WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously healthy children

  1. Parental anxiety associated with Kawasaki disease in previously healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Nita; Clarizia, Nadia A; McCrindle, Brian W; Boydell, Katherine M; Obadia, Maya; Manlhiot, Cedric; Dillenburg, Rejane; Yeung, Rae S M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the lived experience of parents of children diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD) and to identify factors associated with increased levels of parental anxiety. Three focus groups were conducted including 25 parents of 17 patients with KD, seven (41%) of whom had coronary artery complications. A conceptual model was developed to depict parental experiences and illustrate the key issues related to heightened anxiety. Themes identified included anxiety related to the child's sudden illness and delay in obtaining a correct diagnosis because of the lack of health care providers' awareness and knowledge regarding KD. Parents were frustrated by the lack of information available in lay language and the limited scientific knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of the disease. Parents also reported positive transformations and different perspective toward challenges in life. However, the parents of children with coronary artery complications expressed persistent anxiety even years after the acute phase of the illness due to the uncertainty of the long-term prognosis. There remains a critical need for richly textured research data on the perspective and experience of families of children with KD. Copyright 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  3. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  4. Healthy Environments for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AND BE SURE EVERYONE WEARS A HELMET WHEN BIKING. IN THE CAR, CHILDREN SHOULD SIT IN THE BACK SEAT AND ALWAYS FASTEN THEIR SEAT BELTS! 14 AND CHILDREN SHOULD BE TAUGHT TO SWIM FROM THE TIME THEY’RE SMALL. IT’S GOOD FOR THEIR HEALTH AND THEIR SAFETY. PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM DANGERS IN ...

  5. Healthy Lifestyle: Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrients — such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fat. Children, however, need different amounts of specific nutrients at ... white bread, pasta and rice. Dairy. Encourage your child to eat and drink fat-free or low-fat dairy products, such as ...

  6. Toddler's Paralysis: An Acute Case of Leg Stiffening in a Previously Healthy 2-Year-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Kimberly Renee; Tay, Ee Tein

    2018-05-14

    Vegetarian and vegan diets are gaining popularity in the United States. Although appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including vegan diets, are healthful and nutritionally adequate and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases, not all families are aware of the nutritional supplements that may be required for their children. We describe a case of a 2-year-old previously healthy child consuming a vegan diet who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an acute inability to move her legs. Ionized calcium was found to be 0.89 mmol/L, and symptoms completely resolved within 2 hours of calcium gluconate infusion.

  7. [Meningitis and white matter lesions due to Streptococcus mitis in a previously healthy child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Reyhan; Yüksel, Ciğdem Nükhet; Derundere, Umit; Yiş, Uluç

    2011-10-01

    brain MRI suggested that meningitis could be related to previous sinus infection. After 14 days of ceftriaxone treatment, the patient was discharged from the hospital with cure. The aim of this case presentation was to emphasize that S.mitis may cause meningitis and white matter lesions in previously healthy children with concomitant sinusitis.

  8. Caribbean health: Healthy children, healthy nation

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sales of unhealthy food and drink in the vicinity of schools, and nutrition education. Between 2011 and 2014, the Farm to Fork .... Positive influence of nutrition education. During 2012-2013 in Trinidad, 297 children in four ... restricted. Measures to control the sale of such foods in the immediate vicinity of schools should also ...

  9. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... ... restricting sales of unhealthy food and drink in the vicinity of schools, and ... Read the full story of change: Caribbean health: Healthy children, ... the Caribbean by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, ...

  10. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  11. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  12. Possible pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection in a previously healthy child after a near-drowning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Magdalena M; Lippmann, Norman; Kobelt, Louise; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Ritter, Lutz; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a previously healthy 17-month-old boy who developed pulmonary mucormycosis after a near-drowning incident in a goose pond. The patient survived without neurological sequelae and recovered, under treatment with amphotericin B, from the rare and often invasive fungal infection with Rhizopus spp., usually occurring in immunodeficient patients.

  13. Iodine-131 induced hepatotoxicity in previously healthy patients with Grave's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhummon, Navina Priya; Tohooloo, Bhavna; Qu, Shen

    2013-01-01

    To describe the association of the rare and serious complication of liver toxicity in previously healthy Grave's disease (GD) patients after the treatment with radioactive iodine (131)I (RAI). We report the clinical, laboratory and pathologic findings of 2 cases of severe liver toxicity associated with the treatment with RAI in previously healthy patients with GD. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations excluded viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatous disease, primary biliary disease, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and heart failure. Case 1: A previously healthy 52-years old man reportedly having a typical GD but following RAI treatment, concomitantly developed severe liver toxicity that required 1 week of treatment in hospital. Case 2: A previously healthy 34-years old woman is reported as having a typical GD but developed jaundice following RAI treatment that required several weeks of in hospital treatment in the hepato-biliary department. In both cases, the liver dysfunction resolved after intensive treatment with hepato-protective agents. In this report the therapeutic considerations as well as the pathogenetic possibilities are reviewed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the association observed, which is rare but may be severe and should be considered in any case of thyrotoxicosis where a liver dysfunction develops after the treatment with radioactive iodine (131)I.

  14. Iodine-131 induced hepatotoxicity in previously healthy patients with Grave’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the association of the rare and serious complication of liver toxicity in previously healthy Grave’s disease (GD) patients after the treatment with radioactive iodine 131I (RAI). Case presentation We report the clinical, laboratory and pathologic findings of 2 cases of severe liver toxicity associated with the treatment with RAI in previously healthy patients with GD. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations excluded viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, granulomatous disease, primary biliary disease, extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and heart failure. Case 1: A previously healthy 52-years old man reportedly having a typical GD but following RAI treatment, concomitantly developed severe liver toxicity that required 1 week of treatment in hospital. Case 2: A previously healthy 34-years old woman is reported as having a typical GD but developed jaundice following RAI treatment that required several weeks of in hospital treatment in the hepato-biliary department. In both cases, the liver dysfunction resolved after intensive treatment with hepato-protective agents. In this report the therapeutic considerations as well as the pathogenetic possibilities are reviewed. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of the association observed, which is rare but may be severe and should be considered in any case of thyrotoxicosis where a liver dysfunction develops after the treatment with radioactive iodine 131I. PMID:23497434

  15. Tips for Healthy Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... singles tennis Vacuuming Moving furniture Playing basketball or soccer Playing with children Weight lifting In-line skating ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  16. Ecthyma gangrenosum in the periorbital region in a previously healthy immunocompetent woman without bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality.

  17. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Rayment

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  18. Healthy children's perceptions of medicines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Bush, Patricia J

    2008-06-01

    Chronically ill children's perceptions of medicines have been widely studied, but healthy children's less often. However, information on healthy children's beliefs and attitudes about medicine use is needed to be able to target health education messages about medicines appropriately. A literature review was performed to determine schoolchildren's attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge about medicines; autonomy in using medicines; expectations of using medicines; and questions about medicines, so as to guide the development of a medicine education curriculum and to inform health care professionals who communicate with children. This study was a review of literature from 17 countries. The review indicated that children of school age tend to view medicines cautiously. Although age is a factor, children have very limited ideas about how medicines work and issues around medicine efficacy are confusing to them. Even young children recognize that medicines may have harmful effects and, children of all ages and cultures studied want to learn more about medicines. Autonomy in medicine use is surprisingly high and disturbing given that knowledge of medicines is poor. Primary conclusions drawn are (1) children of the same age in different cultures appear similar in their attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, and desires to learn about medicines; (2) children lack information about medicines, especially in view of their levels of autonomy; and (3) health educators and health care professionals should educate children about rational medicine use, at appropriate cognitive development levels, before the children become independent medicine users.

  19. Is vegetarianism healthy for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofnas, Nathan

    2018-02-23

    According to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' influential position statement on vegetarianism, meat and seafood can be replaced with milk, soy/legumes, and eggs without any negative effects in children. The United States Department of Agriculture endorses a similar view. The present paper argues that the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics ignores or gives short shrift to direct and indirect evidence that vegetarianism may be associated with serious risks for brain and body development in fetuses and children. Regular supplementation with iron, zinc, and B 12 will not mitigate all of these risks. Consequently, we cannot say decisively that vegetarianism or veganism is safe for children.

  20. Spinal Arachnoiditis as a Complication of Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis in Non-HIV Previously Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Mika; Kosa, Peter; Khan, Omar; Hammoud, Dima A.; Rosen, Lindsey B.; Browne, Sarah K.; Lin, Yen-Chih; Romm, Elena; Ramaprasad, Charu; Fries, Bettina C.; Bennett, John E.; Bielekova, Bibiana; Williamson, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Cryptococcus can cause meningoencephalitis (CM) among previously healthy non-HIV adults. Spinal arachnoiditis is under-recognized, since diagnosis is difficult with concomitant central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods. We describe 6 cases of spinal arachnoiditis among 26 consecutively recruited CM patients with normal CD4 counts who achieved microbiologic control. We performed detailed neurological exams, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunophenotyping and biomarker analysis before and after adjunctive immunomodulatory intervention with high dose pulse corticosteroids, affording causal inference into pathophysiology. Results. All 6 exhibited severe lower motor neuron involvement in addition to cognitive changes and gait disturbances from meningoencephalitis. Spinal involvement was associated with asymmetric weakness and urinary retention. Diagnostic specificity was improved by MRI imaging which demonstrated lumbar spinal nerve root enhancement and clumping or lesions. Despite negative fungal cultures, CSF inflammatory biomarkers, sCD27 and sCD21, as well as the neuronal damage biomarker, neurofilament light chain (NFL), were elevated compared to healthy donor (HD) controls. Elevations in these biomarkers were associated with clinical symptoms and showed improvement with adjunctive high dose pulse corticosteroids. Conclusions. These data suggest that a post-infectious spinal arachnoiditis is an important complication of CM in previously healthy individuals, requiring heightened clinician awareness. Despite microbiological control, this syndrome causes significant pathology likely due to increased inflammation and may be amenable to suppressive therapeutics. PMID:28011613

  1. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Tom; Rivetti, Alessandro; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Demicheli, Vittorio

    2018-02-01

    The consequences of influenza in children and adults are mainly absenteeism from school and work. However, the risk of complications is greatest in children and people over 65 years of age. This is an update of a review published in 2011. Future updates of this review will be made only when new trials or vaccines become available. Observational data included in previous versions of the review have been retained for historical reasons but have not been updated because of their lack of influence on the review conclusions. To assess the effects (efficacy, effectiveness, and harm) of vaccines against influenza in healthy children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 12), which includes the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1966 to 31 December 2016), Embase (1974 to 31 December 2016), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; 1 July 2017), and ClinicalTrials.gov (1 July 2017). Randomised controlled trials comparing influenza vaccines with placebo or no intervention in naturally occurring influenza in healthy children under 16 years. Previous versions of this review included 19 cohort and 11 case-control studies. We are no longer updating the searches for these study designs but have retained the observational studies for historical purposes. Review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence for the key outcomes of influenza, influenza-like illness (ILI), complications (hospitalisation, ear infection), and adverse events. Due to variation in control group risks for influenza and ILI, absolute effects are reported as the median control group risk, and numbers needed to vaccinate (NNVs) are reported accordingly. For other outcomes aggregate control group risks are used. We included 41 clinical trials (> 200,000 children). Most of the studies were conducted in children over the

  2. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  3. Micrococcus sedentarius bacteraemia presenting with haemophagocytic syndrome in previously healthy boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuskonmaz, Baris; Kara, Ates; Ozen, Maide; Cengiz, A Bülent; Ozen, Metehan; Seçmeer, Gülten; Gürgey, Aytemiz

    2006-01-01

    Haemophagocytic syndromes are the clinical manifestation of an increased macrophagic activity with haemophagocytosis. Infection-associated HS was originally described by Risdall in 1979, in viral disease. Since the initial description HS has also been documented in patients with bacterial, parasitic or fungal infections. We describe a case of Micrococcus sedentarius bacteraemia in a previously healthy 10-y-old boy with haemophagocytic syndrome. Species of micrococci are generally considered as non-pathogenic commensals that colonize the skin, mucosae and oropharynx. We report the first case of Microccoccus sedentarius bacteraemia in an immunocompetent host and first case of HS associated with Micrococcus species.

  4. Social communication difficulties and autism in previously institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, April R; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the risk of difficulties with social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors as well as the rate of autism in children institutionalized in early infancy and to assess the impact of a foster care intervention on ameliorating this risk. Children abandoned at birth and raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania were randomly assigned to a care-as-usual group (institutional care, CAUG), or placed in family-centered foster care (FCG) as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At approximately 10 years of age, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was administered to caregivers of children in both groups as well as to parents of a typically developing community sample (Never-Institutionalized group [NIG]) residing in Bucharest, Romania. Children scoring ≥12 on the SCQ underwent clinical evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with a history of institutionalization reported that these children had significantly more deviant behavior than never-institutionalized children on all subdomains of the SCQ (all p communication. Three of 60 CAUG children, 2 of 57 FCG children, and none of the NIG children received a formal ASD diagnosis. Early institutional rearing was associated with an increased risk of social communication difficulties and ASD. A family-centered foster care intervention improved social communication skills. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eikenella corrodens endocarditis and liver abscess in a previously healthy male, a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Vøgg, Ruth Ottilia Birgitta; Permin, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eikenella corrodens is one of the HACEK bacteria constituting part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, however, still an uncommon pathogen. We report a case of a large Eikenella corrodens liver abscess with simultaneously endocarditis in a previously healthy male. CASE PRESENTATION...... on pneumonia treatment, a PET-CT scan was performed, which showed a large multiloculated abscess in the liver. The abscess was drained using ultrasound guidance. Culture demonstrated Eikenella corrodens. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed aortic endocarditis. The patient was treated with antibiotics...... corrodens concurrent liver abscess and endocarditis. The case report highlights that Eikenella corrodens should be considered as a cause of liver abscess. Empirical treatment of pyogenic liver abscess will most often cover Eikenella corrodens, but the recommended treatment is a third generation...

  6. Healthy active living for children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Poor lifestyle habits, such as unhealthy eating and physical inactivity, are major contributors to increased adult morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. Over the past decade there has been an increase in sedentary lifestyle and obesity in children and adolescents, both in North America and worldwide. Physicians need to be aware of the scope of this problem, provide anticipatory guidance to families and promote healthy active living in their practices.

  7. Healthy Diet in Children: Facts and Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hasan Khodaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Consuming a healthy diet throughout the lifecourse helps prevent malnutrition in all its forms as well as a range of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs and conditions. But the increased production of processed food, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles have led to a shift in dietary patterns. People are now consuming more foods high in energy, fats, free sugars or salt/sodium, and many do not eat enough fruit, vegetables and dietary fibre such as whole grains. In the first 2 years of a child’s life, optimal nutrition fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life. Nutrition for kids is based on the same principles as nutrition for adults. Everyone needs the same types of nutrients; such as vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, protein and fat. Children, however, need different amounts of specific nutrients at different ages

  8. Life-threatening MRSA sepsis with bilateral pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis of the knee in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardgrib, Nina; Wang, Michala; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia...... and antimicrobial combination therapy. The outcome was a healthy patient without sequelae, a favorable course unlike those previously described in the literature. This case underlines the necessity of a close interdisciplinary cooperation in children with severe MRSA infection encompassing pneumonia, septic...

  9. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  10. Music and Movement for Young Children's Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Morris, Vivian Gunn; Meredith, Cathy D.; Hicks, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Young children enjoy moving around when they hear music. Children take pleasure in physical activities that contribute to their healthy development. Physical activities are vital to retain healthy bodies, and inactivity is one cause of obesity in young children (Dow, 2010; Izumi-Taylor & Morris, 2007). This article describes how teachers and…

  11. Healthy Children, Healthy Lives: The Wellness Guide for Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Sharon; Robertson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical time in human development. Understanding and supporting children's wellness early on can make the greatest impact on physical, social and emotional, and cognitive health throughout childhood and adulthood. "Healthy Children, Healthy Lives" provides a comprehensive collection of checklists and research ­based…

  12. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  13. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  14. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Methods Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ? 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting...

  15. Healthy children, healthy nation — tackling the obesity problem ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2016 ... ... in early childhood to tackle poor diets and inadequate physical activity, however, can have a huge impact on children's health well into adulthood. ... racines, les tubercules et les bananes sont des cultures vivrières vendues ...

  16. Recovery Responses to Maximal Exercise in Healthy-Weight Children and Children with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Elizabeth A.; Black, W. Scott; Bailey, Alison L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Sims, Wilma J.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). Method: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body…

  17. Promoting Healthy Weight among Children with Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby R.; Camejo, Stephanie T.; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Delamater, Alan; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    An extensive body of research demonstrates a higher prevalence of obesity among children with developmental delays (DD) versus children without delays. This analysis examined the effectiveness of a randomized controlled trial to promote healthy weight in a subsample of preschool-age children with DD (n = 71) on the adoption of quality nutrition…

  18. Regional outbreak of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Do

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS is a relatively uncommon superficial blistering skin disease that is due to Staphylococcus aureus. We had experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS over 3 years in healthy children. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of those patients diagnosed as SSSS. Most of neonatal cases were nosocomial infections and excluded from the analysis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, the isolation and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus, the antibiotic management and other supportive treatments were analyzed. Results : Fifty-five patients with SSSS were admitted to our hospital from October 2001 to September 2004. The median age of patients was 3.0 years. Of the 55 patients, 9 were the generalized type, 13 were the intermediate type and 33 were the scarletiniform rash. All the patients were living in neighborhood of the Jinju area. S. aureus were isolated from 9 of the patients and all of the isolated S. aureus were methicillin resistant. All the patients except two were treated with intravenous flocloxacillin or nafcillin and/or cefotaxime. All the patients recovered during the follow-up period of 2 to 3 weeks. Conclusion : We experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS in previous healthy children. Further study for finding the carriers of S. aureus caused SSSS and preventing the spread of this disease is needed. Additionally, guidelines for treating SSSS due to methicillin resistant S. aureus should be established.

  19. Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa-pneumonia in a previously healthy man occupationally exposed to metalworking fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is well known and frequently found in hospitals and nursing care facilities, many cases are also reported outside these boundaries. In general, this pathogen infects debilitated patients either by comorbidities or by any form of immunodeficiency. In cases of respiratory infection, tobacco abuse seems to play an important role as a risk factor. In previously healthy patients, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP with P. aeruginosa as the etiological agent is extremely rare, and unlike the cases involving immunocompromised or hospitalized patients, the outcome is severe, and is fatal in up to 61.1% of cases. Aerosolized contaminated water or solutions are closely linked to the development of respiratory tract infection. In this setting, metalworking fluids used in factories may be implicated in CAP involving previously healthy people. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man who worked in a metalworking factory and presented a right upper lobar pneumonia with a rapid fatal outcome. P. aeruginosa was cultured from blood and tracheal aspirates. The autopsy findings confirmed a hemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia with bacteria-invading vasculitis and thrombosis. A culture of the metalworking fluid of the factory was also positive for P. aeruginosa. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that both strains (blood culture and metalworking fluid were genetically indistinguishable. The authors highlight the occupational risk for the development of this P. aeruginosa-infection in healthy people.

  20. AbobotulinumtoxinA Efficacy and Safety in Children With Equinus Foot Previously Treated With Botulinum Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Edward; Bonikowski, Marcin; Gormley, Mark; Volteau, Magali; Picaut, Philippe; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2018-05-01

    The effects of botulinum toxin are transient, and repeat injections are required in children with lower-limb spasticity. However, the efficacy of botulinum toxin in patients who have received previous injections has remained largely unexplored. We present subgroup analyses of a phase III study conducted in ambulatory children (aged two to 17) with spastic equinus foot. Patients were randomized to single doses of abobotulinumtoxinA 10 U/kg/leg, 15 U/kg/leg, or placebo injected into the gastrocnemius-soleus complex (one or both legs). The first analysis was prespecified to review the effect of abobotulinumtoxinA in children previously treated with botulinum toxin versus those children new to the treatment; a second post hoc analysis evaluated the effect of abobotulinumtoxinA in children who changed botulinum toxin formulation. Of the 241 randomized patients, 113 had previously received botulinum toxin, including 86 who had been treated with another formulation. In both analyses, muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale) and the Physicians Global Assessment, at week 4, improved with abobotulinumtoxinA treatment versus placebo, regardless of baseline botulinum toxin status. Placebo responses in patients new to treatment were consistently higher than in the previously treated group. These results demonstrate similar abobotulinumtoxinA efficacy and safety profiles in children with spasticity who are new to botulinum toxin treatment and those children who were previously treated. The efficacy and safety of abobotulinumtoxinA treatment in these previously treated patients were comparable with the overall trial population, indicating that doses of 10 and 15 U/kg/leg are suitable starting doses for children with spasticity regardless of the previous botulinum toxin preparation used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parenting Role's Tasks as Parents of Healthy and Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azade Riyahi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to determine how to do parenting role's tasks as parents of healthy and disabled children younger than 7 years old in Iran (Arak. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the parenting role tasks questionnaire was completed for 120 parents of healthy children and 120 parents of disabled children with at least one child with disability and the parents were selected by convenience sampling method. T-test, Mann-Whitney test and analysis of variances was used to compare the scores between parents of healthy and disabled children based on studied variables including child age, parent age, child gender, parent education, family economic status, history of trauma and seizure in children was applied to perform the role of parents. Results: There was a significant difference of parent role in both groups of parents. There was observed a significant relationship between role of healthy children's parents and age of child (r=0.21, P=0.016, but not observed in disabled children's parents. In healthy children, there was no significant correlation between parent's role and maternal age. In contrast, in disabled children, there was found a significant difference (P= 0.04 with correlation coefficient of -0.18 representing the inverse relationship. Moreover, no relationship was found between history of seizure and performance of parenting role's tasks in the group of disabled children (P>0.05. Conclusion The performance of tasks of parenting role in two groups of parents of healthy children and disabled ones in four areas of primary care, education, leisure and improving cognitive level had significant difference. This difference in the area of improving the cognitive level was higher. Due to complications of disability, parents of these children pay more attention to other areas of care except of improving cognitive level. Therefore presence of disabled child has negative effect on the balance of the

  2. Data on the safety of repeated MRI in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Holland

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Examination of neurocognitive and biometric data from a decade-long, longitudinal fMRI study of normal language development in this small, longitudinal sample of healthy children in the age range of 5 to 18 years, who received up to 10 MRI scans, provides scientific evidence to support the belief that MRI poses minimal risk for use in research with healthy children.

  3. Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kjeldgaard; Ghasemi, Habib; Rahbek, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used in child......Title: Normal distribution of standing balance for healthy Danish children – Reproducibility of parameters of balance. Authors Line Kjeldgaard Pedersen Habib Ghasemi Ole Rahbek Bjarne Møller-Madsen 1800 characters incl. spaces Background Pedobarographic measurements are increasingly used...

  4. The Healthy Children, Strong Families Intervention: Design and Community Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alexandra K.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Cronin, Kate A.; Prince, Ronald J.; Wubben, Deborah P.; Parker, Tassy; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Children, Strong Families (HCSF) is a 2-year, community-driven, family-based randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention conducted in partnership with four Wisconsin American Indian tribes. HCSF is composed of 1 year of targeted home visits to deliver nutritional and physical activity curricula. During Year 1, trained…

  5. Previous medical history of diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is complex and most likely includes genetic and environmental factors. This study was conducted to evaluatethe role of previous medical history of diseases in ADHD children and their parents during theearlier years of the ADHD children's lives. Methods: In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children attending to Child and AdolescentPsychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and guidance schools. ADHDrating scale (Parents version and clinical interview based on schedule for Schedule forAffective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version(K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Two groupswere compared for the existence of previous medical history of diseases in children andparents. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Results: The frequency of maternal history of medical disorders (28.7% vs. 12.0%; P = 0.001was significantly higher in children with ADHD compared with the control group. The frequency of jaundice, dysentery, epilepsy, asthma, allergy, and head trauma in the medicalhistory of children were not significantly differed between the two groups. Conclusion: According to this preliminary study, it may be concluded that the maternal historyof medical disorders is one of contributing risk factors for ADHD.

  6. The Role of Birth/Previously Adopted Children in Families Choosing to Adopt Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Ellen Steele; Johnson, LeAnne

    1999-01-01

    Notes that successful child placement depends on engaging birth or previously adopted children during the adoption process, yet other children are often overlooked when parents are adopting a special-needs child. Presents a model which recognizes dynamics of strength and vulnerability and applies that model to preparing and supporting the adoptive…

  7. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.

    AIM: To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. METHOD: Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean

  8. Early Sprouts: Cultivating Healthy Food Choices in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…

  9. Ataxia rating scales are age-dependent in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Rick; Spits, Anne H.; Kuiper, Marieke J.; Lunsing, Roelinka J.; Burger, Huibert; Kremer, Hubertus P.; Sival, Deborah A.; Barisic, N.; Baxter, P.; Brankovic-Sreckovic, V.; Calabrò, G. E.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.; de Coo, Ifm; Craiu, D.; Dan, B.; Gburek-Augustat, J.; Kammoun-Feki, F.; Kennedy, C.; Mancini, F.; Mirabelli-Badenier, M.; Nemeth, A.; Newton, R.; Poll-The, B. T.; Steinlin, M.; Synofzik, M.; Topcu, M.; Triki, C.; Valente, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate ataxia rating scales in children for reliability and the effect of age and sex. Three independent neuropaediatric observers cross-sectionally scored a set of paediatric ataxia rating scales in a group of 52 healthy children (26 males, 26 females) aged 4 to 16 years (mean age 10y 5mo

  10. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  11. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  12. Determination of adrenal volume by MRI in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2014-01-01

    , to estimate adrenal size in healthy children and to evaluate determinants of adrenal volume such as age, gender, body size, pubic hair stage and serum levels of adrenal androgens. DESIGN: Two hundred and thirty-five healthy children (116 girls and 119 boys) (age range 10.0-14.8 years) were examined by MRI......% of healthy children aged 10-15 years. Adrenal volume increased with age and Tanner stage of pubic hair. Future studies will unravel whether adrenal MRI is useful when evaluating children with adrenal diseases....... (estimate B = 0.34 ml/year, P = 0.03), age (estimate B = 0.05 ml/year, P = 0.021) and pubic hair stage (estimate B = 0.05 ml/stage, P = 0.075). No associations between adrenal size and serum levels of adrenal androgens were observed. CONCLUSION: It was possible to determine adrenal volume by MRI in only 50...

  13. Case report of electronic cigarettes possibly associated with eosinophilic pneumonitis in a previously healthy active-duty sailor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Darshan; Latham, Emi

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a technology that has been touted as a safe and effective alternative to traditional cigarettes. There is, however, a paucity of literature showing the adverse outcomes of e-cigarettes and a correlation with acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP). To present a possible association between e-cigarettes and AEP. A 20-year-old previously healthy man was found to develop AEP after smoking an e-cigarette. He was treated with antibiotics and steroids and his symptoms improved. Though an alternative to traditional cigarettes, e-cigarettes can have unpredictable and potentially serious adverse effects. More research needs to be conducted to determine their safety. If seeing a patient in the ED with pulmonary symptoms after use of e-cigarettes, AEP should be considered in the differential. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [How to feed children? Healthy eating behaviors starting at childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M

    2012-01-01

    Interventions to prevent malnutrition or overweight in children focus on the diet, and give little attention to the behaviors of their caretakers. In their first two years of life, children adopt practices that are embedded in their environment and the behaviors of their caretakers, thus turning into nutrition patterns that will persist during their lifetimes. Therefore, children and caretakers establish a relationship in which they recognize, construe and respond to verbal and non verbal communication signs. Feeding a child by adopting a "responsive" behavior in which caretakers provide guidance and structure, and respond to children's signs of hunger and satiety promotes self-regulation and children's awareness of healthy nutrition. In this article, we give recommendations to include responsive nutrition and model healthy eating behaviors in nutritional interventions.

  15. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  16. Providing a Healthy Environment for Interracial Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joyce

    1984-01-01

    Children of intermarriages have special needs. They often encounter prejudice from other family members such as grandparents, and, in general, society does not know how to regard them. A bicultural approach to childbearing is necessary; it is most important that a child learn about the culture of the parent of color. (KH)

  17. Hypoxic challenge test applied to healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbernagel, Helene Elgaard; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Hanel, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Commercial aircraft are pressurised to ~2438 m (8000 ft) above sea level that equates breathing 15% oxygen at sea level. A preflight hypoxic challenge test (HCT) is therefore recommended for children with cystic fibrosis or other chronic lung diseases and inflight oxygen is advised if...

  18. Herpes Zoster in Two Healthy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kökçam

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster is an acute dermatomal viral infection caused by the reactivation of varicella zoster virus. The disease is commonly seen among elderly people and immunocompromised individuals, it is also rarely observed in immunocompetent children though. In this report, two herpes zoster cases with trigeminal-involvement in which no factors inducing the reactivation of the virus were detected are presented, as the disease is unusually seen during childhood.

  19. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  20. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  1. 76 FR 29769 - Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ...: Notice of a Noncompetitive Replacement Award to the University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department... University of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, in order to continue Healthy Tomorrows supported prevention and intervention services to low-income, underserved women, children and adolescents in...

  2. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Satwant K

    2011-01-01

    Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. The study is based on field investigations. Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects' mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.

  3. Herpes simplex ulcerative esophagitis in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman A; Fagih, Mosa A

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a common cause of ulcerative esophagitis in the immunocompromised or debilitated host. Despite a high prevalence of primary and recurrent Herpes simplex virus infection in the general population, Herpes simplex virus esophagitis (HSVE) appears to be rare in the immunocompetent host. We report three cases of endoscopically-diagnosed HSVE in apparently immunocompetent children; the presentation was characterized by acute onset of fever, odynophagia, and dysphagia. In two cases, the diagnosis was confirmed histologically by identification of herpes viral inclusions and culture of the virus in the presence of inflammation. The third case was considered to have probable HSVE based on the presence of typical cold sore on his lip, typical endoscopic finding, histopathological evidence of inflammation in esophageal biopsies and positive serologic evidence of acute Herpes simplex virus infection. Two cases received an intravenous course of acyclovir and one had self-limited recovery. All three cases had normal immunological workup and excellent health on long-term follow-up.

