WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously implemented rules

  1. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  2. Surface Water Treatment Rules State Implementation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents provide guidance to states, tribes and U.S. EPA Regions exercising primary enforcement responsibility under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The documents contain EPA’s recommendations for implementation of the Surface Water Treatment Rules.

  3. Price anderson nuclear safety rules: Impacts of implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varchol, B.D.; Alhadeff, N.

    1995-01-01

    New nuclear safety rules are being implemented at Department of Energy sites. This paper examines the impacts of these rules as each site decides where rules will be implemented, whether implementation activities will be centralized, and how the site management and staff will be introduced to the new rules

  4. Implementation of the new maintenance rule in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, A. L.; Gerez, L.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance rule involving a change in philosophy both for the facilities and regulations has been implemented in Spain nuclear power plants as from April 1st this year. The authors describe this rule and detail its fulfillment in Spain. (Author)

  5. Design Rules for Non-Atomic Implementations of PRS

    OpenAIRE

    Papadantonakis, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Martin Synthesis yields quasi--delay-insensitive (QDI) circuits, expressed in production--rule-set (PRS) form. Under an atomic circuit evaluation model, these circuits are provably correct. However, not all physical circuit implementations provide the atomic transitions needed to satisfy the atomic circuit model. This can cause operational failures in real circuits, as we illustrate. Nonetheless, circuits with non-atomic transitions can faithfully implement the atomic circuit model when comb...

  6. Characterizing implementable allocation rules in multi-dimensional environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, A.; Müller, R.J.; Naeemi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    We study characterizations of implementable allocation rules when types are multi-dimensional, monetary transfers are allowed, and agents have quasi-linear preferences over outcomes and transfers. Every outcome is associated with a continuous valuation function that maps an agent's type to his value

  7. 17 CFR 38.4 - Procedures for listing products and implementing contract market rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... products and implementing contract market rules. 38.4 Section 38.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... implementing contract market rules. (a) Request for Commission approval of rules and products. (1) An applicant...-certification of rules and products. Rules of a designated contract market and subsequent amendments thereto...

  8. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  9. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action..., 2013 (78 FR 55340), regarding Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III...

  10. Implementing embedded artificial intelligence rules within algorithmic programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyock, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Most integrations of artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities with non-AI (usually FORTRAN-based) application programs require the latter to execute separately to run as a subprogram or, at best, as a coroutine, of the AI system. In many cases, this organization is unacceptable; instead, the requirement is for an AI facility that runs in embedded mode; i.e., is called as subprogram by the application program. The design and implementation of a Prolog-based AI capability that can be invoked in embedded mode are described. The significance of this system is twofold: Provision of Prolog-based symbol-manipulation and deduction facilities makes a powerful symbolic reasoning mechanism available to applications programs written in non-AI languages. The power of the deductive and non-procedural descriptive capabilities of Prolog, which allow the user to describe the problem to be solved, rather than the solution, is to a large extent vitiated by the absence of the standard control structures provided by other languages. Embedding invocations of Prolog rule bases in programs written in non-AI languages makes it possible to put Prolog calls inside DO loops and similar control constructs. The resulting merger of non-AI and AI languages thus results in a symbiotic system in which the advantages of both programming systems are retained, and their deficiencies largely remedied.

  11. Contralateral leg deficits in kinetic and kinematic variables during running in Australian rules football players with previous hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Cronin, John; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Kinsella, Dave; Nosaka, Ken

    2010-09-01

    Contralateral leg deficits between lower limbs during athletic movements are thought to increase the risk of injury and compromise performance. The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of leg deficits during running in noninjured and previously injured Australian Rules football (ARF) players. The players included a group of noninjured ARF players (n = 11) and a group of previously injured ARF players (n = 11; hamstring injuries only). The players in the injured group (IG) had at least 1 acute hamstring injury in the previous 2 years. The legs of the noninjured players (NIG) were classified as right and left, whereas the legs of the injured players were classified as injured or noninjured. The players ran on a nonmotorized force treadmill at approximately 80% of their maximum velocity (Vmax). For the NIG, there were no significant differences between right and left legs for any of the variables. For the IG, the only variable that was significantly (p force (175 +/- 30 vs. 326 +/- 44 N). Furthermore, horizontal force was significantly greater in the noninjured leg (IG) in comparison with either legs in the NIG (19.2% and 20.5%) and significantly less in the injured leg (IG) in comparison with either legs of the NIG (31.5% and 32.7%). In the present study, athletes with previous hamstring injuries had contralateral leg deficits in horizontal but not vertical force during running at submaximal velocities.

  12. 77 FR 235 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Procedural Rules; Conflicts of Interest AGENCY... of Colorado's procedural rules as adopted by the Air Quality Control Commission (Commission) on... of This Action EPA is proposing to fully approve Section 1.11 of Colorado's procedural rules, adopted...

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITATIVE RULES IN COMPANY`S INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WOLNOWSKA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were presented chosen issues of quality management. Important role of information and work processes in companies were emphasized . Based on eight rules of quality management, TQM standards and ideas of discipline pioneers like Deming, Juran, Crosby and Shewart, author has constructed way of using chosen rules and assumptions to company`s information circulation. Analogy, suggested by author, has not only emphasized importance of information as a company`s resource, but also has pointed to possibility of improving ways of managing this information.

  14. 17 CFR 39.4 - Procedures for implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. 39.4 Section 39.4 Commodity and Securities... implementing derivatives clearing organization rules and clearing new products. (a) Request for approval of... of § 40.6 of this chapter. (c) Acceptance of new products for clearing. (1) A dormant derivatives...

  15. Implementing a Description Grammar Interpreter : A Notation for Descriptions and Description Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Description grammars represent a formalism for generating verbal descriptions of designs, used in conjunction with shape grammars. A description grammar constitutes a set of description rules that define a language of descriptions. A description grammar interpreter implements the mechanisms to

  16. A Rule-Based System Implementing a Method for Translating FOL Formulas into NL Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpagouli, Aikaterini; Hatzilygeroudis, Ioannis

    In this paper, we mainly present the implementation of a system that translates first order logic (FOL) formulas into natural language (NL) sentences. The motivation comes from an intelligent tutoring system teaching logic as a knowledge representation language, where it is used as a means for feedback to the students-users. FOL to NL conversion is achieved by using a rule-based approach, where we exploit the pattern matching capabilities of rules. So, the system consists of rule-based modules corresponding to the phases of our translation methodology. Facts are used in a lexicon providing lexical and grammatical information that helps in producing the NL sentences. The whole system is implemented in Jess, a java-implemented rule-based programming tool. Experimental results confirm the success of our choices.

  17. 75 FR 77051 - Rules Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...) pension consultants; (iii) investment advisers affiliated with an adviser registered with the Commission... Exchange Commission 31 Parts 275 and 279 Rules Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of... Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...

  18. Implementation and automated validation of the minimal Z' model in FeynRules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, L.; Christensen, N.D.; Duhr, C.; Fuks, B.; Speckner, C.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a well-known class of U(1) gauge models, the 'minimal' Z' models, in FeynRules. We also describe a new automated validation tool for FeynRules models which is controlled by a web interface and allows the user to run a complete set of 2 → 2 processes on different matrix element generators, different gauges, and compare between them all. If existing, the comparison with independent implementations is also possible. This tool has been used to validate our implementation of the 'minimal' Z' models. (authors)

  19. 76 FR 20850 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Stage I Vapor Recovery Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Vapor Recovery Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving into the Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP), amendments to the stage I vapor recovery rule and administrative changes to stage II vapor recovery rule submitted by the Indiana...

  20. An Evaluation and Implementation of Rule-Based Home Energy Management System Using the Rete Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Kawakami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sensors become popular and Home Energy Management System (HEMS takes an important role in saving energy without decrease in QoL (Quality of Life. Currently, many rule-based HEMSs have been proposed and almost all of them assume “IF-THEN” rules. The Rete algorithm is a typical pattern matching algorithm for IF-THEN rules. Currently, we have proposed a rule-based Home Energy Management System (HEMS using the Rete algorithm. In the proposed system, rules for managing energy are processed by smart taps in network, and the loads for processing rules and collecting data are distributed to smart taps. In addition, the number of processes and collecting data are reduced by processing rules based on the Rete algorithm. In this paper, we evaluated the proposed system by simulation. In the simulation environment, rules are processed by a smart tap that relates to the action part of each rule. In addition, we implemented the proposed system as HEMS using smart taps.

  1. Factors influencing long-term adherence to two previously implemented hospital guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, A. M.; Storm-Versloot, M. N.; Mank, A. P. M.; Ubbink, D. T.; Vermeulen, H.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Goossens, A.

    2010-01-01

    After successful implementation, adherence to hospital guidelines should be sustained. Long-term adherence to two hospital guidelines was audited. The overall aim was to explore factors accounting for their long-term adherence or non-adherence. A fluid balance guideline (FBG) and body temperature

  2. Implementation of the natural resource damage assessment rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Regulations have been promulgated by the Department of Interior (DOI) which provide an administrative process whereby natural resource trustees may establish the type and extent of injury and evaluate the damages to natural resources. These regulations provide an optional mechanism for Natural Resource Damage Assessments (NRDAs), with four major components. A workshop was held to develop recommendations for DOE-OR regarding implementation of the DOI NRDA regulations at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The attendants were divided into three working groups to consider (1) administrative/legal requirements, (2) ecological assessments, and (3) the NRDA/economic evaluation process. This report supplies an overview of the DOI NRDA regulations as well as summaries of the consensus of each of the three working groups

  3. Design and implementation of a rule based system for ambulatory nursing data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J R; Stoupa, R; Warren, J J

    1991-01-01

    In order to effectively organize the use of nursing time during clinic check-in, we designed a forward chaining rule based program for nursing history taking, problem tracking, and documentation. The program consists of a medical logic module trigger engine which identifies relevant rules for nursing history, an interactive question manager for nursing history taking, and a rule generation shell implemented within a specially designed Medical Query Language (MQL) shcema. At clinic check-in, the engine refreshes the rule set for the patient from interaction with the computerized medical record. The interaction driver assists the nurse with tracking of elapsed time, and allows him/her to pursue questions, record data, and create or complete nursing interventions. Nursing question sets and interventions are maintained longitudinally to assure continuity of care. Nursing problems are created on the problem list within the computerized record as the rule system identifies their existence.

  4. Factors influencing long-term adherence to two previously implemented hospital guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, A M; Storm-Versloot, M N; Mank, A P M; Ubbink, D T; Vermeulen, H; Bossuyt, P M M; Goossens, A

    2010-10-01

    After successful implementation, adherence to hospital guidelines should be sustained. Long-term adherence to two hospital guidelines was audited. The overall aim was to explore factors accounting for their long-term adherence or non-adherence. A fluid balance guideline (FBG) and body temperature guideline (BTG) were developed and implemented in our hospital in 2000. Long-term adherence was determined retrospectively based on data from patient files. Focus groups were launched to explore nurses' perceptions of barriers and facilitators regarding long-term adherence. The predominant themes from the nurses' focus groups were posed to clinicians in questionnaires. Nurses involved in the FBG (overall adherence 100%) stated that adherence has immediate advantages in terms of safety and a gain in time. Nurses and oncologists acted unanimously which was thought to enhance adherence. On the other hand, opinions differed on the BTG within the nursing teams and medical staff (overall adherence 50%). Although the guideline discourages routine postoperative body temperature measurements, temperature should be measured according to the guideline in a considerable number of cases due to changes in patient characteristics since the year 2000. Therefore, adherence was judged to be rather complex. To secure adherence to hospital guidelines after their successful implementation, guidelines should preferably be comprehensive in terms of being applicable to the majority of the patients in that particular setting and to the most common clinical situations. All healthcare professionals involved should be aware of its immediate benefits for themselves or to their patients.

  5. X-rays for Acute Knee Injuries: Pre- and Post- Pittsburgh Decision Rules Implementation. A District General Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ashry, Saad R; El Gamal, Tarek A; Challagundla, Sudhakar R; Ntala, Chara A; Nagy, Ahmed M; Crane, Evan O

    2016-10-28

    We wanted to assess the number of unnecessary radiographs done for acute knee injury patients and the accuracy of the Pittsburgh decision rules. A retrospective observational study was done to look at the acute knee injury patients presented to a district general hospital Accident and Emergency Department from August 2011 till August 2013. We assessed the following parameters: sex, age, mechanism of injury, weight-bearing status and incidence of fractures in patients subjected to plain radiograph. A prospective study was then done from April 2014- August 2014 following implementation of the Pittsburgh decision rules. 24% of the patients had knee X-ray, compared to 72.12% in the first cycle. 36.8% had fracture, compared to 6.1% first cycle, with 66.7 % reduction in x-rays. Pittsburgh decision rules sensitivity was 100% and specificity 85.3%, positive predictive value 45.8% and accuracy 87%. 1. The Pittsburgh decision rules is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in determining the need of X-ray in acute knee Injuries. 2. We found that the Pittsburgh decision rules performs well in our hospital, which coincides with previously published literature.

  6. Automatic treatment planning implementation using a database of previously treated patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J A; Evans, K; Yang, W; Herman, J; McNutt, T

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Using a database of prior treated patients, it is possible to predict the dose to critical structures for future patients. Automatic treatment planning speeds the planning process by generating a good initial plan from predicted dose values. Methods: A SQL relational database of previously approved treatment plans is populated via an automated export from Pinnacle 3 . This script outputs dose and machine information and selected Regions of Interests as well as its associated Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH) and Overlap Volume Histograms (OVHs) with respect to the target structures. Toxicity information is exported from Mosaiq and added to the database for each patient. The SQL query is designed to ask the system for the lowest achievable dose for a specified region of interest (ROI) for each patient with a given volume of that ROI being as close or closer to the target than the current patient. Results: The additional time needed to calculate OVHs is approximately 1.5 minutes for a typical patient. Database lookup of planning objectives takes approximately 4 seconds. The combined additional time is less than that of a typical single plan optimization (2.5 mins). Conclusions: An automatic treatment planning interface has been successfully used by dosimetrists to quickly produce a number of SBRT pancreas treatment plans. The database can be used to compare dose to individual structures with the toxicity experienced and predict toxicities before planning for future patients.

  7. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...-AD 87 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted Assets, Market...

  8. 76 FR 20910 - Proposed Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Stage I Vapor Recovery Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Engineer, Criteria Pollutant Section, Air Programs Branch (AR-18J), Environmental Protection Agency, Region... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2010-0545; FRL-9295-2] Proposed Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Stage I Vapor Recovery Rule AGENCY: Environmental...

  9. 76 FR 49391 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Rules Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... comments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christos Panos, Environmental Engineer, Attainment Planning and... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2008-0448; FRL-9450-2] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Rules Update AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  10. 75 FR 73026 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Engineer, Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR- 18J), Environmental... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2009-0515; FRL-9232-4] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule AGENCY: Environmental...

  11. Automated implementation of rule-based expert systems with neural networks for time-critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, P. A.; Huang, Song; Govind, Girish

    1991-01-01

    In fault diagnosis, control and real-time monitoring, both timing and accuracy are critical for operators or machines to reach proper solutions or appropriate actions. Expert systems are becoming more popular in the manufacturing community for dealing with such problems. In recent years, neural networks have revived and their applications have spread to many areas of science and engineering. A method of using neural networks to implement rule-based expert systems for time-critical applications is discussed here. This method can convert a given rule-based system into a neural network with fixed weights and thresholds. The rules governing the translation are presented along with some examples. We also present the results of automated machine implementation of such networks from the given rule-base. This significantly simplifies the translation process to neural network expert systems from conventional rule-based systems. Results comparing the performance of the proposed approach based on neural networks vs. the classical approach are given. The possibility of very large scale integration (VLSI) realization of such neural network expert systems is also discussed.

  12. 75 FR 57220 - Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review Anti-Backsliding Provisions for Former 1-Hour... ``Proposed Rule to Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New Source Review... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AP30 Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality...

  13. Assessment of the effectiveness of the LEU Reform Rule and its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.; Nations, J.O.; Hammond, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its material control and accounting (MC ampersand A) requirements in 1985 for licensees possessing and using special nuclear material (SNM) of low strategic significance in quantities larger than one effective kilogram (kg). The goal of the Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) Reform Rule (i.e., 10CFR 74.31) was to establish MC ampersand A requirements for the LEU licensees at a level consistent with the safeguards risk associated with the relatively low strategic importance of such material. The amended requirements were written in a performance-oriented manner, rather than a prescriptive one, in an effort to allow the licensees the opportunity to choose the most cost-effective means of satisfying the requirements. The LEU Reform Rule was implemented in January 1988 and the fuel cycle facilities have had sufficient experience in implementing the rule to allow a meaningful review of its effectiveness. This document provides technical analysis and recommendations to assist the NRC in making a determination if the rule is achieving its intended purpose, and if not, to make the necessary changes to accomplish this

  14. Product integration rules at Clenshaw-Curtis and related points: A robust implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.; Nobile, A.

    1989-12-01

    Product integration rules generalizing the Fejer, Clenshaw-Curtis and Filippi quadrature rules respectively are derived for integrals with trigonometric and hyperbolic weight factors. The study puts in evidence the existence of well-conditioned fully analytic solutions, in terms of hypergeometric functions 0 F 1 . An a priori error estimator is discussed which is shown both to avoid wasteful invocation of the integration rule and to increase significantly the robustness of the automatic quadrature procedure. Then, specializing to extended Clenshaw-Curtis (ECC) rules, three types of a posteriori error estimates are considered and the existence of a great risk of their failure is put into evidence by large scale validation tests. An empirical error estimator, superseding them at slowly varying integrands, is found to result in a spectacular increase in the output reliability. Finally, enhancements in the control of the interval subdivision strategy aiming at increasing code robustness is discussed. Comparison with the code DQAWO of QUADPACK, extending over a statistics of about hundred thousand solved integrals, is illustrative for the increased robustness and error estimate reliability of our computer code implementation of the ECC rules. (author). 19 refs, 8 tabs

  15. US utility experience in implementing the maintenance rule. Inputs to the Spanish programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia Ruperez, F.; Gregor, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    Following the issuance of the Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) the US Utility industry developed detailed guidance for the implementation of this performance-based rule. Methods, processes and procedures are very flexible and have culminated in a variety of plant-specific applications. The experience gained over the last three years provides a valuables input towards the development of the Spanish Maintenance Rule Program. Lessons learned and insights gained from the NRC and Utility meetings, workshops, plant audits and the interchange of documents, as well as results from the information-sharing utility working groups are summarized for possible application to the specific Spanish scenario. While most of the implementation issue have been resolved, some open issues remain to be negotiated within the NRC. With the deadline for the compliance of implementation set for July 1996, US Utilities are working diligently to settle these few differences. Once more, the results of these negotiations will provide good references for the specific application and licensing of these requirements in Spanish NNPs. The paper will describe the situation in the US and the benefits, sequence and methodologies for transferring these lessons to Spanish plants. (Author)

  16. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  17. Lessons learned from early implementation of the maintenance rule at nine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrone, C.D.; Correia, R.P.; Black, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the lessons learned from the nine pilot site visits that were performed to review early implementation of the maintenance rule using the draft NRC Maintenance Inspection Procedure. Licensees followed NUMARC 93-01, ''Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' In general, the licensees were thorough in determining which structures, systems, and components (SSCS) were within the scope of the maintenance rule at each site. The use of an expert panel was an appropriate and practical method of determining which SSCs are risk significant. When setting goals, all licensees considered safety but many licensees did not consider operating experience throughout the industry. Although required to do so, licensees were not monitoring at the system or train level the performance or condition for some systems used in standby service but not significant to risk. Most licensees had not established adequate monitoring of structures under the rule. Licensees established reasonable plans for doing periodic evaluations, balancing unavailability and reliability, and assessing the effect of taking equipment out of service for maintenance. However, these plans were not evaluated because they had not been fully implemented at the time of the site visits

  18. 76 FR 42949 - Rules Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... amendments, including amendments to the Commission's pay to play rule, that address a number of other changes... Commission's ``pay to play'' rule,\\10\\ to address a number of other changes to the Advisers Act made by the... Play'' Rule 2. Technical and Conforming Amendments a. Rules 203(b)(3)-1 and 203(b)(3)-2 b. Rule 204-2 c...

  19. Is not the universality of implementation of IAEA rules as difficult to maintain as it was to obtain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.

    1989-07-01

    IAEA recommendations on the safe transport of radioactive materials succeded in their task to uniformize the applicable rules for national and international transport. Problems set up by this carriage evolve with technical progress, nuclear knowledge and implementation development. This report tries to see under what conditions, the harmony obtained at one given date could be maintained and kept with the passing time, through the necessary adaptations in the field of the making up of the general rules, and in the practical applications

  20. Rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: a regulatory history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danziger, R.N.; Caples, P.W.; Huning, J.R.

    1980-09-15

    An analysis is made of the rules implementing Sections 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). The act provides that utilities must purchase power from qualifying producers of electricity at nondiscriminatory rates, and it exempts private generators from virtually all state and Federal utility regulations. Most of the analysis presented is taken from the perspective of photovoltaics (PV) and solar thermal electric point-focusing distributed receivers (pfdr). It is felt, however, that the analysis is applicable both to cogeneration and other emerging technologies. Chapters presented are: The FERC Response to Oral Comments on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Additional Changes Made or Not Made That Were Addressed in Other Than Oral Testimony; View on the Proposed Rules Implementing Sections 201 and 210 of PURPA; Response to Comments on the Proposed 201 and 210 Rules; and Summary Analysis of the Environmental Assessment of the Rules. Pertinent reference material is provided in the Appendices, including the text of the rules. (MCW)

  1. 77 FR 60129 - 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Forms To Implement the Privacy Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    .... Yvette Roubideaux, Director, Indian Health Service. [FR Doc. 2012-24119 Filed 10-1-12; 8:45 am] BILLING... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service 60-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Forms To Implement the Privacy Rule; Request for Public Comment AGENCY...

  2. 76 FR 23221 - Joint Public Roundtable on Issues Related to the Schedule for Implementing Final Rules for Swaps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... investments in advanced technology that are necessary for us to effectively oversee the futures, options, and... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Chapter I SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR... Schedule for Implementing Final Rules for Swaps and Security-Based Swaps Under the Dodd-Frank Wall Street...

  3. Framework for the impact analysis and implementation of Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbakel Jan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs are tools that quantify the contribution of symptoms, clinical signs and available diagnostic tests, and in doing so stratify patients according to the probability of having a target outcome or need for a specified treatment. Most focus on the derivation stage with only a minority progressing to validation and very few undergoing impact analysis. Impact analysis studies remain the most efficient way of assessing whether incorporating CPRs into a decision making process improves patient care. However there is a lack of clear methodology for the design of high quality impact analysis studies. We have developed a sequential four-phased framework based on the literature and the collective experience of our international working group to help researchers identify and overcome the specific challenges in designing and conducting an impact analysis of a CPR. There is a need to shift emphasis from deriving new CPRs to validating and implementing existing CPRs. The proposed framework provides a structured approach to this topical and complex area of research.

  4. Framework for the impact analysis and implementation of Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, Emma

    2011-10-14

    Abstract Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) are tools that quantify the contribution of symptoms, clinical signs and available diagnostic tests, and in doing so stratify patients according to the probability of having a target outcome or need for a specified treatment. Most focus on the derivation stage with only a minority progressing to validation and very few undergoing impact analysis. Impact analysis studies remain the most efficient way of assessing whether incorporating CPRs into a decision making process improves patient care. However there is a lack of clear methodology for the design of high quality impact analysis studies. We have developed a sequential four-phased framework based on the literature and the collective experience of our international working group to help researchers identify and overcome the specific challenges in designing and conducting an impact analysis of a CPR. There is a need to shift emphasis from deriving new CPRs to validating and implementing existing CPRs. The proposed framework provides a structured approach to this topical and complex area of research.

  5. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... emissions of mercury and other toxic air pollutants from power plants, which collectively are among the... Air Toxics Standards rule for power plants (the ``MATS Rule'') represents a major step forward in my... Commission, State utility regulators, Regional Transmission Organizations, the North American Electric...

  6. 78 FR 62017 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    .... Multiple Credit Risk Mitigants 2. Collateralized Transactions a. Eligible Collateral b. Risk-management... Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-weighted Assets, Market Discipline and Disclosure Requirements, Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule; Final...

  7. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runchun Mark Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP. We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 2^26 (64M synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted and/or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the target synapse in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 2^36 (64G synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform.

  8. A neuromorphic implementation of multiple spike-timing synaptic plasticity rules for large-scale neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Runchun M; Hamilton, Tara J; Tapson, Jonathan C; van Schaik, André

    2015-01-01

    We present a neuromorphic implementation of multiple synaptic plasticity learning rules, which include both Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) and Spike Timing Dependent Delay Plasticity (STDDP). We present a fully digital implementation as well as a mixed-signal implementation, both of which use a novel dynamic-assignment time-multiplexing approach and support up to 2(26) (64M) synaptic plasticity elements. Rather than implementing dedicated synapses for particular types of synaptic plasticity, we implemented a more generic synaptic plasticity adaptor array that is separate from the neurons in the neural network. Each adaptor performs synaptic plasticity according to the arrival times of the pre- and post-synaptic spikes assigned to it, and sends out a weighted or delayed pre-synaptic spike to the post-synaptic neuron in the neural network. This strategy provides great flexibility for building complex large-scale neural networks, as a neural network can be configured for multiple synaptic plasticity rules without changing its structure. We validate the proposed neuromorphic implementations with measurement results and illustrate that the circuits are capable of performing both STDP and STDDP. We argue that it is practical to scale the work presented here up to 2(36) (64G) synaptic adaptors on a current high-end FPGA platform.

  9. Revised Total Coliform Rule Implementation in Wyoming and Tribal Lands in EPA Region 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  10. 75 FR 72956 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... FIPs are automatically withdrawn and the remaining portions of the FIP stay in place. Finally, the CAIR... sources in the State), while the CAIR FIP remains in place for all other provisions. Therefore, because... model trading rules apply to any stationary, fossil-fuel-fired boiler or stationary, fossil-fuel-fired...

  11. Fluid Intelligence Predicts Novel Rule Implementation in a Distributed Frontoparietal Control Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Mitchell, Daniel; Duncan, John

    2017-05-03

    Fluid intelligence has been associated with a distributed cognitive control or multiple-demand (MD) network, comprising regions of lateral frontal, insular, dorsomedial frontal, and parietal cortex. Human fluid intelligence is also intimately linked to task complexity, and the process of solving complex problems in a sequence of simpler, more focused parts. Here, a complex target detection task included multiple independent rules, applied one at a time in successive task epochs. Although only one rule was applied at a time, increasing task complexity (i.e., the number of rules) impaired performance in participants of lower fluid intelligence. Accompanying this loss of performance was reduced response to rule-critical events across the distributed MD network. The results link fluid intelligence and MD function to a process of attentional focus on the successive parts of complex behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Fluid intelligence is intimately linked to the ability to structure complex problems in a sequence of simpler, more focused parts. We examine the basis for this link in the functions of a distributed frontoparietal or multiple-demand (MD) network. With increased task complexity, participants of lower fluid intelligence showed reduced responses to task-critical events. Reduced responses in the MD system were accompanied by impaired behavioral performance. Low fluid intelligence is linked to poor foregrounding of task-critical information across a distributed MD system. Copyright © 2017 Tschentscher et al.

  12. Implications and challenges for implementation of the FDA's final deeming rule for waterpipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Soule, Eric K; McKelvey, Karma; Jenson, Desmond

    2017-06-30

    For the first time, the Food and Drug Administration's (FDAs) Center for Tobacco Products now has regulatory authority over all tobacco products, including waterpipe tobacco. In the rule expanding its authority to cover all tobacco products, the FDA uses largely a one-size-fits-all approach. However, several aspects of waterpipe tobacco smoking make it unique from other tobacco products, which may require more specific, tailored rules. This paper describes the distinct features of waterpipe tobacco products and accessories, and identifies unique challenges to the current regulation posed by this form of tobacco use. Additionally, we highlight the need for further research-generated evidence to support additional rulemaking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Refining the Relationships among Historical Figures by Implementing Inference Rules in SWRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin Ariyani, Nurul; Saralita, Madis; Sarwosri; Sarno, Riyanarto

    2018-03-01

    The biography of historical figures is often fascinating to be known. Everything about their character, work, invention, and personal life sometimes are presented in their biography. The social and family relationships among historical figures also put into concern, especially for political figures, heroes, kings or persons who have ever been ruled a monarchy in their past. Some biographies can be found in Wikipedia as articles. Most of the social and family relationship contents of these figures are not completely depicted due to a various article’s contributors and sources. Fortunately, the missing relatives of a person might reside in the other figures’ biography in different pages. Each Wikipedia article has metadata which represents its essential information of content. By processing the metadata obtained from DBpedia and composing the inferencing rules (in the form of ontology) to identify the relationships content, it can generate several new inferred facts that complement the existing relationships. This work proposes a methodology for finding missing relationships among historical figures using inference rules in an ontology. As a result, our method can present new facts about the relationships that absent in the existing Wikipedia articles.

