WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously held assumptions

  1. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  2. 78 FR 47546 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model... Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has issued Israeli...

  3. 75 FR 57844 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39-16438. Docket No. FAA-2010-0555... (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200...

  4. 77 FR 64767 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel... Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes...

  5. 78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39...

  6. 76 FR 70040 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (type certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and... new AD: 2011-23-07 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft...

  7. 75 FR 28485 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream 100 airplanes; and Model Astra SPX and...

  8. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  9. 77 FR 44113 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150... to the manufacturer. This action was prompted by a report from the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel...

  10. 77 FR 58323 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. This proposed AD was.... Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has...

  11. 77 FR 32069 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes. This proposed... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the...

  12. 76 FR 41432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy, Gulfstream... proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has... Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Docket No. FAA-2011-0716; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-013...

  13. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes AGENCY... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  14. 77 FR 33622 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation... Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  15. 78 FR 36089 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company) Model BAe.125 Series 800A... structural damage or lead to divergent flutter, and result in loss of integrity of the wing, loss of control... to divergent flutter, and result in loss of integrity of the wing, loss of control of the airplane...

  16. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ...-1295; Directorate Identifier 2010-CE-060-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA-46-350P airplanes that are equipped with...

  17. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA- 46-350P airplanes that are equipped with... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960...

  18. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-0251; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-002-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type...

  19. 78 FR 76050 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron[aacute]uticas, S.A... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain EADS CASA (Type...., Washington, DC. For EADS-CASA service information identified in this AD, contact EADS-CASA, Military...

  20. 77 FR 5998 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A... proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: EADS-CASA received... address this condition, EADS-CASA has developed an engine condition control cable P/N 35-56382-0005 with...

  1. 75 FR 68185 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A...) that were, at that moment, defined in issue C of EADS-CASA document DT-0-C00-05001. That document has... implementation of the revised Fuel Airworthiness Limitations contained in issue D of EADS- CASA document DT-0-C00...

  2. 75 FR 36296 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... contact we receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has issued Israeli Airworthiness Directive 01-10-01-07R1, dated...

  3. 78 FR 52872 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild Dornier GmbH; Dornier... certain 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft Aerospace GmbH; Fairchild... send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposed AD. Send your comments to an...

  4. The Impact of an International Cultural Experience on Previously Held Stereotypes by American Student Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Loretta; Bengiamin, Marlene; Downey, Vicki Wessman

    2001-01-01

    Examined stereotypes held by U.S. student nurses before and after participating in an educational experience in Russia. The experience was intended to prepare them to be effective nurses in multicultural health care settings. Data from student interviews indicated that the experience changed students' stereotyped attitudes about Russian culture…

  5. False assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, M

    1997-01-01

    Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis Without Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Peng; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2016-05-01

    Unmeasured confounding may undermine the validity of causal inference with observational studies. Sensitivity analysis provides an attractive way to partially circumvent this issue by assessing the potential influence of unmeasured confounding on causal conclusions. However, previous sensitivity analysis approaches often make strong and untestable assumptions such as having an unmeasured confounder that is binary, or having no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the confounder on the outcome, or having only one unmeasured confounder. Without imposing any assumptions on the unmeasured confounder or confounders, we derive a bounding factor and a sharp inequality such that the sensitivity analysis parameters must satisfy the inequality if an unmeasured confounder is to explain away the observed effect estimate or reduce it to a particular level. Our approach is easy to implement and involves only two sensitivity parameters. Surprisingly, our bounding factor, which makes no simplifying assumptions, is no more conservative than a number of previous sensitivity analysis techniques that do make assumptions. Our new bounding factor implies not only the traditional Cornfield conditions that both the relative risk of the exposure on the confounder and that of the confounder on the outcome must satisfy but also a high threshold that the maximum of these relative risks must satisfy. Furthermore, this new bounding factor can be viewed as a measure of the strength of confounding between the exposure and the outcome induced by a confounder.

  7. Adult Learning Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine Knowles' theory of andragogy and his six assumptions of how adults learn while providing evidence to support two of his assumptions based on the theory of andragogy. As no single theory explains how adults learn, it can best be assumed that adults learn through the accumulation of formal and informal…

  8. Multiverse Assumptions and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiverses are predictions based on theories. Focusing on each theory’s assumptions is key to evaluating a proposed multiverse. Although accepted theories of particle physics and cosmology contain non-intuitive features, multiverse theories entertain a host of “strange” assumptions classified as metaphysical (outside objective experience, concerned with fundamental nature of reality, ideas that cannot be proven right or wrong topics such as: infinity, duplicate yous, hypothetical fields, more than three space dimensions, Hilbert space, advanced civilizations, and reality established by mathematical relationships. It is easy to confuse multiverse proposals because many divergent models exist. This overview defines the characteristics of eleven popular multiverse proposals. The characteristics compared are: initial conditions, values of constants, laws of nature, number of space dimensions, number of universes, and fine tuning explanations. Future scientific experiments may validate selected assumptions; but until they do, proposals by philosophers may be as valid as theoretical scientific theories.

  9. Contextuality under weak assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Andrew W; Rudolph, Terry; Wallman, Joel J; Pashayan, Hakop; Bartlett, Stephen D

    2017-01-01

    The presence of contextuality in quantum theory was first highlighted by Bell, Kochen and Specker, who discovered that for quantum systems of three or more dimensions, measurements could not be viewed as deterministically revealing pre-existing properties of the system. More precisely, no model can assign deterministic outcomes to the projectors of a quantum measurement in a way that depends only on the projector and not the context (the full set of projectors) in which it appeared, despite the fact that the Born rule probabilities associated with projectors are independent of the context. A more general, operational definition of contextuality introduced by Spekkens, which we will term ‘probabilistic contextuality’, drops the assumption of determinism and allows for operations other than measurements to be considered contextual. Even two-dimensional quantum mechanics can be shown to be contextual under this generalised notion. Probabilistic noncontextuality represents the postulate that elements of an operational theory that cannot be distinguished from each other based on the statistics of arbitrarily many repeated experiments (they give rise to the same operational probabilities) are ontologically identical. In this paper, we introduce a framework that enables us to distinguish between different noncontextuality assumptions in terms of the relationships between the ontological representations of objects in the theory given a certain relation between their operational representations. This framework can be used to motivate and define a ‘possibilistic’ analogue, encapsulating the idea that elements of an operational theory that cannot be unambiguously distinguished operationally can also not be unambiguously distinguished ontologically. We then prove that possibilistic noncontextuality is equivalent to an alternative notion of noncontextuality proposed by Hardy. Finally, we demonstrate that these weaker noncontextuality assumptions are sufficient to prove

  10. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  11. Do unreal assumptions pervert behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Verner C.

    of the basic assumptions underlying the theories found in economics. Assumptions relating to the primacy of self-interest, to resourceful, evaluative, maximising models of man, to incentive systems and to agency theory. The major part of the paper then discusses how these assumptions and theories may pervert......-interested way nothing will. The purpose of this paper is to take a critical look at some of the assumptions and theories found in economics and discuss their implications for the models and the practices found in the management of business. The expectation is that the unrealistic assumptions of economics have...... become taken for granted and tacitly included into theories and models of management. Guiding business and manage¬ment to behave in a fashion that apparently makes these assumptions become "true". Thus in fact making theories and models become self-fulfilling prophecies. The paper elucidates some...

  12. School Principals' Assumptions about Human Nature: Implications for Leadership in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Ali

    2008-01-01

    This article considers principals' assumptions about human nature in Turkey and the relationship between the assumptions held and the leadership style adopted in schools. The findings show that school principals hold Y-type assumptions and prefer a relationship-oriented style in their relations with assistant principals. However, both principals…

  13. Child Development Knowledge and Teacher Preparation: Confronting Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lilian G.

    This paper questions the widely held assumption that acquiring knowledge of child development is an essential part of teacher preparation and teaching competence, especially among teachers of young children. After discussing the influence of culture, parenting style, and teaching style on developmental expectations and outcomes, the paper asserts…

  14. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  15. Major Assumptions of Mastery Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    Mastery learning can be described as a set of group-based, individualized, teaching and learning strategies based on the premise that virtually all students can and will, in time, learn what the school has to teach. Inherent in this description are assumptions concerning the nature of schools, classroom instruction, and learners. According to the…

  16. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice-a systematic review of common misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anja F; Albers, Casper J

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  17. Changing Assumptions and Progressive Change in Theories of Strategic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Hallberg, Niklas L.

    2017-01-01

    are often decoupled from the results of empirical testing, changes in assumptions seem closely intertwined with theoretical progress. Using the case of the resource-based view, we suggest that progressive change in theories of strategic organization may come about as a result of scholarly debate and dispute......A commonly held view is that strategic organization theories progress as a result of a Popperian process of bold conjectures and systematic refutations. However, our field also witnesses vibrant debates or disputes about the specific assumptions that our theories rely on, and although these debates...... over what constitutes proper assumptions—even in the absence of corroborating or falsifying empirical evidence. We also discuss how changing assumptions may drive future progress in the resource-based view....

  18. Questioning the "big assumptions". Part II: recognizing organizational contradictions that impede institutional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Constance M; Lahey, Lisa; Kegan, Robert; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    Well-designed medical curriculum reforms can fall short of their primary objectives during implementation when unanticipated or unaddressed organizational resistance surfaces. This typically occurs if the agents for change ignore faculty concerns during the planning stage or when the provision of essential institutional safeguards to support new behaviors are neglected. Disappointing outcomes in curriculum reforms then result in the perpetuation of or reversion to the status quo despite the loftiest of goals. Institutional resistance to change, much like that observed during personal development, does not necessarily indicate a communal lack of commitment to the organization's newly stated goals. It may reflect the existence of competing organizational objectives that must be addressed before substantive advances in a new direction can be accomplished. The authors describe how the Big Assumptions process (see previous article) was adapted and applied at the institutional level during a school of medicine's curriculum reform. Reform leaders encouraged faculty participants to articulate their reservations about considered changes to provided insights into the organization's competing commitments. The line of discussion provided an opportunity for faculty to appreciate the gridlock that existed until appropriate test of the school's long held Big Assumptions could be conducted. The Big Assumptions process proved useful in moving faculty groups to recognize and questions the validity of unchallenged institutional beliefs that were likely to undermine efforts toward change. The process also allowed the organization to put essential institutional safeguards in place that ultimately insured that substantive reforms could be sustained.

  19. On testing the missing at random assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Most approaches to learning from incomplete data are based on the assumption that unobserved values are missing at random (mar). While the mar assumption, as such, is not testable, it can become testable in the context of other distributional assumptions, e.g. the naive Bayes assumption...

  20. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  1. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  2. Leakage-Resilient Circuits without Computational Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan; Faust, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Physical cryptographic devices inadvertently leak information through numerous side-channels. Such leakage is exploited by so-called side-channel attacks, which often allow for a complete security breache. A recent trend in cryptography is to propose formal models to incorporate leakage...... on computational assumptions, our results are purely information-theoretic. In particular, we do not make use of public key encryption, which was required in all previous works...... into the model and to construct schemes that are provably secure within them. We design a general compiler that transforms any cryptographic scheme, e.g., a block-cipher, into a functionally equivalent scheme which is resilient to any continual leakage provided that the following three requirements are satisfied...

  3. 76 FR 1349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE Previously Held by... Company (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (previously The... Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) (Type Certificate A00003SE previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  4. Beyond the crystal ball assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    (programmers hide implementation details behind previously defined interfaces, or alternatively, they refine some pre-defined properties). While practical, this approach is unfortunately not completely satisfactory for Enterprise Resource Planning systems (ERPs). These software products have to be customizable...... quantification. We introduce the Eggther framework for customization of evolvable software products in general and ERP systems in particular. Our approach is based on the concept of code query by example. The technology being developed is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We...

  5. Unexamined assumptions and inescapable consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commager, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental problems of politics, in the modern as in the ancient world, are moral. That issue is very much here today, with greater urgency than at any previous era of history. Now, with the recognition of the nuclear winter, it is for the first time one that directly concerns not just one people or one nation but the whole of mankind. It is one that, historically and philosophically, American experience illuminates. A nuclear war will be suicidal not only for both contestants but, in all likelihood, for the human race. Even if there should be some survivors from nuclear fire and nuclear winter, their familiar world-including all those objectives for which one now contends-would be gone forever. Why, then, does a military solution persist (the very term is an oxymoron) instead of a diplomatic, political, economic, and moral solution? Why, with the sunlight of two hundred years of progress and security shining upon the world, the leaders of today turn away from a long record of seeking peace and progress through science and technology, or of following a tradition of magnanimity in the conduct of foreign policy?

  6. How Symmetrical Assumptions Advance Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Hallberg, Hallberg

    2014-01-01

    We develop the case for symmetrical assumptions in strategic management theory. Assumptional symmetry obtains when assumptions made about certain actors and their interactions in one of the application domains of a theory are also made about this set of actors and their interactions in other...... application domains of the theory. We argue that assumptional symmetry leads to theoretical advancement by promoting the development of theory with greater falsifiability and stronger ontological grounding. Thus, strategic management theory may be advanced by systematically searching for asymmetrical...

  7. Wrong assumptions in the financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to show how some of the assumptions about the current financial crisis are wrong because they misunderstand what takes place in the mortgage market. Design/methodology/approach - The paper discusses four wrong assumptions: one related to regulation, one to

  8. The relevance of ''theory rich'' bridge assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, S

    1996-01-01

    Actor models are increasingly being used as a form of theory building in sociology because they can better represent the caul mechanisms that connect macro variables. However, actor models need additional assumptions, especially so-called bridge assumptions, for filling in the relatively empty

  9. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Anja F.

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking. PMID:28533971

  10. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja F. Ernst

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated employment and reporting of assumption checks in twelve clinical psychology journals. Findings indicate that normality of the variables themselves, rather than of the errors, was wrongfully held for a necessary assumption in 4% of papers that use regression. Furthermore, 92% of all papers using linear regression were unclear about their assumption checks, violating APA-recommendations. This paper appeals for a heightened awareness for and increased transparency in the reporting of statistical assumption checking.

  11. Respondent-Driven Sampling – Testing Assumptions: Sampling with Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barash Vladimir D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS estimators are based on a Markov Process model in which sampling occurs with replacement. Given that respondents generally cannot be interviewed more than once, this assumption is counterfactual. We join recent work by Gile and Handcock in exploring the implications of the sampling-with-replacement assumption for bias of RDS estimators. We differ from previous studies in examining a wider range of sampling fractions and in using not only simulations but also formal proofs. One key finding is that RDS estimates are surprisingly stable even in the presence of substantial sampling fractions. Our analyses show that the sampling-with-replacement assumption is a minor contributor to bias for sampling fractions under 40%, and bias is negligible for the 20% or smaller sampling fractions typical of field applications of RDS.

  12. Common-Sense Chemistry: The Use of Assumptions and Heuristics in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyer, Jenine Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Students experience difficulty learning and understanding chemistry at higher levels, often because of cognitive biases stemming from common sense reasoning constraints. These constraints can be divided into two categories: assumptions (beliefs held about the world around us) and heuristics (the reasoning strategies or rules used to build…

  13. Mutual assumptions and facts about nondisclosure among clinical supervisors and students in group supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Geir Høstmark; Skjerve, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2009-01-01

    In the two preceding papers of this issue of Nordic Psychology the authors report findings from a study of nondisclosure among student therapists and clinical supervisors. The findings were reported separately for each group. In this article, the two sets of findings are held together and compared......, so as to draw a picture of mutual assumptions and facts about nondisclosure among students and supervisors....

  14. Linear regression and the normality assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Amand F; Finan, Chris

    2017-12-16

    Researchers often perform arbitrary outcome transformations to fulfill the normality assumption of a linear regression model. This commentary explains and illustrates that in large data settings, such transformations are often unnecessary, and worse may bias model estimates. Linear regression assumptions are illustrated using simulated data and an empirical example on the relation between time since type 2 diabetes diagnosis and glycated hemoglobin levels. Simulation results were evaluated on coverage; i.e., the number of times the 95% confidence interval included the true slope coefficient. Although outcome transformations bias point estimates, violations of the normality assumption in linear regression analyses do not. The normality assumption is necessary to unbiasedly estimate standard errors, and hence confidence intervals and P-values. However, in large sample sizes (e.g., where the number of observations per variable is >10) violations of this normality assumption often do not noticeably impact results. Contrary to this, assumptions on, the parametric model, absence of extreme observations, homoscedasticity, and independency of the errors, remain influential even in large sample size settings. Given that modern healthcare research typically includes thousands of subjects focusing on the normality assumption is often unnecessary, does not guarantee valid results, and worse may bias estimates due to the practice of outcome transformations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Formalization and Analysis of Reasoning by Assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a novel approach for the analysis of the dynamics of reasoning processes and explores its applicability for the reasoning pattern called reasoning by assumption. More specifically, for a case study in the domain of a Master Mind game, it is shown how empirical human reasoning traces can be formalized and automatically analyzed against dynamic properties they fulfill. To this end, for the pattern of reasoning by assumption a variety of dynamic properties have been speci...

  16. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  17. Spatial Angular Compounding for Elastography without the Incompressibility Assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Min; Varghese, Tomy

    2005-01-01

    Spatial-angular compounding is a new technique that enables the reduction of noise artifacts in ultrasound elastography. Previous results using spatial angular compounding, however, were based on the use of the tissue incompressibility assumption. Compounded elastograms were obtained from a spatially-weighted average of local strain estimated from radiofrequency echo signals acquired at different insonification angles. In this paper, we present a new method for reducing the noise artifacts in...

  18. Monitoring Assumptions in Assume-Guarantee Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sokolsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Pre-deployment verification of software components with respect to behavioral specifications in the assume-guarantee form does not, in general, guarantee absence of errors at run time. This is because assumptions about the environment cannot be discharged until the environment is fixed. An intuitive approach is to complement pre-deployment verification of guarantees, up to the assumptions, with post-deployment monitoring of environment behavior to check that the assumptions are satisfied at run time. Such a monitor is typically implemented by instrumenting the application code of the component. An additional challenge for the monitoring step is that environment behaviors are typically obtained through an I/O library, which may alter the component's view of the input format. This transformation requires us to introduce a second pre-deployment verification step to ensure that alarms raised by the monitor would indeed correspond to violations of the environment assumptions. In this paper, we describe an approach for constructing monitors and verifying them against the component assumption. We also discuss limitations of instrumentation-based monitoring and potential ways to overcome it.

  19. Formalization and analysis of reasoning by assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Tibor; Jonker, Catholijn M; Treur, Jan

    2006-01-02

    This article introduces a novel approach for the analysis of the dynamics of reasoning processes and explores its applicability for the reasoning pattern called reasoning by assumption. More specifically, for a case study in the domain of a Master Mind game, it is shown how empirical human reasoning traces can be formalized and automatically analyzed against dynamic properties they fulfill. To this end, for the pattern of reasoning by assumption a variety of dynamic properties have been specified, some of which are considered characteristic for the reasoning pattern, whereas some other properties can be used to discriminate among different approaches to the reasoning. These properties have been automatically checked for the traces acquired in experiments undertaken. The approach turned out to be beneficial from two perspectives. First, checking characteristic properties contributes to the empirical validation of a theory on reasoning by assumption. Second, checking discriminating properties allows the analyst to identify different classes of human reasoners. 2006 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  20. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  1. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and

  2. Causal Mediation Analysis: Warning! Assumptions Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Luke

    2015-01-01

    In policy evaluations, interest may focus on why a particular treatment works. One tool for understanding why treatments work is causal mediation analysis. In this essay, I focus on the assumptions needed to estimate mediation effects. I show that there is no "gold standard" method for the identification of causal mediation effects. In…

  3. Critically Challenging Some Assumptions in HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, David; McGuire, David; Cross, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets out to critically challenge five interrelated assumptions prominent in the (human resource development) HRD literature. These relate to: the exploitation of labour in enhancing shareholder value; the view that employees are co-contributors to and co-recipients of HRD benefits; the distinction between HRD and human resource…

  4. Formalization and Analysis of Reasoning by Assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a novel approach for the analysis of the dynamics of reasoning processes and explores its applicability for the reasoning pattern called reasoning by assumption. More specifically, for a case study in the domain of a Master Mind game, it is shown how empirical human reasoning

  5. Extracurricular Business Planning Competitions: Challenging the Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kayleigh; McGowan, Pauric; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Business planning competitions [BPCs] are a commonly offered yet under-examined extracurricular activity. Given the extent of sceptical comment about business planning, this paper offers what the authors believe is a much-needed critical discussion of the assumptions that underpin the provision of such competitions. In doing so it is suggested…

  6. Shattering world assumptions: A prospective view of the impact of adverse events on world assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Eric R; Boals, Adriel

    2016-05-01

    Shattered Assumptions theory (Janoff-Bulman, 1992) posits that experiencing a traumatic event has the potential to diminish the degree of optimism in the assumptions of the world (assumptive world), which could lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Prior research assessed the assumptive world with a measure that was recently reported to have poor psychometric properties (Kaler et al., 2008). The current study had 3 aims: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of the assumptive world, (b) to retrospectively examine how prior adverse events affected the optimism of the assumptive world, and (c) to measure the impact of an intervening adverse event. An 8-week prospective design with a college sample (N = 882 at Time 1 and N = 511 at Time 2) was used to assess the study objectives. We split adverse events into those that were objectively or subjectively traumatic in nature. The new measure exhibited adequate psychometric properties. The report of a prior objective or subjective trauma at Time 1 was related to a less optimistic assumptive world. Furthermore, participants who experienced an intervening objectively traumatic event evidenced a decrease in optimistic views of the world compared with those who did not experience an intervening adverse event. We found support for Shattered Assumptions theory retrospectively and prospectively using a reliable measure of the assumptive world. We discuss future assessments of the measure of the assumptive world and clinical implications to help rebuild the assumptive world with current therapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Towards New Probabilistic Assumptions in Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann Andrew; Szelc Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    One of the main assumptions of mathematical tools in science is represented by the idea of measurability and additivity of reality. For discovering the physical universe additive measures such as mass, force, energy, temperature, etc. are used. Economics and conventional business intelligence try to continue this empiricist tradition and in statistical and econometric tools they appeal only to the measurable aspects of reality. However, a lot of important variables of economic systems cannot ...

  8. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  9. How to Handle Assumptions in Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Bloem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in reactive synthesis over the last decade has led to many improved solutions but also to many new questions. In this paper, we discuss the question of how to deal with assumptions on environment behavior. We present four goals that we think should be met and review several different possibilities that have been proposed. We argue that each of them falls short in at least one aspect.

  10. Managerial and Organizational Assumptions in the CMM's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Aaen, Ivan; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about improving the management of software development in software firms is dominated by one approach: the capability maturity model devised and administered at the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Though CMM, and its replacement CMMI are widely known and used...... thinking about large production and manufacturing organisations (particularly in America) in the late industrial age. Many of the difficulties reported with CMMI can be attributed basing practice on these assumptions in organisations which have different cultures and management traditions, perhaps...

  11. Occupancy estimation and the closure assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Christopher T.; Fletcher, Robert J.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    1. Recent advances in occupancy estimation that adjust for imperfect detection have provided substantial improvements over traditional approaches and are receiving considerable use in applied ecology. To estimate and adjust for detectability, occupancy modelling requires multiple surveys at a site and requires the assumption of 'closure' between surveys, i.e. no changes in occupancy between surveys. Violations of this assumption could bias parameter estimates; however, little work has assessed model sensitivity to violations of this assumption or how commonly such violations occur in nature. 2. We apply a modelling procedure that can test for closure to two avian point-count data sets in Montana and New Hampshire, USA, that exemplify time-scales at which closure is often assumed. These data sets illustrate different sampling designs that allow testing for closure but are currently rarely employed in field investigations. Using a simulation study, we then evaluate the sensitivity of parameter estimates to changes in site occupancy and evaluate a power analysis developed for sampling designs that is aimed at limiting the likelihood of closure. 3. Application of our approach to point-count data indicates that habitats may frequently be open to changes in site occupancy at time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, with 71% and 100% of species investigated in Montana and New Hampshire respectively, showing violation of closure across time periods of 3 weeks and 8 days respectively. 4. Simulations suggest that models assuming closure are sensitive to changes in occupancy. Power analyses further suggest that the modelling procedure we apply can effectively test for closure. 5. Synthesis and applications. Our demonstration that sites may be open to changes in site occupancy over time-scales typical of many occupancy investigations, combined with the sensitivity of models to violations of the closure assumption, highlights the importance of properly addressing

  12. The incompressibility assumption in computational simulations of nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Ismael R; Cercos-Pita, Jose Luis; Duque, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package. At low flow rates and warm climatological conditions, similar results were obtained from both approaches, showing that density variations need not be taken into account to obtain a good prediction of all flow features, at least for usual breathing conditions. This agrees with most of the simulations previously reported, at least as far as the incompressibility assumption is concerned. However, parameters like nasal resistance and wall shear stress distribution differ for air temperatures below [Formula: see text]C approximately. Therefore, density variations should be considered for simulations at such low temperatures.

  13. New Assumptions to Guide SETI Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, S. P.

    2018-01-01

    The recent Kepler discoveries of Earth-like planets offer the opportunity to focus our attention on detecting signs of life and technology in specific planetary systems, but I feel we need to become more flexible in our assumptions. The reason is that, while it is still reasonable and conservative to assume that life is most likely to have originated in conditions similar to ours, the vast time differences in potential evolutions render the likelihood of "matching" technologies very slim. In light of these challenges I propose a more "aggressive"� approach to future SETI exploration in directions that until now have received little consideration.

  14. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report serves a auxiliary document to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publication Annual Energy Outlook 1992 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(92)), released in January 1992. The AEO forecasts were developed for five alternative cases and consist of energy supply, consumption, and price projections by major fuel and end-use sector, which are published at a national level of aggregation. The purpose of this report is to present important quantitative assumptions, including world oil prices and macroeconomic growth, underlying the AEO forecasts. The report has been prepared in response to external requests, as well as analyst requirements for background information on the AEO and studies based on the AEO forecasts

  15. Limiting assumptions in molecular modeling: electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Garland R

    2013-02-01

    Molecular mechanics attempts to represent intermolecular interactions in terms of classical physics. Initial efforts assumed a point charge located at the atom center and coulombic interactions. It is been recognized over multiple decades that simply representing electrostatics with a charge on each atom failed to reproduce the electrostatic potential surrounding a molecule as estimated by quantum mechanics. Molecular orbitals are not spherically symmetrical, an implicit assumption of monopole electrostatics. This perspective reviews recent evidence that requires use of multipole electrostatics and polarizability in molecular modeling.

  16. 76 FR 54397 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines (Type Certificate Previously Held by Textron Lycoming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Facet Aerospace Products Company, formerly Marvel-Schebler (BorgWarner)) HA-6 carburetors, inspecting... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Marvel-Schebler Aircraft Carburetors LLC, 125 Piedmont... We reviewed Marvel-Schebler Aircraft Carburetors LLC Emergency Service Bulletin (SB) No. SB-18, dated...

  17. 78 FR 7262 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., Aerospace Engineer, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane Directorate, FAA, 1601 Lind Avenue SW...) Alternative Methods of Compliance (AMOCs): The Manager, International Branch, ANM-116, Transport Airplane... 4. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of...

  18. 75 FR 43092 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Bombardier, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... completed a system safety review of the aircraft fuel system against fuel tank safety standards introduced... Limited has completed a system safety review of the aircraft fuel system against fuel tank safety... describes the unsafe condition as: Viking Air Limited has completed a system safety review of the aircraft...

  19. 75 FR 70106 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Bombardier, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... states: Viking Air Limited has completed a system safety review of the aircraft fuel system against fuel... safety review of the aircraft fuel system against fuel tank safety standards introduced in Chapter 525 of... describes the unsafe condition as: Viking Air Limited has completed a system safety review of the aircraft...

  20. 75 FR 76317 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... covered with the rubber padding for any corrosion and repair or replace as applicable any corroded or... cause corrosion of the fuel lines. Unless steps are taken to remove this padding and install approved separation means, fuel lines may be damaged by corrosion and/or chafing resulting in an unsafe condition due...

  1. 77 FR 44432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... the fuel lines, inspect the fuel lines that were covered with the rubber padding for any corrosion and... detect and correct corrosion or chafing of the fuel lines, which could result in fuel leakage and... padding for this purpose is not approved as it is liable to cause corrosion of the fuel lines. Unless...

  2. 75 FR 91 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair) Model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... condition as: Two cases of a crack on a ``dry'' ADG (Air Driven Generator) (Hamilton Sundstrand part number in the 761339 series) in the aft area of the strut and generator housing assembly, have been reported... typically 45 days, which is consistent with the comment period for domestic transport ADs. We will post all...

  3. 78 FR 73742 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will consider all comments...), Integrated Customer Services (ICS), Technical Services, Avenida de Arag[oacute]n 404, 28022 Madrid, Spain... economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small entities under the criteria of the...

  4. 78 FR 49235 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed..., 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone +34 91 585 55 84; fax +34 91 585 55 05; email [email protected] economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small entities under the criteria of the...

  5. 75 FR 37339 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ..., Avenida de Arag[oacute]n 404, 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone +34 91 585 55 84; fax +34 91 585 55 05; e... the beginning of your comments. We specifically invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will consider all comments received by the closing...

  6. 76 FR 65995 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed... Customer Services (ICS), Technical Services, Avenida de Arag[oacute]n 404, 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone... not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small...

  7. 77 FR 64053 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will consider all comments... Customer Services (ICS), Technical Services, Avenida de Arag[oacute]n 404, 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone... not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small...

  8. 78 FR 68688 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... (ICS), Technical Services, Avenida de Arag[oacute]n 404, 28022 Madrid, Spain; telephone +34 91 585 55... the beginning of your comments. We specifically invite comments on the overall regulatory, economic, environmental, and energy aspects of this AD. We will consider all comments received by the closing date and may...

  9. Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Veletsianos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers, educators, policymakers, and other education stakeholders hope and anticipate that openness and open scholarship will generate positive outcomes for education and scholarship. Given the emerging nature of open practices, educators and scholars are finding themselves in a position in which they can shape and/or be shaped by openness. The intention of this paper is (a to identify the assumptions of the open scholarship movement and (b to highlight challenges associated with the movement’s aspirations of broadening access to education and knowledge. Through a critique of technology use in education, an understanding of educational technology narratives and their unfulfilled potential, and an appreciation of the negotiated implementation of technology use, we hope that this paper helps spark a conversation for a more critical, equitable, and effective future for education and open scholarship.

  10. Challenging the assumptions for thermal sensation scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Fuchs, Xaver; Becker, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Scales are widely used to assess the personal experience of thermal conditions in built environments. Most commonly, thermal sensation is assessed, mainly to determine whether a particular thermal condition is comfortable for individuals. A seven-point thermal sensation scale has been used...... extensively, which is suitable for describing a one-dimensional relationship between physical parameters of indoor environments and subjective thermal sensation. However, human thermal comfort is not merely a physiological but also a psychological phenomenon. Thus, it should be investigated how scales for its...... assessment could benefit from a multidimensional conceptualization. The common assumptions related to the usage of thermal sensation scales are challenged, empirically supported by two analyses. These analyses show that the relationship between temperature and subjective thermal sensation is non...

  11. Towards New Probabilistic Assumptions in Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main assumptions of mathematical tools in science is represented by the idea of measurability and additivity of reality. For discovering the physical universe additive measures such as mass, force, energy, temperature, etc. are used. Economics and conventional business intelligence try to continue this empiricist tradition and in statistical and econometric tools they appeal only to the measurable aspects of reality. However, a lot of important variables of economic systems cannot be observable and additive in principle. These variables can be called symbolic values or symbolic meanings and studied within symbolic interactionism, the theory developed since George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer. In statistical and econometric tools of business intelligence we accept only phenomena with causal connections measured by additive measures. In the paper we show that in the social world we deal with symbolic interactions which can be studied by non-additive labels (symbolic meanings or symbolic values. For accepting the variety of such phenomena we should avoid additivity of basic labels and construct a new probabilistic method in business intelligence based on non-Archimedean probabilities.

  12. Assumptions for the Annual Energy Outlook 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is an auxiliary document to the Annual Energy Outlook 1993 (AEO) (DOE/EIA-0383(93)). It presents a detailed discussion of the assumptions underlying the forecasts in the AEO. The energy modeling system is an economic equilibrium system, with component demand modules representing end-use energy consumption by major end-use sector. Another set of modules represents petroleum, natural gas, coal, and electricity supply patterns and pricing. A separate module generates annual forecasts of important macroeconomic and industrial output variables. Interactions among these components of energy markets generate projections of prices and quantities for which energy supply equals energy demand. This equilibrium modeling system is referred to as the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS). The supply models in IFFS for oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity determine supply and price for each fuel depending upon consumption levels, while the demand models determine consumption depending upon end-use price. IFFS solves for market equilibrium for each fuel by balancing supply and demand to produce an energy balance in each forecast year

  13. Underlying assumptions and core beliefs in anorexia nervosa and dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M; Turner, H

    2000-06-01

    To investigate assumptions and beliefs in anorexia nervosa and dieting. The Eating Disorder Belief Questionnaire (EDBQ), was administered to patients with anorexia nervosa, dieters and female controls. The patients scored more highly than the other two groups on assumptions about weight and shape, assumptions about eating and negative self-beliefs. The dieters scored more highly than the female controls on assumptions about weight and shape. The cognitive content of anorexia nervosa (both assumptions and negative self-beliefs) differs from that found in dieting. Assumptions about weight and shape may also distinguish dieters from female controls.

  14. Dynamic Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange under standard assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2002-01-01

    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals communicating over a public network, and each holding public-private keys, to agree on a shared secret value. In this paper we study the natural extension of this cryptographic problem to a group of principals. We begin from existing formal security models and refine them to incorporate major missing details (e.g., strong-corruption and concurrent sessions). Within this model we define the execution of a protocol for authenticated dynamic group Diffie-Hellman and show that it is provably secure under the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. Our security result holds in the standard model and thus provides better security guarantees than previously published results in the random oracle model

  15. Hand-held medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  16. The zero-sum assumption in neutral biodiversity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.; Alonso, D.; McKane, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity as put forward by Hubbell in his 2001 monograph has received much criticism for its unrealistic simplifying assumptions. These are the assumptions of functional equivalence among different species (neutrality), the assumption of point mutation speciation, and the

  17. Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Mark David

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative study using grounded theory methods was conducted to (a) examine what philosophy of technology assumptions are present in the thinking of K-12 technology leaders, (b) investigate how the assumptions may influence technology decision making, and (c) explore whether technological determinist assumptions are present. Subjects involved…

  18. HYPROLOG: A New Logic Programming Language with Assumptions and Abduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. Assumptions are a mechanism inspired by linear logic and taken over from Assumption Grammars. The lan......We present HYPROLOG, a novel integration of Prolog with assumptions and abduction which is implemented in and partly borrows syntax from Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) for integrity constraints. Assumptions are a mechanism inspired by linear logic and taken over from Assumption Grammars....... The language shows a novel flexibility in the interaction between the different paradigms, including all additional built-in predicates and constraints solvers that may be available. Assumptions and abduction are especially useful for language processing, and we can show how HYPROLOG works seamlessly together...

  19. Fourth-order structural steganalysis and analysis of cover assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Andrew D.

    2006-02-01

    We extend our previous work on structural steganalysis of LSB replacement in digital images, building detectors which analyse the effect of LSB operations on pixel groups as large as four. Some of the method previously applied to triplets of pixels carries over straightforwardly. However we discover new complexities in the specification of a cover image model, a key component of the detector. There are many reasonable symmetry assumptions which we can make about parity and structure in natural images, only some of which provide detection of steganography, and the challenge is to identify the symmetries a) completely, and b) concisely. We give a list of possible symmetries and then reduce them to a complete, non-redundant, and approximately independent set. Some experimental results suggest that all useful symmetries are thus described. A weighting is proposed and its approximate variance stabilisation verified empirically. Finally, we apply symmetries to create a novel quadruples detector for LSB replacement steganography. Experimental results show some improvement, in most cases, over other detectors. However the gain in performance is moderate compared with the increased complexity in the detection algorithm, and we suggest that, without new insight, further extension of structural steganalysis may provide diminishing returns.