  4. Total brain, cortical and white matter volumes in children previously treated with glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara K; Madsen, Kathrine S; Vestergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids and elevated endogenous glucocorticoid-levels during childhood can have detrimental effects on the developing brain. Here, we examined the impact of glucocorticoid-treatment during childhood on brain volumes. METHODS: Thirty children and adolescents...... with rheumatic or nephrotic disease previously treated with glucocorticoids and 30 controls matched on age, sex, and parent education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Total cortical grey and white matter, brain, and intracranial volume, and total cortical thickness and surface area were...... were mainly driven by the children with rheumatic disease. Total cortical thickness and cortical surface area did not significantly differ between groups. We found no significant associations between glucocorticoid-treatment variables and volumetric measures. CONCLUSION: Observed smaller total brain...

  5. Galactose oxidation using 13C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Resende-Campanholi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-13C-galactose allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate 13CO2 enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-13C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of 13CO2 and 12CO2 were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of 13C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  6. Healthy Start: a comprehensive health education program for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Squillace, M M; Bollella, M C; Brotanek, J; Campanaro, L; D'Agostino, C; Pfau, J; Sprance, L; Strobino, B A; Spark, A; Boccio, L

    1998-01-01

    Healthy Start is a 3-year demonstration and education research project designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a multidimensional cardiovascular (CV) risk reduction intervention in preschool centers over a 3-year period of time. Two primary interventions are employed. The first is the preschool food service intervention program designed to reduce the total fat in preschool meals and snacks to less than 30% of calories and reduce the saturated fat to less than 10% of calories. The second major intervention is a comprehensive preschool health education curriculum, focused heavily on nutrition. Effectiveness of the intervention will be determined through evaluation of changes in dietary intake of preschool children at school meals and snacks, especially with respect to intake of total and saturated fat. Evaluation of the education component will include assessment of program implementation by teachers, assessment of changes in nutrition knowledge by preschool children, and assessment of changes in home meals that children consume (total and saturated fat content). Blood cholesterol will be evaluated semiannually to evaluate changes that may be due to modification of dietary intake. Growth and body fatness will also be assessed. While substantial efforts have targeted CV risk reduction and health education for elementary school children, similar efforts aimed at preschool children have been lacking. The rationale for beginning CV risk reduction programs for preschool children is based upon the premise that risk factors for heart disease are prevalent by 3 years of age and tend to track over time, most commonly hypercholesterolemia and obesity, both related to nutrition. Since the behavioral antecedents for nutritional risk factors begin to be established very early in life, it is important to develop and evaluate new educational initiatives such as Healthy Start, aimed at the primary prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in preschool children. The purpose of this

  7. Different healthy habits between northern and southern Spanish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Knox, Emily; Zabala, Mikel; Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Dalmau, Jose Maria; Muros, Jose Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Healthy habits are influenced by several factors such as geographical location. The aims of this study were to describe and compare healthy habits within two populations of sixth-grade primary school children (aged 11-12 years) from northern and southern Spain. A cross-sectional study using two representative samples of school children was conducted. Participants came from Logroño ( n  = 329) in the north and Granada ( n  = 284) in the south of Spain. Socio-demographic and anthropometric variables, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, aerobic fitness, and healthy lifestyles were recorded. Boys reported a higher level of physical activity and aerobic fitness than girls ( p  = 0.000). Southern school children reported significantly higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (♀: p  = 0.041; ♂: p  = 0.008), lower aerobic fitness (♀: p  = 0.000; ♂: p  = 0.042) and hours of nightly sleep (♀: p  = 0.008, ♂: p  = 0.007) than northern school children. Southern boys also reported lower levels of physical activity ( p  = 0.013). There were slight or moderate correlations among all habits measured (physical activity, diet, screen and sleep time). Additionally, the physical activity level was inversely related to weight status. Overweight and obese northern boys reported less physical activity than healthy-weight northern boys ( p  = 0.020) and overweight and obese southern girls reported less physical activity than healthy-weight southern girls ( p  = 0.024). Results showed differences in physical activity, eating and sleep habits, and aerobic fitness according to geographical location. The relationships found among lifestyle habits indicate the need for health promotion interventions nationally and considering the differences discussed here.

  8. 76 FR 59706 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... published in scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: Under the... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in healthy children with parental hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Harika; Ozdemir, Nihal; Wühl, Elke; Topuzoğlu, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters in offspring with at least one hypertensive parent (HP) to offspring with normotensive parents (NP) and to determine whether gender of parent or child might influence the association between parental hypertension and blood pressure (BP). Eighty-nine healthy children (mean age 11.1 +/- 3.9 years) with HP and 90 controls (mean age 10.5 +/- 3.1 years) with NP were recruited. Age, gender, and height did not differ between the two groups, whereas children of HP had higher weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference compared with healthy controls. No difference was found in casual BP between the two groups. In contrast, during ABPM daytime and nighttime mean systolic and diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) standard deviation scores (SDS) were significantly elevated in children with HP. The mean percentage of nocturnal BP decline (dipping) was not significantly different between the two groups. Children with hypertensive mothers had higher daytime systolic and MAP SDS than controls; no such difference was detected for children with hypertensive fathers. Daytime systolic and MAP SDS were significantly elevated in boys with HP compared with boys with NP but failed to be significant in girls. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that parental history of hypertension (B = 0.29) and BMI (B = 0.03) were independently correlated with increase of daytime MAP SDS. Early changes in ambulatory BP parameters were present in healthy children of HP. BP in HP offspring was influenced by the gender of the affected parent and the offspring.

  10. Primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, Phoebe H.; Amodio, John B.; Rivera, Rafael; Fefferman, Nancy R. [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We report the imaging findings of two recent cases of primary bacterial peritonitis in otherwise healthy children with a clinical presentation mimicking acute appendicitis. Primary bacterial peritonitis is rare in the absence of underlying systemic disease. Although it has been described in the pediatric literature, the imaging findings have not been described in the radiological literature to the best of our knowledge. With imaging playing an increasing role in the evaluation of appendicitis in children, it is important for the radiologist to be familiar with this inflammatory process. (orig.)

  11. Diet quality of children post-liver transplantation does not differ from healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaben, Abeer S; MacDonald, Krista; Robert, Cheri; Haqq, Andrea; Gilmour, Susan M; Yap, Jason; Mager, Diana R

    2017-09-01

    Little has been studied regarding the diets of children following LTX. The study aim was to assess and compare dietary intake and DQ of healthy children and children post-LTX. Children and adolescents (2-18 years) post-LTX (n=27) and healthy children (n=28) were studied. Anthropometric and demographic data and two 24-hour recalls (one weekend; one weekday) were collected. Intake of added sugar, HFCS, fructose, GI, and GL was calculated. DQ was measured using three validated DQ indices: the HEI-C, the DGI-CA, and the DQI-I. Although no differences in weight-for-age z-scores were observed between groups, children post-LTX had lower height-for-age z-scores than healthy children (P.05). The majority of children in both groups (>40%) had low DQ scores. No significant interrelationships between dietary intake, anthropometric, and demographic were found (P>.05). Both healthy and children post-LTX consume diets with poor DQ. This has implications for risk of obesity and metabolic dysregulation, particularly in transplant populations on immunosuppressive therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Typhi–Induced Septic Shock and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in a Previously Healthy Teenage Patient Treated With High-Dose Dexamethasone

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    Melissa Brosset Ugas MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is commonly characterized by fever and abdominal pain. Rare complications include intestinal hemorrhage, bowel perforation, delirium, obtundation, and septic shock. Herein we describe the case of a previously healthy 16-year-old male without history of travel, diagnosed with typhoid fever complicated by septic shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with high-dose dexamethasone. This case details severe complications of typhoid fever that are uncommonly seen in developed countries, and the successful response to high-dose dexamethasone as adjunct therapy. High-dose dexamethasone treatment has reportedly decreased Salmonella Typhi mortality, but controlled studies specifically performed in children are lacking, and most reports of its use are over 30 years old and all have originated in developing countries. Providers should include Salmonella Typhi in the differential diagnosis of the pediatric patient with fever, severe abdominal pain, and enteritis, and be aware of its potentially severe complications and the limited data on safety and efficacy of adjunctive therapies that can be considered in addition to antibiotics.

  13. The Rate of Addiction in Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Healthy Children

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    Tahereh Boryri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCongenital heart diseases (CHD are the most common congenital anomaly in children and also the leading cause of mortality from congenital anomalies. Various factors including smoking, drinking alcohol and addiction play role in development of congenital heart diseases. This study was conducted with the aim of investigation of the prevalence of addiction in parents of children with congenital heart disease compared with healthy children.Materials and MethodsThis was a case-control study conducted on 320 children with congenital heart disease aged 6 months to 16 years and 320 healthy children as control group. Children referring to Ali Asghar hospital or who were hospitalized in Imam Ali Hospital were included in the study and their demographic characteristics and their parents were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.ResultsAverage age of diseased and healthy children was 4.08 ± 4.11 and 3.59 ± 2.36, respectively. The rate of addiction of father, mother and parents of children with congenital heart disease was higher than those of children in control group. The most common congenital heart disease was ventricular septal defect (VSD.ConclusionIn overall, this study showed addiction rate of parents in children with congenital heart disease was higher.

  14. Natural course of sensitization to hen's egg in children not previously exposed to egg ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, D; Dupont, C

    2006-04-01

    Clinical adverse reactions to egg may occur in infants or children who have never eaten egg. They may be sensitized or even react at first egg ingestion. Few studies are available concerning the reality of egg white allergy in such sensitized children, the natural evolution of this condition and the appropriate decisions to make. To analyze the actuality and natural course of egg allergy in children sensitized without previous of hen's egg ingestion. We set up a clinical decision tree based on clinical history and specific egg white IgE to manage patients who had never ingested egg but were sensitized as demonstrated by a positive SPT and report a cohort of 30 such children The mean level of egg white specific IgE at first analysis, i.e. before 12 months, was high, 28.3 KU(A) /L, with a large range, from 0.6 to >100 KU(A) /L, below 6 KU(A) /L in only 8 patients. In 6 children ("no challenge" group), IgE values remained >8 KU(A) /L by the end of the survey and the oral challenge with egg was always denied. Their mean + SD IgE level was at 51.7 + 38 KU(A) /L at 1 year and 19.7 + 13 KU(A) /L at a mean age of 34 + 5 months. All had an associated anaphylactic reaction with milk and 5 were still allergic to milk by the end of the survey. In the remaining 24 infants, egg was given for the first time at a mean age of 30 + 9 months, by error in 4 cases, all exhibiting an immediate reaction, and in a hospital setting in 20, among whom 14 reacted. Among those 18, with a specific IgE level at 9.1 + 10 KU(A) /L at 28 + 9 months, 4 became tolerant between 3 and 4 years, with specific IgE levels below 1.3 KU(A) /L and a 5th one with specific IgE >100 KU(A) /L at 6 months tolerated scrambled eggs at age 7 year, with specific IgE at 2.6 KU(A) /L. In the 6 others, labeled "non allergic", egg white specific IgE levels were significantly lower, whatever the age, than in the "no challenge" group. The age at challenge was 35 + 8 months, with a mean specific IgE level at 1.0 + 0.9 KU

  15. A study of the Healthy Growth Charter in socially disadvantaged children

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    Massimo Musicco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Healthy Growth Charter is an educational and health-promoting project aimed at an active involvement of the primary school children in health surveillance and protection. Being duly acquainted of the matter, scholars are asked to fill by their own a questionnaire on height, weight, sport attendance and other items of medical and demographic interest. According to the project, problems suitable of corrective measures, such as amblyopia, are signalled to the families and dealt individually. The project has been previously tested on about 1500 boys and girls from various Italian regions, showing that, despite the limits of self-reported data, it provides information in line with literature. Health inequalities in children remain an important problem also in Italy, and a second test of the Healthy Growth Charter was launched in a group of socially disadvantaged children. As reported in this paper, overweight, reduced physical activity, visual problems and other items markedly differed in this with respect to the previous study. These results provide some indication on the potential role of social disadvantage and poverty on health status of children. To better tackle the problem of health inequalities, the actual surveillance systems should be empowered, preferably with an active educational involvement of children, translating the information into public health intervention policies.

  16. Comparison of Serum Apolipoprotein Levels of Diabetic Children and Healthy Children with or without Diabetic Parents

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    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The association of diabetes and atherosclerosis with disorders of lipids and lipoproteins, notably high apolipoprotein B (apoB and low apolipoprotein A1(apoA1 is well established. Because of the beginning of the atherosclerosis' process from early life, in this study, the plasma levels of apoA1 and apoB were compared in diabetic children with type I diabetes mellitus(DM, healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs,and healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDPs. Methods. This case-control study was conducted among 90 children aged 9–18 years. Serum levels of apoA and apoB were compared among 30 diabetic children (DM, 30 healthy children with diabetic parents (HDPs, and 30 healthy children with nondiabetic parents (HNDP. Results. The mean serum apoA1 was higher in DM (153±69 mg/dL followed by HNDPs (138±58 mg/dL and HDPs (128±56 mg/dl, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean apoB value in HNDPs was significantly lower than DM and HDPs (90±21 mg/dL versus 127±47 and 128±38 mg/dL, P0.05. Conclusions. Diabetic children and healthy children with diabetic parent(s are at higher risk of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Thus for primordial and primary prevention of atherosclerosis, we suggest screening these children for low plasma apoA1 and high plasma apoB levels.

  17. Planting Seeds to Grow Healthy Children: Strategic Community Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Planas, Jessica; Sullivan, Kelly; Tran, Hang; Cruz, Anna

    2018-02-01

    More than one third of U.S adults are considered obese, and childhood obesity has more than doubled in the past 30 years. Food security can influence obesity, in particular, within inner cities where access to healthy food is often limited. The use of a mobile food truck program (with refrigeration) was implemented in two large inner cities in Connecticut as part of an initiative aimed at helping low-income families with young children gain access to healthy food and nutrition education. Collaborating with community child care centers was used. The experiences of the families who participated in the program were assessed via focus groups. Main ideas derived from the focus groups were participant satisfaction with money saving suggestions, ideas for how to make healthier choices, and excitement about opportunities to receive foods that they would not normally buy. This innovative mobile food truck program demonstrated the value of strategic community partnerships to influence health.

  18. FEEDING DIFFICULTIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, PREVIOUS FEEDING PRACTICES, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Hélcio de Sousa; Aguiar, Renata Cunha de; Lira, Débora Teixeira Jales de; Sales, Mônica Úrsula Figuerêdo; Nóbrega, Nathalia Ávila do Nascimento

    2018-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of feeding difficulties in preschoolers, its association with epidemiological factors and previous eating habits, and repercussion on nutritional status. Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire given to the mothers of 301 children aged 2-6 years enrolled in public and private kindergartens in Natal, Northeast Brazil, conducted in 2014-2015. Feeding difficulty was assessed according to Kerzner's criteria, resulting in the profiles "highly selective intake", "active child with small appetite", "fear of feeding", and "child with psychological disorder or neglected". Association with the following independent variables was analyzed by logistic regression: breastfeeding time, age of cows' milk and complementary feeding introduction, age range, family income, type of school, mothers' profile (responsive or nonresponsive), and body mass index (BMI). Feeding difficulty was found in 37.2% of cases, with predominance of "highly selective intake" (25.4%). It was not associated with infancy feeding practices, family income or type of school. There were no differences between the BMI Z score means for the groups with and without feeding difficulty (1.0±1.5 SD and 1.1±1.4 SD, respectively). The five-to-six age range had more occurrences (OR 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-2.9). Children of responsive mothers were less likely to have feeding difficulties (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.2-0.8). Feeding difficulties were very frequent. Nutritional status was not impacted by it, and infancy eating habits were not associated with it. Responsive mothers' profile is a protective factor against eating difficulties and reinforces the importance of behavioral factors and mother-child interaction.

  19. Cognitive functioning in children and adolescents in their first episode of psychosis: differences between previous cannabis users and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Serna, Elena; Mayoral, María; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso; Andrés, Patricia; Bombin, Igor; González, Cristina; Rapado, Marta; Robles, Olalla; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose Manuel; Zabala, Arantzazu; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognition and prior cannabis use in children and adolescents presenting a first episode of psychosis. A total of 107 patients with first episode of psychosis and 96 healthy controls, aged 9 to 17 years, were interviewed about their previous substance use and to assess their cognitive functions. Patients were assessed while not using cannabis by means of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. They were divided into 2 groups depending on the history of prior cannabis use: cannabis users (CU) and cannabis nonusers (CNU). Significant differences were found in all areas evaluated between the 3 groups. Both CU and CNU patients obtained lower scores than controls on verbal learning and memory and working memory. Patients with prior cannabis use performed better on some tests of attention (Continuous performance test (CPT) number of correct responses, p = 0.002; CPT average reaction time, p < 0.001) and executive functions (Trail Making Test, part B (TMT-B) number of mistakes, p < 0.001; Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) number of categories completed, p < 0.001) than CNU patients. CU patients performed better than CNU subjects on some cognitive measures. This may indicate lower individual vulnerability for psychosis in CU patients in whom cannabis use can be a precipitating factor of psychotic episodes.

  20. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  1. Sex ratio at birth in India, its relation to birth order, sex of previous children and use of indigenous medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha Manchanda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sex-ratio at birth in families with previous girls is worse than those with a boy. Our aim was to prospectively study in a large maternal and child unit sex-ratio against previous birth sex and use of traditional medicines for sex selection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex-ratio among mothers in families with a previous girl and in those with a previous boy, prevalence of indigenous medicine use and sex-ratio in those using medicines for sex selection. RESULTS: Overall there were 806 girls to 1000 boys. The sex-ratio was 720:1000 if there was one previous girl and 178:1000 if there were two previous girls. In second children of families with a previous boy 1017 girls were born per 1000 boys. Sex-ratio in those with one previous girl, who were taking traditional medicines for sex selection, was 928:1000. CONCLUSION: Evidence from the second children clearly shows the sex-ratio is being manipulated by human interventions. More mothers with previous girls tend to use traditional medicines for sex selection, in their subsequent pregnancies. Those taking such medication do not seem to be helped according to expectations. They seem to rely on this method and so are less likely use more definitive methods like sex selective abortions. This is the first such prospective investigation of sex ratio in second children looked at against the sex of previous children. More studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  2. Peak expiratory flow rate in healthy children aged 6-17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Høst, A H; Ibsen, T

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured in a cross-sectional study in 861 healthy Danish schoolchildren aged 6-17 years using a Mini Wright peak flowmeter. We found a strong correlation between PEFR and height, age and sex. The results were comparable with those from previous studies using...... a Wright peak flowmeter. The equation for prediction of PEFR in boys was calculated as (3.8 x height) + (10.6 x age) - 313.2 (p age) - 143.9 (p ... coefficient in this large sample. Among healthy children without previous asthma, earlier episodes of recurrent wheezing were reported in 8.8% and a significantly lower PEFR was found in this group....

  3. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Thymopoiesis and regulatory T cells in healthy children and adolescents

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    Maria Izabel Arismendi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between T cell receptor excision circle levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and regulatory T cells that co-express CD25 and Foxp3 in healthy children and adolescents of different ages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The quantification of signal-joint T-cell receptor excision circle levels in the genomic DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed using real-time quantitative PCR. The analysis of CD4, CD8, CD25, and Foxp3 expression was performed using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Ninety-five healthy controls (46 females and 49 males ranging in age from 1 to 18 years were analyzed. The mean T-cell receptor excision circle count in all individuals was 89.095¡36.790 T-cell receptor excision circles per microgram of DNA. There was an inverse correlation between T-cell receptor excision circles counts and age (r = -0.846; p<0.001 as well as between the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and age (r = -0.467; p = 0.04. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between the amount of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells and the amount of Tcell receptor excision circles per microgram of DNA in individuals of all ages (r = -0.529; p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed a decrease in the thymic function with age based on the fact that the level of T-cell receptor excision circles in the peripheral blood positively correlated with the proportion of regulatory T cells in healthy children and adolescents. These findings indicate that although T-cell receptor excision circles and regulatory T cells levels decrease with age, homeostasis of the immune system and relative regulatory T cells population levels are maintained in the peripheral blood.

  5. Active Healthy Kids Canada's Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leblanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC's position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation).

  6. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masumeh; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011-May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.

  7. Quality of life in healthy children and in children with tension headaches--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarska, D

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was the assessment of the quality of life of children and adolescents with tension headaches in comparison with healthy peers. The study was conducted on 135 middle school and high school students in Poznań and on 86 children with tension headaches, that were treated in the out-patient clinic of The Chair and Clinic of Development Age Neurology of Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznań. The research tool for both groups was Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, version 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0) questionnaire. In the analysed groups dominated 14- and 16-year-old children. Among children with tension headaches, the ailments usually appeared once or twice a week in 39 (45%) of them. With the use of the PedsQL 4.0 questionnaire the following fields of activity were analyzed: biological, emotional, social functioning and mood. The biggest discrepancies between the group of healthy children and those with headaches were noted in the field of emotional functioning and mood. Adolescents with tension headaches more frequently reported the feeling of fear and sleep disorders in comparison to healthy students. Children with headaches look at the future in a more pessimistic way and are less satisfied with their lives.

  8. Dietary adequacy of Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder compared to healthy developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Anwar, Mona; Bjørklund, Geir; Hashish, Adel; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Hemimi, Maha; Sultan, Eman

    2017-04-01

    Although the etiology and pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still poorly understood, a number of environmental, anthropological, neurobiological and genetic factors have been related to the pathophysiology of ASD, even the impact of oxidative stress response related to the environment and nutrition intake. Usual recommended dietary habits are based on the combination of behavioral and dietary or nutraceutical interventions together with pharmacotherapy. Investigations about a reliable relationship between diet and ASD are still lacking. The present study aimed at comparing dietary regimens and habits of normally developing apparently healthy children, without diagnosed ASD, with a pediatric population of individuals affected by autistic disorder. Assessments of nutritional and anthropometric data, in addition to biochemical evaluation for nutrient deficiencies, were performed. A total of 80 children with autistic disorder and 80 healthy, normally developing pediatric individuals were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked to complete the standardized questionnaire regarding the different types of food and the proportion of a serving for their children. Biochemical analysis of micro- and macronutrients were also done. Plotting on the Egyptian sex-specific anthropometric growth (auximetric) chart, absolute weights as well as weight-related for age classes, were significantly higher in cases than healthy controls. No differences between groups were observed in regard to total kilocalories (kcal), carbohydrates, and fat intake. A total of 23.8% of children with autistic disorder vs. 11.3% in the healthy control group had a nutrient intake with features below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein. Children with autistic disorder showed low dietary intake of some micronutrients; calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) and sodium (Na), also they had significantly high intake of potassium (K) and vitamin C compared to healthy

  9. Arm trajectories and writing strategy in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappedi Matteo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of elementary writing skills in children is usually obtained with high resolution (and high cost techniques or with low resolution pen-and-paper tests. In this observational study we tested a quantitative method to obtain normative data to describe arm movement during a writing precursor gesture. Methods We recruited 226 healthy children (mean age 9,1 years [range: 6.3 – 11.4 years], attending primary schools belonging to the “Istituto Comprensivo” of Rivanazzano Terme (Pavia. We asked to drive a cursor through a polygonal path (labyrinth projected in front of them using a wireless mouse. Dartfish™ video analysis software was used to elaborate images and Excel™, MedCalc™ and Statistica 7™ to analyze values of shoulder, elbow and wrist ranges of motion, arm trajectories, execution times and gesture accuracy. Results Differences seen in motor strategies, when divided according to attended class, suggest a proximal-distal maturation of motor control. Obtained values were not significantly correlated with variables such as gender, ethnicity or cognitive functioning. Conclusions This type of approach to a study of arm movement during childhood represents a valid alternative to other tests, considering that it can differentiate children who perform similarly in the VMI test and is non-invasive, low-cost and easily reproducible.

  10. Understanding Infants' and Children's Social Learning about Foods: Previous Research and New Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the…

  11. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Karlsen, Gunn Hege; Nandy, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy...... the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection...

  12. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

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    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  13. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  14. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using 57 CoB12 and 51 CrCl 3 , the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%)

  15. Vitamin B12 absorption capacity in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjelt, K.; Krasilnikoff, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    B12 absorption was investigated in 47 healthy children aged 7 months to 15.8 years (median 4.9 years). The patients had either recovered from giardiasis, the post-gastroenteritis syndrome, or had celiac disease in remission (treated with a gluten-free diet). The B12 absorption was measured by a double-isotope technique using /sup 57/CoB12 and /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, the latter being the inabsorbable marker. The radiation dose was minimal. The results were presented as fractional absorption of B12 (FAB12). Within the different age groups, the absorption test was performed by means of the following oral amounts of B12: 0- less than 1 year, 0.5 microgram; 1-3 years: 1.7 micrograms, 4-6 years, 2.5 micrograms; 7-10 years; 3.3 micrograms; and 11-15 years, 4.5 micrograms. When using these oral amounts of B12, the medians (and ranges) of FAB12 were found to be: 1-3 years (n = 18), 37% (16-80%); 4-6 years (n = 10), 27% (19-40%); 7-10 years (n = 9), 32% (21-44%); and 11-15 years (n = 8), 27% (19-59%). The FAB12 in two children aged 7 and 11 months was 31% and 32%, respectively. These results may be interpretated as reference values for B12 absorption in children. Further absorption tests were performed in seven children representing the four age groups from 1 to 15 years. When a high oral amount of B12 was given (i.e., three times the saturation dose), the FAB12 ranged from 0 to 20% (median 9%), whereas a low amount (i.e., one-ninth of the saturation dose) produced fractional absorptions from 65 to 82% (median 74%).

  16. Radioimmunoassay of the androgen function at healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, S.; Grigorova, R.; Koparanova, O.

    1998-01-01

    The androgen function at 67 healthy children aged 1-18 years is studied. Three age groups (1-6 yrs., n=28; 7-12 yrs., n=19; 12-18 yrs., n=20) are examined. Measurements have been done of testosterone (T), Δ-4 androstenedione (Δ-4-A) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) by RIA kits of the Merieux. 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OHP), the basic precursor os the androgens, has been measured in the serum by the same RIA kits. An increase in T and Δ-4-A levels with age is observed with significantly higher levels for 12-18 year, compared to those of 1 - 6 years (p<0.02, p<0.002) and 7-12 years (p<0.001). There is reliably higher secretion of T and Δ-4-A in boys, compared to that in 12-18 year girls (p<0.01), while in groups of smaller children only a tendency has been established, probably due to the higher SD. Decrease of the SHBG levels with age has been determined. The lowest levels belong to the binding protein in boys of 12-18 (35.93 ± 8.19 nmol/l)), compared to the other boys as well as in girls in the groups of smaller children (p<0.01). SHBG correlates strong inversely with the levels of T and (Δ-4-A in the 12-18 year boys (8.05 ± 4.4 nmol/l; 19.9 ± 5.7 nmol/l). Probably the higher levels of the two androgens determine the decrease to the binding capacity of the SHBG between 7 and 18 age during sexual development in boys. Reliable difference between the levels of 17α OHP in the smaller groups (1 month - 1 yrs.; 7 - 12 yrs.), compared to the group od 12 - 17 yrs. (p<0.01) have been found. The present study determines referent ranges of the serum levels of T, Δ-4-A, SHBG and 17α OHP in healthy children aged 1 - 18 yrs. and provides information about androgen function in this age period. These hormones are important markers of androgen profile in many endocrine diseases in both sexes and the established reference range will serve for a prompt diagnosis and a regular therapeutic control in CAN, PCOS, hyperandrogenism etc

  17. Common genetic determinants of glucose homeostasis in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelliny, Clara; Ekelund, Ulf; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    ) were genotyped in 2,025 healthy European children aged 9-11 and 14-16 years. Associations with fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-insulin resistance (IR) and HOMA-B were investigated along with those observed for type 2 diabetes variants available in this study (CDKN2A/B, IGF....... A similar but weaker trend was observed for GCK (0.028 [-0.006 to 0.06] mmol/l, P = 0.11). All three variants were associated with lower beta-cell function (HOMA-B P = 9.38 x 10(-5), 0.004, and 0.04, respectively). SLC30A8 (rs13266634) was the only type 2 diabetes variant associated with higher fasting...

  18. 78 FR 13350 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... community-based initiatives; community characteristics (e.g., school environment); measurements of children... used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood obesity. Frequency of... Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) Summary: Under the...

  19. The prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity of oral Viridans streptococci in healthy children and children with disabilities in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salako, Nathanael O; Rotimi, Vincent; Philip, Leeba; Haidar, Hussien A; Hamdan, Hussien M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Viridans streptococci (VS) isolated from the oral cavity of healthy children and children with disabilities in Kuwait. Plaque samples were collected from the tooth and tongue surfaces of 102 healthy children and 102 children who were intellectually disabled and institutionalized. The resistance to seven antibiotics (amoxicillin, cephalothin, clindamycin, erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, and vancomycin) was tested. A total of 330 (44.5%) VS were isolated from the children who were healthy and 411 (55.5%) from children with disabilities. The most common isolates were S. salivarius (27.3%) in healthy children; S. sanguis (22.6%) was predominant among children who were disabled. S. mutans was found in 12.1% of the healthy children and in 16.5% of the children who were disabled. The combined percentage of resistant strains (healthy and disabled) was found to be highest with amoxicillin (43%) and lowest with vancomycin (12%). S. sanguis, S. mitis and S. oralis were more resistant in healthy children (45%, 56%, and 55% respectively) than in children with disabilities (40%, 47% and 47% respectively). S. mutans was the least resistant species to all antibiotics in both groups of children. About 56% of all streptococci isolated from both groups were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. The data showed that there was a difference in the level of resistance of oral VS isolated from healthy children and children with disabilities to some antibiotics commonly used in dentistry.