  14. Changes in Water Quality of Grand Lake St. Marys Watershed Following Implementation of a Distressed Watershed Rules Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Stephen J; Johnson, Laura T; Dirksen, Theresa A; McGlinch, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Grand Lake St. Marys watershed has drawn attention over the past decade as water quality issues resulting from nutrient loading have come to the forefront of public opinion, political concern, and scientific study. The objective of this study was to assess long-term changes in water quality (nutrient and sediment concentrations) following the distressed watershed rules package instituted in 2011. Since that time, a variety of rules (e.g., winter manure ban) and best management practices (cover crops, manure storage or transfers, buffers, etc.) have been implemented. We used a general linear model to assess variation in total suspended solids, particulate phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), nitrate N, and total Kjeldahl nitrogen concentrations from daily Chickasaw Creek (drains ∼25% of watershed) samples spanning 2008 to 2016. Parameters were related to flow (higher values during high flows), timing (lower values during winter months), and the implementation of the distressed watershed rules package (lower values following implementation). Overall, reductions following the distressed designation for all parameters ranged from 5 to 35% during medium and high flow periods (with exception of SRP). Reductions were even more pronounced during winter months covered by the manure ban, where all parameters (including SRP) exhibited decreases at medium and high flows between 20 and 60%. While the reductions seen in this study are significant, concentrations are still highly elevated and continue to be a problem. We are optimistic that this study will serve to inform future management in the region and elsewhere. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. The political economy of the fisheries sector in Uganda: ruling elites, implementation costs and industry interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muhumuza, Fred; Mwebaze, Tom

    to support the establishment of effective hygiene and testing procedures. This helped the fishing industry succeed to an extent that helped create interests in the status quo. Fishermen, their dependents, and the fish processors all wanted to maintain a high level of fish catches. It was politically costly...... for ruling elites to enforce fisheries management because strict enforcement was unpopular with fishermen, as well as with many fishermen and security agents who benefitted from illegal fishing. Therefore, the success was not maintained: a pocket of efficiency was established with regard to hygiene...

  16. Experimental Design of a Polymeric Solution to Improve the Mobility Ratio in a Reservoir previous implementation of a pilot project of EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cuenca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes experimental formulations of polymeric solutions through lab evaluations with the objective of finding optimum solution concentration to fluid mobility in reservoirs as previous step before implementing a pilot project of enhanced oil recovery. The polymers, firstly, were selected based on the properties from fluids from reservoir. Two types of polymers were used TCC-330 and EOR909 and the experimental tests were: thermal stability, compatibility, adsorption, salinity, and displacement. The design with the best results was with polymer TCC-330 at 1,500 ppm concentration.

  17. Implementation of scalar and vector resonances into FeynRules and LanHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, A.; Christensen, N.; Duhr, C.; Fuks, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this summary report we discuss the implementation of a set of operators in FEYNRULES and LANHEP that can be used to study in a bottom-up approach new scalar and vector resonances coupling to quarks. The outline of this contribution is as follows: In Section 2 we review the operators and the spectrum of the resonances we implemented. In Sections 3 and 4 we discuss the implementation of all these operators into the FEYNRULES and LANHEP packages. We compare the two implementations in Section 5 by computing a selection of decay rates and 2-to-2 cross section with MADGRAPH 5 and CALCHEP. The set of operators is relevant to study in a bottom-up approach the possible BSM contributions to the anomaly in the forward-backward asymmetry in top pair production measured by the CDF and DO experiments. The implementation was done in a modular way, allowing the user to decide which resonances to consider, and gives the possibility to include all possible flavor and or CP-violating effects

  18. Canada ordered to implement WTO ruling against "stockpiling" of generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R

    2000-01-01

    In the last issue, we reported on a mixed World Trade Organization (WTO) ruling regarding Canada's patent laws, based on a complaint by the member states of the European Communities (joined by the United States). In March 2000, a WTO Panel accepted the provision in Canada's Patent Act that creates an "early working exception" to patent rights--in other words, that allows a third party to use a patented invention during the term of patent protection, as long as the use is for obtaining regulatory approval of an equivalent product to be sold once the patent expires. This was an important victory from the perspective of allowing earlier access to generic versions of patented drugs.

  19. 76 FR 49303 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Rules Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... performed a series of so-called ``Omnibus'' rulemakings to implement minor changes, correct mistakes... appropriate circuit by October 11, 2011. Filing a petition for reconsideration by the Administrator of this... comment in response to the parallel notice of proposed rulemaking for this action published in the...

  20. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    the relationship between the uses of structured rule-based approaches to manage product development, but little is known about what makes these rules change. This is the first study to uncover the multitude of drivers that stimulate change in product development rules and to suggest sets of moderators......Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...

  1. Regulations implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: determining coal miners' and survivors' entitlement to benefits. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    This final rule revises the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) regulations to implement amendments made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The ACA amended the BLBA in two ways. First, it revived a rebuttable presumption of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis for certain claims. Second, it reinstituted automatic entitlement to benefits for certain eligible survivors of coal miners whose lifetime benefit claims were awarded because they were totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis. These regulations clarify how the statutory presumption may be invoked and rebutted and the application and scope of the survivor-entitlement provision. The rule also eliminates several unnecessary or obsolete provisions.

  2. Differential Contributions of Nucleus Accumbens Subregions to Cue-Guided Risk/Reward Decision Making and Implementation of Conditional Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floresco, Stan B; Montes, David R; Tse, Maric M T; van Holstein, Mieke

    2018-02-21

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key node within corticolimbic circuitry for guiding action selection and cost/benefit decision making in situations involving reward uncertainty. Preclinical studies have typically assessed risk/reward decision making using assays where decisions are guided by internally generated representations of choice-outcome contingencies. Yet, real-life decisions are often influenced by external stimuli that inform about likelihoods of obtaining rewards. How different subregions of the NAc mediate decision making in such situations is unclear. Here, we used a novel assay colloquially termed the "Blackjack" task that models these types of situations. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to choose between one lever that always delivered a one-pellet reward and another that delivered four pellets with different probabilities [either 50% (good-odds) or 12.5% (poor-odds)], which were signaled by one of two auditory cues. Under control conditions, rats selected the large/risky option more often on good-odds versus poor-odds trials. Inactivation of the NAc core caused indiscriminate choice patterns. In contrast, NAc shell inactivation increased risky choice, more prominently on poor-odds trials. Additional experiments revealed that both subregions contribute to auditory conditional discrimination. NAc core or shell inactivation reduced Pavlovian approach elicited by an auditory CS+, yet shell inactivation also increased responding during presentation of a CS-. These data highlight distinct contributions for NAc subregions in decision making and reward seeking guided by discriminative stimuli. The core is crucial for implementation of conditional rules, whereas the shell refines reward seeking by mitigating the allure of larger, unlikely rewards and reducing expression of inappropriate or non-rewarded actions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Using external cues to guide decision making is crucial for adaptive behavior. Deficits in cue-guided behavior have been

  3. 75 FR 51960 - Proposed Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard: New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... South Severe-17 Los Angeles South Extreme. Coast Air Basin, Coast Air Basin, CA. CA. CA Los Angeles-San.... Anti-Backsliding Provisions B. Reconsideration of Certain Provisions of the Phase 1 Rule C. South Coast... was revoked. C. South Coast Decision In South Coast Air Quality Management District, et al., v. EPA...

  4. Rules for biocatalyst and reaction engineering to implement effective, NAD(P)H-dependent, whole cell bioreductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kratzer, Regina; Woodley, John; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    recycling of catalytic quantities, which is mostly accomplished by enzymatic oxidation of a cheap co-substrate. The coupled oxidoreduction can be either performed by free enzymes in solution or by whole cells. Reductase selection, the decision between cell-free and whole cell reduction system, coenzyme...... recycling mode and reaction conditions represent design options that strongly affect bioreduction efficiency. In this paper, each option was critically scrutinized and decision rules formulated based on well-described literature examples. The development chain was visualized as a decision-tree that can...

  5. Development of Real Time Implementation of 5/5 Rule based Fuzzy Logic Controller Shunt Active Power Filter for Power Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Pratap Sekhar; Ray, Pravat Kumar; Panda, Gayadhar

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the effectiveness of 5/5 Fuzzy rule implementation in Fuzzy Logic Controller conjunction with indirect control technique to enhance the power quality in single phase system, An indirect current controller in conjunction with Fuzzy Logic Controller is applied to the proposed shunt active power filter to estimate the peak reference current and capacitor voltage. Current Controller based pulse width modulation (CCPWM) is used to generate the switching signals of voltage source inverter. Various simulation results are presented to verify the good behaviour of the Shunt active Power Filter (SAPF) with proposed two levels Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC). For verification of Shunt Active Power Filter in real time, the proposed control algorithm has been implemented in laboratory developed setup in dSPACE platform.

  6. Implementing surface parameter aggregation rules in the CCM3 global climate model: regional responses at the land surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Arain

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The land-surface parameters required as input to a GCM grid box (typically a few degrees are often set to be those of the dominant vegetation type within the grid box. This paper discusses the use and effect of aggregation rules for specifying effective values of these land cover parameters by taking into account the relative proportion of each land-cover type within each individual grid box. Global land-cover classification data at 1 km resolution were used to define Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS specific aggregate (using aggregation rules land-cover parameters. Comparison of the values of the aggregate parameters and those defined using the single dominant vegetation type (default parameters shows significant differences in some regions, particularly in the semi-desert and in forested regions, e.g. the Sahara Desert and the tropical forest of South America. These two different sets of parameters were used as input data for two 10-year simulations of the NCAR CCM3 model coupled to the BATS land-surface scheme. Statistical analyses comparing the results of the two model runs showed that the resulting effects on the land-surface diagnostics are significant only in specific regions. For example, the sensible heat flux in the Sahara Desert calculated for the aggregate parameter run increased due to the marked increase in the minimum stomatal resistance and the decrease in fractional vegetation cover in the aggregate parameters over the default parameters. The modelled global precipitation and surface air temperature fields were compared to observations: there is a general improvement in the performance of the aggregate parameter run over the default parameter run in areas where the differences between the aggregate and default parameter run are significant. However, most of the difference between the modelled and observed fields is attributable to other model deficiencies. It can be concluded that the use of aggregation rules to derive

  7. Exercise only, exercise with mechanical traction, or exercise with over-door traction for patients with cervical radiculopathy, with or without consideration of status on a previously described subgrouping rule: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Julie M; Thackeray, Anne; Brennan, Gerard P; Childs, John D

    2014-02-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To examine the effectiveness of cervical traction in addition to exercise for specific subgroups of patients with neck pain. Cervical traction is frequently used, but its effectiveness has not been adequately examined. Existing studies have failed to target patients most likely to respond. Traction is typically recommended for patients with cervical radiculopathy. A prediction rule has been described to identify a narrower subgroup of patients likely to respond to cervical traction. Patients with neck pain and signs of radiculopathy were randomized to 4 weeks of treatment with exercise, exercise with mechanical traction, or exercise with over-door traction. Baseline assessment included subgrouping-rule status. The primary outcome measure (Neck Disability Index, scored 0-100) and secondary outcome measure (neck and arm pain intensity) were assessed at 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after enrollment. The primary analyses examined 2-way treatment-by-time interactions. Secondary analyses examined validity of the subgrouping rule by adding 3-way interactions. Eighty-six patients (53.5% female; mean age, 46.9 years) were enrolled in the study. Intention-to-treat analysis found lower Neck Disability Index scores at 6 months in the mechanical traction group compared to the exercise group (mean difference between groups, 13.3; 95% confidence interval: 5.6, 21.0) and over-door traction group (mean difference between groups, 8.1; 95% confidence interval: 0.8, 15.3), and at 12 months in the mechanical traction group compared to the exercise group (mean difference between groups, 9.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.2, 19.4). Secondary outcomes favored mechanical traction at several time points. The validity of the subgrouping rule was supported on the Neck Disability Index at the 6-month time point only. Adding mechanical traction to exercise for patients with cervical radiculopathy resulted in lower disability and pain, particularly at long-term follow

  8. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  9. Optical Generation of Fuzzy-Based Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2002-08-01

    In the last third of the 20th century, fuzzy logic has risen from a mathematical concept to an applicable approach in soft computing. Today, fuzzy logic is used in control systems for various applications, such as washing machines, train-brake systems, automobile automatic gear, and so forth. The approach of optical implementation of fuzzy inferencing was given by the authors in previous papers, giving an extra emphasis to applications with two dominant inputs. In this paper the authors introduce a real-time optical rule generator for the dual-input fuzzy-inference engine. The paper briefly goes over the dual-input optical implementation of fuzzy-logic inferencing. Then, the concept of constructing a set of rules from given data is discussed. Next, the authors show ways to implement this procedure optically. The discussion is accompanied by an example that illustrates the transformation from raw data into fuzzy set rules.

  10. The CAMU Rule: A tool for implementing a protective, cost-effective remedy at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis-Nouille, E.M.; Goidell, L.C.; Strimbu, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a former uranium processing facility currently under remediation pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act as amended (CERCLA). Contamination at the FEMP consists of low-level radioactivity, hazardous substances, hazardous wastes and/or mixed wastes. Regulations promulgated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as amended (RCRA) are evaluated as applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remediation of the FEMP. Historically, joint CERCLA-RCRA guidance dictated that hazardous waste could not be treated, or moved out of the designated area of contiguous contamination (AOC), without triggering land disposal restrictions (LDRs) or minimum technology requirements (MTRs). To avoid invoking these stringent requirements, in situ capping was chosen as the lower cost remedy at many sites, although on-site disposal and/or treatment of hazardous wastes would have been more protective. The Corrective Action Management Units (CAMUs) and Temporary Units (TUs) Final Rule [58 FR 8658, Vol. 58, No. 29, hereinafter the open-quotes CAMU Ruleclose quotes], promulgated on February 16, 1993, provides facilities regulated under RCRA corrective action authority with greater flexibility to move, treat, and dispose of wastes on site without triggering LDRs or MTRs, thereby encouraging application of innovative technologies and more protective remedies. The waste acceptance criteria for the on-site disposal facility is based on site-specific considerations including the mobility of the contaminants through the underlying site geology and the protectiveness of the engineered liners. Application of the open-quotes CAMU Ruleclose quotes allows for disposition in the on-site facility based on these technical considerations rather than on regulatory classifications

  11. Office of Inspector General report on inspection of reporting at Oak Ridge of potential noncompliances with DOE Price-Anderson Amendments Act implementing rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    To provide oversight of how well Department of Energy (DOE) contractors were adhering to the nuclear safety rules established by the Department to implement the Price-Anderson Amendments Act of 1988 (PAAA), DOE established an enforcement program, managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of the program is to identify and penalize DOE contractors for unsafe actions or conditions that violate nuclear safety requirements for protecting workers and the public. The single most important goal of the Department`s PAAA enforcement program is to encourage early identification and reporting of nuclear safety deficiencies and violations of DOE nuclear safety requirements by the DOE contractors themselves, rather than by DOE. Enforcement actions may include the issuance of Notices of Violations and, where appropriate, civil monetary penalties of up to $110,000 per violation per day. The objective of the inspection was to determine whether potential noncompliances with nuclear safety rules at the Department`s Oak Ridge site were being identified and self-reported. Details of findings and recommendations are presented.

  12. Application of the NEI 95-10 methodology in the Rcic system of the Unit-1, to implement the criterions of the license renovation rule; (10 Cfr-54)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.; Mendoza, G.; Arganis, C.; Viais, J.; Contreras, A.; Fernandez, G.; Medina, G.

    2012-10-01

    In December of 1991, the US National Regulatory Commission (US NRC) published the 10 Cfr-54, to establish the procedures, criterions and necessary requirements for the license renovation of a nuclear power station. In 1994 the US NRC proposed an amendment to these requirements that basically were centered in the effects of the aging in structures and passive components of long life and in the inclusion of Time Limited Aging Analyses (TLAAs). In a general way, is established that the requester should show to the regulator body that the effects of the aging in structures, systems and components are and will be appropriately negotiated or that the TLAAs has been evaluated for the operation extended period. The NEI 95-10 is a guide document developed by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), to provide a focus accepted to cover the requirements of 10 Cfr-54, offering an efficient process that allows to any requester to complete in a practical way the requirements of the License Renovation Rule and to supplement their solicitude. This work presents the application of this guide to the Reactor Core Insulation Cooling (Rcic) of the Unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, elect as pilot system to carry out the application of the 10 Cfr-54 following the recommended methodology by the Industrial Guide for the implementation of the License Renovation Rule. (Author)

  13. Implementation Command Media Manual And Internal Auditor Role In Achieving The Rules Of Good Corporate Governance The Case Of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafdinal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Command Media Manual includes the provision implementation procedures and instructions relating to the management and handling of command media is used by an organization to provide trace archives and uniformity of action operations. The contributions Internal Auditor IA in applying the principles of Good Corporate Governance GCG in the formation of company image and in the improvement of the integrated control function ensure that the operations have been run well and can increase the value added to the organization. Testing the hypothesis first tested the validity and reliability testing. Analysis of data was using path analysis path analysis. Generally not maximum awareness and common understanding among all management and staff that the application of the Manual Command Media is very important for the companys operations in their objective to fulfill the standards of corporate governance.

  14. Use of a remote clinical decision support service for a multicenter trial to implement prediction rules for children with minor blunt head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Howard S; Paterno, Marilyn D; Grundmeier, Robert W; Rocha, Beatriz H; Hoffman, Jeffrey M; Tham, Eric; Swietlik, Marguerite; Schaeffer, Molly H; Pabbathi, Deepika; Deakyne, Sara J; Kuppermann, Nathan; Dayan, Peter S

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the architecture, integration requirements, and execution characteristics of a remote clinical decision support (CDS) service used in a multicenter clinical trial. The trial tested the efficacy of implementing brain injury prediction rules for children with minor blunt head trauma. We integrated the Epic(®) electronic health record (EHR) with the Enterprise Clinical Rules Service (ECRS), a web-based CDS service, at two emergency departments. Patterns of CDS review included either a delayed, near-real-time review, where the physician viewed CDS recommendations generated by the nursing assessment, or a real-time review, where the physician viewed recommendations generated by their own documentation. A backstopping, vendor-based CDS triggered with zero delay when no recommendation was available in the EHR from the web-service. We assessed the execution characteristics of the integrated system and the source of the generated recommendations viewed by physicians. The ECRS mean execution time was 0.74 ±0.72 s. Overall execution time was substantially different at the two sites, with mean total transaction times of 19.67 and 3.99 s. Of 1930 analyzed transactions from the two sites, 60% (310/521) of all physician documentation-initiated recommendations and 99% (1390/1409) of all nurse documentation-initiated recommendations originated from the remote web service. The remote CDS system was the source of recommendations in more than half of the real-time cases and virtually all the near-real-time cases. Comparisons are limited by allowable variation in user workflow and resolution of the EHR clock. With maturation and adoption of standards for CDS services, remote CDS shows promise to decrease time-to-trial for multicenter evaluations of candidate decision support interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  16. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  17. Implications of Stakeholder Constellations for the Implementation of Irrigation Rules at Jointly Used Wells - Cases from the North China Plain, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bluemling, B.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Yang, H.; Mosler, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In view of the declining groundwater table in the North China Plain, this article explores whether, under current farmer groups' irrigation rules and their enforcement, control on irrigation water use can be high. This article first explores whether the sample's rule designs enable potentially

  18. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  19. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  20. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther

    2013-10-12

    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  1. EFH Conservation Areas off Washington, Oregon, and California for NMFS' Final Rule Implementing Amendment 19 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data depict Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) conservation areas off Washington, Oregon, and California. The coordinate locations are from NMFS' Final Rule to...

  2. Validation, updating and impact of clinical prediction rules: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D B; Janssen, K J M; Vergouwe, Y; Moons, K G M

    2008-11-01

    To provide an overview of the research steps that need to follow the development of diagnostic or prognostic prediction rules. These steps include validity assessment, updating (if necessary), and impact assessment of clinical prediction rules. Narrative review covering methodological and empirical prediction studies from primary and secondary care. In general, three types of validation of previously developed prediction rules can be distinguished: temporal, geographical, and domain validations. In case of poor validation, the validation data can be used to update or adjust the previously developed prediction rule to the new circumstances. These update methods differ in extensiveness, with the easiest method a change in model intercept to the outcome occurrence at hand. Prediction rules -- with or without updating -- showing good performance in (various) validation studies may subsequently be subjected to an impact study, to demonstrate whether they change physicians' decisions, improve clinically relevant process parameters, patient outcome, or reduce costs. Finally, whether a prediction rule is implemented successfully in clinical practice depends on several potential barriers to the use of the rule. The development of a diagnostic or prognostic prediction rule is just a first step. We reviewed important aspects of the subsequent steps in prediction research.

  3. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  4. 20 CFR 801.302 - Procedural rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedural rules. 801.302 Section 801.302... Action by the Board § 801.302 Procedural rules. Procedural rules for performance by the Board of its.... Such rules shall incorporate and implement the procedural requirements of section 21(b) of the...

  5. Business rule mining from spreadsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, S.

    2015-01-01

    Business rules represent the knowledge that guides the operations of a business organization. They are implemented in software applications used by organizations, and the activity of extracting them from software is known as business rule mining. It has various purposes amongst which migration and

  6. Diderot's rule

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    "Like many new products, newly released creative goods such as books, music records and movies are sometimes 'surprise' hits but often flops. Experimental and empirical research suggests that it is hard to predict the demand for a new creative good, and therefore its success, even for industry experts. Rules of thumb on the quantitative properties of demand uncertainty exist for various creative industries - including a rule by Denis Diderot (1763) according to which one out of ten published ...

  7. Rule-Based Runtime Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We present a rule-based framework for defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. Our logic, EAGLE, is implemented as a Java library and involves novel techniques for rule definition, manipulation and execution. Monitoring is done on a state-by-state basis, without storing the execution trace.

  8. Exploration of SWRL Rule Bases through Visualization, Paraphrasing, and Categorization of Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O'Connor, Martin J.; Das, Amar K.

    Rule bases are increasingly being used as repositories of knowledge content on the Semantic Web. As the size and complexity of these rule bases increases, developers and end users need methods of rule abstraction to facilitate rule management. In this paper, we describe a rule abstraction method for Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) rules that is based on lexical analysis and a set of heuristics. Our method results in a tree data structure that we exploit in creating techniques to visualize, paraphrase, and categorize SWRL rules. We evaluate our approach by applying it to several biomedical ontologies that contain SWRL rules, and show how the results reveal rule patterns within the rule base. We have implemented our method as a plug-in tool for Protégé-OWL, the most widely used ontology modeling software for the Semantic Web. Our tool can allow users to rapidly explore content and patterns in SWRL rule bases, enabling their acquisition and management.

  9. Rationale, design, and implementation protocol of an electronic health record integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR randomized trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnivesky Juan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical prediction rules (CPRs represent well-validated but underutilized evidence-based medicine tools at the point-of-care. To date, an inability to integrate these rules into an electronic health record (EHR has been a major limitation and we are not aware of a study demonstrating the use of CPR's in an ambulatory EHR setting. The integrated clinical prediction rule (iCPR trial integrates two CPR's in an EHR and assesses both the usability and the effect on evidence-based practice in the primary care setting. Methods A multi-disciplinary design team was assembled to develop a prototype iCPR for validated streptococcal pharyngitis and bacterial pneumonia CPRs. The iCPR tool was built as an active Clinical Decision Support (CDS tool that can be triggered by user action during typical workflow. Using the EHR CDS toolkit, the iCPR risk score calculator was linked to tailored ordered sets, documentation, and patient instructions. The team subsequently conducted two levels of 'real world' usability testing with eight providers per group. Usability data were used to refine and create a production tool. Participating primary care providers (n = 149 were randomized and intervention providers were trained in the use of the new iCPR tool. Rates of iCPR tool triggering in the intervention and control (simulated groups are monitored and subsequent use of the various components of the iCPR tool among intervention encounters is also tracked. The primary outcome is the difference in antibiotic prescribing rates (strep and pneumonia iCPR's encounters and chest x-rays (pneumonia iCPR only between intervention and control providers. Discussion Using iterative usability testing and development paired with provider training, the iCPR CDS tool leverages user-centered design principles to overcome pervasive underutilization of EBM and support evidence-based practice at the point-of-care. The ongoing trial will determine if this collaborative

  10. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  11. Rule, Britannia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2011-01-01

    . The climax of the masque was “Rule, Britannia!” This song advocated a strong navy as a guard against the absolutist European powers with their lack of civil liberties. Furthermore, a strong navy made a standing army superfluous, and so an army could not be deployed as a repressive force of the state. Later...

  12. Evaluation of probabilistic forecasts with the scoringRules package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Alexander; Krüger, Fabian; Lerch, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Over the last decades probabilistic forecasts in the form of predictive distributions have become popular in many scientific disciplines. With the proliferation of probabilistic models arises the need for decision-theoretically principled tools to evaluate the appropriateness of models and forecasts in a generalized way in order to better understand sources of prediction errors and to improve the models. Proper scoring rules are functions S(F,y) which evaluate the accuracy of a forecast distribution F , given that an outcome y was observed. In coherence with decision-theoretical principles they allow to compare alternative models, a crucial ability given the variety of theories, data sources and statistical specifications that is available in many situations. This contribution presents the software package scoringRules for the statistical programming language R, which provides functions to compute popular scoring rules such as the continuous ranked probability score for a variety of distributions F that come up in applied work. For univariate variables, two main classes are parametric distributions like normal, t, or gamma distributions, and distributions that are not known analytically, but are indirectly described through a sample of simulation draws. For example, ensemble weather forecasts take this form. The scoringRules package aims to be a convenient dictionary-like reference for computing scoring rules. We offer state of the art implementations of several known (but not routinely applied) formulas, and implement closed-form expressions that were previously unavailable. Whenever more than one implementation variant exists, we offer statistically principled default choices. Recent developments include the addition of scoring rules to evaluate multivariate forecast distributions. The use of the scoringRules package is illustrated in an example on post-processing ensemble forecasts of temperature.

  13. WINE ADVISOR EXPERT SYSTEM USING DECISION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinuca Elena Claudia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I focus on developing an expert system for advising the choice of wine that best matches a specific occasion. An expert system is a computer application that performs a task that would be performed by a human expert. The implementation is done using Delphi programming language. I used to represent the knowledge bases a set of rules. The rules are of type IF THEN ELSE rules, decision rules based on different important wine features.

  14. An evaluation of the effect that the implementation of the NICE rules may have on a diagnostic imaging department for the early management of head injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, C.; Harvey, J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Guidelines by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) for the early management of minor head injuries initiate the use of computed tomography (CT) for patients who may be at risk of developing intracranial haematoma. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effect the implementation of the NICE guidelines would have on the diagnostic imaging department of a local district general hospital. The main objective was to establish if there would be an increase in the number of CT head referrals for patients with minor head injuries. Secondly to assess how the implementation of these guidelines would affect the workload to the diagnostic imaging department in terms of cost and time, and to discuss the issue of radiation dose to patients. Method: A sample of 100 patients who were referred from the Accident and Emergency department (A and E) for plain skull radiographs, over a 4-month period were selected. The clinical information on each of these patients' was then extracted and a data collection sheet was to assess each patient according to the NICE criteria. Results and conclusion: The study found an 18% (n = 100) increase in the referral rate for CT heads for patients presenting with minor head injuries. It was also found that the use of these guidelines would mean a decrease in cost to the diagnostic imaging department of Pounds 324. Furthermore a saving of 10 h of radiographers' time was established, although the effective radiation dose to patients would be increased by 29 mSv. The NICE guidelines have proved efficient in identifying patients with intracranial damage although this coincides with an 18% (n = 100) increase in referral rates for CT and increased radiation dose to patients. However, the use of these guidelines would reduce workload to the diagnostic imaging department in terms of cost and time

  15. Chemical Data Reporting - Previously Collected Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA now refers to the Inventory Update Reporting (IUR) rule as the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) Rule. This change was effective with the publication of the Inventory Update Reporting Modifications; Chemical Data Reporting Final Rule in August 2011.