  20. Community Hospital of the Assumption, Thurles, Tipperary.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    French-O’Carroll, F

    2017-01-01

    Hip fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality1. Surgery performed on the day of or after admission is associated with improved outcome2,3. An audit cycle was performed examining time to surgery for hip fracture patients. Our initial audit identified lack of theatre space as one factor delaying surgery. A dedicated daytime emergency theatre was subsequently opened and a re-audit was performed to assess its impact on time to surgery. Following the opening of the theatre, the proportion of patients with a delay to hip fracture surgery greater than 36 hours was reduced from 49% to 26% with lack of theatre space accounting for 23% (3 of 13) of delayed cases versus 28.6% (9 of 32) previously. 44% of hip fracture surgeries were performed in the emergency theatre during daytime hours, whilst in-hospital mortality rose from 4.6% to 6%. We conclude that access to an emergency theatre during daytime hours reduced inappropriate delays to hip fracture surgery.

  1. Shattering Man’s Fundamental Assumptions in Don DeLillo’s Falling Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazim Adnan Hashim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses effects of traumatic events such as the September 11 attacks on victims’ fundamental assumptions. These beliefs or assumptions provide individuals with expectations about the world and their sense of self-worth. Thus, they ground people’s sense of security, stability, and orientation. The September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S.A. were very tragic for Americans because this fundamentally changed their understandings about many aspects in life. The attacks led many individuals to build new kind of beliefs and assumptions about themselves and the world. Many writers have written about the human ordeals that followed this incident. Don DeLillo’s Falling Man reflects the traumatic repercussions of this disaster on Americans’ fundamental assumptions. The objective of this study is to examine the novel from the traumatic perspective that has afflicted the victims’ fundamental understandings of the world and the self. Individuals’ fundamental understandings could be changed or modified due to exposure to certain types of events like war, terrorism, political violence or even the sense of alienation. The Assumptive World theory of Ronnie Janoff-Bulman will be used as a framework to study the traumatic experience of the characters in Falling Man. The significance of the study lies in providing a new perception to the field of trauma that can help trauma victims to adopt alternative assumptions or reshape their previous ones to heal from traumatic effects.

  2. The Impact of Feedback Frequency on Learning and Task Performance: Challenging the "More Is Better" Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chak Fu; DeRue, D. Scott; Karam, Elizabeth P.; Hollenbeck, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on feedback frequency suggests that more frequent feedback improves learning and task performance (Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984). Drawing from resource allocation theory (Kanfer & Ackerman, 1989), we challenge the "more is better" assumption and propose that frequent feedback can overwhelm an individual's cognitive resource…

  3. Investigating the Assumptions of Uses and Gratifications Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lometti, Guy E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to determine empirically the gratifications sought from communication channels and to test the assumption that individuals differentiate channels based on gratifications. (MH)

  4. Legal assumptions for private company claim for additional (supplementary payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šogorov Stevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.

  5. The Legacy of Manfred Held with Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    President Executive Vice President and Provost The report entitled “The Legacy of Manfred Held with Critique” contains the results of research...xxii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xxiii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Prof (Dr) Manfred Held...de choc des explosifs solides. Propellants and Explosives, 6, 63-66. [013] Held, M. (1987). Experiments of initiation of covered, but unconfined

  6. Distributed automata in an assumption-commitment framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose a class of finite state systems of synchronizing distributed processes, where processes make assumptions at local states about the state of other processes in the system. This constrains the global states of the system to those where assumptions made by a process about another are compatible with the ...

  7. 40 CFR 264.150 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES Financial Requirements § 264.150 State assumption of responsibility. (a) If a State either assumes legal responsibility for an owner's or operator's compliance with the closure, post-closure care, or... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility...

  8. 40 CFR 261.150 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Excluded Hazardous Secondary Materials § 261.150 State assumption of responsibility. (a) If a State either assumes legal responsibility for an owner's or operator's compliance with the closure or liability... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility...

  9. 40 CFR 265.150 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Financial Requirements § 265.150 State assumption of responsibility. (a) If a State either assumes legal responsibility for an owner's or operator's compliance with the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility...

  10. 40 CFR 144.66 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Financial Responsibility: Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Wells § 144.66 State assumption of responsibility. (a) If a State either assumes legal... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility...

  11. 40 CFR 267.150 - State assumption of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDIZED PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.150 State assumption of responsibility. (a) If a State either assumes legal responsibility for an owner's or operator's compliance with the closure care or liability... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State assumption of responsibility...

  12. Capturing Assumptions while Designing a Verification Model for Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    A formal proof of a system correctness typically holds under a number of assumptions. Leaving them implicit raises the chance of using the system in a context that violates some assumptions, which in return may invalidate the correctness proof. The goal of this paper is to show how combining

  13. PFP issues/assumptions development and management planning guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The PFP Issues/Assumptions Development and Management Planning Guide presents the strategy and process used for the identification, allocation, and maintenance of an Issues/Assumptions Management List for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) integrated project baseline. Revisions to this document will include, as attachments, the most recent version of the Issues/Assumptions Management List, both open and current issues/assumptions (Appendix A), and closed or historical issues/assumptions (Appendix B). This document is intended be a Project-owned management tool. As such, this document will periodically require revisions resulting from improvements of the information, processes, and techniques as now described. Revisions that suggest improved processes will only require PFP management approval

  14. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  15. Detecting and accounting for violations of the constancy assumption in non-inferiority clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Hobbs, Brian P

    2018-05-01

    Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials are the gold standard for evaluating a novel therapeutic agent. In some instances, it may not be considered ethical or desirable to complete a placebo-controlled clinical trial and, instead, the placebo is replaced by an active comparator with the objective of showing either superiority or non-inferiority to the active comparator. In a non-inferiority trial, the experimental treatment is considered non-inferior if it retains a pre-specified proportion of the effect of the active comparator as represented by the non-inferiority margin. A key assumption required for valid inference in the non-inferiority setting is the constancy assumption, which requires that the effect of the active comparator in the non-inferiority trial is consistent with the effect that was observed in previous trials. It has been shown that violations of the constancy assumption can result in a dramatic increase in the rate of incorrectly concluding non-inferiority in the presence of ineffective or even harmful treatment. In this paper, we illustrate how Bayesian hierarchical modeling can be used to facilitate multi-source smoothing of the data from the current trial with the data from historical studies, enabling direct probabilistic evaluation of the constancy assumption. We then show how this result can be used to adapt the non-inferiority margin when the constancy assumption is violated and present simulation results illustrating that our method controls the type-I error rate when the constancy assumption is violated, while retaining the power of the standard approach when the constancy assumption holds. We illustrate our adaptive procedure using a non-inferiority trial of raltegravir, an antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV.

  16. Assumptions and Policy Decisions for Vital Area Identification Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Yeon-Kyoung; Lee, Youngseung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and IAEA guidance indicate that certain assumptions and policy questions should be addressed to a Vital Area Identification (VAI) process. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power conducted a VAI based on current Design Basis Threat and engineering judgement to identify APR1400 vital areas. Some of the assumptions were inherited from Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) as a sabotage logic model was based on PSA logic tree and equipment location data. This paper illustrates some important assumptions and policy decisions for APR1400 VAI analysis. Assumptions and policy decisions could be overlooked at the beginning stage of VAI, however they should be carefully reviewed and discussed among engineers, plant operators, and regulators. Through APR1400 VAI process, some of the policy concerns and assumptions for analysis were applied based on document research and expert panel discussions. It was also found that there are more assumptions to define for further studies for other types of nuclear power plants. One of the assumptions is mission time, which was inherited from PSA.

  17. The stable model semantics under the any-world assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Straccia, Umberto; Loyer, Yann

    2004-01-01

    The stable model semantics has become a dominating approach to complete the knowledge provided by a logic program by means of the Closed World Assumption (CWA). The CWA asserts that any atom whose truth-value cannot be inferred from the facts and rules is supposed to be false. This assumption is orthogonal to the so-called the Open World Assumption (OWA), which asserts that every such atom's truth is supposed to be unknown. The topic of this paper is to be more fine-grained. Indeed, the objec...

  18. Supporting calculations and assumptions for use in WESF safetyanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hey, B.E.

    1997-03-07

    This document provides a single location for calculations and assumptions used in support of Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) safety analyses. It also provides the technical details and bases necessary to justify the contained results.

  19. A framework for the organizational assumptions underlying safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The safety culture of the nuclear organization can be addressed at the three levels of culture proposed by Edgar Schein. The industry literature provides a great deal of insight at the artefact and espoused value levels, although as yet it remains somewhat disorganized. There is, however, an overall lack of understanding of the assumption level of safety culture. This paper describes a possible framework for conceptualizing the assumption level, suggesting that safety culture is grounded in unconscious beliefs about the nature of the safety problem, its solution and how to organize to achieve the solution. Using this framework, the organization can begin to uncover the assumptions at play in its normal operation, decisions and events and, if necessary, engage in a process to shift them towards assumptions more supportive of a strong safety culture. (author)

  20. Psychopatholgy, fundamental assumptions and CD-4 T lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, we explored whether psychopathology and negative fundamental assumptions in ... Method: Self-rating questionnaires to assess depressive symptoms, ... associated with all participants scoring in the positive range of the FA scale.

  1. The Immoral Assumption Effect: Moralization Drives Negative Trait Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Peter; Johnson, Kate M; Graham, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    Jumping to negative conclusions about other people's traits is judged as morally bad by many people. Despite this, across six experiments (total N = 2,151), we find that multiple types of moral evaluations--even evaluations related to open-mindedness, tolerance, and compassion--play a causal role in these potentially pernicious trait assumptions. Our results also indicate that moralization affects negative-but not positive-trait assumptions, and that the effect of morality on negative assumptions cannot be explained merely by people's general (nonmoral) preferences or other factors that distinguish moral and nonmoral traits, such as controllability or desirability. Together, these results suggest that one of the more destructive human tendencies--making negative assumptions about others--can be caused by the better angels of our nature. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  2. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory installation roadmap assumptions document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This document is a composite of roadmap assumptions developed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office and subcontractor personnel as a key element in the implementation of the Roadmap Methodology for the INEL Site. The development and identification of these assumptions in an important factor in planning basis development and establishes the planning baseline for all subsequent roadmap analysis at the INEL

  3. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  4. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008 Pledges: Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuch, B.; Bilello, D. E.; Cowlin, S. C.; Mann, M.; Wise, A.

    2008-08-01

    The 2008 Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) was held in Washington, D.C., from March 4-6, 2008, and involved nearly 9,000 people from 125 countries. The event brought together worldwide leaders in renewable energy (RE) from governments, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to discuss the role that renewables can play in alleviating poverty, growing economies, and passing on a healthy planet to future generations. The conference concluded with more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy. The U.S. government authorized the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the carbon dioxide (CO2) savings that would result from the pledges made at the 2008 conference. This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions derived from those pledges.

  5. The Emperors sham - wrong assumption that sham needling is sham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Thomas; Lund, Iréne; Näslund, Jan; Thomas, Moolamanil

    2008-12-01

    During the last five years a large number of randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have been published on the efficacy of acupuncture in different conditions. In most of these studies verum is compared with sham acupuncture. In general both verum and sham have been found to be effective, and often with little reported difference in outcome. This has repeatedly led to the conclusion that acupuncture is no more effective than placebo treatment. However, this conclusion is based on the assumption that sham acupuncture is inert. Since sham acupuncture evidently is merely another form of acupuncture from the physiological perspective, the assumption that sham is sham is incorrect and conclusions based on this assumption are therefore invalid. Clinical guidelines based on such conclusions may therefore exclude suffering patients from valuable treatments.

  6. Evolution of Requirements and Assumptions for Future Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Sargusingh, Miriam; Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    NASA programs are maturing technologies, systems, and architectures to enabling future exploration missions. To increase fidelity as technologies mature, developers must make assumptions that represent the requirements of a future program. Multiple efforts have begun to define these requirements, including team internal assumptions, planning system integration for early demonstrations, and discussions between international partners planning future collaborations. For many detailed life support system requirements, existing NASA documents set limits of acceptable values, but a future vehicle may be constrained in other ways, and select a limited range of conditions. Other requirements are effectively set by interfaces or operations, and may be different for the same technology depending on whether the hard-ware is a demonstration system on the International Space Station, or a critical component of a future vehicle. This paper highlights key assumptions representing potential life support requirements and explanations of the driving scenarios, constraints, or other issues that drive them.

  7. DDH-Like Assumptions Based on Extension Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kiltz, Eike

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and study a new type of DDH-like assumptions based on groups of prime order q. Whereas standard DDH is based on encoding elements of $\\mathbb{F}_{q}$ “in the exponent” of elements in the group, we ask what happens if instead we put in the exponent elements of the extension ring $R_f=......-Reingold style pseudorandom functions, and auxiliary input secure encryption. This can be seen as an alternative to the known family of k-LIN assumptions....

  8. Emerging Assumptions About Organization Design, Knowledge And Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Meyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Participants in the Organizational Design Community’s 2013 Annual Conference faced the challenge of “making organization design knowledge actionable.”  This essay summarizes the opinions and insights participants shared during the conference.  I reflect on these ideas, connect them to recent scholarly thinking about organization design, and conclude that seeking to make design knowledge actionable is nudging the community away from an assumption set based upon linearity and equilibrium, and toward a new set of assumptions based on emergence, self-organization, and non-linearity.

  9. Ontological, Epistemological and Methodological Assumptions: Qualitative versus Quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelhamid

    2008-01-01

    The review to follow is a comparative analysis of two studies conducted in the field of TESOL in Education published in "TESOL QUARTERLY." The aspects to be compared are as follows. First, a brief description of each study will be presented. Second, the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underlying each study…

  10. Evaluating The Markov Assumption For Web Usage Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, S.; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Thorhauge, J.

    2003-01-01

    ) model~\\cite{borges99data}. These techniques typically rely on the \\textit{Markov assumption with history depth} $n$, i.e., it is assumed that the next requested page is only dependent on the last $n$ pages visited. This is not always valid, i.e. false browsing patterns may be discovered. However, to our...

  11. Interface Input/Output Automata: Splitting Assumptions from Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    's \\IOAs [11], relying on a context dependent notion of refinement based on relativized language inclusion. There are two main contributions of the work. First, we explicitly separate assumptions from guarantees, increasing the modeling power of the specification language and demonstrating an interesting...

  12. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes

  13. Efficient pseudorandom generators based on the DDH assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaeian Farashahi, R.; Schoenmakers, B.; Sidorenko, A.; Okamoto, T.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    A family of pseudorandom generators based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption is proposed. The new construction is a modified and generalized version of the Dual Elliptic Curve generator proposed by Barker and Kelsey. Although the original Dual Elliptic Curve generator is shown to be

  14. Questioning Engelhardt's assumptions in Bioethics and Secular Humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram

    2016-06-01

    In Bioethics and Secular Humanism: The Search for a Common Morality, Tristram Engelhardt examines various possibilities of finding common ground for moral discourse among people from different traditions and concludes their futility. In this paper I will argue that many of the assumptions on which Engelhardt bases his conclusion about the impossibility of a content-full secular bioethics are problematic. By starting with the notion of moral strangers, there is no possibility, by definition, for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers. It means that there is circularity in starting the inquiry with a definition of moral strangers, which implies that they do not share enough moral background or commitment to an authority to allow for reaching a moral agreement, and concluding that content-full morality is impossible among moral strangers. I argue that assuming traditions as solid and immutable structures that insulate people across their boundaries is problematic. Another questionable assumption in Engelhardt's work is the idea that religious and philosophical traditions provide content-full moralities. As the cardinal assumption in Engelhardt's review of the various alternatives for a content-full moral discourse among moral strangers, I analyze his foundationalist account of moral reasoning and knowledge and indicate the possibility of other ways of moral knowledge, besides the foundationalist one. Then, I examine Engelhardt's view concerning the futility of attempts at justifying a content-full secular bioethics, and indicate how the assumptions have shaped Engelhardt's critique of the alternatives for the possibility of content-full secular bioethics.

  15. Consequences of Violated Equating Assumptions under the Equivalent Groups Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyren, Per-Erik; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2011-01-01

    The equal ability distribution assumption associated with the equivalent groups equating design was investigated in the context of a selection test for admission to higher education. The purpose was to assess the consequences for the test-takers in terms of receiving improperly high or low scores compared to their peers, and to find strong…

  16. Measuring Productivity Change without Neoclassical Assumptions: A Conceptual Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe measurement of productivity change (or difference) is usually based on models that make use of strong assumptions such as competitive behaviour and constant returns to scale. This survey discusses the basics of productivity measurement and shows that one can dispense with most if not

  17. The Metatheoretical Assumptions of Literacy Engagement: A Preliminary Centennial History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.; Burns, Leslie D.; Botzakis, Stergios; Groenke, Susan L.; Hall, Leigh A.; Laughter, Judson; Allington, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    In this review of literacy education research in North America over the past century, the authors examined the historical succession of theoretical frameworks on students' active participation in their own literacy learning, and in particular the metatheoretical assumptions that justify those frameworks. The authors used "motivation" and…

  18. Making Predictions about Chemical Reactivity: Assumptions and Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyer, Jenine; Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Diverse implicit cognitive elements seem to support but also constrain reasoning in different domains. Many of these cognitive constraints can be thought of as either implicit assumptions about the nature of things or reasoning heuristics for decision-making. In this study we applied this framework to investigate college students' understanding of…

  19. Using Contemporary Art to Challenge Cultural Values, Beliefs, and Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Wanda B.

    2006-01-01

    Art educators, like many other educators born or socialized within the main-stream culture of a society, seldom have an opportunity to identify, question, and challenge their cultural values, beliefs, assumptions, and perspectives because school culture typically reinforces those they learn at home and in their communities (Bush & Simmons, 1990).…

  20. Does Artificial Neural Network Support Connectivism's Assumptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDahdouh, Alaa A.

    2017-01-01

    Connectivism was presented as a learning theory for the digital age and connectivists claim that recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and, more specifically, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) support their assumptions of knowledge connectivity. Yet, very little has been done to investigate this brave allegation. Does the advancement…

  1. Discourses and Theoretical Assumptions in IT Project Portfolio Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    DISCOURSES AND THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN IT PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE These years increasing interest is put on IT project portfolio management (IT PPM). Considering IT PPM an interdisciplinary practice, we conduct a concept-based literature review of relevant...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.476 - Transfer and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-354 449-30 to recover its pro rata share of the actual loss at that time. In completing Form FmHA or... the lender on liquidations and property management. A. The State Director may approve all transfer and... Director will notify the Finance Office of all approved transfer and assumption cases on Form FmHA or its...

  3. Origins and Traditions in Comparative Education: Challenging Some Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzon, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This article questions some of our assumptions about the history of comparative education. It explores new scholarship on key actors and ways of knowing in the field. Building on the theory of the social constructedness of the field of comparative education, the paper elucidates how power shapes our scholarly histories and identities.

  4. Observing gravitational-wave transient GW150914 with minimal assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwa, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. C.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brocki, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chatterji, S.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clark, M.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. R.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritsche, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; de Haas, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinder, I.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijhunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinsey, M.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Laguna, P.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, R.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mende, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Page, J.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prolchorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shithriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlhruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, R. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational-wave signal GW150914 was first identified on September 14, 2015, by searches for short-duration gravitational-wave transients. These searches identify time-correlated transients in multiple detectors with minimal assumptions about the signal morphology, allowing them to be

  5. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  6. 76 FR 61638 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... revising the maintenance program, doing certain repetitive actions, and doing corrective actions, this AD... accepted during the latest Candidate Maintenance Coordination Committee meeting. This review resulted in... maintenance requirements] CMR** repetitive inspections, which have been identified as mandatory actions for...

  7. 75 FR 60659 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... identified as stress corrosion. This condition, if not corrected, could lead to in-flight failure of the tab... send any written relevant data, views, or arguments about this proposed AD. Send your comments to an... was found on a trim tab fitting assembly. The cause of the cracking was identified as stress corrosion...

  8. 75 FR 39795 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. (Type Certificate G60EU Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the aircraft and the pilots lost... spar of the right wing failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the... have found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the AD is clear for U.S...

  9. 75 FR 52250 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. (Type Certificate G24EU Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... wing failed near the root due to positive load. The right wing detached from the aircraft and the...[Iacute]K sailplane, in which the main spar of the right wing failed near the root due to positive load... substance. But we might have found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the...

  10. 76 FR 54145 - Airworthiness Directives; 328 Support Services GmbH (Type Certificate Previously Held by AvCraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Services GmbH, Global Support Center, P.O. Box 1252, D-82231 Wessling, Federal Republic of Germany... of this AD introduce pre-flight operational tests of the warning system modification, along with abnormal procedures that provide guidance to the flightcrew in the event of various potential warning...

  11. Models for waste life cycle assessment: Review of technical assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Damgaard, Anders; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2010-01-01

    A number of waste life cycle assessment (LCA) models have been gradually developed since the early 1990s, in a number of countries, usually independently from each other. Large discrepancies in results have been observed among different waste LCA models, although it has also been shown that results...... from different LCA studies can be consistent. This paper is an attempt to identify, review and analyse methodologies and technical assumptions used in various parts of selected waste LCA models. Several criteria were identified, which could have significant impacts on the results......, such as the functional unit, system boundaries, waste composition and energy modelling. The modelling assumptions of waste management processes, ranging from collection, transportation, intermediate facilities, recycling, thermal treatment, biological treatment, and landfilling, are obviously critical when comparing...

  12. Validity of the mockwitness paradigm: testing the assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Dawn E; Malpass, Roy S

    2002-08-01

    Mockwitness identifications are used to provide a quantitative measure of lineup fairness. Some theoretical and practical assumptions of this paradigm have not been studied in terms of mockwitnesses' decision processes and procedural variation (e.g., instructions, lineup presentation method), and the current experiment was conducted to empirically evaluate these assumptions. Four hundred and eighty mockwitnesses were given physical information about a culprit, received 1 of 4 variations of lineup instructions, and were asked to identify the culprit from either a fair or unfair sequential lineup containing 1 of 2 targets. Lineup bias estimates varied as a result of lineup fairness and the target presented. Mockwitnesses generally reported that the target's physical description was their main source of identifying information. Our findings support the use of mockwitness identifications as a useful technique for sequential lineup evaluation, but only for mockwitnesses who selected only 1 lineup member. Recommendations for the use of this evaluation procedure are discussed.

  13. Determining Bounds on Assumption Errors in Operational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal M. Bengtson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of operational analysis (OA is used in the study of systems performance, mainly for estimating mean values of various measures of interest, such as, number of jobs at a device and response times. The basic principles of operational analysis allow errors in assumptions to be quantified over a time period. The assumptions which are used to derive the operational analysis relationships are studied. Using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT conditions bounds on error measures of these OA relationships are found. Examples of these bounds are used for representative performance measures to show limits on the difference between true performance values and those estimated by operational analysis relationships. A technique for finding tolerance limits on the bounds is demonstrated with a simulation example.

  14. The sufficiency assumption of the reasoned approach to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trafimow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reasoned action approach to understanding and predicting behavior includes the sufficiency assumption. Although variables not included in the theory may influence behavior, these variables work through the variables in the theory. Once the reasoned action variables are included in an analysis, the inclusion of other variables will not increase the variance accounted for in behavioral intentions or behavior. Reasoned action researchers are very concerned with testing if new variables account for variance (or how much traditional variables account for variance, to see whether they are important, in general or with respect to specific behaviors under investigation. But this approach tacitly assumes that accounting for variance is highly relevant to understanding the production of variance, which is what really is at issue. Based on the variance law, I question this assumption.

  15. Forecasting Value-at-Risk under Different Distributional Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Braione

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial asset returns are known to be conditionally heteroskedastic and generally non-normally distributed, fat-tailed and often skewed. These features must be taken into account to produce accurate forecasts of Value-at-Risk (VaR. We provide a comprehensive look at the problem by considering the impact that different distributional assumptions have on the accuracy of both univariate and multivariate GARCH models in out-of-sample VaR prediction. The set of analyzed distributions comprises the normal, Student, Multivariate Exponential Power and their corresponding skewed counterparts. The accuracy of the VaR forecasts is assessed by implementing standard statistical backtesting procedures used to rank the different specifications. The results show the importance of allowing for heavy-tails and skewness in the distributional assumption with the skew-Student outperforming the others across all tests and confidence levels.

  16. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

  17. Estimators for longitudinal latent exposure models: examining measurement model assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Brisa N; Kim, Sehee; Sammel, Mary D

    2017-06-15

    Latent variable (LV) models are increasingly being used in environmental epidemiology as a way to summarize multiple environmental exposures and thus minimize statistical concerns that arise in multiple regression. LV models may be especially useful when multivariate exposures are collected repeatedly over time. LV models can accommodate a variety of assumptions but, at the same time, present the user with many choices for model specification particularly in the case of exposure data collected repeatedly over time. For instance, the user could assume conditional independence of observed exposure biomarkers given the latent exposure and, in the case of longitudinal latent exposure variables, time invariance of the measurement model. Choosing which assumptions to relax is not always straightforward. We were motivated by a study of prenatal lead exposure and mental development, where assumptions of the measurement model for the time-changing longitudinal exposure have appreciable impact on (maximum-likelihood) inferences about the health effects of lead exposure. Although we were not particularly interested in characterizing the change of the LV itself, imposing a longitudinal LV structure on the repeated multivariate exposure measures could result in high efficiency gains for the exposure-disease association. We examine the biases of maximum likelihood estimators when assumptions about the measurement model for the longitudinal latent exposure variable are violated. We adapt existing instrumental variable estimators to the case of longitudinal exposures and propose them as an alternative to estimate the health effects of a time-changing latent predictor. We show that instrumental variable estimators remain unbiased for a wide range of data generating models and have advantages in terms of mean squared error. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Data-driven smooth tests of the proportional hazards assumption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-16 ISSN 1380-7870 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120604; GA ČR(CZ) GD201/05/H007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Cox model * Neyman's smooth test * proportional hazards assumption * Schwarz's selection rule Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.491, year: 2007

  19. Assumptions behind size-based ecosystem models are realistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Blanchard, Julia L.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    A recent publication about balanced harvesting (Froese et al., ICES Journal of Marine Science; doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv122) contains several erroneous statements about size-spectrum models. We refute the statements by showing that the assumptions pertaining to size-spectrum models discussed by Fro...... that there is indeed a constructive role for a wide suite of ecosystem models to evaluate fishing strategies in an ecosystem context...

  20. Bank stress testing under different balance sheet assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Ramona; Drescher, Christian; Memmel, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Using unique supervisory survey data on the impact of a hypothetical interest rate shock on German banks, we analyse price and quantity effects on banks' net interest margin components under different balance sheet assumptions. In the first year, the cross-sectional variation of banks' simulated price effect is nearly eight times as large as the one of the simulated quantity effect. After five years, however, the importance of both effects converges. Large banks adjust their balance sheets mo...

  1. Oil production, oil prices, and macroeconomic adjustment under different wage assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.; Maleka, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    In a previous paper one of the authors developed a simple model to try to identify the possible macroeconomic adjustment processes arising in an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production, under alternative wage adjustment assumptions, namely nominal and real wage rigidity. Certain assumptions were made regarding the characteristics of actual production, the permanent revenues generated from that oil production, and the net exports/imports of oil. The role of the price of oil, and possible changes in that price was essentially ignored. Here we attempt to incorporate the price of oil, as well as changes in that price, in conjunction with the production of oil, the objective being to identify the contribution which the price of oil, and changes in it, make to the adjustment process itself. The emphasis in this paper is not given to a mathematical derivation and analysis of the model's dynamics of adjustment or its comparative statics, but rather to the derivation of simulation results from the model, for a specific assumed case, using a numerical algorithm program, conducive to the type of theoretical framework utilized here. The results presented suggest that although the adjustment profiles of the macroeconomic variables of interest, for either wage adjustment assumption, remain fundamentally the same, the magnitude of these adjustments is increased. Hence to derive a more accurate picture of the dimensions of adjustment of these macroeconomic variables, it is essential to include the price of oil as well as changes in that price. (Author)

  2. Semi-supervised learning via regularized boosting working on multiple semi-supervised assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Wang, Shihai

    2011-01-01

    Semi-supervised learning concerns the problem of learning in the presence of labeled and unlabeled data. Several boosting algorithms have been extended to semi-supervised learning with various strategies. To our knowledge, however, none of them takes all three semi-supervised assumptions, i.e., smoothness, cluster, and manifold assumptions, together into account during boosting learning. In this paper, we propose a novel cost functional consisting of the margin cost on labeled data and the regularization penalty on unlabeled data based on three fundamental semi-supervised assumptions. Thus, minimizing our proposed cost functional with a greedy yet stagewise functional optimization procedure leads to a generic boosting framework for semi-supervised learning. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our algorithm yields favorite results for benchmark and real-world classification tasks in comparison to state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning algorithms, including newly developed boosting algorithms. Finally, we discuss relevant issues and relate our algorithm to the previous work.

  3. Absorption Related to Hand-Held Devices in Data Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    The human body has an influence on the radiation from handheld devices like smartphones, tablets and laptops, part of the energy is absorbed and the spatial distribution of the radiated part is modified. Previous studies of whole body absorp- tion have mainly been numerical or related to talk mode....... In the present paper an experimental study involving four volunteers and three different devices is performed from 0.5 to 3 GHz. The devices are a laptop, a tablet, and a smartphone all held in the lap. The 3D distribution of radiation is measured. Comparing the integrated power in the case of a person present...

  4. THE COMPLEX OF ASSUMPTION CATHEDRAL OF THE ASTRAKHAN KREMLIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savenkova Aleksandra Igorevna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to an architectural and historical analysis of the constructions forming a complex of Assumption Cathedral of the Astrakhan Kremlin, which earlier hasn’t been considered as a subject of special research. Basing on the archival sources, photographic materials, publications and on-site investigations of monuments, the creation history of the complete architectural complex sustained in one style of the Muscovite baroque, unique in its composite construction, is considered. Its interpretation in the all-Russian architectural context is offered. Typological features of single constructions come to light. The typology of the Prechistinsky bell tower has an untypical architectural solution - “hexagonal structure on octagonal and quadrangular structures”. The way of connecting the building of the Cathedral and the chambers by the passage was characteristic of monastic constructions and was exclusively seldom in kremlins, farmsteads and ensembles of city cathedrals. The composite scheme of the Assumption Cathedral includes the Lobnoye Mesto (“the Place of Execution” located on an axis from the West, it is connected with the main building by a quarter-turn with landing. The only prototype of the structure is a Lobnoye Mesto on the Red Square in Moscow. In the article the version about the emergence of the Place of Execution on the basis of earlier existing construction - a tower “the Peal” which is repeatedly mentioned in written sources in connection with S. Razin’s revolt is considered. The metropolitan Sampson, trying to keep the value of the Astrakhan metropolitanate, builds the Assumption Cathedral and the Place of Execution directly appealing to a capital prototype to emphasize the continuity and close connection with Moscow.

  5. Are Prescription Opioids Driving the Opioid Crisis? Assumptions vs Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mark Edmund

    2018-04-01

    Sharp increases in opioid prescriptions, and associated increases in overdose deaths in the 2000s, evoked widespread calls to change perceptions of opioid analgesics. Medical literature discussions of opioid analgesics began emphasizing patient and public health hazards. Repetitive exposure to this information may influence physician assumptions. While highly consequential to patients with pain whose function and quality of life may benefit from opioid analgesics, current assumptions about prescription opioid analgesics, including their role in the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic, have not been scrutinized. Information was obtained by searching PubMed, governmental agency websites, and conference proceedings. Opioid analgesic prescribing and associated overdose deaths both peaked around 2011 and are in long-term decline; the sharp overdose increase recorded in 2014 was driven by illicit fentanyl and heroin. Nonmethadone prescription opioid analgesic deaths, in the absence of co-ingested benzodiazepines, alcohol, or other central nervous system/respiratory depressants, are infrequent. Within five years of initial prescription opioid misuse, 3.6% initiate heroin use. The United States consumes 80% of the world opioid supply, but opioid access is nonexistent for 80% and severely restricted for 4.1% of the global population. Many current assumptions about opioid analgesics are ill-founded. Illicit fentanyl and heroin, not opioid prescribing, now fuel the current opioid overdose epidemic. National discussion has often neglected the potentially devastating effects of uncontrolled chronic pain. Opioid analgesic prescribing and related overdoses are in decline, at great cost to patients with pain who have benefited or may benefit from, but cannot access, opioid analgesic therapy.

  6. Radiation hormesis and the linear-no-threshold assumption

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Charles L

    2009-01-01

    Current radiation protection standards are based upon the application of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption, which considers that even very low doses of ionizing radiation can cause cancer. The radiation hormesis hypothesis, by contrast, proposes that low-dose ionizing radiation is beneficial. In this book, the author examines all facets of radiation hormesis in detail, including the history of the concept and mechanisms, and presents comprehensive, up-to-date reviews for major cancer types. It is explained how low-dose radiation can in fact decrease all-cause and all-cancer mortality an

  7. First assumptions and overlooking competing causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Andersen, Anh Thao Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Determining the most probable cause of death is important, and it is sometimes tempting to assume an obvious cause of death, when it readily presents itself, and stop looking for other competing causes of death. The case story presented in the article illustrates this dilemma. The first assumption...... of cause of death, which was based on results from bacteriology tests, proved to be wrong when the results from the forensic toxicology testing became available. This case also illustrates how post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) findings of radio opaque material in the stomach alerted the pathologist...

  8. Assumptions of Corporate Social Responsibility as Competitiveness Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaneta Simanaviciene

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the assumptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR as competitiveness factor in economic downturn. Findings indicate that factors affecting the quality of the micro-economic business environment, i.e., the sophistication of enterprise’s strategy and management processes, the quality of the human capital resources, the increase of product / service demand, the development of related and supporting sectors and the efficiency of natural resources, and competitive capacities of enterprise impact competitiveness at a micro-level. The outcomes suggest that the implementation of CSR elements, i.e., economic, environmental and social responsibilities, gives good opportunities to increase business competitiveness.

  9. ψ -ontology result without the Cartesian product assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrvold, Wayne C.

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a weakening of the preparation independence postulate of Pusey et al. [Nat. Phys. 8, 475 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2309] that does not presuppose that the space of ontic states resulting from a product-state preparation can be represented by the Cartesian product of subsystem state spaces. On the basis of this weakened assumption, it is shown that, in any model that reproduces the quantum probabilities, any pair of pure quantum states |ψ >,|ϕ > with ≤1 /√{2 } must be ontologically distinct.

  10. Unconditionally Secure and Universally Composable Commitments from Physical Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Scafuro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    We present a constant-round unconditional black-box compiler that transforms any ideal (i.e., statistically-hiding and statistically-binding) straight-line extractable commitment scheme, into an extractable and equivocal commitment scheme, therefore yielding to UC-security [9]. We exemplify the u...... of unconditional UC-security with (malicious) PUFs and stateless tokens, our compiler can be instantiated with any ideal straight-line extractable commitment scheme, thus allowing the use of various setup assumptions which may better fit the application or the technology available....