  20. Muscle development in healthy children evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tomoka; Nakayama, Takahiro; Kuru, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to use bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to generate a new muscle density index (MDI), the MDI_BIA, to evaluate muscle development, and to demonstrate the changes that occur in the BIA-based muscle cross-sectional area index (MCAI_BIA) that accompany growth. We also sought to determine the traceability of chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. Healthy children (n=112) aged 8.68±3.16years (0.33-14.00years) underwent bioelectrical impedance (BI) measurements of their upper arms, thighs, and lower legs. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were calculated, and cross-sectional investigations were conducted into the changes in these indices that accompanied growth. Data collected after 1.10±0.08years from 45 participants determined the traceability of the chronological changes in the MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA. The MDI_BIA and MCAI_BIA were significantly positively correlated with age and height at all locations (Pchildren, and they showed significant chronological increases. Hence, these indices could be used to represent muscle development and muscle mass increases. BIA is non-invasive, convenient, and economical and it may be useful in evaluating muscle development and muscle cross-sectional areas in children. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep Promotes Consolidation of Emotional Memory in Healthy Children but Not in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Munz, Manuel; Molzow, Ina; Wilhelm, Ines; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2013-01-01

    Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline) and delayed (target) retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline–corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake). We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta) during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD. PMID:23734235

  2. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Prehn-Kristensen

    Full Text Available Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline and delayed (target retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake. We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  3. Sleep promotes consolidation of emotional memory in healthy children but not in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Munz, Manuel; Molzow, Ina; Wilhelm, Ines; Wiesner, Christian D; Baving, Lioba

    2013-01-01

    Fronto-limbic brain activity during sleep is believed to support the consolidation of emotional memories in healthy adults. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by emotional deficits coincidently caused by dysfunctional interplay of fronto-limbic circuits. This study aimed to examine the role of sleep in the consolidation of emotional memory in ADHD in the context of healthy development. 16 children with ADHD, 16 healthy children, and 20 healthy adults participated in this study. Participants completed an emotional picture recognition paradigm in sleep and wake control conditions. Each condition had an immediate (baseline) and delayed (target) retrieval session. The emotional memory bias was baseline-corrected, and groups were compared in terms of sleep-dependent memory consolidation (sleep vs. wake). We observed an increased sleep-dependent emotional memory bias in healthy children compared to children with ADHD and healthy adults. Frontal oscillatory EEG activity (slow oscillations, theta) during sleep correlated negatively with emotional memory performance in children with ADHD. When combining data of healthy children and adults, correlation coefficients were positive and differed from those in children with ADHD. Since children displayed a higher frontal EEG activity than adults these data indicate a decline in sleep-related consolidation of emotional memory in healthy development. In addition, it is suggested that deficits in sleep-related selection between emotional and non-emotional memories in ADHD exacerbate emotional problems during daytime as they are often reported in ADHD.

  4. Counselling parents on young children's healthy diet: A modified scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg Fagerlund, Bettina; Helseth, Sølvi; Owe, Jenny; Glavin, Kari

    2017-12-01

    To map and describe key information in existing research about counselling of parents of children aged 0-2 years on the child's healthy diet in preventive healthcare settings, particularly in public health nursing. Many parents are likely to be concerned with their infant's food-related happiness "here and now," disregarding the child's long-term health and development related to feeding practices. Hence, a focus on counselling parents in considering young children's healthy diet is important. A modified scoping review with an inductive qualitative content analysis of selected empirical studies. Systematic searches in EMBASE (1996-2015 Week 46), Ovid Nursing Database (1946-2015 November Week 1), Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid OLDMEDLINE (2000-18 November 2015) and CINAHL (2000-22 December 2015), using search terms based on aims. Eight included studies, with participants per sample ranging from 19->500. Research designs were focus group discussions and/or interview study (n = 2), cluster-randomised trials (n = 2), randomised controlled trials (n = 2), a follow-up interview study (n = 1) to a previous randomised controlled trial and a cross-sectional electronic questionnaire study (n = 1). The studies included a total sample of 2,025 participants, 42 of them in interview studies. Findings indicate parents' perceptions of inconsistency, misconceptions and uncertainty related to the recommendations on child feeding from the authorities. Thus, adapted advice could impact healthier child diet. Maternal knowledge on child feeding and reduced use of food as a reward are mediators for improved diet quality in children. Counselling on young children's healthy diet should be anticipatory, consistent and adapted to the family. Due to inconsistent recommendations and omitted focus on anticipatory counselling on child feeding, parents might perceive pressure and uncertainty related to the child's diet. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  6. Child perceptions of parental care and overprotection in children with cancer and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The primary aims of this study were to: (a) examine child perceptions of overprotection; and (b) explore how these perceptions relate to child health and adjustment. Children with a prior diagnosis of cancer (n = 205) and children without a history of serious illness (n = 76) reported on parental overprotective and caring behaviors. Children with cancer were recruited from one of four strata based on the elapsed time since their cancer diagnosis (1-6 months; 6-24 months; 2-5 years; >5 years) Children also reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress. Children with cancer did not differ from healthy children in their perceptions of parental care or overprotection. Child distress was more strongly related to perceptions of care and overprotection than child's health status. Children with cancer do not report their parents approach to care and protection differently than children without a cancer history. These findings mirror prior research examining parental perceptions of overprotection and suggest that, despite the challenges of parenting a child with serious illness, parental protection is not significantly altered.

  7. Perceptions of Healthy Eating: A Qualitative Study of School-Going Children in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, S.; Thomas, T.; Kurpad, A. V.; Vaz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To document children's views on healthy eating, perceptions of healthy and unhealthy foods and health consequences of consuming unhealthy foods. Design: Baseline data from a three-year longitudinal study. Setting A purposive sample of 307 school children aged 7 to 15 years were recruited from three schools representing various…

  8. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: In compliance... Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS). Type of...

  9. Patch tests in children: a review of 13 years of experience in comparison with previous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milingou, Maria; Tagka, Anna; Armenaka, Melina; Kimpouri, Konstantina; Kouimintzis, Dimitris; Katsarou, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The true prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children remains unknown. Our aim was to compare the results of patch tests in children with suspected ACD between two different periods of time and identify possible changes in emerging allergens. We compared contact allergens, gender, age distribution, and personal history of atopic dermatitis (AD), in correlation with the positivity of patch tests, between two equal periods of time (232 children tested during 1980-1993, period A, and 255 children during 1994-2007, period B) in the same region and in the same institution. Patch test positivity was 47.8% in period A, and 60% in period B (p = 0.083). The most common allergens in period A were: nickel sulfate (16.3%), cobalt chloride (8.6%), fragrance mix (7.3%), potassium dichromate (4.3%), and thimerosal only (1.7%). In period B, the allergen distribution was as follows: nickel sulfate (21.56%), thimerosal (18.03%), cobalt chloride (12.9%), potassium dichromate (9.4%), and fragrance mix (4.7%). Girls were more likely to have a positive patch test compared with boys, with reactions in 53% of girls and 39% of boys in period A (p = 0.003), and 61% of girls and 58% of boys in period B (p = 0.691). Twenty-nine per cent of patients with positive results had a personal history of AD in period A and 44% in period B (p = 0.015). Differences in the positivity of allergens between different time periods reflect changes in habits, of allergens exposure or preventive measures.

  10. Nasal Carriage and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy preschool children in Ujjain, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Megha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that community acquired S. aureus infections are spreading among healthy children. Nasal colonization with S. aureus plays pivotal role in the increasing prevalence of resistant community acquired S. aureus infections worldwide. A regular surveillance system is important in ensuring quality of patient care. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of and the factors associated with nasal carriage of S. aureus and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern among healthy children in Ujjain, India. Methods A prospective study was done in paediatric outpatient clinics of R.D. Gardi medical college Ujjain, India. Healthy children from 1 month to 59 months of age were included. Information on previously known risk factors for nasal colonization was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Swabs from anterior nares were collected and transported in Amies transport media with charcoal and cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed using Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method according to performance standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. Results Of the 1,562 children from 1-month up-to five years of age included in the study 98 children tested positive for nasal carriage of S. aureus. The prevalence of nasal carriage of S. aureus was 6.3% (95% CI 5.1-7.5 out of which 16.3% (95% CI 8.9-23.8 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA. The factors associated with nasal carriage were "child attending preschool" (OR 4.26, 95% CI 2.25-8.03; P = 0.007 or "school" (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.27-7.18; P P = 0.03. The sensitivity pattern of isolated S. aureus showed resistance to commonly used oral antibiotics while resistance to glycopeptides was not noted. Conclusions We found a relatively low rate of nasal carriage of S. aureus in children below five years when compared to children of older age groups in India. Yet, prevalence of MRSA was relatively high.

  11. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, Lucie; Gallagher, Frances; Haggerty, Jeannie

    2012-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2-5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL). Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents' representation of children's overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1) describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2) describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers' parents; 3) explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4) try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4-5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child's weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and correlational statistical analyses will be done on the quantitative

  12. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Adriana C?ndida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimar?es

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. METHODS This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed...

  13. Kids: Passing on Healthy Habits to Your Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should I start talking to my kids about sex? What are examples of healthy rewards? Resources American Academy of Family Physicians, Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet American Academy of Family ...

  14. Catching-up: Children with developmental coordination disorder compared to healthy children before and after sensorimotor therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Niklasson

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to (a compare healthy children in terms of sensorimotor maturity to untreated children diagnosed with developmental coordination disorder (DCD and (b compare healthy children to diagnosed children following completed treatment with sensorimotor therapy. Participants were 298 children, 196 boys and 102 girls, distributed into a Norm group of healthy children (n = 99 and a group of children diagnosed with DCD (n = 199 with a total mean age of 8.77 years (SD = 2.88. Participants in both groups were assessed on instruments aimed to detect sensorimotor deviations. The children in the DCD group completed, during on average 36 months, sensorimotor therapy which comprised stereotypical fetal- and infant movements, vestibular stimulation, tactile stimulation, auditory stimulation, complementary play exercises, gross motor milestones, and sports-related gross motor skills. At the final visit a full assessment was once more performed. Results showed that the Norm group performed better on all sensorimotor tests as compared to the untreated children from the DCD group, with the exception of an audiometric test where both groups performed at the same level. Girls performed better on tests assessing proprioceptive and balance abilities. Results also showed, after controls for natural maturing effects, that the children from the DCD group after sensorimotor therapy did catch up with the healthy children. The concept of "catching-up" is used within developmental medicine but has not earlier been documented with regard to children and youth in connection with DCD.

  15. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide and multiple breath nitrogen washout in preschool healthy and asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmann, Lea; Buchvald, Frederik; Green, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Objectively assessing pulmonary disease is challenging in preschool children with asthma. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO) and multiple breath nitrogen washout (N2MBW) in children. We compared their capacities for discriminating between...... children with asthma and healthy controls. Methods We measured FeNO and N2MBW-derived indices of lung clearance (LCI2.5) and conductive and acinar ventilation heterogeneity (Scond and Sacin) in 65 preschool children; 35 with physician-diagnosed asthma and 30 healthy. FeNO was measured with a portable.......023), but similar FeNO, LCI2.5 and Sacinvalues. Conclusion The feasibility of measuring FeNO was highly age-dependent and not applicable in children under age 4. N2MBW was feasible in the majority of preschool children. Scond, but not FeNO, could discriminate between children with asthma and healthy controls....

  16. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  17. [Comparison of the present and previously used protocol of risk stratification in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodkowska, Eliza; Bialas, Agnieszka; Jackowska, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is one of the most common cancers in children. In Poland, since November 2002 a new protocol of risk stratification has been recommended for assessment of risk factors and for choosing therapy regimens. assessment of accuracy of protocol ALL-IC 2002 in comparison to previously used risk stratification protocols. ALL was diagnosed in 100 children (44 girls, 56 boys; 1-18 years of age) in the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Warsaw Medical University, over the period from November 2002 to November 2006. According to the ALL-IC 2002 protocol the patients were divided into three risk groups: SR-standard, IR-intermediate and HR-high. The stratification was by age, leukocyte count, cytogenetic changes, early response to prednisone therapy and bone marrow remission. In the previously used risk stratification protocols-BFM-90, only hepatosplenomegaly and the number of blasts in peripheral blood (PB) were considered, and the patients were divided into three risk groups: low (LRG1.2). out of the 100 patients qualified for treatment regimens according to the ALL-IC 2002 protocol, 97 entered remission, 11 died and 3 had a relapse. Under the ALL-IC 2002 protocol these children were stratified into the following groups: SR-31%, IR-44% and HR-25%. In the previously used stratification, there would be 26% children in low, 46% in the medium and 28% in the high risk group. According to the BFM-90 protocol 18/31 (58%) and 16/44 (36%) patients from the SR and IR groups respectively would be given more intensive treatment. On the other hand 11/44 (25%) and 14/25 (56%) patients from the IR and HR groups respectively would be given less intensive treatment. 1. ALL-IC 2002 protocol in comparison with the previously used protocol BFM-90, changes the qualification of children with ALL for the SR, IR and HR risk groups. This is linked to basic change of treatment protocol, adequate to severity of disease. 2. Children with ALL qualified

  18. Supporting parents of preschool children in adopting a healthy lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemelin Lucie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a public health epidemic. In Canada 21.5% of children aged 2–5 are overweight, with psychological and physical consequences for the child and economic consequences for society. Parents often do not view their children as overweight. One way to prevent overweight is to adopt a healthy lifestyle (HL. Nurses with direct access to young families could assess overweight and support parents in adopting HL. But what is the best way to support them if they do not view their child as overweight? A better understanding of parents’ representation of children’s overweight might guide the development of solutions tailored to their needs. Methods/design This study uses an action research design, a participatory approach mobilizing all stakeholders around a problem to be solved. The general objective is to identify, with nurses working with families, ways to promote HL among parents of preschoolers. Specific objectives are to: 1 describe the prevalence of overweight in preschoolers at vaccination time; 2 describe the representation of overweight and HL, as reported by preschoolers’ parents; 3 explore the views of nurses working with young families regarding possible solutions that could become a clinical tool to promote HL; and 4 try to identify a direction concerning the proposed strategies that could be used by nurses working with this population. First, an epidemiological study will be conducted in vaccination clinics: 288 4–5-year-olds will be weighed and measured. Next, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with 20 parents to describe their representation of HL and their child’s weight. Based on the results from these two steps, by means of a focus group nurses will identify possible strategies to the problem. Finally, focus groups of parents, then nurses and finally experts will give their opinions of these strategies in order to find a direction for these strategies. Descriptive and

  19. Effect of organic school meals to promote healthy diet in 11–13 year old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Breiting, Søren; Perez-Cuetoa, Federico J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether organic school meals can be an effective strategy to pro- vide healthy food to children and promote their healthy eating habits. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine pupils’ attitudes predicting intention and behaviours in relation to organic food...... to consume organic food but not on their behaviour. In addition, all participants were willing to adopt healthier eating habits in the future both at school and in the home. These findings suggest that children attending schools where meals include organic ingredients might be more aware of healthy foods......, organic foods and healthy eating habits....

  20. Pinch Strengths in Healthy Iranian Children and Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the physical strength capabilities are essential for design-ing safe and usable products and are useful in a wide range of clinical settings especially during treatment of disease affecting the function of the hand. The purpose of this study was to determine peak lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions in a healthy Iranian children and young adult population.Methods: The study was conducted among 511 participants (242 males and 269 females aged 7-30 years. Measurements were carried out with both dominant and non-dominant hands in standard sitting posture using a B&L pinch gauge. Two repetitions of each strength measurement were recorded for each condition and the average value of the two trials was used in the subsequent analysis.Results: The results showed significant differences in the pinch strength data in terms of the age, gender and hand dominance. The lateral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions by females were 68.4%, 68.8%, 78.8% and 81.8% of those exerted by males, respectively. Strength exertions with the non-dominant hand were 6.4%, 5.2%, 6.6% and 5.1% lower than strength exertions of the dominant hand for the lat-eral pinch strength, key pinch strength, tip-to-tip pinch strength and three-jaw pinch strength exertions, respectively.Conclusion: These findings can be used to fill the gaps in strength data for Iranian population.

  1. Growing Healthy Kids: A School Enrichment Nutrition Education Program to Promote Healthy Behaviors for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierregger, Alyssa; Hall, Johnna; Sehi, Natalie; Abbott, Mary; Wobig, Karen; Albrecht, Julie A.; Anderson-Knott, Mindy; Koszewski, Wanda

    2015-01-01

    The Growing Healthy Kids Program is a school-based nutrition education program that teaches students in Kindergarten through 2nd grade about healthy eating, physical activity, and how their body uses food. Pre- and post-knowledge data is collected from the students to measure changes in nutrition knowledge. In the first 2 years of the program,…

  2. Body Mass Disorders in Healthy Short Children and in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Paweł; Milde, Katarzyna; Majcher, Anna; Pyrżak, Beata; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of adiposity and the incidence of body mass disorders, including abdominal obesity, in healthy short children and children with growth hormone deficiency. The study included 134 short children (height hormonal disorders and 71 patients (35 boys and 36 girls) with growth hormone deficiency. Basic somatic features were assessed and the study participants were categorized according to the percentage of body fat (%FAT), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). We found that there were no significant differences in %FAT and the incidence of body weight disorders depending on gender or diagnosis. %FAT deficit was observed in 12-21% of the participants and underweight in almost every fourth child. Overweight involved 3-14% of the participants and obesity was diagnosed in isolated cases (0-3%); both were considerably lower compared to the estimates based on %FAT. Using the cut-off points of WHtR, abdominal adiposity was observed in 3-15% of the participants. In conclusion, quite a large number of short children (between 25 and 50%) are characterized by abnormal body fat or body mass index values. The results indicate a limited usefulness of BMI in evaluating the incidence of overweight and obesity in children characterized by a height deficit.

  3. Intestinal microbiota in healthy U.S. young children and adults--a high throughput microarray analysis.

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    Tamar Ringel-Kulka

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that the infant's microbiota is established during the first 1-2 years of life. However, there is scarce data on its characterization and its comparison to the adult-like microbiota in consecutive years.To characterize and compare the intestinal microbiota in healthy young children (1-4 years and healthy adults from the North Carolina region in the U.S. using high-throughput bacterial phylogenetic microarray analysis.Detailed characterization and comparison of the intestinal microbiota of healthy children aged 1-4 years old (n = 28 and healthy adults of 21-60 years (n = 23 was carried out using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip phylogenetic microarray targeting the V1 and V6 regions of 16S rRNA and quantitative PCR.The HITChip microarray data indicate that Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Clostridium cluster IV and Bacteroidetes are the predominant phylum-like groups that exhibit differences between young children and adults. The phylum-like group Clostridium cluster XIVa was equally predominant in young children and adults and is thus considered to be established at an early age. The genus-like level show significant 3.6 fold (higher or lower differences in the abundance of 26 genera between young children and adults. Young U.S. children have a significantly 3.5-fold higher abundance of Bifidobacterium species than the adults from the same location. However, the microbiota of young children is less diverse than that of adults.We show that the establishment of an adult-like intestinal microbiota occurs at a later age than previously reported. Characterizing the microbiota and its development in the early years of life may help identify 'windows of opportunity' for interventional strategies that may promote health and prevent or mitigate disease processes.

  4. Physical Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Children with Repaired Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqout, Mahmoud; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Michels, Nathalie; Bove, Thierry; François, Katrien; De Wolf, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether children who underwent surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) are as fit as their peers. We studied 66 children (6-14 years) who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect (n = 19), coarctation of aorta (n = 10), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 15), and transposition of great arteries (n = 22); and 520 healthy children (6-12 years). All children performed physical fitness tests: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, balance, flexibility, and speed. Metabolic score was assessed through z-score standardization using 4 components: waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin resistance. Assessment also included self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity. Linear regression analyses with group (CHD vs control) as a predictor were adjusted for age, body mass index, physical activity, and parental education. Measured physical activity level, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, and total metabolic score did not differ between children with CHD and controls, whereas reported physical activity was greater in the CHD group than control group. Boys with CHD were less strong in upper muscular strength, speed, and balance, whereas girls with CHD were better in lower muscular strength and worse in balance. High-density lipoprotein was greater in boys and girls with CHD, whereas boys with CHD showed unhealthier glucose homeostasis. Appropriate physical fitness was achieved in children after surgery for CHD, especially in girls. Consequently, children with CHD were not at increased total metabolic risk. Lifestyle counseling should be part of every patient interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Attachment security as a mechanism linking foster care placement to improved mental health outcomes in previously institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously institutionalized children was explained by the development of secure attachment among children placed in FC. Second we evaluated the role of lack of attachment in an institutionalized sample on the etiology of internalizing disorders within the context of a randomized trial. A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) residing in institutions was recruited in Bucharest, Romania. Children were randomized to FC (n = 68) or to care as usual (CAU; n = 68). Foster parents were recruited, trained, and overseen by the investigative team. Attachment security at 42 months was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure, and internalizing disorders at 54 months were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Girls in FC had fewer internalizing disorders than girls in CAU (OR = 0.17, p = .006). The intervention had no effect on internalizing disorders in boys (OR = 0.47, p = .150). At 42 months, girls in FC were more likely to have secure attachment than girls in CAU (OR = 12.5, p security predicted lower rates of internalizing disorders in both sexes. Development of attachment security fully mediated intervention effects on internalizing disorders in girls. Placement into FC facilitated the development of secure attachment and prevented the onset of internalizing disorders in institutionalized girls. The differential effects of FC on attachment security in boys and girls explained gender differences in the intervention effects on psychopathology. Findings provide evidence for the critical role of disrupted attachment in the etiology of internalizing disorders in children exposed to institutionalization. © 2011 The Authors

  6. Relationships between Dietary Intake and Cognitive Function in Healthy Korean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Seung Wan

    2017-01-01

    It has long been theorized that a relatively robust dietary intake impacts cognitive function. The aim of the study was to explore dietary intake and cognitive function in healthy Korean children and adolescents. Three hundred and seventeen healthy children with no previous diagnosis of neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated (167 girls and 150 boys with a mean age of 11.8 ± 3.3 years). Analysis indicators including food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) consisting of 76 items and neurocognitive tests including symbol digit modalities (SDMT), verbal memory, visual memory, shift attention, reasoning, and digit span (forward and backward) tests were observed and recorded. The standard deviation in reaction time was significantly shorter in girls than in boys (p Coca-Cola showed negative correlation with the results of verbal memory tests (p < 0.05). The consumption of mushrooms showed positive correlation with visual memory and reasoning test results (p < 0.05). The consumption of nuts showed positive correlation with SDMT results (p < 0.01). Omission errors were negatively correlated with the intake of protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin B6 (p < 0.05), as well as with vitamin D and zinc intake (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation with caffeine intake (p < 0.05). Omission errors were positively correlated with the consumption of rice and ramyeon (p < 0.01). Reaction time showed positive correlation with the consumption of snacks (p < 0.05). Standard deviations in reaction times showed positive correlation with the consumption of rice (p < 0.01), snacks, and chocolate (p < 0.05). Omission errors were negatively correlated with the consumption of rice with mixed grains (p < 0.01) and eggs (p < 0.05). The relationship between dietary intake and cognitive function is generally better observed in girls than in boys. The consumption of healthy foods is correlated with good cognitive function. These results suggest that diet is

  7. Healthy body, healthy mind?: the effectiveness of physical activity to treat ADHD in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Berwid, Olga G; O'Neill, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Data from animal studies provide convincing evidence that physical exercise enhances brain development and neurobehavioral functioning in areas believed to be impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To a lesser but still compelling extent, results from studies in typically developing children and adults indicate beneficial effects of exercise on many of the neurocognitive functions that have been shown to be impaired in children with ADHD. Together, these data provide a strong rationale for why a program of structured physical exercise might serve as an effective intervention for children with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Examining opportunities for promotion of healthy eating at children's sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2010-12-01

    Australian data indicate that 63% of children participated in sport in 2009, a 4% increase since 2000. Children's high participation in sport, and the association between sport and health, means that these settings provide an opportunity to promote other aspects of health, such as healthy eating, to children. This study aimed to determine healthy eating practices and policies at children's sports clubs. Sports clubs (n=108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5 to 14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas across one state and one territory in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire for sports club officials was developed to determine the food and beverages sold, provided and promoted at sports clubs and the availability of healthy-eating policies. The most frequently sold item at canteens was water, followed by sports drinks, chocolate/confectionery and soft drink. Only 20% of canteens promoted healthy food. Thirty-nine per cent of clubs made recommendations on the food and beverages to be consumed during sport, mostly relating to water consumption. The majority (76%) engaged in fundraising; many in collaboration with chocolate/confectionery companies. Only three clubs had a written policy on healthy eating. Addressing the low uptake of healthy eating policies would be a useful strategy to improve the healthiness of sports clubs. Policies could seek to reduce the availability and promotion of unhealthy food and beverages through canteens, vending machines and fundraising. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Preschool Children's Healthy Lifestyles: South African Parents' and Preschool Staff Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karen; Forinder, Ulla; Clarke, Marina; Snyman, Stefanus; Ringsberg, Karin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective…

  10. Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Scott

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Methods The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6 from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary. Results Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day-1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013. This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days. In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day-1, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007 and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day-1, 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027 on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Conclusions Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial

  11. A healthy school start - Parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: Design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and determined to a large extent by dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Previous research has shown that school-based programmes are effective but that their effectiveness can be improved by including a parental component. At present, there is a lack of effective parental support programmes for improvement of diet and physical activity and prevention of obesity in children. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale and design of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in six-year-old children starting school. The study is performed in close collaboration with the school health care and is designed as a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a mixed methods approach. In total, 14 pre-school classes are included from a municipality in Stockholm county where there is large variation in socio-economic status between the families. The school classes are randomised to intervention (n = 7 and control (n = 7 groups including a total of 242 children. The intervention is based on social cognitive theory and consists of three main components: 1 a health information brochure; 2 two motivational interviewing sessions with the parents; and 3 teacher-led classroom activities with the children. The primary outcomes are physical activity in the children measured objectively by accelerometry, children's dietary and physical activity habits measured with a parent-proxy questionnaire and parents' self-efficacy measured by a questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are height, weight and waist circumference in the children. The duration of the intervention is six months and includes baseline, post intervention and six months follow-up measurements. Linear and logistic regression models will be used to analyse differences between intervention and control groups in the outcome variables. Mediator and moderator analysis will be performed

  12. Radioimmunological determination of somatomedin B in healthy children and in children with growth disturbances

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    Wirth, S.; Schoenberger, W.; Roth, A.; Grimm, W. (Children' s Hospital and Department of Clinical Radiologie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, FRG)

    1983-01-01

    Serum somatomedin B levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 209 healthy boys and girls from one month to 16 years of age. Low values were found up to the second year life. In the first year the mean level was 13.8 mg/l in girls and 11.5 mg/l in boys. In older children the values increased to levels between 13 and 22 mg/l in boys and between 13 and 18.5 mg/l in girls. They were independent of the stage of pubertal development. Somatomedin B levels were normal in 71 children with constitutional growth delay, primordial dwarfism, familial dwarfism and other forms of growth disturbance. The mean levels were between 12.1 and 14.4 mg/l. Values below 6 mg/l were present only in children with hGH deficiency. In these patients we could find an increase of the mean level from 4.3 mg/l without therapy to 9.4 mg/l under treatment. Thus the determination of somatomedin B seems to be useful for the diagnosis of hGH deficiency.

  13. Parents' Agreement to Purchase Healthy Snack Foods Requested by Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Diane E.; Reiboldt, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Research shows that parents agree to purchase their children's food requests 45% to 65% of the time. This study examined an after-school nutrition education intervention in terms of its effects on parents' agreement to purchase healthy snack foods requested by their children. Survey data from 755 parents were analyzed. Of the 67% of parents asked…

  14. Clonal structure of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing children with sickle cell anaemia and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumburg, F.; Biallas, B.; Alabi, A. S.; Grobusch, M. P.; Feugap, E. N.; Lell, B.; Mellmann, A.; Peters, G.; Kremsner, P. G.; Becker, K.; Adegnika, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) might carry hospital-associated bacterial lineages due to frequent hospital stays and antibiotic treatments. In this study we compared Staphylococcus aureus from SCA patients (n=73) and healthy children (n=143) in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. S. aureus

  15. Response profiles of oxygen uptake efficiency during exercise in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Hulzebos, Erik H J; Helbing, Willem A.; Ten Harkel, Arend D J; Van Brussel, Marco; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxygen uptake efficiency (OUE), the relation between oxygen uptake (VO2) and minute ventilation (VE), differs between healthy children and children with heart disease. This study aimed to investigate the normal response profiles of OUE during a progressive cardiopulmonary exercise test.

  16. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  17. Do Healthy Preterm Children Need Neuropsychological Follow-Up? Preschool Outcomes Compared with Term Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Anna M.; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F.; Bultrini, Massimiliano; De Marchis, Chiara; Rava, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. Method : A total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33…

  18. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

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    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection and inflammation even with negative microscopy, negative cultures, and negative broad range polymerase chain reaction in cases of Listeria meningitis. Follow-up spinal taps can be necessary to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes.

  19. [Changes in food consumption pattern among Chilean school children after the implementation of a healthy kiosk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Nelly; Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Vio, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    In Chilean school there is a kiosk that sells a large number of high-calorie products. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers that children have for buying healthy food and evaluate changes in the pattern of food purchases during a school year at a school where a "Healthy Space" was created. We designed implemented and assessed changes in food purchases by developing a "Healthy Space" which included a kiosk that incorporated a range of healthy food at affordable prices. The staff in charge of the kiosk was trained and we generate communication and marketing strategies to promote the consumption of healthy food. A validated survey to determine food purchases was applied to 9-12 year-old children from both schools at baseline and follow up 8 months later. The total number of schoolchildren was 477 (291 from the intervention and 115 from the control school). There weren't significant differences in the amount of money available to buy food between children of both schools. There was a significant increase in the purchase of fruit, milk, yoghurt, soft drinks and light juices, dried seeds, healthy sandwiches and non-fat ice cream (p increase in the supply of affordable healthy food, including communication and marketing strategies, significantly increases the consumption of these products among school children.