  16. Collaboration rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  17. Hybrid Tree-rule Firewall for High Speed Data Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Chomsiri, Thawatchai.; He, Xiangjian.; Nanda, Priyadarsi.; Tan, Zhiyuan.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional firewalls employ listed rules in both configuration and process phases to regulate network traffic. However, configuring a firewall with listed rules may create rule conflicts, and slows down the firewall. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a Tree-rule firewall in our previous study. Although the Tree-rule firewall guarantees no conflicts within its rule set and operates faster than traditional firewalls, keeping track of the state of network connections using hashing func...

  18. Symbol manipulation and rule learning in spiking neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    2011-04-21

    It has been claimed that the productivity, systematicity and compositionality of human language and thought necessitate the existence of a physical symbol system (PSS) in the brain. Recent discoveries about temporal coding suggest a novel type of neuronal implementation of a physical symbol system. Furthermore, learning classifier systems provide a plausible algorithmic basis by which symbol re-write rules could be trained to undertake behaviors exhibiting systematicity and compositionality, using a kind of natural selection of re-write rules in the brain, We show how the core operation of a learning classifier system, namely, the replication with variation of symbol re-write rules, can be implemented using spike-time dependent plasticity based supervised learning. As a whole, the aim of this paper is to integrate an algorithmic and an implementation level description of a neuronal symbol system capable of sustaining systematic and compositional behaviors. Previously proposed neuronal implementations of symbolic representations are compared with this new proposal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hybrid tree-rule firewall for high speed data transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chomsiri, Thawatchai; He, Xiangjian; Nanda, Priyadarsi; Tan, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional firewalls employ listed rules in both configuration and process phases to regulate network traffic. However, configuring a firewall with listed rules may create rule conflicts, and slows down the firewall. To overcome this problem, we have proposed a Tree-rule firewall in our previous

  20. Mindset Changes Lead to Drastic Impairments in Rule Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ErEl, Hadas; Meiran, Nachshon

    2011-01-01

    Rule finding is an important aspect of human reasoning and flexibility. Previous studies associated rule finding "failure" with past experience with the test stimuli and stable personality traits. We additionally show that rule finding performance is severely impaired by a mindset associated with applying an instructed rule. The mindset was…

  1. Streamling the Change Management with Business Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Will discuss how their organization is trying to streamline workflows and the change management process with business rules. In looking for ways to make things more efficient and save money one way is to reduce the work the workflow task approvers have to do when reviewing affected items. Will share the technical details of the business rules, how to implement them, how to speed up the development process by using the API to demonstrate the rules in action.

  2. Special Education: Implementation of New Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nancy K.

    1978-01-01

    Topics discussed here include definitions of exceptional persons; the rationale of mainstreaming; racial discrimination in special education placement; law, policy, and court litigation; federal and state legislation and state plan requirements; funding special education; and regional resource centers. (DS)

  3. Implementing Business Rules on Sensor Nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Mihai; Hofmeijer, T.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) will be able to assist industrial and business processes and to render rich functionality in a dependable way. Two key elements that can make this real are: a simple and efficient way of expressing the business logic, and a reliable mechanism for selectively

  4. 77 FR 23176 - Revisions to Procedural Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Procedural Rules AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... opinion conforms to the appropriate statutory requirements. 39 U.S.C. 3661(c). B. Current Procedural Regulations The Commission's procedural rules implementing the requirements of section 3661 can be found in 39...

  5. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities for FY 2012. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year 2012. In addition, it recalibrates the case-mix indexes so that they more accurately reflect parity in expenditures between RUG-IV and the previous case-mix classification system. It also includes a discussion of a Non-Therapy Ancillary component currently under development within CMS. In addition, this final rule discusses the impact of certain provisions of the Affordable Care Act, and reduces the SNF market basket percentage by the multi-factor productivity adjustment. This rule also implements certain changes relating to the payment of group therapy services and implements new resident assessment policies. Finally, this rule announces that the proposed provisions regarding the ownership disclosure requirements set forth in section 6101 of the Affordable Care Act will be finalized at a later date.

  6. 78 FR 22820 - Revisions to Rules of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... sentence that reads ``A part-day holiday shall be considered as other days and not as a holiday.'' Rule... appropriate.'' and by inserting a period at the end of the previous sentence. Rule 3001.18(c) is amended by... the previous sentence. Rule 3001.19 is amended by deleting the word ``involved'' so that the...

  7. Intuitionistic Rules : Admissible Rules of Intermediate Logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the admissible rules of intermediate logics. On the one hand, one can characterize the admissibility of rules in certain logic, and on the other hand, one can characterize logics through their admissible rules. We take both approaches, and reach new results in both

  8. Business rules formalisation for information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rábová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with relation business rules and business applications and describes a number of structures for support of information systems implementation and customization. Particular formats of structure are different according to different type of business rules. We arise from model of enterprise architecture that is a significant document of all what happens in business and serves for blueprint and facilitates of managers decisions. Most complicated part of enterprise architecture is business rule. When we gain its accurate formulation and when we achieve to formalize and to store business rule in special repository we can manage it actualize it and use it for many reasons. The article emphasizes formats of business rule formalization and its reference to business applications implementation.

  9. 78 FR 58500 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications Proposed Rule; Public Meeting and Public Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... the proposed rule ``Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications,'' which was published... the federal water quality standards (WQS) regulation at 40 CFR Part 131 which helps implement the..., the proposed rule will lead to improved water quality standard development, implementation and...

  10. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  11. Providing Automatic Support for Heuristic Rules of Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Aksit, Mehmet; Demeyer, Serge; Bosch, H.G.P.; Bosch, Jan

    In method-based software development, software engineers create artifacts based on the heuristic rules of the adopted method. Most CASE tools, however, do not actively assist software engineers in applying the heuristic rules. To provide an active support, the rules must be formalized, implemented

  12. Optimal mixing of Markov decision rules for MDP control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study Markov decision process (MDP) problems with the restriction that at decision epochs, only a finite number of given Markov decision rules are admissible. For example, the set of admissible Markov decision rules D could consist of some easy-implementable decision rules.

  13. KTA nuclear safety rules, or the love for service according to the rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some critical comments on the question as to what extent the KTA rules really support the safety-oriented and in this sense purposeful implementation of the Atomic Energy Act. The authors review some specific KTA rules for their expediency, not with holding disapproval in some cases. (HP) [de

  14. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... conformity SIPs, see EPA's ``Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation Plans... January 2009 guidance entitled, ``Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation... Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  15. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  16. Strategy-effects in prefrontal cortex during learning of higher-order S-R rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensteller, Uta; von Cramon, D Yves

    2011-07-15

    All of us regularly face situations that require the integration of the available information at hand with the established rules that guide behavior in order to generate the most appropriate action. But where individuals differ from one another is most certainly in terms of the different strategies that are adopted during this process. A previous study revealed differential brain activation patterns for the implementation of well established higher-order stimulus-response (S-R) rules depending on inter-individual strategy differences (Wolfensteller and von Cramon, 2010). This raises the question of how these strategies evolve or which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie these inter-individual strategy differences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study revealed striking strategy-effects across regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex during the implementation of higher-order S-R rules at an early stage of learning. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex displayed a quantitative strategy-effect, such that activation during rule integration based on a mismatch was related to the degree to which participants continued to rely on rule integration. A quantitative strategy ceiling effect was observed for the left inferior frontal junction area. Conversely, the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed a qualitative strategy-effect such that participants who at a later point relied on an item-based strategy showed stronger activations in this region compared to those who continued with the rule integration strategy. Together, the present findings suggest that a certain amount of rule integration is mandatory when participants start to learn higher-order rules. The more efficient item-based strategy that evolves later appears to initially require the recruitment of additional cognitive resources in order to shield the currently relevant S-R association from interfering information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The biosphere rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  18. 75 FR 26102 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans, State of California, San Joaquin Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans, State of California, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... is taking final action on revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... approval of the previous version of the District's NSR rules pending receipt from California of an...

  19. 77 FR 22497 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Small Container Exemption From VOC Coating Rules... Illinois Administrative Code (Ill. Adm. Code) by adding a ``small container exemption'' for pleasure craft... ``small container exemption'' for pleasure craft surface coating operations. EPA previously approved...

  20. Binary effectivity rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Peleg, Bezalel

    2006-01-01

    effectivity rule is regular if it is the effectivity rule of some regular binary SCR. We characterize completely the family of regular binary effectivity rules. Quite surprisingly, intrinsically defined von Neumann-Morgenstern solutions play an important role in this characterization...

  1. Modifying Intramural Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    1981-01-01

    Standard sports rules can be altered to improve the game for intramural participants. These changes may improve players' attitudes, simplify rules for officials, and add safety features to a game. Specific rule modifications are given for volleyball, football, softball, floor hockey, basketball, and soccer. (JN)

  2. Discovering Sentinel Rules for Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    This paper proposes the concept of sentinel rules for multi-dimensional data that warns users when measure data concerning the external environment changes. For instance, a surge in negative blogging about a company could trigger a sentinel rule warning that revenue will decrease within two months, so a new course of action can be taken. Hereby, we expand the window of opportunity for organizations and facilitate successful navigation even though the world behaves chaotically. Since sentinel rules are at the schema level as opposed to the data level, and operate on data changes as opposed to absolute data values, we are able to discover strong and useful sentinel rules that would otherwise be hidden when using sequential pattern mining or correlation techniques. We present a method for sentinel rule discovery and an implementation of this method that scales linearly on large data volumes.

  3. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows: as from 1 April 2003 • Article R II 1.19 - Types and duration of contracts of staff members (page 15) as from 1 July 2003 Implementation of the category of local staff members Copies of this update are available in the divisional secretariats. In addition, Staff Rules and Regulations are available for consultation on the Web at http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  4. Medicaid program: rescission of School-Based Administration/Transportation final rule, Outpatient Hospital Services final rule, and partial rescission of Case Management Interim final rule. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    This rule finalizes our proposal to rescind the December 28, 2007 final rule entitled, "Elimination of Reimbursement under Medicaid for School Administration Expenditures and Costs Related to Transportation of School-Age Children Between Home and School;" the November 7, 2008 final rule entitled, "Clarification of Outpatient Hospital Facility (Including Outpatient Hospital Clinic) Services Definition;" and certain provisions of the December 4, 2007 interim final rule entitled, "Optional State Plan Case Management Services." These regulations have been the subject of Congressional moratoria and have not yet been implemented (or, with respect to the case management interim final rule, have only been partially implemented) by CMS. In light of concerns raised about the adverse effects that could result from these regulations, in particular, the potential restrictions on services available to beneficiaries and the lack of clear evidence demonstrating that the approaches taken in the regulations are warranted, CMS is rescinding the two final rules in full, and partially rescinding the interim final rule. Rescinding these provisions will permit further opportunity to determine the best approach to further the objectives of the Medicaid program in providing necessary health benefits coverage to needy individuals.

  5. New Safety rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Safety Commission

    2008-01-01

    The revision of CERN Safety rules is in progress and the following new Safety rules have been issued on 15-04-2008: Safety Procedure SP-R1 Establishing, Updating and Publishing CERN Safety rules: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SP-R1.htm; Safety Regulation SR-S Smoking at CERN: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-S.htm; Safety Regulation SR-M Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/SR-M.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M1 Standard Lifting Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M1.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M2 Standard Pressure Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M2.htm; General Safety Instruction GSI-M3 Special Mechanical Equipment: http://cern.ch/safety-rules/GSI-M3.htm. These documents apply to all persons under the Director General’s authority. All Safety rules are available at the web page: http://www.cern.ch/safety-rules The Safety Commission

  6. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  7. Definition of Business Rules Using Business Vocabulary and Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hypský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the definition of business rules using business vocabulary and semantics. At the beginning business rules, business vocabulary and semantics of business rules are specified. There is also outlined the current state of research on this topic. Then the definition and formalization of business rules using semantics and business vocabulary is described. Based on these proposed procedures was created a tool that implements and simulate these processes. The main advantage of this tool is “Business Rules Layer”, which implements business rules into the system but is separated from this system. Source code of the rules and the system are not mixed together. Finally, the results are evaluated and future development is suggested.

  8. Scalability of a Methodology for Generating Technical Trading Rules with GAPs Based on Risk-Return Adjustment and Incremental Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Cal, E. A.; Fernández, E. M.; Quiroga, R.; Villar, J. R.; Sedano, J.

    In previous works a methodology was defined, based on the design of a genetic algorithm GAP and an incremental training technique adapted to the learning of series of stock market values. The GAP technique consists in a fusion of GP and GA. The GAP algorithm implements the automatic search for crisp trading rules taking as objectives of the training both the optimization of the return obtained and the minimization of the assumed risk. Applying the proposed methodology, rules have been obtained for a period of eight years of the S&P500 index. The achieved adjustment of the relation return-risk has generated rules with returns very superior in the testing period to those obtained applying habitual methodologies and even clearly superior to Buy&Hold. This work probes that the proposed methodology is valid for different assets in a different market than previous work.

  9. 33 CFR 89.27 - Waters upon which Inland Rule 24(i) applies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters upon which Inland Rule 24(i) applies. 89.27 Section 89.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND NAVIGATION RULES: IMPLEMENTING RULES Waters Upon Which Certain...

  10. Generación automática de reglas de negocio en bases de datos para la implementación del sistema de información SIMCO (Automatic business rules generation in data bases for the implementation of the information system SIMCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaisel Nuñez Arcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanis abstract. El diseño e implementación de sistemas informáticos para las organizaciones deben basarse en las políticas y reglas del negocio. Hoy día se considera ventajoso aplicar el enfoque de reglas de negocio en el desarrollo de sistemas de información, y de esta manera garantizar la inserción y modificación de las reglas de manera automática. Una de las formas para implementar un sistema de información usando reglas de negocio, es a través del tipo de herramienta independiente de los gestores de datos, pero que genera recursos de bases de datos. Ante la necesidad de desarrollar un sistema de información transaccional para la gestión de menús de comedores en la UCLV, se hizo necesaria una aplicación cuya interfaz de entrada realice las operaciones de inserción y actualización en una base de datos. La existencia de un conjunto de reglas de negocio que deben ser chequeadas al realizar estas operaciones, hace posible la utilización de la herramienta LPT-SQL con vistas a disminuir el esfuerzo de programación al insertar el código, que garantiza el cumplimiento de las reglas, y su posible modificación independientemente de la interfaz de usuario. English abstract The design and implementation of informatics systems for the organizations must be based in the business policies and rules. Nowadays, to apply a focus on business rules in the development of information systems is considered advantageous, hence guarantee the automatic insertion and modification of rules. One of the ways to implement an information system using business rules is through the independent tool type of the data managers, but that generates data bases resources. In view of the need to develop a transactional information system for the menus management of UCLV dining centres, an application which input interface makes the insert and update operations on a database was necessary. The existence of a set of business rules that must be checked to perform

  11. Fuzzy Reasoning with a Rete-OO Rule Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Nikolaus; Sottara, Davide

    Rules and rule engines play an important role in automated decision making processes like business workflows or system monitoring. Classical inference machines evaluate rules until a final "yes" or "no" decision: this crisp classification schema can turn into a deficiency when they have to deal with uncertain or inprecise knowledge. To circumvent some of these limitations we have built the "Java Expert Fuzzy Inference System" (Jefis) and implemented factory methods to deploy the Jefis library as an extension for the classical rule engine JBoss Drools. We outline the new features and give examples of uncertain formulated rules executing within the Jefis Drools extender.

  12. Strategy as simple rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  13. REVIEW OF RULE MODIFICATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Arias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children's needs and interests, preventing injuries. Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60% achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83% analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5% did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46% examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players' and coaches' opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification.

  14. Incremental Learning of Context Free Grammars by Parsing-Based Rule Generation and Rule Set Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi

    This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.

  15. The Rules of the Game—The Rules of the Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2013-01-01

    of the game manager in order to implement the rules and provide a world for the other players. In online role-playing games, a programmed system simulates the rule system as well as part of the game manager’s tasks, while the rest of the activity is up to the players to define. Some aspects may translate more...... or less unproblematically across media, others are transformed by the introduction of the programmed system. This reveals some important perspectives on the sort of rules that can be simulated in a programmed system and what this means to the concept of rules in game studies.......This article presents a critical view of the concept of rules in game studies on the basis of a case study of role-playing across media. Role-playing in its traditional form is a complex activity including a game system and a number of communicative conventions where one player takes the role...

  16. Cryogenic Safety Rules and Guidelines at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    CERN defines and implements a Safety Policy that sets out the general principles governing safety at CERN. As an intergovernmental organisation, CERN further establishes its own Safety Rules as necessary for its proper functioning. In this process, it takes into account the laws and regulation of the Host States (France and Switzerland), EU regulations and directives, as well as international regulations, standards and directives. For the safety of cryogenic equipment, this is primarily covered by the Safety Regulation for Mechanical Equipment and the General Safety Instruction for Cryogenic Equipment. In addition, CERN has also developed Safety Guidelines to support the implementation of these safety rules, covering cryogenic equipment and oxygen deficiency hazard assessment and mitigation. An overview of the cryogenic safety rules and these safety guidelines will be presented.

  17. Fuzzy Rule Suram for Wood Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situmorang, Zakarias

    2017-12-01

    Implemented of fuzzy rule must used a look-up table as defuzzification analysis. Look-up table is the actuator plant to doing the value of fuzzification. Rule suram based of fuzzy logic with variables of weather is temperature ambient and humidity ambient, it implemented for wood drying process. The membership function of variable of state represented in error value and change error with typical map of triangle and map of trapezium. Result of analysis to reach 4 fuzzy rule in 81 conditions to control the output system can be constructed in a number of way of weather and conditions of air. It used to minimum of the consumption of electric energy by heater. One cycle of schedule drying is a serial of condition of chamber to process as use as a wood species.

  18. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  19. Public Notification Instructions and Templates for the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed public notification (PN) templates to help with implementation of the PN Rule. This document aims to assist water systems with the Public Notification requirements specific to the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR).

  20. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  1. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  2. Revision of Import and Export Requirements for Controlled Substances, Listed Chemicals, and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines, Including Changes To Implement the International Trade Data System (ITDS); Revision of Reporting Requirements for Domestic Transactions in Listed Chemicals and Tableting and Encapsulating Machines; and Technical Amendments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is updating its regulations for the import and export of tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, and its regulations relating to reports required for domestic transactions in listed chemicals, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and tableting and encapsulating machines. In accordance with Executive Order 13563, the Drug Enforcement Administration has reviewed its import and export regulations and reporting requirements for domestic transactions in listed chemicals (and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid) and tableting and encapsulating machines, and evaluated them for clarity, consistency, continued accuracy, and effectiveness. The amendments clarify certain policies and reflect current procedures and technological advancements. The amendments also allow for the implementation, as applicable to tableting and encapsulating machines, controlled substances, and listed chemicals, of the President's Executive Order 13659 on streamlining the export/import process and requiring the government-wide utilization of the International Trade Data System (ITDS). This rule additionally contains amendments that implement recent changes to the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (CSIEA) for reexportation of controlled substances among members of the European Economic Area made by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act. The rule also includes additional substantive and technical and stylistic amendments.

  3. Constitutive rules, language, and ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional

  4. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  5. Following the Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  6. 40 CFR 52.932 - Rules and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules and regulations. 52.932 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.932 Rules and regulations. (a) The last sentence of section 3(1) of Kentucky regulation 401 KAR 3:050, which specifies that a new fossil fuel fired...

  7. 40 CFR 52.781 - Rules and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules and regulations. 52.781 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.781 Rules and regulations. (a) [Reserved] (b) A part of the second sentence in section 3, APC-17, which states “Where there is a violation or...

  8. Forest Practice Rules and cumulative watershed impacts in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid

    1999-01-01

    Response to the following questions, "As currently implemented, are existing California forest practice rules effective in preventing cumulative watershed impacts, including flooding?" and "What kind of measures might improve the effectiveness of forest practices rules for avoiding forestry-related cumulative watershed impacts

  9. Automatic generation of optimal business processes from business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, B.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Iacob, Maria Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, business process models are increasingly being used as a means for business process improvement. Business rules can be seen as requirements for business processes, in that they describe the constraints that must hold for business processes that implement these business rules.

  10. Ozone: Stage Two Vapor Recovery Rule and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page includes the guidance document, fact sheet, memorandum, and final rule on removing Stage II Gasoline Vapor Control Programs from State Implementation Plans (SIP) for the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

  11. An Examination of an Information Security Framework Implementation Based on Agile Values to Achieve Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Security Rule Compliance in an Academic Medical Center: The Thomas Jefferson University Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Agile project management is most often examined in relation to software development, while information security frameworks are often examined with respect to certain risk management capabilities rather than in terms of successful implementation approaches. This dissertation extended the study of both Agile project management and information…

  12. Moral empiricism and the bias for act-based rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayars, Alisabeth; Nichols, Shaun

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies on rule learning show a bias in favor of act-based rules, which prohibit intentionally producing an outcome but not merely allowing the outcome. Nichols, Kumar, Lopez, Ayars, and Chan (2016) found that exposure to a single sample violation in which an agent intentionally causes the outcome was sufficient for participants to infer that the rule was act-based. One explanation is that people have an innate bias to think rules are act-based. We suggest an alternative empiricist account: since most rules that people learn are act-based, people form an overhypothesis (Goodman, 1955) that rules are typically act-based. We report three studies that indicate that people can use information about violations to form overhypotheses about rules. In study 1, participants learned either three "consequence-based" rules that prohibited allowing an outcome or three "act-based" rules that prohibiting producing the outcome; in a subsequent learning task, we found that participants who had learned three consequence-based rules were more likely to think that the new rule prohibited allowing an outcome. In study 2, we presented participants with either 1 consequence-based rule or 3 consequence-based rules, and we found that those exposed to 3 such rules were more likely to think that a new rule was also consequence based. Thus, in both studies, it seems that learning 3 consequence-based rules generates an overhypothesis to expect new rules to be consequence-based. In a final study, we used a more subtle manipulation. We exposed participants to examples act-based or accident-based (strict liability) laws and then had them learn a novel rule. We found that participants who were exposed to the accident-based laws were more likely to think a new rule was accident-based. The fact that participants' bias for act-based rules can be shaped by evidence from other rules supports the idea that the bias for act-based rules might be acquired as an overhypothesis from the

  13. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  14. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  15. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  16. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  17. Efficient Mining of Intertransaction Association Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tung, A.K.H.; Lu, H.J.; Han, J.W.; Feng, L.

    Most of the previous studies on mining association rules are on mining intratransaction associations, i.e., the associations among items within the same transaction where the notion of the transaction could be the items bought by the same customer, the events happened on the same day, etc. In this

  18. QCD sum rules and applications to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, T.D.; Xuemin, J.

    1994-12-01

    Applications of QCD sum-rule methods to the physics of nuclei are reviewed, with an emphasis on calculations of baryon self-energies in infinite nuclear matter. The sum-rule approach relates spectral properties of hadrons propagating in the finite-density medium, such as optical potentials for quasinucleons, to matrix elements of QCD composite operators (condensates). The vacuum formalism for QCD sum rules is generalized to finite density, and the strategy and implementation of the approach is discussed. Predictions for baryon self-energies are compared to those suggested by relativistic nuclear physics phenomenology. Sum rules for vector mesons in dense nuclear matter are also considered. (author)

  19. [The Aut-idem Rule and the Importance of Patient-Individual Selection of Inhalers for the Therapy of Airway Diseases in Practices of Pneumologists and General Practitioners - Assessment and Implementation by Pneumologists and General Practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, T; Andres, J; Mohrlang, C; Redeker, M; Schwarz, E

    2018-03-01

    Drug therapy of obstructive airway diseases mainly relies on inhaled medication. The success of this therapy depends primarily on the selection of the appropriate inhaler considering patient's choice and the correct application. The aut-idem-rule, an active exclusion of the optional substitution by the pharmacist, allows prescribing physicians to ensure the delivery of a particular inhaler, which was selected for that patient, who was trained to use specifically that inhaler. This survey shows that pneumologists and, to a greater extent general practitioners, do not consistently make use of this option, although they unanimously agree on the importance of targeted inhaler selection. As a result, patients may receive different inhalers in the pharmacy, where the inhaler is chosen under consideration of market-driven aspects such as rebate contracts or stock. This causes that patients get confused by the exchange of their inhaler. Thus the exchange of the inhaler by the pharmacist leads to uncertainty and application problems in patients. Hence, the success of the comparatively complex inhaled therapy is endangered. This could be prevented, if prescribing physicians were informed and supported consistently regarding the use of aut-idem exclusion to ensure an optimal therapy for each individual patient. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. 33 CFR 89.25 - Waters upon which Inland Rules 9(a)(ii), 14(d), and 15(b) apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters upon which Inland Rules 9(a)(ii), 14(d), and 15(b) apply. 89.25 Section 89.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND NAVIGATION RULES: IMPLEMENTING RULES Waters...

  1. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  2. Medicare program; requirements for the Medicare incentive reward program and provider enrollment. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-05

    This final rule implements various provider enrollment requirements. These include: Expanding the instances in which a felony conviction can serve as a basis for denial or revocation of a provider or supplier's enrollment; if certain criteria are met, enabling us to deny enrollment if the enrolling provider, supplier, or owner thereof had an ownership relationship with a previously enrolled provider or supplier that had a Medicare debt; enabling us to revoke Medicare billing privileges if we determine that the provider or supplier has a pattern or practice of submitting claims that fail to meet Medicare requirements; and limiting the ability of ambulance suppliers to "backbill" for services performed prior to enrollment.

  3. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... of the time of delivery.Where there is a lack of conformity, the consumer in general has a right to choose between replacement and repair under s. 78. Replacement is no longer contingent on the lack of conformity constituting a fundamental breach. Furthermore, it is no longer possible for the seller...

  4. Application of the NEI 95-10 methodology in the Rcic system of the Unit-1, to implement the criterions of the license renovation rule; (10 Cfr-54); Aplicacion de la metodologia del NEI 95-10 en el sistema RCIC de la U-1, para implementar los criterios de la regla de renovacion de licencia; (10 CFR54)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.; Mendoza, G.; Arganis, C.; Viais, J.; Contreras, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Fernandez, G.; Medina, G., E-mail: angeles.diaz@inin.gob.mx [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    In December of 1991, the US National Regulatory Commission (US NRC) published the 10 Cfr-54, to establish the procedures, criterions and necessary requirements for the license renovation of a nuclear power station. In 1994 the US NRC proposed an amendment to these requirements that basically were centered in the effects of the aging in structures and passive components of long life and in the inclusion of Time Limited Aging Analyses (TLAAs). In a general way, is established that the requester should show to the regulator body that the effects of the aging in structures, systems and components are and will be appropriately negotiated or that the TLAAs has been evaluated for the operation extended period. The NEI 95-10 is a guide document developed by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), to provide a focus accepted to cover the requirements of 10 Cfr-54, offering an efficient process that allows to any requester to complete in a practical way the requirements of the License Renovation Rule and to supplement their solicitude. This work presents the application of this guide to the Reactor Core Insulation Cooling (Rcic) of the Unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, elect as pilot system to carry out the application of the 10 Cfr-54 following the recommended methodology by the Industrial Guide for the implementation of the License Renovation Rule. (Author)

  5. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  6. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  7. Evolutionary assembly rules for fish life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charnov, E.L.; Gislason, Henrik; Pope, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    length along the growth trajectory within the species. We then interpret K in terms of the VBGE in mass , and show that the previous equation is itself equivalent to a -1/3 power function rule between M and the mass at first reproduction (W α); this new -1/3 power function emerges directly from the life...... history that maximizes Darwinian fitness in non-growing populations. We merge this M, W α power function with other power functions to produce general across-species scaling rules for yearly reproductive allocation, reproductive effort and age at first reproduction in fish. We then suggest a new way...

  8. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  9. QCD spectral sum rules

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    The aim of the book is to give an introduction to the method of QCD Spectral Sum Rules and to review its developments. After some general introductory remarks, Chiral Symmetry, the Historical Developments of the Sum Rules and the necessary materials for perturbative QCD including the MS regularization and renormalization schemes are discussed. The book also gives a critical review and some improvements of the wide uses of the QSSR in Hadron Physics and QSSR beyond the Standard Hadron Phenomenology. The author has participated actively in this field since 1978 just before the expanding success

  10. Cosmic Sum Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Frandsen, Mads; Masina, Isabella; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models.......We introduce new sum rules allowing to determine universal properties of the unknown component of the cosmic rays and show how it can be used to predict the positron fraction at energies not yet explored by current experiments and to constrain specific models....