  11. Drug policy in sport: hidden assumptions and inherent contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron C T; Stewart, Bob

    2008-03-01

    This paper considers the assumptions underpinning the current drugs-in-sport policy arrangements. We examine the assumptions and contradictions inherent in the policy approach, paying particular attention to the evidence that supports different policy arrangements. We find that the current anti-doping policy of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) contains inconsistencies and ambiguities. WADA's policy position is predicated upon four fundamental principles; first, the need for sport to set a good example; secondly, the necessity of ensuring a level playing field; thirdly, the responsibility to protect the health of athletes; and fourthly, the importance of preserving the integrity of sport. A review of the evidence, however, suggests that sport is a problematic institution when it comes to setting a good example for the rest of society. Neither is it clear that sport has an inherent or essential integrity that can only be sustained through regulation. Furthermore, it is doubtful that WADA's anti-doping policy is effective in maintaining a level playing field, or is the best means of protecting the health of athletes. The WADA anti-doping policy is based too heavily on principals of minimising drug use, and gives insufficient weight to the minimisation of drug-related harms. As a result drug-related harms are being poorly managed in sport. We argue that anti-doping policy in sport would benefit from placing greater emphasis on a harm minimisation model.

  12. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N.; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W.; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B.; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-01-01

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the ‘extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism–environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. PMID:26246559

  13. Basic concepts and assumptions behind the new ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of some of the basic concepts and assumptions behind the current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in ICRP Publications 26 and 28, which form the basis for the revision of the Basic Safety Standards jointly undertaken by IAEA, ILO, NEA and WHO. Special attention is given to the assumption of a linear, non-threshold dose-response relationship for stochastic radiation effects such as cancer and hereditary harm. The three basic principles of protection are discussed: justification of practice, optimization of protection and individual risk limitation. In the new ICRP recommendations particular emphasis is given to the principle of keeping all radiation doses as low as is reasonably achievable. A consequence of this is that the ICRP dose limits are now given as boundary conditions for the justification and optimization procedures rather than as values that should be used for purposes of planning and design. The fractional increase in total risk at various ages after continuous exposure near the dose limits is given as an illustration. The need for taking other sources, present and future, into account when applying the dose limits leads to the use of the commitment concept. This is briefly discussed as well as the new quantity, the effective dose equivalent, introduced by ICRP. (author)

  14. Stable isotopes and elasmobranchs: tissue types, methods, applications and assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, N E; MacNeil, M A; Olin, J A; McMeans, B C; Kinney, M J; Chapman, D D; Fisk, A T

    2012-04-01

    Stable-isotope analysis (SIA) can act as a powerful ecological tracer with which to examine diet, trophic position and movement, as well as more complex questions pertaining to community dynamics and feeding strategies or behaviour among aquatic organisms. With major advances in the understanding of the methodological approaches and assumptions of SIA through dedicated experimental work in the broader literature coupled with the inherent difficulty of studying typically large, highly mobile marine predators, SIA is increasingly being used to investigate the ecology of elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays). Here, the current state of SIA in elasmobranchs is reviewed, focusing on available tissues for analysis, methodological issues relating to the effects of lipid extraction and urea, the experimental dynamics of isotopic incorporation, diet-tissue discrimination factors, estimating trophic position, diet and mixing models and individual specialization and niche-width analyses. These areas are discussed in terms of assumptions made when applying SIA to the study of elasmobranch ecology and the requirement that investigators standardize analytical approaches. Recommendations are made for future SIA experimental work that would improve understanding of stable-isotope dynamics and advance their application in the study of sharks, skates and rays. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Has the "Equal Environments" assumption been tested in twin studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Lindon; Foley, Debra; Silberg, Judy

    2003-12-01

    A recurring criticism of the twin method for quantifying genetic and environmental components of human differences is the necessity of the so-called "equal environments assumption" (EEA) (i.e., that monozygotic and dizygotic twins experience equally correlated environments). It has been proposed to test the EEA by stratifying twin correlations by indices of the amount of shared environment. However, relevant environments may also be influenced by genetic differences. We present a model for the role of genetic factors in niche selection by twins that may account for variation in indices of the shared twin environment (e.g., contact between members of twin pairs). Simulations reveal that stratification of twin correlations by amount of contact can yield spurious evidence of large shared environmental effects in some strata and even give false indications of genotype x environment interaction. The stratification approach to testing the equal environments assumption may be misleading and the results of such tests may actually be consistent with a simpler theory of the role of genetic factors in niche selection.

  16. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-10-06

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...

  17. Climate Change: Implications for the Assumptions, Goals and Methods of Urban Environmental Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Hill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing awareness of the implications of global climate change, shifts are becoming necessary and apparent in the assumptions, concepts, goals and methods of urban environmental planning. This review will present the argument that these changes represent a genuine paradigm shift in urban environmental planning. Reflection and action to develop this paradigm shift is critical now and in the next decades, because environmental planning for cities will only become more urgent as we enter a new climate period. The concepts, methods and assumptions that urban environmental planners have relied on in previous decades to protect people, ecosystems and physical structures are inadequate if they do not explicitly account for a rapidly changing regional climate context, specifically from a hydrological and ecological perspective. The over-arching concept of spatial suitability that guided planning in most of the 20th century has already given way to concepts that address sustainability, recognizing the importance of temporality. Quite rapidly, the concept of sustainability has been replaced in many planning contexts by the priority of establishing resilience in the face of extreme disturbance events. Now even this concept of resilience is being incorporated into a novel concept of urban planning as a process of adaptation to permanent, incremental environmental changes. This adaptation concept recognizes the necessity for continued resilience to extreme events, while acknowledging that permanent changes are also occurring as a result of trends that have a clear direction over time, such as rising sea levels. Similarly, the methods of urban environmental planning have relied on statistical data about hydrological and ecological systems that will not adequately describe these systems under a new climate regime. These methods are beginning to be replaced by methods that make use of early warning systems for regime shifts, and process

  18. Experimental assessment of unvalidated assumptions in classical plasticity theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Burghardt, Jeffrey A. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Bauer, Stephen J.; Bronowski, David R.

    2009-01-01

    This report investigates the validity of several key assumptions in classical plasticity theory regarding material response to changes in the loading direction. Three metals, two rock types, and one ceramic were subjected to non-standard loading directions, and the resulting strain response increments were displayed in Gudehus diagrams to illustrate the approximation error of classical plasticity theories. A rigorous mathematical framework for fitting classical theories to the data, thus quantifying the error, is provided. Further data analysis techniques are presented that allow testing for the effect of changes in loading direction without having to use a new sample and for inferring the yield normal and flow directions without having to measure the yield surface. Though the data are inconclusive, there is indication that classical, incrementally linear, plasticity theory may be inadequate over a certain range of loading directions. This range of loading directions also coincides with loading directions that are known to produce a physically inadmissible instability for any nonassociative plasticity model.

  19. Factor structure and concurrent validity of the world assumptions scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark; Solomon, Zahava; Dekel, Rachel

    2007-06-01

    The factor structure of the World Assumptions Scale (WAS) was assessed by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The sample was comprised of 1,710 participants who had been exposed to trauma that resulted in whiplash. Four alternative models were specified and estimated using LISREL 8.72. A correlated 8-factor solution was the best explanation of the sample data. The estimates of reliability of eight subscales of the WAS ranged from .48 to .82. Scores from five subscales correlated significantly with trauma severity as measured by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, although the magnitude of the correlations was low to modest, ranging from .08 to -.43. It is suggested that the WAS has adequate psychometric properties for use in both clinical and research settings.

  20. Posttraumatic Growth and Shattered World Assumptions Among Ex-POWs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahav, Y.; Bellin, Elisheva S.; Solomon, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The controversy regarding the nature of posttraumatic growth (PTG) includes two main competing claims: one which argues that PTG reflects authentic positive changes and the other which argues that PTG reflects illusionary defenses. The former also suggests that PTG evolves from shattered...... world assumptions (WAs) and that the co-occurrence of high PTG and negative WAs among trauma survivors reflects reconstruction of an integrative belief system. The present study aimed to test these claims by investigating, for the first time, the mediating role of dissociation in the relation between...... PTG and WAs. Method: Former prisoners of war (ex-POWs; n = 158) and comparable controls (n = 106) were assessed 38 years after the Yom Kippur War. Results: Ex-POWs endorsed more negative WAs and higher PTG and dissociation compared to controls. Ex-POWs with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...

  1. Ancestral assumptions and the clinical uncertainty of evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyea, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is an emerging field of medical studies that uses evolutionary theory to explain the ultimate causes of health and disease. Educational tools, online courses, and medical school modules are being developed to help clinicians and students reconceptualize health and illness in light of our evolutionary past. Yet clinical guidelines based on our ancient life histories are epistemically weak, relying on the controversial assumptions of adaptationism and advocating a strictly biophysical account of health. To fulfill the interventionist goals of clinical practice, it seems that proximate explanations are all we need to develop successful diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines. Considering these epistemic concerns, this article argues that the clinical relevance of evolutionary medicine remains uncertain at best.

  2. Assumptions of Customer Knowledge Enablement in the Open Innovation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokubauskienė Raminta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the scientific literature, open innovation is one of the most effective means to innovate and gain a competitive advantage. In practice, there is a variety of open innovation activities, but, nevertheless, customers stand as the cornerstone in this area, since the customers’ knowledge is one of the most important sources of new knowledge and ideas. Evaluating the context where are the interactions of open innovation and customer knowledge enablement, it is necessary to take into account the importance of customer knowledge management. Increasingly it is highlighted that customers’ knowledge management facilitates the creation of innovations. However, it should be an examination of other factors that influence the open innovation, and, at the same time, customers’ knowledge management. This article presents a theoretical model, which reveals the assumptions of open innovation process and the impact on the firm’s performance.

  3. Polarized BRDF for coatings based on three-component assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zhu, Jingping; Wang, Kai; Xu, Rong

    2017-02-01

    A pBRDF(polarized bidirectional reflection distribution function) model for coatings is given based on three-component reflection assumption in order to improve the polarized scattering simulation capability for space objects. In this model, the specular reflection is given based on microfacet theory, the multiple reflection and volume scattering are given separately according to experimental results. The polarization of specular reflection is considered from Fresnel's law, and both multiple reflection and volume scattering are assumed depolarized. Simulation and measurement results of two satellite coating samples SR107 and S781 are given to validate that the pBRDF modeling accuracy can be significantly improved by the three-component model given in this paper.

  4. Halo-independent direct detection analyses without mass assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Adam J.; Fox, Patrick J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the m χ −σ n plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the v min −g-tilde plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from v min to nuclear recoil momentum (p R ), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call h-til-tilde(p R ). The entire family of conventional halo-independent g-tilde(v min ) plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single h-tilde(p R ) plot through a simple rescaling of axes. By considering results in h-tilde(p R ) space, one can determine if two experiments are inconsistent for all masses and all physically possible halos, or for what range of dark matter masses the results are inconsistent for all halos, without the necessity of multiple g-tilde(v min ) plots for different DM masses. We conduct a sample analysis comparing the CDMS II Si events to the null results from LUX, XENON10, and SuperCDMS using our method and discuss how the results can be strengthened by imposing the physically reasonable requirement of a finite halo escape velocity

  5. Wartime Paris, cirrhosis mortality, and the ceteris paribus assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Kaye Middleton; Roizen, Ron; Farrell, Michael; Kerr, William; Lemmens, Paul

    2002-07-01

    This article critiques the ceteris paribus assumption, which tacitly sustains the epidemiologic literature's inference that the sharp decline in cirrhosis mortality observed in Paris during the Second World War derived from a sharp constriction in wine consumption. Paris's wartime circumstances deviate substantially from the "all else being equal" assumption, and at least three other hypotheses for the cirrhosis decline may be contemplated. Historical and statistical review. Wartime Paris underwent tumultuous changes. Wine consumption did decline, but there were, as well, a myriad of other changes in diet and life experience, many involving new or heightened hardships, nutritional, experiential, institutional, health and mortality risks. Three competing hypotheses are presented: (1) A fraction of the candidates for cirrhosis mortality may have fallen to more sudden forms of death; (2) alcoholics, heavy drinkers and Paris's clochard subpopulation may have been differentially likely to become removed from the city's wartime population, whether by self-initiated departure, arrest and deportation, or death from other causes, even murder; and (3) there was mismeasurement in the cirrhosis mortality decline. The alcohol-cirrhosis connection provided the template for the alcohol research effort (now more than 20 years old) aimed at re-establishing scientific recognition of alcohol's direct alcohol-problems-generating associations and causal responsibilities. In a time given to reports of weaker associations of the alcohol-cirrhosis connection, the place and importance of the Paris curve in the wider literature, as regards that connection, remains. For this reason, the Paris findings should be subjected to as much research scrutiny as they undoubtedly deserve.

  6. Breakdown of Hydrostatic Assumption in Tidal Channel with Scour Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrostatic condition is a common assumption in tidal and subtidal motions in oceans and estuaries.. Theories with this assumption have been largely successful. However, there is no definite criteria separating the hydrostatic from the non-hydrostatic regimes in real applications because real problems often times have multiple scales. With increased refinement of high resolution numerical models encompassing smaller and smaller spatial scales, the need for non-hydrostatic models is increasing. To evaluate the vertical motion over bathymetric changes in tidal channels and assess the validity of the hydrostatic approximation, we conducted observations using a vessel-based acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP. Observations were made along a straight channel 18 times over two scour holes of 25 m deep, separated by 330 m, in and out of an otherwise flat 8 m deep tidal pass leading to the Lake Pontchartrain over a time period of 8 hours covering part of the diurnal tidal cycle. Out of the 18 passages over the scour holes, 11 of them showed strong upwelling and downwelling which resulted in the breakdown of hydrostatic condition. The maximum observed vertical velocity was ~ 0.35 m/s, a high value in a tidal channel, and the estimated vertical acceleration reached a high value of 1.76×10-2 m/s2. Analysis demonstrated that the barotropic non-hydrostatic acceleration was dominant. The cause of the non-hydrostatic flow was the that over steep slopes. This demonstrates that in such a system, the bathymetric variation can lead to the breakdown of hydrostatic conditions. Models with hydrostatic restrictions will not be able to correctly capture the dynamics in such a system with significant bathymetric variations particularly during strong tidal currents.

  7. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  8. The Impact of Modeling Assumptions in Galactic Chemical Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Benoit; O'Shea, Brian W.; Ritter, Christian; Herwig, Falk; Venn, Kim A.

    2017-02-01

    We use the OMEGA galactic chemical evolution code to investigate how the assumptions used for the treatment of galactic inflows and outflows impact numerical predictions. The goal is to determine how our capacity to reproduce the chemical evolution trends of a galaxy is affected by the choice of implementation used to include those physical processes. In pursuit of this goal, we experiment with three different prescriptions for galactic inflows and outflows and use OMEGA within a Markov Chain Monte Carlo code to recover the set of input parameters that best reproduces the chemical evolution of nine elements in the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Sculptor. This provides a consistent framework for comparing the best-fit solutions generated by our different models. Despite their different degrees of intended physical realism, we found that all three prescriptions can reproduce in an almost identical way the stellar abundance trends observed in Sculptor. This result supports the similar conclusions originally claimed by Romano & Starkenburg for Sculptor. While the three models have the same capacity to fit the data, the best values recovered for the parameters controlling the number of SNe Ia and the strength of galactic outflows, are substantially different and in fact mutually exclusive from one model to another. For the purpose of understanding how a galaxy evolves, we conclude that only reproducing the evolution of a limited number of elements is insufficient and can lead to misleading conclusions. More elements or additional constraints such as the Galaxy’s star-formation efficiency and the gas fraction are needed in order to break the degeneracy between the different modeling assumptions. Our results show that the successes and failures of chemical evolution models are predominantly driven by the input stellar yields, rather than by the complexity of the Galaxy model itself. Simple models such as OMEGA are therefore sufficient to test and validate stellar yields. OMEGA

  9. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  10. Speakers' assumptions about the lexical flexibility of idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R W; Nayak, N P; Bolton, J L; Keppel, M E

    1989-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined why some idioms can be lexically altered and still retain their figurative meanings (e.g., John buttoned his lips about Mary can be changed into John fastened his lips about Mary and still mean "John didn't say anything about Mary"), whereas other idioms cannot be lexically altered without losing their figurative meanings (e.g., John kicked the bucket, meaning "John died," loses its idiomatic meaning when changed into John kicked the pail). Our hypothesis was that the lexical flexibility of idioms is determined by speakers' assumptions about the ways in which parts of idioms contribute to their figurative interpretations as a whole. The results of the three experiments indicated that idioms whose individual semantic components contribute to their overall figurative meanings (e.g., go out on a limb) were judged as less disrupted by changes in their lexical items (e.g., go out on a branch) than were nondecomposable idioms (e.g., kick the bucket) when their individual words were altered (e.g., punt the pail). These findings lend support to the idea that both the syntactic productivity and the lexical makeup of idioms are matters of degree, depending on the idioms' compositional properties. This conclusion suggests that idioms do not form a unique class of linguistic items, but share many of the properties of more literal language.

  11. Weak convergence of Jacobian determinants under asymmetric assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Alberico

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Let $\\Om$ be a bounded open set in $\\R^2$ sufficiently smooth and $f_k=(u_k,v_k$ and $f=(u,v$ mappings belong to the Sobolev space $W^{1,2}(\\Om,\\R^2$. We prove that if the sequence of Jacobians $J_{f_k}$ converges to a measure $\\mu$ in sense of measures andif one allows different assumptions on the two components of $f_k$ and $f$, e.g.$$u_k \\rightharpoonup u \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,2}(\\Om \\qquad \\, v_k \\rightharpoonup v \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,q}(\\Om$$for some $q\\in(1,2$, then\\begin{equation}\\label{0}d\\mu=J_f\\,dz.\\end{equation}Moreover, we show that this result is optimal in the sense that conclusion fails for $q=1$.On the other hand, we prove that \\eqref{0} remains valid also if one considers the case $q=1$, but it is necessary to require that $u_k$ weakly converges to $u$ in a Zygmund-Sobolev space with a slightly higher degree of regularity than $W^{1,2}(\\Om$ and precisely$$ u_k \\rightharpoonup u \\;\\;\\mbox{weakly in} \\;\\; W^{1,L^2 \\log^\\alpha L}(\\Om$$for some $\\alpha >1$.    

  12. Stream of consciousness: Quantum and biochemical assumptions regarding psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Lucio; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2017-04-01

    The accepted paradigms of mainstream neuropsychiatry appear to be incompletely adequate and in various cases offer equivocal analyses. However, a growing number of new approaches are being proposed that suggest the emergence of paradigm shifts in this area. In particular, quantum theories of mind, brain and consciousness seem to offer a profound change to the current approaches. Unfortunately these quantum paradigms harbor at least two serious problems. First, they are simply models, theories, and assumptions, with no convincing experiments supporting their claims. Second, they deviate from contemporary mainstream views of psychiatric illness and do so in revolutionary ways. We suggest a possible way to integrate experimental neuroscience with quantum models in order to address outstanding issues in psychopathology. A key role is played by the phenomenon called the "stream of consciousness", which can be linked to the so-called "Gamma Synchrony" (GS), which is clearly demonstrated by EEG data. In our novel proposal, a unipolar depressed patient could be seen as a subject with an altered stream of consciousness. In particular, some clues suggest that depression is linked to an "increased power" stream of consciousness. It is additionally suggested that such an approach to depression might be extended to psychopathology in general with potential benefits to diagnostics and therapeutics in neuropsychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assumptions of the primordial spectrum and cosmological parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2011-01-01

    The observables of the perturbed universe, cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy and large structures depend on a set of cosmological parameters, as well as the assumed nature of primordial perturbations. In particular, the shape of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) is, at best, a well-motivated assumption. It is known that the assumed functional form of the PPS in cosmological parameter estimation can affect the best-fit-parameters and their relative confidence limits. In this paper, we demonstrate that a specific assumed form actually drives the best-fit parameters into distinct basins of likelihood in the space of cosmological parameters where the likelihood resists improvement via modifications to the PPS. The regions where considerably better likelihoods are obtained allowing free-form PPS lie outside these basins. In the absence of a preferred model of inflation, this raises a concern that current cosmological parameter estimates are strongly prejudiced by the assumed form of PPS. Our results strongly motivate approaches toward simultaneous estimation of the cosmological parameters and the shape of the primordial spectrum from upcoming cosmological data. It is equally important for theorists to keep an open mind towards early universe scenarios that produce features in the PPS. (paper)

  14. On Some Unwarranted Tacit Assumptions in Cognitive Neuroscience†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausfeld, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The cognitive neurosciences are based on the idea that the level of neurons or neural networks constitutes a privileged level of analysis for the explanation of mental phenomena. This paper brings to mind several arguments to the effect that this presumption is ill-conceived and unwarranted in light of what is currently understood about the physical principles underlying mental achievements. It then scrutinizes the question why such conceptions are nevertheless currently prevailing in many areas of psychology. The paper argues that corresponding conceptions are rooted in four different aspects of our common-sense conception of mental phenomena and their explanation, which are illegitimately transferred to scientific enquiry. These four aspects pertain to the notion of explanation, to conceptions about which mental phenomena are singled out for enquiry, to an inductivist epistemology, and, in the wake of behavioristic conceptions, to a bias favoring investigations of input–output relations at the expense of enquiries into internal principles. To the extent that the cognitive neurosciences methodologically adhere to these tacit assumptions, they are prone to turn into a largely a-theoretical and data-driven endeavor while at the same time enhancing the prospects for receiving widespread public appreciation of their empirical findings. PMID:22435062

  15. On some unwarranted tacit assumptions in cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausfeld, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The cognitive neurosciences are based on the idea that the level of neurons or neural networks constitutes a privileged level of analysis for the explanation of mental phenomena. This paper brings to mind several arguments to the effect that this presumption is ill-conceived and unwarranted in light of what is currently understood about the physical principles underlying mental achievements. It then scrutinizes the question why such conceptions are nevertheless currently prevailing in many areas of psychology. The paper argues that corresponding conceptions are rooted in four different aspects of our common-sense conception of mental phenomena and their explanation, which are illegitimately transferred to scientific enquiry. These four aspects pertain to the notion of explanation, to conceptions about which mental phenomena are singled out for enquiry, to an inductivist epistemology, and, in the wake of behavioristic conceptions, to a bias favoring investigations of input-output relations at the expense of enquiries into internal principles. To the extent that the cognitive neurosciences methodologically adhere to these tacit assumptions, they are prone to turn into a largely a-theoretical and data-driven endeavor while at the same time enhancing the prospects for receiving widespread public appreciation of their empirical findings.

  16. Are waves of relational assumptions eroding traditional analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2013-11-01

    The author designates as 'traditional' those elements of psychoanalytic presumption and practice that have, in the wake of Fordham's legacy, helped to inform analytical psychology and expand our capacity to integrate the shadow. It is argued that this element of the broad spectrum of Jungian practice is in danger of erosion by the underlying assumptions of the relational approach, which is fast becoming the new establishment. If the maps of the traditional landscape of symbolic reference (primal scene, Oedipus et al.) are disregarded, analysts are left with only their own self-appointed authority with which to orientate themselves. This self-centric epistemological basis of the relationalists leads to a revision of 'analytic attitude' that may be therapeutic but is not essentially analytic. This theme is linked to the perennial challenge of balancing differentiation and merger and traced back, through Chasseguet-Smirgel, to its roots in Genesis. An endeavour is made to illustrate this within the Journal convention of clinically based discussion through a commentary on Colman's (2013) avowedly relational treatment of the case material presented in his recent Journal paper 'Reflections on knowledge and experience' and through an assessment of Jessica Benjamin's (2004) relational critique of Ron Britton's (1989) transference embodied approach. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  17. “Marginal land” for energy crops: Exploring definitions and embedded assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortall, O.K.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of using less productive or “marginal land” for energy crops is promoted as a way to overcome the previous land use controversies faced by biofuels. It is argued that marginal land use would not compete with food production, is widely available and would incur fewer environmental impacts. This term is notoriously vague however, as are the details of how marginal land use for energy crops would work in practice. This paper explores definitions of the term “marginal land” in academic, consultancy, NGO, government and industry documents in the UK. It identifies three separate definitions of the term: land unsuitable for food production; ambiguous lower quality land; and economically marginal land. It probes these definitions further by exploring the technical, normative and political assumptions embedded within them. It finds that the first two definitions are normatively motivated: this land should be used to overcome controversies and the latter definition is predictive: this land is likely to be used. It is important that the different advantages, disadvantages and implications of the definitions are spelled out so definitions are not conflated to create unrealistic expectations about the role of marginal land in overcoming biofuels land use controversies. -- Highlights: •Qualitative methods were used to explore definitions of the term “marginal land”. •Three definitions were identified. •Two definitions focus on overcoming biomass land use controversies. •One definition predicts what land will be used for growing biomass. •Definitions contain problematic assumptions

  18. Rethinking our assumptions about the evolution of bird song and other sexually dimorphic signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jordan Price

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is often cited as a classic example of a sexually-selected ornament, in part because historically it has been considered a primarily male trait. Recent evidence that females also sing in many songbird species and that sexual dimorphism in song is often the result of losses in females rather than gains in males therefore appears to challenge our understanding of the evolution of bird song through sexual selection. Here I propose that these new findings do not necessarily contradict previous research, but rather they disagree with some of our assumptions about the evolution of sexual dimorphisms in general and female song in particular. These include misconceptions that current patterns of elaboration and diversity in each sex reflect past rates of change and that levels of sexual dimorphism necessarily reflect levels of sexual selection. Using New World blackbirds (Icteridae as an example, I critically evaluate these past assumptions in light of new phylogenetic evidence. Understanding the mechanisms underlying such sexually dimorphic traits requires a clear understanding of their evolutionary histories. Only then can we begin to ask the right questions.

  19. On the derivation of approximations to cellular automata models and the assumption of independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K J; Green, J E F; Bean, N G; Binder, B J; Ross, J V

    2014-07-01

    Cellular automata are discrete agent-based models, generally used in cell-based applications. There is much interest in obtaining continuum models that describe the mean behaviour of the agents in these models. Previously, continuum models have been derived for agents undergoing motility and proliferation processes, however, these models only hold under restricted conditions. In order to narrow down the reason for these restrictions, we explore three possible sources of error in deriving the model. These sources are the choice of limiting arguments, the use of a discrete-time model as opposed to a continuous-time model and the assumption of independence between the state of sites. We present a rigorous analysis in order to gain a greater understanding of the significance of these three issues. By finding a limiting regime that accurately approximates the conservation equation for the cellular automata, we are able to conclude that the inaccuracy between our approximation and the cellular automata is completely based on the assumption of independence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changing assumption for the design process – New roles of the active end user

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hestad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss how end user involvement in all stages of a product life cycle changes the assumptions of the design process. This article is based on a literature review and three case studies – Imsdal (Ringnes/Carlsberg, Jordan and Stokke. Several examples of how consumers or users are involved in various stages of the product life cycle are presented. The product development is affected both by end users’ activity and by previous knowledge of the product. The use of the product is changing the meaning, and even the disposal of the product is affecting how the product is perceived. The product becomes part of a cultural and historical context in which the end user is actively shaping.  

  1. Providing security assurance in line with national DBT assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajramovic, Edita; Gupta, Deeksha

    2017-01-01

    As worldwide energy requirements are increasing simultaneously with climate change and energy security considerations, States are thinking about building nuclear power to fulfill their electricity requirements and decrease their dependence on carbon fuels. New nuclear power plants (NPPs) must have comprehensive cybersecurity measures integrated into their design, structure, and processes. In the absence of effective cybersecurity measures, the impact of nuclear security incidents can be severe. Some of the current nuclear facilities were not specifically designed and constructed to deal with the new threats, including targeted cyberattacks. Thus, newcomer countries must consider the Design Basis Threat (DBT) as one of the security fundamentals during design of physical and cyber protection systems of nuclear facilities. IAEA NSS 10 describes the DBT as "comprehensive description of the motivation, intentions and capabilities of potential adversaries against which protection systems are designed and evaluated". Nowadays, many threat actors, including hacktivists, insider threat, cyber criminals, state and non-state groups (terrorists) pose security risks to nuclear facilities. Threat assumptions are made on a national level. Consequently, threat assessment closely affects the design structures of nuclear facilities. Some of the recent security incidents e.g. Stuxnet worm (Advanced Persistent Threat) and theft of sensitive information in South Korea Nuclear Power Plant (Insider Threat) have shown that these attacks should be considered as the top threat to nuclear facilities. Therefore, the cybersecurity context is essential for secure and safe use of nuclear power. In addition, States should include multiple DBT scenarios in order to protect various target materials, types of facilities, and adversary objectives. Development of a comprehensive DBT is a precondition for the establishment and further improvement of domestic state nuclear-related regulations in the

  2. Uniform background assumption produces misleading lung EIT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of conductivity change within a body from stimulation and measurement at body surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT for imaging the thorax, as a monitoring tool for lung ventilation. To be useful in this application, we require an understanding of if and when EIT images can produce inaccurate images. In this paper, we study the consequences of the homogeneous background assumption, frequently made in linear image reconstruction, which introduces a mismatch between the reference measurement and the linearization point. We show in simulation and experimental data that the resulting images may contain large and clinically significant errors. A 3D finite element model of thorax conductivity is used to simulate EIT measurements for different heart and lung conductivity, size and position, as well as different amounts of gravitational collapse and ventilation-associated conductivity change. Three common linear EIT reconstruction algorithms are studied. We find that the asymmetric position of the heart can cause EIT images of ventilation to show up to 60% undue bias towards the left lung and that the effect is particularly strong for a ventilation distribution typical of mechanically ventilated patients. The conductivity gradient associated with gravitational lung collapse causes conductivity changes in non-dependent lung to be overestimated by up to 100% with respect to the dependent lung. Eliminating the mismatch by using a realistic conductivity distribution in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm strongly reduces these undesirable effects. We conclude that subject-specific anatomically accurate forward models should be used in lung EIT and extra care is required when analysing EIT images of subjects whose background conductivity distribution in the lungs is known to be heterogeneous or exhibiting large changes.

  3. Uniform background assumption produces misleading lung EIT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) estimates an image of conductivity change within a body from stimulation and measurement at body surface electrodes. There is significant interest in EIT for imaging the thorax, as a monitoring tool for lung ventilation. To be useful in this application, we require an understanding of if and when EIT images can produce inaccurate images. In this paper, we study the consequences of the homogeneous background assumption, frequently made in linear image reconstruction, which introduces a mismatch between the reference measurement and the linearization point. We show in simulation and experimental data that the resulting images may contain large and clinically significant errors. A 3D finite element model of thorax conductivity is used to simulate EIT measurements for different heart and lung conductivity, size and position, as well as different amounts of gravitational collapse and ventilation-associated conductivity change. Three common linear EIT reconstruction algorithms are studied. We find that the asymmetric position of the heart can cause EIT images of ventilation to show up to 60% undue bias towards the left lung and that the effect is particularly strong for a ventilation distribution typical of mechanically ventilated patients. The conductivity gradient associated with gravitational lung collapse causes conductivity changes in non-dependent lung to be overestimated by up to 100% with respect to the dependent lung. Eliminating the mismatch by using a realistic conductivity distribution in the forward model of the reconstruction algorithm strongly reduces these undesirable effects. We conclude that subject-specific anatomically accurate forward models should be used in lung EIT and extra care is required when analysing EIT images of subjects whose background conductivity distribution in the lungs is known to be heterogeneous or exhibiting large changes. (paper)

  4. Hand-held and automated breast ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Kimme-Smith, C.

    1985-01-01

    The book is a guide for physicians and technologists who use US as an adjunct to mammography; it carefully outlines the pros and cons of US of the breast and its role in the diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. After an introduction that discusses the philosophy of breast US, the chapters cover the physics of US and instrumentation (both hand-held transducers as well as automated water path scanners), then proceed to a discussion of the normal breast. Sections on benign disorders, malignant lesions, and pitfalls of diagnosis are followed by quiz cases

  5. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  6. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  7. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  8. Sex, plasma lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis: prevailing assumptions and outstanding questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsland, I F; Wynn, V; Crook, D; Miller, N E

    1987-12-01

    We review the hypothesis that the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is higher in men than in women due to differences in plasma lipoprotein risk factors between the sexes. Men and women appear to be equally susceptible to the effects of lipoprotein risk factors for CHD, and the difference between the sexes in lipoprotein risk factors for CHD appears to be consistent with their being, at least in part, responsible for the sex difference in CHD. This is apparent both when men and women of equal age are compared, and when age-related variations in the sex differences in plasma lipoproteins and CHD are considered. Differences between the sexes in lipoprotein concentrations are still present when sex differences in adiposity, cigarette smoking, physical activity, and diet are taken into account. Evidence relating these sex differences in CHD and lipoproteins to the effects of sex hormones is critically examined. It is commonly accepted that androgens induce changes in lipoprotein concentrations that would predispose towards CHD, whereas estrogens are held to have opposite effects. However, much of the evidence for this comes from studies of changes associated with administration of synthetic gonadal steroids or with changes in gonadal function. Studies of differences in lipoprotein metabolism in normal men and women are extremely limited. In males high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels fall at puberty, correlating with the rise in plasma testosterone concentrations. In females, HDL levels do not change at puberty, despite the rise in estrogen concentrations. Evidence for lipoprotein changes during the menopause, when estrogen levels decline, is equivocal. Similarly, the evidence for an increase in CHD incidence at the menopause is inconclusive. National mortality data indicate that the decreasing sex difference in CHD after 50 years of age is due to a declining rate of increase in men rather than to an acceleration in CHD incidence in women. In men

  9. Land Subsidence International Symposium held in Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third International Symposium on Land Subsidence was held March 18-25, 1984, in Venice, Italy. Sponsors were the Ground-Water Commission of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the Italian Regions of Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, the Italian Municipalities of Venice, Ravenna, and Modena, the Venice Province, and the European Research Office. Cosponsors included the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE), and the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID).Organized within the framework of UNESCO's International Hydrological Program, the symposium brought together over 200 international interdisciplinary specialists in the problems of land subsidence due to fluid and mineral withdrawal. Because man's continuing heavy development of groundwater, gas, oil, and minerals is changing the natural regime and thus causing more and more subsiding areas in the world, there had been sufficient new land subsidence occurrence, problems, research, and remedial measures since the 1976 Second International Symposium held in Anaheim, California, to develop a most interesting program of nearly 100 papers from about 30 countries. The program consisted of papers covering case histories of fluid and mineral withdrawal, engineering theory and analysis, karst “sink-hole”-type subsidence, subsidence due to dewatering of organic deposits or due to application of water (hydrocompaction), instrumentation, legal, socioeconomic, and environmental effects of land subsidence, and remedial works.

  10. Challenging Assumptions of International Public Relations: When Government Is the Most Important Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen; Kent, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores assumptions underlying Malaysia's and the United States' public-relations practice. Finds many assumptions guiding Western theories and practices are not applicable to other countries. Examines the assumption that the practice of public relations targets a variety of key organizational publics. Advances international public-relations…

  11. Educational Technology as a Subversive Activity: Questioning Assumptions Related to Teaching and Leading with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger-Ross, Matthew J.; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of educational technologies is grounded in the assumptions of teachers, learners, and administrators. Assumptions are choices that structure our understandings and help us make meaning. Current advances in Web 2.0 and social media technologies challenge our assumptions about teaching and learning. The intersection of technology and…

  12. 27 CFR 46.207 - Articles held in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles held in bond. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.207 Articles held in bond. If the dealer is a manufacturer or an export warehouse proprietor and holds articles in TTB bond on April 1, 2009, the floor...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be operated at high potential...

  15. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  16. Estimating risks and relative risks in case-base studies under the assumptions of gene-environment independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Tsz-Ting Chui

    Full Text Available Many diseases result from the interactions between genes and the environment. An efficient method has been proposed for a case-control study to estimate the genetic and environmental main effects and their interactions, which exploits the assumptions of gene-environment independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To estimate the absolute and relative risks, one needs to resort to an alternative design: the case-base study. In this paper, the authors show how to analyze a case-base study under the above dual assumptions. This approach is based on a conditional logistic regression of case-counterfactual controls matched data. It can be easily fitted with readily available statistical packages. When the dual assumptions are met, the method is approximately unbiased and has adequate coverage probabilities for confidence intervals. It also results in smaller variances and shorter confidence intervals as compared with a previous method for a case-base study which imposes neither assumption.