  20. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls--Physical Activity Questionnaire application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rita; Melo, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Daniel; Coelho, Janine; Carvalho, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen) is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level). Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males) and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males) answered the questionnaire. There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40±0,7 vs 2,48±0,62; p=0,32). Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p=0,011) and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p=0,036). No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigating Young Children's Perceptions of Body Size and Healthy Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…

  2. Teaching Healthy Habits to Young Children: Handwashing, Toileting and Toothbrushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikanlu, Seyi

    2006-01-01

    Teaching children habits is a routine part of many early childhood program curricula, with teachers never really stopping to think about what or how teaching is affecting their students. Habits are formed with consistent practice. Habits can be taught to children easily when teachers have some creativity to the actions. In this article, the author…

  3. The joint effect of tangible and non-tangible rewards on healthy food choices in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Verhoeven, Maxime; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated how a combination of tangible and non-tangible rewards can alter health-related decisions made by children. Children chose between an unhealthy food option (a bowl of potato crisps) and a healthy food option (a bowl of grapes) on two occasions. In the first round, we manipulated the expected tangible reward and praise. The tangible reward was manipulated by means of a game that the child received upon choosing the healthy product, and the praise was manipulated by means of the teacher's applause and smiles if the child selected the healthy option. The second trial occurred three days after the first trial using the same food item options. Neither tangible rewards nor praise influenced the children's choices by themselves, but combining the two substantially increased the children's likelihood of selecting the healthy food choice. The data were consistent with a reattribution process akin to social labelling. Although initially externally motivated to select the healthy option, the children who received praise appeared to interpret their choice as internally motivated and therefore continued to select the healthy option even in the absence of reward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diet qualities: healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet quality in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah E; Ramsden, Megan; Kaye, Gail

    2016-06-01

    Diet quality indexes combine the healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet within a single construct, but few studies have evaluated their association. Emerging evidence suggests that predictors differ for the more and less healthy components of children's diets. Our objectives were to determine whether preschool-aged children's frequency of eating healthy foods was inversely related to their intake of unhealthy foods and to determine whether this differed by household income, maternal education, or child race-ethnicity. We analyzed data from a representative sample of 8900 US children (mean age: 52.5 mo) who were born in 2001 and participated in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Primary caregivers reported the frequency with which children consumed fruit, vegetables, milk, juice, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast food, sweets, and salty snacks in the past week. Response options ranged from none to ≥4 times/d. We created healthy (fruit, vegetables, milk) and unhealthy (SSBs, fast food, sweets, salty snacks) diet scores. Healthy diet behaviors were defined as ≥2 daily servings of fruit, vegetables, and milk. The prevalence of consuming fruit, vegetables, and milk ≥2 times/d (i.e., having 3 healthy diet behaviors) was 18.5%, and a similar proportion (17.6%) of children had none of these healthy behaviors. Contrary to our hypotheses, children with more healthy diet behaviors did not have lower unhealthy diet scores. The intake of healthy foods was not inversely associated with unhealthy foods overall or within any subgroup. Overall, the Spearman rank correlation between healthy and unhealthy diet scores was positive (r = 0.09). From the lowest to the highest strata of household income, these correlations were 0.12, 0.14, 0.14, 0.05, and 0.00, respectively. No evidence was found in US preschool-aged children of an inverse association between eating healthy and unhealthy foods. The implications of combining healthy and unhealthy aspects of diet

  5. Energy cost of ambulation in healthy and disabled Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Reyes, O B; Reyes, T M; So, F Y; Matti, B M; Lardizabal, A A

    1988-11-01

    The energy expenditures (Ee) for locomotion by nondisabled and disabled Filipino children aged 7 to 13 were determined and compared using indirect calorimetry. Forty-one controls (20 boys and 21 girls) ambulated at a comfortable pace; 16 children (eight boys and eight girls) with lower extremity poliomyelitis of varying severity ambulated by (1) wheelchair propulsion, (2) bilateral axillary crutches, (3) unilateral lower extremity ankle-foot orthoses or knee-ankle-foot orthoses, and (4) unassisted. Disabled children, regardless of their mode of ambulation, had to expend significantly more energy to ambulate than normal children (p less than 0.05). Wheelchair propulsion cost 16% more energy than the normal gait; crutch ambulation cost 41% more than the control. Children using unilateral braces sacrificed speed to attain near-normal Ee. When they ambulated without orthoses, their Ee increased by 109% over the control. In ascending order, the least energy was expanded by normal ambulation followed by disabled ambulation with unilateral brace, disabled propelling a wheelchair, disabled ambulation with bilateral axillary crutches, and disabled ambulation without brace. Efficiency of locomotion was reflected in the values obtained for Ee in terms of kcal x 10(-3)/kg/m, as demonstrated by the lower Ee but slower ambulation of children with braces, as compared to the nondisabled children.

  6. Assessment of mastication in healthy children and children with cerebral palsy: a validity and consistency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijn, L; Speyer, R; Groen, B E; Holtus, P C M; van Limbeek, J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M W G

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the Mastication Observation and Evaluation instrument for observing and assessing the chewing ability of children eating solid and lumpy foods. This study describes the process of item definition and item selection and reports the content validity, reproducibility and consistency of the instrument. In the developmental phase, 15 experienced speech therapists assessed item relevance and descriptions over three Delphi rounds. Potential items were selected based on the results from a literature review. At the initial Delphi round, 17 potential items were included. After three Delphi rounds, 14 items that regarded as providing distinctive value in assessment of mastication (consensus >75%) were included in the Mastication Observation and Evaluation instrument. To test item reproducibility and consistency, two experts and five students evaluated video recordings of 20 children (10 children with cerebral palsy aged 29-65 months and 10 healthy children aged 11-42 months) eating bread and a biscuit. Reproducibility was estimated by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). With the exception of one item concerning chewing duration, all items showed good to excellent intra-observer agreement (ICC students: 0.73-1.0). With the exception of chewing duration and number of swallows, inter-observer agreement was fair to excellent for all items (ICC experts: 0.68-1.0 and ICC students: 0.42-1.0). Results indicate that this tool is a feasible instrument and could be used in clinical practice after further research is completed on the reliability of the tool. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Fresh Food Program Promotes Healthy Eating Habits among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Stacy

    2008-01-01

    Communities across the nation are fighting the increased incidence of childhood obesity and Type II diabetes. With funding from USDA's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES), a group in Illinois is promoting environmental sustainability and healthy eating habits in young Americans. Seven Generations Ahead's…

  8. 77 FR 26019 - Healthy Tomorrows Partnership for Children Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., effectiveness and impact of community-based projects post HTPCP funding, and the ability of projects to develop... communities. HTPCP has long encouraged Healthy Tomorrows projects involved in case management/care... Pediatrics (AAP). Up to $176,855 will be awarded over a one-year extended project period. The National...

  9. A 14-mo zinc-supplementation trial in apparently healthy Chilean preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, M; Castillo-Duran, C; Lara, X; Codoceo, J; Rebolledo, A; Atalah, E

    1997-12-01

    Apparently healthy preschool children (46 boys, 52 girls) aged 27-50 mo from low socioeconomic conditions who attended daycare centers in Santiago participated in a 14-mo long double-blind zinc supplementation trial. Unlike most previous studies, no additional inclusion criteria such as short stature or slow growth rate were considered. Subjects were pair matched according to sex and age and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the supplemented group, which received 10 mg Zn/d, and the placebo group. Selected anthropometric, clinical, dietary, biochemical, and functional indexes were determined at the beginning of the study and after 6 and 14 mo of intervention. Actual dietary zinc intake was 66% of the recommended dietary allowance. Height gain after 14 mo was on average 0.5 cm higher in the supplemented group (P = 0.10). The response, however, was different between sexes. Boys from the supplemented group gained 0.9 cm more than those in the placebo group (P = 0.045). No effect was seen in girls. Although no significant differences were observed in the rest of the variables studied, trends (0.05 < P < 0.10) in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group for increased midarm muscle area in boys, improved response to tuberculin, and reduced rates of parasite reinfestation were noted. We conclude that in preschool children of low socioeconomic status, zinc is a limiting factor in the expression of growth potential.

  10. Swedish nurses encounter barriers when promoting healthy habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungkrona-Falk, Lena; Brekke, Hilde; Nyholm, Maria

    2014-12-01

    To increase the understanding of difficulties in promoting healthy habits to parents, we explore barriers in health-care provision. The aim of this study is to describe nurses' perceived barriers when discussing with parents regarding healthy food habits, physical activity and their child's body weight. A mixed method approach was chosen. Nurses (n = 76) working at 29 different Child Health Care Centers' in an area in west Sweden were included in the study. Three focus group interviews were conducted and 17 nurses were selected according to maximum variation. Data were categorized and qualitative content analysis was the chosen analysis method. In the second method, data were obtained from a questionnaire distributed to all 76 nurses. The latent content was formulated into a theme: even with encouragement and support, the nurses perceive barriers of both an external and internal nature. The results identified four main barriers: experienced barriers in the workplace-internal and external; the nurse's own fear and uncertainty; perceived obstacles in nurse-parent interactions and modern society impedes parents' ability to promote healthy habits. The nurses' perceived barriers were confirmed by the results from 62 of the nurses who completed the questionnaire. Despite education and professional support, the health professionals perceived both external and internal barriers in promoting healthy habits to parents when implementing a new method of health promotion in primary care. Further qualitative studies are needed to gain deeper understanding of the perceived barriers when promoting healthy habits to parents. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Temporal organization of rest defined by actigraphy data in healthy and childhood chronic fatigue syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Minako; Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Kawatani, Junko; Tomoda, Akemi; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-04

    Accumulating evidence has shown a universality in the temporal organization of activity and rest among animals ranging from mammals to insects. Previous reports in both humans and mice showed that rest bout durations followed long-tailed (i.e., power-law) distributions, whereas activity bouts followed exponential distributions. We confirmed similar results in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Conversely, another report showed that the awakening bout durations, which were defined by polysomnography in bed, followed power-law distributions, while sleeping periods, which may correspond to rest, followed exponential distributions. This apparent discrepancy has been left to be resolved. Actigraphy data from healthy and disordered children were analyzed separately for two periods: time out of bed (UP period) and time in bed (DOWN period). When data over a period of 24 h were analyzed as a whole, rest bouts showed a power law distribution as previously reported. However, when UP and DOWN period data were analyzed separately, neither showed power law properties. Using a newly developed strict method, only 30% of individuals satisfied the power law criteria, even when the 24 h data were analyzed. The human results were in contrast to the Drosophila results, which revealed clear power-law distributions for both day time and night time rest through the use of a strict method. In addition, we analyzed the actigraphy data from patients with childhood type chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS), and found that they showed differences from healthy controls when their UP and DOWN data were analyzed separately. These results suggested that the DOWN sleep, the bout distribution of which showed exponential properties, contributes to the production of long-tail distributions in human rest periods. We propose that separate analysis of UP and DOWN period data is important for understanding the temporal organization of activity.

  12. UnAdulterated - children and adults' visual attention to healthy and unhealthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Hooge, Ignace T C; Maas, Josje; Evers, Catharine; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2015-04-01

    Visually attending to unhealthy food creates a desire to consume the food. To resist the temptation people have to employ self-regulation strategies, such as visual avoidance. Past research has shown that self-regulatory skills develop throughout childhood and adolescence, suggesting adults' superior self-regulation skills compared to children. This study employed a novel method to investigate self-regulatory skills. Children and adults' initial (bottom-up) and maintained (top-down) visual attention to simultaneously presented healthy and unhealthy food were examined in an eye-tracking paradigm. Results showed that both children and adults initially attended most to the unhealthy food. Subsequently, adults self-regulated their visual attention away from the unhealthy food. Despite the children's high self-reported attempts to eat healthily and importance of eating healthily, children did not self-regulate visual attention away from unhealthy food. Children remained influenced by the attention-driven desire to consume the unhealthy food whereas adults visually attended more strongly to the healthy food thereby avoiding the desire to consume the unhealthy option. The findings emphasize the necessity of improving children's self-regulatory skills to support their desire to remain healthy and to protect children from the influences of the obesogenic environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Demographic profile of healthy children with nasopharyngeal colonisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae: A research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Raman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies. Objectives: Identify risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonisation of S.pneumoniae in healthy children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Determine the serotype and antibiotic sensitivity of S. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children. Methods: This prospective observational included 500 healthy children, 6months to 5 years of age. Demographic features of the study population, the serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of S.Pneumoniae isolated from cultures of nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: S. pneumoniae was isolated in 9% of 450 children. Increased nasopharyngeal carriage rate was associated with overcrowding 48.8% and poor ventilation 35.5%. 6B (n=16 was the most common serotype isolated. 69% were serogroups known to cause invasive disease All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Antimicrobial susceptibility of PCV 7 serotypes were greater than non PCV 7 serotypes for almost all antimicrobials tested. Penicillin resistance was 11 % and MDR 51%

  14. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  15. Promoting Children's Healthy Social-Emotional Growth: Dialogue Journal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Park, Sol

    2017-01-01

    Dialogue journals are a form of writing in which a student and a teacher carry on a conversation over time. This paper addresses the benefits of using dialogue journals for promoting a positive social-emotional learning (SEL) environment for children in school settings. Educators and researchers have increasingly acknowledged the importance of SEL…

  16. PERCEIVED DISCOMFORT LEVELS IN HEALTHY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING IN VACCINE RESEARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Anna E.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Aarts, Fenne; Rodenburg, Gerwin D.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Hak, Eelko; Scharloo, Margreet; Sukhai, Ram N.; Wit, Jan M.; de Beaufort, Inez; Sanders, Elisabeth (Lieke) A. M.

    WHEN ASSESSING THE RISKS OF A research protocol, review boards need to consider not only the possible harms but also the expected discomfort levels caused by the various study procedures. However, data on how children experience various study procedures are scarce. This study assessed perceived

  17. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled air of healthy children: reference values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Jobsis (Quirijn); R.H. Raatgeep (Rolien); S.L. Schellekens; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); P.W.M. Hermans (Peter); J.C. de Jongste (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAn increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a marker of inflammation, has been described in the condensate of exhaled air from adults and children with inflammatory lung disorders, including asthma. However, the normal range of [H2O2] in the exhaled

  18. Children's reaction to depictions of healthy foods in fast-food television advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Amy M; Wilking, Cara; Gottlieb, Mark; Emond, Jennifer; Sargent, James D

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009, quick-service restaurant chains, or fast-food companies, have agreed to depict healthy foods in their advertising targeted at children. To determine how children interpreted depictions of milk and apples in television advertisements for children's meals by McDonald's and Burger King (BK) restaurants. Descriptive qualitative study in a rural pediatric practice setting in Northern New England. A convenience sample of 99 children (age range, 3-7 years) was shown depictions of healthy foods in fast-food advertisements that aired from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011. The images from McDonald's and BK showed milk and apples. Children were asked what they saw and not prompted to respond specifically to any aspect of the images. Two still images drawn from advertisements for healthy meals at McDonald's and BK. Children's responses were independently content coded to food category by 2 researchers. Among the 99 children participating, only 51 (52%) and 69 (70%) correctly identified milk from the McDonald's and BK images, respectively, with a significantly greater percentage correct (P = .02 for both) among older children. The children's recall of apples was significantly different by restaurant, with 79 (80%) mentioning apples when describing the McDonald's image and only 10 (10%) for the BK image (P McDonald's was communicated adequately to the target audience. Representations of milk were inadequately communicated to preliterate children. Televised depictions of apple slices by BK misled the children in this study, although no action was taken by government or self-regulatory bodies.

  19. Prevalence of alveolar bone loss in healthy children treated at private pediatric dentistry clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria do Carmo Machado; de Araújo, Valéria Martins; Avena, Márcia Raquel; Duarte, Daniel Rocha da Silva; Freitas, Francisco Valter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alveolar bone loss (BL) in healthy children treated at private pediatric dentistry clinics in Brasília, Brazil. The research included 7,436 sites present in 885 radiographs from 450 children. The BL prevalence was estimated by measuring the distance from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to alveolar bone crest (ABC). Data were divided in groups: (I) No BL: distance from CEJ to ABC is 2 and 3 mm. Data were treated by the chi-square nonparametric test and Fisher's exact test (pchildren should never be underestimated because BL occurs even in healthy populations, although in a lower frequency.

  20. Neck Circumference as a Predictor of Adiposity among Healthy and Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity, particularly in the upper part of body, is a major health problem. Because body mass index (BMI does not adequately describe regional adiposity, other indices of body fatness are being explored. OBJECTIVES: To determine if neck circumference is a valid measure of adiposity (fat distribution among group of Egyptian children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study, included 50 obese subjects, aged 7 - 12 years recruited from Endocrine, obesity and Metabolism Pediatric Unit at Children Hospital, Cairo University and 50 healthy children, age and sex matched. All children were subjected to blood pressure assessment (systolic SBP and diastolic DBP, and anthropometric assessment (body weight, height, neck circumference (NC, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, and skin fold thicknesses at three sites: biceps, triceps and sub scapular. BMI [weight (kg/height (m2] was calculated. RESULTS: In healthy females, significant associations were detected between NC and SBP, DBP and all anthropometric measurements. However, in healthy males NC was not significantly associated with BMI, SBP and DBP. In the obese group; both sexes; insignificant association was found between NC and SBP, DBP, BMI and skinfold thickness. CONCLUSION: NC is related to fat distribution among normal healthy female children. However, this relation disappears with increasing adiposity. The results do not support the use of NC as a useful screening tool for childhood obesity.

  1. The energy cost of playing active video games in children with obesity and children of a healthy weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, C; Roche, E F; Hussey, J

    2014-08-01

    Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour form a large part of the treatment of paediatric obesity. However, many children today spend prolonged periods of time playing sedentary video games. Active video games (AVGs) represent a novel and child friendly form of physical activity. To measure the energy cost of playing two AVGs in children with obesity and healthy age- and gender-matched children. The energy cost of gaming and heart rates achieved during gaming conditions were compared between groups. AVG play can result in light-to-moderate intensity physical activity (2.7-5.4 metabolic equivalents). When corrected for fat-free mass those with obesity expended significantly less energy than healthy weight peers playing Nintendo Wii Fit Free Jogging (P = 0.017). No significant difference was seen between groups in the energy cost of playing Boxing. Certain AVGs, particularly those that require lower limb movement, could be used to increase total energy expenditure, replace more sedentary activities, or achieve moderate intensity physical activity among children with obesity. There seems to be some differences in how children with obesity and children of a healthy weight play AVGs. This could result in those with obesity expending less energy than their lean peers during AVG play. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  2. Healthy caregivers-healthy children (HC2) phase 2: Integrating culturally sensitive childhood obesity prevention strategies into childcare center policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Lebron, Cynthia; Moise, Rhoda; Sunil Mathew, M; Sardinas, Krystal; Chang, Catherina; Palenzuela, Joanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Shelnutt, Karla P; Spector, Rachel; Altare, Fiorella; Natale, Ruby

    2017-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children, most states lack childcare center (CCC) nutrition and physical activity policies. The Healthy Caregivers, Healthy Children (HC) Phase 2 project is examining the relationship between the CCC nutrition and physical activity environment and child dietary intake/physical activity patterns and body mass index (BMI). A total of 24 "Quality Counts" (Miami Dade County, Florida's Quality Rating Improvement System [QRIS)]) CCCs serving low resource families with ≥50 2-to-5year olds attending have been randomized to either intervention (n=12) or control (n=12). The HC2 intervention arm CCCs receive implementation of a daily curricula for (1) teachers/parents; (2) children; (3) snack, beverage, physical activity, and screen time policies; and (4) technical assistance with menu modifications. Control arm schools receive an attention control safety curriculum. HC2 is delivered once a month in year 1, quarterly in year 2 and will be disseminated throughout the Quality Counts network in year 3. Primary outcome measures include the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation tool (EPAO), standardized dietary intake and physical activity patterns surveys, and child BMI. The 'Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM)' framework will guide the interpretation of outcome measures. CCCs are in need of evidence-based standardized nutrition and physical activity policies. The intersection of RE-AIM and early childhood obesity prevention in the childcare setting could generate robust and new information to the field about potential barriers, facilitators, adoption, and sustainability in this setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of Resting Energy Expenditure: Validation of Previous and New Predictive Equations in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar-Tek, Nilüfer; Ağagündüz, Duygu; Çelik, Bülent; Bozbulut, Rukiye

    2017-08-01

    Accurate estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) in childrenand adolescents is important to establish estimated energy requirements. The aim of the present study was to measure REE in obese children and adolescents by indirect calorimetry method, compare these values with REE values estimated by equations, and develop the most appropriate equation for this group. One hundred and three obese children and adolescents (57 males, 46 females) between 7 and 17 years (10.6 ± 2.19 years) were recruited for the study. REE measurements of subjects were made with indirect calorimetry (COSMED, FitMatePro, Rome, Italy) and body compositions were analyzed. In females, the percentage of accurate prediction varied from 32.6 (World Health Organization [WHO]) to 43.5 (Molnar and Lazzer). The bias for equations was -0.2% (Kim), 3.7% (Molnar), and 22.6% (Derumeaux-Burel). Kim's (266 kcal/d), Schmelzle's (267 kcal/d), and Henry's equations (268 kcal/d) had the lowest root mean square error (RMSE; respectively 266, 267, 268 kcal/d). The equation that has the highest RMSE values among female subjects was the Derumeaux-Burel equation (394 kcal/d). In males, when the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had the lowest accurate prediction value (12.3%), the highest values were found using Schmelzle's (42.1%), Henry's (43.9%), and Müller's equations (fat-free mass, FFM; 45.6%). When Kim and Müller had the smallest bias (-0.6%, 9.9%), Schmelzle's equation had the smallest RMSE (331 kcal/d). The new specific equation based on FFM was generated as follows: REE = 451.722 + (23.202 * FFM). According to Bland-Altman plots, it has been found out that the new equations are distributed randomly in both males and females. Previously developed predictive equations mostly provided unaccurate and biased estimates of REE. However, the new predictive equations allow clinicians to estimate REE in an obese children and adolescents with sufficient and acceptable accuracy.

  4. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from th...

  5. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid and Healthy Children: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahtab ORDOOEI; Hadi MOTTAGHIPISHEH; Razieh FALLAH*; Azar RABIEE

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Ordooei M, MottaghiPisheh H, Fallah R, Rabiee A. Cognitive Outcomes for Congenital Hypothyroid andHealthy Children: A Comparative Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4): 28-32.AbstractObjectiveEarly diagnosis and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and the prevention of developmental retardation is the main goal of public health national screening programs. This study compares the cognitive ability of children with CH diagnosed by neonatal screening wit...

  6. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also confirm suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria. Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Immunity ...

  7. Levels of serum immunoglobulins in apparently healthy children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    suggestions that levels of some immunoglobulin types seen amongst African adults may have possibly been attained during childhood. Our study could be of value since previous reports in this regard have been relatively scanty especially in this part of Nigeria. Keywords: Immunoglobulin, Immunity, IgA, IgG, IgM.

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection in apparently healthy South Indian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Caszo, B.; Raj, T.; Vaz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been established as a major cause of chronic gastritis in adults, and it has been implicated in the genesis of gastric carcinomas and the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is now postulated that neatly 90% of the adult population in developing countries may be affected with the infection since childhood. Earlier studies on Indians using serology and endoscopic biopsy have shown a high incidence of H. pylori infection in small numbers of patients. The 13 C-urea breath test, which is simple, specific and non-invasive, is also increasingly being used to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Preliminary data from India has shown a high prevalence in the urban Indian environment, and there is an urgent need to quantify the prevalence of H. pylori infections on an epidemiological basis in both urban and rural settings. It is also important to study the possible impact of this infection on growth in children, particularly in environments with low sanitation and high crowding. In this paper, we outline a proposal to study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in children from the following different environments: urban middle socio-economic class, urban slum, rural middle socio-economic class and rural village. (author)

  9. The Effects of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Positive and Negative Life Events on a One-Year Course of Depressive Symptoms in Euthymic Previously Depressed Patients Versus Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet; Roelofs, Karin; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    We investigated a) the concurrent impact of positive and negative life events on the course of depressive symptoms in persons remitted from depression and healthy controls, b) whether the impact of life events on symptom course is moderated by the history of depression and the personality traits of

  10. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P stage showed a steady...... increase in girls between 2.51 micrograms/L (median) at Tanner stage 1 to 6.24 micrograms/L at Tanner stage 5. In boys, leptin levels were highest at Tanner stage 2 (2.19 micrograms/L) and declined thereafter to 0.71 microgram/L at Tanner stage 5. A strong exponential relationship was observed for leptin...... levels with body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat as determined by bioelectric impedance measurements in a subgroup of subjects. This relationship was similar between boys and girls at Tanner stages 1 and 2. In boys, there was a significant decline of leptin at a given BMI with further...

  11. Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Depuis 2003, le partenariat canado-ougandais Enfants en santé Ouganda - Healthy Children Uganda (HCU) a mis en oeuvre un programme de bénévolat en santé dans 175 villages. ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  12. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy Venezuelan children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintero, B.; Araque, M.; Gaast-de Jongh, C.E. van der; Escalona, F.; Correa, M.; Morillo-Puente, S.; Vielma, S.; Hermans, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5 years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of

  13. Examining the causal association of fasting glucose with blood pressure in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, T S; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, P W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether genetically raised fasting glucose (FG) levels are associated with blood pressure (BP) in healthy children and adolescents. We used 11 common genetic variants of FG discovered in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including the rs560887 single...

  14. The Academic and Psychological Benefits of Exercise in Healthy Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin; Laumann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the psychological benefits exercise is connected to in healthy children and adolescents. Studies on the effect of exercise on academic performance, self-esteem, emotions, and mood were examined. Academic performance is found to be maintained when normal academic classes are reduced and replaced by an increase in exercise,…

  15. Establishing and explaining the impact of characters on young children's healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, S.M. de

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide the number of overweight children rises dramatically. One way to prevent overweight is by creating healthy eating habits from a very young age. This dissertation explores whether and how 4- to 6-year-olds’ fruit and vegetable choices can be stimulated by using an immensely popular

  16. Nordic Children's Conceptualizations of Healthy Eating in Relation to School Lunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Linda; Talvia, Sanna; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Arnfjörð, Unnur Björk; Hörnell, Agneta; Ólafsdóttir, Anna Sigríður; Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Wergedahl, Hege; Lagström, Hanna; Waling, Maria; Olsson, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Pupils' perspective should be better taken into account when developing nutrition education at school. The purpose of this paper is to explore Nordic children's perspectives on the healthiness of meals in the context of school lunches. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 78 focus group discussions were conducted with 10-11-year-old…

  17. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  18. Is parenting style related to children's healthy eating and physical activity in Latino families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva M; Elder, John P; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic characteristics on their use of controlling styles to promote a healthy home environment. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from a community sample of Latino parents (n = 812) and their children in kindergarten through second grade. Parental use of positive reinforcement and monitoring was associated with children's healthy eating and exercise. Also, parents' use of appropriate disciplining styles was associated with healthier eating, while parental use of control styles was associated with unhealthy eating. The daughters of parents who used controlling styles ate more unhealthy foods than did the sons. Older, employed and more acculturated parents used less controlling styles than their counterparts. Parenting interventions targeting children's dietary intake and physical activity should encourage parents to use more positive reinforcement and monitor their children's health behaviors as these parenting styles are associated with healthier behaviors. Moreover, intervention researchers may want to encourage Latino parents to use less controlling styles with girls as this parenting style increased girls' risk for unhealthy eating.

  19. Skin temperature in the extremities of healthy and neurologically impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Lena E; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Nordahl, Gunnar; Lundeberg, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Little emphasis has been accorded to peripheral skin temperature impairments in children with neurological disorders but attention has been paid to the significance of cold extremities (autonomic failure) for well-being and quality of life in adults stroke patients. Therefore, it seems important to investigate skin temperature in children with neurological disorder, especially when their communication is impaired. In the present study, we wanted to objectively verify any skin temperature differences between pre-school children with and without neurological disorders and also ascertain if any correlation existed between skin temperature and physical activity. Skin temperatures in 25 healthy children and 15 children with cerebral or spinal cord damages were assessed using infrared radiation. The temperatures were recorded on the palm and the dorsal surface of the hands and on the sole and dorsal surface of the feet three times at 15-minute intervals over 30min. A significant lower mean skin temperature in all measurement points was seen in non-walking children with cerebral damages compared to healthy controls. Also, the mean skin temperature was significantly lower in all foot measuring points in the children with cerebral damages that were unable to walk compared to those walking. In conclusion, as cold extremities may result in impaired well-being and hypothetically may be associated with other symptoms born by the child, further investigations of thermal dysfunction and autonomic function are of importance and treatment may be warranted.

  20. Contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the knee in healthy children; establishing normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nusman, Charlotte M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG), Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gulik, E.C. van; Barendregt, Anouk M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Diseases, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis (OLVG), Department of Pediatrics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reade, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2018-03-15

    To define normative standards for the knee in healthy children using contrast-enhanced MRI, focusing on normal synovial membrane thickness. Secondly, presence of joint fluid and bone marrow oedema was evaluated. For this study, children without disorders potentially resulting in (accompanying) arthritis were included. Patients underwent clinical assessments, followed by contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI features were evaluated in consensus using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system. Additionally, the presence of joint fluid was evaluated. No cartilage lesions or bone abnormalities were observed. We included 57 healthy children. The overall mean thickness of the normal synovial membrane was 0.4 mm (min-max; 0.0-1.8mm). The synovium was thickest around the cruciate ligaments and retropatellar and suprapatellar regions. The mean overall diameter of the largest pocket of joint fluid was 2.8 mm (min-max; 0.9-8.0mm). Bone marrow changes were observed in three children (all in the apex patellae). The normal synovial membrane was maximally 1.8 mm thick, indicating that the JAMRIS cut-off value of 2 mm can be considered a valid measure for evaluating synovial hypertrophy. Some joint fluid and bone marrow changes suggestive of bone marrow oedema in the apex patellae can be seen in healthy children. (orig.)