  11. Frequent Questions about the Hazardous Waste Export-Import Revisions Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Answers questions such as: What new requirements did EPA finalize in the Hazardous Waste Export-Import Revisions Final Rule? Why did EPA implement these changes now? What are the benefits of the final rule? What are the compliance dates for the final rule?

  12. 20 CFR 668.530 - What rules govern the issuance of contracts and/or subgrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What rules govern the issuance of contracts... Services to Communities § 668.530 What rules govern the issuance of contracts and/or subgrants? In general...-profits) when awarding contracts and/or subgrants under WIA section 166. The common rules implementing...

  13. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  14. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 3 and 11 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends...

  15. TEDXCERN BREAKS THE RULES

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN, Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.

  16. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  17. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the m...

  18. Do Fiscal Rules Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Nannicini, Tommaso; Troiano, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Fiscal rules are laws aimed at reducing the incentive to accumulate debt, and many countries adopt them to discipline local governments. Yet, their effectiveness is disputed because of commitment and enforcement problems. We study their impact applying a quasi-experimental design in Italy. In 199...

  19. Rule and rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Eilenberg, Michael

    This policy brief contributes to a novel understanding of public authority and state formation. It draws on a recent publication, Rule and Rupture, edited by Christian Lund and Michael Eilenberg (2016), and argues that public authority is not simply given but constituted through social contracts...

  20. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  1. Selection rules for bimolecular photoabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Bittner, Alexander M.

    1992-09-01

    Bimolecular photoabsorption is a term describing processes in which two molecules or other chemically distinct entities undergo simultaneous excitation to electronic excited states, the energy being provided by the absorption of one or more laser photons. These processes have previously been referred to as synergistic, cooperative, or mean-frequency absorption. This paper introduces a new terminology for the description of such phenomena and provides an overview of the features associated with bimolecular processes involving the absorption of one, two or three photons from a single laser beam. Emphasis is placed on a detailed symmetry analysis based on irreducible tensors, leading to a comprehensive treatment of the selection rules for all the major molecular point groups. Finally, attention is drawn to some systems in which these effects have been detected, and others in which they might be expected to occur.

  2. Drools JBoss rules 5.5 developer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The chapters in the book present reallife examples, usually starting with an introduction to the problem, and a discussion of the possible solution. Then the solution is implemented in a step by step fashion implementing several rules.The book is for Java developers who want to create rulebased business logic using the Drools platform.

  3. Use Of A Rule-Based System For Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, John A.

    1987-10-01

    A rule-based, digital, closed-loop controller that incorporates 'fuzzy' logic has been designed and implemented for the control of power on the 5 MWt MIT Research Reactor under both steady-state and transient conditions. Based on this experience and having designed several other controllers for the same purpose, a comparison is made of the rule-based and analytic approaches. Differences in the division of labor between plant engineers and control specialists, the type of knowledge required and its acquisition, the use of performance criteria, and controller testing are discussed. The design, implementation, and calibration of rule-based controllers are reviewed with specific examples taken from the completed work at the MIT Research Reactor. An evaluation is then made of the possible role of rule-based technology in process control. It is noted that there are no comprehensive guidelines for the design of rule-based controllers and that such systems are quite difficult to calibrate. The advantage of rule-based systems is that they are generally more robust than their analy-tic counterparts. The rule-based and analytic technologies should therefore be used to complement each other with rule-based systems being employed both as backups to analytic controllers and as a means of improving the man-machine interface by providing human operators with the rationale for automatic control actions.

  4. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  5. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  6. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  7. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  8. Verification of business rules programs

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Bruno Berstel-Da

    2013-01-01

    Rules represent a simplified means of programming, congruent with our understanding of human brain constructs. With the advent of business rules management systems, it has been possible to introduce rule-based programming to nonprogrammers, allowing them to map expert intent into code in applications such as fraud detection, financial transactions, healthcare, retail, and marketing. However, a remaining concern is the quality, safety, and reliability of the resulting programs.  This book is on business rules programs, that is, rule programs as handled in business rules management systems. Its

  9. A RuleML Study on Integrating Geographical and Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Boley, Harold

    2008-01-01

    as an interchangeable RuleML knowledge base, consisting of facts and rules. Rules are also used for integrating geographical and health information. The implemented eHealthGeo system uses the OO jDREW reasoning engine to deduce implicit information such as spatial relationships. The system combines this with spatial...... operations and supports health information roll-up and visualization. The eHealthGeo study demonstrates a RuleML approach to supporting semantic health information integration and management....

  10. Do budget balance rules anchor budget balance expectations? -- Some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Rülke, Jan-Christoph; Frenkel, Michael; Lis, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study that analyzes whether budget balance expectations are anchored and whether budget balance rules effectively anchor expectations. To this end, we use a unique data set which covers budget balance expectations in 17 countries that implemented a budget balance rules. While our results are mixed concerning the general impact of budget balance rules on anchoring expectations, we do find that specific features of budget balance rules are important to successfully anchor budg...

  11. Medication information extraction with linguistic pattern matching and semantic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Irena; Sarafraz, Farzaneh; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a system developed for the 2009 i2b2 Challenge in Natural Language Processing for Clinical Data, whose aim was to automatically extract certain information about medications used by a patient from his/her medical report. The aim was to extract the following information for each medication: name, dosage, mode/route, frequency, duration and reason. The system implements a rule-based methodology, which exploits typical morphological, lexical, syntactic and semantic features of the targeted information. These features were acquired from the training dataset and public resources such as the UMLS and relevant web pages. Information extracted by pattern matching was combined together using context-sensitive heuristic rules. The system was applied to a set of 547 previously unseen discharge summaries, and the extracted information was evaluated against a manually prepared gold standard consisting of 251 documents. The overall ranking of the participating teams was obtained using the micro-averaged F-measure as the primary evaluation metric. The implemented method achieved the micro-averaged F-measure of 81% (with 86% precision and 77% recall), which ranked this system third in the challenge. The significance tests revealed the system's performance to be not significantly different from that of the second ranked system. Relative to other systems, this system achieved the best F-measure for the extraction of duration (53%) and reason (46%). Based on the F-measure, the performance achieved (81%) was in line with the initial agreement between human annotators (82%), indicating that such a system may greatly facilitate the process of extracting relevant information from medical records by providing a solid basis for a manual review process.

  12. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document presents the Rules of Procedure and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/449) convened in accordance with Chapter 3 of the Convention. It includes four parts: General provisions, Preparatory process for review meetings, Review meetings, and Amendment and interpretation of rules

  13. Deciphering Unwritten Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandgren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a classic grounded theory of patients, relatives and nurses in palliative cancer care. Data from three earlier studies conducted in palliative care were analyzed. “Deciphering unwritten rules” emerged as the pattern of behavior through which patients, relatives and nurses are dealing with the uncertainty of how to act and behave in palliative cancer care. Deciphering means finding out what the rules mean and trying to interpret them and this can be done consciously or unnoticed. Deciphering unwritten rules involves the strategies figuring out, deliberating, maneuvering and evaluating. This theory demonstrates the complexities of palliative care and the importance of knowledge, counseling and resources for all involved.

  14. Ontology in association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Inhaúma Neves; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has emerged to address the problem of transforming data into useful knowledge. Although most data mining techniques, such as the use of association rules, may substantially reduce the search effort over large data sets, often, the consequential outcomes surpass the amount of information humanly manageable. On the other hand, important association rules may be overlooked owing to the setting of the support threshold, which is a very subjective metric, but rooted in most data mining techniques. This paper presents a study on the effects, in terms of precision and recall, of using a data preparation technique, called SemPrune, which is built on domain ontology. SemPrune is intended for pre- and post-processing phases of data mining. Identifying generalization/specialization relations, as well as composition/decomposition relations, is the key to successfully applying SemPrune.

  15. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  16. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  17. Poland under "Solidarity" Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislaw Wellisz

    1991-01-01

    The coalition cabinet in which Solidarity played a leading role, but which also included Communists and their allies, won Parliamentary approval on September 12, 1989. This coalition inherited from the Communists an economy in deep crisis: inflation was raging, shortages of virtually all goods were rampant, and the black market was all-pervasive. The new government pledged to restore the market economy. This paper discusses the economy under Solidarity rule, focusing on stabilization and the ...

  18. Rules of Deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas

    In all wars, deception has been an important element for the military planners, on both the tactical level and the operational level. The good, effective deception operation is of great risk of conflicting with the current Laws of Armed Conflicts, which will be of great concern for the deception ......, the paper will discuss how the inclusion of mission specific rules of deception can greatly help define the boundaries, and give necessary guide lines for conducting deception operations within the laws of armed conflict....

  19. Bases y aplicación del método hipotético-deductivo en el diagnóstico Rules and implementation of the deductive-hypothetical method in diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Díaz Novás

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La identificación correcta de los problemas de salud del paciente constituye la base en que descansa la actuación profesional de los médicos y la clave para una atención de calidad. El propósito de este trabajo es describir el método hipotético-deductivo y su utilización en el proceso del diagnóstico, mostrando ejemplos prácticos de casos clínicos que pueden ser similares a los vistos en la atención primaria. Se realizó un trabajo de revisión de artículos nacionales y algunos extranjeros que abordan el diagnóstico médico y la aplicación del método hipotético-deductivo en el proceso del diagnóstico. Los médicos a medida que ganan en conocimientos y experiencias simplifican el proceso del diagnóstico y con pocos datos elaboran sus hipótesis diagnósticas (método hipotético-deductivo, dirigiendo el interrogatorio, el examen físico y las exploraciones complementarias hacia la comprobación o rechazo de los diagnósticos iniciales. Si se rechaza el diagnóstico inicial hay que comenzar de nuevo el proceso. El método hipotético-deductivo es muy eficiente siempre que se aplique correctamente, por un personal experimentado y con las condiciones necesarias. Este método no está exento de errores si se violan sus principios.ABSTRACT The proper identification of health problems of patient is the basis supporting the professional performance of physicians and the key for a quality care. The purpose of present paper is to describe the deductive-hypothetical method and its use in the diagnostic process, showing practical examples of clinical cases that could be similar to that observed in the primary care. A review work was made of national and foreign papers approaching the medical diagnosis y the implementation of the above mentioned method in the process of diagnosis. The physicians according to a increase in knowledges and experiences may to simplify the process of diagnosis and with a few data they made its diagnostic

  20. The Exception Proves the Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Holton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Legal rules admit of exceptions; indeed, it has been a legal maxim that one can infer the existence of a rule from exceptions that are made to it. Hart claims that the exceptions do not admit of exhaustive statement (a form of legal particularism) but that nonetheless rules can bind. This paper develops a logical framework which accommodates this position, shows that it is available to a positivist, elucidates the role of rules within it, and concludes by discussing the relevan...

  1. Proof Rules for Recursive Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1993-01-01

    Four proof rules for recursive procedures in a Pascal-like language are presented. The main rule deals with total correctness and is based on results of Gries and Martin. The rule is easier to apply than Martin's. It is introduced as an extension of a specification format for Pascal-procedures, with

  2. The Ottawa ankle rules for the use of diagnostic X-ray in after hours medical centres in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn-Thomas, Simon; Love, Tom; McLeod, Deborah; Vernall, Sue; Kljakovic, Marjan; Dowell, Antony; Durham, John

    2002-09-27

    The aims of this study were to measure baseline use of Ottawa ankle rules (OAR), validate the OAR and, if appropriate, explore the impact of implementing the Rules on X-ray rates in a primary care, after hours medical centre setting. General practitioners (GPs) were surveyed to find their awareness of ankle injury guidelines. Data concerning diagnosis and X-ray utilisation were collected prospectively for patients presenting with ankle injuries to two after hours medical centres. The OAR were applied retrospectively, and the sensitivity and specificity of the OAR were compared with GPs clinical judgement in ordering X-rays. The outcome measures were X-ray utilisation and diagnosis of fracture. Awareness of the OAR was low. The sensitivity of the OAR for diagnosis of fractures was 100% (95% CI: 75.3 - 100) and the specificity was 47% (95% CI: 40.5 - 54.5). The sensitivity of GPs clinical judgement was 100% (95% CI: 75.3 - 100) and the specificity was 37% (95% CI: 30.2 - 44.2). Implementing the OAR would reduce X-ray utilisation by 16% (95% CI: approx 10.8 - 21.3). The OAR are valid in a New Zealand primary care setting. Further implementation of the rules would result in some reduction of X-rays ordered for ankle injuries, but less than the reduction found in previous studies.

  3. Risk Analysis Based Business Rule Enforcement for Intelligent Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilecas, Olegas; Smaizys, Aidas; Brazinskas, Ramunas

    Intelligent information systems are acting by structured rules and do not deal with possible impact on the business environment or future consequences. That is the main reason why automated decisions based on such rules cannot take responsibility and requires involvement or approval of dedicated business people. This limits decision automation possibilities in information systems. However, business rules describe business policy and represent business logics. This can be used in intelligent information systems, together with risk assessment model to simulate real business environment and evaluate possible impact of automated decisions, to support intelligent decision automation. The chapter proposes risk and business rule model integration to provide full intelligent decision automation model used for business rule enforcement and implementation into intelligent software systems of information systems.

  4. Tobacco products, exemptions from substantial equivalence requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to establish procedures for requesting an exemption from the substantial equivalence requirements of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The final rule describes the process and statutory criteria for requesting an exemption and explains how FDA reviews requests for exemptions. This regulation satisfies the requirement in the Tobacco Control Act that FDA issue regulations implementing the exemption provision.

  5. Delta Learning Rule for the Active Sites Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lingashetty, Krishna Chaithanya

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results on methods of comparing the memory retrieval capacity of the Hebbian neural network which implements the B-Matrix approach, by using the Widrow-Hoff rule of learning. We then, extend the recently proposed Active Sites model by developing a delta rule to increase memory capacity. Also, this paper extends the binary neural network to a multi-level (non-binary) neural network.

  6. New developments in FeynRules

    CERN Document Server

    Alloul, Adam; Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The program FeynRules is a Mathematica package developed to facilitate the implementation of new physics theories into high-energy physics tools. Starting from a minimal set of information such as the model gauge symmetries, its particle content, parameters and Lagrangian, FeynRules provides all necessary routines to extract automatically from the Lagrangian (that can also be computed semi-automatically for supersymmetric theories) the associated Feynman rules. These can be further exported to several Monte Carlo event generators through dedicated interfaces, as well as translated into a Python library, under the so-called UFO model format, agnostic of the model complexity, especially in terms of Lorentz and/or color structures appearing in the vertices or of number of external legs. In this work, we briefly report on the most recent new features that have been added to FeynRules, including full support for spin-3/2 fermions, a new module allowing for the automated diagonalization of the particle spectrum and...

  7. Optimal Rule-Based Power Management for Online, Real-Time Applications in HEVs with Multiple Sources and Objectives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedatri Moulik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of hybrid vehicles has undergone intensive research and development, primarily due to the increasing concern of depleting resources and increasing pollution. In order to investigate further options to optimize the performance of hybrid vehicles with regards to different criteria, such as fuel economy, battery aging, etc., a detailed state-of-the-art review is presented in this contribution. Different power management and optimization techniques are discussed focusing on rule-based power management and multi-objective optimization techniques. The extent of rule-based power management and optimization in solving battery aging issues is investigated along with an implementation in real-time driving scenarios where no pre-defined drive cycle is followed. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the significance and applications of rule-based power management optimization based on previous contributions.

  8. Thin Capitalization Rules and Entrepreneurial Capital Structure Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maßbaum

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax planners often choose debt over equity financing. As this has led to increased corporate debt financing, many countries have introduced thin capitalization rules to secure their tax revenues. In a general capital structure model we analyze if thin capitalization rules affect dividend and financing decisions, and whether they can partially explain why corporations receive both debt and equity capital. We model the Belgian, German and Italian rules as examples. We find that the so-called Miller equilibrium and definite financing effects depend significantly on the underlying tax system. Further, our results are useful for the treasury to decide what thin capitalization type to implement.

  9. The Effect of International Trade on Rule of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsok Yang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and importsIn this paper, we look at the relationship between international trade and the rule of law, using the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index, which include index figures on human rights, limits on government powers, transparency and regulatory efficiency. Based on regression analyses using the rule of law index figures and international trade figures (merchandise trade, service trade, exports and imports as percentage of GDP, international trade and basic human rights seem to have little relationship; but trade has a close positive relationship with strong order and security. Somewhat surprisingly, regulatory transparency and effective implementation seems to have little or no effect on international trade and vice versa. International trade shows a clear positive relationship with the country’s criminal justice system, but the relationship with the civil justice system is not as clear as such. For regulatory implementation and civil justice, services trade positively affect these institutions, but these institutions in turn affect exports more strongly than services trade. Finally, the effect of trade on rule of law is stronger on a medium to long term (10-20 year time horizon.

  10. High Level Rule Modeling Language for Airline Crew Pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Erdal; Birbil, Ş. Ilker; Bülbül, Kerem; Yenigün, Hüsnü

    2011-09-01

    The crew pairing problem is an airline optimization problem where a set of least costly pairings (consecutive flights to be flown by a single crew) that covers every flight in a given flight network is sought. A pairing is defined by using a very complex set of feasibility rules imposed by international and national regulatory agencies, and also by the airline itself. The cost of a pairing is also defined by using complicated rules. When an optimization engine generates a sequence of flights from a given flight network, it has to check all these feasibility rules to ensure whether the sequence forms a valid pairing. Likewise, the engine needs to calculate the cost of the pairing by using certain rules. However, the rules used for checking the feasibility and calculating the costs are usually not static. Furthermore, the airline companies carry out what-if-type analyses through testing several alternate scenarios in each planning period. Therefore, embedding the implementation of feasibility checking and cost calculation rules into the source code of the optimization engine is not a practical approach. In this work, a high level language called ARUS is introduced for describing the feasibility and cost calculation rules. A compiler for ARUS is also implemented in this work to generate a dynamic link library to be used by crew pairing optimization engines.

  11. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  12. Business rules for creating process flexibility : Mapping RIF rules and BDI rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Y.; Overbeek, S.J.; Janssen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Business rules and software agents can be used for creating flexible business processes. The Rule Interchange Format (RIF) is a new W3C recommendation standard for exchanging rules among disparate systems. Yet, the impact that the introduction of RIF has on the design of flexible business processes

  13. Design and Analysis of Decision Rules via Dynamic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.

    2017-04-24

    The areas of machine learning, data mining, and knowledge representation have many different formats used to represent information. Decision rules, amongst these formats, are the most expressive and easily-understood by humans. In this thesis, we use dynamic programming to design decision rules and analyze them. The use of dynamic programming allows us to work with decision rules in ways that were previously only possible for brute force methods. Our algorithms allow us to describe the set of all rules for a given decision table. Further, we can perform multi-stage optimization by repeatedly reducing this set to only contain rules that are optimal with respect to selected criteria. One way that we apply this study is to generate small systems with short rules by simulating a greedy algorithm for the set cover problem. We also compare maximum path lengths (depth) of deterministic and non-deterministic decision trees (a non-deterministic decision tree is effectively a complete system of decision rules) with regards to Boolean functions. Another area of advancement is the presentation of algorithms for constructing Pareto optimal points for rules and rule systems. This allows us to study the existence of “totally optimal” decision rules (rules that are simultaneously optimal with regards to multiple criteria). We also utilize Pareto optimal points to compare and rate greedy heuristics with regards to two criteria at once. Another application of Pareto optimal points is the study of trade-offs between cost and uncertainty which allows us to find reasonable systems of decision rules that strike a balance between length and accuracy.

  14. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  15. New Games, New Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna; Kallinikos, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    , the usefulness of big data rests on their steady updatability, a condition that reduces the time span within which this data is useful or relevant. Jointly, these attributes challenge established rules of strategy making as these are manifested in the canons of procuring structured information of lasting value...... that addresses specific and long-term organizational objectives. The developments underlying big data thus seem to carry important implications for strategy making, and the data and information practices with which strategy has been associated. We conclude by placing the understanding of these changes within...

  16. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    inception at Nuremberg, individual elements of hybridity have consistently caused concern amongst practitioners and legal theorists, largely around questions of transposition as jurists from one tradition resisted practices from the other. Transposition problems remain unresolved in modern ICP and have...... addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  17. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  18. Ruling by Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijten, Monique; Lorenzo, David

    2009-01-01

    This contribution looks at land property relations in a peasant community in the central highlands of Peru. Rather than using a rights-based approach, the authors propose a `practice force field approach' for their analysis of property relations under communal land tenure regimes. Their study...... combines qualitative ethnographic case studies with quantitative analysis of data on land distribution. In contrast to rights-based approaches, this perspective understands the legal discourses that people draw upon to explain property relations as `justifying rule talk' rather than the reflection...

  19. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  20. Risk Management Plan Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    RMP implements Section 112(r) of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, and requires facilities that use extremely hazardous substances to develop a Risk Management Plan and revise/resubmit every five years. Find guidance, factsheets, training, and assistance.

  1. Implementing Sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2011-01-01

    users based on previous observations, e.g., that revenue might drop within two months if an increase in customer problems combined with a decrease in website traffic is observed. In this paper we show how users, without any prior technical knowledge, can mine and use sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite. We......This paper describes the implementation of socalled sentinels in the TARGIT BI Suite. Sentinels are a novel type of rules that can warn a user if one or more measure changes in a multi-dimensional data cube are expected to cause a change to another measure critical to the user. Sentinels notify...... pattern mining or correlation techniques. We demonstrate, through extensive experiments, that mining and usage of sentinels is feasible with good performance for the typical users on a real, operational data warehouse....

  2. Implementation in International Business Self-Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Tony; Ronit, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulation by business is increasingly common internationally, but the effective implementation of international rules often continues to be seen as something that only states can carry out. We argue that more exclusively private forms of effective implementation can be constructed in self...... together in a decentralized manner. Many international business actors devise ways to carry out the sequences in order to implement rules that are important for them, reflecting a functional logic of implementation that is creative and pragmatic, and together constitute an important stage in the policy...

  3. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    be difficult to plan and conduct. It is sometimes assumed that pilot implementations are less complicated and risky than ordinary implementations. Pilot implementations are, however, neither prototyping nor small-scale versions of full-scale implementations; they are fundamentally different and have their own...

  4. Trade and investment rules for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Rules that govern energy trade is an issue that has generated increasing concern everywhere, from the standpoint of both the security of supply for consumers and security of demand for suppliers. This concern reflects the importance of rules that comprehensively address the needs from supply and demand point of view and integrate the international fabric of energy trade. The GATT and the WTO Agreement define trans-border movement of energy but leave many aspects unclear, particularly as efforts accelerate to control carbon emissions. This timely report by a WEC Task Force of experts with legal standing in the energy business identifies the most pressing issues relating to energy trade and suggests actions and measures which, if implemented, would provide clarity and answer many questions. More importantly, these measures would strengthen the WTO and coming rounds of negotiations.

  5. Sleep promotes the extraction of grammatical rules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L C Nieuwenhuis

    Full Text Available Grammar acquisition is a high level cognitive function that requires the extraction of complex rules. While it has been proposed that offline time might benefit this type of rule extraction, this remains to be tested. Here, we addressed this question using an artificial grammar learning paradigm. During a short-term memory cover task, eighty-one human participants were exposed to letter sequences generated according to an unknown artificial grammar. Following a time delay of 15 min, 12 h (wake or sleep or 24 h, participants classified novel test sequences as Grammatical or Non-Grammatical. Previous behavioral and functional neuroimaging work has shown that classification can be guided by two distinct underlying processes: (1 the holistic abstraction of the underlying grammar rules and (2 the detection of sequence chunks that appear at varying frequencies during exposure. Here, we show that classification performance improved after sleep. Moreover, this improvement was due to an enhancement of rule abstraction, while the effect of chunk frequency was unaltered by sleep. These findings suggest that sleep plays a critical role in extracting complex structure from separate but related items during integrative memory processing. Our findings stress the importance of alternating periods of learning with sleep in settings in which complex information must be acquired.

  6. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  7. Station Living Program, RCM, and the maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleam, J.; Anderson, J.

    1993-01-01

    A project is being conducted at Boston Edison's Pilgrim nuclear power station (PNPS) to develop, implement, and demonstrate the effectiveness of a Station Living Program and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintenance rule. This project is a collaborative effort by PNPS, the Electric Power Corp, and Quadrex Energy Series Corporation. In parallel, a preventive maintenance optimization project utilizing reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is being performed on ∼90% of the plant's systems. These two projects are being combined as a major cornerstone at PNPS in the implementation of the NRC maintenance rule

  8. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-6T - Transfer of foreign branch with previously deducted losses (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fair market value of the intangible property as of the date of the transfer) that is an asset of a... transfer of the branch assets to Y exceeds the sum of the previously deducted branch losses as defined and... section provides special rules relating to the transfer of the assets of a foreign branch with previously...

  9. 76 FR 37376 - Sunshine Act Meeting Federal Register Citation of Previous Announcement: 76 FR 35472, June 17, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Parole Commission Sunshine Act Meeting Federal Register Citation of Previous Announcement: 76 FR 35472, June 17, 2011 PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED TIME AND DATE OF THE MEETING: 10 a.m., Tuesday, June 21, 2011. CHANGES IN THE MEETING: Removal of agenda item 5: Discussion and vote on a final rule on...

  10. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... violation of law or otherwise acted in bad faith, or special circumstances make an award unjust. ``Demand... adjudicative officer determines that such treatment would be unjust and contrary to the purposes of the Act in... treatment as a separate unit, unless the position of the Bureau was substantially justified. The burden of...

  11. Rule Systems for Runtime Verification: A Short Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Howard; Havelund, Klaus; Rydeheard, David; Groce, Alex

    In this tutorial, we introduce two rule-based systems for on and off-line trace analysis, RuleR and LogScope. RuleR is a conditional rule-based system, which has a simple and easily implemented algorithm for effective runtime verification, and into which one can compile a wide range of temporal logics and other specification formalisms used for runtime verification. Specifications can be parameterized with data, or even with specifications, allowing for temporal logic combinators to be defined. We outline a number of simple syntactic extensions of core RuleR that can lead to further conciseness of specification but still enabling easy and efficient implementation. RuleR is implemented in Java and we will demonstrate its ease of use in monitoring Java programs. LogScope is a derivation of RuleR adding a simple very user-friendly temporal logic. It was developed in Python, specifically for supporting testing of spacecraft flight software for NASA’s next 2011 Mars mission MSL (Mars Science Laboratory). The system has been applied by test engineers to analysis of log files generated by running the flight software. Detailed logging is already part of the system design approach, and hence there is no added instrumentation overhead caused by this approach. While post-mortem log analysis prevents the autonomous reaction to problems possible with traditional runtime verification, it provides a powerful tool for test automation. A new system is being developed that integrates features from both RuleR and LogScope.

  12. Shear spectral sum rule in a nonconformal gravity dual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Todd; Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Lee, Su Houng

    2010-11-01

    A sum rule which relates a stress-energy tensor correlator to thermodynamic functions is examined within the context of a simple nonconformal gravity dual. Such a sum rule was previously derived using AdS/CFT for conformal N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, but we show that it does not generalize to the nonconformal theory under consideration. We provide a generalized sum rule and numerically verify its validity. A useful by-product of the calculation is the computation of the spectral density in a strongly coupled nonconformal theory. Qualitative features of the spectral densities and implications for lattice measurements of transport coefficients are discussed.

  13. 32 CFR 324.6 - Procedural rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedural rules. 324.6 Section 324.6 National... DFAS PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Systems of Records § 324.6 Procedural rules. DFAS procedural rules... first as a proposed rule to allow for public comment and then as a final rule. Procedural rules will be...

  14. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Music models aberrant rule decoding and reward valuation in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Camilla N; Golden, Hannah L; McCallion, Oliver; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Fletcher, Phillip D; Mummery, Catherine J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2018-02-01

    Aberrant rule- and reward-based processes underpin abnormalities of socio-emotional behaviour in major dementias. However, these processes remain poorly characterized. Here we used music to probe rule decoding and reward valuation in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) syndromes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) relative to healthy age-matched individuals. We created short melodies that were either harmonically resolved ('finished') or unresolved ('unfinished'); the task was to classify each melody as finished or unfinished (rule processing) and rate its subjective pleasantness (reward valuation). Results were adjusted for elementary pitch and executive processing; neuroanatomical correlates were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy older controls, patients with behavioural variant FTD showed impairments of both musical rule decoding and reward valuation, while patients with semantic dementia showed impaired reward valuation but intact rule decoding, patients with AD showed impaired rule decoding but intact reward valuation and patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia performed comparably to healthy controls. Grey matter associations with task performance were identified in anterior temporal, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortices, previously implicated in computing diverse biological and non-biological rules and rewards. The processing of musical rules and reward distils cognitive and neuroanatomical mechanisms relevant to complex socio-emotional dysfunction in major dementias.

