addition, from analysis of the age of the stratum, it was recognized that the thickness of the sediment was extremely thin in Holocene epoch on the continental shelf in this sea area. It was confirmed that the Kikugawa fault extended to the offing than the existing results of research by a result of this investigation. In addition, the width of the active fault seems to become wide toward the offing while dispersing. At present, we think that we can divide Kikugawa fault into some segments based on the distribution form of the segment. About the Nishiyama fault, reflection profiles to show the existence of the active fault was acquired in the sea between Ooshima and Kyushu. From this result and topographical existing results of research in Ooshima, it is thought that Nishiyama fault and the Ooshima offing active fault are a series of structure. As for Ooshima offing active fault, the upheaval side changes, and a direction changes too. Therefore, we

  16. Non-Andersonian conjugate strike-slip faults: Observations, theory, and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, A; Taylor, M H

    2008-01-01

    Formation of conjugate strike-slip faults is commonly explained by the Anderson fault theory, which predicts a X-shaped conjugate fault pattern with an intersection angle of ∼30 degrees between the maximum compressive stress and the faults. However, major conjugate faults in Cenozoic collisional orogens, such as the eastern Alps, western Mongolia, eastern Turkey, northern Iran, northeastern Afghanistan, and central Tibet, contradict the theory in that the conjugate faults exhibit a V-shaped geometry with intersection angles of 60-75 degrees, which is 30-45 degrees greater than that predicted by the Anderson fault theory. In Tibet and Mongolia, geologic observations can rule out bookshelf faulting, distributed deformation, and temporal changes in stress state as explanations for the abnormal fault patterns. Instead, the GPS-determined velocity field across the conjugate fault zones indicate that the fault formation may have been related to Hagen-Poiseuille flow in map view involving the upper crust and possibly the whole lithosphere based on upper mantle seismicity in southern Tibet and basaltic volcanism in Mongolia. Such flow is associated with two coeval and parallel shear zones having opposite shear sense; each shear zone produce a set of Riedel shears, respectively, and together the Riedel shears exhibit the observed non-Andersonian conjugate strike-slip fault pattern. We speculate that the Hagen-Poiseuille flow across the lithosphere that hosts the conjugate strike-slip zones was produced by basal shear traction related to asthenospheric flow, which moves parallel and away from the indented segment of the collisional fronts. The inferred asthenospheric flow pattern below the conjugate strike-slip fault zones is consistent with the magnitude and orientations of seismic anisotropy observed across the Tibetan and Mongolian conjugate fault zones, suggesting a strong coupling between lithospheric deformation and asthenospheric flow. The laterally moving

  17. Non-Andersonian conjugate strike-slip faults: Observations, theory, and tectonic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, A [Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90025-1567 (United States); Taylor, M H [Department of Geology, University of Kansas, 1475 Jayhawk Blvd., Lawrence, KS 66044 (United States)], E-mail: yin@ess.ucla.edu

    2008-07-01

    Formation of conjugate strike-slip faults is commonly explained by the Anderson fault theory, which predicts a X-shaped conjugate fault pattern with an intersection angle of {approx}30 degrees between the maximum compressive stress and the faults. However, major conjugate faults in Cenozoic collisional orogens, such as the eastern Alps, western Mongolia, eastern Turkey, northern Iran, northeastern Afghanistan, and central Tibet, contradict the theory in that the conjugate faults exhibit a V-shaped geometry with intersection angles of 60-75 degrees, which is 30-45 degrees greater than that predicted by the Anderson fault theory. In Tibet and Mongolia, geologic observations can rule out bookshelf faulting, distributed deformation, and temporal changes in stress state as explanations for the abnormal fault patterns. Instead, the GPS-determined velocity field across the conjugate fault zones indicate that the fault form