  1. Contrast-enhanced MRI findings of the knee in healthy children; establishing normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemke, Robert; Maas, Mario; Berg, J.M. van den; Schonenberg-Meinema, Dieneke; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Nusman, Charlotte M.; Gulik, E.C. van; Barendregt, Anouk M.; Dolman, Koert M.

    2018-01-01

    To define normative standards for the knee in healthy children using contrast-enhanced MRI, focusing on normal synovial membrane thickness. Secondly, presence of joint fluid and bone marrow oedema was evaluated. For this study, children without disorders potentially resulting in (accompanying) arthritis were included. Patients underwent clinical assessments, followed by contrast-enhanced MRI. MRI features were evaluated in consensus using the Juvenile Arthritis MRI Scoring (JAMRIS) system. Additionally, the presence of joint fluid was evaluated. No cartilage lesions or bone abnormalities were observed. We included 57 healthy children. The overall mean thickness of the normal synovial membrane was 0.4 mm (min-max; 0.0-1.8mm). The synovium was thickest around the cruciate ligaments and retropatellar and suprapatellar regions. The mean overall diameter of the largest pocket of joint fluid was 2.8 mm (min-max; 0.9-8.0mm). Bone marrow changes were observed in three children (all in the apex patellae). The normal synovial membrane was maximally 1.8 mm thick, indicating that the JAMRIS cut-off value of 2 mm can be considered a valid measure for evaluating synovial hypertrophy. Some joint fluid and bone marrow changes suggestive of bone marrow oedema in the apex patellae can be seen in healthy children. (orig.)

  2. Barriers to healthy eating: Findings from the focus groups with older people and children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazbare, Laura; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    or potential behavioural change in terms of healthier eating, discussing pre-selected healthy and unhealthy food categories. The revised Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical framework. Results: The study suggests that the main obstacles to change can be grouped into motivational and implementation......), "liking" remains the main food choice criterion, including the healthy foods. Conclusion: The study presented a number of barriers to healthy eating identified by older people and children/adolescents. Based on the results of the study, further investigations should be undertaken in this area...... barriers. The motivational barriers are unwillingness to change eating habits, satisfaction with current diets and misconception about their healthiness; relatively low health consciousness and unwillingness to become excessively health-oriented. Implementation barriers include remembering the change...

  3. Kidney growth in 717 healthy children aged 0-18 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Main, Katharina M; Damgaard, Ida N

    2004-01-01

    Kidney size is an important parameter in the evaluation of children with renal disease. However, reference materials for kidney size in healthy children have been limited beyond the neonatal period. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 717 healthy children born at term with normal birth...... weight. Kidney size and shape were determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, and body size (weight, length, body surface area, skinfold thickness) at 0, 3, and 18 months of age. Gender-differentiated reference charts were established. Boys had significantly larger kidney volumes than...... girls ( Page. The best single predictor of gender-differentiated kidney volume was weight. Relative kidney volume changed with increasing age and height in a two-phase pattern: an initial...

  4. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF EMOTIONAL CONDITION OF HEALTHY SCHOOLCHILDREN AND CHILDREN WITH POLLINOSIS AT THE AGE OF 11–17 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Muradova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative characteristics of emotional condition of healthy schoolchildren and children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old was performed with Spielberg-Hanin questionnaire on the basis of computer psychophysiological complex CPPC-99 «Psichomat».One hundred seventy-five healthy schoolchildren and 46 children with pollinosis at the age of 11–17 years old were included to the study. No significant difference in reactive anxiety between children with pollinosis and healthy children was found. It was shown, that pollinosis (in 35% significantly and concomitant diseases, such as bronchial asthma (in 57 significant influence on personality anxiety, in comparison with healthy children (significant personality anxiety was found in 3% of cases. It was revealed, that all children from control group with high anxiety rate (3% were 17-year-old adolescents.

  5. [Are children from resort spa healthy? The overweight and obesity in children from Kudowa-Zdrój].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połubok, Joanna; Gonera, Aleksandra; Ubysz, Jakub; Wójcik, Maria; Kozicka, Marta; Barg, Ewa

    2015-12-15

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a more and more common problem among children and teenagers. . The aim of this study is to evaluate the development of children and teenagers from Kudowa-Zdroj and to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population. . The study included 545 children, aged 5-16 years from Kudowa-Zdroj. The following anthropometric parameters were assessed: body weight and height, BMI, Quetelet index, Rohrer's index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist to height ratio (WHtR). . Overweight or obesity diagnosed by BMI SDS were observed in 26.7% of children from grades 0-3, 22.02% of children from grades 4-6 and 22.52% of Junior High School students. Students in grades 0-3 (mean 0.95 ± 2.17) achieved higher BMI SDS compared to students in grades 4-6 (mean 0.37 ± 1.71) and secondary school (mean 0.65 ± 1.61) (p= 0.023).Overweight or obesity diagnosed by Rohrer index SDS and Quetelet index SDS were observed in 22,84% and 17,13% children. Elevated value of the hip circumference SDS was found in 19.48% of children and waist circumference SDS was increased in 17.5% of children. In the group of children with overweight and obesity 59.4% had elevated waist circumference SDS and 53.4% waist circumference SDS. WHtR was elevated in 8.3% of children, more often in boys (p overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity are common disorders among children from Kudowa-Zdroj. It is recommended to educate children, adolescence and their family about healthy lifestyle in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  6. Assessment of Parent Orientation towards Autonomy vs. Control in Promoting Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Evelyn S; Padilla, Miguel A

    2012-07-01

    Self-determination theory has been widely applied to understanding individuals' health-related behaviors such as eating healthy foods and exercising. Different reasons for engagement are associated with varying levels of personal agency or autonomy. Authority figures in the environment can be supportive of autonomy or, in contrast, controlling. Although researchers have assessed individuals' perceptions of the autonomy-support in their environments, studies have not directly examined the authority figures' orientations to autonomy with respect to health contexts. A new scale, Parent Orientations to Health, was created to investigate parent orientation to autonomy and control with respect to healthy eating and exercise in children. One hundred and forty-three parents of elementary school-aged children responded to the scale. Scale validation and reliability results indicate that the scale successfully assessed parent orientation towards autonomy for children in health contexts. Furthermore, parent autonomy orientation varied according to child weight status and the healthiness of the child's diet. Parent orientation towards autonomy can be evaluated through the use of the Parent Orientations to Health scale. In addition, parent autonomy orientation is associated with both the healthiness of the child's diet (as perceived by the parent) and the child's body mass index. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Variability of pulmonary function test in healthy children, asthmatic and with chronicle lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Carlos; Sossa, Monica Patricia; Cortez, Eliana; Mallol, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of sequential pulmonary function tests in the same individual can be used to assess progression of a disease, response to therapy, or response to bronchial provocation. These types of comparisons require an understanding of the factors influencing the variability normally in repeat measurements of lung function. To avoid misleading conclusions about changes in serial measurements, the degree of variability of each test must be considered in their interpretation. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree of intrasubject variability for pulmonary function testing in healthy, asthmatic and children with chronic lung disease (CLD). The tests examined were spirometry, and body plethysmography determination of lung volumes. We studied 21 healthy children, 19 asthmatic patients and 19 children with CLD, testing were done on nine occasions, three times within a day, on three different days, over a period of two months. Short-term variability was defined as the coefficient of variation for the s ix measurements made on days 1 and 2, and the long-term variability as the CV of the nine measurements made on days 1, 2 and 3. Based on the CV measures, children with CLD had significantly more variability in all spirometric values compared with healthy and asthmatic children, except for PEF (P< 0.05) children with CLD had a significantly lower CV for TGV and FRC compared with the other two groups (p < 0.05). Asthmatic children had a significantly higher CV for RV and RV/TLC compared with healthy and children with CLD (p < 0.05). We propose a method to consider changes in pulmonary function tests as significant. The degree of variability and an estimate of the percent change for significance of spirometric and plethysmographic tests must be considered in the interpretation of data to avoid misleading conclusions. The variability of spirometric pulmonary function data in healthy subjects was smaller than that for patients with pulmonary disease, so larger

  8. Sugar as part of a balanced breakfast? What cereal advertisements teach children about healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoDolce, Megan E; Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2013-01-01

    Marketing that targets children with energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods is a likely contributor to the childhood obesity crisis. High-sugar ready-to-eat cereals are the packaged food most frequently promoted in child-targeted food advertising on television. The authors combined content analysis of product nutritional quality and messages presented in cereal television advertisements with syndicated data on exposure to those ads. The analysis quantifies children's exposure to specific products and messages that appear in advertisements and compares it with adult exposure. Children viewed 1.7 ads per day for ready-to-eat cereals, and 87% of those ads promoted high-sugar products; adults viewed half as many ads, and ads viewed were equally likely to promote high- and low-sugar cereals. In addition, the messages presented in high-sugar ads viewed by children were significantly more likely to convey unrealistic and contradictory messages about cereal attributes and healthy eating. For example, 91% of high-sugar cereal ads viewed by children ascribed extraordinary powers to these products, and 67% portrayed healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors. Given children's vulnerability to the influence of advertising, the emotional and mixed messages used to promote high-sugar cereals are confusing and potentially misleading.

  9. Galactose oxidation using {sup 13}C in healthy and galactosemic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resende-Campanholi, D.R. [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Porta, G. [Unidade de Hepatologia Pediátrica, Instituto da Criança Prof. Pedro de Alcântara, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrioli, E.; Pfrimer, K. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ciampo, L.A. Del; Junior, J.S. Camelo [Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-20

    Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism that occurs mainly as the outcome of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency. The ability to assess galactose oxidation following administration of a galactose-labeled isotope (1-{sup 13}C-galactose) allows the determination of galactose metabolism in a practical manner. We aimed to assess the level of galactose oxidation in both healthy and galactosemic Brazilian children. Twenty-one healthy children and seven children with galactosemia ranging from 1 to 7 years of age were studied. A breath test was used to quantitate {sup 13}CO{sub 2} enrichment in exhaled air before and at 30, 60, and 120 min after the oral administration of 7 mg/kg of an aqueous solution of 1-{sup 13}C-galactose to all children. The molar ratios of {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and {sup 12}CO{sub 2} were quantified by the mass/charge ratio (m/z) of stable isotopes in each air sample by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. In sick children, the cumulative percentage of {sup 13}C from labeled galactose (CUMPCD) in the exhaled air ranged from 0.03% at 30 min to 1.67% at 120 min. In contrast, healthy subjects showed a much broader range in CUMPCD, with values from 0.4% at 30 min to 5.58% at 120 min. The study found a significant difference in galactose oxidation between children with and without galactosemia, demonstrating that the breath test is useful in discriminating children with GALT deficiencies.

  10. A genetic variant within STS previously associated with inattention in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with enhanced cognition in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humby, Trevor; Fisher, Amelia; Allen, Christopher; Reynolds, Meghann; Hartman, Annette; Giegling, Ina; Rujescu, Dan; Davies, William

    2017-03-01

    The enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS) converts sulfated steroids to their non-sulfated forms. Deficiency for this enzyme is associated with inattention but preserved response control. The polymorphism rs17268988 within the X-linked STS gene is associated with inattentive, but not other, symptoms in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We initially tested whether rs17268988 genotype was associated with attention, response control, and underlying aspects of cognition, using questionnaires and neuropsychological tasks, in two independent cohorts of healthy adult males. In an additional analysis based upon existing data, the performance of mice with genetic or pharmacological manipulations of the STS axis under attentionally demanding conditions was investigated. G-allele carriers at rs17268988 exhibited reduced reaction time, enhanced attention, and reduced reaction time variability relative to C-allele carriers. Mice with genetic or pharmacological manipulations of the STS axis were shown to have perturbed reaction time variability. Our findings provide additional support for an association between rs17268988 genotype and attention, which may be partially mediated by reaction time variability; they also indicate that, in contrast to the situation in boys with ADHD, in healthy men, the G-allele at rs17268988 is associated with enhanced cognition. As reaction time variability is a predictor of well-being, rs17268988 genotype may represent a biomarker for long-term health.

  11. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriollo Marcelo Fabiano Gomes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the protein polymorphism degree among seventy-five C. albicans strains from healthy children oral cavities of five socioeconomic categories from eight schools (private and public in Piracicaba city, São Paulo State, in order to identify C. albicans subspecies and their similarities in infantile population groups and to establish their possible dissemination route. Cell cultures were grown in YEPD medium, collected by centrifugation, and washed with cold saline solution. The whole-cell proteins were extracted by cell disruption, using glass beads and submitted to SDS-PAGE technique. After electrophoresis, the protein bands were stained with Coomassie-blue and analyzed by statistics package NTSYS-pc version 1.70 software. Similarity matrix and dendrogram were generated by using the Dice similarity coefficient and UPGMA algorithm, respectively, which made it possible to evaluate the similarity or intra-specific polymorphism degrees, based on whole-cell protein fingerprinting of C. albicans oral isolates. A total of 13 major phenons (clusters were analyzed, according to their homogeneous (socioeconomic category and/or same school and heterogeneous (distinct socioeconomic categories and/or schools characteristics. Regarding to the social epidemiological aspect, the cluster composition showed higher similarities (0.788 < S D < 1.0 among C. albicans strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic bases (high, medium, or low. Isolates of high similarity were not found in oral cavities from healthy children of social stratum A and D, B and D, or C and E. This may be explained by an absence of a dissemination route among these children. Geographically, some healthy children among identical and different schools (private and public also are carriers of similar strains but such similarity was not found among other isolates from children from certain schools. These data may reflect a

  12. Reference values of bone stiffness index and C-terminal telopeptide in healthy European children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, D; Intemann, T; Lauria, F; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Sioen, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W

    2014-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound measurements and bone metabolic markers can help to monitor bone health and to detect impaired skeletal development. Population-based reference values for children may serve as a basis for preventive measures to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in later life. This is the first paper providing age-, sex- and height-specific reference values for bone stiffness index (SI) and serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) in healthy, apparently prepubertal children. In the population-based IDEFICS baseline survey (2007-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010), 18,745 children from eight European countries were newly recruited. A total of 10,791 2-10.9-year-old and 1646 3-8.9-year-old healthy children provided data on SI of the right and left calcaneus and serum CTX, respectively. Furthermore, height and weight were measured. Percentile curves were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to model the distribution of SI and CTX depending on multiple covariates while accounting for dispersion, skewness, and the kurtosis of this distribution. SI was negatively associated with age and height in children aged 2-5 years, whereas a positive association was observed in children aged 6-10 years. The dip in SI occurred at older age for higher SI percentiles and was observed earlier in taller children than in smaller children. The CTX reference curves showed a linear-positive association with age and height. No major sex differences were observed for the SI and CTX reference values. These reference data lay the ground to evaluate bone growth and metabolism in prepubertal children in epidemiological and clinical settings. They may also inform clinical practice to monitor skeletal development and to assess adverse drug reactions during medical treatments.

  13. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Erosion or normal variant? 4-year MRI follow-up of the wrists in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avenarius, Derk F.M. [University of Tromsoe, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie [Oslo University Hospital, Department for Radiology and Intervention, Oslo (Norway); Rosendahl, Karen [Haukeland University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Clinical Medicine K1, Bergen (Norway)

    2016-03-15

    A large proportion of healthy children have wrist changes on MRI, namely carpal depressions, findings that have been described as pathological in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We performed follow-up imaging in a cohort of healthy children to evaluate carpal surface depressions over time, focusing on the presence of overlying cartilage as a potential discriminator between normal variants and true erosions. 74 of the initial cohort of 89 healthy children (83%) had a re-scan of their wrists using the same protocol, including coronal T1 and fat-saturated T2 sequences. A cartilage-selective sequence was added for this study. We registered number and location of bony depressions and presence of overlying cartilage. The total number of carpal depressions increased by age group and over time; their location was unchanged in 370 of 487 (76%) carpal sites and 91 of 117 (78%) metacarpal sites. In total, 426 of the 1,087 (39.2%) bony depressions were covered by cartilage, with a decreasing percentage by age (P = 0.001). Normal appearances during growth, such as bony depressions, should not be mistaken for pathology. There must be additional findings to support a diagnosis of disease. A cartilage sequence may add to the diagnostic image analysis. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazici, Burhan; Simsek, Enver; Erdogmus, Besir; Bahcebasi, Talat; Aktas, Alev; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Uzun, Hakan; Safak, Alp Alper

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children

  16. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  17. Targeted vaccination in healthy school children - Can primary school vaccination alone control influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Jit, Mark; Eames, Ken

    2015-10-05

    The UK commenced an extension to the seasonal influenza vaccination policy in autumn 2014 that will eventually see all healthy children between the ages of 2-16 years offered annual influenza vaccination. Models suggest that the new policy will be both highly effective at reducing the burden of influenza as well as cost-effective. We explore whether targeting vaccination at either primary or secondary schools would be more effective and/or cost-effective than the current strategy. An age-structured deterministic transmission dynamic SEIR-type mathematical model was used to simulate a national influenza outbreak in England. Costs including GP consultations, hospitalisations due to influenza and vaccinations were compared to potential gains in quality-adjusted life years achieved through vaccinating healthy children. Costs and benefits of the new JCVI vaccination policy were estimated over a single season, and compared to the hypothesised new policies of targeted and heterogeneous vaccination. All potential vaccination policies were highly cost-effective. Influenza transmission can be eliminated for a particular season by vaccinating both primary and secondary school children, but not by vaccinating only one group. The most cost-effective policy overall is heterogeneous vaccination coverage with 48% uptake in primary schools and 34% in secondary schools. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation can consider a modification to their policy of offering seasonal influenza vaccinations to all healthy children of ages 2-16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Lucile; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    Across the lifespan, eating is a common everyday act driven by the search for pleasure and reinforced by experienced pleasure. Pleasure is an innate indicator of the satisfaction of physiological needs, in addition to other attributes. Pleasure from eating is also learned and contributes to the development of children's eating habits, which remain mostly stable until adulthood. Based on classical models of determinants of food consumption behaviour, we identified three dimensions of pleasure from eating learned during childhood: 1/the sensory dimension, i.e., pleasure from sensory sensations during food consumption; 2/the interpersonal dimension, i.e., pleasure from the social context of food consumption; and 3/the psychosocial dimension, i.e., pleasure from cognitive representations of food. The objective of this narrative review is to explore whether these three dimensions may play a role in promotion of healthy eating behaviour among children. Up to now, it was assumed that providing nutritional information, pointing out which types of foods are "good" or "bad" for health, would drive healthier food choices in children. Today, we know that such strategies based on a cognitive approach toward eating have a limited impact on healthy choices and can even be counter-productive, leading children to avoid healthy foods. In the context of increasing rates of childhood obesity, new perspectives are needed to build efficient interventions that might help children adopt a healthy diet. This review suggests new directions for further research to test the efficacy of novel interventions that emphasize pleasure from eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emolabeling increases healthy food choices among grade school children in a structured grocery aisle setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva; Castaneda, Diego; Elder, John P; Slymen, Donald; Dozier, David

    2009-02-01

    The fast food industry has been increasingly criticized for creating brand loyalty in young consumers. Food marketers are well versed in reaching children and youth given the importance of brand loyalty on future food purchasing behavior. In addition, food marketers are increasingly targeting the Hispanic population given their growing spending power. The fast food industry is among the leaders in reaching youth and ethnic minorities through their marketing efforts. The primary objective of this study was to determine if young children recognized fast food restaurant logos at a higher rate than other food brands. Methods Children (n = 155; 53% male; 87% Hispanic) ages 4-8 years were recruited from elementary schools and asked to match 10 logo cards to products depicted on a game board. Parents completed a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with a healthy lifestyle in the home. Results Older children and children who were overweight were significantly more likely to recognize fast food restaurant logos than other food logos. Moreover, parents' psychosocial and socio-demographic characteristics were associated with the type of food logo recognized by the children. Conclusions Children's high recognition of fast food restaurant logos may reflect greater exposure to fast food advertisements. Families' socio-demographic characteristics play a role in children's recognition of food logos.

  1. Unexpected finding of T-cell lymphoma in a previously healthy 16-year-old patient after a thorax trauma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach Okholm-Hansen, Anna; Brorson, Stig

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We describe the clinical course and emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The differential diagnostic difficulties have previously been described in regard to pneumonia, but to the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first case report to desc...... relevant to pediatricians, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and general practitioners....

  2. Incentivizing healthy eating in children: An investigation of the "ripple" and "temporal" effects of a reward-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, Saied

    2017-10-01

    Although previous studies have established the effectiveness of using small reward-based incentives in inducing the choice and consumption of healthier foods among children, little is known about their impact outside of experimental settings or their effectiveness over time when administered daily. This paper presents the results of a field experiment conducted to provide insight on these matters. The study employs a removed treatment within-subject design and was conducted at a summer program catering to low-income children between the ages of 5 and 12. The month long experiment-wherein participants were offered a small prize for choosing a fruit cup for dessert after lunch in lieu of cookies-involved 23 children between the ages of 5 and 8. Corroborating existing studies, the introduction of small reward-based incentives in this context was found to induce large increases in the number of children choosing the healthy dessert options after lunch, but disaggregating the results by week and day suggests that their impact diminished over time. Attempts to ascertain their effect outside of experimental settings did not indicate that the introduction of rewards had any adverse effects, but also did not provide definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Community-based Healthy Living Promotion Program Improved Self-esteem Among Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Ortiz, Christina L; Stuff, Janice E; Mikhail, Carmen; Lathan, Debra; Moore, Louis A; Alejandro, Mercedes E; Butte, Nancy F; Smith, Elliot O'Brian

    2016-07-01

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority children. The after-school program was implemented at community centers in low-income neighborhoods with close proximity to public schools. The program consisted of 3 6-week sessions. Each week, children attended 2 2-hour sessions. Each 2-hour session in the intervention included 90 minutes of structured physical activities and 30 minutes of nutrition and healthy habit lessons. The control group received typical enrichment programs. Outcomes were measured before the intervention and at the end of each 6-week session. We enrolled 877 children (age 10.2 ± 0.1 years (mean ± SE); body mass index z score: 1.49 ± 0.1; 52.0% boys; 72.6% Hispanic) in the program with 524 children received the intervention at 14 community centers and 353 children served as control at 10 community centers. The intervention led to no improvements in BMI z score (P = 0.78) and dietary habits (P = 0.46). Significant improvements (P ≤ 0.02) were detected in the amount of exercise that a child perceived to be required to offset a large meal and in several key self-esteem scores. No improvements were detected in physical activities (P ≥ 0.21). The improvement in some key self-esteem scores and nutrition knowledge may act as a mediator to motivate these children to adopt a healthier lifestyle in the future.

  4. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  5. Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism Have Similar Neuroradiological Abnormal Findings as Healthy Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rachmiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the neuroradiological findings of children with congenital hypothyroidism (CHT compared to healthy controls (HC. Patients and Methods. Thirty children with CHT, mean age 12.5 ± 1.6 years, 14 (44.8% males, were compared with 38 HC mean age 11.7 ± 1.7 years, 16 (45.7% males. Clinical data were collected from medical charts and questionnaires seeking information on family history, birth and perinatal period events, medications, and overall health history. Neurocognitive function was assessed for global intelligence, visual and verbal memory, and executive functioning using standardized tests. Neuroimaging was performed using 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging and assessed by two pediatric radiologists. Results. Children with CHT had a similar proportion of incidental findings as did the children in the HC group, at 43.3% and 39.5%, respectively, . Abnormalities of the sellar region were reported in 13.3% of CHT group and 7.9% of HC group, . Other incidental findings included cerebellar ectopia, choroidal fissure and pineal cysts, and multiple increased signal intensity foci. Neuroradiological findings were not associated with clinical and neurocognitive abnormalities. Conclusion. Neuroimaging of children with CHT demonstrated a similar incidence of structural abnormalities as in the healthy population. There is no association between those findings and neurocognitive function.

  6. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Methods Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014–1020, 2006). Age-de...

  7. Traffic education for children 4-12 years old. [Previously known as: Traffic education of children 4-12 years old.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Traffic education for children is of the utmost importance as a basis for safe traffic participation; not only formal education at schools, but especially continuous education of children by parents. Since the brains of children have not yet developed completely, there is a limit to what children

  8. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy Venezuelan children

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, B.; Araque, M.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, C.; Escalona, F.; Correa, M.; Morillo-Puente, S.; Vielma, S.; Hermans, P. W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5?years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae colonization, S. aureus colonization, and S. pneumoniae?S. aureus co-colonization was 28%, 56%, and 16%, respectively. Pneumococcal serotypes 6B (14%), 19F (12%), 23F (12%), 15 (9%), 6...

  9. One month after diagnosis: quality of life, coping and previous functioning in siblings of children with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Houtzager, BA; Grootenhuis, MA; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Last, BF

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the quality of life (QoL) of siblings of children with cancer and to predict it according to their health before the diagnosis of cancer in the ill child and their ways of coping with the illness. Methods Participants were 83 siblings from 56 families - 46 girls and 37 boys, aged 7-18. The assessment took place 1 month to 8 weeks after the diagnosis of cancer in the ill child. The siblings' QoL was assessed with the TNO-AZL children's qua...

  10. Comparison of health-related quality of life of children during maintenance therapy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia versus siblings and healthy children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Minakshi; Sharma, Kamlesh K; Vatsa, Manju; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2013-05-01

    Data on quality of life (QOL) specifically in maintenance therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are minimal. This study was done to assess various items listed in domains of QOL (physical, emotional, social and school health domains) of children with ALL during maintenance therapy, and compare the same with those of their siblings and other healthy children. Forty children on maintenance therapy of ALL, 40 siblings and 40 healthy children were assessed for QOL by child self-report using PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core in the local language. Means were computed and compared for each domain with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), wherein higher values reflected better QOL. Overall QOL of children with ALL in maintenance therapy (77.16 ± 10.98) was significantly poorer than that of siblings (93.56 ± 4.41) and healthy children (93.02 ± 3.76) (p fear, anger, sleeping problems) among children with ALL. In the social health domain, children with ALL reported difficulty in maintaining friendships and competing. QOL of siblings was as good as that of healthy children in physical, social and school health domains, but they had increased emotional problems such as anger and sadness. Healthy children reported significantly higher future worries and bullying than children with ALL and siblings. This study validated that the QOL of children with ALL during maintenance therapy was significantly poorer than that of siblings and healthy children. The study identified various items in each domain of QOL that were affected in these children, and thus would assist in guiding healthcare professionals to focus on these specific items so as to improve their overall QOL.

  11. One month after diagnosis: quality of life, coping and previous functioning in siblings of children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, B. A.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J. E. H. M.; Last, B. F.

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the quality of life (QoL) of siblings of children with cancer and to predict it according to their health before the diagnosis of cancer in the ill child and their ways of coping with the illness. Methods Participants were 83 siblings from 56

  12. One month after diagnosis : quality of life, coping and previous functioning in siblings of children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, BA; Grootenhuis, MA; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Last, BF

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the quality of life (QoL) of siblings of children with cancer and to predict it according to their health before the diagnosis of cancer in the ill child and their ways of coping with the illness. Methods Participants were 83 siblings from 56

  13. Previous Gardening Experience and Gardening Enjoyment Is Related to Vegetable Preferences and Consumption Among Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Fair, Cori N; Jennings, Rose; Warren, Judith L

    2016-10-01

    To examine if gardening experience and enjoyment are associated with vegetable exposure, preferences, and consumption of vegetables among low-income third-grade children. Cross-sectional study design, using baseline data from the Texas! Grow! Eat! Go! Twenty-eight Title I elementary schools located in different counties in Texas. Third-grade students (n = 1,326, 42% Hispanic) MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gardening experience, gardening enjoyment, vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Random-effects regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index percentile of child, estimated means and standard errors of vegetable consumption, exposure, and preference by levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Wald χ 2 tests evaluated the significance of differences in means of outcomes across levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Children with more gardening experience had greater vegetable exposure and higher vegetable preference and consumed more vegetables compared with children who reported less gardening experience. Those who reported that they enjoyed gardening had the highest levels of vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Garden-based interventions can have an important and positive effect on children's vegetable consumption by increasing exposure to fun gardening experiences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a randomized intervention promoting healthy children's meals on children's ordering and dietary intake in a quick-service restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Braun, Abbey C; Ehrenberg, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H; Gampp, April; Leone, Lucia A; Singh, Anita; Tauriello, Sara

    2018-08-01

    Children's consumption of restaurant foods is associated with higher energy intake and lower nutritional quality compared to foods prepared at home. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether an in-restaurant intervention promoting healthy children's meals (i.e. two meals that met nutrition recommendations and were thus healthier than typical children's meal offerings across leading restaurants) affected children's meal selection and intake. Families with 4-to-8-year-old children were recruited from one location of Anderson's Frozen Custard, a regional quick-service restaurant chain. Families were randomly assigned to return to the restaurant during an intervention or control period and were blinded to group assignment. All families received free meals. During the intervention period families also received placemats featuring two healthy "Kids' Meals of the Day" upon restaurant entry. After families finished dining, researchers recorded children's orders and collected leftovers for quantifying dietary intake via weighed plate waste. Poisson regression and chi-square tests were used to compare children's orders between study groups, and t-tests were used to test for differences in dietary intake among children ordering a promoted healthy entrée (main dish) versus those who did not. Fifty-eight families participated. Children who were exposed to the study placemats prior to ordering ordered a significantly greater number of healthy food components compared to controls (p = 0.03). Overall, in the intervention group, 21% of children ordered a healthy entrée or side dish, versus 7% of controls. Children who ordered one of the promoted healthy entrées consumed less saturated fat across the total meal compared to those who did not (p = 0.04). Manipulating the prominence of healthy choices in restaurants may shift children's meal selections. Future research should build on these initial promising results, aiming to increase the potency of the intervention

  15. Healthy Living Behaviors Among Chinese-American Preschool-Aged Children: Results of a Parent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, Virginia Rall; Brown, Alison; Lee, Victoria; Must, Aviva; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho

    2017-07-17

    Associations between diet, physical activity, parenting, and acculturation among Chinese-American children are understudied. Parents/caregivers of children attending child-care programs in Boston Chinatown completed a self-administered survey on demographics, child's diet, physical activities, anthropometrics, and parenting practices. Associations were evaluated in multivariable regression analysis, stratified by survey language preference, a proxy for acculturation. Responding Asian families = 132; 86.4% were immigrants; 75.8% completed the Chinese-version survey. Children (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 1.1 years) did not eat vegetables (31.8%), or play actively outside (45.4%) daily, 64.8% watched television/screens daily; 32.6% were overweight/obese (based on parent report). Parenting practices associated with obesity were apparent. Although healthy-living behavioral outcomes were less prevalent among less acculturated parents; multivariable adjustment attenuated the observed significant differences. Findings suggest opportunities for improvement in study children's diet and healthy-living behaviors, and underscore the need for further research on acculturation, and parenting styles in this population.