  16. Atomic Energy (factories) rules: 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    These rules are made by the Central Government under the Factories Act, 1948 and extend to all factories engaged in carrying out the purposes of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962. The rules cover the requirements of inspecting staff, health aspects, personnel safety, personnel welfare, working hours, employment of young persons, special provisions in case of dangerous manufacturing processes or operations, supplemental rules for administrative aspects and special powers of competent authority. (M.G.B.)

  17. The hierarchy principle rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Double climate protection or dinosaur technology? European countries are required to implement the EU waste framework directive and in doing so establish sustainable waste management. Waste incineration is considered vital. But excess incineration capacities are threatening recycling - which should actually enjoy priority. (orig.)

  18. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  19. Ranking Cases with Classification Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Bala, Jerzy W.; Hadjarian, Ali; Han, Brent

    Many real-world machine learning applications require a ranking of cases, in addition to their classification. While classification rules are not a good representation for ranking, the human comprehensibility aspect of rules makes them an attractive option for many ranking problems where such model transparency is desired. There have been numerous studies on ranking with decision trees, but not many on ranking with decision rules. Although rules are similar to decision trees in many respects, there are important differences between them when used for ranking. In this chapter, we propose a framework for ranking with rules. The framework extends and substantially improves on the reported methods for ranking with decision trees. It introduces three types of rule-based ranking methods: post analysis of rules, hybrid methods, and multiple rule set analysis. We also study the impact of rule learning bias on the ranking performance. While traditional measures used for ranking performance evaluation tend to focus on the entire rank ordered list, the aim of many ranking applications is to optimize the performance on only a small portion of the top ranked cases. Accordingly, we propose a simple method for measuring the performance of a classification or ranking algorithm that focuses on these top ranked cases. Empirical studies have been conducted to evaluate some of the proposed methods.

  20. On Friedrich Hayek and Taxation: Rationality, Rules, and Majority Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the implications of the work of the late Friedrich Hayek for taxation policy. Examines Hayek's writings on the limits of rationality, the role of rules, and the limits of majority rule. Argues that Hayek's work provides general support for broad-based nondiscrimnatory tax policies but can be interpreted as cautioning against either radical or frequent changes in tax policy.

  1. Convention on nuclear safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document is the first revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  2. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Rules of procedure and financial rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The document is the second revision of the Rules of Procedures and Financial Rules that apply mutatis mutandis to any meetings of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety (INFCIRC/573), convened in accordance with the Chapter 3 of the Convention

  3. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  4. Modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Enforcement, and Breach Notification rules under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act and the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act; other modifications to the HIPAA rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or ``the Department'') is issuing this final rule to: Modify the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy, Security, and Enforcement Rules to implement statutory amendments under the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (``the HITECH Act'' or ``the Act'') to strengthen the privacy and security protection for individuals' health information; modify the rule for Breach Notification for Unsecured Protected Health Information (Breach Notification Rule) under the HITECH Act to address public comment received on the interim final rule; modify the HIPAA Privacy Rule to strengthen the privacy protections for genetic information by implementing section 105 of Title I of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA); and make certain other modifications to the HIPAA Privacy, Security, Breach Notification, and Enforcement Rules (the HIPAA Rules) to improve their workability and effectiveness and to increase flexibility for and decrease burden on the regulated entities.

  5. Rules-of-trade for international nuclear commerce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.

    1978-07-01

    The rules-of-trade are those treaties, laws, executive agreements, and implementing regulations that apply to international transfers of nuclear materials, equipment, technology, or skilled personnel. The rules-of-trade are a key element in assuring the international commerce that facilitates deployment of nuclear energy will not also facilitate the manufacture of nuclear explosive devices. But the rules must be pertinent, enforceable, and understandable. The two principal problems of current rules-of-trade concern their enforceability and their flexibility; these are discussed at some length. The following additional concerns are described briefly: fast breeder reactors, spent fuel management, nonconforming parties, eligibility for international financing, fair competition and equity, and pre-existing facilities

  6. General rules for radiation protection within the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FUSIL, L.

    2012-03-01

    This report first describes the organisation, scope of application and principles of radiation protection within the CEA. The second part proposes an overview of rules applicable to workers exposed to ionizing radiation. These rules concern the personnel classification, exposure limits, individual control, and training of workers in radiation protection. The third part addresses the technical rules for premise laying-out: protection zoning, indicators aimed at controlling the compliance of premise classification, radiological survey and control of premise classification. The fourth part addresses the modalities of access, stay and operation in regulated zone. The next part indicates and comments arrangements specific to ionizing radiation sources and to ionizing radiation emitting equipment (authorization and possession modalities, training, certification, controls, operation zoning, etc.), specific orders (radiological control of wastes, hardware, tools and equipment management), rules related to abnormal occupational situations (alarms, contamination event, radiological events), and the different studies and analysis of radiation protection implemented during the different phases of an installation lifetime

  7. Horizontal and Vertical Rule Bases Method in Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Aminifar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concept of horizontal and vertical rule bases is introduced. Using this method enables the designers to look for main behaviors of system and describes them with greater approximations. The rules which describe the system in first stage are called horizontal rule base. In the second stage, the designer modulates the obtained surface by describing needed changes on first surface for handling real behaviors of system. The rules used in the second stage are called vertical rule base. Horizontal and vertical rule bases method has a great roll in easing of extracting the optimum control surface by using too lesser rules than traditional fuzzy systems. This research involves with control of a system with high nonlinearity and in difficulty to model it with classical methods. As a case study for testing proposed method in real condition, the designed controller is applied to steaming room with uncertain data and variable parameters. A comparison between PID and traditional fuzzy counterpart and our proposed system shows that our proposed system outperforms PID and traditional fuzzy systems in point of view of number of valve switching and better surface following. The evaluations have done both with model simulation and DSP implementation.

  8. New Grapheme Generation Rules for Two-Stage Modelbased Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seng Kheang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise conversion of arbitrary text into its  corresponding phoneme sequence (grapheme-to-phoneme or G2P conversion is implemented in speech synthesis and recognition, pronunciation learning software, spoken term detection and spoken document retrieval systems. Because the quality of this module plays an important role in the performance of such systems and many problems regarding G2P conversion have been reported, we propose a novel two-stage model-based approach, which is implemented using an existing weighted finite-state transducer-based G2P conversion framework, to improve the performance of the G2P conversion model. The first-stage model is built for automatic conversion of words  to phonemes, while  the second-stage  model utilizes the input graphemes and output phonemes obtained from the first stage to determine the best final output phoneme sequence. Additionally, we designed new grapheme generation rules, which enable extra detail for the vowel and consonant graphemes appearing within a word. When compared with previous approaches, the evaluation results indicate that our approach using rules focusing on the vowel graphemes slightly improved the accuracy of the out-of-vocabulary dataset and consistently increased the accuracy of the in-vocabulary dataset.

  9. Breaking Rules – Making Bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE | January 2016. GENERAL | ARTICLE. Breaking Rules – Making Bonds. A G Samuelson. Boron-containing molecules discovered recently have new types of dative bonds between carbenes and borylenes. At the same time, they show that traditional thumb rules regarding acids and bases are no longer valid.

  10. Revised Rules for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Jensen, F. M.; Middleton, C.

    This paper is based on research performed for the Highway Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: Concrete Bridges" It contains details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability profiles....... These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for Concrete Bridges....

  11. Reflections on the Goldwater Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    The APA's Goldwater Rule, precluding psychiatrists from rendering opinions to the media about public figures whom they have not examined, has often engendered controversy. Here, I consider the justifications for the rule, how well they stand up to criticism, and the extent, if any, to which modifications might be called for. Although embarrassment to the profession is often cited as the basis for the Rule, it reflects more substantive concerns, including the risk of harm to living persons and discouraging persons in need of treatment from seeking psychiatric attention. The most potent criticisms of the Rule are that it discourages public education about mental illness and its effects and precludes legitimate scholarly endeavors by psychiatrists studying foreign leaders, historical figures, and others. However, there are many ways of providing education about mental illness without violating the Rule, and read properly, it should not prevent legitimate historical investigation, though some clarification of the Rule on this point might be helpful. Even psychiatrists who seek to aid policymakers in dealing with international or domestic threats should not find that the Rule interferes with their efforts. On balance, the Goldwater Rule continues to be an important underpinning of ethical behavior by psychiatrists. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  12. The evolution of Horn's rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    2007-01-01

    Horn’s rule says that messages can be kept ambiguous if only a single interpretation is plausible. Speakers only perform costly disambiguation to convey surprising information. This paper shows that, while noncooperative game theory cannot justify Horn’s rule, evolutionary game theory can. In order

  13. Business model for business rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Smit; Eline Haan; Martin Zoet

    2014-01-01

    Business rule models are widely applied, standalone and embedded in smart objects. They have become segregated from information technology and they are now a valuable asset in their own right. As more business rule models are becoming assets, business models to monetize these assets are designed.

  14. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  15. Rule Value Reinforcement Learning for Cognitive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Child, C. H. T.; Stathis, K.

    2006-01-01

    RVRL (Rule Value Reinforcement Learning) is a new algorithm which extends an existing learning framework that models the environment of a situated agent using a probabilistic rule representation. The algorithm attaches values to learned rules by adapting reinforcement learning. Structure captured by the rules is used to form a policy. The resulting rule values represent the utility of taking an action if the rule`s conditions are present in the agent`s current percept. Advantages of the new f...

  16. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  17. 78 FR 53270 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plan; California; Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District... to the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD or District) portion of the..., Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, Rule 214 (Federal New Source Review), Rule 203...

  18. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Rule 4682, Polystyrene, Polyethylene, and...

  19. 78 FR 71468 - Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Rules Relating to Additional Medicare Tax AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... Insurance Tax on income above threshold amounts (``Additional Medicare Tax''), as added by the Affordable... to the implementation of Additional Medicare Tax, including the requirement to withhold Additional...

  20. Rule-based fuzzy classifier for spinal deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birtane, Sibel; Korkmaz, Hayriye

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 2-steps software using image processing and enhancement technologies is developed to obtain a scoliosis patient's spine pattern from 2D coronal X-Ray images without manual land marking. Then, a Rule-based Fuzzy classifier is implemented on those images to classify the spine patterns using the King-Moe classification approach.

  1. User participation in implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte; Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    experienced more uncertainty and frustration than management and non-participating staff, especially concerning how to run an implementation process and how to understand and utilize the configuration possibilities of the system. This suggests that user participation in implementation introduces a need......Systems development has been claimed to benefit from user participation, yet user participation in implementation activities may be more common and is a growing focus of participatory-design work. We investigate the effect of the extensive user participation in the implementation of a clinical...... system by empirically analyzing how management, participating staff, and non-participating staff view the implementation process with respect to areas that have previously been linked to user participation such as system quality, emergent interactions, and psychological buy-in. The participating staff...

  2. A PROPOSAL OF FUZZY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ASSOCIATION RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolly Intan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Association rules that involve two or more dimensions or predicates can be referred as multidimensional association rules. Rather than searching for frequent itemsets (as is done in mining single-dimensional association rules, in multidimensional association rules, we search for frequent predicate sets. In general, there are two types of multidimensional association rules, namely interdimension association rules and hybrid-dimension association rules. Interdimension association rules are multidimensional association rules with no repeated predicates. This paper introduces a method for generating interdimension association rules. A more meaningful association rules can be provided by generalizing crisp value of attributes to be fuzzy value. To generate the multidimensional association rules implying fuzzy value, this paper introduces an alternative method for mining the rules by searching for the predicate sets.

  3. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  4. Simulation of large-scale rule-based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Monnie, Michael I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colvin, Joshua [NON LANL; Faseder, James [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    Interactions of molecules, such as signaling proteins, with multiple binding sites and/or multiple sites of post-translational covalent modification can be modeled using reaction rules. Rules comprehensively, but implicitly, define the individual chemical species and reactions that molecular interactions can potentially generate. Although rules can be automatically processed to define a biochemical reaction network, the network implied by a set of rules is often too large to generate completely or to simulate using conventional procedures. To address this problem, we present DYNSTOC, a general-purpose tool for simulating rule-based models. DYNSTOC implements a null-event algorithm for simulating chemical reactions in a homogenous reaction compartment. The simulation method does not require that a reaction network be specified explicitly in advance, but rather takes advantage of the availability of the reaction rules in a rule-based specification of a network to determine if a randomly selected set of molecular components participates in a reaction during a time step. DYNSTOC reads reaction rules written in the BioNetGen language which is useful for modeling protein-protein interactions involved in signal transduction. The method of DYNSTOC is closely related to that of STOCHSIM. DYNSTOC differs from STOCHSIM by allowing for model specification in terms of BNGL, which extends the range of protein complexes that can be considered in a model. DYNSTOC enables the simulation of rule-based models that cannot be simulated by conventional methods. We demonstrate the ability of DYNSTOC to simulate models accounting for multisite phosphorylation and multivalent binding processes that are characterized by large numbers of reactions. DYNSTOC is free for non-commercial use. The C source code, supporting documentation and example input files are available at .

  5. 75 FR 27272 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the amateur radio service rules to facilitate the use of... the amateur service rules by making them conform with other Commission rules, thereby eliminating...

  6. 75 FR 78169 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0 and 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document revises the Amateur Radio Service rules to amend and clarify the rules with respect to amateur service vanity call signs. The rules are necessary to amend the amateur...

  7. Rule Versus the Causality Rule in Insurance Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    When the Buyer of insurance has negligently kept silent or misrepresented a (material) fact to the Seller, one of two rules will determine the extent to which cover will consequently be reduced. The pro-rata rule lowers cover in proportion to how much the Seller would have increased the premium had...... (2003), the article assumes that Buyers may misrepresent, either intentionally or unintentionally, and that the Court cannot distinguish one from the other. A trade-off then arises between risk allocation and deterrence. From the perspective of risk allocation, the pro rata rule is preferable since...... it subjects the risk averse Buyer of insurance to less variance. This implies that the pro rata rule should apply when there is significant risk for a Buyer of unintentional misrepresentation, and when the incentive to intentionally misrepresent can be curtailed through frequent verification of the Buyer...

  8. Extending the CLAST sequential rule to one-way ANOVA under group sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximénez, Carmen; Revuelta, Javier

    2007-02-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the fixed-sample stopping rule (FSR), in which the sample size is determined in advance, is less practical and efficient than are sequential-stopping rules. The composite limited adaptive sequential test (CLAST) is one such sequential-stopping rule. Previous research has shown that CLAST is more efficient in terms of sample size and power than are the FSR and other sequential rules and that it reflects more realistically the practice of experimental psychology researchers. The CLAST rule has been applied only to the t test of mean differences with two matched samples and to the chi-square independence test for twofold contingency tables. The present work extends previous research on the efficiency of CLAST to multiple group statistical tests. Simulation studies were conducted to test the efficiency of the CLAST rule for the one-way ANOVA for fixed effects models. The ANOVA general test and two linear contrasts of multiple comparisons among treatment means are considered. The article also introduces four rules for allocating N observations to J groups under the general null hypothesis and three allocation rules for the linear contrasts. Results show that the CLAST rule is generally more efficient than the FSR in terms of sample size and power for one-way ANOVA tests. However, the allocation rules vary in their optimality and have a differential impact on sample size and power. Thus, selecting an allocation rule depends on the cost of sampling and the intended precision.

  9. Implementation Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Denmark is among the more loyal European Union (EU) member states when it comes to national implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). However, even in Denmark several mechanisms contribute to sub-optimal implementation of the CFP. Looking at implementation problems for a rela......ABSTRACT: Denmark is among the more loyal European Union (EU) member states when it comes to national implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). However, even in Denmark several mechanisms contribute to sub-optimal implementation of the CFP. Looking at implementation problems...... for a relatively loyal member state, this chapter sheds critical light on national implementation of the CFP in the EU as a whole. The chapter initially provides a description of the institutional set-up for fisheries policy-making and implementation in Denmark, including a short historical account....../networks and prevailing discourses. The inability of the EU to ensure that the conservation goals agreed at the EU level are loyally pursued during national implementation is one of the reasons why the EU has been struggling to keep fishing mortality rates at a sustainable level....

  10. 76 FR 38444 - [Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... listing rules that govern the opening for trading of series and expiration months for approved options... to the rules in place for the listing of expiration months and series in stock or exchange-traded... that it has previously approved language in exchange listing rules that provide an exchange will open...

  11. Operator algebra from fusion rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1989-03-01

    It is described how the fusion rules of a conformal field theory can be employed to derive differential equations for the four-point functions of the theory, and thus to determine eventually the operator product coeffients for primary fields. The results are applied to the Ising fusion rules. A set of theories possessing these function rules is found which is labelled by two discrete parameters. For a specific value of one of the parameters, these are the level one Spin(2m+1) Wess-Zusimo-Witten theories; it is shown that they represent an infinite number of inequivalent theories. (author). 38 refs

  12. BEYOND THE RULES : THE EFFECT OF OUTCOME FAVOURABILITY ON RED TAPE PERCEPTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, Wesley; Feeney, Mary K.

    The underlying reasoning of much red tape research is that the level of rule burden, in terms of resources expended at implementing and complying with specific rules, is the main driver of red tape perceptions. In this study we challenge this claim and argue that stakeholder red tape perceptions are

  13. 77 FR 5471 - Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Announcement of Public Meeting on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule Retrospective Review AGENCY... stakeholder input on the Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule as part of the agency's Retrospective Review of... implementing CCR delivery certification, use of CCRs to meet Tier 3 Public Notification requirements, and how...

  14. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella...

  15. How Can Students Generalize the Chain Rule? The Roles of Abduction in Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hyeong; Lee, Kyeong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a modeling task to facilitate students' inquiries into the chain rule in calculus and to analyze the results after implementation of the task. In this study, we take a modeling approach to the teaching and learning of the chain rule by facilitating the generalization of students' models and modeling…

  16. Principals' Leadership in Mexican Upper High Schools: The Paradoxes between Rules and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santizo Rodall, Claudia A.; Ortega Salazar, Sylvia B.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the type of organization and leadership that underlies a competency-based management rule established in Mexico (2008) applicable to principals in public upper high schools. This rule, identified as the 449 Agreement, describes competencies and communicates expected behavior. Implementation, however, is mediated by the…

  17. Applications of fuzzy sets to rule-based expert system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.

    1989-01-01

    Problems of implementing rule-based expert systems using fuzzy sets are considered. A fuzzy logic software development shell is used that allows inclusion of both crisp and fuzzy rules in decision making and process control problems. Results are given that compare this type of expert system to a human expert in some specific applications. Advantages and disadvantages of such systems are discussed.

  18. 78 FR 44806 - Amendments to Regulation D, Form D and Rule 156

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... and Exchange Commission, which today in separate releases amended Rule 506 of Regulation D, Form D and Rule 144A under the Securities Act of 1933 to implement Section 201(a) of the Jumpstart Our Business..., 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549 on official business days between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and...

  19. Vertical Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Gorrieri, Roberto

    2001-01-01

    We investigate criteria to relate specifications and implementations belonging to conceptually different levels of abstraction. For this purpose, we introduce the generic concept of a vertical implementation relation, which is a family of binary relations indexed by a refinement function that maps

  20. Decision mining revisited - Discovering overlapping rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannhardt, Felix; De Leoni, Massimiliano; Reijers, Hajo A.; Van Der Aalst, Wil M P

    2016-01-01

    Decision mining enriches process models with rules underlying decisions in processes using historical process execution data. Choices between multiple activities are specified through rules defined over process data. Existing decision mining methods focus on discovering mutually-exclusive rules,

  1. Corporate culture, compliance and railroad operating rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A focus group was held at the 1996 Bi-annual Operating Rules Association meeting of North American railroads to discuss the : general issue of compliance and operating rules. Twelve operating rules officers participated, representing Class I, II, and...

  2. Wrapping rules (in) string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Riccioni, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we show that the number of all 1/2-BPS branes in string theory compactified on a torus can be derived by universal wrapping rules whose formulation we present. These rules even apply to branes in less than ten dimensions whose ten-dimensional origin is an exotic brane. In that case the wrapping rules contain an additional combinatorial factor that is related to the highest dimension in which the ten-dimensional exotic brane, after compactification, can be realized as a standard brane. We show that the wrapping rules also apply to cases with less supersymmetry. As a specific example, we discuss the compactification of IIA/IIB string theory on ( T 4/ ℤ 2) × T n .

  3. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...... correctness proofs. A new operational semantics for CHR is introduced that reduces notational overhead significantly and allows to consider confluence for programs with extra-logical and incomplete built-in predicates. Proofs of confluence are demonstrated for programs with redundant data representation, e.......g., sets-as-lists, for dynamic pro- gramming algorithms with pruning as well as a Union-Find program, which are not covered by previous confluence notions for CHR....

  4. Cellular automata with voting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiec, D.

    1996-01-01

    The chosen local interaction - the voting (majority) rule applied to the square lattice is known to cause the non ergodic cellular automata behaviour. Presented computer simulation results verify two cases of non ergodicity. The first one is implicated by the noise introduced to the local interactions and the second one follows properties of the initial lattice configuration selected at random. For the simplified voting rule - non symmetric voting, the critical behaviour has been explained rigorously. (author)

  5. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  6. Using the Chain Rule as the Key Link in Deriving the General Rules for Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprows, David

    2011-01-01

    The standard approach to the general rules for differentiation is to first derive the power, product, and quotient rules and then derive the chain rule. In this short article we give an approach to these rules which uses the chain rule as the main tool in deriving the power, product, and quotient rules in a manner which is more student-friendly…

  7. 76 FR 30551 - Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... Other Procedural Rules. DATES: The amendments to Sec. Sec. 1.1206(b) and 1.1208 that appeared in the... Commission has received OMB approval for the ex parte rules and other procedural rules contained in...

  8. Empirically derived neighbourhood rules for urban land-use modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten

    2012-01-01

    interaction between neighbouring land uses is an important component in urban cellular automata. Nevertheless, this component is often calibrated through trial-and-error estimation. The aim of this project has been to develop an empirically derived landscape metric supporting cellular-automata-based land......-use modelling. Through access to very detailed urban land-use data it has been possible to derive neighbourhood rules empirically, and test their sensitivity to the land-use classification applied, the regional variability of the rules, and their time variance. The developed methodology can be implemented...

  9. The HIPAA Security Rule: implications for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    The HIPAA Security Rule, with which hospitals must become compliant by April 2005, is broad in scope. Some aspect of this rule will affect virtually every function and department within a healthcare organization. The functions and departments that deal with biomedical technologies face special challenges due to the great diversity of technologies, the variety of data maintained and transmitted, and the risks associated with compromises to data security--combined with the presence of older technology and the absence of integrated expertise. It is essential that hospitals recognize this challenge and initiate steps now to implement appropriate information security management.

  10. Black Lung Benefits Act: standards for chest radiographs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-17

    Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for administering and interpreting film-based chest radiographs. This final rule updates the Department's existing film-radiograph standards and provides parallel standards for digital radiographs. This rule also updates outdated terminology and removes certain obsolete provisions.

  11. Efficient Encoding of Inflection Rules in NLP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter BARABÁSS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The grammatical parsing unit is a core module in natural language processing engines. This unit determines the grammatical roles of the incoming words and it converts the sentences into semantic models. A special grammar rule in agglutinative languages is the inflection rule. The traditional, automata-based parsers are usually not very effective in the parsing of inflection transformations. The paper presents implementation alternatives and compares them from the viewpoint of time efficiency and accuracy. The prototype system was tested with examples from Hungarian.

  12. Sum rules for the real parts of nonforward current-particle scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.M.M.

    1976-01-01

    Extending previous work, using Taha's refined infinite-momentum method, new sum rules for the real parts of nonforward current-particle scattering amplitudes are derived. The sum rules are based on covariance, casuality, scaling, equal-time algebra and unsubtracted dispersion relations for the amplitudes. A comparison with the corresponding light-cone approach is made, and it is shown that the light-cone sum rules would also follow from the assumptions underlying the present work

  13. Treaty implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper touches on three aspects of the relationship between intelligence and treaty implementation, a two-way association. First the author discusses the role of intelligence as a basis for compliance monitoring and treaty verification. Second the authors discusses payoffs of intelligence gathering and the intelligence process of treaty implementation, in particular on-site inspection. Third, the author goes in another direction and discusses some of the tensions between the intelligence gathering and treaty-implementation processes, especially with regard to extensive use of on-site inspection, such as we are likely to see in monitoring compliance of future arms control treaties

  14. Inference in fuzzy rule bases with conflicting evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczy, Laszlo T.

    1992-01-01

    Inference based on fuzzy 'If ... then' rules has played a very important role since when Zadeh proposed the Compositional Rule of Inference and, especially, since the first successful application presented by Mamdani. From the mid-1980's when the 'fuzzy boom' started in Japan, numerous industrial applications appeared, all using simplified techniques because of the high levels of computational complexity. Another feature is that antecedents in the rules are distributed densely in the input space, so the conclusion can be calculated by some weighted combination of the consequents of the matching (fired) rules. The CRI works in the following way: If R is a rule and A* is an observation, the conclusion is computed by B* = R o A* (o stands for the max-min composition). Algorithms implementing this idea directly have an exponential time complexity (maybe the problem is NP-hard) as the rules are relations in X x Y, a k1 x k2 dimensional space, if X is k1, Y is k2 dimensional. The simplified techniques usually decompose the relation into k1 projections in X(sub i) and measure in some way the degree of similarity between observation and antecedent by some parameter of the overlapping. These parameters are aggregated to a single value in (0,1) which is applied as a resulting weight for the given rule. The projections of rules in dimensions Y(sub i) are weighted by these aggregated values and then they are combined in order to obtain a resulting conclusion separately in every dimension. This method is unapplicable with sparse bases as there is no guarantee that an arbitrary observation matches with any of the antecedents. Then, the degree of similarity is 0 and all consequents are weighted by 0. Some considerations for such a situation are summarized in the next sections.

  15. Geospatial-Enabled RuleML in a Study on Querying Respiratory Disease Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Boley, Harold; Mioc, Darka

    2009-01-01

    health data query and representation framework is proposed through the formalization of spatial information. We include the geometric representation in RuleML deduction, and apply ontologies and rules for querying and representing health information. Corresponding geospatial built-ins were implemented...... as an extension to OO jDREW. Case studies were carried out using geospatial-enabled RuleML queries for respiratory disease information. The paper thus demonstrates the use of RuleML for geospatial-semantic querying and representing of health information....

  16. Breaking the Rules

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    This week it's the turn of heavy-ion physics to take the spotlight as the Quark Matter 2015 conference takes place in Kobe, Japan. This is the year’s most important conference for the ALICE collaboration, but there have also been many results presented by ATLAS, CMS and LHCb.   ALICE presented a wide range of results elucidating the behaviour of the hot, strongly interacting state of matter produced when conditions mimicking those present in the first instants after the Big Bang are recreated in lead-ion collisions at the LHC. Taken together with the lead-ion studies carried out by the other LHC experiments, these have significantly advanced our understanding of the nascent Universe. Further details can be found here. Next week sees a very different kind of conference with the third edition of TEDxCERN. As with previous editions, this is CERN’s chance to showcase science and the essential role it plays, and must continue to play, in all areas of socie...

  17. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...... the final system is implemented. Among others, their use is argued to investigate the fit between the technical design and the organisational use. But what is a pilot implementation really? In this dissertation, I set out to address this conceptual question. I initially investigate this question....... The analysis is conducted by means of a theoretical framework that centres on the concept infrastructure. With infrastructure I understand the relation between organised practice and the information systems supporting this practice. Thus, infrastructure is not a thing but a relational and situated concept...

  18. Communicating eating-related rules. Suggestions are more effective than restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F.M.; Vet, de E.; Wit, J.B.F.; Renner, B.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A common social influence technique for curbing unhealthy eating behavior is to communicate eating-related rules (e.g. ‘you should not eat unhealthy food’). Previous research has shown that such restrictive rules sometimes backfire and actually increase unhealthy consumption. In the

  19. 76 FR 10530 - Supplemental Proposed Rule of Source Specific Federal Implementation Plan for Implementing Best...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... person may provide written or oral comments, in English or Din[eacute], and data pertaining to our proposal at the Public Hearing. English-Din[eacute] translation services will be provided at both the Open...