  17. Estimating Risks and Relative Risks in Case-Base Studies under the Assumptions of Gene-Environment Independence and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Tina Tsz-Ting; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Many diseases result from the interactions between genes and the environment. An efficient method has been proposed for a case-control study to estimate the genetic and environmental main effects and their interactions, which exploits the assumptions of gene-environment independence and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To estimate the absolute and relative risks, one needs to resort to an alternative design: the case-base study. In this paper, the authors show how to analyze a case-base study under the above dual assumptions. This approach is based on a conditional logistic regression of case-counterfactual controls matched data. It can be easily fitted with readily available statistical packages. When the dual assumptions are met, the method is approximately unbiased and has adequate coverage probabilities for confidence intervals. It also results in smaller variances and shorter confidence intervals as compared with a previous method for a case-base study which imposes neither assumption. PMID:25137392

  18. CAS Accelerator Physics held in Erice, Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 24 April-4 May, 2013.   Photo courtesy of Alessandro Noto, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture. Following a handful of summary lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of superconductivity, the course covered a wide range of topics related to superconductivity and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful with 94 participants representing 23 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Belorussia, Canada, China, India, Japan and the United States (for the first time a young Ethiopian lady, studying in Germany, attended this course). The programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars and 7 hours of case study. The case studies were p...

  19. Bioaccumulation factors and the steady state assumption for cesium isotopes in aquatic foodwebs near nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D J

    2013-07-01

    Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any

  20. Three-class ROC analysis--the equal error utility assumption and the optimality of three-class ROC surface using the ideal observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Frey, Eric C

    2006-08-01

    Previously, we have developed a decision model for three-class receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on decision theory. The proposed decision model maximizes the expected decision utility under the assumption that incorrect decisions have equal utilities under the same hypothesis (equal error utility assumption). This assumption reduced the dimensionality of the "general" three-class ROC analysis and provided a practical figure-of-merit to evaluate the three-class task performance. However, it also limits the generality of the resulting model because the equal error utility assumption will not apply for all clinical three-class decision tasks. The goal of this study was to investigate the optimality of the proposed three-class decision model with respect to several other decision criteria. In particular, besides the maximum expected utility (MEU) criterion used in the previous study, we investigated the maximum-correctness (MC) (or minimum-error), maximum likelihood (ML), and Nyman-Pearson (N-P) criteria. We found that by making assumptions for both MEU and N-P criteria, all decision criteria lead to the previously-proposed three-class decision model. As a result, this model maximizes the expected utility under the equal error utility assumption, maximizes the probability of making correct decisions, satisfies the N-P criterion in the sense that it maximizes the sensitivity of one class given the sensitivities of the other two classes, and the resulting ROC surface contains the maximum likelihood decision operating point. While the proposed three-class ROC analysis model is not optimal in the general sense due to the use of the equal error utility assumption, the range of criteria for which it is optimal increases its applicability for evaluating and comparing a range of diagnostic systems.

  1. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  2. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  3. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  4. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  5. Examining recent expert elicitation, judgment guidelines: Value assumptions and the prospects for rationality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, P.A. [Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (United States). Dept. of Philosophy

    1999-12-01

    Any examination of the role of values in decisions on risk must take into consideration the increasing reliance on the expert judgment method. Today, reliance on expert judgment is conspicuously present in the documents and work associated with site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for the United States' first high level nuclear waste repository. The NRC encourages the use of probabilistic risk assessment's state of the art technology as a complement to deterministic approaches to nuclear regulatory activities. It considers expert judgment as one of those technologies. At the last International Conference on High-Level Nuclear Waste Development several presentations report on the use of expert elicitation sessions held during 1997 at Yucca Mountain. Over a decade ago, few guidelines existed for Department of Energy work in expert judgment. In an analysis of these guidelines, I described the author-advocate's view of the role of values in this method of risk assessment. I suggested that the guidelines assume naive positivism. I noted that the creators of these guidelines also tend toward scientific realism in their apologetic tone that expert judgment falls short of representing the way nature is. I also pointed to a tendency toward what I call a heightened or super-realism. Normal science represents the way the world is and for expert judgment this is only likely so. Expert judgment method, however, is capable of truly capturing expertise in a representative sense. The purpose of this paper is to examine new guidelines from the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with a view to eliciting the epistemological assumptions about the role of values and the status of objectivity claimed for this method. Do these new guidelines also adopt naive positivism? Does the inability to encounter raw, pure, value-neutral expert judgment, reveal itself in these guidelines? Or do these guidelines adopt the belief that values are not

  6. Examining recent expert elicitation, judgment guidelines: Value assumptions and the prospects for rationality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Any examination of the role of values in decisions on risk must take into consideration the increasing reliance on the expert judgment method. Today, reliance on expert judgment is conspicuously present in the documents and work associated with site characterization of Yucca Mountain as a host for the United States' first high level nuclear waste repository. The NRC encourages the use of probabilistic risk assessment's state of the art technology as a complement to deterministic approaches to nuclear regulatory activities. It considers expert judgment as one of those technologies. At the last International Conference on High-Level Nuclear Waste Development several presentations report on the use of expert elicitation sessions held during 1997 at Yucca Mountain. Over a decade ago, few guidelines existed for Department of Energy work in expert judgment. In an analysis of these guidelines, I described the author-advocate's view of the role of values in this method of risk assessment. I suggested that the guidelines assume naive positivism. I noted that the creators of these guidelines also tend toward scientific realism in their apologetic tone that expert judgment falls short of representing the way nature is. I also pointed to a tendency toward what I call a heightened or super-realism. Normal science represents the way the world is and for expert judgment this is only likely so. Expert judgment method, however, is capable of truly capturing expertise in a representative sense. The purpose of this paper is to examine new guidelines from the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with a view to eliciting the epistemological assumptions about the role of values and the status of objectivity claimed for this method. Do these new guidelines also adopt naive positivism? Does the inability to encounter raw, pure, value-neutral expert judgment, reveal itself in these guidelines? Or do these guidelines adopt the belief that values are not (and should

  7. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    A portable, hand-held apparatus is described for optically scanning indicia imprinted about a planar end face of an article having an outer wall surface, the apparatus comprising: a supporting frame; light detector means fixed to the frame for digitizing light patterns directed thereto; indexing means on the frame for engaging the planar end face and locating the end face in a preselected focal plane on the frame. The indexing means has an inner wall surface complementary to the article wall surface for disposition thereabout and terminates in an end portion beyond the planar end face. The inner wall surface has a radially inwardly extending shoulder spaced from the end portion and engageable with the planar end face; light means directed onto the preselected focal plane; optical means mounted on the frame about a central axis, the optical means being optically interposed between the indexing means and the light detector means for directing reflected light from the preselected focal plane to the light detector means and including a dove prism centrally aligned along the central axis; and means for selectively rotating the dove prism relative to the frame about the central axis to thereby rotate the image from the focal plane as transmitted to the light detector means

  8. Being Explicit about Underlying Values, Assumptions and Views when Designing for Children in the IDC Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie; Bekker, Tilde; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    In this full-day workshop we want to discuss how the IDC community can make underlying assumptions, values and views regarding children and childhood in making design decisions more explicit. What assumptions do IDC designers and researchers make, and how can they be supported in reflecting......, and intends to share different approaches for uncovering and reflecting on values, assumptions and views about children and childhood in design....

  9. Incorporating assumption deviation risk in quantitative risk assessments: A semi-quantitative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorsandi, Jahon; Aven, Terje

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) of complex engineering systems are based on numerous assumptions and expert judgments, as there is limited information available for supporting the analysis. In addition to sensitivity analyses, the concept of assumption deviation risk has been suggested as a means for explicitly considering the risk related to inaccuracies and deviations in the assumptions, which can significantly impact the results of the QRAs. However, challenges remain for its practical implementation, considering the number of assumptions and magnitude of deviations to be considered. This paper presents an approach for integrating an assumption deviation risk analysis as part of QRAs. The approach begins with identifying the safety objectives for which the QRA aims to support, and then identifies critical assumptions with respect to ensuring the objectives are met. Key issues addressed include the deviations required to violate the safety objectives, the uncertainties related to the occurrence of such events, and the strength of knowledge supporting the assessments. Three levels of assumptions are considered, which include assumptions related to the system's structural and operational characteristics, the effectiveness of the established barriers, as well as the consequence analysis process. The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation. - Highlights: • An approach for assessing the risk of deviations in QRA assumptions is presented. • Critical deviations and uncertainties related to their occurrence are addressed. • The analysis promotes critical thinking about the foundation and results of QRAs. • The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation.

  10. Tight bounds for the Pearle-Braunstein-Caves chained inequality without the fair-coincidence assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogenfors, Jonathan; Larsson, Jan-Åke

    2017-08-01

    In any Bell test, loopholes can cause issues in the interpretation of the results, since an apparent violation of the inequality may not correspond to a violation of local realism. An important example is the coincidence-time loophole that arises when detector settings might influence the time when detection will occur. This effect can be observed in many experiments where measurement outcomes are to be compared between remote stations because the interpretation of an ostensible Bell violation strongly depends on the method used to decide coincidence. The coincidence-time loophole has previously been studied for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt and Clauser-Horne inequalities, but recent experiments have shown the need for a generalization. Here, we study the generalized "chained" inequality by Pearle, Braunstein, and Caves (PBC) with N ≥2 settings per observer. This inequality has applications in, for instance, quantum key distribution where it has been used to reestablish security. In this paper we give the minimum coincidence probability for the PBC inequality for all N ≥2 and show that this bound is tight for a violation free of the fair-coincidence assumption. Thus, if an experiment has a coincidence probability exceeding the critical value derived here, the coincidence-time loophole is eliminated.

  11. Assumptions to the model of managing knowledge workers in modern organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igielski Michał

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the twenty-first century are faster, suddenly appear, not always desirable for the smooth functioning of the company. This is the domain of globalization, in which new events - opportunities or threats, forcing the company all the time to act. More and more things depend on the intangible assets of the undertaking, its strategic potential. Certain types of work require more knowledge, experience and independent thinking, and custom than others. Therefore in this article the author has taken up the subject of knowledge workers in contemporary organizations. The aim of the study is to attempt to create assumptions about the knowledge management model in these organizations, based on literature analysis and empirical research. In this regard, the author describes the contemporary conditions of employee management and the skills and competences of knowledge workers. In addition, he conducted research (2016 in 100 medium enterprises in the province of Pomerania, using a tool in the form of a questionnaire and an interview. Already at the beginning of the analysis of the data collected, it turned out that for all employers it should be important to discern differences in the creation of a new category of managers who have knowledge useful for the functioning of the company. Moreover, with the experience gained in a similar research process previously carried out in companies from the Baltic Sea Region, the author knew about the positive influence of these people on creating new solutions or improving the quality of already existing products or services.

  12. Rational learning and information sampling: on the "naivety" assumption in sampling explanations of judgment biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mens, Gaël; Denrell, Jerker

    2011-04-01

    Recent research has argued that several well-known judgment biases may be due to biases in the available information sample rather than to biased information processing. Most of these sample-based explanations assume that decision makers are "naive": They are not aware of the biases in the available information sample and do not correct for them. Here, we show that this "naivety" assumption is not necessary. Systematically biased judgments can emerge even when decision makers process available information perfectly and are also aware of how the information sample has been generated. Specifically, we develop a rational analysis of Denrell's (2005) experience sampling model, and we prove that when information search is interested rather than disinterested, even rational information sampling and processing can give rise to systematic patterns of errors in judgments. Our results illustrate that a tendency to favor alternatives for which outcome information is more accessible can be consistent with rational behavior. The model offers a rational explanation for behaviors that had previously been attributed to cognitive and motivational biases, such as the in-group bias or the tendency to prefer popular alternatives. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Dialogic or Dialectic? The Significance of Ontological Assumptions in Research on Educational Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegerif, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between ontological assumptions and studies of educational dialogue through a focus on Bakhtin's "dialogic". The term dialogic is frequently appropriated to a modernist framework of assumptions, in particular the neo-Vygotskian or sociocultural tradition. However, Vygotsky's theory of education is dialectic,…

  14. 7 CFR 772.10 - Transfer and assumption-AMP loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and assumption-AMP loans. 772.10 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.10 Transfer and assumption—AMP loans. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may approve transfers and assumptions of AMP loans when: (1) The...

  15. Comparative Interpretation of Classical and Keynesian Fiscal Policies (Assumptions, Principles and Primary Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Oner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith being its founder, in the Classical School, which gives prominence to supply and adopts an approach of unbiased finance, the economy is always in a state of full employment equilibrium. In this system of thought, the main philosophy of which is budget balance, that asserts that there is flexibility between prices and wages and regards public debt as an extraordinary instrument, the interference of the state with the economic and social life is frowned upon. In line with the views of the classical thought, the classical fiscal policy is based on three basic assumptions. These are the "Consumer State Assumption", the assumption accepting that "Public Expenditures are Always Ineffectual" and the assumption concerning the "Impartiality of the Taxes and Expenditure Policies Implemented by the State". On the other hand, the Keynesian School founded by John Maynard Keynes, gives prominence to demand, adopts the approach of functional finance, and asserts that cases of underemployment equilibrium and over-employment equilibrium exist in the economy as well as the full employment equilibrium, that problems cannot be solved through the invisible hand, that prices and wages are strict, the interference of the state is essential and at this point fiscal policies have to be utilized effectively.Keynesian fiscal policy depends on three primary assumptions. These are the assumption of "Filter State", the assumption that "public expenditures are sometimes effective and sometimes ineffective or neutral" and the assumption that "the tax, debt and expenditure policies of the state can never be impartial". 

  16. A Proposal for Testing Local Realism Without Using Assumptions Related to Hidden Variable States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryff, Luiz Carlos

    1996-01-01

    A feasible experiment is discussed which allows us to prove a Bell's theorem for two particles without using an inequality. The experiment could be used to test local realism against quantum mechanics without the introduction of additional assumptions related to hidden variables states. Only assumptions based on direct experimental observation are needed.

  17. Evaluating growth assumptions using diameter or radial increments in natural even-aged longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Gilbert; Ralph S. Meldahl; Jyoti N. Rayamajhi; John S. Kush

    2010-01-01

    When using increment cores to predict future growth, one often assumes future growth is identical to past growth for individual trees. Once this assumption is accepted, a decision has to be made between which growth estimate should be used, constant diameter growth or constant basal area growth. Often, the assumption of constant diameter growth is used due to the ease...

  18. Sensitivity of TRIM projections to management, harvest, yield, and stocking adjustment assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Alexander

    1991-01-01

    The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM) was used to make several projections of forest industry timber supply for the Douglas-fir region. The sensitivity of these projections to assumptions about management and yields is discussed. A base run is compared to runs in which yields were altered, stocking adjustment was eliminated, harvest assumptions were changed, and...

  19. The Importance of the Assumption of Uncorrelated Errors in Psychometric Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Patelis, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    A critical discussion of the assumption of uncorrelated errors in classical psychometric theory and its applications is provided. It is pointed out that this assumption is essential for a number of fundamental results and underlies the concept of parallel tests, the Spearman-Brown's prophecy and the correction for attenuation formulas as well as…

  20. Recognising the Effects of Costing Assumptions in Educational Business Simulation Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Gordon; Selen, Willem; Wynder, Monte

    2015-01-01

    Business simulations are a powerful way to provide experiential learning that is focussed, controlled, and concentrated. Inherent in any simulation, however, are numerous assumptions that determine feedback, and hence the lessons learnt. In this conceptual paper we describe some common cost assumptions that are implicit in simulation design and…

  1. Investigating Teachers' and Students' Beliefs and Assumptions about CALL Programme at Caledonian College of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Holi Ibrahim Holi

    2012-01-01

    This study is set to investigate students' and teachers' perceptions and assumptions about newly implemented CALL Programme at the School of Foundation Studies, Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman. Two versions of questionnaire were administered to 24 teachers and 90 students to collect their beliefs and assumption about CALL programame. The…

  2. Semi-Supervised Transductive Hot Spot Predictor Working on Multiple Assumptions

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Almasri, Islam; Shi, Yuexiang; Gao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    of the transductive semi-supervised algorithms takes all the three semisupervised assumptions, i.e., smoothness, cluster and manifold assumptions, together into account during learning. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised method for hot spot residue

  3. Implicit Assumptions in Special Education Policy: Promoting Full Inclusion for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Moira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Everyday millions of students in the United States receive special education services. Special education is an institution shaped by societal norms. Inherent in these norms are implicit assumptions regarding disability and the nature of special education services. The two dominant implicit assumptions evident in the American…

  4. Sensitivity of the OMI ozone profile retrieval (OMO3PR) to a priori assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mielonen, T.; De Haan, J.F.; Veefkind, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    We have assessed the sensitivity of the operational OMI ozone profile retrieval (OMO3PR) algorithm to a number of a priori assumptions. We studied the effect of stray light correction, surface albedo assumptions and a priori ozone profiles on the retrieved ozone profile. Then, we studied how to

  5. The Arundel Assumption And Revision Of Some Large-Scale Maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rather common practice of stating or using the Arundel Assumption without reference to appropriate mapping standards (except mention of its use for graphical plotting) is a major cause of inaccuracies in map revision. This paper describes an investigation to ascertain the applicability of the Assumption to the revision of ...

  6. The Role of Policy Assumptions in Validating High-stakes Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    L. Cronbach has made the point that for validity arguments to be convincing to diverse audiences, they need to be based on assumptions that are credible to these audiences. The interpretations and uses of high stakes test scores rely on a number of policy assumptions about what should be taught in schools, and more specifically, about the content…

  7. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 354.126 Section 354.126 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 354.126 Carcasses held for further examination. Each carcass, including all parts thereof, in...

  8. 9 CFR 381.77 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 381.77 Section 381.77 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Carcasses and Parts § 381.77 Carcasses held for further examination. Each carcass, including all parts...

  9. Statistical power to detect violation of the proportional hazards assumption when using the Cox regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    The use of the Cox proportional hazards regression model is widespread. A key assumption of the model is that of proportional hazards. Analysts frequently test the validity of this assumption using statistical significance testing. However, the statistical power of such assessments is frequently unknown. We used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the statistical power of two different methods for detecting violations of this assumption. When the covariate was binary, we found that a model-based method had greater power than a method based on cumulative sums of martingale residuals. Furthermore, the parametric nature of the distribution of event times had an impact on power when the covariate was binary. Statistical power to detect a strong violation of the proportional hazards assumption was low to moderate even when the number of observed events was high. In many data sets, power to detect a violation of this assumption is likely to be low to modest.

  10. THE DETERMINATION OF BETA COEFFICIENTS OF PUBLICLY-HELD COMPANIES BY A REGRESSION MODEL AND AN APPLICATION ON PRIVATE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    METİN KAMİL ERCAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to determine the value of private companies by means of suggestions and assumptions derived from their financial statements. However, there comes out a serious problem in the determination of equity costs of these private companies using Capital Assets Pricing Model (CAPM as beta coefficients are unknown or unavailable. In this study, firstly, a regression model that represents the relationship between the beta coefficients and financial statements’ Variables of publicly-held companies will be developed. Then, this model will be tested and applied on private companies.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-3: GTCC LLW assumptions matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study identifies four categories of GTCC LLW: nuclear utility; sealed sources; DOE-held; and other generators. Within each category, inventory and projection data are modeled in three scenarios: (1) Unpackaged volume--this is the unpackaged volume of waste that would exceed Class C limits if the waste calculation methods in 10 CFR 61.55 were applied to the discrete items before concentration averaging methods were applied to the volume; (2) Not-concentration-averaged (NCA) packaged volume--this is the packaged volume of GTCC LLW assuming that no concentration averaging is allowed; and (3) After-concentration-averaging (ACA) packaged volume--this is the packaged volume of GTCC LLW, which, for regulatory or practical reasons, cannot be disposed of in a LLW disposal facility using allowable concentration averaging practices. Three cases are calculated for each of the volumes described above. These values are defined as the low, base, and high cases. The following tables explain the assumptions used to determine low, base, and high case estimates for each scenario, within each generator category. The appendices referred to in these tables are appendices to Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW-114, Revision 1)

  12. Selecting between-sample RNA-Seq normalization methods from the perspective of their assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ciaran; Hardin, Johanna; Stoebel, Daniel M

    2017-02-27

    RNA-Seq is a widely used method for studying the behavior of genes under different biological conditions. An essential step in an RNA-Seq study is normalization, in which raw data are adjusted to account for factors that prevent direct comparison of expression measures. Errors in normalization can have a significant impact on downstream analysis, such as inflated false positives in differential expression analysis. An underemphasized feature of normalization is the assumptions on which the methods rely and how the validity of these assumptions can have a substantial impact on the performance of the methods. In this article, we explain how assumptions provide the link between raw RNA-Seq read counts and meaningful measures of gene expression. We examine normalization methods from the perspective of their assumptions, as an understanding of methodological assumptions is necessary for choosing methods appropriate for the data at hand. Furthermore, we discuss why normalization methods perform poorly when their assumptions are violated and how this causes problems in subsequent analysis. To analyze a biological experiment, researchers must select a normalization method with assumptions that are met and that produces a meaningful measure of expression for the given experiment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The crux of the method: assumptions in ordinary least squares and logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rebecca G

    2008-10-01

    Logistic regression has increasingly become the tool of choice when analyzing data with a binary dependent variable. While resources relating to the technique are widely available, clear discussions of why logistic regression should be used in place of ordinary least squares regression are difficult to find. The current paper compares and contrasts the assumptions of ordinary least squares with those of logistic regression and explains why logistic regression's looser assumptions make it adept at handling violations of the more important assumptions in ordinary least squares.

  14. RADIOISOTOPES IN SOIL-PLANT NUTRITION STUDIES. Proceedings of the Symposium held in Bombay, 26 February-2 March 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1962-06-01

    A symposium on Radioisotopes in Soil-Plant Nutrition Studies was held at Bombay, Feb. 26 to March 2, 1962. Separate abstracts were prepared for 8 papers. abstracts of 2 papers have appeared previously in NSA. Other papers presented covered various aspects of soil chemistry, soil physics, ion uptake and translocation in soils, biological measurement of soil characteristics, and fertilizer usage. (C.H.)

  15. A criterion of orthogonality on the assumption and restrictions in subgrid-scale modelling of turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L. [LMP, Ecole Centrale de Pékin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, X.Y. [LMP, Ecole Centrale de Pékin, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Y.W., E-mail: liuyangwei@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Aero-Engine Aero-Thermodynamics, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Co-Innovation Center for Advanced Aero-Engine, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-12-09

    In order to shed light on understanding the subgrid-scale (SGS) modelling methodology, we analyze and define the concepts of assumption and restriction in the modelling procedure, then show by a generalized derivation that if there are multiple stationary restrictions in a modelling, the corresponding assumption function must satisfy a criterion of orthogonality. Numerical tests using one-dimensional nonlinear advection equation are performed to validate this criterion. This study is expected to inspire future research on generally guiding the SGS modelling methodology. - Highlights: • The concepts of assumption and restriction in the SGS modelling procedure are defined. • A criterion of orthogonality on the assumption and restrictions is derived. • Numerical tests using one-dimensional nonlinear advection equation are performed to validate this criterion.

  16. Who needs the assumption of opportunistic behavior? Transaction cost economics does not!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2000-01-01

    The assumption of opportunistic behavior, familiar from transaction cost economics, has been and remains highly controversial. But opportunistic behavior, albeit undoubtedly an extremely important form of motivation, is not a necessary condition for the contractual problems studied by transaction...

  17. Bayou Corne sinkhole : control measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The sinkhole located in Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens the stability of Highway 70, a state maintained route. In order to : mitigate the potential damaging e ects of the sinkhole on this infrastructure, the Louisiana Department of Transpo...

  18. Bayou Corne sinkhole : control measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This project measured and assessed the surface stability of the portion of LA Highway 70 that is : potentially vulnerable to the Assumption Parish sinkhole. Using Global Positioning Systems (GPS) : enhanced by a real-time network (RTN) of continuousl...

  19. Bayou Corne Sinkhole: Control Measurements of State Highway 70 in Assumption Parish, Louisiana : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The sinkhole located in northern Assumption Parish, Louisiana, threatens : the stability of Highway 70, a state-maintained route. In order to monitor : and mitigate potential damage eff ects on this infrastructure, the Louisiana : Department of Trans...

  20. Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC) 2008 Pledges. Methodology and Assumptions Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuch, Bill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bilello, Daniel E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cowlin, Shannon C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wise, Alison [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the methodology and assumptions used by NREL in quantifying the potential CO2 reductions resulting from more than 140 governments, international organizations, and private-sector representatives pledging to advance the uptake of renewable energy.

  1. Regression assumptions in clinical psychology research practice—a systematic review of common misconceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, Anja F.; Albers, Casper J.

    2017-01-01

    Misconceptions about the assumptions behind the standard linear regression model are widespread and dangerous. These lead to using linear regression when inappropriate, and to employing alternative procedures with less statistical power when unnecessary. Our systematic literature review investigated

  2. Shattering Man’s Fundamental Assumptions in Don DeLillo’s Falling Man

    OpenAIRE

    Hazim Adnan Hashim; Rosli Bin Talif; Lina Hameed Ali

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses effects of traumatic events such as the September 11 attacks on victims’ fundamental assumptions. These beliefs or assumptions provide individuals with expectations about the world and their sense of self-worth. Thus, they ground people’s sense of security, stability, and orientation. The September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S.A. were very tragic for Americans because this fundamentally changed their understandings about many aspects in life. The attacks led man...

  3. Testing the rationality assumption using a design difference in the TV game show 'Jeopardy'

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren Lindquist, Gabriella; Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper empirically investigates the rationality assumption commonly applied in economic modeling by exploiting a design difference in the game-show Jeopardy between the US and Sweden. In particular we address the assumption of individuals’ capabilities to process complex mathematical problems to find optimal strategies. The vital difference is that US contestants are given explicit information before they act, while Swedish contestants individually need to calculate the same info...

  4. Behavioural assumptions in labour economics: Analysing social security reforms and labour market transitions

    OpenAIRE

    van Huizen, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to test behavioural assumptions in labour economics models and thereby improve our understanding of labour market behaviour. The assumptions under scrutiny in this study are derived from an analysis of recent influential policy proposals: the introduction of savings schemes in the system of social security. A central question is how this reform will affect labour market incentives and behaviour. Part I (Chapter 2 and 3) evaluates savings schemes. Chapter 2 exam...

  5. The availability of relatively cheap hand-held Global Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    conditions, so the approach failed to produce results ... Hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provide opportunities for detailed and rapid mapping of features ..... TICKELL, W. L. N. 1968 — The biology of the great albatrosses,.

  6. An Intelligent Hand-Held Microsurgical Instrument for Improved Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ang, Wei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the development and initial experimental results of the first prototype of Micron, an active hand-held instrument to sense and compensate physiological tremor and other unwanted...

  7. Plans for Hand-Held/Portable Oil Assessment Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urbansky, Edward

    2005-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Oil Analysis Program, the JOAP TSC conducted a market study, assembled a plan of action, and prepared a worksheet for the evaluation of portable or hand-held oil assessment devices...

  8. Historical Data for Average Processing Time Until Hearing Held

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides historical data for average wait time (in days) from the hearing request date until a hearing was held. This dataset includes data from fiscal...

  9. Assessing framing assumptions in quantitative health impact assessments: a housing intervention example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa-Frias, Marco; Chalabi, Zaid; Foss, Anna M

    2013-09-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is often used to determine ex ante the health impact of an environmental policy or an environmental intervention. Underpinning any HIA is the framing assumption, which defines the causal pathways mapping environmental exposures to health outcomes. The sensitivity of the HIA to the framing assumptions is often ignored. A novel method based on fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is developed to quantify the framing assumptions in the assessment stage of a HIA, and is then applied to a housing intervention (tightening insulation) as a case-study. Framing assumptions of the case-study were identified through a literature search of Ovid Medline (1948-2011). The FCM approach was used to identify the key variables that have the most influence in a HIA. Changes in air-tightness, ventilation, indoor air quality and mould/humidity have been identified as having the most influence on health. The FCM approach is widely applicable and can be used to inform the formulation of the framing assumptions in any quantitative HIA of environmental interventions. We argue that it is necessary to explore and quantify framing assumptions prior to conducting a detailed quantitative HIA during the assessment stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unrealistic Assumptions in Economics: an Analysis under the Logic of Socioeconomic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ivarola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The realism of assumptions is an ongoing debate within the philosophy of economics. One of the most referenced papers in this matter belongs to Milton Friedman. He defends the use of unrealistic assumptions, not only because of a pragmatic issue, but also the intrinsic difficulties of determining the extent of realism. On the other hand, realists have criticized (and still do today the use of unrealistic assumptions - such as the assumption of rational choice, perfect information, homogeneous goods, etc. However, they did not accompany their statements with a proper epistemological argument that supports their positions. In this work it is expected to show that the realism of (a particular sort of assumptions is clearly relevant when examining economic models, since the system under study (the real economies is not compatible with logic of invariance and of mechanisms, but with the logic of possibility trees. Because of this, models will not function as tools for predicting outcomes, but as representations of alternative scenarios, whose similarity to the real world will be examined in terms of the verisimilitude of a class of model assumptions

  11. Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and

  12. Large-scale analyses of synonymous substitution rates can be sensitive to assumptions about the process of mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Bielawski, Joseph P

    2006-08-15

    A popular approach to examine the roles of mutation and selection in the evolution of genomes has been to consider the relationship between codon bias and synonymous rates of molecular evolution. A significant relationship between these two quantities is taken to indicate the action of weak selection on substitutions among synonymous codons. The neutral theory predicts that the rate of evolution is inversely related to the level of functional constraint. Therefore, selection against the use of non-preferred codons among those coding for the same amino acid should result in lower rates of synonymous substitution as compared with sites not subject to such selection pressures. However, reliably measuring the extent of such a relationship is problematic, as estimates of synonymous rates are sensitive to our assumptions about the process of molecular evolution. Previous studies showed the importance of accounting for unequal codon frequencies, in particular when synonymous codon usage is highly biased. Yet, unequal codon frequencies can be modeled in different ways, making different assumptions about the mutation process. Here we conduct a simulation study to evaluate two different ways of modeling uneven codon frequencies and show that both model parameterizations can have a dramatic impact on rate estimates and affect biological conclusions about genome evolution. We reanalyze three large data sets to demonstrate the relevance of our results to empirical data analysis.

  13. Contemporary assumptions on human nature and work and approach to human potential managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Dobrila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A general problem of this research is to identify if there is a relationship between the assumption on human nature and work (Mcgregor, Argyris, Schein, Steers and Porter and a general organizational model preference, as well as a mechanism of human resource management? This research was carried out in 2005/2006. The sample consisted of 317 subjects (197 managers, 105 highly educated subordinates and 15 entrepreneurs in 7 big enterprises in a group of small business enterprises differentiating in terms of the entrepreneur’s structure and a type of activity. A general hypothesis "that assumptions on human nature and work are statistically significant in connection to the preference approach (models, of work motivation commitment", has been confirmed. A specific hypothesis have been also confirmed: ·The assumptions on a human as a rational economic being are statistically significant in correlation with only two mechanisms of traditional models, the mechanism of method work control and the working discipline mechanism. ·Statistically significant assumptions on a human as a social being are correlated with all mechanisms of engaging employees, which belong to the model of the human relations, except the mechanism introducing the adequate type of prizes for all employees independently of working results. ·The assumptions on a human as a creative being are statistically significant, positively correlating with preference of two mechanisms belonging to the human resource model by investing into education and training and making conditions for the application of knowledge and skills. The young with assumptions on a human as a creative being prefer much broader repertoire of mechanisms belonging to the human resources model from the remaining category of subjects in the pattern. The connection between the assumption on human nature and preference models of engaging appears especially in the sub-pattern of managers, in the category of young subjects

  14. Questionable assumptions hampered interpretation of a network meta-analysis of primary care depression treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Klaus; Rücker, Gerta; Schneider, Antonius; Kriston, Levente

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the underlying assumptions of a network meta-analysis investigating which depression treatment works best in primary care and to highlight challenges and pitfalls of interpretation under consideration of these assumptions. We reviewed 100 randomized trials investigating pharmacologic and psychological treatments for primary care patients with depression. Network meta-analysis was carried out within a frequentist framework using response to treatment as outcome measure. Transitivity was assessed by epidemiologic judgment based on theoretical and empirical investigation of the distribution of trial characteristics across comparisons. Homogeneity and consistency were investigated by decomposing the Q statistic. There were important clinical and statistically significant differences between "pure" drug trials comparing pharmacologic substances with each other or placebo (63 trials) and trials including a psychological treatment arm (37 trials). Overall network meta-analysis produced results well comparable with separate meta-analyses of drug trials and psychological trials. Although the homogeneity and consistency assumptions were mostly met, we considered the transitivity assumption unjustifiable. An exchange of experience between reviewers and, if possible, some guidance on how reviewers addressing important clinical questions can proceed in situations where important assumptions for valid network meta-analysis are not met would be desirable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. World assumptions, posttraumatic stress and quality of life after a natural disaster: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in world assumptions are a fundamental concept within theories that explain posttraumatic stress disorder. The objective of the present study was to gain a greater understanding of how changes in world assumptions are related to quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster. Methods A longitudinal study of 574 Norwegian adults who survived the Southeast Asian tsunami in 2004 was undertaken. Multilevel analyses were used to identify which factors at six months post-tsunami predicted quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms two years post-tsunami. Results Good quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms were negatively related. However, major differences in the predictors of these outcomes were found. Females reported significantly higher quality of life and more posttraumatic stress than men. The association between level of exposure to the tsunami and quality of life seemed to be mediated by posttraumatic stress. Negative perceived changes in the assumption “the world is just” were related to adverse outcome in both quality of life and posttraumatic stress. Positive perceived changes in the assumptions “life is meaningful” and “feeling that I am a valuable human” were associated with higher levels of quality of life but not with posttraumatic stress. Conclusions Quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms demonstrate differences in their etiology. World assumptions may be less specifically related to posttraumatic stress than has been postulated in some cognitive theories. PMID:22742447

  16. DIEP flap customization using Fluobeam® indocyanine green tissue perfusion assessment with large previous abdominal scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Fallucco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fluobeam® is a portable, near-infrared camera that is held and controlled by the surgeon to visualize tissue perfusion using indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence imaging. This case report describes how data obtained from ICG imaging allows intraoperative customization in a previously surgically scarred abdomen during autologous Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery Perforator (DIEP flap bilateral breast reconstruction. The outcome was successful breast mound recreation without fat necrosis.