  16. Total Breast-Feeding Duration and Dental Caries in Healthy Urban Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter D; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Venu, Isvarya; Chen, Yang; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if there is an association between longer breast-feeding duration and dental caries in healthy urban children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of urban children aged 1 to 6 years recruited through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) practice-based research network between September 2011 and August 2013. The main outcome measure was parental report of dental caries. The adjusted predicted probability of dental caries was 7%, 8%, 11%, and 16% with total duration of breast-feeding duration of 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, relative to breast-feeding 0 to 5 months, the odds of dental caries with total breast-feeding duration >24 months was 2.75 (95% confidence interval 1.61-4.72). Among healthy urban children, longer breast-feeding duration was associated with higher odds of dental caries. These findings support heightened awareness and enhanced anticipatory guidance for preventive dental care, particularly among children who breast-feed beyond 2 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. Lactis (B. lactis) Strain BB-12-Supplemented Yogurt in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina P; Ba, Zhaoyong; Sanders, Mary E; D'Amico, Frank J; Roberts, Robert F; Smith, Keisha H; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2017-02-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may provide health benefits to the individual when consumed in sufficient quantities. For studies conducted on health or disease endpoints on probiotics in the United States, the Food and Administration has required those studies to be conducted as investigational new drugs. This phase I, double-blinded, randomized, controlled safety study represents the first requirement of this pathway. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of children. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of BB-12-supplemented yogurt on the gut microbiota of the children. Sixty children ages 1 to 5 years were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12-supplemented yogurt or nonsupplemented control yogurt daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, as determined by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 186 nonserious adverse events were reported, with no significant differences between the control and BB-12 groups. No significant changes due to probiotic treatment were observed in the gut microbiota of the study cohort. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well-tolerated when consumed by healthy children. The present study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in different disease states.

  18. Neural activation associated with the cognitive emotion regulation of sadness in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy C. Belden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When used effectively, cognitive reappraisal of distressing events is a highly adaptive cognitive emotion regulation (CER strategy, with impairments in cognitive reappraisal associated with greater risk for psychopathology. Despite extensive literature examining the neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal in healthy and psychiatrically ill adults, there is a dearth of data to inform the neural bases of CER in children, a key gap in the literature necessary to map the developmental trajectory of cognitive reappraisal. In this fMRI study, psychiatrically healthy schoolchildren were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions and responses of negative affect after viewing sad photos. Consistent with the adult literature, when actively engaged in reappraisal compared to passively viewing sad photos, children showed increased activation in the vlPFC, dlPFC, and dmPFC as well as in parietal and temporal lobe regions. When children used cognitive reappraisal to minimize their experience of negative affect after viewing sad stimuli they exhibited dampened amygdala responses. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of identifying and characterizing neural processes underlying adaptive CER strategies in typically developing children in order to understand how these systems go awry and relate to the risk and occurrence of affective disorders.

  19. Healthy characters? An investigation of marketing practices in children's food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Jessica; Kunkel, Dale; Wright, Paul; Duff, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    To determine the nutritional quality of foods advertised with familiar children's characters and health-related messages. Children's programming aired on the most popular broadcast and cable channels during 2011 was sampled to form a composite weekday and weekend day. All food advertisements (ads) included in this programming were content analyzed. Five hundred seventy-seven food ads. Familiar characters promoting products were either trade or licensed characters. A product's nutritional quality was determined using the United States Department of Health and Human Services' categorizations, based on the frequency foods should be consumed. Health cues were present when a food was claimed to be healthy, physical activity was depicted, or the product was associated with fruit. Frequencies and chi square analyses were conducted; P targeting children use a familiar character. The majority of these ads (72%) promote foods of low nutritional quality, yet 53% employ a health-related message. Familiar characters proliferate in food advertising to children, yet marketers do not adhere to recommendations that characters promote strictly healthy foods. Future research is needed to investigate effects and inform policy decisions in this realm. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy children during growth and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Ljiljana; Savić, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Many changes happen during growth and development in an organism as a result of important hormon changes, especially biohumoral ones. These changes make a problem when interpreting biochemical results in pediatric population. The most important changes are intensive calcium and phosphorus metabolic turnover in bone tissue with changes in alkaline phosphatase activity as a result of osteoblast activity. The aim of this study was to follow the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in children 1-15 years old in different growth and development period and of different sexes and to fortify the influence of growth and development dynamics on biohumoral status in healthy male and female children. We evaluated 117 healthy children of both sexes from 1-15 years of age and divided them into three age groups: 1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. We followed the serum calcium and phosphorus concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in different groups and in different sexes. Our investigation found significantly higher values of serum calcium in boys than in girls with no important changes between the age groups and significantly higher values of serum phosphorus in the youngest age group in all children and in different sexes with no important sex differences. Alkaline phosphatase activity followed the growth spurt and was the biggest in 6-10 years group in girls and in 11-15 years group in boys.

  1. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status of Healthy, Low-Income, Minority Children in Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Conrad R.; Grant, Frederick K.; Tangpricha, Vin; Swaby-Ellis, E. Dawn; Smith, Joy L.; Jacques, Anne; Chen, Huiping; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goals were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among minority children in a southern US city, to examine differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between non-Hispanic black and Hispanic children, and to determine dietary sources of vitamin D. METHODS Low-income, minority children (N = 290; mean age: 2.5 ± 1.2 years) were recruited during well-child clinic visits. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels were measured and dietary information was assessed. RESULTS The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level was 26.2 ± 7.6 ng/mL, whereas 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 was not detected. Overall, 22.3% of children had deficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels (≤20 ng/mL), 73.6% had less-than-optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (≤30 ng/mL), and 1.4% had low serum calcium levels (≤9 mg/dL). A significantly larger proportion of non-Hispanic black children, compared with Hispanic children, had vitamin D deficiency (26% vs 18%; P<.05). Age and season of recruitment were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency and low serum calcium levels. Older children (≥3 years) were less likely to have vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio [OR]: 0.89 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81– 0.96]; P < .001). Study enrollment during spring and summer reduced the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency by ~20% (spring, OR: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.73– 0.98]; P = .03; summer, OR: 0.82 [95% CI: 0.73– 0.92]; P < .01). Fortified milk provided most dietary vitamin D (62%), with Hispanic children reporting greater intake. CONCLUSIONS Suboptimal vitamin D status was common among apparently healthy, low-income, minority children. Age and season were significant predictors of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:20351012

  2. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Magazine adverts for healthy and less healthy foods: effects on recall but not hunger or food choice by pre-adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations.

  4. Prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and kidney disease in Brazilian healthy preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Adriana Cândida; de Sousa Tavares, Marcelo; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães

    2016-11-06

    To investigate the prevalence of nutritional parameters of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney diseases in healthy preschool children. This is an observational cross-sectional study with 60 healthy children, of both genders, aged two to six years old and 56 mothers, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Preschool children and their families with regular activities at public schools were invited to paticipate in the study. The following characteristics were assessed: Socio-demographic condictions, clinical health, anthropometric, biochemical, lifestyle and data on food consumption. The 56 healthy children were divided into two groups, overweight (C1) and non-overweight (C2), as well as their mothers, respectively, in overweight (M1) and non-overweight (M2). Nutritional status was defined according to results obtained through the Anthro ® Software for nutritional analysis. Thirty-five children were male, with mean age of 4.44 ± 1.0 years old. Eighty-nine percent of them were eutrophic, 86.7% were sedentary and they had five meals a day. Body mass index (BMI) for age and total cholesterol (TC) was higher on C1 ( P = 0.0001) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was higher on C2. Mothers were 32.5 ± 7.1 years old, mostly married and employed. Eighty-six percent of them were sedentary and 62.5% were overweight with BMI = 26.38 ± 5.07 kg/m 2 . Eighteen percent of the overweight mothers had isolated total hypercholesterolemia (TC levels elevated) and 12.5% had low HDL-c levels. The present study showed an association between overweight and obesity during the preschool years and the correspondent mothers' nutritional status of overweight and obesity (OR = 4.96; 95%CI: 0.558-44.17). There was a positive correlation between the food risk associated with CVD by children and mothers when their consumption was 4 times/wk ( P = 0.049; r = 0.516) or daily ( P = 0.000008; r = 0.892). Analyzed children showed high rates of physical inactivity, high

  5. A Healthy Lifestyle Intervention Delivered by Aspiring Physical Education Teachers to Children from Social Disadvantage: Study Protocol and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Gavin; Brennan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design of a school-based healthy lifestyle intervention for eight-year-old to nine-year-old school children from lower socio-economic backgrounds, intended to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviours, reduce screen-time behaviours, encourage healthy attitudes and behaviours to nutrition, and reduce body mass index.…

  6. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p358

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  7. Instruments to assess self-care among healthy children: A systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urpí-Fernández, Ana-María; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Roldán-Merino, Juan-Francisco; Lluch-Canut, María-Teresa

    2017-12-01

    To identify, critically appraise and summarize the measurement properties of instruments to assess self-care in healthy children. Assessing self-care is a proper consideration for nursing practice and nursing research. No systematic review summarizes instruments of measurement validated in healthy children. Psychometric review in accordance with the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Open Grey were searched from their inception to December 2016. Validation studies with a healthy child population were included. Search was not restricted by language. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of included studies using the COSMIN checklist. Eleven studies were included in the review assessing the measurement properties of ten instruments. There was a maximum of two studies per instrument. None of the studies evaluated the properties of test-retest reliability, measurement error, criterion validity and responsiveness. Internal consistency and structural validity were rated as "excellent" or "good" in four studies. Four studies were rated as "excellent" in content validity. Cross-cultural validity was rated as "poor" in the two studies (three instruments) which cultural adaptation was carried out. The evidence available does not allow firm conclusions about the instruments identified in terms of reliability and validity. Future research should focus on generate evidence about a wider range of measurement properties of these instruments using a rigorous methodology, as well as instrument testing on different countries and child population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder previously treated with methylphenidate: a post hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Rakesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurobehavioral psychiatric disorder that afflicts children, with a reported prevalence of 2.4% to 19.8% worldwide. Stimulants (methylphenidate [MPH] and amphetamine are considered first-line ADHD pharmacotherapy. MPH is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor, whereas amphetamines have additional presynaptic activity. Although MPH and amphetamine can effectively manage ADHD symptoms in most pediatric patients, many still fail to respond optimally to either. After administration, the prodrug stimulant lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX is converted to l-lysine and therapeutically active d-amphetamine in the blood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LDX in children with ADHD who remained symptomatic (ie, nonremitters; ADHD Rating Scale IV [ADHD-RS-IV] total score > 18 on MPH therapy prior to enrollment in a 4-week placebo-controlled LDX trial, compared with the overall population. Methods In this post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, forced-dose titration study, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of LDX in children aged 6-12 years with and without prior MPH treatment at screening. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD-RS-IV scale, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised short form (CPRS-R, and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale, at screening, baseline, and endpoint. ADHD-RS-IV total and CPRS-R ADHD Index scores were summarized as mean (SD. Clinical response for the subgroup analysis was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2. Dunnett test was used to compare change from baseline in all groups. Number needed to treat to achieve one clinical responder or one symptomatic remitter was calculated as the reciprocal of the difference in their proportions on active treatment and placebo at endpoint. Results Of 290 randomized participants enrolled, 28

  9. Low-income children's reported motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Lillian B; Tucker, Carolyn M; Bragg, Marie A; Estampador, Angela C

    2011-01-01

    Despite national attention to the childhood obesity epidemic, there are few US-based studies that directly ask children--especially children from low-income families and from multiple racial/ethnic groups--why they do or do not engage in healthy eating behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors, as reported by black, Hispanic, and white children from low-income families. Six gender- and race/ethnicity-concordant focus groups were conducted with 37 children who were aged 9 to 12 years and from families with an annual household income of $40000 or less. Multiple strategies were used to employ a culturally sensitive approach to both data collection and data analysis (eg, a team of culturally diverse researchers utilized inductive qualitative analysis to analyze focus group transcripts). The motivators of and barriers to healthy eating behaviors most commonly reported across the 6 focus groups included social influence, taste, issues of availability, weight concerns, and the desire to be healthy. A variety of less commonly reported motivators and barriers were also discussed. Findings were generally similar across gender and race/ethnicity. Children in this age range can indeed identify a variety of motivators and barriers that influence their engagement in healthy eating behaviors. Interventions targeting obesity and eating behaviors should include an assessment of children's own perceived motivators of and barriers to healthy eating.

  10. Transgenerational healing: Educating children in genesis of healthy children, with focus on nutrition, emotion, and epigenetic effects on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Simon H

    2013-01-01

    Although our continuing evolution can never achieve our perfection, we long for our children's birth and health to be near-perfect. Many children are born healthy, though fewer than is possible. Birthing and health rapidly improved generally due to modern housing, sanitation and medicine, as well as birth interventions. Arguably interventions have exceeded the optimal level, without enough regard for natural physical and intuitive resources. Conception, often too easy, receives too little personal preparation unless a couple has problems. Nurturing the health of sperm and ovum seems hard to focus on, yet is needed by both parents - and even by the four grandparents. What are the key factors? Positive: The fields of hormones/emotions and of nutrition/metabolism. Negative: stress, poor nutrition, toxins, diseases; much being due to poverty. Positive and negative both have structural and also epigenetic effects. Interventions, essential or inessential, are seldom without negative side effects. Health can best, and most economically, be generated at the beginning of life, through healthy conception, gestation and birth. Understanding prime needs improves initial health. It also informs therapy of any early-life problems. Healing is therefore more efficient when transgenerational, and much more powerful than individual healing. My vision of healing is safeguarding our evolution in progress. Children's choices - eating, exercise, emotional attitudes and relationships - are already profoundly affecting any children they may have, their mental and physical health. The most practical starting point seems to be educating boys as well as girls. Childhood is therefore the time to educate them in choices. The correction of often unnoticed problems- nutrient deficits, toxins, uro-genital disease - has enabled nearly nine out of ten couples to bear fully healthy babies, even following severe problems - infertility, miscarriages, stillbirths and malformations. Correcting problems

  11. Children's Selection of Fruit and Vegetables in a "Dream versus Healthy" Lunch-Box Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler-Hawke, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Parker, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internationally, it is well established that the behaviour, performance, and achievement of schoolchildren is directly linked to the nutritional status of overall diet -- including the contents of their school lunch-boxes. In a previous survey study by the lead authors, primary school children's food consumption behaviour was…

  12. An Interactive Web-Based Intervention to Achieve Healthy Weight in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ellen R; Ewing, Linda J; Moyer, Stacey C L; Eickhoff, Jens C

    2018-05-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled trial for parents of overweight and obese 3- to 7-year-olds was performed to assess the feasibility of a program promoting healthy eating and lifestyle by targeting parents as agents of change. The intervention was composed of 6-in-person group sessions and a customized website over 12 months. The control group received customary care. The primary outcome was feasibility of the intervention to promote healthy behavior change measured by attendance. The secondary outcome was effectiveness assessed by attaining reduced body mass index (BMI) z scores, healthy behavior changes and increased parent self-efficacy. Seventy-three child-parent dyads were enrolled; 14 parents never attended any sessions. Participation in follow-up assessments did not meet the hypothesized level. Ultimate BMI z scores did not differ between control and intervention groups. Parenting skills did not improve in the intervention group. This intervention to achieve healthy lifestyle changes in children via their parents as "change agents" was unsuccessful.

  13. Analysis of breath volatile organic compounds in children with chronic liver disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Katharine; Alkhouri, Naim; Cikach, Frank; Patel, Nishaben; Yan, Chen; Grove, David; Lopez, Rocio; Rome, Ellen; Dweik, Raed A

    2015-04-20

    Breath testing is increasingly being used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for disease states across medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as measured by mass spectrometry in healthy children and children with chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients between the ages of 6 and 21 were recruited for the study. Control subjects were recruited from a general pediatric population during well-child visits, while patients with CLD were recruited from pediatric gastroenterology clinic visits. The diagnosis of CLD was confirmed by clinical, laboratory, and/or histologic data. A single exhaled breath was collected and analyzed by means of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry per protocol. A total of 104 patients were included in the study (49 with CLD and 55 healthy controls). Of the patients with CLD, 20 had advanced liver fibrosis (F3-F4). In the CLD cohort, levels of exhaled 1-decene, 1-heptene, 1-octene and 3 methylhexane were found to be significantly higher when compared to the control population (p CLD patients when compared to controls (p CLD was excellent (AUROC = 0.97). Our study demonstrates that children with CLD have a unique pattern of exhaled VOCs. Utilization of a combination of these VOCs represents a promising non-invasive diagnostic tool and may provide further insight into the pathophysiologic processes and pathways leading to pediatric liver disease. Further analysis of these compounds in external cohorts are needed to validate our findings.

  14. The influence of parental encouragement and caring about healthy eating on children's diet quality and body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin; Vander Ploeg, Kerry; Chu, Yen Li; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    In order to mitigate childhood obesity, evidence on what influences children's health behaviours is needed to inform new health promotion strategies. The present study investigated the association between parental practices and their child's diet and body weight status. Grade 5 students and their parents completed health surveys. Parents were asked how much they 'encourage their child to eat healthy foods' and how much they 'personally care about healthy eating'. Children's diet quality and vegetable and fruit intake were assessed using an FFQ. Children's heights and weights were measured to determine body weight status. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the influence of parental responses on the outcomes of interest. Elementary schools across the province of Alberta, Canada. Grade 5 students (aged 10 and 11 years; n 8388) and their parent(s). Most parents reported caring about healthy eating and encouraging their child to eat healthy foods at least quite a lot. Children whose parents who cared or encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' were more likely have better diet quality and were less likely to be overweight. Children whose parents both cared and encouraged 'very much' compared with 'quite a lot' scored an average of 2·06 points higher on the diet quality index (β=2·06; 95 % CI 1·45, 2·66). Health promotion strategies that aim for a high level of parental interest and encouragement of their children to eat healthy foods may improve diet quality and prevent overweight among children.

  15. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for evaluating zinc supplementation in prepubertal and healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of abnormal nutritional status has increased in children and adolescents. Nutritional assessment is important for monitoring the health and nutritional status. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA combines changes in tissue hydration and structure and body composition that can be assessed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to use BIVA to evaluate nutritional status in 60 prepubertal children, aged between 8 and 9 years, supplemented with zinc, to detect possible changes in body composition. Design: We performed a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into the control group (CG; sorbitol 10%, n=29 or the experimental group (EG; 10 mg Zn/day, n=31, and the duration of the experiment was 3 months. Anthropometric assessments were performed for all of the children. Results: The body mass index-for-age increased after oral zinc supplementation in the EG (p=0.005. BIVA indicated that the CG demonstrated a tendency for dehydration and decreased soft tissue and the EG demonstrated a tendency for increased soft tissue, primarily the fat-free mass. After analyses of BIVA ellipses, we observed that this method could detect improvements in body composition in healthy children supplemented with zinc. Conclusions: These results suggest that BIVA could be an auxiliary method for studying a small population undergoing zinc intervention.

  16. Socioeconomic status and number of children among Korean women: the Healthy Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseob; Sung, Joohon

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the birth rate is associated with socioeconomic status in the women of the Republic of Korea, where the birth rate is rapidly decreasing. This study included 732 females from the Healthy Twin Study, a family-twin cohort. The participants were classified into 3 socioeconomic groups according to their average income, education, and occupation. The association between socioeconomic status and number of children was assessed using gamma regression analysis with a generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for the age group, smoking/alcohol status, and family relationships. The group with the highest education level had significantly fewer children compared with the group with the lowest education level (p=0.004). However, no significant associations were found according to household income level. The non-manual labor group had significantly fewer children compared with those working as homemakers (p=0.008). This study aimed to explain the causal relationship between socioeconomic status and number of children. Associations between some socioeconomic status and number of children were found in Korea.

  17. Physical education teachers' attitudes towards children with intellectual disability: the impact of time in service, gender, and previous acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, D; Nalbant, S; Aǧlamıș, E; Baran, F; Kaya Samut, P; Aktop, A; Hutzler, Y

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated attitudes towards teaching students with intellectual disability (ID) within a representative sample of secondary school physical education (PE) teachers, and to determine the effects of age, gender, teaching experience, and having acquaintance with ID and students with ID on their attitudes. Participants were 729 secondary school PE teachers who worked in 81 major cities of Turkey. The Teachers Attitudes towards Children with Intellectual Disability Scale was administered. The statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant effect on factors and total attitudes scores of gender and having students with ID. Significant effects on factors and total attitudes score were found in teaching experiences and having acquaintance with ID. It is encouraged to maintain and further develop in-service education programmes of adapted physical activity for PE teachers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  18. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Bradley L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shott, Sally R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Bradley L.; Donnelly, Lane F.; Shott, Sally R.; Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S.

    2006-01-01

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of six-minute walk test in children with moderate/severe asthma with reference values for healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza de Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to compare physical performance and cardiorespiratory responses in the six-minute walk test (6MWT in asthmatic children with reference values for healthy children in the same age group, and to correlate them with intervening variables.METHODS:this was a cross-sectional, prospective study that evaluated children with moderate/severe asthma, aged between 6 and 16 years, in outpatient follow-up. Demographic and spirometric test data were collected. All patients answered the pediatric asthma quality of life (QoL questionnaire (PAQLQ and level of basal physical activity. The 6MWT was performed, following the American Thoracic Society recommendations. Comparison of means was performed using Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation to analyze the 6MWT with study variables. The significance level was set at 5%.RESULTS:40 children with moderate or severe asthma were included, 52.5% males, 70% with normal weight and sedentary. Mean age was 11.3 ± 2.1 years, mean height was 1.5 ± 0.1 m, and mean weight was 40.8 ± 12.6 Kg. The mean distance walked in the 6MWT was significantly lower, corresponding to 71.9% ± 19.7% of predicted values; sedentary children had the worst values. The difference between the distance walked on the test and the predicted values showed positive correlation with age (r = 0.373, p = 0.018 and negative correlation with cardiac rate at the end of the test (r = -0.518, p < 0.001. Regarding QoL assessment, the values in the question about physical activity limitations showed the worst scores, with a negative correlation with walked distance difference (r = -0.311, p = 0.051.CONCLUSIONS:asthmatic children's performance in the 6MWT evaluated through distance walked is significantly lower than the predicted values for healthy children of the same age, and is directly influenced by sedentary life style.

  1. Reference Values for Inspiratory Muscle Endurance in Healthy Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiele Taís Woszezenki

    Full Text Available To generate reference values for two inspiratory muscle endurance (IME protocols in healthy children and adolescents.This is an observational, cross-sectional study, in healthy children and adolescents from 4 to 18 years of age. Weight, height, maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and IME were measured using two protocols. A fixed load of 30% of MIP with a 10% increment every 2 minutes was used in the incremental threshold loading protocol. As for the maximal loading protocol, a fixed load of 70% of MIP was used and the time limit (Tlim achieved until fatigue was measured.A total of 462 participants were included, 281 corresponding to the incremental loading protocol and 181 to maximal loading. There were moderate and positive correlations between IME and age, MIP, weight and height in the incremental threshold loading. However, the regression model demonstrated that MIP and age were the best variables to predict the IME. Otherwise, weak and positive correlations with age, weight and height were found in the maximal loading. Only age and height influenced endurance in the regression model. The predictive power (r2 of the incremental threshold loading protocol was 0.65, while the maximal loading was 0.15. The reproducibility measured by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was higher in the incremental loading (0.96 compared to the maximal loading test (0.69.IME in healthy children and adolescents can be explained by age, height and MIP. The incremental threshold loading protocol showed more reliable results and should be the model of choice to evaluate IME in the pediatric age group.

  2. Systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and activation in clinically healthy children exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Villarreal-Calderon, R; Valencia-Salazar, G; Henríquez-Roldán, C; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Osnaya-Brizuela, N; Romero, L; Torres-Jardón, R; Solt, A; Reed, W

    2008-03-01

    Mexico City children are chronically exposed to significant concentrations of air pollutants and exhibit chronic respiratory-tract inflammation. Epidemiological, controlled human exposures, laboratory-based animal models, and in vitro/in vivo studies have shown that inflammatory, endothelial dysfunction, and endothelial damage mediators are upregulated upon exposure to particulate matter (PM). Endothelial dysfunction is a critical event in cardiovascular disease. The focus of this work was to investigate whether exposure to ambient air pollution including PM(2.5) produces systemic inflammation and endothelial injury in healthy children. We measured markers of endothelial activation, and inflammatory mediators in 52 children age 8.6+/-0.1 yr, residents of Mexico City (n: 28) or of Polotitlán (n: 24), a city with low levels of pollutants. Mexico City children had significant increases in inflammatory mediators and vasoconstrictors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, prostaglandin (PG) E2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-1beta, and endothelin-1. There was a significant anti-inflammatory response, and a downregulation of vascular adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and -2, and selectins sE and sL. Results from linear regression found TNF a positively associated with 24- and 48-h cumulative levels of PM(2.5), while the 7-d PM(2.5) value was negatively associated with the numbers of white blood cells in peripheral blood in highly exposed children. Systemic subclinical inflammation, increased endothelin- 1, and significant downregulation of soluble adhesion molecules are seen in Mexico City children. Children chronically exposed to fine PM above the standard could be at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, and other systemic effects later in life.

  3. Promotion of a Healthy Weight and Lifestyle among Children: The ‘Be Active, Eat Right’ Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Grieken (Amy)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOverweight and obesity among children has become a public health issue. This thesis aimed to describe interventions promoting a healthy weight and lifestyle among children and provide insight in elements that may be related to intervention improvement. Health care has an important role

  4. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours: A comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0-24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of their child feeding practices and their child's eating behaviour. In comparison to mothers with healthy weight, mothers with overweight/obesity reported giving their child more control around eating (p obesity reported their children to have a greater desire for drinks (p = 0.003), be more responsive to satiety (p = 0.007), and be slower eaters (p = 0.034). Mothers with overweight/obesity appear to engage in generally less healthy feeding practices with their children than mothers with healthy weight, and mothers with overweight/obesity perceive their children as more avoidant about food but not drinks. Such findings are likely to inform future intervention developments and help health workers and clinicians to better support mothers with overweight/obesity with implementing healthful feeding practices and promoting healthy eating habits in their children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Study of the Relationship of Parenting Styles, Child Temperament, and Operatory Behavior in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Amanda K; Wilson, Stephen; Thikkurissy, S

    2018-05-11

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of the child's temperament, parenting styles, and parents' prediction of their child's behavior in the dental setting. Subjects were healthy children 4-12 years of age attending a dental clinic. A Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) was given to parents to determine their parenting style. Parents completed the Emotionality, Activity, Sociability Temperament (EAS) survey to measure their child's temperament. Parents were asked to predict their child's behavior using the Frankl Scale. Data analysis included 113 parent/child dyads. Parents accurately predicted their child's behavior 58% of the time. Significant correlations were noted between parent's predictions of behavior and emotionality (r = -.497, p behavior and emotionality (r = -.586, p Parenting style scores did not correlate to predicted or actual behavior; however, categories of PSDQ were related to parental predictions of behavior. Relationships between temperament and parenting may aid in predicting children's behavior in the operatory.

  6. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    . RESULTS: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01), lower insulin sensitivity index (P triglyceride (P ... toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1) compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. CONCLUSION: This pilot study on healthy normal...... and adolescents. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting...

  7. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children. Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule. Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection. Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies. The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The

  8. Developmental trajectories of cerebrovascular reactivity in healthy children and young adults assessed with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jackie; Kosinski, Przemyslaw D; Croal, Paula L; Kassner, Andrea

    2016-05-15

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the vasodilatory reserve of cerebral resistance vessels. Normal development in children is associated with significant changes in blood pressure, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism. Therefore, it stands to reason that CVR will also undergo changes during this period. The study acquired magnetic resonance imaging measures of CVR and CBF in healthy children and young adults to trace their changes with age. We found that CVR changes in two phases, increasing with age until the mid-teens, followed by a decrease. Baseline CBF declined steadily with age. We conclude that CVR varies with age during childhood, which prompts future CVR studies involving children to take into account the effect of development. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the vasculature's ability to accommodate changes in blood flow demand thereby serving as a critical imaging tool for mapping vascular reserve. Normal development is associated with extensive physiological changes in blood pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, all of which can affect CVR. Moreover, the evolution of these physiological parameters is most prominent during childhood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize the developmental trajectories of CVR in healthy children and young adults, and relate them to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Thirty-four healthy subjects (17 males, 17 females; age 9-30 years) underwent CVR assessment using blood oxygen level-dependent MRI in combination with a computer controlled CO2 stimulus. In addition, baseline CBF was measured with a pulsed arterial spin labelling sequence. CVR exhibited a gradual increase with age in both grey and white matter up to 14.7 years. After this break point, a negative correlation with age was detected. Baseline CBF maintained a consistent negative linear correlation across the entire age range

  9. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

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    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB while 167 (24.3% were mouth breathers (MB; 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB.