  20. Subcellular localization prediction through boosting association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yongwook; Lee, Gary Geunbae

    2012-01-01

    Computational methods for predicting protein subcellular localization have used various types of features, including N-terminal sorting signals, amino acid compositions, and text annotations from protein databases. Our approach does not use biological knowledge such as the sorting signals or homologues, but use just protein sequence information. The method divides a protein sequence into short $k$-mer sequence fragments which can be mapped to word features in document classification. A large number of class association rules are mined from the protein sequence examples that range from the N-terminus to the C-terminus. Then, a boosting algorithm is applied to those rules to build up a final classifier. Experimental results using benchmark datasets show our method is excellent in terms of both the classification performance and the test coverage. The result also implies that the $k$-mer sequence features which determine subcellular locations do not necessarily exist in specific positions of a protein sequence. Online prediction service implementing our method is available at http://isoft.postech.ac.kr/research/BCAR/subcell.

  1. Nuclear weapons and the World Court ruling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    based on the initiatives by non-governmental organizations, the World Health Organisation (WHO) Assembly asked the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion in 1993 whether, considering the environmental and health consequences, the use of nuclear weapons by a state in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its obligations under international law. The World Court decided that it was not able to give an advisory opinion as requested, because of the fact that questions of use of force and such like were beyond the scope of specialized agencies like the WHO. The Court has ruled that the international community, especially the five nuclear weapon states have not only an obligation to negotiate a treaty for total nuclear disarmament, but also have an obligation to conclude such treaty. We may expect that the nuclear weapon states will cynically disregard the ruling of the World Court as they have been doing to the basic obligation itself in pursuit of nuclear hegemony. But the remaining 150 countries or so also bear a responsibility to keep nudging the recalcitrant states into implementing their commitments to disarm

  2. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations.

  3. A Hierarchal Risk Assessment Model Using the Evidential Reasoning Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Ji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a hierarchical risk assessment model using the newly-developed evidential reasoning (ER rule, which constitutes a generic conjunctive probabilistic reasoning process. In this paper, we first provide a brief introduction to the basics of the ER rule and emphasize the strengths for representing and aggregating uncertain information from multiple experts and sources. Further, we discuss the key steps of developing the hierarchical risk assessment framework systematically, including (1 formulation of risk assessment hierarchy; (2 representation of both qualitative and quantitative information; (3 elicitation of attribute weights and information reliabilities; (4 aggregation of assessment information using the ER rule and (5 quantification and ranking of risks using utility-based transformation. The proposed hierarchical risk assessment framework can potentially be implemented to various complex and uncertain systems. A case study on the fire/explosion risk assessment of marine vessels demonstrates the applicability of the proposed risk assessment model.

  4. Implementing PAT with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, Laakshmana Sabari; Doolla, Suryanarayana; Khaparde, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Perform Achieve Trade (PAT) is a market-based incentive mechanism to promote energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is to address the challenges inherent to inconsistent representation of business processes, and interoperability issues in PAT like cap-and-trade mechanisms especially when scaled. Studies by various agencies have highlighted that as the mechanism evolves including more industrial sectors and industries in its ambit, implementation will become more challenging. This paper analyses the major needs of PAT (namely tracking, monitoring, auditing & verifying energy-saving reports, and providing technical support & guidance to stakeholders); and how the aforesaid reasons affect them. Though current technologies can handle these challenges to an extent, standardization activities for implementation have been scanty for PAT and this work attempts to evolve them. The inconsistent modification of business processes, rules, and procedures across stakeholders, and interoperability among heterogeneous systems are addressed. This paper proposes the adoption of specifically two standards into PAT, namely Business Process Model and Notation for maintaining consistency in business process modelling, and Common Information Model (IEC 61970, 61968, 62325 combined) for information exchange. Detailed architecture and organization of these adoptions are reported. The work can be used by PAT implementing agencies, stakeholders, and standardization bodies.

  5. 77 FR 66025 - Program Access Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... 76 Program Access Rules; Final Rule and Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 211... 47 CFR Part 76 [MB Docket Nos. 12-68; 07-18; 05-192; 07-29; FCC 12-123] Program Access Rules AGENCY... to extend the prohibition on exclusive contracts involving satellite-delivered, cable-affiliated...

  6. 75 FR 3886 - Amateur Service Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the amateur radio service rules to clarify certain rules and codify existing procedures governing the amateur service vanity call sign system, and to revise...

  7. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2001 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and Annex R A 2 respectively). These scales include the correction approved in June 2001 of the discrepancy of 0.3% in the net salary adjustment on 1 January 2001. Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4). Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2000/2001, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2000. Periodic reviews of the financial conditions of members of the personel (Annex A1). 1 July 2001 Various drafting amendments adopted in order to ensure greater coherence between the texts, the procedures and actual practice. 1 September 2001 Implementation of the new career structure. Copies of these updates are available in the divisional secretariats.

  8. Association Rule-based Predictive Model for Machine Failure in Industrial Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hyok; Lee, Sol-Bee; Park, Jaehoon; Kim, Eui-Jik

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes an association rule-based predictive model for machine failure in industrial Internet of things (IIoT), which can accurately predict the machine failure in real manufacturing environment by investigating the relationship between the cause and type of machine failure. To develop the predictive model, we consider three major steps: 1) binarization, 2) rule creation, 3) visualization. The binarization step translates item values in a dataset into one or zero, then the rule creation step creates association rules as IF-THEN structures using the Lattice model and Apriori algorithm. Finally, the created rules are visualized in various ways for users’ understanding. An experimental implementation was conducted using R Studio version 3.3.2. The results show that the proposed predictive model realistically predicts machine failure based on association rules.

  9. Integration rules for scattering equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center,Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2015-09-21

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  10. Integration rules for scattering equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-01-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints for any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  11. Allowance System: Proposed acid-rain rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed four rules containing the core acid rain requirements: the Permits Rule (40 CFR Part 72), the Allowance System Rule (40 CFR Part 73), the Continuous Emission Monitoring Rule (40 CFR Part 75), and the Excess Emissions Rule (40 CFR Part 77). EPA will also propose additional rules at a future date. These rules will include requirements for facilities that elect to opt into the Acid Rain Program (40 CFR Part 74) and for the nitrogen oxide (NOx) control program (40 CFR Part 76). The fact sheet summarizes the key components of EPA's proposed Allowance System

  12. Dispersion relations and sum rules for natural optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomaz, M.T.; Nussenzveig, H.M.

    1981-06-01

    Dispersion relations and sum rules are derived for the complex rotatory power of an arbitrary linear (nonmagnetic) isotropic medium showing natural optical activity. Both previously known dispersion relations and sum rules as well as new ones are obtained. It is shown that the Rosenfeld-Condon dispersion formula is inconsistent with the expected asymptotic behavior at high frequencies. A new dispersion formula based on quantum eletro-dynamics removes this inconsistency; however, it still requires modification in the low-frequency limit. (Author) [pt

  13. When do rule changes count-as legal rule changes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, T.W.; Dignum, M.V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Institutions regulate societies. Comprising Searle's constitutive counts-as rules, "A counts-as B in context C", an institution ascribes from brute and institutional facts (As), a social reality comprising institutional facts (Bs) conditional on the social reality (contexts Cs). When brute facts

  14. Elusive Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heering Holt, Ditte; Rod, Morten Hulvej; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    2018-01-01

    process of intersectoral policymaking in order to gain a better understanding of the challenges posed by implementation. To help conceptualize the process, we apply the theoretical perspective of organizational neo-institutionalism, in particular the concepts of rationalized myth and decoupling. Methods......: On the basis of an explorative study among ten Danish municipalities, we conducted an ethnographic study of the development of a municipal-wide implementation strategy for the intersectoral health policy of a medium-sized municipality. The main data sources consist of ethnographic field notes from participant...... in health. However, despite growing support for intersectoral policymaking, implementation remains a challenge. Critics argue that public health has remained naïve about the policy process and a better understanding is needed. Based on ethnographic data, this paper conducts an in-depth analysis of a local...

  15. 78 FR 11575 - Privacy Act of 1974; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Accounts Record System (JUSTICE/BOP-006). (5) Inmate Physical and Mental Health Record System (JUSTICE/BOP...; Implementation AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Prisons, Department of Justice. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Justice (DOJ or Department), Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), is issuing a final rule for the...

  16. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Food and Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and social responsibility is becoming more and more important in today’s global economy. There are thousands of environmental and social codes and standards in the world today. The codes and standards define the rules and the objectives. But the challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and social management system (ESMS) helps companies to integrate the rules and ...

  17. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  18. Rule-based semantic web services matching strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Wang, Zhihua

    2011-12-01

    With the development of Web services technology, the number of service increases rapidly, and it becomes a challenge task that how to efficiently discovery the services that exactly match the user's requirements from the large scale of services library. Many semantic Web services discovery technologies proposed by the recent literatures only focus on the keyword-based or primary semantic based service's matching. This paper studies the rules and rule reasoning based service matching algorithm in the background of large scale services library. Firstly, the formal descriptions of semantic web services and service matching is presented. The services' matching are divided into four levels: Exact, Plugin, Subsume and Fail and their formal descriptions are also presented. Then, the service matching is regarded as rule-based reasoning issues. A set of match rules are firstly given and the related services set is retrieved from services ontology base through rule-based reasoning, and their matching levels are determined by distinguishing the relationships between service's I/O and user's request I/O. Finally, the experiment based on two services sets show that the proposed services matching strategy can easily implement the smart service discovery and obtains the high service discovery efficiency in comparison with the traditional global traversal strategy.

  19. The Credibility of Fiscal Rules Policy and Business Cycle Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Haryo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold; first, it studies the impact of the credibility of fiscal rule policy on the stability of output growth; second, it compares the effectiveness of fiscal rule policy to discretionary and automatic stabilizer fiscal policies to address the fluctuation of output growth. Employing quarterly data over the period 2001-2013 in the case of Indonesia, we obtain that the credible debt rule leads to a decrease in the volatility of output growth while the non-credible deficit rule does not have any effect. Both unsystematic and systematic components of discretionary fiscal policy have a stabilizing function. Interestingly, the automatic stabilization tends to induce the volatility of output growth. Given those results, we infer that government spending is not a good automatic stabilizer. It seems that the lower ratio of government expenditure to GDP along with improving credibility of deficit rule policy has a smoother effect on the economy. Therefore, they implicitly support expenditure cuts when implementing fiscal adjustment with the purpose of reaching fiscal sustainability in the short-run and a stable economic growth in the long-run.

  20. Advanced non-disruptive manufacturing rule checks (MRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Bill; Do, Tanya; Morgan, Ray E.

    2006-10-01

    New advanced mask rule checking (MRC) solutions are required to ensure cost effective, high yield photomask manufacturing processes at 65nm and below and are needed to provide new verification capabilities for mask makers and data prep engineers alike. Traditional MRC, which implements fundamental geometric data checks on limited data formats, is not sufficient for advanced photomask manufacturing. Like recent advances in design rule checking (DRC) software, which includes extensive "manufacturing-aware" rules (or DFM rules), MRC solutions must evolve to include a more comprehensive and intelligent rule checks for the mask manufacturing process. This paper describes the development and testing of an advanced MRC software solution developed within the CATS TM mask data preparation (MDP) solution from Synopsys Inc. The new MRC solution enables the inspection and analysis of mask layout patterns for simple and advanced data verification checks. Proposed applications for mask data prep applications are discussed and include incoming design verification, fracture data correction, inspection tool data tags, mask manufacturing tool or inspection tool selection, and job deck verification.

  1. 26 CFR 1.544-7 - Option rule in lieu of family and partnership rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of B in the M Corporation. If the family and partnership rule were the only rule that applied in the case, B would be considered, under that rule, as owning 20 percent of the stock of the M Corporation... option rule rather than the family-partnership rule. B thus becomes the constructive owner of 30 percent...

  2. 75 FR 6336 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Removal of NOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R03-OAR-2009-0706; FRL-9111-6] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Removal of NOX SIP Call Rules AGENCY... oxides (NOx) SIP Call rules. In the Final Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA is approving the...

  3. 75 FR 27975 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; Imperial County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern particulate matter (PM) emissions from beef feedlots. We are... Resource Board. Table 1--Submitted Rules Rule Local agency Rule title Adopted Submitted ICAPCD 420 Beef... the environment, including premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease...

  4. Critical Evaluation of Validation Rules Automated Extraction from Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pejcoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to critically evaluate a possibility of automatic extraction of such kind of rules which could be later used within a Data Quality Management process for validation of records newly incoming to Information System. For practical demonstration the 4FT-Miner procedure implemented in LISpMiner System was chosen. A motivation for this task is the potential simplification of projects focused on Data Quality Management. Initially, this article is going to critically evaluate a possibility of fully automated extraction with the aim to identify strengths and weaknesses of this approach in comparison to its alternative, when at least some a priori knowledge is available. As a result of practical implementation, this article provides design of recommended process which would be used as a guideline for future projects. Also the question of how to store and maintain extracted rules and how to integrate them with existing tools supporting Data Quality Management is discussed

  5. Rules and Acts of Considerateness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 395-418 ISSN 1370-0049 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-20785S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : normativity, moral rules * Wittgensteinian ethics * particularity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2015

  6. Selection rules for splitting strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achucarro, A; Gregory, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been pointed out that Nielsen-Olesen vortices may be able to decay by pair production of black holes. We show that when the Abelian-Higgs model is embedded in a larger theory, the additional fields mau lead to selection rules for this process-even in the absence of fermions-due to the failure

  7. Radiopharmaceuticals preparation following hygienic rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand-Barat, J.; Rogues, A.M.; Brunet-Desruet, M.D.; Couret, I.; Saurat, S.; Tafani, M.; Bounaud, M.P.; Fialdes, P.

    1999-01-01

    The rules of radiation protection are essential in a service of nuclear medicine. A sensitization to hygiene in hospital in front of the fresh outbreak of nosocomial infections is useful in order to optimize the quality approach. In this context, the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals in the structure of nuclear medicine deserves a specific reflection. (N.C.)

  8. New Economy - New Policy Rules?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullard, J.; Schaling, E.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. economy appears to have experienced a pronounced shift toward higher productivity over the last five years or so. We wish to understand the implications of such shifts for the structure of optimal monetary policy rules in simple dynamic economies. Accordingly, we begin with a standard

  9. Following the Rules of Discourse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 118-128 ISSN 1877-3095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : rule * normativity * speech acts * evolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. Rule-based Information Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keijzer, Ander; van Keulen, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we show the process of information integration. We specifically discuss the language used for integration. We show that integration consists of two phases, the schema mapping phase and the data integration phase. We formally define transformation rules, conversion, evolution and

  11. Phase space quark counting rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-gin, C.; Lo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A simple quark counting rule based on phase space consideration suggested before is used to fit all 39 recent experimental data points on inclusive reactions. Parameter free relations are found to agree with experiments. Excellent detail fits are obtained for 11 inclusive reactions

  12. 77 FR 71714 - Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... certification statement in the labels they affix to certain types of motor vehicles. This rule corrects that... passenger vehicles and trucks with a GVWR of over 6,000 pounds. Manufacturers of other types of motor... manufacturers include in the certification labels that they affix to certain types of motor vehicles a statement...

  13. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  14. Impact of Vocational Interests, Previous Academic Experience, Gender and Age on Situational Judgement Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…

  15. Design Transformations for Rule-based Procedural Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Lienhard, Stefan

    2017-05-24

    We introduce design transformations for rule-based procedural models, e.g., for buildings and plants. Given two or more procedural designs, each specified by a grammar, a design transformation combines elements of the existing designs to generate new designs. We introduce two technical components to enable design transformations. First, we extend the concept of discrete rule switching to rule merging, leading to a very large shape space for combining procedural models. Second, we propose an algorithm to jointly derive two or more grammars, called grammar co-derivation. We demonstrate two applications of our work: we show that our framework leads to a larger variety of models than previous work, and we show fine-grained transformation sequences between two procedural models.

  16. Learning rules from multisource data for cardiac monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Marie-Odile; Fromont, Elisa; Quiniou, René

    2009-01-01

    http://www.springeronline.com/; This paper aims at formalizing the concept of learning rules from multisource data in a cardiac monitoring context. Our method has been implemented and evaluated on learning from data describing cardiac behaviors from different viewpoints, here electrocardiograms and arterial blood pressure measures. In order to cope with the dimensionality problems of multisource learning, we propose an Inductive Logic Programming method using a two-step strategy. Firstly, rul...

  17. Extracting Cross-Ontology Weighted Association Rules from Gene Ontology Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, Giuseppe; Milano, Marianna; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) is a structured repository of concepts (GO Terms) that are associated to one or more gene products through a process referred to as annotation. The analysis of annotated data is an important opportunity for bioinformatics. There are different approaches of analysis, among those, the use of association rules (AR) which provides useful knowledge, discovering biologically relevant associations between terms of GO, not previously known. In a previous work, we introduced GO-WAR (Gene Ontology-based Weighted Association Rules), a methodology for extracting weighted association rules from ontology-based annotated datasets. We here adapt the GO-WAR algorithm to mine cross-ontology association rules, i.e., rules that involve GO terms present in the three sub-ontologies of GO. We conduct a deep performance evaluation of GO-WAR by mining publicly available GO annotated datasets, showing how GO-WAR outperforms current state of the art approaches.

  18. Probabilistic safety assessment support for the maintenance rule at Duke Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, H. Duncan; Canady, Ken S.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published the Maintenance Rule on July 10, 1991 with an implementation date of July 10, 1996 . Maintenance rule implementation at the Duke Power Company has used probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) insights to help focus the monitoring of structures, systems and components (SSC) performance and to ensure that maintenance is effectively performed. This paper describes how the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) group at the Duke Power Company provides support for the maintenance rule by performing the following tasks: (1) providing a member of the expert panel; (2) determining the risk-significant SSCs; (3) establishing SSC performance criteria for availability and reliability; (4) evaluating past performance and its impact on core damage risk as part of the periodic assessment; (5) providing input to the PRA matrix; (6) providing risk analyses of combinations of SSCs out of service; (7) providing support for the SENTINEL program; and (8) providing support for PSA training. These tasks are not simply tied to the initial implementation of the rule. The maintenance rule must be kept consistent with the current design and operation of the plant. This will require that the PRA models and the many PSA calculations performed to support the maintenance rule are kept up-to-date. Therefore, support of the maintenance rule will be one of the primary roles of the PSA group for the remainder of the life of the plant

  19. Parallel Execution of Multi Set Constraint Rewrite Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee

    2008-01-01

    Multi-set constraint rewriting allows for a highly parallel computational model and has been used in a multitude of application domains such as constraint solving, agent specification etc. Rewriting steps can be applied simultaneously as long as they do not interfere with each other.We wish...... that the underlying constraint rewrite implementation executes rewrite steps in parallel on increasingly popular becoming multi-core architectures. We design and implement efficient algorithms which allow for the parallel execution of multi-set constraint rewrite rules. Our experiments show that we obtain some...

  20. Parallel Execution of Multi Set Constraint Rewrite Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee

    2008-01-01

    that the underlying constraint rewrite implementation executes rewrite steps in parallel on increasingly popular becoming multi-core architectures. We design and implement efficient algorithms which allow for the parallel execution of multi-set constraint rewrite rules. Our experiments show that we obtain some......Multi-set constraint rewriting allows for a highly parallel computational model and has been used in a multitude of application domains such as constraint solving, agent specification etc. Rewriting steps can be applied simultaneously as long as they do not interfere with each other.We wish...

  1. Implementing Pseudonymity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Mowbray

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I will give an overview of some technologies that enable pseudonymity - allowing individuals to reveal or prove information about themselves to others without revealing their full identity. I will describe some functionalities relating to pseudonymity that can be implemented, and some that cannot. My intention is to present enough of the mathematics that underlies technology for pseudonymity to show that it is indeed possible to implement some functionalities that at first glance may appear impossible. In particular, I will show that several of the intended functions of the UK national ID could be provided in a pseudonymous fashion, allowing greater privacy. I will also outline some technology developed at HP Labs which ensures that users’ personal data is released only to software that has been checked to conform to their preferred privacy policies.

  2. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  3. A hierarchical structure for representing and learning fuzzy rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    1993-01-01

    Yager provides an example in which the flat representation of fuzzy if-then rules leads to unsatisfactory results. Consider a rule base consisting to two rules: if U is 12 the V is 29; if U is (10-15) the V is (25-30). If U = 12 we would get V is G where G = (25-30). The application of the defuzzification process leads to a selection of V = 27.5. Thus we see that the very specific instruction was not followed. The problem with the technique used is that the most specific information was swamped by the less specific information. In this paper we shall provide for a new structure for the representation of fuzzy if-then rules. The representational form introduced here is called a Hierarchical Prioritized Structure (HPS) representation. Most importantly in addition to overcoming the problem illustrated in the previous example this HPS representation has an inherent capability to emulate the learning of general rules and provides a reasonable accurate cognitive mapping of how human beings store information.

  4. 48 CFR 6102.202 - Rules for crop insurance cases [Rule 202].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...” are references to “Deputy Administrator.” (g) Rule 15. In 6101.15(d) (Rule 15(d)), the final sentence... 6101.21(f) (Rule 21(f)), the final sentence does not apply to FCIC cases. (2) In 6101.21(g) (Rule 21(g)), the final sentence does not apply to FCIC cases. (j) Rule 25. In 6101.25(a) (Rule 25(a)), the initial...

  5. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program.

  6. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  7. Implementing electronic handover: interventions to improve efficiency, safety and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamid, Sharifah Munirah; Lee, Desmond Xue-Yuan; Wong, Hei Man; Chuah, Matthew Bingfeng; Wong, Yu Jun; Narasimhalu, Kaavya; Tan, Thuan Tong; Low, Su Ying

    2016-10-01

    Effective handovers are critical for patient care and safety. Electronic handover tools are increasingly used today to provide an effective and standardized platform for information exchange. The implementation of an electronic handover system in tertiary hospitals can be a major challenge. Previous efforts in implementing an electronic handover tool failed due to poor compliance and buy-in from end-users. A new electronic handover tool was developed and incorporated into the existing electronic medical records (EMRs) for medical patients in Singapore General Hospital (SGH). There was poor compliance by on-call doctors in acknowledging electronic handovers, and lack of adherence to safety rules, raising concerns about the safety and efficiency of the electronic handover tool. Urgent measures were needed to ensure its safe and sustained use. A quality improvement group comprising stakeholders, including end-users, developed multi-faceted interventions using rapid PDSA (P-Plan, D-Do, S-Study, A-Act ) cycles to address these issues. Innovative solutions using media and online software provided cost-efficient measures to improve compliance. The percentage of unacknowledged handovers per day was used as the main outcome measure throughout all PDSA cycles. Doctors were also assessed for improvement in their knowledge of safety rules and their perception of the electronic handover tool. An electronic handover tool complementing daily clinical practice can be successfully implemented using solutions devised through close collaboration with end-users supported by the senior leadership. A combined 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' approach with regular process evaluations is crucial for its long-term sustainability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Implementation Regimes and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; T. Dinesen, Peter; J. May, Peter

    -government regimes foster greater policy commitment, attention to rules, and adherence among frontline workers than is the case for a local-government implementation regime. These lead to actions of street-level bureaucrats in central-government regimes that are more in line with national policies than those...

  9. 77 FR 15596 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 322 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: National Security Agency/Central Security Service, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Security...

  10. 76 FR 49659 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... defense and foreign policy, to avoid interference during the conduct of criminal, civil, or administrative... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0087] Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request...

  11. 77 FR 15592 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... relating to national defense and foreign policy; avoid interference during the conduct of criminal, civil... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DoD-2012-OS-0029] 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request...

  12. 78 FR 32554 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ..., or intelligence efforts by putting the subject of an investigation, study or analysis on notice of...] Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is proposing to update the NGA...

  13. The Rule of Metaphor commented.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Begué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the exposure provided by Marie-France Begué to SIPLET (Permanent Interdisciplinary Seminar Literature, Aesthetics and Theology around The Rule of Methaphor of Paul Ricoeur. In it, after a general introduction, are addressed in detail four of the studies in the book: the first, “Between Rhetoric and Poetics: Aristotle,”; the sixth, “The work of the likeness,”; the seventh, “Metaphor and reference”; and the eighth,” Metaphor and philosophical discourse”. The main objective of the paper was to provide an introduction to the thought of Ricoeur in this book, to the seminar participants according to the work they have been doing on the dialogue between poetry and mysticism.Key words: Paul Ricoeur, Rule Methaphor, Theology and Literature, Philosophy of Language.

  14. Rule-based topology system for spatial databases to validate complex geographic datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Llario, J.; Coll, E.; Núñez-Andrés, M.; Femenia-Ribera, C.

    2017-06-01

    A rule-based topology software system providing a highly flexible and fast procedure to enforce integrity in spatial relationships among datasets is presented. This improved topology rule system is built over the spatial extension Jaspa. Both projects are open source, freely available software developed by the corresponding author of this paper. Currently, there is no spatial DBMS that implements a rule-based topology engine (considering that the topology rules are designed and performed in the spatial backend). If the topology rules are applied in the frontend (as in many GIS desktop programs), ArcGIS is the most advanced solution. The system presented in this paper has several major advantages over the ArcGIS approach: it can be extended with new topology rules, it has a much wider set of rules, and it can mix feature attributes with topology rules as filters. In addition, the topology rule system can work with various DBMSs, including PostgreSQL, H2 or Oracle, and the logic is performed in the spatial backend. The proposed topology system allows users to check the complex spatial relationships among features (from one or several spatial layers) that require some complex cartographic datasets, such as the data specifications proposed by INSPIRE in Europe and the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) for Cadastral data.

  15. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the...

  16. 76 FR 54384 - California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2011-0537; FRL-9457-6] California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District; Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule... Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerned South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1143...

  17. 77 FR 52277 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Quality Implementation Plans; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District; Prevention of... rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing approval of a permitting rule submitted for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (District) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). The State is...

  18. 78 FR 7703 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Proposed Rule... approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) portion of the California... digesters. Rule 1127 was designed to implement the 2003 Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) control measure...

  19. 78 FR 4804 - Revision to the Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma-Pierce County Nonattainment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Washington State Implementation Plan; Tacoma- Pierce County Nonattainment Area AGENCY: Environmental... Tacoma-Pierce County nonattainment area for the 2006 fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient... Rules.'' The updated PSCAA rules help implement the recommendations of the Tacoma-Pierce County Clean...

  20. 77 FR 76427 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Milwaukee-Racine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... its view ``that the overall framework and policy approach of the 2007 PM 2.5 Implementation Rule... statute in the framework of the 2007 PM 2.5 Implementation Rule are relevant to the statutory requirements...-hour ozone), 75 FR 27944 (May 19, 2010) (Coso Junction, California, PM 10 ). EPA also incorporated its...

  1. 78 FR 59101 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ...' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Parts 718 and 725 Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung... Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal Miners' and... rule. SUMMARY: This final rule revises the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) regulations to...

  2. 78 FR 5140 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Colorado; Revisions to New Source Review Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Colorado air quality permits; the revisions also implement other minor administrative changes and...

  3. The OZI rule and nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1991-11-01

    The title of this lecture series raises two questions: (1) what is the OZI rule? (2) what is a nucleon. In the lectures both questions were addressed in parallel and the material moved back and forth between them. In a written version it seems more appropriate to treat the two question separately, begining with trying to understand the structure of the nucleon. Experimental evidence for the symmetry and quark structure of hadrons is reviewed with a historical introduction and updated by presenting constituent quark model relation for hadron masses and magnetic moments.Three definitions of the OZI rule are presented, all which forbid decay like φ->ρπ but making different selection rules for more complicate reactions. All suffer from the higer order paradox that a forbidden process can take place via two-step transition in which each step is allowed; e.g. φ-> KK-bar -> ρπ. No prescription is given for estimating the strength of forbidden processes. The role of cancellations between different higer order diagrams is discussed. (author)

  4. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  5. Development of probabilistic operating rules for Hluhluwe Dam, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiritu, J.; Odiyo, J.; Makungo, R.; Mwaka, B.; Mthethwa, N.; Ntuli, C.; Andanje, A.