  17. Oil price assumptions in macroeconomic forecasts: should we follow future market expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, C.; Esteves, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    In macroeconomic forecasting, in spite of its important role in price and activity developments, oil prices are usually taken as an exogenous variable, for which assumptions have to be made. This paper evaluates the forecasting performance of futures market prices against the other popular technical procedure, the carry-over assumption. The results suggest that there is almost no difference between opting for futures market prices or using the carry-over assumption for short-term forecasting horizons (up to 12 months), while, for longer-term horizons, they favour the use of futures market prices. However, as futures market prices reflect market expectations for world economic activity, futures oil prices should be adjusted whenever market expectations for world economic growth are different to the values underlying the macroeconomic scenarios, in order to fully ensure the internal consistency of those scenarios. (Author)

  18. Modelling sexual transmission of HIV: testing the assumptions, validating the predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Rebecca F.; Fraser, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the role of mathematical models of sexual transmission of HIV: the methods used and their impact. Recent findings We use mathematical modelling of “universal test and treat” as a case study to illustrate wider issues relevant to all modelling of sexual HIV transmission. Summary Mathematical models are used extensively in HIV epidemiology to deduce the logical conclusions arising from one or more sets of assumptions. Simple models lead to broad qualitative understanding, while complex models can encode more realistic assumptions and thus be used for predictive or operational purposes. An overreliance on model analysis where assumptions are untested and input parameters cannot be estimated should be avoided. Simple models providing bold assertions have provided compelling arguments in recent public health policy, but may not adequately reflect the uncertainty inherent in the analysis. PMID:20543600

  19. Commentary: Considering Assumptions in Associations Between Music Preferences and Empathy-Related Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A O'Neill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary considers some of the assumptions underpinning the study by Clark and Giacomantonio (2015. Their exploratory study examined relationships between young people's music preferences and their cognitive and affective empathy-related responses. First, the prescriptive assumption that music preferences can be measured according to how often an individual listens to a particular music genre is considered within axiology or value theory as a multidimensional construct (general, specific, and functional values. This is followed by a consideration of the causal assumption that if we increase young people's empathy through exposure to prosocial song lyrics this will increase their prosocial behavior. It is suggested that the predictive power of musical preferences on empathy-related responding might benefit from a consideration of the larger pattern of psychological and subjective wellbeing within the context of developmental regulation across ontogeny that involves mutually influential individual—context relations.

  20. Growth and profitability in small privately held biotech firms: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännback, Malin; Carsrud, Alan; Renko, Maija; Ostermark, Ralf; Aaltonen, Jaana; Kiviluoto, Niklas

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on preliminary findings on a study of the relationship of growth and profitability among small privately held Finnish Life Science firms. Previous research results concerning growth and profitability are mixed, ranging from strongly positive to a negative relationship. The conventional wisdom states that growth is a prerequisite for profitability. Our results suggest that the reverse is the case. A high profitability-low growth biotech firm is more probably to make the transition to high profitability-high growth than a firm that starts off with low profitability and high growth.

  1. I Assumed You Knew: Teaching Assumptions as Co-Equal to Observations in Scientific Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Introductory science curricula typically begin with a lesson on the "nature of science". Usually this lesson is short, built with the assumption that students have picked up this information elsewhere and only a short review is necessary. However, when asked about the nature of science in our classes, student definitions were often confused, contradictory, or incomplete. A cursory review of how the nature of science is defined in a number of textbooks is similarly inconsistent and excessively loquacious. With such confusion both from the student and teacher perspective, it is no surprise that students walk away with significant misconceptions about the scientific endeavor, which they carry with them into public life. These misconceptions subsequently result in poor public policy and personal decisions on issues with scientific underpinnings. We will present a new way of teaching the nature of science at the introductory level that better represents what we actually do as scientists. Nature of science lessons often emphasize the importance of observations in scientific work. However, they rarely mention and often hide the importance of assumptions in interpreting those observations. Assumptions are co-equal to observations in building models, which are observation-assumption networks that can be used to make predictions about future observations. The confidence we place in these models depends on whether they are assumption-dominated (hypothesis) or observation-dominated (theory). By presenting and teaching science in this manner, we feel that students will better comprehend the scientific endeavor, since making observations and assumptions and building mental models is a natural human behavior. We will present a model for a science lab activity that can be taught using this approach.

  2. Analysis On Political Speech Of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono: Common Sense Assumption And Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayit Abdul Karim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis on political speech of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY, the former president of Indonesia at the Indonesian conference on “Moving towards sustainability: together we must create the future we want”. Ideologies are closely linked to power and language because using language is the commonest form of social behavior, and the form of social behavior where we rely most on ‘common-sense’ assumptions. The objectives of this study are to discuss the common sense assumption and ideology by means of language use in SBY’s political speech which is mainly grounded in Norman Fairclough’s theory of language and power in critical discourse analysis. There are two main problems of analysis, namely; first, what are the common sense assumption and ideology in Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s political speech; and second, how do they relate to each other in the political discourse? The data used in this study was in the form of written text on “moving towards sustainability: together we must create the future we want”. A qualitative descriptive analysis was employed to analyze the common sense assumption and ideology in the written text of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s political speech which was delivered at Riocto entro Convention Center, Rio de Janeiro on June 20, 2012. One dimension of ‘common sense’ is the meaning of words. The results showed that the common sense assumption and ideology conveyed through SBY’s specific words or expressions can significantly explain how political discourse is constructed and affected by the SBY’s rule and position, life experience, and power relations. He used language as a powerful social tool to present his common sense assumption and ideology to convince his audiences and fellow citizens that the future of sustainability has been an important agenda for all people.

  3. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  4. Technoeconomic assumptions adopted for the development of a long-term electricity supply model for Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliotis, Constantinos; Taibi, Emanuele; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Bazilian, Morgan; Welsch, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The generation mix of Cyprus has been dominated by oil products for decades. In order to conform with European Union and international legislation, a transformation of the supply system is called for. Energy system models can facilitate energy planning into the future, but a large volume of data is required to populate such models. The present data article provides information on key modelling assumptions and input data adopted with the aim of representing the electricity supply system of Cyprus in a separate research article. Data in regards to renewable energy technoeconomic characteristics and investment cost projections, fossil fuel price projections, storage technology characteristics and system operation assumptions are described in this article.

  5. Automatic ethics: the effects of implicit assumptions and contextual cues on moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Scott J; Leavitt, Keith; DeCelles, Katherine A

    2010-07-01

    We empirically examine the reflexive or automatic aspects of moral decision making. To begin, we develop and validate a measure of an individual's implicit assumption regarding the inherent morality of business. Then, using an in-basket exercise, we demonstrate that an implicit assumption that business is inherently moral impacts day-to-day business decisions and interacts with contextual cues to shape moral behavior. Ultimately, we offer evidence supporting a characterization of employees as reflexive interactionists: moral agents whose automatic decision-making processes interact with the environment to shape their moral behavior.

  6. A statistical test of the stability assumption inherent in empirical estimates of economic depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, K A

    1986-01-01

    Realistic estimates of economic depreciation are required for analyses of tax policy, economic growth and production, and national income and wealth. THe purpose of this paper is to examine the stability assumption underlying the econometric derivation of empirical estimates of economic depreciation for industrial machinery and and equipment. The results suggest that a reasonable stability of economic depreciation rates of decline may exist over time. Thus, the assumption of a constant rate of economic depreciation may be a reasonable approximation for further empirical economic analyses.

  7. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 7: assessing the assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Oldenburg, Catherine; Tugwell, Peter; Bommer, Christian; Ebert, Cara; Barreto, Mauricio; Djimeu, Eric; Haber, Noah; Waddington, Hugh; Rockers, Peter; Sianesi, Barbara; Bor, Jacob; Fink, Günther; Valentine, Jeffrey; Tanner, Jeffrey; Stanley, Tom; Sierra, Eduardo; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Atun, Rifat; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    Quasi-experimental designs are gaining popularity in epidemiology and health systems research-in particular for the evaluation of health care practice, programs, and policy-because they allow strong causal inferences without randomized controlled experiments. We describe the concepts underlying five important quasi-experimental designs: Instrumental Variables, Regression Discontinuity, Interrupted Time Series, Fixed Effects, and Difference-in-Differences designs. We illustrate each of the designs with an example from health research. We then describe the assumptions required for each of the designs to ensure valid causal inference and discuss the tests available to examine the assumptions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Supposed cancer risk from mammography. Reply to previous statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeser, H; Koeppe, P; Rach, K [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie

    1976-12-01

    The view that exposure to diagnostic radiation presents a cancer risk to the female breast should be considered together with the fact that the major factor is ageing of the patient. This risk factor is hidden in experimental and statistical studies on cancer production by exongenous agents; for instance, in studies of radiation effects, it is inherent in the time taken. The assumption that mammography presents a cancer risk is unjustifiable and is denied.

  9. Knaves, Knights or Networks: Which Assumption of Lecturer and Manager Motivation Should Underlie Further Education Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boocock, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Julian Le Grand, a well-known economist, identifies two types of public sector employee: knights (with altruistic motives) and knaves (with self-interested motives). He argues that the quasi-market, predicated on the assumption of knavish behaviour (or agent self-interest), is the most effective way of directing school managers and teachers…

  10. Improving Baseline Model Assumptions: Evaluating the Impacts of Typical Methodological Approaches in Watershed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenich, R. L.; Kalcic, M. M.; Teshager, A. D.; Long, C. M.; Wang, Y. C.; Scavia, D.

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to the availability of open-source software, online tutorials, and advanced software capabilities, watershed modeling has expanded its user-base and applications significantly in the past thirty years. Even complicated models like the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) are being used and documented in hundreds of peer-reviewed publications each year, and likely more applied in practice. These models can help improve our understanding of present, past, and future conditions, or analyze important "what-if" management scenarios. However, baseline data and methods are often adopted and applied without rigorous testing. In multiple collaborative projects, we have evaluated the influence of some of these common approaches on model results. Specifically, we examined impacts of baseline data and assumptions involved in manure application, combined sewer overflows, and climate data incorporation across multiple watersheds in the Western Lake Erie Basin. In these efforts, we seek to understand the impact of using typical modeling data and assumptions, versus using improved data and enhanced assumptions on model outcomes and thus ultimately, study conclusions. We provide guidance for modelers as they adopt and apply data and models for their specific study region. While it is difficult to quantitatively assess the full uncertainty surrounding model input data and assumptions, recognizing the impacts of model input choices is important when considering actions at the both the field and watershed scales.

  11. 77 FR 74353 - Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... regulation will be 0.75 percent for the period during which a benefit is in pay status and 4.00 percent... PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4022 Benefits Payable in Terminated Single-Employer Plans; Interest Assumptions for Paying Benefits AGENCY: Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation...

  12. Sensitivity Analysis and Bounding of Causal Effects with Alternative Identifying Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Booil; Vinokur, Amiram D.

    2011-01-01

    When identification of causal effects relies on untestable assumptions regarding nonidentified parameters, sensitivity of causal effect estimates is often questioned. For proper interpretation of causal effect estimates in this situation, deriving bounds on causal parameters or exploring the sensitivity of estimates to scientifically plausible…

  13. Super learning to hedge against incorrect inference from arbitrary parametric assumptions in marginal structural modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Romain; Fireman, Bruce; Roy, Jason A; Raebel, Marsha A; Nichols, Gregory A; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Clinical trials are unlikely to ever be launched for many comparative effectiveness research (CER) questions. Inferences from hypothetical randomized trials may however be emulated with marginal structural modeling (MSM) using observational data, but success in adjusting for time-dependent confounding and selection bias typically relies on parametric modeling assumptions. If these assumptions are violated, inferences from MSM may be inaccurate. In this article, we motivate the application of a data-adaptive estimation approach called super learning (SL) to avoid reliance on arbitrary parametric assumptions in CER. Using the electronic health records data from adults with new-onset type 2 diabetes, we implemented MSM with inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to evaluate the effect of three oral antidiabetic therapies on the worsening of glomerular filtration rate. Inferences from IPW estimation were noticeably sensitive to the parametric assumptions about the associations between both the exposure and censoring processes and the main suspected source of confounding, that is, time-dependent measurements of hemoglobin A1c. SL was successfully implemented to harness flexible confounding and selection bias adjustment from existing machine learning algorithms. Erroneous IPW inference about clinical effectiveness because of arbitrary and incorrect modeling decisions may be avoided with SL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) durability to validate net serviceable life assumptions, in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakizimana, E.; Cyubahiro, B.; Rukundo, A.; Kabayiza, A.; Mutabazi, A.; Beach, R.; Patel, R.; Tongren, J.E.; Karema, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background To validate assumptions about the length of the distribution–replacement cycle for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in Rwanda, the Malaria and other Parasitic Diseases Division, Rwanda Ministry of Health, used World Health Organization methods to independently confirm the three-year

  15. Investigating assumptions of crown archetypes for modelling LiDAR returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Lewis, P.; Disney, M.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2013-01-01

    LiDAR has the potential to derive canopy structural information such as tree height and leaf area index (LAI), via models of the LiDAR signal. Such models often make assumptions regarding crown shape to simplify parameter retrieval and crown archetypes are typically assumed to contain a turbid

  16. 76 FR 76037 - Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain Areas of Indian Country AGENCY: Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice. ACTION: Final rule... concurrent criminal jurisdiction within the tribe's Indian country, and for the Attorney General to decide...

  17. Impact of one-layer assumption on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Ricky; Markey, Mia K.; Tunnell, James W.

    2015-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) can be used to noninvasively measure skin properties. To extract skin properties from DRS spectra, you need a model that relates the reflectance to the tissue properties. Most models are based on the assumption that skin is homogenous. In reality, skin is composed of multiple layers, and the homogeneity assumption can lead to errors. In this study, we analyze the errors caused by the homogeneity assumption. This is accomplished by creating realistic skin spectra using a computational model, then extracting properties from those spectra using a one-layer model. The extracted parameters are then compared to the parameters used to create the modeled spectra. We used a wavelength range of 400 to 750 nm and a source detector separation of 250 μm. Our results show that use of a one-layer skin model causes underestimation of hemoglobin concentration [Hb] and melanin concentration [mel]. Additionally, the magnitude of the error is dependent on epidermal thickness. The one-layer assumption also causes [Hb] and [mel] to be correlated. Oxygen saturation is overestimated when it is below 50% and underestimated when it is above 50%. We also found that the vessel radius factor used to account for pigment packaging is correlated with epidermal thickness.

  18. SOME CONCEPTIONS AND MISCONCEPTIONS ON REALITY AND ASSUMPTIONS IN FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley C. W. Salvary

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses two problematic issues arising from the importation of terms into financial accounting: (1) the nature of economic reality; and (2) the role of assumptions. These two issues have stirred a lot of controversy relating to financial accounting measurements and affect attestation reports. This paper attempts to provide conceptual clarity on these two issues.

  19. Black Bodies in Dance Education: Charting a New Pedagogical Paradigm to Eliminate Gendered and Hypersexualized Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C. S'thembile

    2005-01-01

    To resist and transform gendered and hypersexualized assumptions and attitudes that cloud interpretations and devalue readings of black and brown bodies, dance educators cannot only facilitate agency for their students, but also help demonstrate an overarching concern for social justice and equality. Dance has the power to transform and redirect…

  20. Individual Change and the Timing and Onset of Important Life Events: Methods, Models, and Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin; Marcoulides, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are often interested in studying how the timing of a specific event affects concurrent and future development. When faced with such research questions there are multiple statistical models to consider and those models are the focus of this paper as well as their theoretical underpinnings and assumptions regarding the nature of the…

  1. Benchmarking biological nutrient removal in wastewater treatment plants: influence of mathematical model assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist V.; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...

  2. Proposed optical test of Bell's inequalities not resting upon the fair sampling assumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Arguments are given against the fair sampling assumption, used to claim an empirical disproof of local realism. New tests are proposed, able to discriminate between quantum mechanics and a restricted, but appealing, family of local hidden-variables models. Such tests require detectors with efficiencies just above 20%

  3. Post Stereotypes: Deconstructing Racial Assumptions and Biases through Visual Culture and Confrontational Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuha

    2015-01-01

    The Post Stereotypes project embodies confrontational pedagogy and involves postcard artmaking designed to both solicit expression of and deconstruct students' racial, ethnic, and cultural stereotypes and assumptions. As part of the Cultural Diversity in American Art course, students created postcard art that visually represented their personal…

  4. Marking and Moderation in the UK: False Assumptions and Wasted Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Sue

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges a number of assumptions underlying marking of student work in British universities. It argues that, in developing rigorous moderation procedures, we have created a huge burden for markers which adds little to accuracy and reliability but creates additional work for staff, constrains assessment choices and slows down…

  5. A Taxonomy of Latent Structure Assumptions for Probability Matrix Decomposition Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Michel; De Boeck, Paul; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2003-01-01

    Proposed a taxonomy of latent structure assumptions for probability matrix decomposition (PMD) that includes the original PMD model and a three-way extension of the multiple classification latent class model. Simulation study results show the usefulness of the taxonomy. (SLD)

  6. Is a "Complex" Task Really Complex? Validating the Assumption of Cognitive Task Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    In research on task-based learning and teaching, it has traditionally been assumed that differing degrees of cognitive task complexity can be inferred through task design and/or observations of differing qualities in linguistic production elicited by second language (L2) communication tasks. Without validating this assumption, however, it is…

  7. 76 FR 81966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Assumption of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Indian country is subject to State criminal jurisdiction under Public Law 280 (18 U.S.C. 1162(a)) to... Collection; Comments Requested; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain Areas of Indian Country ACTION: 60-Day notice of information collection under review. The Department of Justice...

  8. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  9. Under What Assumptions Do Site-by-Treatment Instruments Identify Average Causal Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean F.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing availability of data from multi-site randomized trials provides a potential opportunity to use instrumental variables methods to study the effects of multiple hypothesized mediators of the effect of a treatment. We derive nine assumptions needed to identify the effects of multiple mediators when using site-by-treatment interactions…

  10. What's Love Got to Do with It? Rethinking Common Sense Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachman, Matthew; Bluestone, Cheryl

    2005-01-01

    One of the most basic tasks in introductory social science classes is to get students to reexamine their common sense assumptions concerning human behavior. This article introduces a shared assignment developed for a learning community that paired an introductory sociology and psychology class. The assignment challenges students to rethink the…

  11. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual…

  12. Tests of the frozen-flux and tangentially geostrophic assumptions using magnetic satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chulliat, A.; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.

    In 1984, Jean-Louis Le Mouël published a paper suggesting that the flow at the top of the Earth’s core is tangentially geostrophic, i.e., the Lorentz force is much smaller than the Coriolis force in this particular region of the core. This new assumption wassubsequently used to discriminate among...

  13. Testing the normality assumption in the sample selection model with an application to travel demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; Koning, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we introduce a test for the normality assumption in the sample selection model. The test is based on a flexible parametric specification of the density function of the error terms in the model. This specification follows a Hermite series with bivariate normality as a special case.

  14. Testing the normality assumption in the sample selection model with an application to travel demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, B.; Koning, R.H.

    In this article we introduce a test for the normality assumption in the sample selection model. The test is based on a flexible parametric specification of the density function of the error terms in the model. This specification follows a Hermite series with bivariate normality as a special case.

  15. Letters: Milk and Mortality : Study used wrong assumption about galactose content of fermented dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Michaëlsson and colleagues’ proposed mechanism for the effect of milk intake on the risk of mortality and fractures is based on the assumption that fermented dairy products (which had the opposite effects to those of non-fermented milk) are free of galactose.1 For most fermented dairy products,

  16. On the impact of the ideal gas assumption to high-pressure combustion phenomena in engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evlampiev, A.V.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the ideal gas law assumption on auto-ignition and NOx-formation in a rapid compression machine is studied. For both processes the simulations are compared to a reference simulation using a Redlich-Kwong equation-of-state based on the critical properties of all constituents.

  17. Implicit assumptions underlying simple harvest models of marine bird populations can mislead environmental management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Susan H; Cook, Aonghais S C P; Robinson, Robert A

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the potential impact of additional mortality from anthropogenic causes on animal populations requires detailed demographic information. However, these data are frequently lacking, making simple algorithms, which require little data, appealing. Because of their simplicity, these algorithms often rely on implicit assumptions, some of which may be quite restrictive. Potential Biological Removal (PBR) is a simple harvest model that estimates the number of additional mortalities that a population can theoretically sustain without causing population extinction. However, PBR relies on a number of implicit assumptions, particularly around density dependence and population trajectory that limit its applicability in many situations. Among several uses, it has been widely employed in Europe in Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA), to examine the acceptability of potential effects of offshore wind farms on marine bird populations. As a case study, we use PBR to estimate the number of additional mortalities that a population with characteristics typical of a seabird population can theoretically sustain. We incorporated this level of additional mortality within Leslie matrix models to test assumptions within the PBR algorithm about density dependence and current population trajectory. Our analyses suggest that the PBR algorithm identifies levels of mortality which cause population declines for most population trajectories and forms of population regulation. Consequently, we recommend that practitioners do not use PBR in an EIA context for offshore wind energy developments. Rather than using simple algorithms that rely on potentially invalid implicit assumptions, we recommend use of Leslie matrix models for assessing the impact of additional mortality on a population, enabling the user to explicitly define assumptions and test their importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of model assumptions about HIV disease progression after initiating or stopping treatment on estimates of infections and deaths averted by scaling up antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucharitakul, Kanes; Boily, Marie-Claude; Dimitrov, Dobromir

    2018-01-01

    Background Many mathematical models have investigated the population-level impact of expanding antiretroviral therapy (ART), using different assumptions about HIV disease progression on ART and among ART dropouts. We evaluated the influence of these assumptions on model projections of the number of infections and deaths prevented by expanded ART. Methods A new dynamic model of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) was developed, which incorporated each of four alternative assumptions about disease progression used in previous models: (A) ART slows disease progression; (B) ART halts disease progression; (C) ART reverses disease progression by increasing CD4 count; (D) ART reverses disease progression, but disease progresses rapidly once treatment is stopped. The model was independently calibrated to HIV prevalence and ART coverage data from the United States under each progression assumption in turn. New HIV infections and HIV-related deaths averted over 10 years were compared for fixed ART coverage increases. Results Little absolute difference (ART coverage (varied between 33% and 90%) if ART dropouts reinitiated ART at the same rate as ART-naïve MSM. Larger differences in the predicted fraction of HIV-related deaths averted were observed (up to 15pp). However, if ART dropouts could only reinitiate ART at CD4ART interruption did not affect the fraction of HIV infections averted with expanded ART, unless ART dropouts only re-initiated ART at low CD4 counts. Different disease progression assumptions had a larger influence on the fraction of HIV-related deaths averted with expanded ART. PMID:29554136

  19. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  20. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  1. Attentionally splitting the mass distribution of hand-held rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G; Turvey, M T

    1991-08-01

    Two experiments on the length-perception capabilities of effortful or dynamic touch differed only in terms of what the subject intended to perceive, while experimental conditions and apparatus were held constant. In each trial, a visually occluded rod was held as still as possible by the subject at an intermediate position. For two thirds of the trials, a weight was attached to the rod above or below the hand. In Experiment 1, in which the subject's task was to perceive the distance reachable with the portion of the rod forward of the hand, perceived extent was a function of the first moment of the mass distribution associated with the forward portion of the rod, and indifferent to the first moment of the entire rod. In Experiment 2, in which the task was to perceive the distance reachable with the entire rod if it was held at an end, the pattern of results was reversed. These results indicate the capability of selective sensitivity to different aspects of a hand-held object's mass distribution, without the possibility of differential exploration specific to these two tasks. Results are discussed in relation to possible roles of differential information, intention, and self-organization in the explanations of selective perceptual abilities.

  2. Attitudes held by Setswana L1-speaking university students toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respondents believed that their L1 had limitations in wider society; and that it had prestige, albeit a covert one. Generally, they held favourable attitudes toward their L1. Further comprehensive research needs to be done to explore these new variables, as well as to explore their statistical significance in language attitude ...

  3. China Wind Power 2010 Will Be Held Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China Wind Power 2010 (CWP) will be held on October 13 in the New Venue of the China International Exhibition Center (New CIEC). The exhibition is hosted by the Global Wind Energy Council, Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association and the Chinese Wind Energy Association.

  4. Epilepsy Forewarning Using A Hand-Held Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, LM

    2005-02-21

    Over the last decade, ORNL has developed and patented a novel approach for forewarning of a large variety of machine and biomedical events. The present implementation uses desktop computers to analyze archival data. This report describes the next logical step in this effort, namely use of a hand-held device for the analysis.

  5. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  6. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  7. Cement/clay interactions: feedback on the increasing complexity of modeling assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Nicolas C.M.; Gaucher, Eric C.; Tournassat, Christophe; Gaboreau, Stephane; Vong, Chan Quang; Claret, F.; Munier, Isabelle; Cochepin, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Cementitious materials will be widely used in French concept of radioactive waste repositories. During their degradation over time, in contact with geological pore water, they will release hyper-alkaline fluids rich in calcium and alkaline cations. This chemical gradient likely to develop at the cement/clay interfaces will induce geochemical transformations. The first simplified calculations based mainly on simple mass balance calculation led to a very pessimistic understanding of the real expansion mechanism of the alkaline plume. However, geochemical and migration processes are much more complex because of the dissolution of the barrier's accessory phases and the precipitation of secondary minerals. To describe and to understand this complexity, coupled geochemistry and transport calculations are a useful and a mandatory tool. Furthermore, such sets of modeling when properly calibrated on experimental results are able to give insights on larger time scale unreachable with experiments. Since approximately 20 years, numerous papers have described the results of reactive transport modeling of cement/clay interactions with various numerical assumptions. For example, some authors selected a purely thermodynamic approach while others preferred a coupled thermodynamic/kinetic approach. Unfortunately, most of these studies used different and not comparable parameters as space discretization, initial and boundary conditions, thermodynamic databases, clayey and cementitious materials, etc... This study revisits the types of simulations proposed in the past to represent the effect of an alkaline perturbation with regard to the degree of complexity that was considered. The main goal of the study is to perform simulations with a consistent set of data and an increasing complexity. In doing so, the analysis of numerical results will give a clear vision of key parameters driving the expansion of alteration fronts and

  8. Technoeconomic assumptions adopted for the development of a long-term electricity supply model for Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Taliotis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The generation mix of Cyprus has been dominated by oil products for decades. In order to conform with European Union and international legislation, a transformation of the supply system is called for. Energy system models can facilitate energy planning into the future, but a large volume of data is required to populate such models. The present data article provides information on key modelling assumptions and input data adopted with the aim of representing the electricity supply system of Cyprus in a separate research article. Data in regards to renewable energy technoeconomic characteristics and investment cost projections, fossil fuel price projections, storage technology characteristics and system operation assumptions are described in this article.

  9. Fair-sampling assumption is not necessary for testing local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Dominic W.; Jeong, Hyunseok; Stobinska, Magdalena; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Almost all Bell inequality experiments to date have used postselection and therefore relied on the fair sampling assumption for their interpretation. The standard form of the fair sampling assumption is that the loss is independent of the measurement settings, so the ensemble of detected systems provides a fair statistical sample of the total ensemble. This is often assumed to be needed to interpret Bell inequality experiments as ruling out hidden-variable theories. Here we show that it is not necessary; the loss can depend on measurement settings, provided the detection efficiency factorizes as a function of the measurement settings and any hidden variable. This condition implies that Tsirelson's bound must be satisfied for entangled states. On the other hand, we show that it is possible for Tsirelson's bound to be violated while the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH)-Bell inequality still holds for unentangled states, and present an experimentally feasible example.

  10. IRT models with relaxed assumptions in eRm: A manual-like instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REINHOLD HATZINGER

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear logistic models with relaxed assumptions (LLRA as introduced by Fischer (1974 are a flexible tool for the measurement of change for dichotomous or polytomous responses. As opposed to the Rasch model, assumptions on dimensionality of items, their mutual dependencies and the distribution of the latent trait in the population of subjects are relaxed. Conditional maximum likelihood estimation allows for inference about treatment, covariate or trend effect parameters without taking the subjects' latent trait values into account. In this paper we will show how LLRAs based on the LLTM, LRSM and LPCM can be used to answer various questions about the measurement of change and how they can be fitted in R using the eRm package. A number of small didactic examples is provided that can easily be used as templates for real data sets. All datafiles used in this paper are available from http://eRm.R-Forge.R-project.org/

  11. Load assumption for fatigue design of structures and components counting methods, safety aspects, practical application

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Michael; Pötter, Kurt; Zenner, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors ...

  12. Investigating Teachers’ and Students’ Beliefs and Assumptions about CALL Programme at Caledonian College of Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holi Ibrahim Holi Ali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is set to investigate students’ and teachers’ perceptions and assumptions about newly implemented CALL Programme at the School of Foundation Studies, Caledonian College of Engineering, Oman. Two versions of questionnaire were administered to 24 teachers and 90 students to collect their beliefs and assumption about CALL programame. The results shows that the great majority of the students report that CALL is very interesting, motivating and useful to them and they learn a lot form it. However, the number of CALL hours should be increased, lab should be equipped and arranged in user friendly way, assessment should be integrated into CALL, and smart boards, black boards should be incorporated into the programme.

  13. CHILDREN'S EDUCATION IN THE REGULAR NATIONAL BASIS: ASSUMPTIONS AND INTERFACES WITH PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Silva Mello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing the Children's Education organization within the Regular Curricular National Basis (BNCC, focusing on the permanencies and advances taking in relation to the precedent documents, and analyzing the presence of Physical Education in Children's Education from the assumptions that guide the Base, in interface with researches about pedagogical experiences with this field of knowledge. To do so, it carries out a documental-bibliographic analysis, using as sources the BNCC, the National Curricular Referential for Children's Education, the National Curricular Guidelines for Children's Education and academic-scientific productions belonging to the Physical Education area that approach Children's Education. In the analysis process, the work establishes categories which allow the interlocution among different sources used in this study. Data analyzed offers indications that the assumption present in the BNCC dialogue, not explicitly, with the movements of the curricular component and with the Physical Education academic-scientific production regarding Children's Education.

  14. Agenda dissonance: immigrant Hispanic women's and providers' assumptions and expectations for menopause healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Noreen

    2005-02-01

    This focus group study examined immigrant Hispanic women's and providers' assumptions about and expectations of healthcare encounters in the context of menopause. Four groups of immigrant women from Central America and one group of healthcare providers were interviewed in Spanish and English, respectively. The women wanted provider-initiated, individualized anticipatory guidance about menopause, acknowledgement of their symptoms, and mainstream medical treatment for disruptive symptoms. Providers believed that menopause was an unimportant health issue for immigrant women and was overshadowed by concerns about high-risk medical problems, such as diabetes, heart disease and HIV prevention. The women expected a healthcare encounter to be patient centered, social, and complete in itself. Providers expected an encounter to be businesslike and one part of multiple visit care. Language and lack of time were barriers cited by all. Dissonance between patient-provider assumptions and expectations around issues of healthcare leads to missed opportunities for care.

  15. Investigation of assumptions underlying current safety guidelines on EM-induced nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Esra; Vogiatzis Oikonomidis, Ioannis; Iacono, Maria Ida; Angelone, Leonardo M.; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2016-06-01

    An intricate network of a variety of nerves is embedded within the complex anatomy of the human body. Although nerves are shielded from unwanted excitation, they can still be stimulated by external electromagnetic sources that induce strongly non-uniform field distributions. Current exposure safety standards designed to limit unwanted nerve stimulation are based on a series of explicit and implicit assumptions and simplifications. This paper demonstrates the applicability of functionalized anatomical phantoms with integrated coupled electromagnetic and neuronal dynamics solvers for investigating the impact of magnetic resonance exposure on nerve excitation within the full complexity of the human anatomy. The impact of neuronal dynamics models, temperature and local hot-spots, nerve trajectory and potential smoothing, anatomical inhomogeneity, and pulse duration on nerve stimulation was evaluated. As a result, multiple assumptions underlying current safety standards are questioned. It is demonstrated that coupled EM-neuronal dynamics modeling involving realistic anatomies is valuable to establish conservative safety criteria.

  16. Scenario Analysis In The Calculation Of Investment Efficiency–The Problem Of Formulating Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittmann Iwona

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of formulating assumptions in scenario analysis for investments which consist of the renting out of an apartment. The article attempts to indicate the foundations for the formulation of assumptions on the basis of observed retrospective regularities. It includes theoretical considerations regarding scenario design, as well as the results of studies on the formulation, in the past, of quantities which determined or were likely to bring closer estimate the value of the individual explanatory variables for a chosen measure of investment profitability (MIRRFCFE. The dynamics of and correlation between the variables were studied. The research was based on quarterly data from local residential real estate markets in Poland (in the six largest cities in the years 2006 – 2014, as well as on data from the financial market.

  17. Quantum information versus black hole physics: deep firewalls from narrow assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano

    2018-07-01

    The prevalent view that evaporating black holes should simply be smaller black holes has been challenged by the firewall paradox. In particular, this paradox suggests that something different occurs once a black hole has evaporated to one-half its original surface area. Here, we derive variations of the firewall paradox by tracking the thermodynamic entropy within a black hole across its entire lifetime and extend it even to anti-de Sitter space-times. Our approach sweeps away many unnecessary assumptions, allowing us to demonstrate a paradox exists even after its initial onset (when conventional assumptions render earlier analyses invalid). The most natural resolution may be to accept firewalls as a real phenomenon. Further, the vast entropy accumulated implies a deep firewall that goes `all the way down' in contrast with earlier work describing only a structure at the horizon. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'.

  18. On the validity of Brownian assumptions in the spin van der Waals model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Suhk Kun

    1985-01-01

    A simple Brownian motion theory of the spin van der Waals model, which can be stationary, Markoffian or Gaussian, is studied. By comparing the Brownian motion theory with an exact theory called the generalized Langevin equation theory, the validity of the Brownian assumptions is tested. Thereby, it is shown explicitly how the Markoffian and Gaussian properties are modified in the spin van der Waals model under the influence of quantum fluctuations and long range ordering. (Author)

  19. Estimation of kinematic parameters in CALIFA galaxies: no-assumption on internal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; CALIFA Team

    2016-06-01

    We propose a simple approach to homogeneously estimate kinematic parameters of a broad variety of galaxies (elliptical, spirals, irregulars or interacting systems). This methodology avoids the use of any kinematical model or any assumption on internal dynamics. This simple but novel approach allows us to determine: the frequency of kinematic distortions, systemic velocity, kinematic center, and kinematic position angles which are directly measured from the two dimensional-distributions of radial velocities. We test our analysis tools using the CALIFA Survey

  20. Anti-Atheist Bias in the United States: Testing Two Critical Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Lawton K; Heesacker, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Decades of opinion polling and empirical investigations have clearly demonstrated a pervasive anti-atheist prejudice in the United States. However, much of this scholarship relies on two critical and largely unaddressed assumptions: (a) that when people report negative attitudes toward atheists, they do so because they are reacting specifically to their lack of belief in God; and (b) that survey questions asking about attitudes toward atheists as a group yield reliable information about biase...

  1. Reflections on assumption of energetic politics. Viewpoint of a sceptial observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taczanowski, S.; Pohorecki, W.

    2000-01-01

    The Polish assumptions of energetic politics up to 2020 have been critically assessed. Energy sources availability as well as predicted fuel prices have been discussed for interesting period. Fossil fuels and uranium have been taken into account. On the presented basis it has been concluded that rejection the nuclear option in Poland for energetics development plans up to 2020 seems to be a serious mistake

  2. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability of the Danish SF-36

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, J B; Damsgaard, M T; Watt, T

    1998-01-01

    We used general population data (n = 4084) to examine data completeness, response consistency, tests of scaling assumptions, and reliability of the Danish SF-36 Health Survey. We compared traditional multitrait scaling analyses to analyses using polychoric correlations and Spearman correlations...... with chronic diseases excepted). Concerning correlation methods, we found interesting differences indicating advantages of using methods that do not assume a normal distribution of answers as an addition to traditional methods....

  3. Rethinking The Going Concern Assumption As A Pre-Condition For Accounting Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Saratiel Wedzerai Musvoto; Daan G Gouws

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the principles of the going concern concept against the principles of representational measurement to determine if it is possible to establish foundations of accounting measurement with the going concern concept as a precondition. Representational measurement theory is a theory that establishes measurement in social scientific disciplines such as accounting. The going concern assumption is prescribed as one of the preconditions for measuring the attributes of the elements ...

  4. Clinical review: Moral assumptions and the process of organ donation in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Streat, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to review moral assumptions underlying organ donation in the intensive care unit. Data sources used include personal experience, and a Medline search and a non-Medline search of relevant English-language literature. The study selection included articles concerning organ donation. All data were extracted and analysed by the author. In terms of data synthesis, a rational, utilitarian moral perspective dominates, and has captured and circumscribed, the lan...