  10. Bisphenol A, phthalate metabolites and glucose homeostasis in healthy normal-weight children

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    Amalie Carlsson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bisphenol A and several of the most commonly used phthalates have been associated with adverse metabolic health effects such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, we analyzed these man-made chemicals in first morning urine samples from 107 healthy normal-weight Danish children and adolescents. Method: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited as part of the Copenhagen Puberty Study. The subjects were evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scan, direct oxygen uptake measurement during cycle ergometry and fasting blood samples. First morning urine was collected and phthalate metabolites and BPA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS with prior enzymatic deconjugation. Individual chemical concentrations were divided into tertiles and analyzed in relation to biological outcome. Results: Children in the lowest tertile of urinary BPA had significantly higher peak insulin levels during OGTT (P = 0.01, lower insulin sensitivity index (P < 0.01, higher leptin (P = 0.03, triglyceride (P < 0.01 and total cholesterol levels (P = 0.04, lower aerobic fitness (P = 0.02 and a tendency toward higher fat mass index (P = 0.1 compared with children in the highest tertile for uBPA. No significant differences in anthropometrics, body composition or glucose metabolism were associated with any of the phthalate metabolites measured. Conclusion: This pilot study on healthy normal-weight children suggests an inverse association between BPA and insulin resistance. Our findings contrast other cross-sectional studies showing a positive association for BPA, which may be due to confounding or reverse causation because diet is an important source of both BPA exposure and obesity.

  11. Effects of gestational age on brain volume and cognitive functions in generally healthy very preterm born children during school-age: A voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Sakari Lemola

    Full Text Available To determine whether the relationship of gestational age (GA with brain volumes and cognitive functions is linear or whether it follows a threshold model in preterm and term born children during school-age.We studied 106 children (M = 10 years 1 month, SD = 16 months; 40 females enrolled in primary school: 57 were healthy very preterm children (10 children born 24-27 completed weeks' gestation (extremely preterm, 14 children born 28-29 completed weeks' gestation, 19 children born 30-31 completed weeks' gestation (very preterm, and 14 born 32 completed weeks' gestation (moderately preterm all born appropriate for GA (AGA and 49 term-born children. Neuroimaging involved voxel-based morphometry with the statistical parametric mapping software. Cognitive functions were assessed with the WISC-IV. General Linear Models and multiple regressions were conducted controlling age, sex, and maternal education.Compared to groups of children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later, children born <28 completed weeks' gestation had less gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV and poorer cognitive functions including decreased full scale IQ, and processing speed. Differences in GMV partially mediated the relationship between GA and full scale IQ in preterm born children.In preterm children who are born AGA and without major complications GA is associated with brain volume and cognitive functions. In particular, decreased brain volume becomes evident in the extremely preterm group (born <28 completed weeks' gestation. In preterm children born 30 completed weeks' gestation and later the relationship of GA with brain volume and cognitive functions may be less strong as previously thought.

  12. Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliaux, Maxime; Dierckx, Floriane; Vanden Berghe, Lola; Lejeune, Thierry M; Sapin, Julien; Dehez, Bruno; Stoquart, Gaëtan; Detrembleur, Christine

    2015-05-01

    The use of kinematics is recommended to quantitatively evaluate upper limb movements. The aims of this study were to determine the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. Ninety-three healthy children, aged 3-12 years, participated in this study. Twenty-eight kinematic indices were computed from four tasks. Each task was performed with the REAplan, a distal effector robotic device that allows upper limb displacements in the horizontal plane. Twenty-four of the 28 indices showed an improvement during childhood. Indeed, older children showed better upper limb movements. This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children.

  13. Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains Colonizing Upper Respiratory Tract of Healthy Preschool Children in Poland

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    Izabela Korona-Glowniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant and invasive pneumococci may spread temporally and locally in day care centers (DCCs. We examined 267 children attending four DCCs located in the same city and 70 children staying at home in three seasons (autumn, winter, and spring to determine prevalence, serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance patterns, and transmission of pneumococcal strains colonizing upper respiratory tract of healthy children without antipneumococcal vaccination. By pheno- and genotyping, we determined clonality of pneumococci, including drug-resistant strains. The average carriage of pneumococci in three seasons was 38.2%. 73.4% and 80.4% of the isolates belonged to serotypes present in 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine, respectively. Among the pneumococcal strains, 33.3% were susceptible to all antimicrobial tested and 39.2% had decreased susceptibility to penicillin. Multidrug resistance was common (35.7%; 97.5% of drug-resistant isolates represented serotypes included to 10- and 13-valent conjugate vaccine. According to BOX-PCR, clonality definitely was observed only in case of serotype 14. Multivariate analysis determined DCC attendance as strongly related to pneumococcal colonization in all three seasons, but important seasonal differences were demonstrated. In children attending DCCs, we observed dynamic turnover of pneumococcal strains, especially penicillin nonsusceptible and multidrug resistant, which were mostly distributed among serotypes included to available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  14. Enterobiasis epidemiology and molecular characterization of Enterobius vermicularis in healthy children in north-eastern Poland

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    Kubiak K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Enterobiasis is a human intestinal parasitic disease caused by human pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Despite being the most prevalent nematode infection in Europe and North America, predominantly among in school aged children, the data concerning infection rate and knowledge of genetic variability of pinworms are incomplete. The aim of the study was the estimation of prevalence and molecular typing of Enterobius vermicularis among healthy children in north-eastern Poland. In 2013 – 2015, 296 individuals (aged 2 – 18 years from 12 kindergartens, schools and orphanages were examined by the adhesive cellophane tape method. Data on socio-demographic status were collected using a questionnaire. Molecular analysis was performed using the DNA of adult female pinworms and primers targeting the region of cytochrome oxidase I gene. The overall prevalence of enterobiasis was 10.1 %. Enterobius vermicularis infection rates were 3.9 % in children living in families and 32.8 % among the orphans (OR=0.08; 95 % CI: 0.04 – 0.19; p<0.001. There were no associations between distribution of enterobiasis and gender, pets possession and the season of examination. In 43.3 % of the infected children enterobiasis was asymptomatic. Based on a molecular marker three different haplotypes of pinworm were identified. All sequences clustered within type B, together with human E. vermicularis isolates from Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Japan. This paper provides complementary data on the occurrence and intraspecific variability of E. vermicularis in human population in Europe.

  15. HFE Gene Mutations and Iron Status in 100 Healthy Polish Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowska-Hac, Barbara; Luszczyk, Marcin; Antosiewicz, Jedrzej; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Adamkiewicz-Drozynska, Elzbieta; Mysliwiec, Malgorzata; Milosz, Ewa; Kaczor, Jan J

    2017-07-01

    Iron participates in oxygen transport, energetic, metabolic, and immunologic processes. There are 2 main causes of iron overload: hereditary hemochromatosis which is a primary cause, is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations of genes that control iron metabolism and secondary hemochromatosis caused by multitransfusions, chronic hemolysis, and intake of iron rich food. The most common type of hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by HFE gene mutation. In this study, we analyzed iron metabolism in 100 healthy Polish children in relation to their HFE gene status. The wild-type HFE gene was predominant being observed in 60 children (60%). Twenty-five children (25%), presented with heterozygotic H63D mutation, and 15 children (15%), presented with other mutations (heterozygotic C282Y and S65C mutation, compound heterozygotes C282Y/S65C, C282Y/H63D, H63D homozygote). The mean concentration of iron, the level of ferritin, and transferrin saturation were statistically higher in the group of HFE variants compared with the wild-type group. H63D carriers presented with higher mean concentration of iron, ferritin levels, and transferrin saturation compared with the wild-type group. Male HFE carriers presented with higher iron concentration, transferrin saturation, and ferritin levels than females. This preliminary investigation demonstrates allelic impact on potential disease progression from childhood.

  16. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with low adherence to a Mediterranean diet in healthy children in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriscado, Daniel; Muros, José J; Zabala, Mikel; Dalmau, José M

    2014-09-01

    There is a tendency in Mediterranean countries to abandon the characteristic Mediterranean diet. This is especially apparent within younger populations. This could have negative consequences for health such as, cardiovascular diseases, obesity or metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe adherence to the Mediterranean diet within a population of school children and to examine the influence of different socio-demographic factors and lifestyle habits. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 321 school children aged 11-12 years from 31 schools in the city of Logroño (La Rioja). Socio-demographic variables, anthropometric variables, blood pressure, level of development, aerobic fitness, lifestyle, physical activity habits and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were recorded. High adherence to the Mediterranean diet was reported by 46.7% of school children, with low adherence being reported by 4.7% of them. Children attending state schools, immigrants and families from low-to-medium socio-economic strata reported significantly lower adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p = .039), but the results did not reveal any significant differences in terms of body composition. Correlations were found between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and other lifestyle habits, especially level of physical activity (r = .38) and screen time (r = -.18). Adherence to a Mediterranean diet differs according to the type of school attended by children, and the child's nationality and socio-economic status. Children who attended state schools, immigrants and those from families with a medium-to-low socio-economic status were less likely to follow healthy diets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine and gross motor skills differ between healthy-weight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentier, Ilse; D'Hondt, Eva; Shultz, Sarah; Deforche, Benedicte; Augustijn, Mireille; Hoorne, Sofie; Verlaecke, Katja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2013-11-01

    Within the obesity literature, focus is put on the link between weight status and gross motor skills. However, research on fine motor skills in the obese (OB) childhood population is limited. Therefore, the present study focused on possible weight related differences in gross as well as fine motor skill tasks. Thirty-four OB children (12 ♀ and 22 ♂, aged 7-13 years) were recruited prior to participating in a multidisciplinary treatment program at the Zeepreventorium (De Haan, Belgium). Additionally, a control group of 34 age and gender-matched healthy-weight (HW) children was included in the study. Anthropometric measures were recorded and gross and fine motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results were analyzed by independent samples t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance, and a chi-squared test. Being OB was detrimental for all subtests evaluating gross motor skill performance (i.e., upper-limb coordination, bilateral coordination, balance, running speed and agility, and strength). Furthermore, OB children performed worse in fine motor precision and a manual dexterity task, when compared to their HW peers. No group differences existed for the fine motor integration task. Our study provides evidence that lower motor competence in OB children is not limited to gross motor skills alone; OB children are also affected by fine motor skill problems. Further investigation is warranted to provide possible explanations for these differences. It is tentatively suggested that OB children experience difficulties with the integration and processing of sensory information. Future research is needed to explore whether this assumption is correct and what the underlying mechanism(s) could be. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Do healthy preterm children need neuropsychological follow-up? Preschool outcomes compared with term peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'oglio, Anna M; Rossiello, Barbara; Coletti, Maria F; Bultrini, Massimiliano; DE Marchis, Chiara; Ravà, Lucilla; Caselli, Cristina; Paris, Silvana; Cuttini, Marina

    2010-10-01

    the aim of this study was to determine neuropsychological performance (possibly predictive of academic difficulties) and its relationship with cognitive development and maternal education in healthy preterm children of preschool age and age-matched comparison children born at term. a total of 35 infants who were born at less than 33 weeks' gestational age and who were free from major neurosensory disability (16 males, 19 females; mean gestational age 29.4wk, SD 2.2wk; mean birthweight 1257g, SD 327g) and 50 term-born comparison children (25 males, 25 females; mean birthweight 3459g, SD 585g) were assessed at 4 years of age. Cognition was measured using the Griffiths Mental Development scales while neuropsychological abilities (language, short-term memory, visual-motor and constructive spatial abilities, and visual processing) were assessed using standardized tests. Multivariable regression analysis was used to explore the effects of preterm birth and sociodemographic factors on cognition, and to adjust neuropsychological scores for cognitive level and maternal education. the mean total Griffiths score was significantly lower in preterm than in term children (97.4 vs 103.4; psiblings or a twin (β=4.0; 95% CI 0.5-7.6). At neuropsychological assessment, preterm children scored significantly lower than term comparison children in all tests except lexical production (Boston Naming Test) and visual-processing accuracy. After adjustment for cognitive level and maternal education, differences remained statistically significant for verbal fluency (pchildren to identify strengths and challenges before school entry, and to plan interventions aimed at maximizing academic success.

  20. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin E; Barr, Ronald D

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014-1020, 2006). Age-dependent patterns of increase in SMM were derived by fitting SMM values to equations that consisted of the sum of two logistic expressions, one accounting for SMM changes during growth and the other for SMM changes during puberty. Normal ranges were defined so that 95% of the SMM values were included. The reproducibility of SMM measurements was obtained from whole-body DXA scans repeated on three occasions in each of a separate group of 32 normal children with repositioning between scans. Normal ranges are presented as equations describing the age-dependent pattern of increase in SMM as well as population standard deviations that increased steadily with age. For 15 children below age 10, SMM reproducibility (95% CI) was 149 g (119-199 g) while for 17 children and adolescents over age 10, reproducibility was 170 g (138-223 g). DXA-based measurements of SMM in children and adolescents are reproducible and can be expressed in terms of age-dependent Z scores.

  1. Healthy-lifestyle behaviors associated with overweight and obesity in US rural children

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    Tovar Alison

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are disproportionately higher rates of overweight and obesity in poor rural communities but studies exploring children’s health-related behaviors that may assist in designing effective interventions are limited. We examined the association between overweight and obesity prevalence of 401 ethnically/racially diverse, rural school-aged children and healthy-lifestyle behaviors: improving diet quality, obtaining adequate sleep, limiting screen-time viewing, and consulting a physician about a child’s weight. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of school-aged children (6–11 years in rural regions of California, Kentucky, Mississippi, and South Carolina participating in CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active, and Nurturing Growing-up Environments Program, created by Save the Children, an independent organization that works with communities to improve overall child health, with the objective to reduce unhealthy weight gain in these school-aged children (grades 1–6 in rural America. After measuring children’s height and weight, we17 assessed overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 85th percentile associations with these behaviors: improving diet quality18 (≥ 2 servings of fruits and vegetables/day, reducing whole milk, sweetened beverage consumption/day; obtaining19 adequate night-time sleep on weekdays (≥ 10 hours/night; limiting screen-time (i.e., television, video, computer,20 videogame viewing on weekdays (≤ 2 hours/day; and consulting a physician about weight. Analyses were adjusted 21 for state of residence, children's race/ethnicity, gender, age, and government assistance. Results Overweight or obesity prevalence was 37 percent in Mississippi and nearly 60 percent in Kentucky. Adjusting for covariates, obese children were twice as likely to eat ≥ 2 servings of vegetables per day (OR=2.0,95% CI 1.1-3.4, less likely to consume whole milk (OR=0.4,95% CI 0.2-0.70, Their parents are more likely to

  2. Radioimmunological determination of somatomedin B in healthy children and in children with growth disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, S.; Schoenberger, W.; Roth, A.; Grimm, W.

    1983-01-01

    Serum somatomedin B levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 209 helthy boys and girls from one month to 16 years of age. Low values were found up to the second year life. In the first year the mean level was 13.8 mg/l in girls and 11.5 mg/l in boys. In older children the values increased to levels between 13 and 22 mg/l in boys and between 13 and 18.5 mg/l in girls. They were independent of the stage of pubertal development. Somatomedin B levels were normal in 71 children with constitutional growth delay, primordial dwarfism, familial dwarfism and other forms of growth disturbance. The mean levels were between 12.1 and 14.4 mg/l. Values below 6 mg/l were present only in children with hGH deficiency. In these patients we could find an increase of the mean level from 4.3 mg/l without therapy to 9.4 mg/l under treatment. Thus the determination of somatomedin B seems to be useful for the diagnosis of hGH deficiency. (author)

  3. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of healthy and thyroid tumor-affected children from the Gomel region (Belarus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, Barale; Gemignani, Federica; Morizzo, Carmela; Lori, Adriana; Rossi, Annamaria; Ballardin, Michela [Dipartimento di Scienze dell`Uomo e dell`Ambiente, Universita di Pisa, Via S. Giuseppe, n. 22, 56100 Pisa (Italy); Antonelli, Alessandro; Di Pretoro, Giancarlo [Clinica Medica II, Universita di Pisa, Via S. Giuseppe 22, Pisa (Italy); Panasiuk, Galina [CISAM, S. Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy)

    1998-08-31

    During 1994, 19 thyroid tumor-affected children and 17 healthy children from the Gomel region, one of the areas most polluted by the Chernobyl fallout, were analysed for (1) the presence of in their urine and (2) chromosome aberrations (CA) in circulating lymphocytes. They were compared with 35 healthy children from Pisa, Italy. Tumor-affected children showed significantly (p<0.05) higher levels in their urine as compared to healthy controls from the Gomel region. No radioactivity was found in urine from the Pisa controls. CA frequency was significantly higher in tumor-affected children compared to the Gomel controls, but was not significantly different between Gomel and Pisa controls. However, dicentric chromosomes were found in a significantly (p<0.01) greater proportion in both affected and healthy Gomel children (3.4 and 1.3/1000 cells, respectively) as compared to the Pisa controls (0.4/1000 cells). Multiple regression analysis showed that the proportion of cells with acentric fragments, dicentric and ring chromosomes was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with the amount of excreted in their urine. These findings suggest that children from the Gomel region were still being exposed to radionuclides, which makes it possible to study a dose-effect relationship

  4. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes of healthy and thyroid tumor-affected children from the Gomel region (Belarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Barale; Gemignani, Federica; Morizzo, Carmela; Lori, Adriana; Rossi, Annamaria; Ballardin, Michela; Antonelli, Alessandro; Di Pretoro, Giancarlo; Panasiuk, Galina

    1998-01-01

    During 1994, 19 thyroid tumor-affected children and 17 healthy children from the Gomel region, one of the areas most polluted by the Chernobyl fallout, were analysed for (1) the presence of in their urine and (2) chromosome aberrations (CA) in circulating lymphocytes. They were compared with 35 healthy children from Pisa, Italy. Tumor-affected children showed significantly (p<0.05) higher levels in their urine as compared to healthy controls from the Gomel region. No radioactivity was found in urine from the Pisa controls. CA frequency was significantly higher in tumor-affected children compared to the Gomel controls, but was not significantly different between Gomel and Pisa controls. However, dicentric chromosomes were found in a significantly (p<0.01) greater proportion in both affected and healthy Gomel children (3.4 and 1.3/1000 cells, respectively) as compared to the Pisa controls (0.4/1000 cells). Multiple regression analysis showed that the proportion of cells with acentric fragments, dicentric and ring chromosomes was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with the amount of excreted in their urine. These findings suggest that children from the Gomel region were still being exposed to radionuclides, which makes it possible to study a dose-effect relationship

  5. Parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. Findings from the Healthy Beginnings Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Flood, Victoria M; Baur, Louise A

    2013-12-01

    Parenting style may have a role in the development of young children's dietary behaviour, and a better understanding of parenting style may lead to better-targeted childhood obesity prevention interventions. This study aimed to investigate the association of parental self-efficacy, parenting style and dietary behaviour of young children. A cross-sectional study with 242 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in one of the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of south-western Sydney, in 2007-2010. Parental self-efficacy, parenting style (warmth and hostility) and children's dietary behaviours (consumption of vegetables, fruit, soft-drink and snacks) were assessed by face-to-face interviews with participating mothers in the control group when their children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between parenting style and the child's dietary behaviour. Mothers with higher levels of global parental self-efficacy and self-efficacy for an infant were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetables per day, with odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (95%CI 1.35-4.27, P=0.003) and OR 1.88 (95%CI 1.06-3.36, P=0.03), respectively. A higher level of global parental self-efficacy or self-efficacy for an infant was significantly associated with having 2 serves of fruit per day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.46 (95%CI 1.35-4.48, P=0.003) and AOR 1.85 (95%CI 1.00-3.41, P=0.048), respectively, after adjusting for annual household income. Mothers with a higher level of parental warmth were more likely to report their children had 2 serves of vegetable per day with OR 1.85 (95%CI 1.06-3.25, P=0.03). Parental self-efficacy and parenting style were associated, cross-sectionally, with important children's dietary behaviours. Interventions which target parental self-efficacy and parenting style may improve eating habits of young children, and

  6. Effects of Active Videogames on Physical Activity and Related Outcomes Among Healthy Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W C

    2014-06-01

    This review systematically evaluated the effects of active videogames (AVGs) on physical activity (PA) and related outcomes in healthy children. Electronic databases were searched to retrieve articles published from January 2000 through August 2013. Included were original studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, that included at least one subgroup of healthy participants not older than 18 years, and that measured at least one PA-related cognitive, psychosocial, or behavioral outcome. All study designs were included, but only intervention studies with PA comparison between groups or across time were assessed for methodological quality. Evidence strength for intervention studies was stratified by settings (including the free-living home setting, the school, community, or primary care setting with structured AVG sessions [i.e., AVG play of participants was organized by teachers or researchers], and multiple settings). Fifty-four articles were identified, including 32 studies that examined the immediate PA effects (i.e., energy expenditure and PA levels during AVG play), one survey study, and 21 intervention studies aimed to promote PA. AVGs led to light- to moderate-intensity PA among studies of immediate PA outcomes. No effect was identified of AVGs on PA in the home setting. Moderate evidence was found that structured AVG play could improve PA. Inconclusive evidence was found for the effect of AVGs on PA in multiple settings. The present review does not support using AVGs alone in the home setting to promote PA. Structured AVG play has the potential to promote PA in children.

  7. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra

    2016-10-04

    The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  8. EEG frontal asymmetry related to pleasantness of music perception in healthy children and cochlear implanted users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, G; Maglione, A G; Scorpecci, A; Malerba, P; Marsella, P; Di Francesco, G; Vitiello, S; Colosimo, A; Babiloni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Interestingly, the international debate about the quality of music fruition for cochlear implanted users does not take into account the hypothesis that bilateral users could perceive music in a more pleasant way with respect to monolateral users. In this scenario, the aim of the present study was to investigate if cerebral signs of pleasantness during music perception in healthy child are similar to those observed in monolateral and in bilateral cochlear implanted users. In fact, previous observations in literature on healthy subjects have indicated that variations of the frontal EEG alpha activity are correlated with the perceived pleasantness of the sensory stimulation received (approach-withdrawal theory). In particular, here we described differences between cortical activities estimated in the alpha frequency band for a healthy child and in patients having a monolateral or a bilateral cochlear implant during the fruition of a musical cartoon. The results of the present analysis showed that the alpha EEG asymmetry patterns observed in a healthy child and that of a bilateral cochlear implanted patient are congruent with the approach-withdrawal theory. Conversely, the scalp topographic distribution of EEG power spectra in the alpha band resulting from the monolateral cochlear user presents a different EEG pattern from the normal and bilateral implanted patients. Such differences could be explained at the light of the approach-withdrawal theory. In fact, the present findings support the hypothesis that a monolateral cochlear implanted user could perceive the music in a less pleasant way when compared to a healthy subject or to a bilateral cochlear user.

  9. Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naderer, B.; Matthes, J.; Binder, A.; Marquart, F.; Mayrhofer, M.; Obereder, A.; Spielvogel, I.

    Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such

  10. Exhaled breath profiling using broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy in healthy children and children with asthma and cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mastrigt, E; Reyes-Reyes, A; Brand, K; Bhattacharya, N; Urbach, H P; Stubbs, A P; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2016-04-08

    Exhaled breath analysis is a potential non-invasive tool for diagnosing and monitoring airway diseases. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electrochemical sensor arrays are the main techniques to detect volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath. We developed a broadband quantum cascade laser spectroscopy technique for VOC detection and identification. The objective of this study was to assess the repeatability of exhaled breath profiling with broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy and to explore the clinical applicability by comparing exhaled breath samples from healthy children with those from children with asthma or cystic fibrosis (CF). Healthy children and children with stable asthma or stable CF, aged 6-18 years, were included. Two to four exhaled breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and analyzed by quantum cascade laser spectroscopy to detect VOCs with an absorption profile in the wavenumber region between 832 and 1262.55 cm(-1). We included 35 healthy children, 39 children with asthma and 15 with CF. Exhaled breath VOC profiles showed poor repeatability (Spearman's rho  =  0.36 to 0.46) and agreement of the complete profiles. However, we were able to discriminate healthy children from children with stable asthma or stable CF and identified VOCs that were responsible for this discrimination. Broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy detected differences in VOC profiles in exhaled breath samples between healthy children and children with asthma or CF. The combination of a relatively easy and fast method and the possibility of molecule identification makes broadband quantum cascade laser-based spectroscopy attractive to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of volatiles in exhaled breath.

  11. A Parental Health Education Model of Children's Food Consumption: Influence on Children's Attitudes, Intention, and Consumption of Healthy and Unhealthy Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.

  12. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  13. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  14. Sabin and wild polioviruses from apparently healthy primary school children in northeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, M M; Oderinde, B S; Patrick, P Z; Jarmai, M M

    2012-02-01

    Despite significant success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Nigeria, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, wild poliovirus still occurs due to persistently high proportions of under and unimmunized children. The study aimed at determining the type of poliovirus often excreted into the environment. Four hundred nine fecal samples collected from apparently healthy school children aged 5-16 years in Borno and Adamawa States, northeastern Nigeria, were tested for poliovirus by tissue culture technique. The isolates were characterized further by intratypic differentiation testing and genetic sequencing. Three wild poliovirus type, 11 Sabin type, combination of Sabin-types 1 + 2 and 2 + 3 poliovirus, and 22 non-polio enteroviruses were obtained. The continued excretion of wild-type poliovirus among children above 5 years old vaccinated with oral polio vaccine contributes to the persistent circulation of these viruses in the environment and may limit the population immunity. However, the excreted Sabin poliovirus is capable of immunizing the unvaccinated children and promotes herd immunity. Similarly, the excretion of combination of two polio serotypes indicates the child susceptibility to the missing serotype (s) and therefore indicates an immunity gap. The common unhygienic practices in the environment could aid the spread of these viruses through oral-fecal route. Asymptomatic transmission of wild poliovirus among older oral polio vaccine-vaccinated children poses a serious threat to polio eradication program in Nigeria and therefore, environmental and serological surveillance with larger sample size are important for monitoring poliovirus circulation in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Feeding behaviors and other motor development in healthy children (2-24 months).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Betty Ruth; Skinner, Jean D

    2002-04-01

    To monitor infant's gross, fine and oral motor development patterns related to feeding. An incomplete block design was used with 57 to 60 (sample = 98) mothers interviewed when their children were 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 months (within +/- 5 days of birth date). Each mother had 5 to 6 interviews. Selected developmental feeding behaviors were monitored using in-home interviews conducted by trained interviewers (n = 2). At each interview, mothers reported the child's age when behaviors first occurred, and anthropometric measurements were performed. Subjects were healthy white children who lived mostly in homes with educated two-parent families of upper socioeconomic status. Mean behavioral ages were within normal ranges reported in the literature, whereas individuals exhibited a wide diversity in reported ages. Examples of gross motor skills (age in months, +/- SD) included sitting without help (5.50+/-2.08) and crawling (8.00+/-1.55). Mean ages for self-feeding fine motor skills showed children reaching for a spoon when hungry (5.47+/-1.44), using fingers to rake food toward self (8.87+/-2.58) and using fingers to self-feed soft foods (13.52+/-2.83). Oral behaviors included children opening their mouth when food approached (4.46+/-1.37), eating food with tiny lumps (8.70+/-2.03) and chewing and swallowing firmer foods without choking (12.17+/-2.28). Mean ages for feeding behaviors occurred within expected age ranges associated with normal development. However, mothers reported that individual children exhibited a wide age range for achieving these behaviors. Our results should be considered in counseling mothers about infant feeding practices.

  16. Nasopharyngeal carriage, antibiogram & serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy under five children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Ravi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Information related to nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children is scanty in India. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the presence of asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization, assess serogroups/types (SGT and drug resistance of S. pneumoniae in children below five years of age. Methods: A total of 109 male and 81 female children in the age group of three months to five years belonging to different socio-economic classes were enrolled. They were recruited across all age groups from those attending paediatric OPD of a tertiary care and research centre for immunization program. Fifty three isolates identified as pneumococci were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion and E-Test methods. Serotyping was performed by detection of the quelling reaction with specific antiserum. Result: The pneumococcal carriage rate in the study population was 27.9 per cent. The isolation rate was associated with age being higher (49.2% in smaller children (3-12 months and among male (62.2%. The most prevalent SGTs were 19 followed by 10, 14 and 7; 21 per cent of isolates belonging to serotype 10 (n=7 were 11 (n=4 were not covered in any of the conjugate vaccines currently available in Indian market. Resistance to co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin was observed in 91 per cent (n=48, 36 per cent (n=19, 17 per cent (n=9 and 9 per cent (n=5 isolates, respectively. All the penicillin resistant isolates were found to be intermediately resistant by E-Test. Multidrug resistance was observed in 19 per cent (n=10 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: High level of antibiotic resistance was present in S. pneumoniae isolated from healthy children below age five. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the prevailing SGTs would help to reduce the pool of antibiotic resistant pneumococci. Continued surveillance of serotypes and tracking

  17. Parental competence programs to promote positive parenting and healthy lifestyles in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Zaldibar, Cayetana; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Mujika, Agurtzane

    To analyze the available evidence regarding the efficacy of interventions on parents whose children were aged 2-5 years to promote parental competence and skills for children's healthy lifestyles. Articles published in English and Spanish, available at PubMed, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Eric, and Cochrane Library were reviewed. The literature search yielded 2282 articles. Forty-one full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion using the PRISMA flow diagram. Twenty-six articles were excluded, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In the end, 15 studies were included. The studies were conducted between 2003 and 2016, nine in North America, four in Europe, and two in Asia. Extracted data were synthesized in a tabular format. CASPe guide was used to assess the quality of studies that was moderate overall. Parental self-efficacy was the main construct assessed in most studies. Four studies reported an increase in parental self-efficacy, although most of them were studies without control groups. Outcomes of interventions to improve parental competence in order to promote children's lifestyles are promising, but inconsistent. Additional studies with higher methodological and conceptual quality are needed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy Venezuelan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, B; Araque, M; van der Gaast-de Jongh, C; Escalona, F; Correa, M; Morillo-Puente, S; Vielma, S; Hermans, P W M

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. We investigated both the colonization and co-colonization characteristics for these pathogens among 250 healthy children from 2 to 5 years of age in Merida, Venezuela, in 2007. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae colonization, S. aureus colonization, and S. pneumoniae-S. aureus co-colonization was 28%, 56%, and 16%, respectively. Pneumococcal serotypes 6B (14%), 19F (12%), 23F (12%), 15 (9%), 6A (8%), 11 (8%), 23A (6%), and 34 (6%) were the most prevalent. Non-respiratory atopy was a risk factor for S. aureus colonization (p = 0.017). Vaccine serotypes were negatively associated with preceding respiratory infection (p = 0.02) and with S. aureus colonization (p = 0.03). We observed a high prevalence of pneumococcal resistance against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40%), erythromycin (38%), and penicillin (14%). Semi-quantitative measurement of pneumococcal colonization density showed that children with young siblings and low socioeconomic status were more densely colonized (p = 0.02 and p = 0.02, respectively). In contrast, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole- and multidrug-resistant-pneumococci colonized children sparsely (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively). Our data form an important basis to monitor the future impact of pneumococcal vaccination on bacterial colonization, as well as to recommend a rationalized and restrictive antimicrobial use in our community.