    2017-08-01

    Hluhluwe Dam, with a 30 million m3 reservoir that supplies water for irrigation and Hluhluwe municipality in Kwa-Zulu Natal Province, South Africa, was consistently experiencing low storage levels over several non-drought years since 2001. The dam was operated by rules of thumb and there were no records of water releases for irrigation - the main user of the dam. This paper describes an assessment of the historic behaviour of the reservoir since its completion in 1964 and the development of operating rules that accounted for: i) the multiple and different levels of reliability at which municipal and irrigation demands need to be supplied, and ii) inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of climate and inflows into the dam. The assessment of the behaviour of the reservoir was done by simulation assuming trigonometric rule curves that were optimized to maximize both yield and storage state using the SCE-UA method. The resulting reservoir behaviour matched the observed historic trajectory reasonably well and indicated that the dam has mainly been operated at a demand of 10 million m3/year until 2000 when the demand suddenly rose to 25 million m3/year. Operating rules were developed from a statistical analysis of the base yields from 500 simulations of the reservoir each using 5 year-long stochastically generated sequences of inflows, rainfall and evaporation. After the implementation of the operating rules in 2009, the storage state of the dam improved and matched those of other reservoirs in the region that had established operating rules.

  6. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  7. Borel sum rules for octet baryons in nuclear medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Y.; Morimatsu, O.

    1992-06-01

    Borel sum rules are examined for octet baryons in the nuclear medium. First, it is noticed that in the medium the dispersion relation is realized for the retarded correlation [Pi][sup R]([omega], q[sup 2]) in the energy [omega]. Then, [Pi][sup R]([omega], q[sup 2]) is split into even and odd parts of [omega] in order to apply the Borel transformation. The obtained Borel sum rules differ from those of previous works. The mass shifts of octet baryons are calculated in the leading order of the operator product expansion with linear density approximation for the condensates. It is found that both scalar and vector condensates of the quark field, and , induce attraction to the octet baryons in the medium in contrast to the results of previous works. It is also found that [delta]M[sub N] > [delta]M[sub [Lambda

  8. 45 CFR 2508.8 - Who is responsible for establishing the Corporation's rules of conduct for Privacy Act compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Corporation's rules of conduct for Privacy Act compliance? 2508.8 Section 2508.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2508.8 Who is responsible for establishing the Corporation's rules of conduct for...

  9. The efficiency of the negligence rules

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Ljubica; Mojašević, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    This study comparatively analizes economic effects of different negligence rules, contained in American law on the one hand, and Serbian law on the other. It is important to establish economic implications of the different negligence rules, based on the incentives for tortfeasor’s and victim’s precaution under the different negligence rules. Study of the efficiency of several different forms of negligence rules: simple negligence, negligence with a defense of contributory negligence, comparat...

  10. Transformative Decision Rules : Foundations and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Martin

    2003-01-01

    A transformative decision rule alters the representation of a decisionproblem, either by changing the sets of acts and states taken intoconsideration, or by modifying the probability or value assignments.Examples of decision rules belonging to this class are the principleof insufficient reason, Isaac Levi’s condition of E-admissibility, Luceand Raiffa’s merger of states-rule, and the de minimis principle. Inthis doctoral thesis transformative decision rules are analyzed froma foundational poi...

  11. Fiscal rules, powerful levers for controlling the health budget? Evidence from 32 OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, Herman Christiaan; Wu, Erilia Hao; Jeurissen, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Publicly funded healthcare forms an intricate part of government spending in most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, because of its reliance on entitlements and dedicated revenue streams. The impact of budgetary rules and procedures on publicly funded health care might thus be different from other spending categories. In this study we focus on the potential of fiscal rules to contain these costs and their design features. We assess the relationship between fiscal rules and the level of public health care expenditure of 32 (OECD) countries between 1985 and 2014. Our dataset consists of health care expenditure data of the OECD and data on fiscal rules of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for that same period. Through a multivariate regression analysis, we estimate the association between fiscal rules and its subcategories and inflation adjusted public health care expenditure. We control for population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), debt and whether countries received an IMF bailout for the specific period. In all our regressions we include country and year fixed effects. The presence of a fiscal rule on average is associated with a 3 % reduction of public health care expenditure. Supranational balanced budget rules are associated with some 8 % lower expenditure. Health service provision-oriented countries with more passive purchasing structures seem less capable of containing costs through fiscal rules. Fiscal rules demonstrate lagged effectiveness; the potential for expenditure reduction increases after one and two years of fiscal rule implementation. Finally, we find evidence that fiscal frameworks that incorporate multi-year expenditure ceilings show additional potential for cost control. Our study shows that there seems a clear relationship between the potential of fiscal rules and budgeting health expenses. Using fiscal rules to contain the level of health care expenditure can thus be a necessary precondition for

  12. 7 CFR 29.6101 - Rule 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rule 15. 29.6101 Section 29.6101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.6101 Rule 15. In grade specifications the tolerance of crude shall apply to...

  13. The CCCTB Rules on Leaving a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation system proposed in the draft of the CCCTB Directive puts relationships between Member States on edge. This is clearly apparent in the rules that apply when a company leaves a group. In this article the leaving rules are examined. Although the leaving rules are claimed to be

  14. Binary translation using peephole translation rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sorav; Aiken, Alex

    2010-05-04

    An efficient binary translator uses peephole translation rules to directly translate executable code from one instruction set to another. In a preferred embodiment, the translation rules are generated using superoptimization techniques that enable the translator to automatically learn translation rules for translating code from the source to target instruction set architecture.

  15. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  16. Comparison of Heuristics for Inhibitory Rule Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2014-09-13

    Knowledge representation and extraction are very important tasks in data mining. In this work, we proposed a variety of rule-based greedy algorithms that able to obtain knowledge contained in a given dataset as a series of inhibitory rules containing an expression “attribute ≠ value” on the right-hand side. The main goal of this paper is to determine based on rule characteristics, rule length and coverage, whether the proposed rule heuristics are statistically significantly different or not; if so, we aim to identify the best performing rule heuristics for minimization of rule length and maximization of rule coverage. Friedman test with Nemenyi post-hoc are used to compare the greedy algorithms statistically against each other for length and coverage. The experiments are carried out on real datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository. For leading heuristics, the constructed rules are compared with optimal ones obtained based on dynamic programming approach. The results seem to be promising for the best heuristics: the average relative difference between length (coverage) of constructed and optimal rules is at most 2.27% (7%, respectively). Furthermore, the quality of classifiers based on sets of inhibitory rules constructed by the considered heuristics are compared against each other, and the results show that the three best heuristics from the point of view classification accuracy coincides with the three well-performed heuristics from the point of view of rule length minimization.

  17. The Hartwick rule: myths and facts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Asheim, G.; Buchholz, W.

    2003-01-01

    We shed light on the Hartwick rule for capital accumulation and resource depletion by providing semantic clarifications and investigating the implications and relevance of this rule. We extend earlier results by establishing that the Hartwick rule does not indicate sustainability and does not

  18. The Hartwick Rule : Myths and Facts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, G.B.; Buchholz, W.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We shed light on the Hartwick rule for capital accumulation and resource depletion by providing semantic clarifications and investigating the implications and relevance of this rule.We extend earlier results by establishing that the Hartwick rule does not indicate sustainability and does not require

  19. 14 CFR 437.39 - Flight rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight rules. 437.39 Section 437.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Documentation § 437.39 Flight rules. An applicant must provide flight rules as required by § 437.71. ...

  20. Obtaining a minimal set of rewrite rules

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors describe a new approach to rewrite rule extraction and analysis, using Minimal Representation Graphs. This approach provides a mechanism for obtaining the smallest possible rule set – within a context-dependent rewrite rule...

  1. Rule-based Modelling and Tunable Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russ Harmer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the use of an extension of rule-based modelling for cellular signalling to create a structured space of model variants. This enables the incremental development of rule sets that start from simple mechanisms and which, by a gradual increase in agent and rule resolution, evolve into more detailed descriptions.

  2. The Rule-Assessment Approach and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the rule-assessment approach to cognitive development. The basic question that motivated the rule-assessment approach is how people's existing knowledge influences their ability to learn. Research using the rule-assessment approach is summarized in terms of eight conclusions, each illustrated with empirical examples.…

  3. 75 FR 12803 - Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule... Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule, title 28 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 901. FOR FURTHER... the Fingerprint Submission Requirements Rule (28 CFR, part 901) when health or safety of vulnerable...

  4. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  5. 31 CFR 103.85 - Issuing rulings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....85 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.85 Issuing rulings. The Director, FinCEN, or his designee may issue a written ruling interpreting the relationship between part 103 and...

  6. Cellular Automata Rules and Linear Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Birendra Kumar; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Biswal, Sagarika

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, linear Cellular Automta (CA) rules are recursively generated using a binary tree rooted at "0". Some mathematical results on linear as well as non-linear CA rules are derived. Integers associated with linear CA rules are defined as linear numbers and the properties of these linear numbers are studied.

  7. FUZZY MODELING BY SUCCESSIVE ESTIMATION OF RULES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an algorithm for automatically deriving fuzzy rules directly from a set of input-output data of a process for the purpose of modeling. The rules are extracted by a method termed successive estimation. This method is used to generate a model without truncating the number of fired rules, to within user ...

  8. 32 CFR 150.26 - Internal rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal rules. 150.26 Section 150.26 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.26 Internal rules. The Chief...

  9. 43 CFR 423.20 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....20 General rules. (a) You must obey all applicable Federal, State, and local laws whenever you are at... contract with Reclamation or agency managing Reclamation facilities, lands, and waterbodies; (3) The rules... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General rules. 423.20 Section 423.20...

  10. Using a mask rule checker as an electrical rule checker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Design complexity sometimes grows faster than EDA tools performances, and some innovation should be made on the design flow to guarantee the best possible validation in a reasonable time. This was the challenge we were facing for the final layout validation of a 3 billions transistors, multi cores chip designed for a 28nm process. The design backend validation requires multiple tools: the LVS to check connectivity, the DRC to check layout rules and the ERC to check any risk of power drop among the whole chip. While the 2 first tools are able to deal with huge designs by using hierarchical approaches, Electrical Rule Checking is much more complicated as the power routing is generally made flat at the top level of the chip. The classical ERC tools were not able to validate the power distribution at top level. The power distribution was made through a power grid using two metal layers and arrays of vias to connect each block at deeper metal layers. The chip is made of 256 processors and has a quite regular structure so that each module has it own power grid with the same pitch and every thing should be butting or properly connected at top level. It has then been decided to use a very efficient tool dedicated to geometrical verification of flat designs (typically a Mask Rule Checker) to check any interruption on power lines or missing vias in arrays. This paper will describe how this validation was performed as well as the performances obtained on a 28nm, 3 billions transistors design.

  11. Only half right: species with female-biased sexual size dimorphism consistently break Rensch's rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Webb

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most animal species display Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD: males and females consistently attain different sizes, most frequently with females being larger than males. However the selective mechanisms driving patterns of SSD remain controversial. 'Rensch's rule' proposes a general scaling phenomenon for all taxa, whereby SSD increases with average body size when males are larger than females, and decreases with body size when females are larger than males. Rensch's rule appears to be general in the former case, but there is little evidence for the rule when females are larger then males.Using comprehensive data for 1291 species of birds across 30 families, we find strong support for Rensch's rule in families where males are typically larger than females, but no overall support for the rule in families with female-biased SSD. Reviewing previous studies of a broad range of taxa (arthropods, reptiles, fish and birds showing predominantly female-biased SSD, we conclude that Rensch's conjecture is the exception rather than the rule in such species.The absence of consistent scaling of SSD in taxa with female-biased SSD, the most prevalent direction of dimorphism, calls into question previous general evolutionary explanations for Rensch's rule. We propose that, unlike several other ecological scaling relationships, Rensch's rule does not exist as an independent scaling phenomenon.

  12. A new method for constructing membership functions and fuzzy rules from training examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T P; Chen, S M

    1999-01-01

    To extract knowledge from a set of numerical data and build up a rule-based system is an important research topic in knowledge acquisition and expert systems. In recent years, many fuzzy systems that automatically generate fuzzy rules from numerical data have been proposed. In this paper, we propose a new fuzzy learning algorithm based on the alpha-cuts of equivalence relations and the alpha-cuts of fuzzy sets to construct the membership functions of the input variables and the output variables of fuzzy rules and to induce the fuzzy rules from the numerical training data set. Based on the proposed fuzzy learning algorithm, we also implemented a program on a Pentium PC using the MATLAB development tool to deal with the Iris data classification problem. The experimental results show that the proposed fuzzy learning algorithm has a higher average classification ratio and can generate fewer rules than the existing algorithm.

  13. English-only work rules: balancing fair employment considerations in a multicultural and multilingual healthcare workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, R L; Robinson, R K; Wyld, D C

    1996-01-01

    Most healthcare organizations are currently or will shortly be composed of a multicultural and multilingual workforce. In attempting to manage such diverse workforces. English-only work rules may be necessary to ensure effective communication among workers. However, care must be taken to insure that the employees' rights to free speech and a harassment-free workplace are not infringed by utilizing English-only work rules. This article attempts to assist the healthcare manager in dealing with the legal aspects of English-only work rules. Specifically, an examination of two legal cases is provided to illustrate the various legal aspects of such work rules. Also, suggestions are offered as to how and when, or when not, to implement English-only work rule in order to avoid possible liability.

  14. Integrating association rules and case-based reasoning to predict retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available This study proposes a retinopathy prediction system based on data mining,particularly association rules using Apriori algorithm, and case-based reasoning. The association rules are used to analyse patterns in the data set and to calculate retinopathy probability whereas case-based reasoning is used to retrieve similar cases. This paper discusses the proposed system. It is believed that great improvements can be provided to medical practitioners and also to diabetics with the implementation of this system.

  15. Olap and data mining technologies' integration in the construction of interdimensional associative rules in multidimensional data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Тихонович Фісун

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The features of associative rules in multidimensional data searching are presented in the article, specifically theoretical basis of association searching between different dimensions in OLAP cubes and formulas of their significance characteristics (support, confidence, lift, leverage calculation are shown. The method of interdimensional association rules generation is proposed. The implementation of this method as a component of operative and intellectual data analysis information system on database management system Caché platform is described.

  16. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  17. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  18. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  19. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  20. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  1. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  2. Medicare program; prospective payment system and consolidated billing for skilled nursing facilities--HCFA. Interim final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-12

    This interim final rule implements provisions in section 4432 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 related to Medicare payment for skilled nursing facility services. These include the implementation of a Medicare prospective payment system for skilled nursing facilities, consolidated billing, and a number of related changes. The prospective payment system described in this rule replaces the retrospective reasonable cost-based system currently utilized by Medicare for payment of skilled nursing facility services under Part A of the program.

  3. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  4. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  5. Implementing environmental commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, D.G.; Skolnikoff, E.B. [IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1997-08-01

    The article summarises the aims and results of a three-year project conducted at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis called `Implementation and effectiveness of international environmental commitments` (IEC) which analysed how many environmental commitments are implemented or how intentions are put into practice. Fourteen case studies were conducted on the following issues: conservation and preservation of fauna and flora; stratospheric ozone depletion; Baltic sea pollution; trade in hazardous chemicals and pesticides; acid rain in Europe; North Sea pollution; whaling; and marine dumping of nuclear waste. The research confirmed previous findings that compliance with legally binding commitments is high. However, IEC results suggest that high compliance reflects mainly that governments make special effort to adopt only those commitments with which they can comply. The influence of those commitments is often low. In contrast, compliance with nonbinding commitments has been low, but such commitments can often have a large influence on behavior. The findings differs sharply from conventional wisdom, which maintains that the most effective international commitments are legally binding. The research suggests more attention is needed to building systems for gathering and reviewing data on implementation and for handling implementation problems. Among IEC`s contributions to policy has been to apply this finding to the design of possible non-compliance procedures within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  6. Using fuzzy association rule mining in cancer classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodian, Hamid; Marhaban, M.H.; Abdulrahim, Raha; Rosli, Rozita; Saripan, Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The classification of the cancer tumors based on gene expression profiles has been extensively studied in numbers of studies. A wide variety of cancer datasets have been implemented by the various methods of gene selec tion and classification to identify the behavior of the genes in tumors and find the relationships between them and outcome of diseases. Interpretability of the model, which is developed by fuzzy rules and linguistic variables in this study, has been rarely considered. In addition, creating a fuzzy classifier with high performance in classification that uses a subset of significant genes which have been selected by different types of gene selection methods is another goal of this study. A new algorithm has been developed to identify the fuzzy rules and significant genes based on fuzzy association rule mining. At first, different subset of genes which have been selected by different methods, were used to generate primary fuzzy classifiers separately and then proposed algorithm was implemented to mix the genes which have been associated in the primary classifiers and generate a new classifier. The results show that fuzzy classifier can classify the tumors with high performance while presenting the relationships between the genes by linguistic variables

  7. Index : A Rule Based Expert System For Computer Network Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganty, Srinivas; Pitchai, Anandhi; Morgan, Thomas W.

    1988-03-01

    Communications is an expert intensive discipline. The application of expert systems for maintenance of large and complex networks, mainly as an aid in trouble shooting, can simplify the task of network management. The important steps involved in troubleshooting are fault detection, fault reporting, fault interpretation and fault isolation. At present, Network Maintenance Facilities are capable of detecting and reporting the faults to network personnel. Fault interpretation refers to the next step in the process, which involves coming up with reasons for the failure. Fault interpretation can be characterized in two ways. First, it involves such a diversity of facts that it is difficult to predict. Secondly, it embodies a wealth of knowledge in the form of network management personnel. The application of expert systems in these interpretive tasks is an important step towards automation of network maintenance. In this paper, INDEX (Intelligent Network Diagnosis Expediter), a rule based production system for computer network alarm interpretation is described. It acts as an intelligent filter for people analyzing network alarms. INDEX analyzes the alarms in the network and identifies proper maintenance action to be taken.The important feature of this production system is that it is data driven. Working memory is the principal data repository of production systems and its contents represent the current state of the problem. Control is based upon which productions match the constantly changing working memory elements. Implementation of the prototype is in OPS83. Major issues in rule based system development such as rule base organization, implementation and efficiency are discussed.

  8. Using fuzzy association rule mining in cancer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodian, Hamid; Hamiruce Marhaban, M; Abdulrahim, Raha; Rosli, Rozita; Saripan, Iqbal

    2011-04-01

    The classification of the cancer tumors based on gene expression profiles has been extensively studied in numbers of studies. A wide variety of cancer datasets have been implemented by the various methods of gene selection and classification to identify the behavior of the genes in tumors and find the relationships between them and outcome of diseases. Interpretability of the model, which is developed by fuzzy rules and linguistic variables in this study, has been rarely considered. In addition, creating a fuzzy classifier with high performance in classification that uses a subset of significant genes which have been selected by different types of gene selection methods is another goal of this study. A new algorithm has been developed to identify the fuzzy rules and significant genes based on fuzzy association rule mining. At first, different subset of genes which have been selected by different methods, were used to generate primary fuzzy classifiers separately and then proposed algorithm was implemented to mix the genes which have been associated in the primary classifiers and generate a new classifier. The results show that fuzzy classifier can classify the tumors with high performance while presenting the relationships between the genes by linguistic variables.

  9. Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2007-11-01

    Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.

  10. Vet Centers. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-04

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This interim final rule amends regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  11. Majority rule on heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin

  12. Ranked Multi-Label Rules Associative Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabtah, Fadi

    Associative classification is a promising approach in data mining, which integrates association rule discovery and classification. In this paper, we present a novel associative classification technique called Ranked Multilabel Rule (RMR) that derives rules with multiple class labels. Rules derived by current associative classification algorithms overlap in their training data records, resulting in many redundant and useless rules. However, RMR removes the overlapping between rules using a pruning heuristic and ensures that rules in the final classifier do not share training records, resulting in more accurate classifiers. Experimental results obtained on twenty data sets show that the classifiers produced by RMR are highly competitive if compared with those generated by decision trees and other popular associative techniques such as CBA, with respect to prediction accuracy.

  13. How Politics Shapes the Growth of Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Leth Felsager; Mortensen, Peter Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    when, why, and how political factors shape changes in the stock of rules. Furthermore, we test these hypotheses on a unique, new data set based on all Danish primary legislation and administrative rules from 1989 to 2011 categorized into 20 different policy domains. The analysis shows......This article examines the impact of politics on governmental rule production. Traditionally, explanations of rule dynamics have focused on nonpolitical factors such as the self-evolvement of rules, environmental factors, and decision maker attributes. This article develops a set of hypotheses about...... that the traditional Weberian “rules breed rules” explanations must be supplemented with political explanations that take party ideology and changes in the political agenda into account. Moreover, the effect of political factors is indistinguishable across changes in primary laws and changes in administrative rules...

  14. DMET-Miner: Efficient discovery of association rules from pharmacogenomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, Giuseppe; Guzzi, Pietro H; Cannataro, Mario

    2015-08-01

    Microarray platforms enable the investigation of allelic variants that may be correlated to phenotypes. Among those, the Affymetrix DMET (Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters) platform enables the simultaneous investigation of all the genes that are related to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). Although recent studies demonstrated the effectiveness of the use of DMET data for studying drug response or toxicity in clinical studies, there is a lack of tools for the automatic analysis of DMET data. In a previous work we developed DMET-Analyzer, a methodology and a supporting platform able to automatize the statistical study of allelic variants, that has been validated in several clinical studies. Although DMET-Analyzer is able to correlate a single variant for each probe (related to a portion of a gene) through the use of the Fisher test, it is unable to discover multiple associations among allelic variants, due to its underlying statistic analysis strategy that focuses on a single variant for each time. To overcome those limitations, here we propose a new analysis methodology for DMET data based on Association Rules mining, and an efficient implementation of this methodology, named DMET-Miner. DMET-Miner extends the DMET-Analyzer tool with data mining capabilities and correlates the presence of a set of allelic variants with the conditions of patient's samples by exploiting association rules. To face the high number of frequent itemsets generated when considering large clinical studies based on DMET data, DMET-Miner uses an efficient data structure and implements an optimized search strategy that reduces the search space and the execution time. Preliminary experiments on synthetic DMET datasets, show how DMET-Miner outperforms off-the-shelf data mining suites such as the FP-Growth algorithms available in Weka and RapidMiner. To demonstrate the biological relevance of the extracted association rules and the effectiveness of the

  15. ENS implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorescu, R.; Blaabjerg, F.; Asiminoaei, L.; Timbus, A.V.

    2004-07-01

    This report is part of the research contract PSO-Eltra 2524/2003 where Aalborg University did cooperated with PowerLynx A/S for the development of the ENS function for the PowerLynx PV inverters. The work started 01.01.03 and ended 29.02.04 and involved Frede Blaabjerg, Remus Teodorescu, Lucian Asiminoaie and Adrian Timbus from Aalborg University and Uffe Borup from PowerLynx A/S. The objective was to make the PowerLynx PV inverters compatible with the german ENS standard which mainly consist in the requirement to disconnect from the grid in max. 2 seconds if the grid impedance is changed with 0.5 ohms resistive. During 01.07 31.08 2003, an algorithm based on the injection of a voltage of 75 Hz and the on-line measurement the 75Hz component from the grid current and voltage using simplified DFT was developed by Uffe Borup, Remus Teodorescu and Lucian Asiminoaie. The algorithm is described in detail in the report 'ENS design' enclosed in Appendix A and in the two published paper (final paper for APEC'04 and approved digest for PESC'04). Then the algorithm was finally implemented and the experimental tests carried out proved to be satisfactory as shown in chapter 2 'ENS implementation'. Very few missed tests were recorded on very high inductive grid (0.6 + 1.1i) when the reactance is higher than the resistance. In the period 03.02.04 13.02.04 some attempts was done in order to improve the detection by compensating the delay in the voltage measurement but no improvement was noticed. Thus, these last minute changes was not included in the final version of the software. Finally, the detection mechanism of another PV running in parallel that injects t5Hz for ENS grid measurements has been done. The code for parallel ENS is also enclosed. (au)

  16. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin; Strawn, Laura K

    2016-02-01

    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  18. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties...

  19. Variable rules meet Impoverishment theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parrott, Jeffrey K.; Nevins, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper revives the sociolinguistic notion of ‘variable rules’ (Labov 1969, Cedergren and Sankoff 1974, Guy 1991) as a specific and restricted mechanism within the theoretical framework of Distributed Morphology (Halle and Marantz 1993, Embick and Noyer 2007). We propose that intra-individual ......This paper revives the sociolinguistic notion of ‘variable rules’ (Labov 1969, Cedergren and Sankoff 1974, Guy 1991) as a specific and restricted mechanism within the theoretical framework of Distributed Morphology (Halle and Marantz 1993, Embick and Noyer 2007). We propose that intra......-individual paradigm ‘leveling’ variation (or, variable syncretism) can be effectively modeled as resulting from post-syntactic feature deletion rules that apply variably. In other words, variable rules enact a structural change only probabilistically, rather than deterministically, when their structural description...... is met. By hypothesis, morphological ‘Impoverishment’ operations (Bonet 1991, Halle 1997, Noyer 1998) are induced by the inherent and universal markedness of particular morphosyntactic features or their combination (Greenberg 1966, Croft 2003). We examine markedness-driven variable Impoverishment through...

  20. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pedersen

    Full Text Available Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  1. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  2. The new financial architecture: from substantive to procedural rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The new international financial architecture is investigated through the works of leading American economists, the Cologne G7 decisions, the implementing work of the IMF (and the World Bank. However, the Washington-consensus policies and the definition of standards and codes have not avoided foreign exchange, banking and debt crises, the therapy of which has been hotly contested as ineffective or unduly harsh. Many critics have proposed to transform the IMF radically. Although no such reform has taken place, the institution set up at Bretton Woods to look after the fixed exchange rate system with substantive rules has turned into a sort of supervisor of macroeconomic, structural and, above all, financial policies aiming to ensure stability through procedural rules. The latter are the product of many institutions and organisations with or without legitimacy, which makes the international monetary andfinancial system ever more dependent on soft law.

  3. A High-Level Language for Rule-Based Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  4. Verification of design rules for EUROFER under TBM operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyk, R.; Aktaa, J.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the activity presented in this work is, firstly, an evaluation of existing design rules considered for austenitic steels exhibiting cycle-by-cycle hardening, in contrast to the reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFM), which soften under cyclic loading. Secondly, we are aimed in a definition of the range of operating temperatures and loads for the current design of the test blanket module (TBM). Results of cycling tests of the EUROFER 97 have been thereby used to adjust material parameters needed for an ABAQUS-own combined non-linear isotropic-kinematic hardening model. Furthermore, a visco-plastic material model considering material damage and implemented recently as an ABAQUS user material (UMAT) has been also applied for simulations. Some important design rules within the elastic route have been evaluated and their predictions have been compared to results of cyclic simulations using the advanced material models mentioned above

  5. The liability rules under international GHG emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xiang Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. In designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability rules has been considered to be one of the most challenging issues. In general, a seller-beware liability works well in a strong enforcement environment. In the Kyoto Protocol, however, it may not always work. By contrast, a buyer-beware liability could be an effective deterrent to non-compliance, but the costs of imposing it are expected to be very high. To strike a middle ground, we suggest a combination of preventive measures with strong but feasible end-of-period punishments to ensure compliance with the Kyoto emissions commitments. Such measures aim to maximize efficiency gains from emissions trading and at the same time, to minimize over-selling risks. (author)

  6. Adding dynamic rules to self-organizing fuzzy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a Dynamic Self-Organizing Fuzzy System (DSOFS) capable of adding, removing, and/or adapting the fuzzy rules and the fuzzy reference sets. The DSOFS background consists of a self-organizing neural structure with neuron relocation features which will develop a map of the input-output behavior. The relocation algorithm extends the topological ordering concept. Fuzzy rules (neurons) are dynamically added or released while the neural structure learns the pattern. The DSOFS advantages are the automatic synthesis and the possibility of parallel implementation. A high adaptation speed and a reduced number of neurons is needed in order to keep errors under some limits. The computer simulation results are presented in a nonlinear systems modelling application.

  7. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  8. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  9. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  10. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  11. Bayesian hypothesis testing and the maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) went into effect in the United States in July 1996. It requires commercial nuclear utilities to monitor system performance (system reliability and maintenance unavailability) for systems that are determined by the utility to be important to plant safety. Utilities must set performance goals for such systems and monitor system performance against these goals. In addition, these performance goals are intended to be commensurate with the safety significance of the system, which can be established by a probabilistic safety assessment of the plant. The author examines the frequents approach to monitoring performance, which is being used by several utilities, and proposes an alternative Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach makes more complete use of the information in the probabilistic safety assessment, is consistent philosophically with the subjective interpretation given to probability in most probabilistic safety assessments, overcomes several pitfalls in the frequents approach, provides results which are easily interpretable, and is straightforward to implement using the information in the probabilistic safety assessment

  12. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  13. 48 CFR 6302.38 - Remand from court (Rule 38).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT APPEALS RULES OF PROCEDURE 6302.38 Remand from court (Rule 38). Whenever any court remands a case... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remand from court (Rule 38... rules. ...