  5. Heterosexual assumptions in verbal and non-verbal communication in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röndahl, Gerd; Innala, Sune; Carlsson, Marianne

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports a study of what lesbian women and gay men had to say, as patients and as partners, about their experiences of nursing in hospital care, and what they regarded as important to communicate about homosexuality and nursing. The social life of heterosexual cultures is based on the assumption that all people are heterosexual, thereby making homosexuality socially invisible. Nurses may assume that all patients and significant others are heterosexual, and these heteronormative assumptions may lead to poor communication that affects nursing quality by leading nurses to ask the wrong questions and make incorrect judgements. A qualitative interview study was carried out in the spring of 2004. Seventeen women and 10 men ranging in age from 23 to 65 years from different parts of Sweden participated. They described 46 experiences as patients and 31 as partners. Heteronormativity was communicated in waiting rooms, in patient documents and when registering for admission, and nursing staff sometimes showed perplexity when an informant deviated from this heteronormative assumption. Informants had often met nursing staff who showed fear of behaving incorrectly, which could lead to a sense of insecurity, thereby impeding further communication. As partners of gay patients, informants felt that they had to deal with heterosexual assumptions more than they did when they were patients, and the consequences were feelings of not being accepted as a 'true' relative, of exclusion and neglect. Almost all participants offered recommendations about how nursing staff could facilitate communication. Heterosexual norms communicated unconsciously by nursing staff contribute to ambivalent attitudes and feelings of insecurity that prevent communication and easily lead to misconceptions. Educational and management interventions, as well as increased communication, could make gay people more visible and thereby encourage openness and awareness by hospital staff of the norms that they

  6. Sampling Assumptions Affect Use of Indirect Negative Evidence in Language Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hsu

    Full Text Available A classic debate in cognitive science revolves around understanding how children learn complex linguistic patterns, such as restrictions on verb alternations and contractions, without negative evidence. Recently, probabilistic models of language learning have been applied to this problem, framing it as a statistical inference from a random sample of sentences. These probabilistic models predict that learners should be sensitive to the way in which sentences are sampled. There are two main types of sampling assumptions that can operate in language learning: strong and weak sampling. Strong sampling, as assumed by probabilistic models, assumes the learning input is drawn from a distribution of grammatical samples from the underlying language and aims to learn this distribution. Thus, under strong sampling, the absence of a sentence construction from the input provides evidence that it has low or zero probability of grammaticality. Weak sampling does not make assumptions about the distribution from which the input is drawn, and thus the absence of a construction from the input as not used as evidence of its ungrammaticality. We demonstrate in a series of artificial language learning experiments that adults can produce behavior consistent with both sets of sampling assumptions, depending on how the learning problem is presented. These results suggest that people use information about the way in which linguistic input is sampled to guide their learning.

  7. Estimation of the energy loss at the blades in rowing: common assumptions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs; De Koning, Jos; Van Soest, A J

    2010-08-01

    In rowing, power is inevitably lost as kinetic energy is imparted to the water during push-off with the blades. Power loss is estimated from reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Traditionally, it is assumed that the oar is completely rigid and that force acts strictly perpendicular to the blade. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how reconstructed blade kinematics, kinetics, and average power loss are affected by these assumptions. A calibration experiment with instrumented oars and oarlocks was performed to establish relations between measured signals and oar deformation and blade force. Next, an on-water experiment was performed with a single female world-class rower rowing at constant racing pace in an instrumented scull. Blade kinematics, kinetics, and power loss under different assumptions (rigid versus deformable oars; absence or presence of a blade force component parallel to the oar) were reconstructed. Estimated power losses at the blades are 18% higher when parallel blade force is incorporated. Incorporating oar deformation affects reconstructed blade kinematics and instantaneous power loss, but has no effect on estimation of power losses at the blades. Assumptions on oar deformation and blade force direction have implications for the reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Neglecting parallel blade forces leads to a substantial underestimation of power losses at the blades.

  8. Anti-Atheist Bias in the United States: Testing Two Critical Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawton K Swan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Decades of opinion polling and empirical investigations have clearly demonstrated a pervasive anti-atheist prejudice in the United States. However, much of this scholarship relies on two critical and largely unaddressed assumptions: (a that when people report negative attitudes toward atheists, they do so because they are reacting specifically to their lack of belief in God; and (b that survey questions asking about attitudes toward atheists as a group yield reliable information about biases against individual atheist targets. To test these assumptions, an online survey asked a probability-based random sample of American adults (N = 618 to evaluate a fellow research participant (“Jordan”. Jordan garnered significantly more negative evaluations when identified as an atheist than when described as religious or when religiosity was not mentioned. This effect did not differ as a function of labeling (“atheist” versus “no belief in God”, or the amount of individuating information provided about Jordan. These data suggest that both assumptions are tenable: nonbelief—rather than extraneous connotations of the word “atheist”—seems to underlie the effect, and participants exhibited a marked bias even when confronted with an otherwise attractive individual.

  9. Questioning the "big assumptions". Part I: addressing personal contradictions that impede professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Constance M; Lahey, Lisa; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Kegan, Robert

    2003-08-01

    The ultimate success of recent medical curriculum reforms is, in large part, dependent upon the faculty's ability to adopt and sustain new attitudes and behaviors. However, like many New Year's resolutions, sincere intent to change may be short lived and followed by a discouraging return to old behaviors. Failure to sustain the initial resolve to change can be misinterpreted as a lack of commitment to one's original goals and eventually lead to greater effort expended in rationalizing the status quo rather than changing it. The present article outlines how a transformative process that has proven to be effective in managing personal change, Questioning the Big Assumptions, was successfully used in an international faculty development program for medical educators to enhance individual personal satisfaction and professional effectiveness. This process systematically encouraged participants to explore and proactively address currently operative mechanisms that could stall their attempts to change at the professional level. The applications of the Big Assumptions process in faculty development helped individuals to recognize and subsequently utilize unchallenged and deep rooted personal beliefs to overcome unconscious resistance to change. This approach systematically led participants away from circular griping about what was not right in their current situation to identifying the actions that they needed to take to realize their individual goals. By thoughtful testing of personal Big Assumptions, participants designed behavioral changes that could be broadly supported and, most importantly, sustained.

  10. Validity of the isotropic thermal conductivity assumption in supercell lattice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruiyuan; Lukes, Jennifer R.

    2018-02-01

    Superlattices and nano phononic crystals have attracted significant attention due to their low thermal conductivities and their potential application as thermoelectric materials. A widely used expression to calculate thermal conductivity, presented by Klemens and expressed in terms of the relaxation time by Callaway and Holland, originates from the Boltzmann transport equation. In its most general form, this expression involves a direct summation of the heat current contributions from individual phonons of all wavevectors and polarizations in the first Brillouin zone. In common practice, the expression is simplified by making an isotropic assumption that converts the summation over wavevector to an integral over wavevector magnitude. The isotropic expression has been applied to superlattices and phononic crystals, but its validity for different supercell sizes has not been studied. In this work, the isotropic and direct summation methods are used to calculate the thermal conductivities of bulk Si, and Si/Ge quantum dot superlattices. The results show that the differences between the two methods increase substantially with the supercell size. These differences arise because the vibrational modes neglected in the isotropic assumption provide an increasingly important contribution to the thermal conductivity for larger supercells. To avoid the significant errors that can result from the isotropic assumption, direct summation is recommended for thermal conductivity calculations in superstructures.

  11. Evaluating methodological assumptions of a catch-curve survival estimation of unmarked precocial shorebird chickes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Gardner, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Estimating productivity for precocial species can be difficult because young birds leave their nest within hours or days of hatching and detectability thereafter can be very low. Recently, a method for using a modified catch-curve to estimate precocial chick daily survival for age based count data was presented using Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) data from the Missouri River. However, many of the assumptions of the catch-curve approach were not fully evaluated for precocial chicks. We developed a simulation model to mimic Piping Plovers, a fairly representative shorebird, and age-based count-data collection. Using the simulated data, we calculated daily survival estimates and compared them with the known daily survival rates from the simulation model. We conducted these comparisons under different sampling scenarios where the ecological and statistical assumptions had been violated. Overall, the daily survival estimates calculated from the simulated data corresponded well with true survival rates of the simulation. Violating the accurate aging and the independence assumptions did not result in biased daily survival estimates, whereas unequal detection for younger or older birds and violating the birth death equilibrium did result in estimator bias. Assuring that all ages are equally detectable and timing data collection to approximately meet the birth death equilibrium are key to the successful use of this method for precocial shorebirds.

  12. An optical flow algorithm based on gradient constancy assumption for PIV image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Qianglong; Yang, Hua; Yin, Zhouping

    2017-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has matured as a flow measurement technique. It enables the description of the instantaneous velocity field of the flow by analyzing the particle motion obtained from digitally recorded images. Correlation based PIV evaluation technique is widely used because of its good accuracy and robustness. Although very successful, correlation PIV technique has some weakness which can be avoided by optical flow based PIV algorithms. At present, most of the optical flow methods applied to PIV are based on brightness constancy assumption. However, some factors of flow imaging technology and the nature property of the fluids make the brightness constancy assumption less appropriate in real PIV cases. In this paper, an implementation of a 2D optical flow algorithm (GCOF) based on gradient constancy assumption is introduced. The proposed GCOF assumes the edges of the illuminated PIV particles are constant during motion. It comprises two terms: a combined local-global gradient data term and a first-order divergence and vorticity smooth term. The approach can provide accurate dense motion fields. The approach are tested on synthetic images and on two experimental flows. The comparison of GCOF with other optical flow algorithms indicates the proposed method is more accurate especially in conditions of illumination variation. The comparison of GCOF with correlation PIV technique shows that the proposed GCOF has advantages on preserving small divergence and vorticity structures of the motion field and getting less outliers. As a consequence, the GCOF acquire a more accurate and better topological description of the turbulent flow. (paper)

  13. On the ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry: philosophical considerations and pragmatic tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common theme in the contemporary medical model of psychiatry is that pathophysiological processes are centrally involved in the explanation, evaluation, and treatment of mental illnesses. Implied in this perspective is that clinical descriptors of these pathophysiological processes are sufficient to distinguish underlying etiologies. Psychiatric classification requires differentiation between what counts as normality (i.e.- order, and what counts as abnormality (i.e.- disorder. The distinction(s between normality and pathology entail assumptions that are often deeply presupposed, manifesting themselves in statements about what mental disorders are. In this paper, we explicate that realism, naturalism, reductionism, and essentialism are core ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry. We argue that while naturalism, realism, and reductionism can be reconciled with advances in contemporary neuroscience, essentialism - as defined to date - may be conceptually problematic, and we pose an eidetic construct of bio-psychosocial order and disorder based upon complex systems' dynamics. However we also caution against the overuse of any theory, and claim that practical distinctions are important to the establishment of clinical thresholds. We opine that as we move ahead toward both a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, and a proposed Decade of the Mind, the task at hand is to re-visit nosologic and ontologic assumptions pursuant to a re-formulation of diagnostic criteria and practice.

  14. Testing legal assumptions regarding the effects of dancer nudity and proximity to patron on erotic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, D; Blumenthal, E; Donnerstein, E; Kunkel, D; Shafer, B J; Lichtenstein, A

    2000-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted in order to test the assumptions by the Supreme Court in Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. (1991) and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in Colacurcio v. City of Kent (1999) that government restrictions on dancer nudity and dancer-patron proximity do not affect the content of messages conveyed by erotic dancers. A field experiment was conducted in which dancer nudity (nude vs. partial clothing) and dancer-patron proximity (4 feet; 6 in.; 6 in. plus touch) were manipulated under controlled conditions in an adult night club. After male patrons viewed the dances, they completed questionnaires assessing affective states and reception of erotic, relational intimacy, and social messages. Contrary to the assumptions of the courts, the results showed that the content of messages conveyed by the dancers was significantly altered by restrictions placed on dancer nudity and dancer-patron proximity. These findings are interpreted in terms of social psychological responses to nudity and communication theories of nonverbal behavior. The legal implications of rejecting the assumptions made by the courts in light of the findings of this study are discussed. Finally, suggestions are made for future research.

  15. Sampling Assumptions Affect Use of Indirect Negative Evidence in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A classic debate in cognitive science revolves around understanding how children learn complex linguistic patterns, such as restrictions on verb alternations and contractions, without negative evidence. Recently, probabilistic models of language learning have been applied to this problem, framing it as a statistical inference from a random sample of sentences. These probabilistic models predict that learners should be sensitive to the way in which sentences are sampled. There are two main types of sampling assumptions that can operate in language learning: strong and weak sampling. Strong sampling, as assumed by probabilistic models, assumes the learning input is drawn from a distribution of grammatical samples from the underlying language and aims to learn this distribution. Thus, under strong sampling, the absence of a sentence construction from the input provides evidence that it has low or zero probability of grammaticality. Weak sampling does not make assumptions about the distribution from which the input is drawn, and thus the absence of a construction from the input as not used as evidence of its ungrammaticality. We demonstrate in a series of artificial language learning experiments that adults can produce behavior consistent with both sets of sampling assumptions, depending on how the learning problem is presented. These results suggest that people use information about the way in which linguistic input is sampled to guide their learning. PMID:27310576

  16. On the ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry: philosophical considerations and pragmatic tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A common theme in the contemporary medical model of psychiatry is that pathophysiological processes are centrally involved in the explanation, evaluation, and treatment of mental illnesses. Implied in this perspective is that clinical descriptors of these pathophysiological processes are sufficient to distinguish underlying etiologies. Psychiatric classification requires differentiation between what counts as normality (i.e.- order), and what counts as abnormality (i.e.- disorder). The distinction(s) between normality and pathology entail assumptions that are often deeply presupposed, manifesting themselves in statements about what mental disorders are. In this paper, we explicate that realism, naturalism, reductionism, and essentialism are core ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry. We argue that while naturalism, realism, and reductionism can be reconciled with advances in contemporary neuroscience, essentialism - as defined to date - may be conceptually problematic, and we pose an eidetic construct of bio-psychosocial order and disorder based upon complex systems' dynamics. However we also caution against the overuse of any theory, and claim that practical distinctions are important to the establishment of clinical thresholds. We opine that as we move ahead toward both a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, and a proposed Decade of the Mind, the task at hand is to re-visit nosologic and ontologic assumptions pursuant to a re-formulation of diagnostic criteria and practice. PMID:20109176

  17. Analysis of Product Buying Decision on Lazada E-commerce based on Previous Buyers’ Comments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Aldrin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present research are: 1 to know that product buying decision possibly occurs, 2 to know how product buying decision occurs on Lazada e-commerce’s customers, 3 how previous buyers’ comments can increase product buying decision on Lazada e-commerce. This research utilizes qualitative research method. Qualitative research is a research that investigates other researches and makes assumption or discussion result so that other analysis results can be made in order to widen idea and opinion. Research result shows that product which has many ratings and reviews will trigger other buyers to purchase or get that product. The conclusion is that product buying decision may occur because there are some processes before making decision which are: looking for recognition and searching for problems, knowing the needs, collecting information, evaluating alternative, evaluating after buying. In those stages, buying decision on Lazada e-commerce is supported by price, promotion, service, and brand.

  18. Hand-held electronic data collection and procedure environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.; Doniz, K.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a CANDU Owners Group project, AECL has developed a hand-held electronic data collection and procedure environment. Integral to this environment is the C omputerized Procedure Engine . The development of the CPE allows operators, maintainers, and technical support staff to execute virtually any type of station procedure on a general-purpose PC-compatible hand-held computer. There are several advantages to using the computerized procedures: less paper use and handling, reduction in human error, reduction in rework in the field, an increase in procedural compliance, and immediate availability of data to download to databases and plant information systems. The paper describes: the advantages of using computerized procedures, why early forms of computerized procedures were inadequate, the features that the C omputerized Procedure Engine o ffers to the user, the streamlined life cycle of a computerized procedure, and field experience. The paper concludes that computerized procedures are ready for pilot applications at stations. (author)

  19. Examination of Conservatism in Ground-level Source Release Assumption when Performing Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    One of these assumptions frequently assumed is the assumption of ground-level source release. The user manual of a consequence analysis software HotSpot is mentioning like below: 'If you cannot estimate or calculate the effective release height, the actual physical release height (height of the stack) or zero for ground-level release should be used. This will usually yield a conservative estimate, (i.e., larger radiation doses for all downwind receptors, etc).' This recommendation could be agreed in aspect of conservatism but quantitative examination of the effect of this assumption to the result of consequence analysis is necessary. The source terms of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident have been estimated by several studies using inverse modeling and one of the biggest sources of the difference between the results of these studies was different effective source release height assumed by each studies. It supports the importance of the quantitative examination of the influence by release height. Sensitivity analysis of the effective release height of radioactive sources was performed and the influence to the total effective dose was quantitatively examined in this study. Above 20% difference is maintained even at longer distances, when we compare the dose between the result assuming ground-level release and the results assuming other effective plume height. It means that we cannot ignore the influence of ground-level source assumption to the latent cancer fatality estimations. In addition, the assumption of ground-level release fundamentally prevents detailed analysis including diffusion of plume from effective plume height to the ground even though the influence of it is relatively lower in longer distance. When we additionally consider the influence of surface roughness, situations could be more serious. The ground level dose could be highly over-estimated in short downwind distance at the NPP sites which have low surface roughness such as Barakah site in

  20. Interactive topology optimization on hand-held devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive topology optimization application designed for hand-held devices running iOS or Android. The TopOpt app solves the 2D minimum compliance problem with interactive control of load and support positions as well as volume fraction. Thus, it is possible to change......OS devices from the Apple App Store, at Google Play for the Android platform, and a web-version can be run from www.topopt.dtu.dk....

  1. Guidance of attention by information held in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Marissa Ortiz; Rich, Anina N

    2013-05-01

    Information held in working memory (WM) can guide attention during visual search. The authors of recent studies have interpreted the effect of holding verbal labels in WM as guidance of visual attention by semantic information. In a series of experiments, we tested how attention is influenced by visual features versus category-level information about complex objects held in WM. Participants either memorized an object's image or its category. While holding this information in memory, they searched for a target in a four-object search display. On exact-match trials, the memorized item reappeared as a distractor in the search display. On category-match trials, another exemplar of the memorized item appeared as a distractor. On neutral trials, none of the distractors were related to the memorized object. We found attentional guidance in visual search on both exact-match and category-match trials in Experiment 1, in which the exemplars were visually similar. When we controlled for visual similarity among the exemplars by using four possible exemplars (Exp. 2) or by using two exemplars rated as being visually dissimilar (Exp. 3), we found attentional guidance only on exact-match trials when participants memorized the object's image. The same pattern of results held when the target was invariant (Exps. 2-3) and when the target was defined semantically and varied in visual features (Exp. 4). The findings of these experiments suggest that attentional guidance by WM requires active visual information.

  2. Maternal condition and previous reproduction interact to affect offspring sex in a wild mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-08-01

    Trivers and Willard proposed that offspring sex ratio should vary with maternal condition when condition, meant as maternal capacity to care, has different fitness consequences for sons and daughters. In polygynous and dimorphic species, mothers in good condition should preferentially produce sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should produce more daughters. Despite its logical appeal, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent. Sex-ratio variation may be influenced by additional factors, such as environmental conditions and previous reproduction, which are often ignored in empirical studies. We analysed 39 years of data on bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that fit all the assumptions of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Production of sons increased with maternal condition only for mothers that weaned a son the previous year. This relationship likely reflects a mother's ability to bear the higher reproductive costs of sons. The interaction between maternal condition and previous weaning success on the probability of producing a son was independent of the positive effect of paternal reproductive success. Maternal and paternal effects accounted for similar proportions of the variance in offspring sex. Maternal reproductive history should be considered in addition to current condition in studies of sex allocation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  4. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  5. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  6. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  7. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  8. Analysis of the operator action and the single failure criteria in a SGTR sequence using best estimate assumptions with TRACE 5.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, G.; Queral, C.; Rebollo-Mena, M.J.; Martínez-Murillo, J.C.; Lopez-Alonso, E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Several worldwide SGTR deterministic safety analysis methodologies were analyze to study the different assumption made. ► The most relevant assumptions for operation action and single failure criteria are compared through TRACE simulations.► The offsite dose results showed the adequacy of the assumptions included in the analyzed methodologies. ► Two proposal of change for SGTR Emergency Operating Procedure are outlined to minimize the dose in case of a SGTR accident. - Abstract: Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) sequences in Pressurized Water Reactors are known to be one of the most demanding transients for the operating crew. SGTR are a special kind of transient as they could lead to radiological releases without core damage or containment failure, as they can constitute a direct path from the reactor coolant system to the environment. The first methodology used to perform the Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) of a SGTR did not credit the operator action for the first 30 min of the transient, assuming that the operating crew was able to stop the primary to secondary leakage within that period of time. However, the different real SGTR accident cases happened in the USA and over the world demonstrated that the operators usually take more than 30 min to stop the leakage in actual sequences. Some methodologies were raised to overcome that fact, considering operator actions from the beginning of the transient, as it is done in Probabilistic Safety Analysis. This paper presents the results of comparing different assumptions regarding the single failure criteria and the operator action taken from the most common methodologies included in the different Deterministic Safety Analysis. One single failure criteria that has not been analysed previously in the literature is proposed and analysed in this paper too. The comparison is done with a PWR Westinghouse three loop model in TRACE code (Almaraz NPP) with best estimate assumptions but including

  9. Violation of the Sphericity Assumption and Its Effect on Type-I Error Rates in Repeated Measures ANOVA and Multi-Level Linear Models (MLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Nicolas; Beauducel, André

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of violations of the sphericity assumption on Type I error rates for different methodical approaches of repeated measures analysis using a simulation approach. In contrast to previous simulation studies on this topic, up to nine measurement occasions were considered. Effects of the level of inter-correlations between measurement occasions on Type I error rates were considered for the first time. Two populations with non-violation of the sphericity assumption, one with uncorrelated measurement occasions and one with moderately correlated measurement occasions, were generated. One population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines uncorrelated with highly correlated measurement occasions. A second population with violation of the sphericity assumption combines moderately correlated and highly correlated measurement occasions. From these four populations without any between-group effect or within-subject effect 5,000 random samples were drawn. Finally, the mean Type I error rates for Multilevel linear models (MLM) with an unstructured covariance matrix (MLM-UN), MLM with compound-symmetry (MLM-CS) and for repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) models (without correction, with Greenhouse-Geisser-correction, and Huynh-Feldt-correction) were computed. To examine the effect of both the sample size and the number of measurement occasions, sample sizes of n = 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 were considered as well as measurement occasions of m = 3, 6, and 9. With respect to rANOVA, the results plead for a use of rANOVA with Huynh-Feldt-correction, especially when the sphericity assumption is violated, the sample size is rather small and the number of measurement occasions is large. For MLM-UN, the results illustrate a massive progressive bias for small sample sizes ( n = 20) and m = 6 or more measurement occasions. This effect could not be found in previous simulation studies with a smaller number of measurement occasions. The

  10. Neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) forward-viewing probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Vuong, Barry; Cusimano, Michael; Brukson, Alexander; Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2012-02-01

    A prototype neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging probe has been developed to provide micron resolution cross-sectional images of subsurface tissue during open surgery. This new ergonomic hand-held probe has been designed based on our group's previous work on electrostatically driven optical fibers. It has been packaged into a catheter probe in the familiar form factor of the clinically accepted Bayonet shaped neurosurgical non-imaging Doppler ultrasound probes. The optical design was optimized using ZEMAX simulation. Optical properties of the probe were tested to yield an ~20 um spot size, 5 mm working distance and a 3.5 mm field of view. The scan frequency can be increased or decreased by changing the applied voltage. Typically a scan frequency of less than 60Hz is chosen to keep the applied voltage to less than 2000V. The axial resolution of the probe was ~15 um (in air) as determined by the OCT system. A custom-triggering methodology has been developed to provide continuous stable imaging, which is crucial for clinical utility. Feasibility of this probe, in combination with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system was tested and images are presented to highlight the usefulness of such a forward viewing handheld OCT imaging probe. Knowledge gained from this research will lay the foundation for developing new OCT technologies for endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms and transsphenoidal neuroendoscopic treatment of pituitary tumors.

  11. Sample Size Calculation: Inaccurate A Priori Assumptions for Nuisance Parameters Can Greatly Affect the Power of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Tavernier

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the extent to which inaccurate assumptions for nuisance parameters used to calculate sample size can affect the power of a randomized controlled trial (RCT. In a simulation study, we separately considered an RCT with continuous, dichotomous or time-to-event outcomes, with associated nuisance parameters of standard deviation, success rate in the control group and survival rate in the control group at some time point, respectively. For each type of outcome, we calculated a required sample size N for a hypothesized treatment effect, an assumed nuisance parameter and a nominal power of 80%. We then assumed a nuisance parameter associated with a relative error at the design stage. For each type of outcome, we randomly drew 10,000 relative errors of the associated nuisance parameter (from empirical distributions derived from a previously published review. Then, retro-fitting the sample size formula, we derived, for the pre-calculated sample size N, the real power of the RCT, taking into account the relative error for the nuisance parameter. In total, 23%, 0% and 18% of RCTs with continuous, binary and time-to-event outcomes, respectively, were underpowered (i.e., the real power was 90%. Even with proper calculation of sample size, a substantial number of trials are underpowered or overpowered because of imprecise knowledge of nuisance parameters. Such findings raise questions about how sample size for RCTs should be determined.

  12. Semi-Supervised Transductive Hot Spot Predictor Working on Multiple Assumptions

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-05-23

    Protein-protein interactions are critically dependent on just a few residues (“hot spots”) at the interfaces. Hot spots make a dominant contribution to the binding free energy and if mutated they can disrupt the interaction. As mutagenesis studies require significant experimental efforts, there exists a need for accurate and reliable computational hot spot prediction methods. Compared to the supervised hot spot prediction algorithms, the semi-supervised prediction methods can take into consideration both the labeled and unlabeled residues in the dataset during the prediction procedure. The transductive support vector machine has been utilized for this task and demonstrated a better prediction performance. To the best of our knowledge, however, none of the transductive semi-supervised algorithms takes all the three semisupervised assumptions, i.e., smoothness, cluster and manifold assumptions, together into account during learning. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised method for hot spot residue prediction, by considering all the three semisupervised assumptions using nonlinear models. Our algorithm, IterPropMCS, works in an iterative manner. In each iteration, the algorithm first propagates the labels of the labeled residues to the unlabeled ones, along the shortest path between them on a graph, assuming that they lie on a nonlinear manifold. Then it selects the most confident residues as the labeled ones for the next iteration, according to the cluster and smoothness criteria, which is implemented by a nonlinear density estimator. Experiments on a benchmark dataset, using protein structure-based features, demonstrate that our approach is effective in predicting hot spots and compares favorably to other available methods. The results also show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art transductive learning methods.

  13. The Avalanche Hypothesis and Compression of Morbidity: Testing Assumptions through Cohort-Sequential Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Silberman

    Full Text Available The compression of morbidity model posits a breakpoint in the adult lifespan that separates an initial period of relative health from a subsequent period of ever increasing morbidity. Researchers often assume that such a breakpoint exists; however, this assumption is hitherto untested.To test the assumption that a breakpoint exists--which we term a morbidity tipping point--separating a period of relative health from a subsequent deterioration in health status. An analogous tipping point for healthcare costs was also investigated.Four years of adults' (N = 55,550 morbidity and costs data were retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected in Pittsburgh, PA between 2006 and 2009; analyses were performed in Rochester, NY and Ann Arbor, MI in 2012 and 2013. Cohort-sequential and hockey stick regression models were used to characterize long-term trajectories and tipping points, respectively, for both morbidity and costs.Morbidity increased exponentially with age (P<.001. A morbidity tipping point was observed at age 45.5 (95% CI, 41.3-49.7. An exponential trajectory was also observed for costs (P<.001, with a costs tipping point occurring at age 39.5 (95% CI, 32.4-46.6. Following their respective tipping points, both morbidity and costs increased substantially (Ps<.001.Findings support the existence of a morbidity tipping point, confirming an important but untested assumption. This tipping point, however, may occur earlier in the lifespan than is widely assumed. An "avalanche of morbidity" occurred after the morbidity tipping point-an ever increasing rate of morbidity progression. For costs, an analogous tipping point and "avalanche" were observed. The time point at which costs began to increase substantially occurred approximately 6 years before health status began to deteriorate.

  14. Sensitivity of fluvial sediment source apportionment to mixing model assumptions: A Bayesian model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Krueger, Tobias; Hiscock, Kevin M; Rawlins, Barry G

    2014-11-01

    Mixing models have become increasingly common tools for apportioning fluvial sediment load to various sediment sources across catchments using a wide variety of Bayesian and frequentist modeling approaches. In this study, we demonstrate how different model setups can impact upon resulting source apportionment estimates in a Bayesian framework via a one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) sensitivity analysis. We formulate 13 versions of a mixing model, each with different error assumptions and model structural choices, and apply them to sediment geochemistry data from the River Blackwater, Norfolk, UK, to apportion suspended particulate matter (SPM) contributions from three sources (arable topsoils, road verges, and subsurface material) under base flow conditions between August 2012 and August 2013. Whilst all 13 models estimate subsurface sources to be the largest contributor of SPM (median ∼76%), comparison of apportionment estimates reveal varying degrees of sensitivity to changing priors, inclusion of covariance terms, incorporation of time-variant distributions, and methods of proportion characterization. We also demonstrate differences in apportionment results between a full and an empirical Bayesian setup, and between a Bayesian and a frequentist optimization approach. This OFAT sensitivity analysis reveals that mixing model structural choices and error assumptions can significantly impact upon sediment source apportionment results, with estimated median contributions in this study varying by up to 21% between model versions. Users of mixing models are therefore strongly advised to carefully consider and justify their choice of model structure prior to conducting sediment source apportionment investigations. An OFAT sensitivity analysis of sediment fingerprinting mixing models is conductedBayesian models display high sensitivity to error assumptions and structural choicesSource apportionment results differ between Bayesian and frequentist approaches.

  15. Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodoo, Ambrose; Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe; Gustavsson, Leif

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we modelled the influence of different simulation assumptions on energy balances of two variants of a residential building, comprising the building in its existing state and with energy-efficient improvements. We explored how selected parameter combinations and variations affect the energy balances of the building configurations. The selected parameters encompass outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and household electrical equipment including technical installations. Our modelling takes into account hourly as well as seasonal profiles of different internal heat gains. The results suggest that the impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is somewhat small and relatively more noticeable for an energy-efficient building in contrast to a conventional building. We find that the influence of parameters combinations is more apparent as more individual parameters are varied. The simulations show that a building's calculated space heating demand is significantly influenced by how heat gains from electrical equipment are modelled. For the analyzed building versions, calculated final energy for space heating differs by 9–14 kWh/m"2 depending on the assumed energy efficiency level for electrical equipment. The influence of electrical equipment on calculated final space heating is proportionally more significant for an energy-efficient building compared to a conventional building. This study shows the influence of different simulation assumptions and parameter combinations when varied simultaneously. - Highlights: • Energy balances are modelled for conventional and efficient variants of a building. • Influence of assumptions and parameter combinations and variations are explored. • Parameter interactions influence is apparent as more single parameters are varied. • Calculated space heating demand is notably affected by how heat gains are modelled.

  16. Investigating Darcy-scale assumptions by means of a multiphysics algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomin, Pavel; Lunati, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Multiphysics (or hybrid) algorithms, which couple Darcy and pore-scale descriptions of flow through porous media in a single numerical framework, are usually employed to decrease the computational cost of full pore-scale simulations or to increase the accuracy of pure Darcy-scale simulations when a simple macroscopic description breaks down. Despite the massive increase in available computational power, the application of these techniques remains limited to core-size problems and upscaling remains crucial for practical large-scale applications. In this context, the Hybrid Multiscale Finite Volume (HMsFV) method, which constructs the macroscopic (Darcy-scale) problem directly by numerical averaging of pore-scale flow, offers not only a flexible framework to efficiently deal with multiphysics problems, but also a tool to investigate the assumptions used to derive macroscopic models and to better understand the relationship between pore-scale quantities and the corresponding macroscale variables. Indeed, by direct comparison of the multiphysics solution with a reference pore-scale simulation, we can assess the validity of the closure assumptions inherent to the multiphysics algorithm and infer the consequences for macroscopic models at the Darcy scale. We show that the definition of the scale ratio based on the geometric properties of the porous medium is well justified only for single-phase flow, whereas in case of unstable multiphase flow the nonlinear interplay between different forces creates complex fluid patterns characterized by new spatial scales, which emerge dynamically and weaken the scale-separation assumption. In general, the multiphysics solution proves very robust even when the characteristic size of the fluid-distribution patterns is comparable with the observation length, provided that all relevant physical processes affecting the fluid distribution are considered. This suggests that macroscopic constitutive relationships (e.g., the relative

  17. Assumption-versus data-based approaches to summarizing species' ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Gordillo, Alejandro

    2018-06-01

    For conservation decision making, species' geographic distributions are mapped using various approaches. Some such efforts have downscaled versions of coarse-resolution extent-of-occurrence maps to fine resolutions for conservation planning. We examined the quality of the extent-of-occurrence maps as range summaries and the utility of refining those maps into fine-resolution distributional hypotheses. Extent-of-occurrence maps tend to be overly simple, omit many known and well-documented populations, and likely frequently include many areas not holding populations. Refinement steps involve typological assumptions about habitat preferences and elevational ranges of species, which can introduce substantial error in estimates of species' true areas of distribution. However, no model-evaluation steps are taken to assess the predictive ability of these models, so model inaccuracies are not noticed. Whereas range summaries derived by these methods may be useful in coarse-grained, global-extent studies, their continued use in on-the-ground conservation applications at fine spatial resolutions is not advisable in light of reliance on assumptions, lack of real spatial resolution, and lack of testing. In contrast, data-driven techniques that integrate primary data on biodiversity occurrence with remotely sensed data that summarize environmental dimensions (i.e., ecological niche modeling or species distribution modeling) offer data-driven solutions based on a minimum of assumptions that can be evaluated and validated quantitatively to offer a well-founded, widely accepted method for summarizing species' distributional patterns for conservation applications. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Testing the assumptions of the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis for termites in semi-arid Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hayley; Ritchie, Euan G; Avitabile, Sarah; Doherty, Tim; Nimmo, Dale G

    2018-04-01

    Fire shapes the composition and functioning of ecosystems globally. In many regions, fire is actively managed to create diverse patch mosaics of fire-ages under the assumption that a diversity of post-fire-age classes will provide a greater variety of habitats, thereby enabling species with differing habitat requirements to coexist, and enhancing species diversity (the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis). However, studies provide mixed support for this hypothesis. Here, using termite communities in a semi-arid region of southeast Australia, we test four key assumptions of the pyrodiversity begets biodiversity hypothesis (i) that fire shapes vegetation structure over sufficient time frames to influence species' occurrence, (ii) that animal species are linked to resources that are themselves shaped by fire and that peak at different times since fire, (iii) that species' probability of occurrence or abundance peaks at varying times since fire and (iv) that providing a diversity of fire-ages increases species diversity at the landscape scale. Termite species and habitat elements were sampled in 100 sites across a range of fire-ages, nested within 20 landscapes chosen to represent a gradient of low to high pyrodiversity. We used regression modelling to explore relationships between termites, habitat and fire. Fire affected two habitat elements (coarse woody debris and the cover of woody vegetation) that were associated with the probability of occurrence of three termite species and overall species richness, thus supporting the first two assumptions of the pyrodiversity hypothesis. However, this did not result in those species or species richness being affected by fire history per se. Consequently, landscapes with a low diversity of fire histories had similar numbers of termite species as landscapes with high pyrodiversity. Our work suggests that encouraging a diversity of fire-ages for enhancing termite species richness in this study region is not necessary.