  14. Proposal to modify Rule 6, Rule 10a, and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Garrity, George M; Schink, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    According to the current versions of Rule 10a and Rule 12c of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, names of a genus or subgenus and specific epithets may be taken from any source and may even be composed in an arbitrary manner. Based on these rules, names may be composed of any word or any combination of elements derived from any language with a Latin ending. We propose modifying these rules by adding the text, currently part of Recommendation 6, according to which words from languages other than Latin or Greek should be avoided as long as equivalents exist in Latin or Greek or can be constructed by combining word elements from these two languages. We also propose modification of Rule 6 by adopting some of the current paragraphs of Recommendation 6 to become part of the Rule.

  15. QCD constituent counting rules for neutral vector mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Lebed, Richard F.; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.

    2018-02-01

    QCD constituent counting rules define the scaling behavior of exclusive hadronic scattering and electromagnetic scattering amplitudes at high momentum transfer in terms of the total number of fundamental constituents in the initial and final states participating in the hard subprocess. The scaling laws reflect the twist of the leading Fock state for each hadron and hence the leading operator that creates the composite state from the vacuum. Thus, the constituent counting scaling laws can be used to identify the twist of exotic hadronic candidates such as tetraquarks and pentaquarks. Effective field theories must consistently implement the scaling rules in order to be consistent with the fundamental theory. Here, we examine how one can apply constituent counting rules for the exclusive production of one or two neutral vector mesons V0 in e+e- annihilation, processes in which the V0 can couple via intermediate photons. In the case of a (narrow) real V0, the photon virtuality is fixed to a precise value s1=mV02, thus treating the V0 as a single fundamental particle. Each real V0 thus contributes to the constituent counting rules with NV0=1. In effect, the leading operator underlying the V0 has twist 1. Thus, in the specific physical case of single or double on-shell V0 production via intermediate photons, the predicted scaling from counting rules coincides with vector-meson dominance (VMD), an effective theory that treats V0 as an elementary field. However, the VMD prediction fails in the general case where the V0 is not coupled through an elementary photon field, and then the leading-twist interpolating operator has twist NV 0=2 . Analogous effects appear in p p scattering processes.

  16. How closely do institutional review boards follow the common rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidz, Charles W; Appelbaum, Paul S; Arnold, Robert; Candilis, Philip; Gardner, William; Myers, Suzanne; Simon, Lorna

    2012-07-01

    To determine how closely institutional review board (IRB) discussions reflect the ethical criteria specified in the Common Rule federal regulations. Between November 2006 and July 2009, the authors observed, audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded protocol reviews from 20 IRB meetings at 10 leading academic medical centers. They also reviewed each of the applications discussed to identify the Common Rule criteria-(1) risk minimization, (2) risk/benefit comparison, (3) equitable subject selection, (4) informed consent, (5) data monitoring to ensure safety, (6) privacy protection and confidentiality, and (7) protection of vulnerable subjects-that were both relevant to the study and not adequately addressed in the application. They then determined if the IRB addressed each of the relevant and not-discussed Common Rule criteria in their discussions. IRBs made no mention of many of the Common Rule criteria that required their discussion-In 17/82 (21%) reviews, they failed to address risk minimization; in 52/91 (57%), risk/benefit comparison; in 31/52 (60%), equitable subject selection; in 32/59 (54%), data monitoring; in 13/52 (25%), privacy and confidentiality; and in 7/55 (13%), protection of vulnerable populations. However, they discussed informed consent in 102/104 (98%) reviews and raised questions about, or requested changes about, informed consent for 92/104 (88%) protocols. These findings suggest that essential elements of human subjects protection are not implemented uniformly across IRBs. Although not directly addressing this issue, the current proposed changes to the Common Rule offer an opportunity to improve, in general, the effectiveness of IRBs to protect human subjects.

  17. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  18. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  19. How to find simple and accurate rules for viral protease cleavage specificities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garwicz Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteases of human pathogens are becoming increasingly important drug targets, hence it is necessary to understand their substrate specificity and to interpret this knowledge in practically useful ways. New methods are being developed that produce large amounts of cleavage information for individual proteases and some have been applied to extract cleavage rules from data. However, the hitherto proposed methods for extracting rules have been neither easy to understand nor very accurate. To be practically useful, cleavage rules should be accurate, compact, and expressed in an easily understandable way. Results A new method is presented for producing cleavage rules for viral proteases with seemingly complex cleavage profiles. The method is based on orthogonal search-based rule extraction (OSRE combined with spectral clustering. It is demonstrated on substrate data sets for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 protease and hepatitis C (HCV NS3/4A protease, showing excellent prediction performance for both HIV-1 cleavage and HCV NS3/4A cleavage, agreeing with observed HCV genotype differences. New cleavage rules (consensus sequences are suggested for HIV-1 and HCV NS3/4A cleavages. The practical usability of the method is also demonstrated by using it to predict the location of an internal cleavage site in the HCV NS3 protease and to correct the location of a previously reported internal cleavage site in the HCV NS3 protease. The method is fast to converge and yields accurate rules, on par with previous results for HIV-1 protease and better than previous state-of-the-art for HCV NS3/4A protease. Moreover, the rules are fewer and simpler than previously obtained with rule extraction methods. Conclusion A rule extraction methodology by searching for multivariate low-order predicates yields results that significantly outperform existing rule bases on out-of-sample data, but are more transparent to expert users. The approach

  20. Fusion rules of chiral algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently we showed that for the case of the WZW and the minimal models fusion can be understood as a certain ring-like tensor product of the symmetry algebra. In this paper we generalize this analysis to arbitrary chiral algebras. We define the tensor product of conformal field theory in the general case and prove that it is associative and symmetric up to equivalence. We also determine explicitly the action of the chiral algebra on this tensor product. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate that this framework provides a powerful tool for calculating restrictions for the fusion rules of chiral algebras. We exhibit this for the case of the W 3 algebra and the N=1 and N=2 NS superconformal algebras. (orig.)

  1. ADVERTISING BETWEEN RULES AND CREATIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SUSANU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.

  2. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... wanted to build a coalition of support in this region. Coming from the region himself, the president had a keen interest in dairy cattle. The sector was subsequently regulated because the biggest processor put pressure on the ruling elite to do so. Even when the ruling coalition is fragmented, promoting...

  3. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

    1996-01-01

    Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

  4. Fitness for duty in the nuclear power industry: Responses to implementation questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, L.L.; Grimes, B.K.

    1989-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission published a rule concerning fitness for duty of commercial nuclear power plant workers. This report responds to questions raised concerning the implementation of the rule during the Edison Electric Institute's ''Fitness-for-Duty Rule Implementation Workshop.'' It also responds to questions raised by licensees with the staff outside the workshop. Publication of this report does not constitute a written interpretation of the meaning of the rule. Only written interpretations by the General Counsel will be recognized to be binding upon the Commission

  5. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Transport Rule under Executive Order 12866. In addition, EPA previously prepared the Regulatory Impacts...) EPA previously certified that the proposed Transport Rule will not have a significant economic impact...

  6. Player Experiences and Behaviors in a Multiplayer Game: designing game rules to change interdependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Vegt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serious gaming is used as a means for improving organizational teamwork, yet little is known about the effect of individual game elements constituting serious games. This paper presents a game design experiment aimed at generating knowledge on designing game elements for teamwork. In previous work, we suggested that interaction- and goal-driven rules could guide interdependence and teamwork strategies. Based on this finding, for the present experiment we developed two versions of multiplayer Breakout, varying in rule-sets, designed to elicit player strategies of either dependent competition or dependent cooperation. Results showed that the two rule-sets could generate distinct reported player experiences and observable distinct player behaviors that could be further discriminated into four patterns: expected patterns of helping and ignoring, and unexpected patterns of agreeing and obstructing. Classic game theory was applied to understand the four behavior patterns and made us conclude that goal-driven rules steered players towards competition and cooperation. Interaction rules, in contrast, mainly stimulated dependent competitive behavior, e.g. obstructing each other. Since different types of rules thus led to different player behavior, discriminating in game design between interaction- and goal-driven rules seems relevant. Moreover, our research showed that game theory proved to be useful for understanding goal-driven rules.

  7. Discovering relational-based association rules with multiple minimum supports on microarray datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Chun-Pei; Tseng, Vincent S

    2011-11-15

    Association rule analysis methods are important techniques applied to gene expression data for finding expression relationships between genes. However, previous methods implicitly assume that all genes have similar importance, or they ignore the individual importance of each gene. The relation intensity between any two items has never been taken into consideration. Therefore, we proposed a technique named REMMAR (RElational-based Multiple Minimum supports Association Rules) algorithm to tackle this problem. This method adjusts the minimum relation support (MRS) for each gene pair depending on the regulatory relation intensity to discover more important association rules with stronger biological meaning. In the actual case study of this research, REMMAR utilized the shortest distance between any two genes in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene regulatory network (GRN) as the relation intensity to discover the association rules from two S.cerevisiae gene expression datasets. Under experimental evaluation, REMMAR can generate more rules with stronger relation intensity, and filter out rules without biological meaning in the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN). Furthermore, the proposed method has a higher precision (100%) than the precision of reference Apriori method (87.5%) for the discovered rules use a literature survey. Therefore, the proposed REMMAR algorithm can discover stronger association rules in biological relationships dissimilated by traditional methods to assist biologists in complicated genetic exploration.

  8. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Rules regarding voluntary contributions to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The texts of the following Rules Regarding Voluntary Contributions to the Agency are reproduced for the information of all Members of the Agency. Rules to Govern the Acceptance of Gifts of Services, Equipment and Facilities - adopted by the Board of Governors on 10 March 2004; Rules Regarding the Acceptance of Voluntary Contributions of Money to the Agency - approved by the General Conference on 21 September 2001 (GC (45)/RES/9)

  10. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  11. Clustering algorithms for fuzzy rules decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Paulo; Igrejas, Getúlio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the development, testing and evaluation of generalized Possibilistic fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithms applied to fuzzy sets. Clustering is formulated as a constrained minimization problem, whose solution depends on the constraints imposed on the membership function of the cluster and on the relevance measure of the fuzzy rules. This fuzzy clustering of fuzzy rules leads to a fuzzy partition of the fuzzy rules, one for each cluster, which corresp...

  12. Cellular Scaling Rules for the Brains of an Extended Number of Primate Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabi, Mariana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Torres, Laila B.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    What are the rules relating the size of the brain and its structures to the number of cells that compose them and their average sizes? We have shown previously that the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and the remaining brain structures increase in size as a linear function of their numbers of neurons and non-neuronal cells across 6 species of primates. Here we describe that the cellular composition of the same brain structures of 5 other primate species, as well as humans, conform to the scaling rules identified previously, and that the updated power functions for the extended sample are similar to those determined earlier. Accounting for phylogenetic relatedness in the combined dataset does not affect the scaling slopes that apply to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, but alters the slope for the remaining brain structures to a value that is similar to that observed in rodents, which raises the possibility that the neuronal scaling rules for these structures are shared among rodents and primates. The conformity of the new set of primate species to the previous rules strongly suggests that the cellular scaling rules we have identified apply to primates in general, including humans, and not only to particular subgroups of primate species. In contrast, the allometric rules relating body and brain size are highly sensitive to the particular species sampled, suggesting that brain size is neither determined by body size nor together with it, but is rather only loosely correlated with body size. PMID:20926854

  13. On the rules for aquatic locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, M.; Fish, F. E.; Domel, A. G.; Di Santo, V.; Lauder, G. V.; Haj-Hariri, H.

    2017-08-01

    We present unifying rules governing the efficient locomotion of swimming fish and marine mammals. Using scaling and dimensional analysis, supported by new experimental data, we show that efficient locomotion occurs when the values of the Strouhal (St) number St (=f A /U ) and A*(=A /L ) , two nondimensional numbers that relate forward speed U , tail-beat amplitude A , tail-beat frequency f , and the length of the swimmer L are bound to the tight ranges of 0.2-0.4 and 0.1-0.3, respectively. The tight range of 0.2-0.4 for the St number has previously been associated with optimal thrust generation. We show that the St number alone is insufficient to achieve optimal aquatic locomotion, and an additional condition on A* is needed. More importantly, we show that when swimming at minimal power consumption, the Strouhal number of a cruising swimmer is predetermined solely by the shape and drag characteristics of the swimmer. We show that diverse species of fish and cetaceans cruise indeed with the St number and A* predicted by our theory. Our findings provide a physical explanation as to why fast aquatic swimmers cruise with a relatively constant tail-beat amplitude of approximately 20% of the body length, and their swimming speed is nearly proportional to their tail-beat frequency.

  14. Analyzing microarray data using quantitative association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii, Elisabeth; Richter, Lothar; Rückert, Ulrich; Kramer, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    We tackle the problem of finding regularities in microarray data. Various data mining tools, such as clustering, classification, Bayesian networks and association rules, have been applied so far to gain insight into gene-expression data. Association rule mining techniques used so far work on discretizations of the data and cannot account for cumulative effects. In this paper, we investigate the use of quantitative association rules that can operate directly on numeric data and represent cumulative effects of variables. Technically speaking, this type of quantitative association rules based on half-spaces can find non-axis-parallel regularities. We performed a variety of experiments testing the utility of quantitative association rules for microarray data. First of all, the results should be statistically significant and robust against fluctuations in the data. Next, the approach should be scalable in the number of variables, which is important for such high-dimensional data. Finally, the rules should make sense biologically and be sufficiently different from rules found in regular association rule mining working with discretizations. In all of these dimensions, the proposed approach performed satisfactorily. Therefore, quantitative association rules based on half-spaces should be considered as a tool for the analysis of microarray gene-expression data. The code is available from the authors on request.

  15. Guide to the collision avoidance rules

    CERN Document Server

    Cockcroft, A N

    2004-01-01

    A Guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules is the essential reference to the safe operation of all vessels at sea. Published continuously since 1965, this respected and expert guide is the classic text for all who need to, practically and legally, understand and comply with the Rules. This sixth edition incorporates all of the amendments to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea which came into force in November 2003.The books sets out all of the Rules with clear explanation of their meaning, and gives detailed examples of how the rules have been used in practice

  16. Sum rules in the response function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1990-01-01

    Sum rules in the response function method are studied in detail. A sum rule can be obtained theoretically by integrating the imaginary part of the response function over the excitation energy with a corresponding energy weight. Generally, the response function is calculated perturbatively in terms of the residual interaction, and the expansion can be described by diagrammatic methods. In this paper, we present a classification of the diagrams so as to clarify which diagram has what contribution to which sum rule. This will allow us to get insight into the contributions to the sum rules of all the processes expressed by Goldstone diagrams. (orig.)

  17. Parton model (Moessbauer) sum rules for b → c decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The parton model is a starting point or zero-order approximation in many treatments. The author follows an approach previously used for the Moessbauer effect and shows how parton model sum rules derived for certain moments of the lepton energy spectrum in b → c semileptonic decays remain valid even when binding effects are included. The parton model appears as a open-quote semiclassical close-quote model whose results for certain averages also hold (correspondence principle) in quantum mechanics. Algebraic techniques developed for the Moessbauer effect exploit simple features of the commutator between the weak current operator and the bound state Hamiltonian to find the appropriate sum rules and show the validity of the parton model in the classical limit, ℎ → 0, where all commutators vanish

  18. Violence, Rule of Law, and Punitive Policies in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica De la Torre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that high levels of violence and crime in the so called North Triangle of Central America (Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras, together with the incapacity of the state of enforcing the rule of law, are causing growing anxiety among the population and are attracting the support of the community to implement authoritarian measures to fight crime. The response of the governments of the region in the face of the rise of crime and public demand for security has been the policies of "iron fist", and the use of "populist punitiveness" as a strategy to gain the backing of an electorate deeply concerned by insecurity.

  19. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  20. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  1. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  2. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  3. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  4. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  5. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  7. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  8. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  9. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  11. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  12. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  13. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  14. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  15. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  16. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  17. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  18. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  19. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  20. Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.

  1. Medication abortion failure in women with and without previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlendorf, Christine E; Fox, Edith E; Ali, Rose F; Anderson, Nora C; Reed, Reiley D; Lichtenberg, E Steve

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between previous cesarean delivery and medication abortion failure and the association between parity and failure. Data were abstracted from 2035 consecutive charts of women who underwent medication abortion in 2011. All women were at 63 days gestation or less and received mifepristone 200mg orally and misoprostol 800 mcg buccally. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the relationship between failure, defined as requiring either curettage or additional medication, and prior cesarean delivery. We also examined the relationship between failure and parity. Follow-up was available on 1609 (79%) patients. Overall, 4.5% of patients experienced failure. Neither cesarean delivery nor parity was associated with failure; 6.5% of women with prior cesarean delivery experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-3.87]. With regard to parity, 4.7% of women with two or more previous births experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women (aOR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.54-2.14). We did not find significant associations between prior cesarean delivery and failure or parity and failure. A previous study of patients who had received a less effective regimen reported significant associations between cesarean delivery and failure and parity and failure. While our results do not rule out the possibility of modest associations due to our limited statistical power, they are reassuring relative to previous findings. Our results suggest that if there are differences in women's odds of medication abortion failure by obstetric history, such differences are unlikely to be large. Providers and patients may factor this information into decision making about methods of pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 76 FR 55621 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... California State Implementation Plan, Yolo- Solano Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental...-Solano Air Quality Management District portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This... the following local rule: Yolo-Solano Air Quality Management District Rule 2.41, Expandable...

  3. Revised Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the revised version of the Interim Final Consolidated Enforcement Response and Penalty Policy for the Pre-Renovation Education Rule; Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule; and Lead-Based Paint Activities Rule.

  4. Growing but not transforming: Fragmented ruling coalitions and economic developments in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Katusiimeh, Mesharch

    In spite of decades of GDP growth, Uganda remains an agricultural economy still awaiting an economic transformation. Sustained state initiatives to promote such a transformation have been lacking. We find that the explanation for this is to be found in the nature of the ruling coalition, which has...... been stable enough to maintain macro-economic stability, attract aid and ensure the one-off gains from introducing peace. However, the fact that it has proved so challenging to hold the ruling coalition together has hindered the ruling elite in implementing initiatives to support transformation...... of their public positions to benefit themselves. The costs involved in winning elections have also risen, and increasing use is being made of public resources to fund patronage, as well as of public-sector programs to win elections. The fact that staying in power has become more costly and that the ruling...

  5. A modified Taylor rule for dealing with demand shocks and uncertain potential macroeconomic output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2008-02-01

    A critical issue for central banks in modern economies is the inflation stabilization about a prescribed level. The best-known simple instrumental rule to guide monetary policy to control inflation is the Taylor rule, where the instrument (e.g., a short interest rate) responds to changes in the inflation and the output gaps. The objective of this paper is to introduce some modifications to the Taylor rule in order to improve its robustness with respect to uncertainties about potential output and unanticipated shocks. To this end, departing from feedback control theory, the Taylor rule is equipped with an adaptive control scheme to reject the adverse effects of shocks and to estimate the deviations of the potential output. It is shown that the proposed adaptation procedure is equivalent to a classical integral feedback controller whose characteristics and implementation issues are well understood in practical control engineering. Singular perturbation methods are used to establish the stability properties of the resulting control system.

  6. Analysis, Simulation, and Verification of Knowledge-Based, Rule-Based, and Expert Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchey, Mike; Rash, James; Erickson, John; Gracanin, Denis; Rouff, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Mathematically sound techniques are used to view a knowledge-based system (KBS) as a set of processes executing in parallel and being enabled in response to specific rules being fired. The set of processes can be manipulated, examined, analyzed, and used in a simulation. The tool that embodies this technology may warn developers of errors in their rules, but may also highlight rules (or sets of rules) in the system that are underspecified (or overspecified) and need to be corrected for the KBS to operate as intended. The rules embodied in a KBS specify the allowed situations, events, and/or results of the system they describe. In that sense, they provide a very abstract specification of a system. The system is implemented through the combination of the system specification together with an appropriate inference engine, independent of the algorithm used in that inference engine. Viewing the rule base as a major component of the specification, and choosing an appropriate specification notation to represent it, reveals how additional power can be derived from an approach to the knowledge-base system that involves analysis, simulation, and verification. This innovative approach requires no special knowledge of the rules, and allows a general approach where standardized analysis, verification, simulation, and model checking techniques can be applied to the KBS.

  7. PARM--an efficient algorithm to mine association rules from spatial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qin; Ding, Qiang; Perrizo, William

    2008-12-01

    Association rule mining, originally proposed for market basket data, has potential applications in many areas. Spatial data, such as remote sensed imagery (RSI) data, is one of the promising application areas. Extracting interesting patterns and rules from spatial data sets, composed of images and associated ground data, can be of importance in precision agriculture, resource discovery, and other areas. However, in most cases, the sizes of the spatial data sets are too large to be mined in a reasonable amount of time using existing algorithms. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach to derive association rules from spatial data using Peano Count Tree (P-tree) structure. P-tree structure provides a lossless and compressed representation of spatial data. Based on P-trees, an efficient association rule mining algorithm PARM with fast support calculation and significant pruning techniques is introduced to improve the efficiency of the rule mining process. The P-tree based Association Rule Mining (PARM) algorithm is implemented and compared with FP-growth and Apriori algorithms. Experimental results showed that our algorithm is superior for association rule mining on RSI spatial data.

  8. Reservoir adaptive operating rules based on both of historical streamflow and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Pan; Wang, Hao; Chen, Jie; Lei, Xiaohui; Feng, Maoyuan

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is affecting hydrological variables and consequently is impacting water resources management. Historical strategies are no longer applicable under climate change. Therefore, adaptive management, especially adaptive operating rules for reservoirs, has been developed to mitigate the possible adverse effects of climate change. However, to date, adaptive operating rules are generally based on future projections involving uncertainties under climate change, yet ignoring historical information. To address this, we propose an approach for deriving adaptive operating rules considering both historical information and future projections, namely historical and future operating rules (HAFOR). A robustness index was developed by comparing benefits from HAFOR with benefits from conventional operating rules (COR). For both historical and future streamflow series, maximizations of both average benefits and the robustness index were employed as objectives, and four trade-offs were implemented to solve the multi-objective problem. Based on the integrated objective, the simulation-based optimization method was used to optimize the parameters of HAFOR. Using the Dongwushi Reservoir in China as a case study, HAFOR was demonstrated to be an effective and robust method for developing adaptive operating rules under the uncertain changing environment. Compared with historical or projected future operating rules (HOR or FPOR), HAFOR can reduce the uncertainty and increase the robustness for future projections, especially regarding results of reservoir releases and volumes. HAFOR, therefore, facilitates adaptive management in the context that climate change is difficult to predict accurately.

  9. Tightening conflict-of-interest policies: the impact of 2005 ethics rules at the NIH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Darren E; DesRoches, Catherine M; Bristol, Steffanie J; Clarridge, Brian; Campbell, Eric G

    2010-11-01

    To determine both the intended and unintended effects of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 2005 ethics rules by examining changes in publishing rates and the frequency of external relationships among NIH scientists. After identifying eligible intramural scientists and administrators from institutes' Web pages and central directories, a mailed survey was administered to 900 NIH research faculty between October 2008 and January 2009 (response rate 70.1%). Eighty percent of respondents believed the NIH ethics rules were too restrictive. Whereas 45% of respondents believed the rules positively impacted the public's trust in the NIH, 77% believed the rules hindered the NIH's ability to complete its mission. Implementation of the ethics rules significantly decreased self-reported government-industry relationships among NIH faculty (from 51.8% to 33.2%, P impact on NIH faculty participation in nonindustrial professional service roles and had no detectable change in publishing behavior (5.29 articles per researcher per year from 2002-2005 versus 5.26 from 2005-2008, P = .88). The NIH ethics rules accomplished much of what they were intended to do, limiting relationships with industry while maintaining NIH researchers' association with external scientific and professional organizations. However, the rules negatively affected personnel morale and the perceived progress of research.

  10. Broken selection rule in the quantum Rabi model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn-Díaz, P; Romero, G; Harmans, C J P M; Solano, E; Mooij, J E

    2016-06-07

    Understanding the interaction between light and matter is very relevant for fundamental studies of quantum electrodynamics and for the development of quantum technologies. The quantum Rabi model captures the physics of a single atom interacting with a single photon at all regimes of coupling strength. We report the spectroscopic observation of a resonant transition that breaks a selection rule in the quantum Rabi model, implemented using an LC resonator and an artificial atom, a superconducting qubit. The eigenstates of the system consist of a superposition of bare qubit-resonator states with a relative sign. When the qubit-resonator coupling strength is negligible compared to their own frequencies, the matrix element between excited eigenstates of different sign is very small in presence of a resonator drive, establishing a sign-preserving selection rule. Here, our qubit-resonator system operates in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the coupling strength is 10% of the resonator frequency, allowing sign-changing transitions to be activated and, therefore, detected. This work shows that sign-changing transitions are an unambiguous, distinctive signature of systems operating in the ultrastrong coupling regime of the quantum Rabi model. These results pave the way to further studies of sign-preserving selection rules in multiqubit and multiphoton models.

  11. European union mission for the rule of law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bejtush Gashi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we have studied the international circumstances that have affected the deployment of the EULEX Mission in Kosovo. The EULEX mission is the European Union Mission for the Rule of Law in Kosovo. Its main goal is to advise, assist and support the Kosovo authorities in issues of the rule of law, especially in the field of police, judiciary and customs performance. Also this mission has the responsibility to develop and further strengthen the independent multi-ethnic justice system in Kosovo, by ensuring that the rule of law institutions are not politically influenced and that they meet the known international standards and best European practices. This mission was foreseen to be deployed to Kosovo, based on the Ahtissari Comprehensive Status Proposal for Kosovo, but due to its non-approval by the UN Security Council, its full implementation was delayed until December 2008. EULEX acts within the framework of Resolution 1244 of the UN Security Council and under a single chain of command in Brussels. EULEX officials have supported Kosovo Police, the Judiciary system and Kosovo Customs, through MMA actions for achieving objectives and goals that are foreseen by the program strategy of EULEX. But in terms of efficiency, EULEX has only achieved modest results. In the northern part of Kosovo, EULEX has failed, as a result of its ambivalent mandate and incoherence of EU Foreign and Security Policy.

  12. Cell Phones: Rule-Setting, Rule-Breaking, and Relationships in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Anita S.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a small qualitative study, this article focuses on understanding the rules for cell phones and other social networking media in schools, an aspect of broader research that led to important understandings of teacher-student negotiations. It considers the rules that schools and teachers make, the rampant breaking of these rules, the…

  13. 77 FR 6760 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings; Rules Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... are ``discussed at length at all levels of management'' within the FAA. The commenter also maintains... definite statement. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, in proceedings governed by this subpart, no motion to dismiss the complaint or for a more definite statement of the complaint's...

  14. 77 FR 63245 - Rules of Practice in Air Safety Proceedings; Rules Implementing the Equal Access to Justice Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... via electronic mail, and stated it also agrees with the proposal to continue receiving documents by facsimile or postal mail, as not all respondents may have access to electronic mail. NBAA and NATA, however... petition via electronic mail. The FAA also agrees with the proposal to allow for electronic submission of...

  15. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  16. Panorama on cells and accumulators: the situation in 2002. Report on the implementing of prescribed rules relative to the cells and accumulators; Observatoire des piles et accumulateurs: la situation en 2002. Rapport sur la mise en oeuvre des dispositions reglementaires relatives aux piles et accumulateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-01

    This document presents the french situation in 2002 of the implementing of cells and accumulators collection and processing. Concerning the diminution of hazardous materials, the decrease of mercury and cadmium, already observed in 2001 in cells, is confirmed. The collection with the households continue in 2002 with a significant increase of the collection sites. Concerning the processed quantity the situation is steady. Tables of data are given in annexes. (A.L.B.)

  17. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  18. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  19. 18 CFR 341.6 - Adoption rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption rule. 341.6... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.6 Adoption rule. (a) Change in name of carrier... such occurrence. The filing of adoption notices and adoption supplements requires no notice period. (c...

  20. Monastic rules of Shenute († 465

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Golovnina

    2017-12-01

    are, by contrast, rhetorically elaborate. In particular, they contain quotations, allusionsand references to the Bible and to regulations of his predecessor, whom Shenute calls“our fathers”. Another important problem in the study of characteristic features of the rules of the White Monastery is the occurrence of quotations (both from the Bible and from Pachomius’ rules.