  19. Untested assumptions: psychological research and credibility assessment in legal decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Herlihy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trauma survivors often have to negotiate legal systems such as refugee status determination or the criminal justice system. Methods & results: We outline and discuss the contribution which research on trauma and related psychological processes can make to two particular areas of law where complex and difficult legal decisions must be made: in claims for refugee and humanitarian protection, and in reporting and prosecuting sexual assault in the criminal justice system. Conclusion: There is a breadth of psychological knowledge that, if correctly applied, would limit the inappropriate reliance on assumptions and myth in legal decision-making in these settings. Specific recommendations are made for further study.

  20. Assumption and program of the earlier stage construction of L/ILW disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuequn; Chen Shi; Li Xinbang

    1993-01-01

    The authors analysed the production and treatment of low- and intermediate-level radwastes (L/ILW) in China. Some problems and situation in this field are introduced. Over the past ten years, preliminary efforts have been made by CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation) in policy, law and rules, developing program, management system, siting, engineering techniques, and safety assessment for radwaste disposal. The investment of the earlier stage work of L/ILW disposal site construction is estimated, the program and assumption to disposal site construction of the L/ILW are reviewed

  1. The wall painting in the church of the assumption of the virgin in village Donje Korminjane

    OpenAIRE

    Ženarju, Ivana S.

    2014-01-01

    As a part of religious revival in the 19th century church of the Assumption of the Virgin in the village Done Korminjane, was renewed. Painter Avram Dičov was engaged to paint the church interior in the 1870, along with his companions Zafir, Todor and Spiro. The decorative program of wall painting was common for the parish churches in the Diocese of Raska and Prizren in the 19th century. The program was organized in two horizontal zones on the walls, and vault was painted as well. The altar a...

  2. Expressing Environment Assumptions and Real-time Requirements for a Distributed Embedded System with Shared Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, João Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In a distributed embedded system, it is often necessary to share variables among its computing nodes to allow the distribution of control algorithms. It is therefore necessary to include a component in each node that provides the service of variable sharing. For that type of component, this paper...... for the component. The CPN model can be used to validate the environment assumptions and the requirements. The validation is performed by execution of the model during which traces of events and states are automatically generated and evaluated against the requirements....

  3. Experimental evaluation of the pure configurational stress assumption in the flow dynamics of entangled polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Hassager, Ole

    2010-01-01

    to the flow in the non-linear flow regime. This has allowed highly elastic measurements within the limit of pure orientational stress, as the time of the flow was considerably smaller than the Rouse time. A Doi-Edwards [J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 2 74, 1818-1832 (1978)] type of constitutive model...... with the assumption of pure configurational stress was accurately able to predict the startup as well as the reversed flow behavior. This confirms that this commonly used theoretical picture for the flow of polymeric liquids is a correct physical principle to apply. c 2010 The Society of Rheology. [DOI: 10.1122/1.3496378]...

  4. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  5. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  6. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  7. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  8. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  9. What Were We Thinking? Five Erroneous Assumptions That Have Fueled Specialized Interventions for Adolescents Who Have Sexually Offended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worling, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, five assumptions have influenced the assessment, treatment, and community supervision of adolescents who have offended sexually. In particular, interventions with this population have been informed by the assumptions that these youth are (i) deviant, (ii) delinquent, (iii) disordered, (iv) deficit-ridden, and (v) deceitful.…

  10. Assessing the skill of hydrology models at simulating the water cycle in the HJ Andrews LTER: Assumptions, strengths and weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulated impacts of climate on hydrology can vary greatly as a function of the scale of the input data, model assumptions, and model structure. Four models are commonly used to simulate streamflow in model assumptions, and model structure. Four models are commonly used to simu...

  11. 26 CFR 1.752-6 - Partnership assumption of partner's section 358(h)(3) liability after October 18, 1999, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general. If, in a transaction described in section 721(a), a partnership assumes a liability (defined in...) does not apply to an assumption of a liability (defined in section 358(h)(3)) by a partnership as part... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership assumption of partner's section 358...

  12. A hand-held robotic device for peripheral intravenous catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuoqi; Davies, Brian L; Caldwell, Darwin G; Barresi, Giacinto; Xu, Qinqi; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2017-12-01

    Intravenous catheterization is frequently required for numerous medical treatments. However, this process is characterized by a high failure rate, especially when performed on difficult patients such as newborns and infants. Very young patients have small veins, and that increases the chances of accidentally puncturing the catheterization needle directly through them. In this article, we present the design, development and experimental evaluation of a novel hand-held robotic device for improving the process of peripheral intravenous catheterization by facilitating the needle insertion procedure. To our knowledge, this design is the first hand-held robotic device for assisting in the catheterization insertion task. Compared to the other available technologies, it has several unique advantages such as being compact, low-cost and able to reliably detect venipuncture. The system is equipped with an electrical impedance sensor at the tip of the catheterization needle, which provides real-time measurements used to supervise and control the catheter insertion process. This allows the robotic system to precisely position the needle within the lumen of the target vein, leading to enhanced catheterization success rate. Experiments conducted to evaluate the device demonstrated that it is also effective to deskill the task. Naïve subjects achieved an average catheterization success rate of 88% on a 1.5 mm phantom vessel with the robotic device versus 12% with the traditional unassisted system. The results of this work prove the feasibility of a hand-held assistive robotic device for intravenous catheterization and show that such device has the potential to greatly improve the success rate of these difficult operations.

  13. Quantum information versus black hole physics: deep firewalls from narrow assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano

    2018-07-13

    The prevalent view that evaporating black holes should simply be smaller black holes has been challenged by the firewall paradox. In particular, this paradox suggests that something different occurs once a black hole has evaporated to one-half its original surface area. Here, we derive variations of the firewall paradox by tracking the thermodynamic entropy within a black hole across its entire lifetime and extend it even to anti-de Sitter space-times. Our approach sweeps away many unnecessary assumptions, allowing us to demonstrate a paradox exists even after its initial onset (when conventional assumptions render earlier analyses invalid). The most natural resolution may be to accept firewalls as a real phenomenon. Further, the vast entropy accumulated implies a deep firewall that goes 'all the way down' in contrast with earlier work describing only a structure at the horizon.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Testing Mean Differences among Groups: Multivariate and Repeated Measures Analysis with Minimal Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathke, Arne C; Friedrich, Sarah; Pauly, Markus; Konietschke, Frank; Staffen, Wolfgang; Strobl, Nicolas; Höller, Yvonne

    2018-03-22

    To date, there is a lack of satisfactory inferential techniques for the analysis of multivariate data in factorial designs, when only minimal assumptions on the data can be made. Presently available methods are limited to very particular study designs or assume either multivariate normality or equal covariance matrices across groups, or they do not allow for an assessment of the interaction effects across within-subjects and between-subjects variables. We propose and methodologically validate a parametric bootstrap approach that does not suffer from any of the above limitations, and thus provides a rather general and comprehensive methodological route to inference for multivariate and repeated measures data. As an example application, we consider data from two different Alzheimer's disease (AD) examination modalities that may be used for precise and early diagnosis, namely, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and electroencephalogram (EEG). These data violate the assumptions of classical multivariate methods, and indeed classical methods would not have yielded the same conclusions with regards to some of the factors involved.

  15. Impact of theoretical assumptions in the determination of the neutrino effective number from future CMB measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capparelli, Ludovico; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Chluba, Jens

    2018-03-01

    One of the major goals of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements is the accurate determination of the effective number of neutrinos Neff. Reaching an experimental sensitivity of Δ Neff=0.013 could indeed falsify the presence of any nonstandard relativistic particles at 95% C.L. In this paper, we test how this future constraint can be affected by the removal of two common assumptions: a negligible running of the inflationary spectral index nrun and a precise determination of the neutron lifetime τn. We first show that the constraints on Neff could be significantly biased by the unaccounted presence of a running of the spectral index. Considering the Stage-IV experiment, a negative running of d n /d ln k =-0.002 could mimic a positive variation of Δ Neff=0.03 . Moreover, given the current discrepancies between experimental measurements of the neutron lifetime τn, we show that the assumption of a conservative error of Δ τn˜10 s could cause a systematic error of Δ Neff=0.02 . Complementary cosmological constraints on the running of the spectral index and a solution to the neutron lifetime discrepancy are therefore needed for an accurate and reliable future CMB bound of Neff at the percent level.

  16. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy P Che-Castaldo

    Full Text Available There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  17. On the "well-mixed" assumption and numerical 2-D tracing of atmospheric moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water vapour tracers (WVTs are an elegant tool to determine source–sink relations of moisture "online" in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs. However, it is sometimes desirable to establish such relations "offline" based on already existing atmospheric data (e.g. reanalysis data. One simple and frequently applied offline method is 2-D moisture tracing. It makes use of the "well-mixed" assumption, which allows for treating the vertical dimension integratively. Here we scrutinise the "well-mixed" assumption and 2-D moisture tracing by means of analytical considerations in combination with AGCM-WVT simulations. We find that vertically well-mixed conditions are seldom met. Due to the presence of vertical inhomogeneities, 2-D moisture tracing (i neglects a significant degree of fast-recycling, and (ii results in erroneous advection where the direction of the horizontal winds varies vertically. The latter is not so much the case in the extratropics, but in the tropics this can lead to large errors. For example, computed by 2-D moisture tracing, the fraction of precipitation in the western Sahel that originates from beyond the Sahara is ~40%, whereas the fraction that originates from the tropical and Southern Atlantic is only ~4%. According to full (i.e. 3-D moisture tracing, however, both regions contribute roughly equally, showing that the errors introduced by the 2-D approximation can be substantial.

  18. Temporal Distinctiveness in Task Switching: Assessing the Mixture-Distribution Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Grange

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In task switching, increasing the response--cue interval has been shown to reduce the switch cost. This has been attributed to a time-based decay process influencing the activation of memory representations of tasks (task-sets. Recently, an alternative account based on interference rather than decay has been successfully applied to this data (Horoufchin et al., 2011. In this account, variation of the RCI is thought to influence the temporal distinctiveness (TD of episodic traces in memory, thus affecting their retrieval probability. This can affect performance as retrieval probability influences response time: If retrieval succeeds, responding is fast due to positive priming; if retrieval fails, responding is slow, due to having to perform the task via a slow algorithmic process. This account---and a recent formal model (Grange & Cross, 2015---makes the strong prediction that all RTs are a mixture of one of two processes: a fast process when retrieval succeeds, and a slow process when retrieval fails. The present paper assesses the evidence for this mixture-distribution assumption in TD data. In a first section, statistical evidence for mixture-distributions is found using the fixed-point property test. In a second section, a mathematical process model with mixture-distributions at its core is fitted to the response time distribution data. Both approaches provide good evidence in support of the mixture-distribution assumption, and thus support temporal distinctiveness accounts of the data.

  19. How do rigid-lid assumption affect LES simulation results at high Reynolds flows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Farhadzadeh, Ali; SBU Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    This research is motivated by the work of Kara et al., JHE, 2015. They employed LES to model flow around a model of abutment at a Re number of 27,000. They showed that first-order turbulence characteristics obtained by rigid-lid (RL) assumption compares fairly well with those of level-set (LS) method. Concerning the second-order statistics, however, their simulation results showed a significant dependence on the method used to describe the free surface. This finding can have important implications for open channel flow modeling. The Reynolds number for typical open channel flows, however, could be much larger than that of Kara et al.'s test case. Herein, we replicate the reported study by augmenting the geometric and hydraulic scales to reach a Re number of one order of magnitude larger ( 200,000). The Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS-Geophysics) model in its LES mode is used to simulate the test case using both RL and LS methods. The computational results are validated using measured flow and free-surface data from our laboratory experiments. Our goal is to investigate the effects of RL assumption on both first-order and second order statistics at high Reynolds numbers that occur in natural waterways. Acknowledgment: Computational resources are provided by the Center of Excellence in Wireless & Information Technology (CEWIT) of Stony Brook University.

  20. Questioning the foundations of physics which of our fundamental assumptions are wrong?

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Brendan; Merali, Zeeya

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of re...

  1. Moral dilemmas in professions of public trust and the assumptions of ethics of social consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubiel-Zielińska Paulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the possibility of applying assumptions from ethics of social consequences when making decisions about actions, as well as in situations of moral dilemmas, by persons performing occupations of public trust on a daily basis. Reasoning in the article is analytical and synthetic. Article begins with an explanation of the basic concepts of “profession” and “the profession of public trust” and a manifestation of the difference between these terms. This is followed by a general description of professions of public trust. The area and definition of moral dilemmas is emphasized. Furthermore, representatives of professions belonging to them are listed. After a brief characterization of axiological foundations and the main assumptions of ethics of social consequences, actions according to Vasil Gluchman and Włodzimierz Galewicz are discussed and actions in line with ethics of social consequences are transferred to the practical domain. The article points out that actions in professional life are obligatory, impermissible, permissible, supererogatory and unmarked in the moral dimension. In the final part of the article an afterthought is included on how to solve moral dilemmas when in the position of a representative of the profession of public trust. The article concludes with a summary report containing the conclusions that stem from ethics of social consequences for professions of public trust, followed by short examples.

  2. Assessing moderated mediation in linear models requires fewer confounding assumptions than assessing mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeys, Tom; Talloen, Wouter; Goubert, Liesbet; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2016-11-01

    It is well known from the mediation analysis literature that the identification of direct and indirect effects relies on strong no unmeasured confounding assumptions of no unmeasured confounding. Even in randomized studies the mediator may still be correlated with unobserved prognostic variables that affect the outcome, in which case the mediator's role in the causal process may not be inferred without bias. In the behavioural and social science literature very little attention has been given so far to the causal assumptions required for moderated mediation analysis. In this paper we focus on the index for moderated mediation, which measures by how much the mediated effect is larger or smaller for varying levels of the moderator. We show that in linear models this index can be estimated without bias in the presence of unmeasured common causes of the moderator, mediator and outcome under certain conditions. Importantly, one can thus use the test for moderated mediation to support evidence for mediation under less stringent confounding conditions. We illustrate our findings with data from a randomized experiment assessing the impact of being primed with social deception upon observer responses to others' pain, and from an observational study of individuals who ended a romantic relationship assessing the effect of attachment anxiety during the relationship on mental distress 2 years after the break-up. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapy: checking assumptions with the focus group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, D W; Boyd, C P

    1999-12-01

    Cancer and cancer therapies impair sexual health in a multitude of ways. The promotion of sexual health is therefore vital for preserving quality of life and is an integral part of total or holistic cancer management. Nursing, to provide holistic care, requires research that is meaningful to patients as well as the profession to develop educational and interventional studies to promote sexual health and coping. To obtain meaningful research data instruments that are reliable, valid, and pertinent to patients' needs are required. Several sexual functioning instruments were reviewed for this study and found to be lacking in either a conceptual foundation or psychometric validation. Without a defined conceptual framework, authors of the instruments must have made certain assumptions regarding what women undergoing cancer therapy experience and what they perceive as important. To check these assumptions before assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapies in a larger study, a pilot study was designed to compare what women experience and perceive as important regarding their sexuality with what is assessed in several currently available research instruments, using the focus group technique. Based on the focus group findings, current sexual functioning questionnaires may be lacking in pertinent areas of concern for women treated for breast or gynecologic malignancies. Better conceptual foundations may help future questionnaire design. Self-regulation theory may provide an acceptable conceptual framework from which to develop a sexual functioning questionnaire.

  4. The effects of behavioral and structural assumptions in artificial stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghua; Gregor, Shirley; Yang, Jianmei

    2008-04-01

    Recent literature has developed the conjecture that important statistical features of stock price series, such as the fat tails phenomenon, may depend mainly on the market microstructure. This conjecture motivated us to investigate the roles of both the market microstructure and agent behavior with respect to high-frequency returns and daily returns. We developed two simple models to investigate this issue. The first one is a stochastic model with a clearing house microstructure and a population of zero-intelligence agents. The second one has more behavioral assumptions based on Minority Game and also has a clearing house microstructure. With the first model we found that a characteristic of the clearing house microstructure, namely the clearing frequency, can explain fat tail, excess volatility and autocorrelation phenomena of high-frequency returns. However, this feature does not cause the same phenomena in daily returns. So the Stylized Facts of daily returns depend mainly on the agents’ behavior. With the second model we investigated the effects of behavioral assumptions on daily returns. Our study implicates that the aspects which are responsible for generating the stylized facts of high-frequency returns and daily returns are different.

  5. Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, Marissa; Mech, Alexandra; Ramelow, Sven; Wittmann, Bernhard; Kofler, Johannes; Beyer, Jörn; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-05-09

    The violation of a Bell inequality is an experimental observation that forces the abandonment of a local realistic viewpoint--namely, one in which physical properties are (probabilistically) defined before and independently of measurement, and in which no physical influence can propagate faster than the speed of light. All such experimental violations require additional assumptions depending on their specific construction, making them vulnerable to so-called loopholes. Here we use entangled photons to violate a Bell inequality while closing the fair-sampling loophole, that is, without assuming that the sample of measured photons accurately represents the entire ensemble. To do this, we use the Eberhard form of Bell's inequality, which is not vulnerable to the fair-sampling assumption and which allows a lower collection efficiency than other forms. Technical improvements of the photon source and high-efficiency transition-edge sensors were crucial for achieving a sufficiently high collection efficiency. Our experiment makes the photon the first physical system for which each of the main loopholes has been closed, albeit in different experiments.

  6. Adaptive RF front-ends for hand-held applications

    CERN Document Server

    van Bezooijen, Andre; van Roermund, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The RF front-end - antenna combination is a vital part of a mobile phone because its performance is very relevant to the link quality between hand-set and cellular network base-stations. The RF front-end performance suffers from changes in operating environment, like hand-effects, that are often unpredictable. ""Adaptive RF Front-Ends for Hand-Held Applications"" presents an analysis on the impact of fluctuating environmental parameters. In order to overcome undesired behavior two different adaptive control methods are treated that make RF frond-ends more resilient: adaptive impedance control,

  7. Special Year held at the University of Maryland

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this volume reflect the richness and diversity of the subject of dynamics. Some are lectures given at the three conferences (Ergodic Theory and Topological Dynamics, Symbolic Dynamics and Coding Theory and Smooth Dynamics, Dynamics and Applied Dynamics) held in Maryland between October 1986 and March 1987; some are work which was in progress during the Special Year, and some are work which was done because of questions and problems raised at the conferences. In addition, a paper of John Milnor and William Thurston, versions of which had been available as notes but not yet published, is included.

  8. Development of dual sensor hand-held detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    In this paper hand-held dual sensor detector development requirements are considered dedicated to buried object detection. Design characteristics of such a system are categorized and listed. Hardware and software structures, ergonomics, user interface, environmental and EMC/EMI tests to be applied and performance test issues are studied. Main properties of the developed system (SEZER) are presented, which contains Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The realized system has ergonomic structure and can detect both metallic and non-metallic buried objects. Moreover classification of target is possible if it was defined to the signal processing software in learning phase.

  9. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  10. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  11. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  12. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  13. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  14. A hand-held beta imaging probe for FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin; Stack, Brendan C; Thacker, Samta; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Bartel, Twyla; Lowe, Val; Cool, Steven; Entine, Gerald; Nagarkar, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Advances in radiopharmaceuticals and clinical understanding have escalated the use of intraoperative gamma probes in surgery. However, most probes on the market are non-imaging gamma probes that suffer from the lack of ancillary information of the surveyed tissue area. We have developed a novel, hand-held digital Imaging Beta Probe™ (IBP™) to be used in surgery in conjunction with beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)FDG, (131)I and (32)P for real-time imaging of a surveyed area with higher spatial resolution and sensitivity and greater convenience than existing instruments. We describe the design and validation of a hand-held beta probe intended to be used as a visual mapping device to locate and confirm excision of (18)FDG-avid primary tumors and metastases in an animal model. We have demonstrated a device which can generate beta images from (18)FDG avid lesions in an animal model. It is feasible to image beta irradiation in animal models of cancer given (18)FDG. This technology may be applied to clinical mapping of tumors and/or their metastases in the operating room. Visual image depiction of malignancy may aid the surgeon in localization and excision of lesions of interest.

  15. Measuring thyroid uptake with hand-held radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1987-04-01

    With the use of Iodine 123, 125 and 131 and some compounds of Technetium-99 m, a fraction of the isotopes can be trapped in the thyroid of the technicians. We used the hand-held radiation contamination or survey meters of the nine (9) Nuclear medicine departments we visited to see if they were adequate for the evaluation of thyroid uptake of the users. Measurements on a neck-phanton helped us to determine a minimum detectable activity for each isotope. We were then able to check if the measurements of investigations and action levels were possible. None of the hand-held radiation monitors are completely satisfactory for the measure of thyroid uptake of the user. We discuss a class of equipment capable of measuring radiation emissions at the investigation level. Measurement at the action level is possible with meters having scintillation or proportional probes but none of them permits the discrimination in energy required for a quantitative evaluation of the radioisotopes used

  16. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, D.D.; Scharold, P.G.; Thornton, M.W.; Marquez, D.L.

    1999-01-26

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen. 15 figs.

  17. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brayton, D.D.; Scharold, P.G.; Thornton, M.W.; Marquez, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen. 15 figs

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  19. Testing the basic assumption of the hydrogeomorphic approach to assessing wetland functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, T

    2001-05-01

    The hydrogeomorphic (HGM) approach for developing "rapid" wetland function assessment methods stipulates that the variables used are to be scaled based on data collected at sites judged to be the best at performing the wetland functions (reference standard sites). A critical step in the process is to choose the least altered wetlands in a hydrogeomorphic subclass to use as a reference standard against which other wetlands are compared. The basic assumption made in this approach is that wetlands judged to have had the least human impact have the highest level of sustainable performance for all functions. The levels at which functions are performed in these least altered wetlands are assumed to be "characteristic" for the subclass and "sustainable." Results from data collected in wetlands in the lowlands of western Washington suggest that the assumption may not be appropriate for this region. Teams developing methods for assessing wetland functions did not find that the least altered wetlands in a subclass had a range of performance levels that could be identified as "characteristic" or "sustainable." Forty-four wetlands in four hydrogeomorphic subclasses (two depressional subclasses and two riverine subclasses) were rated by teams of experts on the severity of their human alterations and on the level of performance of 15 wetland functions. An ordinal scale of 1-5 was used to quantify alterations in water regime, soils, vegetation, buffers, and contributing basin. Performance of functions was judged on an ordinal scale of 1-7. Relatively unaltered wetlands were judged to perform individual functions at levels that spanned all of the seven possible ratings in all four subclasses. The basic assumption of the HGM approach, that the least altered wetlands represent "characteristic" and "sustainable" levels of functioning that are different from those found in altered wetlands, was not confirmed. Although the intent of the HGM approach is to use level of functioning as a

  20. Comparison of risk-dominant scenario assumptions for several TRU waste facilities in the DOE complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foppe, T.L.; Marx, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    In order to gain a risk management perspective, the DOE Rocky Flats Field Office (RFFO) initiated a survey of other DOE sites regarding risks from potential accidents associated with transuranic (TRU) storage and/or processing facilities. Recently-approved authorization basis documents at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have been based on the DOE Standard 3011 risk assessment methodology with three qualitative estimates of frequency of occurrence and quantitative estimates of radiological consequences to the collocated worker and the public binned into three severity levels. Risk Class 1 and 2 events after application of controls to prevent or mitigate the accident are designated as risk-dominant scenarios. Accident Evaluation Guidelines for selection of Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) are based on the frequency and consequence bin assignments to identify controls that can be credited to reduce risk to Risk Class 3 or 4, or that are credited for Risk Class 1 and 2 scenarios that cannot be further reduced. This methodology resulted in several risk-dominant scenarios for either the collocated worker or the public that warranted consideration on whether additional controls should be implemented. RFFO requested the survey because of these high estimates of risks that are primarily due to design characteristics of RFETS TRU waste facilities (i.e., Butler-type buildings without a ventilation and filtration system, and a relatively short distance to the Site boundary). Accident analysis methodologies and key assumptions are being compared for the DOE sites responding to the survey. This includes type of accidents that are risk dominant (e.g., drum explosion, material handling breach, fires, natural phenomena, external events, etc.), source term evaluation (e.g., radionuclide material-at-risk, chemical and physical form, damage ratio, airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, leakpath factors), dispersion analysis (e.g., meteorological

  1. Sensitivity of Earthquake Loss Estimates to Source Modeling Assumptions and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, Paul A.; Shostak, Nan; Terwilliger, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This report explores how uncertainty in an earthquake source model may affect estimates of earthquake economic loss. Specifically, it focuses on the earthquake source model for the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) created by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities. The loss calculations are made using HAZUS-MH, a publicly available computer program developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for calculating future losses from earthquakes, floods and hurricanes within the United States. The database built into HAZUS-MH includes a detailed building inventory, population data, data on transportation corridors, bridges, utility lifelines, etc. Earthquake hazard in the loss calculations is based upon expected (median value) ground motion maps called ShakeMaps calculated for the scenario earthquake sources defined in WGCEP. The study considers the effect of relaxing certain assumptions in the WG02 model, and explores the effect of hypothetical reductions in epistemic uncertainty in parts of the model. For example, it addresses questions such as what would happen to the calculated loss distribution if the uncertainty in slip rate in the WG02 model were reduced (say, by obtaining additional geologic data)? What would happen if the geometry or amount of aseismic slip (creep) on the region's faults were better known? And what would be the effect on the calculated loss distribution if the time-dependent earthquake probability were better constrained, either by eliminating certain probability models or by better constraining the inherent randomness in earthquake recurrence? The study does not consider the effect of reducing uncertainty in the hazard introduced through models of attenuation and local site characteristics, although these may have a comparable or greater effect than does source-related uncertainty. Nor does it consider sources of uncertainty in the building inventory, building fragility curves, and other assumptions

  2. 12 CFR 745.5 - Accounts held by executors or administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by executors or administrators... § 745.5 Accounts held by executors or administrators. Funds of a decedent held in the name of the decedent or in the name of the executor or administrator of the decedent's estate and deposited in one or...

  3. 29 CFR 2520.103-11 - Assets held for investment purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or quoted on NASDAQ; (3) Assets held for investment purposes shall not... assets held for investment purposes the 1,000 shares of stock S under paragraph (b)(1) of this section... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assets held for investment purposes. 2520.103-11 Section...

  4. 13 CFR 120.1850 - Will the Collateral be held by SBA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Loan Program) § 120.1850 Will the Collateral be held by SBA? Yes, SBA or its expressly authorized agent... all Collateral for SISMBD Loans in a custodial account. Certificates held as Collateral must be in... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Collateral be held by SBA...

  5. 20 CFR 418.3420 - How are funds held in financial institution accounts counted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are funds held in financial institution... SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3420 How are funds held in financial institution accounts counted? (a) Owner of the account. Funds held in a financial institution account (including...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1208 - How funds held in financial institution accounts are counted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How funds held in financial institution accounts are counted. 416.1208 Section 416.1208 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... held in financial institution accounts are counted. (a) General. Funds held in a financial institution...

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  8. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  10. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  11. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  12. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  13. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  14. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  15. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  16. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted material. 154.302 Section 154.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... concurrently with the rate change filing. There must be furnished to the Director, Office of Energy Market...

  17. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  18. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  19. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  20. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  1. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  2. Modeling assumptions influence on stress and strain state in 450 t cranes hoisting winch construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian GĄSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the FEM simulation of stress and strain state of the selected trolley’s load-carrying structure with 450 tones hoisting capacity [1]. Computational loads were adopted as in standard PN-EN 13001-2. Model of trolley was built from several cooperating with each other (in contact parts. The influence of model assumptions (simplification in selected construction nodes to the value of maximum stress and strain with its area of occurrence was being analyzed. The aim of this study was to determine whether the simplification, which reduces the time required to prepare the model and perform calculations (e.g., rigid connection instead of contact are substantially changing the characteristics of the model.

  3. Basic Assumptions of the New Price System and Supplements to the Tariff System for Electricity Sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepo, M.

    1995-01-01

    The article outlines some basic assumptions of the new price system and major elements of the latest proposition for the changes and supplements to the Tariff system for Electricity Sale in the Republic of Croatia, including the analysis of those elements which brought about the present unfavourable and non-productive relations within the electric power system. The paper proposes measures and actions which should by means of a price system and tariff policy improve the present unfavourable relations and their consequences and achieve a desirable consumption structure and characteristics, resulting in rational management and effective power supply-economy relationships within the electric power system as a subsystem of the power supply sector. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Ontological assumptions in techno-anthropological explorations of online dialogue through information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Andrule, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    With the widespread infusion of online technology there has been an increase in various studies investigating the practices in online communities including also philosophical perspectives. What those debates have in common is that they call for more critical thinking about the theory of online...... communication. Drawing on Techno-Anthropological research perspectives, our interest is placed on exploring and identifying human interactions and technology in intersectional spaces. This article explores information systems that allow for interchanges of different users. We discuss ontological assumptions...... that focus on understanding the kind of dialogue that can be captured between different expert groups when they utilize information systems. We present the notion of ‘dialogic’ by Mikhail Bakhtin and contextualize it through an analysis of online dialogue. Dialogic or ‘conversation and inquiry’ is discussed...

  5.  Basic assumptions and definitions in the analysis of financial leverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Berent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial leverage literature has been in a state of terminological chaos for decades as evidenced, for example, by the Nobel Prize Lecture mistake on the one hand, and the global financial crisis on the other. A meaningful analysis of the leverage phenomenon calls for the formulation of a coherent set of assumptions and basic definitions. The objective of the paper is to answer this call. The paper defines leverage as a value neutral concept useful in explaining the magnification effect exerted by financial activity upon the whole spectrum of financial results. By adopting constructivism as a methodological approach, we are able to introduce various types of leverage such as capital and income, base and non-base, accounting and market value, for levels and for distances (absolute and relative, costs and simple etc. The new definitions formulated here are subsequently adopted in the analysis of the content of leverage statements used by the leading finance textbook.

  6. Ecological risk of anthropogenic pollutants to reptiles: Evaluating assumptions of sensitivity and exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Suski, Jamie G; Salice, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    A large data gap for reptile ecotoxicology still persists; therefore, ecological risk assessments of reptiles usually incorporate the use of surrogate species. This necessitates that (1) the surrogate is at least as sensitive as the target taxon and/or (2) exposures to the surrogate are greater than that of the target taxon. We evaluated these assumptions for the use of birds as surrogates for reptiles. Based on a survey of the literature, birds were more sensitive than reptiles in less than 1/4 of the chemicals investigated. Dietary and dermal exposure modeling indicated that exposure to reptiles was relatively high, particularly when the dermal route was considered. We conclude that caution is warranted in the use of avian receptors as surrogates for reptiles in ecological risk assessment and emphasize the need to better understand the magnitude and mechanism of contaminant exposure in reptiles to improve exposure and risk estimation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recursive Subspace Identification of AUV Dynamic Model under General Noise Assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheping Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A recursive subspace identification algorithm for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs is proposed in this paper. Due to the advantages at handling nonlinearities and couplings, the AUV model investigated here is for the first time constructed as a Hammerstein model with nonlinear feedback in the linear part. To better take the environment and sensor noises into consideration, the identification problem is concerned as an errors-in-variables (EIV one which means that the identification procedure is under general noise assumption. In order to make the algorithm recursively, propagator method (PM based subspace approach is extended into EIV framework to form the recursive identification method called PM-EIV algorithm. With several identification experiments carried out by the AUV simulation platform, the proposed algorithm demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility.

  8. Bootstrapping realized volatility and realized beta under a local Gaussianity assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    The main contribution of this paper is to propose a new bootstrap method for statistics based on high frequency returns. The new method exploits the local Gaussianity and the local constancy of volatility of high frequency returns, two assumptions that can simplify inference in the high frequency...... context, as recently explained by Mykland and Zhang (2009). Our main contributions are as follows. First, we show that the local Gaussian bootstrap is firstorder consistent when used to estimate the distributions of realized volatility and ealized betas. Second, we show that the local Gaussian bootstrap...... matches accurately the first four cumulants of realized volatility, implying that this method provides third-order refinements. This is in contrast with the wild bootstrap of Gonçalves and Meddahi (2009), which is only second-order correct. Third, we show that the local Gaussian bootstrap is able...

  9. Design assumptions and bases for small D-T-fueled Sperical Tokamak (ST) fusion core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Galambos, J.D.; Fogarty, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent progress in defining the assumptions and clarifying the bases for a small D-T-fueled ST fusion core are presented. The paper covers several issues in the physics of ST plasmas, the technology of neutral beam injection, the engineering design configuration, and the center leg material under intense neutron irradiation. This progress was driven by the exciting data from pioneering ST experiments, a heightened interest in proof-of-principle experiments at the MA level in plasma current, and the initiation of the first conceptual design study of the small ST fusion core. The needs recently identified for a restructured fusion energy sciences program have provided a timely impetus for examining the subject of this paper. Our results, though preliminary in nature, strengthen the case for the potential realism and attractiveness of the ST approach

  10. HARDINESS, WORLD ASSUMPTIONS, MOTIVATION OF ATHLETES OF CONTACT AND NOT CONTACT KINDS OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Molchanova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of personal psychological specificity of athletes of contact (freestyle wrestling and not contact (archery kinds of sport were carried out. Pronounced deviation in hardiness, world assumptions, motives for sport doing were obtained. In particularly, archery athletes possess higher values of hardiness and positively view the world, than wrestlers, while possess less motives for sport doing as “successful for life quality and skills” and “physical perfection”. Thus for athletes not contact kinds of sports rather coping in permanent stressed conditions are predicted. The obtained results are practically important for counseling work of sport psychologists and moreover they could be a basement for training teach programs and challenge stress overcoming programs.

  11. Pre-equilibrium assumptions and statistical model parameters effects on reaction cross-section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    1992-02-01

    A systematic study on effects of statistical model parameters and semi-classical pre-equilibrium emission models has been carried out for the (n,p) reactions on the 56 Fe and 60 Co target nuclei. The results obtained by using various assumptions within a given pre-equilibrium emission model differ among them more than the ones of different models used under similar conditions. The necessity of using realistic level density formulas is emphasized especially in connection with pre-equilibrium emission models (i.e. with the exciton state density expression), while a basic support could be found only by replacement of the Williams exciton state density formula with a realistic one. (author). 46 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  12. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  13. Incorporation of constructivist assumptions into problem-based instruction: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to explore the use of distinct assumptions of constructivism when studying the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on learners in undergraduate nursing programs. Content analysis research technique. The literature review included information retrieved from sources selected via electronic databases, such as EBSCOhost, ProQuest, Sage Publications, SLACK Incorporation, Springhouse Corporation, and Digital Dissertations. The literature review was conducted utilizing key terms and phrases associated with problem-based learning in undergraduate nursing education. Out of the 100 reviewed abstracts, only 15 studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Four constructivist assumptions based the review process allowing for analysis and evaluation of the findings, followed by identification of issues and recommendations for the discipline and its research practice in the field of PBL. This literature review provided evidence that the nursing discipline is employing PBL in its programs, yet with limited data supporting conceptions of the constructivist perspective underlying this pedagogical approach. Three major issues were assessed and formed the basis for subsequent recommendations: (a) limited use of a theoretical framework and absence of constructivism in most of the studies, (b) incompatibility between research measures and research outcomes, and (c) brief exposure to PBL during which the change was measured. Educators have made the right choice in employing PBL as a pedagogical practice, yet the need to base implementation on constructivism is mandatory if the aim is a better preparation of graduates for practice. Undeniably there is limited convincing evidence regarding integration of constructivism in nursing education. Research that assesses the impact of PBL on learners' problem-solving and communication skills, self-direction, and motivation is paramount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

    2012-03-28

    The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

  15. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence. Copyright © 2016 Springer. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Problematic assumptions have slowed down depression research: why symptoms, not syndromes are the way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko I Fried

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Major Depression (MD is a highly heterogeneous diagnostic category. Diverse symptoms such as sad mood, anhedonia, and fatigue are routinely added to an unweighted sum-score, and cutoffs are used to distinguish between depressed participants and healthy controls. Researchers then investigate outcome variables like MD risk factors, biomarkers, and treatment response in such samples. These practices presuppose that (1 depression is a discrete condition, and that (2 symptoms are interchangeable indicators of this latent disorder. Here I review these two assumptions, elucidate their historical roots, show how deeply engrained they are in psychological and psychiatric research, and document that they contrast with evidence. Depression is not a consistent syndrome with clearly demarcated boundaries, and depression symptoms are not interchangeable indicators of an underlying disorder. Current research practices lump individuals with very different problems into one category, which has contributed to the remarkably slow progress in key research domains such as the development of efficacious antidepressants or the identification of biomarkers for depression.The recently proposed network framework offers an alternative to the problematic assumptions. MD is not understood as a distinct condition, but as heterogeneous symptom cluster that substantially overlaps with other syndromes such as anxiety disorders. MD is not framed as an underlying disease with a number of equivalent indicators, but as a network of symptoms that have direct causal influence on each other: insomnia can cause fatigue which then triggers concentration and psychomotor problems. This approach offers new opportunities for constructing an empirically based classification system and has broad implications for future research.

  17. The usefulness of information on HDL-cholesterol: potential pitfalls of conventional assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furberg Curt D

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment decisions related to disease prevention are often based on two conventional and related assumptions. First, an intervention-induced change in a surrogate marker (such as high-density lipoprotein [HDL]-cholesterol in the desired direction translates into health benefits (such as reduction in coronary events. Second, it is unimportant which interventions are used to alter surrogate markers, since an intervention benefit is independent of the means by which it is achieved. The scientific foundation for these assumptions has been questioned. In this commentary, the appropriateness of relying on low levels of HDL-cholesterol for treatment decisions is reviewed. The Veterans Affairs - HDL-Cholesterol Intervention Trial (VA-HIT investigators recently reported that only 23% of the gemfibrozil-induced relative reduction in risk of coronary events observed in the trial could be explained by changes in HDL-cholesterol between baseline and the 1-year visit. Thus, 77% of the health benefit to the participants was unexplained. Other possible explanations are that gemfibrozil has multiple mechanisms of action, disease manifestations are multifactorial, and laboratory measurements of HDL-cholesterol are imprecise. The wisdom of relying on levels and changes in surrogate markers such as HDL-cholesterol to make decisions about treatment choices should questioned. It seems better to rely on direct evidence of health benefits and to prescribe specific interventions that have been shown to reduce mortality and morbidity. Since extrapolations based on surrogate markers may not be in patients' best interest, the practice of medicine ought to be evidence-based.

  18. Robust inference in summary data Mendelian randomization via the zero modal pleiotropy assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Davey Smith, George; Bowden, Jack

    2017-12-01

    Mendelian randomization (MR) is being increasingly used to strengthen causal inference in observational studies. Availability of summary data of genetic associations for a variety of phenotypes from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) allows straightforward application of MR using summary data methods, typically in a two-sample design. In addition to the conventional inverse variance weighting (IVW) method, recently developed summary data MR methods, such as the MR-Egger and weighted median approaches, allow a relaxation of the instrumental variable assumptions. Here, a new method - the mode-based estimate (MBE) - is proposed to obtain a single causal effect estimate from multiple genetic instruments. The MBE is consistent when the largest number of similar (identical in infinite samples) individual-instrument causal effect estimates comes from valid instruments, even if the majority of instruments are invalid. We evaluate the performance of the method in simulations designed to mimic the two-sample summary data setting, and demonstrate its use by investigating the causal effect of plasma lipid fractions and urate levels on coronary heart disease risk. The MBE presented less bias and lower type-I error rates than other methods under the null in many situations. Its power to detect a causal effect was smaller compared with the IVW and weighted median methods, but was larger than that of MR-Egger regression, with sample size requirements typically smaller than those available from GWAS consortia. The MBE relaxes the instrumental variable assumptions, and should be used in combination with other approaches in sensitivity analyses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  19. Tale of Two Courthouses: A Critique of the Underlying Assumptions in Chronic Disease Self-Management for Aboriginal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ellis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the assumptions that underpin thecommonly implemented Chronic Disease Self-Managementmodels. Namely that there are a clear set of instructions forpatients to comply with, that all health care providers agreewith; and that the health care provider and the patient agreewith the chronic disease self-management plan that wasdeveloped as part of a consultation. These assumptions areevaluated for their validity in the remote health care context,particularly for Aboriginal people. These assumptions havebeen found to lack validity in this context, therefore analternative model to enhance chronic disease care isproposed.

  20. Sensitivity of Mission Energy Consumption to Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Design Assumptions on the N3-X Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.; Tong, Michael T.; Chu, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study by the authors it was shown that the N3-X, a 300 passenger hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft with a turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) system, was able to meet the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project goal for N+3 generation aircraft of at least a 60% reduction in total energy consumption as compared to the best in class current generation aircraft. This previous study combined technology assumptions that represented the highest anticipated values that could be matured to technology readiness level (TRL) 4-6 by 2030. This paper presents the results of a sensitivity analysis of the total mission energy consumption to reductions in each key technology assumption. Of the parameters examined, the mission total energy consumption was most sensitive to changes to total pressure loss in the propulsor inlet. The baseline inlet internal pressure loss is assumed to be an optimistic 0.5%. An inlet pressure loss of 3% increases the total energy consumption 9%. However changes to reduce inlet pressure loss can result in additional distortion to the fan which can reduce fan efficiency or vice versa. It is very important that the inlet and fan be analyzed and optimized as a single unit. The turboshaft hot section is assumed to be made of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) with a 3000 F maximum material temperature. Reducing the maximum material temperature to 2700 F increases the mission energy consumption by only 1.5%. Thus achieving a 3000 F temperature in CMCs is important but not central to achieving the energy consumption objective of the N3-X/TeDP. A key parameter in the efficiency of superconducting motors and generators is the size of the superconducting filaments in the stator. The size of the superconducting filaments in the baseline model is assumed to be 10 microns. A 40 micron filament, which represents current technology, results in a 200% increase in AC losses in the motor and generator stators. This analysis shows that for a system with 40

  1. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  2. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed.

  3. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  4. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  5. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  6. International Conference held at the University of Alberta

    CERN Document Server

    Strobeck, Curtis

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the International Conference in Population Biology held at The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada from June 22 to June 30, 1982. The Conference was sponsored by The University of Alberta and The Canadian Applied Mathematics Society, and overlapped with the summer meeting of CAMS. The main objectives of this Conference were: to bring mathematicians and biologists together so that they may interact for their mutual benefit; to bring those researchers interested in modelling in ecology and those interested in modelling in genetics together; to bring in keynote speakers in the delineated areas; to have sessions of contributed papers; and to present the opportunity for researchers to conduct workshops. With the exception of the last one, the objec­ tives were carried out. In order to lend some focus to the Conference, the following themes were adopted: models of species growth, predator-prey, competition, mutualism, food webs, dispersion, age structure, stability, evol...

  7. Hand-held spectrophotometer design for textile fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcekçi, Veysel Gökhan; Yıldız, Kazım

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a hand-held spectrophotometer was designed by taking advantage of the developments in modern optoelectronic technology. Spectrophotometer devices are used to determine the color information from the optic properties of the materials. As an alternative to a desktop spectrophotometer device we have implemented, it is the first prototype, low cost and portable. The prototype model designed for the textile industry can detect the color tone of any fabric. The prototype model consists of optic sensor, processor, display floors. According to the color applied on the optic sensor, it produces special frequency information on its output at that color value. In Arduino type processor, the frequency information is evaluated by the program we have written and the color tone information between 0-255 ton is decided and displayed on the screen.

  8. Comparative Geometrical Investigations of Hand-Held Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Lindstaedt, M.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Misgaiski-Hass, M.

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry) as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science): DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google's Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  9. COMPARATIVE GEOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HAND-HELD SCANNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kersten

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science: DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google’s Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M. The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  10. Third Space Weather Summit Held for Industry and Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.

    2009-12-01

    The potential for space weather effects has been increasing significantly in recent years. For instance, in 2008 airlines flew about 8000 transpolar flights, which experience greater exposure to space weather than nontranspolar flights. This is up from 368 transpolar flights in 2000, and the number of such flights is expected to continue to grow. Transpolar flights are just one example of the diverse technologies susceptible to space weather effects identified by the National Research Council's Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008). To discuss issues related to the increasing need for reliable space weather information, experts from industry and government agencies met at the third summit of the Commercial Space Weather Interest Group (CSWIG) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), held 30 April 2009 during Space Weather Week (SWW), in Boulder, Colo.

  11. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  12. JCI Tokyo convention is held; JCI tokyo taikai wo kaisai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-10

    For 3 days on 15{approx}17 of Julies, Japan Concrete Inst. (Toyokazu Shiire chairman) held concrete technology annual meeting in the Tokyo big site in Tokyo and Ariake. Various events such as ready-mixed concrete seminar (participant: 562 person), joint seminar with the Korea concrete institute, observation were developed 20th concrete technology lecture (paper the report: 521 case participant real number: 1400 person), 12th concrete fair (exhibit: 95 case attendance number: 10150 person) center on present convention. The opinion in which the party of the first line of various quarters became heated on the direction in which the ready-mixed concrete will ought to advance based on performance definition and internationalization in the ready-mixed concrete seminar in this inside in future was exchanged. Whether it is the JIS ready-mixed concrete and whether quality audit system are necessary why. The severe order of more cheaply supplying the better concrete in the responsibility of the factory, also came out. Within the special lecture (participant: 548 person), it was an interest of the nation who obtained the time too, the fact of the president election that it does secret story especially and comes out happily heard it. In the new planning, 'the concrete which the primary school child makes' (it is introduced in this journal No. 614) was exhibited in the tip in the fair place. The figure of parent and child companion who gazed at the masterpiece which broke through the preliminary in each place was conspicuous. The still, schedule that the annual meeting in next time is held in the Sendai City on July 7{approx}9, 1999. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Moving from assumption to observation: Implications for energy and emissions impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Jamie; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are currently for sale in most parts of the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan. These vehicles are promoted as providing distinct consumer and public benefits at the expense of grid electricity. However, the specific benefits or impacts of PHEVs ultimately relies on consumers purchase and vehicle use patterns. While considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding PHEV impacts on a per mile basis few studies have assessed the impacts of PHEV given actual consumer use patterns or operating conditions. Instead, simplifying assumptions have been made about the types of cars individual consumers will choose to purchase and how they will drive and charge them. Here, we highlight some of these consumer purchase and use assumptions, studies which have employed these assumptions and compare these assumptions to actual consumer data recorded in a PHEV demonstration project. Using simulation and hypothetical scenarios we discuss the implication for PHEV impact analyses and policy if assumptions about key PHEV consumer use variables such as vehicle choice, home charging frequency, distribution of driving distances, and access to workplace charging were to change. -- Highlights: •The specific benefits or impacts of PHEVs ultimately relies on consumers purchase and vehicle use patterns. •Simplifying, untested, assumptions have been made by prior studies about PHEV consumer driving, charging and vehicle purchase behaviors. •Some simplifying assumptions do not match observed data from a PHEV demonstration project. •Changing the assumptions about PHEV consumer driving, charging, and vehicle purchase behaviors affects estimates of PHEV impacts. •Premature simplification may have lasting consequences for standard setting and performance based incentive programs which rely on these estimates

  14. Modelling carbonaceous aerosol from residential solid fuel burning with different assumptions for emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ots

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that emissions of primary particulate matter (PM from residential wood and coal combustion in the UK may be underestimated and/or spatially misclassified. In this study, different assumptions for the spatial distribution and total emission of PM from solid fuel (wood and coal burning in the UK were tested using an atmospheric chemical transport model. Modelled concentrations of the PM components were compared with measurements from aerosol mass spectrometers at four sites in central and Greater London (ClearfLo campaign, 2012, as well as with measurements from the UK black carbon network.The two main alternative emission scenarios modelled were Base4x and combRedist. For Base4x, officially reported PM2.5 from the residential and other non-industrial combustion source sector were increased by a factor of four. For the combRedist experiment, half of the baseline emissions from this same source were redistributed by residential population density to simulate the effect of allocating some emissions to the smoke control areas (that are assumed in the national inventory to have no emissions from this source. The Base4x scenario yielded better daily and hourly correlations with measurements than the combRedist scenario for year-long comparisons of the solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA component at the two London sites. However, the latter scenario better captured mean measured concentrations across all four sites. A third experiment, Redist – all emissions redistributed linearly to population density, is also presented as an indicator of the maximum concentrations an assumption like this could yield.The modelled elemental carbon (EC concentrations derived from the combRedist experiments also compared well with seasonal average concentrations of black carbon observed across the network of UK sites. Together, the two model scenario simulations of SFOA and EC suggest both that residential solid fuel emissions may be higher than

  15. Modelling carbonaceous aerosol from residential solid fuel burning with different assumptions for emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Riinu; Heal, Mathew R.; Young, Dominique E.; Williams, Leah R.; Allan, James D.; Nemitz, Eiko; Di Marco, Chiara; Detournay, Anais; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L.; Coe, Hugh; Herndon, Scott C.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Green, David C.; Kuenen, Jeroen J. P.; Reis, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that emissions of primary particulate matter (PM) from residential wood and coal combustion in the UK may be underestimated and/or spatially misclassified. In this study, different assumptions for the spatial distribution and total emission of PM from solid fuel (wood and coal) burning in the UK were tested using an atmospheric chemical transport model. Modelled concentrations of the PM components were compared with measurements from aerosol mass spectrometers at four sites in central and Greater London (ClearfLo campaign, 2012), as well as with measurements from the UK black carbon network.The two main alternative emission scenarios modelled were Base4x and combRedist. For Base4x, officially reported PM2.5 from the residential and other non-industrial combustion source sector were increased by a factor of four. For the combRedist experiment, half of the baseline emissions from this same source were redistributed by residential population density to simulate the effect of allocating some emissions to the smoke control areas (that are assumed in the national inventory to have no emissions from this source). The Base4x scenario yielded better daily and hourly correlations with measurements than the combRedist scenario for year-long comparisons of the solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA) component at the two London sites. However, the latter scenario better captured mean measured concentrations across all four sites. A third experiment, Redist - all emissions redistributed linearly to population density, is also presented as an indicator of the maximum concentrations an assumption like this could yield.The modelled elemental carbon (EC) concentrations derived from the combRedist experiments also compared well with seasonal average concentrations of black carbon observed across the network of UK sites. Together, the two model scenario simulations of SFOA and EC suggest both that residential solid fuel emissions may be higher than inventory

  16. Clarifying assumptions to enhance our understanding and assessment of clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Schuwirth, Lambert; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-04-01

    Deciding on a diagnosis and treatment is essential to the practice of medicine. Developing competence in these clinical reasoning processes, commonly referred to as diagnostic and therapeutic reasoning, respectively, is required for physician success. Clinical reasoning has been a topic of research for several decades, and much has been learned. However, there still exists no clear consensus regarding what clinical reasoning entails, let alone how it might best be taught, how it should be assessed, and the research and practice implications therein.In this article, the authors first discuss two contrasting epistemological views of clinical reasoning and related conceptual frameworks. They then outline four different theoretical frameworks held by medical educators that the authors believe guide educators' views on the topic, knowingly or not. Within each theoretical framework, the authors begin with a definition of clinical reasoning (from that viewpoint) and then discuss learning, assessment, and research implications. The authors believe these epistemologies and four theoretical frameworks also apply to other concepts (or "competencies") in medical education.The authors also maintain that clinical reasoning encompasses the mental processes and behaviors that are shared (or evolve) between the patient, physician, and the environment (i.e., practice setting). Clinical reasoning thus incorporates components of all three factors (patient, physician, environment). The authors conclude by outlining practical implications and potential future areas for research.

  17. The hollow-face illusion: object-specific knowledge, general assumptions or properties of the stimulus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Harold; Johnston, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The hollow-face illusion, in which a mask appears as a convex face, is a powerful example of binocular depth inversion occurring with a real object under a wide range of viewing conditions. Explanations of the illusion are reviewed and six experiments reported. In experiment 1 the detrimental effect of figural inversion, evidence for the importance of familiarity, was found for other oriented objects. The inversion effect held for masks lit from the side (experiment 2). The illusion was stronger for a mask rotated by 90 degrees lit from its forehead than from its chin, suggesting that familiar patterns of shading enhance the illusion (experiment 2). There were no effects of light source visibility or any left/right asymmetry (experiment 3). In experiments 4-6 we used a 'virtual' hollow face, with illusion strength quantified by the proportion of noise texture needed to eliminate the illusion. Adding characteristic surface colour enhanced the illusion, consistent with the familiar face pigmentation outweighing additional bottom-up cues (experiment 4). There was no difference between perspective and orthographic projection. Photographic negation reduced, but did not eliminate, the illusion, suggesting shading is important but not essential (experiment 5). Absolute depth was not critical, although a shallower mask was given less extreme convexity ratings (experiment 6). We argue that the illusion arises owing to a convexity preference when the raw data have ambiguous interpretations. However, using a familiar object with typical orientation, shading, and pigmentation greatly enhances the effect.

  18. Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-09-01

    A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  19. MCNP HPGe detector benchmark with previously validated Cyltran model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, I D; Russ, W R; Bronson, F

    2009-05-01

    An exact copy of the detector model generated for Cyltran was reproduced as an MCNP input file and the detection efficiency was calculated similarly with the methodology used in previous experimental measurements and simulation of a 280 cm(3) HPGe detector. Below 1000 keV the MCNP data correlated to the Cyltran results within 0.5% while above this energy the difference between MCNP and Cyltran increased to about 6% at 4800 keV, depending on the electron cut-off energy.

  20. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  1. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  2. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  3. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  4. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  5. Economic assumptions for evaluating reactor-related options for managing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic assumptions in the U.S. National Academy of Sciences' report, Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium: Reactor-Related Options (1995). It reviews the Net Present Value approach for discounting and comparing the costs and benefits of reactor-related options. It argues that because risks associated with the returns to plutonium management are unlikely to be constant over time, it is preferable to use a real risk-free rate to discount cash flows and explicitly describe the probability distributions for costs and benefits, allowing decision makers to determine the risk premium of each option. As a baseline for comparison, it assumes that one economic benefit of changing the current plutonium management system is a reduction in on-going Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) costs. This reduction in the present value of S and M costs can be compared with the discounted costs of each option. These costs include direct construction costs, indirect costs, operating costs minus revenues, and decontamination and decommissioning expenses. The paper also discusses how to conduct an uncertainty analysis. It finishes by summarizing conclusions and recommendations and discusses how these recommendations might apply to the evaluation of Russian plutonium management options. (author)

  6. Studies on the effect of flaw detection probability assumptions on risk reduction at inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K.; Cronvall, O.; Maennistoe, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Gunnars, J.; Alverlind, L.; Dillstroem, P. (Inspecta Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gandossi, L. (European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium))

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the project was to study the effect of POD assumptions on failure probability using structural reliability models. The main interest was to investigate whether it is justifiable to use a simplified POD curve e.g. in risk-informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) studies. The results of the study indicate that the use of a simplified POD curve could be justifiable in RI-ISI applications. Another aim was to compare various structural reliability calculation approaches for a set of cases. Through benchmarking one can identify differences and similarities between modelling approaches, and provide added confidence on models and identify development needs. Comparing the leakage probabilities calculated by different approaches at the end of plant lifetime (60 years) shows that the results are very similar when inspections are not accounted for. However, when inspections are taken into account the predicted order of magnitude differs. Further studies would be needed to investigate the reasons for the differences. Development needs and plans for the benchmarked structural reliability models are discussed. (author)

  7. NONLINEAR MODELS FOR DESCRIPTION OF CACAO FRUIT GROWTH WITH ASSUMPTION VIOLATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOEL AUGUSTO MUNIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. is an important fruit in the Brazilian economy, which is mainly cultivated in the southern State of Bahia. The optimal stage for harvesting is a major factor for fruit quality and the knowledge on its growth curves can help, especially in identifying the ideal maturation stage for harvesting. Nonlinear regression models have been widely used for description of growth curves. However, several studies in this subject do not consider the residual analysis, the existence of a possible dependence between longitudinal observations, or the sample variance heterogeneity, compromising the modeling quality. The objective of this work was to compare the fit of nonlinear regression models, considering residual analysis and assumption violations, in the description of the cacao (clone Sial-105 fruit growth. The data evaluated were extracted from Brito and Silva (1983, who conducted the experiment in the Cacao Research Center, Ilheus, State of Bahia. The variables fruit length, diameter and volume as a function of fruit age were studied. The use of weighting and incorporation of residual dependencies was efficient, since the modeling became more consistent, improving the model fit. Considering the first-order autoregressive structure, when needed, leads to significant reduction in the residual standard deviation, making the estimates more reliable. The Logistic model was the most efficient for the description of the cacao fruit growth.

  8. Fast logic?: Examining the time course assumption of dual process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bago, Bence; De Neys, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Influential dual process models of human thinking posit that reasoners typically produce a fast, intuitive heuristic (i.e., Type-1) response which might subsequently be overridden and corrected by slower, deliberative processing (i.e., Type-2). In this study we directly tested this time course assumption. We used a two response paradigm in which participants have to give an immediate answer and afterwards are allowed extra time before giving a final response. In four experiments we used a range of procedures (e.g., challenging response deadline, concurrent load) to knock out Type 2 processing and make sure that the initial response was intuitive in nature. Our key finding is that we frequently observe correct, logical responses as the first, immediate response. Response confidence and latency analyses indicate that these initial correct responses are given fast, with high confidence, and in the face of conflicting heuristic responses. Findings suggest that fast and automatic Type 1 processing also cues a correct logical response from the start. We sketch a revised dual process model in which the relative strength of different types of intuitions determines reasoning performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Personal and Communal Assumptions to Determine Pragmatic Meanings of Phatic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunjana Rahardi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was meant to describe the manifestations of phatic function in the education domain. The phatic function in the communication and interaction happening in the education domain could be accurately identified when the utterances were not separated from their determining pragmatic context. The context must not be limited only to contextual and social or societal perspectives, but must be defined as basic assumptions. The data of this research included various kinds of speech gathered naturally in education circles that contain phatic functions. Two methods of data gathering were employed in this study, namely listening and conversation methods. Recorded data was analyzed through the steps as follows (1 data were identified based on the discourse markers found (2 data were classified based on the phatic perception criteria; (3 data were interpreted based on the referenced theories; (4 data were described in the form of analysis result description. The research proves that phatic function in the form of small talks in the education domain cannot be separated from the context surrounding it. 

  10. Allele Age Under Non-Classical Assumptions is Clarified by an Exact Computational Markov Chain Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Bianca; Krukov, Ivan; de Koning, A P Jason

    2017-09-19

    Determination of the age of an allele based on its population frequency is a well-studied problem in population genetics, for which a variety of approximations have been proposed. We present a new result that, surprisingly, allows the expectation and variance of allele age to be computed exactly (within machine precision) for any finite absorbing Markov chain model in a matter of seconds. This approach makes none of the classical assumptions (e.g., weak selection, reversibility, infinite sites), exploits modern sparse linear algebra techniques, integrates over all sample paths, and is rapidly computable for Wright-Fisher populations up to N e  = 100,000. With this approach, we study the joint effect of recurrent mutation, dominance, and selection, and demonstrate new examples of "selective strolls" where the classical symmetry of allele age with respect to selection is violated by weakly selected alleles that are older than neutral alleles at the same frequency. We also show evidence for a strong age imbalance, where rare deleterious alleles are expected to be substantially older than advantageous alleles observed at the same frequency when population-scaled mutation rates are large. These results highlight the under-appreciated utility of computational methods for the direct analysis of Markov chain models in population genetics.

  11. Utility of Web search query data in testing theoretical assumptions about mephedrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2017-05-01

    With growing access to the Internet, people who use drugs and traffickers started to obtain information about novel psychoactive substances (NPS) via online platforms. This paper aims to analyze whether a decreasing Web interest in formerly banned substances-cocaine, heroin, and MDMA-and the legislative status of mephedrone predict Web interest about this NPS. Google Trends was used to measure changes of Web interest on cocaine, heroin, MDMA, and mephedrone. Google search results for mephedrone within the same time frame were analyzed and categorized. Web interest about classic drugs found to be more persistent. Regarding geographical distribution, location of Web searches for heroin and cocaine was less centralized. Illicit status of mephedrone was a negative predictor of its Web search query rates. The connection between mephedrone-related Web search rates and legislative status of this substance was significantly mediated by ecstasy-related Web search queries, the number of documentaries, and forum/blog entries about mephedrone. The results might provide support for the hypothesis that mephedrone's popularity was highly correlated with its legal status as well as it functioned as a potential substitute for MDMA. Google Trends was found to be a useful tool for testing theoretical assumptions about NPS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Deficient crisis-probing practices and taken-for-granted assumptions in health organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V.; Adhikari, Ashmita; Cordery, Thomas; Giguère-Simmonds, Philippe; Huang, Jessica; Nguyen, Helen; Watson, Michael; Yang, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The practice of crisis-probing in proactive organisations involves meticulous and sustained investigation into operational processes and management structures for potential weaknesses and flaws before they become difficult to resolve. In health organisations, crisis probing is a necessary part of preparing to manage emerging health threats. This study examined the degree of pre-emptive probing in health organisations and the type of crisis training provided to determine whether or not they are prepared in this area. This evidence-based study draws on cross-sectional responses provided by executives from chiropractic, physiotherapy, and podiatry practices; dental and medical clinics; pharmacies; aged care facilities; and hospitals. The data show a marked lack of mandatory probing and a generalised failure to reward crisis reporting. Crisis prevention training is poor in all organisations except hospitals and aged care facilities where it occurs at an adequate frequency. However this training focuses primarily on natural disasters, fails to address most other crisis types, is mostly reactive and not designed to probe for and uncover key taken-for-granted assumptions. Crisis-probing in health organisations is inadequate, and improvements in this area may well translate into measurable improvements in preparedness and response outcomes. PMID:24149030

  13. Deficient crisis-probing practices and taken-for-granted assumptions in health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V; Adhikari, Ashmita; Cordery, Thomas; Giguère-Simmonds, Philippe; Huang, Jessica; Nguyen, Helen; Watson, Michael; Yang, Daniel

    2011-04-18

    The practice of crisis-probing in proactive organisations involves meticulous and sustained investigation into operational processes and management structures for potential weaknesses and flaws before they become difficult to resolve. In health organisations, crisis probing is a necessary part of preparing to manage emerging health threats. This study examined the degree of pre-emptive probing in health organisations and the type of crisis training provided to determine whether or not they are prepared in this area. This evidence-based study draws on cross-sectional responses provided by executives from chiropractic, physiotherapy, and podiatry practices; dental and medical clinics; pharmacies; aged care facilities; and hospitals. The data show a marked lack of mandatory probing and a generalised failure to reward crisis reporting. Crisis prevention training is poor in all organisations except hospitals and aged care facilities where it occurs at an adequate frequency. However this training focuses primarily on natural disasters, fails to address most other crisis types, is mostly reactive and not designed to probe for and uncover key taken-for-granted assumptions. Crisis-probing in health organisations is inadequate, and improvements in this area may well translate into measurable improvements in preparedness and response outcomes.

  14. X-ray near-field holography. Beyond idealized assumptions of the probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The work at hand considers the imperfect, often neglected, aspects of X-ray nearfield phase-contrast propagation imaging, or in short: X-ray near-field holography (NFH). NFH is a X-ray microscopy technique able to yield high resolution, yet low dose imaging of a wide range of specimen. Derived from wave optical theory, propagation-based imaging methods rely on assumptions for the illuminating wave field. These are for example the assumptions of a perfect plane wave or spherical wave emanating from a point source or monochromaticity. Violation of the point source assumption implies for example at the same time the occurrence of a distorted wave front and a finite degree of coherence, both crucial for NFH. With the advances in X-ray focusing, instrumentation and X-ray wave guiding, NFH has become of high interest, since the barriers for practical implementation have been overcome. The idea of holography originates from electron microscopy to overcome the lack of high-quality electron lenses. With holography the need for optics between the specimen and detector is circumvented. The drawback, however, is that the measurement obtained at the detector is not a direct image of the specimen under survey but a ''propagated version'' of it, the so-called hologram. The problem with the optics is replaced by another problem, also referred to as the phase problem. The phase problem is caused by the fact that only the intensities of a wave field can be measured but not the phase information. The phase information is crucial for obtaining the image of the specimen and thus needs to be reconstructed. In recent years the methodology, sometimes also mythology, has been developed to reconstruct the specimen from the measured hologram. For a long time, the standard approach to deal with deviations from the ideal assumptions in real world holography experiments has been to simply ignore these. The prime example for this is the method of the standard flat

  15. X-ray near-field holography. Beyond idealized assumptions of the probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Johannes

    2017-07-01

    The work at hand considers the imperfect, often neglected, aspects of X-ray nearfield phase-contrast propagation imaging, or in short: X-ray near-field holography (NFH). NFH is a X-ray microscopy technique able to yield high resolution, yet low dose imaging of a wide range of specimen. Derived from wave optical theory, propagation-based imaging methods rely on assumptions for the illuminating wave field. These are for example the assumptions of a perfect plane wave or spherical wave emanating from a point source or monochromaticity. Violation of the point source assumption implies for example at the same time the occurrence of a distorted wave front and a finite degree of coherence, both crucial for NFH. With the advances in X-ray focusing, instrumentation and X-ray wave guiding, NFH has become of high interest, since the barriers for practical implementation have been overcome. The idea of holography originates from electron microscopy to overcome the lack of high-quality electron lenses. With holography the need for optics between the specimen and detector is circumvented. The drawback, however, is that the measurement obtained at the detector is not a direct image of the specimen under survey but a ''propagated version'' of it, the so-called hologram. The problem with the optics is replaced by another problem, also referred to as the phase problem. The phase problem is caused by the fact that only the intensities of a wave field can be measured but not the phase information. The phase information is crucial for obtaining the image of the specimen and thus needs to be reconstructed. In recent years the methodology, sometimes also mythology, has been developed to reconstruct the specimen from the measured hologram. For a long time, the standard approach to deal with deviations from the ideal assumptions in real world holography experiments has been to simply ignore these. The prime example for this is the method of the standard flat

  16. On the assumption of vanishing temperature fluctuations at the wall for heat transfer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, T. P.; So, R. M. C.; Zhang, H. S.

    1993-01-01

    Boundary conditions for fluctuating wall temperature are required for near-wall heat transfer modeling. However, their correct specifications for arbitrary thermal boundary conditions are not clear. The conventional approach is to assume zero fluctuating wall temperature or zero gradient for the temperature variance at the wall. These are idealized specifications and the latter condition could lead to an ill posed problem for fully-developed pipe and channel flows. In this paper, the validity and extent of the zero fluctuating wall temperature condition for heat transfer calculations is examined. The approach taken is to assume a Taylor expansion in the wall normal coordinate for the fluctuating temperature that is general enough to account for both zero and non-zero value at the wall. Turbulent conductivity is calculated from the temperature variance and its dissipation rate. Heat transfer calculations assuming both zero and non-zero fluctuating wall temperature reveal that the zero fluctuating wall temperature assumption is in general valid. The effects of non-zero fluctuating wall temperature are limited only to a very small region near the wall.

  17. Resource Theory of Quantum Memories and Their Faithful Verification with Minimal Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Denis; Buscemi, Francesco; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2018-04-01

    We provide a complete set of game-theoretic conditions equivalent to the existence of a transformation from one quantum channel into another one, by means of classically correlated preprocessing and postprocessing maps only. Such conditions naturally induce tests to certify that a quantum memory is capable of storing quantum information, as opposed to memories that can be simulated by measurement and state preparation (corresponding to entanglement-breaking channels). These results are formulated as a resource theory of genuine quantum memories (correlated in time), mirroring the resource theory of entanglement in quantum states (correlated spatially). As the set of conditions is complete, the corresponding tests are faithful, in the sense that any non-entanglement-breaking channel can be certified. Moreover, they only require the assumption of trusted inputs, known to be unavoidable for quantum channel verification. As such, the tests we propose are intrinsically different from the usual process tomography, for which the probes of both the input and the output of the channel must be trusted. An explicit construction is provided and shown to be experimentally realizable, even in the presence of arbitrarily strong losses in the memory or detectors.

  18. Diversity within African American, female therapists: variability in clients' expectations and assumptions about the therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer F; Greene, Beverly

    2010-06-01

    Despite the presence of some literature that has addressed the characteristics of the African American female therapist, most psychotherapy training proceeds with the assumption that therapists are members of dominant groups, and most of the psychological and psychotherapy literature has been written by therapists and psychologists who come from dominant cultural perspectives. Not as much has been written about psychological paradigms or the process of psychotherapy from the perspective of the therapist who is not a dominant group member. This article explores both the common and divergent experiences that we, the authors, share as African American female therapists and the different reactions we frequently elicit in clients. We also explore how individual differences in our physical appearances, personal backgrounds, and different characteristics of our respective practices elicit distinct responses from clients that we believe are based on differences between us, despite the fact that we are both African American women. We believe that many of the stereotypes that affect perceptions of African American female clients also exist for African American female therapists. We will address how the intersection of gender, race, and sexual orientation of the client highlights the complexity of culturally competent practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Holistic approach to education and upbringing: Contradictory to the general assumption of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubiša M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Holistic education is a compprehensive view of education based on the assumption that each individual finds his own identity, meaning and objective in life through the connection with the community, nature and human values such as compassion and peace. Within holistic education the teacher is viewed not as an authority figure who guides and controls, but rather as a 'friend', a facilitator of learning: a guide and a companion in gaining experience. The norm is cooperation rather than competition. However, is this possible in real life? The answer is simple - it is not. Why? The reason why lies in the foundation of life itself: a molecule built in such a way that it does not permit such an idealistic approach to life, and therefore, to education. It is a DNK molecule: the molecule of life exhibiting, among other, the following characteristics: it seeks procreation, and exhibits the tendency of eternal struggle, competition. This is in stark opposition to holistic approach to education which does not recognize competition, struggle, gradation and rivalry. The development of an advanced and socially responsible society demands partial, measured application of holism. This needs to be reflected in education as well: approved competition, clear and fair gradation, the best in certain areas become the elite, with the rest following or to be found solutions in accordance with their abilities.

  20. Revealing patterns of cultural transmission from frequency data: equilibrium and non-equilibrium assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crema, Enrico R.; Kandler, Anne; Shennan, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    A long tradition of cultural evolutionary studies has developed a rich repertoire of mathematical models of social learning. Early studies have laid the foundation of more recent endeavours to infer patterns of cultural transmission from observed frequencies of a variety of cultural data, from decorative motifs on potsherds to baby names and musical preferences. While this wide range of applications provides an opportunity for the development of generalisable analytical workflows, archaeological data present new questions and challenges that require further methodological and theoretical discussion. Here we examine the decorative motifs of Neolithic pottery from an archaeological assemblage in Western Germany, and argue that the widely used (and relatively undiscussed) assumption that observed frequencies are the result of a system in equilibrium conditions is unwarranted, and can lead to incorrect conclusions. We analyse our data with a simulation-based inferential framework that can overcome some of the intrinsic limitations in archaeological data, as well as handle both equilibrium conditions and instances where the mode of cultural transmission is time-variant. Results suggest that none of the models examined can produce the observed pattern under equilibrium conditions, and suggest. instead temporal shifts in the patterns of cultural transmission.