  19. Seroprevalence rate of Poliovirus antibodies among the Healthy and Protein Energy Malnutrition children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, Aliya; Syed Shah, Skindar Ali; Syed Jaffery, Imtiaz Ahmed; Ahmed, Syed Azher; Khan, M A Basit; Aslam, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    To study the association between Protein energy malnutrition and polio-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies production among children in Gadap Town Karachi, Pakistan. Comparative cross sectional survey conducted at fixed EPI center and Pediatric OPD of a tertiary care hospital Karachi. Children were selected by convenient sampling method during the period from 17 March to 17 May 2013. It was ensured that they must have received more than seven oral polio vaccine doses as eligibility criteria for the study. A total of 170 blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of polio-specific IgG antibodies using Poliomyelitis IgG ELISA Test Kit produced. Statistically significant relation was found between PEM and IgG antibodies production OR (P = 0.000). Overall Seroprevalence rate among the study population was 98.8%, PEM group 97.6% and healthy group 100%. The study demonstrated that there is a need to focus on the protein energy malnutrition among the children as an immunization strategy for the 100% seroprevalence rate in all population against polio in Pakistan.

  20. The paediatric wrist revisited - findings of bony depressions in healthy children on radiographs compared to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenarius, Derk M.F.; Eldevik, Petter; Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Owens, Catherine M.; Rosendahl, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The presence of erosions is used for diagnosis and monitoring of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Assessment of carpal bone erosions in children is challenging due to lack of normal references. To define normal appearances of bony depressions in the wrist on radiographs and MRI. MRI and radiography of the wrist were performed in 88 healthy children, 5-15 years of age. We assessed the number of bony depressions within the carpals/proximal metacarpals on both modalities, separately and combined. A total of 75 carpal depressions were identified on radiography compared to 715 on MRI. The number of bony depressions identified radiographically showed no statistically significant difference across age-groups. Within the metacarpals, there was no significant difference between bony depressions identified by MRI or radiography, except at the bases of the second metacarpal. Bony depressions that resemble erosions are normal findings in the wrist in children. MRI identifies more depressions than radiographs in the carpus. Some bony depressions occur at typical locations and should be accounted for when assessing the wrist in JIA to avoid overstaging. (orig.)

  1. Feasibility, tolerability and safety of pediatric hyperpolarized "1"2"9Xe magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers and children with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkup, Laura L.; Watters, Erin; Ruppert, Kai; Thomen, Robert P.; Woods, Jason C.; Akinyi, Teckla G.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Clancy, John P.

    2016-01-01

    consistent with the known anesthetic properties of xenon and with previous safety assessments of "1"2"9Xe MRI in adults. Hyperpolarized "1"2"9Xe is a safe and well-tolerated inhaled contrast agent for pulmonary MR imaging in healthy children and in children with cystic fibrosis who have mild to moderate lung disease. (orig.)

  2. Feasibility, tolerability and safety of pediatric hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers and children with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkup, Laura L.; Watters, Erin; Ruppert, Kai [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomen, Robert P.; Woods, Jason C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Physics, St. Louis, MO (United States); Akinyi, Teckla G.; Cleveland, Zackary I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, Biomedical Engineering Program, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Clancy, John P. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-11-15

    -hold, and other mild side effects were consistent with the known anesthetic properties of xenon and with previous safety assessments of {sup 129}Xe MRI in adults. Hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe is a safe and well-tolerated inhaled contrast agent for pulmonary MR imaging in healthy children and in children with cystic fibrosis who have mild to moderate lung disease. (orig.)

  3. Effectiveness of brain-based learning and animated cartoons for enhancing healthy habits among school children in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Duangsong, Rujira; Muangsom, Niramon; Kamsong, Theppamon; Phangwan, Krittiya

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of brain-based learning (BBL) and animated cartoons on video compact discs (VCDs) in enhancing the healthy habits of school children. A representative sample of 1085 school children in the first through the third grades at 16 schools was selected by multistage random sampling. Knowledge of healthy habits and self-reported adoption of practices were assessed by a questionnaire. BBL and VCD, either combined or as single-intervention techniques, led to improved knowledge and practice of healthy behavior, whereas conventional teaching did not. As a single-intervention technique, BBL on its own led to a greater improvement in healthy practices than VCD, but the addition of BBL to VCD made no difference, and there was no difference between BBL and VCD in terms of improvements in knowledge. In conclusion, both BBL and VCD are effective, but VCD requires fewer resources. Recommendations are made for further research. © 2012 APJPH.

  4. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahiyo Rajabu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  5. Comparison of Updated Weight and Height Percentiles with Previous References in 6-17-Year-Old Children in Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zararsız, Gökmen; Çiçek, Betül; Kondolot, Meda; Mazıcıoğlu, M Mümtaz; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-03-01

    To compare updated weight and height percentiles of 6-17-year-old children from all socio-economic levels in Kayseri with previous local references and other national/international data. The second study "Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study (DAMTCA II)" was conducted in Kayseri, between October 2007 and April 2008. Weight and height measurements from 4321 (1926 boys, 2395 girls) school children aged between 6 to 17 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Using these data, weight and height percentile curves were produced with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and compared with the most recent references. Smoothed percentile curves including the 3 rd , 5 th , 10 th , 15 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th , 85 th , 90 th , 95 th , and 97 th percentiles were obtained for boys and girls. These results were compared with DAMTCA I study and with two national (İstanbul and Ankara) and international data from Asia and from Europe. This study provides updated weight and height references for Turkish school children aged between 6 and 17 years residing in Kayseri.

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent, inactivated, mammalian cell culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy adults, seniors, and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Scott A; Smith, Bruce; Mabrouk, Taoufik; Germain, Marc; Trépanier, Pierre; Hassell, Thomas; Treanor, John; Gauthier, Richard; Mills, Elaine L

    2002-01-15

    We performed randomized, double-blind, controlled trials to assess the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated, Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)-derived cell line produced influenza vaccine in healthy adults (19-50 years), children (3-12 years) and the elderly (> or =65 years). We studied three lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of licensed egg-derived vaccine in healthy adults (n=462), two lots of cell culture-derived vaccine and one lot of egg-derived vaccine in seniors (n=269), and one lot of each vaccine in children (n=209). Adverse events were collected during the first 3 days post-immunization; serum was collected before and 1 month after immunization. Rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were similar with both vaccines. An injection site adverse event rated at least moderate severity was reported by 21.9% of children who received the egg-derived vaccine and 25.0% of those who received the cell culture-derived vaccine. In healthy adults the proportions were 12.1 and 15.3%, respectively and 6.7 and 6.3%, respectively in seniors. Systemic events of at least moderate severity were 12.4 and 12.5% in children, 19.8 and 13.6% in healthy adults, and 14.1 and 9.7% in seniors; none of these differences were statistically significant. The antibody response against all three viruses was similar between the two vaccines. From 83 to 100% of children, healthy adults and seniors achieved hemagglutination inhibition titers in excess of 40 post-immunization. We conclude that the cell culture-derived vaccine was safe and immunogenic in children, healthy adults and seniors.

  7. Perceived effective and feasible strategies to promote healthy eating in young children: focus groups with parents, family child care providers and daycare assistants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vandeweghe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children’s eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14, family child care providers (n = 9, and daycare assistants (n = 10. The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Results Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy. Conclusions Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.

  8. Association of Healthy Food Intake with Psychiatric Distress in Children and Adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Zahedi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas. The students and their parents completed two sets of questionnaires. The psychiatric distress included depression, worry, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, confusion, and worthless and the violent behaviors comprised of physical fight, victim and bully. The healthy foods included fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and dairy products.Results: The participants include 13,486 students from elementary, intermediate and high school degree. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among high school students, while violent behaviors were more prevalent in the middle school students. According to the multivariate model (model IV, the risk of psychiatric distress was significantly lower in students with daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and milk. In addition, those with daily consumption of vegetables and milk had significantly lower risk for violent behaviors.Conclusion: Consumption of healthy foods may reduce the risk of psychiatric distress and violent behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its benefits, increasing healthy food consumption among children and adolescents can be useful in preventing mental health disorders.

  9. Developing a reference of normal lung sounds in healthy Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H; Tielsch, James M; Chavez, Miguel A; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James; Checkley, William

    2014-10-01

    Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81%) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47% were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments.

  10. Distinct gut microbiota of healthy children from two different geographic regions of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La-Ongkham, Orawan; Nakphaichit, Massalin; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee

    2015-05-01

    In Thailand, food consumption by people from each region is different. This can be an important environmental factor which shapes the gut microbiota further affecting their health. This study aimed to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the intestinal microbial community in 60 healthy children (aged 8-11 years) living in specific areas, namely central (CT) and northeastern (NE) Thailand where each region has its own typical food consumption. The children from NE had significantly higher consumption frequency of meat (chicken and beef), a wide variety of carbohydrate sources (noodle, fermented rice and sweet potato) including vegetables and fruit, while in CT, there was a significant preference for rice, breakfast cereal and cow milk. The qPCR analysis resulted in significantly higher abundance of lactobacilli, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Clostridium leptum, Prevotella and Bacteroides fragilis in children from the NE region. However, no significant difference in the count of Bifidobacterium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and methanogens was observed. Considering the correlation of food sources and microbial groups, the consumption frequency of vegetables showed a moderately positive correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.34 to the Lactobacillus group (P = 0.001) and the Prevotella group (P = 0.008), respectively, while a diet of fish and beef showed a moderately negative correlation coefficient of -0.41 (P = 0.001) and -0.33 (P = 0.09) to Bifidobacterium spp., respectively. Our results suggested that high frequency consumption of varieties of carbohydrates, protein sources, fruits and vegetables by the NE children promoted a high abundance of bacterial species in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.

  11. Developing a Reference of Normal Lung Sounds in Healthy Peruvian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Laura E.; Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; Elhilali, Mounya; Gilman, Robert H.; Tielsch, James M.; Chavez, Miguel A.; Marin-Concha, Julio; Figueroa, Dante; West, James

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Lung auscultation has long been a standard of care for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. Recent advances in electronic auscultation and signal processing have yet to find clinical acceptance; however, computerized lung sound analysis may be ideal for pediatric populations in settings, where skilled healthcare providers are commonly unavailable. We described features of normal lung sounds in young children using a novel signal processing approach to lay a foundation for identifying pathologic respiratory sounds. Methods 186 healthy children with normal pulmonary exams and without respiratory complaints were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in Lima, Peru. Lung sounds were recorded at eight thoracic sites using a digital stethoscope. 151 (81 %) of the recordings were eligible for further analysis. Heavy-crying segments were automatically rejected and features extracted from spectral and temporal signal representations contributed to profiling of lung sounds. Results Mean age, height, and weight among study participants were 2.2 years (SD 1.4), 84.7 cm (SD 13.2), and 12.0 kg (SD 3.6), respectively; and, 47 % were boys. We identified ten distinct spectral and spectro-temporal signal parameters and most demonstrated linear relationships with age, height, and weight, while no differences with genders were noted. Older children had a faster decaying spectrum than younger ones. Features like spectral peak width, lower-frequency Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, and spectro-temporal modulations also showed variations with recording site. Conclusions Lung sound extracted features varied significantly with child characteristics and lung site. A comparison with adult studies revealed differences in the extracted features for children. While sound-reduction techniques will improve analysis, we offer a novel, reproducible tool for sound analysis in real-world environments. PMID:24943262

  12. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  13. Dynamic QT Interval Changes from Supine to Standing in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Audrey; Fournier, Anne; Dahdah, Nagib; Abrams, Dominic; Khairy, Paul; Abadir, Sylvia

    2018-01-01

    QT-interval variations in response to exercise-induced increases in heart rate have been reported in children and adults in the diagnosis of long QT syndrome (LQTS). A quick standing challenge has been proposed as an alternative provocative test in adults, with no pediatric data yet available. A standing test was performed in 100 healthy children (mean age, 9.7 ± 3.1 years) after 10 minutes in a supine position with continuous electrocardiographic recording. QT intervals were measured at baseline, at maximal heart rate, at maximal QT, and at each minute of a 5-minute recovery while standing. Measurements were taken in leads II/V 5 and were corrected for heart rate (QTc). On standing, the heart rate increased by 29 ± 10 beats per minute (bpm). The QT interval was similar at baseline and on standing (394 ± 34 ms vs 394 ± 34 ms; P = 1.0). However, QTc increased from 426 ± 21 to 509 ± 41 ms (P < 0.001). The 95th percentile for QTc at baseline and maximal heart rate was 457 ms and 563 ms, respectively. At 1 minute of recovery, the QT interval was shorter (375 ± 31 ms) compared with baseline (394 ± 34 ms; P < 0.001) and standing (394 ± 34 ms; P < 0.001). QTc reached baseline values after 1 minute of recovery and remained stable thereafter (423 ± 23 ms at 1 minute; 426 ± 22 ms at 5 minutes; P = 1.0). This first characterization of QTc changes on standing in children shows substantial alterations, which are greater than those seen in adults. Two-thirds of the children would have been misclassified as having LQTS by adult criteria, indicating the need to create child-specific standards. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Safeguarding children and youth in residential and foster care: Supporting healthy sexual development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gitte Riis; Grandal*, Niels

    (in 2012) to report on sexual and physical violence, that raised awareness on the subject. The investigations showed that professionals perceive very few of the cases of sexual abuse in residential and foster care and in many cases the perpetrators turn out to be peers. This drew attention......In The Netherlands, Denmark and Scotland special awareness on the subject of sexual abuse and sexual exploitation was raised by national investigations on the prevalence and content of sexual abuse in residential and foster care. In Flanders (Belgium) it was the start of the so called Helpline 1712...... to a central issue: the incapability of professionals to support a healthy sexual development and discuss sexual behaviour with children and young people, their (foster) parents and other professionals. Sex is a subject that is not easily talked about and most professionals feel insecure about. Moreover...

  15. Simultaneously measured pupillary light reflex and heart rate variability in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daluwatte, C; Yao, G; Miles, J H

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the potential inter-relationship between two measures of autonomic nervous system: pupillary light reflex (PLR) and heart rate variability (HRV), in healthy children of 8–16 years old. PLR was measured at both dark- and light-adapted conditions with various stimulation intensities. Simultaneously measured HRV was obtained in five different PLR testing phases: before PLR test, light-adapted PLR test, dark adaptation, dark-adapted PLR test and after PLR test. The frequency domain HRV parameters measured during the PLR test were significantly different from those measured during rest. Both the regression analysis and factor analysis indicated that PLR and HRV parameters were not correlated, which suggests that they may provide complementary assessment of different aspects of the overall autonomic nervous system. (paper)

  16. Simultaneously measured pupillary light reflex and heart rate variability in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daluwatte, C; Yao, G [Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Miles, J H, E-mail: YaoG@missouri.edu [Child Health and Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the potential inter-relationship between two measures of autonomic nervous system: pupillary light reflex (PLR) and heart rate variability (HRV), in healthy children of 8–16 years old. PLR was measured at both dark- and light-adapted conditions with various stimulation intensities. Simultaneously measured HRV was obtained in five different PLR testing phases: before PLR test, light-adapted PLR test, dark adaptation, dark-adapted PLR test and after PLR test. The frequency domain HRV parameters measured during the PLR test were significantly different from those measured during rest. Both the regression analysis and factor analysis indicated that PLR and HRV parameters were not correlated, which suggests that they may provide complementary assessment of different aspects of the overall autonomic nervous system. (paper)

  17. Sodium and chlorine levels in hair and nails of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olguin, M.T.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Pen-Aguilar, M.T.; Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium and chlorine values are reported in μ/g, as determined by neutron activation analysis in washed hair and nails from healthy and cystic fibrosis children. The values thus determined in cystic fibrosis tended to be higher than those in controls, however statistical differences were not significant (p>0.01). Additional experiments were carried out for comparison between washed and unwashed samples of the cystic fibrosis and control group and only the differences between washed and unwashed cystic fibrosis nails were significant (p<0.01) in both sodium and chlorine values. Analysis of a standard reference milk sample, A-11 from IAEA, for the elements mentioned above gave a good agreement with the certified values. (author) 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  18. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Bang, P; Hertel, Niels

    1994-01-01

    Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) increase with age and pubertal development. The large variation in circulating IGF-I levels in adolescence makes it difficult to use the IGF-I value of a single child in the assessment of his growth status. In addition, the interference of IGF......-binding proteins in many IGF-I assays contributes to this problem. We measured IGF-I in acid-ethanol-extracted serum from 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults, employing a RIA that reduces interference of IGF-binding proteins by using monoiodinated Tyr31-[125I]des-(1-3)IGF-I as radioligand. Mean serum...... volume. Multiple regression analysis revealed that serum IGF-I levels predicted height velocity in the following year (r = 0.33; P

  19. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Johansen, Marie Lindhardt; Busch, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphismsonly...... explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation...... sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing...

  20. High Cryptosporidium prevalences in healthy Aymara children from the northern Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, J G; Aguirre, C; Flores, A; Strauss, W; Angles, R; Mas-Coma, S

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was determined in four Aymara communities in the Bolivian Altiplano, between the city of La Paz and Lake Titicaca, at an altitude of 3,800-4,200 meters. Single stool specimens were randomly collected from 377 5-19-year-old students, all apparently asymptomatic. The total prevalence (31.6%) is possibly the highest reported among healthy humans (a maximum of 9.8% and 2.0% in coprologic surveys in underdeveloped and developed countries, respectively) and one of the highest even in symptomatic subjects. No significant age and sex differences were observed. Such an infection prevalence is probably related to the poor sanitation conditions, contaminated water supplies, overcrowding, and close contact with domestic animals. Continuous exposure to the parasite could be associated with protection against parasite-related symptoms in the children examined.

  1. Enhancing healthy habits among overweight and obese children through Serious Games: Review and Technical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Arambarri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity that begins in childhood results in excess adult mortality estimated at between 50 and 80%. The medical community developed an understanding of obesity as a chronic condition that must be managed on an ongoing basis. An integrated system based on ICT, including games adapted to the age and profile of the children and youth can be the key to support them and their families in the prevention of obesity and the acquisition of healthy habits. Important societal and economic impact is foreseen from the adoption of these technologies. In this paper, Serious Games will be research to remark its potential for fostering desirable health-related behaviors through motivational reinforcement, personalized teaching approaches, and social networking as well as more effective utilization of obesity-related nutrition and lifestyle information.

  2. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children 6 Months to 17 Years of Age, Previously Vaccinated with an AS03-Adjuvanted A(H1N1)Pdm09 Vaccine: Two Open-label, Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Berglund, Johan; Korhonen, Tiina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Lindstrand, Ann; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Bambure, Vinod; Caplanusi, Adrian; Dieussaert, Ilse; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W

    2015-07-01

    During the influenza pandemic 2009-2010, an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine was used extensively in children 6 months of age and older, and during the 2010-2011 influenza season, the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain was included in the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) without adjuvant. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of TIV in children previously vaccinated with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Healthy children were randomized (1:1) to receive TIV or a control vaccine. Children were aged 6 months to 9 years (n = 154) and adolescents 10-17 years (n = 77) when they received AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at least 6 months before study enrolment. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibody responses against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain were evaluated before (day 0) and at day 28 and month 6 after study vaccination. Reactogenicity was assessed during the 7 day postvaccination period, and safety was assessed for 6 months. At day 0, >93.9% of all children had HI titers ≥1:40 for the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain, which increased to 100% at both day 28 and month 6 in the TIV group. Between days 0 and 28, HI antibody geometric mean titers against A(H1N1)pdm09 increased by 9-fold and 4-fold in children 6 months to 9 years of age and 10-17 years of age, respectively. AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine-induced robust immune responses in children that persisted into the next season, yet were still boosted by TIV containing A(H1N1)pdm09. The reactogenicity and safety profile of TIV did not appear compromised by prior receipt of AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.

  3. Reliability of radiographic measurement of lateral capitellohumeral angle in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masaki; Suzuki, Taku; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Oka, Yusuke; Maeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroki; Shizu, Kanae; Tsuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuji; Yamada, Harumoto

    2018-04-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to validate the reliability of measurement of the lateral capitellohumeral angle (LCHA), an index of sagittal angulation of the elbow, in healthy children. The results were compared to the Baumann angle (BA), which is a similar concept to LCHA.Sixty-two radiographs of the elbow in healthy children (range, 2-11 years) were reviewed by 6 examiners at 2 sessions. The mean value and reliability of the measurement of LCHA and BA were assessed. Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).The mean LCHA value was 45° (range, 22° to 70°) and the mean BA was 71° (range, 56° to 86°). The ICCs for intraobserver reliability of the LCHA measurements were almost perfect for 2 examiners, substantial for 3 examiners, and moderate for 1 examiner with a mean value of 0.77 (range, 0.57-0.95). For BA measurements, the ICCs were almost perfect for 1 examiner and substantial for 5 examiners with a mean value of 0.74 (range, 0.66-0.83). The ICCs for interobserver reliability between the first and second measurements were both moderate for LCHA (0.56 and 0.51) and for BA (0.52 and 0.50).LCHA showed almost the same reliability in measurement as BA, which is the gold standard assessment for coronal alignment of the elbow. LCHA showed moderate-to-good reliability in the evaluation of sagittal plane elbow alignment.

  4. Hippocampal atrophy and altered brain responses to pleasant tastes among obese compared with healthy weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Z L; Bischoff-Grethe, A; Eichen, D M; Wierenga, C E; Strong, D; Boutelle, K N

    2017-10-01

    The hippocampus is a key structure implicated in food motivation and intake. Research has shown that the hippocampus is vulnerable to the consumption of a western diet (i.e., high saturated fat and simple carbohydrates). Studies of patients with obesity (OB), compared with healthy weight (HW), show changes in hippocampal volume and response to food cues. Moreover, evidence suggests that OB children, relative to HW, have greater hippocampal response to taste. However, no study has examined the association of hippocampal volume with taste functioning in children. We hypothesized that OB children, relative to HW, would show a significant reduction in hippocampal volume and that decreased volume would be significantly associated with greater activation to taste. Finally, we explored whether hippocampal activation would be associated with measures on eating and eating habits. Twenty-five 8-12-year-old children (i.e., 13 HW, 12 OB) completed a magnetic resonance imaging scan while participating in a taste paradigm (i.e., 1 ml of 10% sucrose or ionic water delivered pseudorandomly every 20 s). Children with OB, relative to HW, showed reduced left hippocampal volume (t=1.994, P=0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-40.23,  755.42), and greater response to taste in three clusters within the left hippocampus (z=3.3, P=0.001, 95% CI=-0.241, -0.041; z=3.3, P=0.001, 95% CI=-0.2711, -0.0469; z=2.7, P=0.007, 95% CI=-0.6032, -0.0268). Activation within the hippocampus was associated with eating in the absence of hunger (EAH%; t=2.408, P=0.025, 95% CI= 1.751708, 23.94109) and two subscales on a measure of eating behaviors (Food responsiveness, t=2.572, P=0.017, 95% CI= 0.9565195, 9.043440; Food enjoyment, t=2.298, P=0.032, 95% CI=0.2256749, 4.531298). As hypothesized, OB children, relative to HW, had significantly reduced hippocampal volume, and greater hippocampal activation to taste. Moreover, hippocampal activation was associated with measures of eating. These results

  5. Heart rate, salivary α-amylase activity, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Menexes, George; Coolidge, Trilby; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Psychosomatic indicators, such as heart rate (HR), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity, and behavior, can be used to determine stress. This study's aim was to assess the pattern of changes of salivary alpha amylase, heart rate, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental treatment under local anesthesia. Included were 30 children with no prior dental experience who needed 4 or more sessions of dental treatment involving local anesthesia. In each session, sAA, HR, and behavior were assessed before and during the application of local anesthesia and at the end of the treatment. The highest sAA value was always observed at the end of each session; overall, the value was lower in the fourth session. HR always increased during the local anesthesia, and did not vary across sessions. No significant relationship was found between child cooperation and either sAA or HR. In this sample, child cooperation may not be an accurate indicator of stress. Based on salivary alpha amylase activity changes, dental treatment involving local anesthesia in naïve children appeared to be less stressful after 3 sessions.

  6. The association between BMI development among young children and (un)healthy food choices in response to food advertisements: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Buijzen, Moniek

    2016-02-09

    Previous studies have focused on the acute effects of food advertisements on the caloric intake of children; however, the long-term effects of this food cue reactivity on weight gain have not been examined. The main aim of this study was to explore if reactivity to food cues in an advertisement was associated with weight status two years later. Children wo had previously taken part in an experiment investigating the impact of advergames on food intake had their height and weight re-measured two years later, for assessment of body mass index (BMI). A within-subject design was used to test the associations between food choices and BMI over time. In the previous experiment, children played an advergame that promoted energy-dense snacks, fruit, or nonfood products, or did not play an advergame (control condition). After playing the game, the free intake of energy-dense snacks and fruits was measured. Children who ate more apple after playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks had a lower BMI two years later. Consumption of energy-dense snacks after playing an advergame promoting energy-dense snacks was not associated with BMI two years later. In other condition, no association was found between food intake and BMI after two years . The findings suggest that coping with environmental cues that trigger unhealthy eating behavior is associated with the body mass index of young children two years later. This might imply that learning to respond to food cues by choosing healthy options might prevent children from excessive weight gain. This trial was registered at as ISRCTN17013832 .

  7. Mediation of the Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors of Preschool Children by Maternal Cognition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Sharma, Manoj; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Yong

    2016-09-13

    (1) OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the role of social cognitive theory (SCT) of mothers in the physical activity and healthy nutrition behaviors of preschool children; (2) METHODS: We used a self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behaviors scale in Chinese based on a social cognitive theory scale in English with established validity and reliability in the USA. The current study adopted the proportional sampling method to survey mothers of preschool children in four areas-namely, Chongqing, Chengdu, Taiyuan, and Shijiazhuang-of China; (3) RESULTS: We included 1208 mothers (80.0% mothers of normal weight children, age 31.87 ± 4.19 years). Positive correlations were found between maternal social cognition and preschool children's physical activity (PA) behavior (p mediation of maternal social cognition on preschool children's ST behavior and the correlations between maternal social cognition and children's ST behavior.

  8. Factors Related to Healthy Siblings' Psychosocial Adjustment to Children With Cancer: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegaczewski, Tara; Chang, Karen; Coddington, Jennifer; Berg, Abby

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors related to the psychosocial adjustment of healthy siblings of children with cancer (HSCC). An integrative review was conducted. Controlled vocabularies relevant to siblings, pediatrics, children, neoplasms, and psychosocial adaptation were used to search Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and PubMed. Articles that met inclusion criteria (eg, quantitative studies related to HSCC's psychosocial adjustment; had sample sizes of at least 30; and HSCC age between 1 and 19 years) were reviewed. Key findings of selected articles were analyzed according to sibling characteristics, social support, and contextual factors. Seven nonexperimental and 5 quasi-experimental studies were reviewed. HSCC's characteristics (eg, age, gender), perceived social support from family and summer camp, and perceived contextual factors (eg, role overload, family adaptability) were significant factors that correlated with HSCC's psychosocial adjustment. When caring for a child diagnosed with cancer, nurses need to include HSCC in the assessment of a family unit's adaptation to cancer distress and provide appropriate interventions to promote HSCC's psychosocial well-being. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  9. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratko, Connye N.; Barrett, Erin Cernkovich; Nelson, Edward B.; Norman, Salem

    2013-01-01

    Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance. PMID:23877090

  10. Antimicrobial resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group in faecal microbiota from healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Jensen, Betina Hebbelstrup; Petersen, Andreas Munk

    2017-01-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract of relat......The Bacteroides fragilis group constitute a significant portion of the human gut microbiota and comprise a major proportion of anaerobic bacteria isolated in human infections. We established a baseline of antimicrobial susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group in the intestinal tract...... of relatively antibiotic-naive healthy Danish children. From 174 faecal samples collected from children attending day care, 359 non-duplicate isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility. Of these, 0.0%, 1.9%, 5.0% and 21.2% of isolates were intermediate-susceptible or resistant to metronidazole......, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and clindamycin, respectively. Eighteen additional studies reporting susceptibility rates in the B. fragilis group bacteria were identified by conducting a literature search. Heterogeneity among results from studies of B. fragilis group antimicrobial susceptibility rates...

  11. The Relationship of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA with Learning and Behavior in Healthy Children: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Salem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood is a period of brain growth and maturation. The long chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, is a major lipid in the brain recognized as essential for normal brain function. In animals, low brain DHA results in impaired learning and behavior. In infants, DHA is important for optimal visual and cognitive development. The usual intake of DHA among toddlers and children is low and some studies show improvements in cognition and behavior as the result of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids including DHA. The purpose of this review was to identify and evaluate current knowledge regarding the relationship of DHA with measures of learning and behavior in healthy school-age children. A systematic search of the literature identified 15 relevant publications for review. The search found studies which were diverse in purpose and design and without consistent conclusions regarding the treatment effect of DHA intake or biomarker status on specific cognitive tests. However, studies of brain activity reported benefits of DHA supplementation and over half of the studies reported a favorable role for DHA or long chain omega-3 fatty acids in at least one area of cognition or behavior. Studies also suggested an important role for DHA in school performance.

  12. Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from healthy Ghanaian preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dayie, Nicholas Tete Kwaku Dzifa; Arhin, Reuben E.; Newman, Mercy J.

    2015-01-01

    in a previous study, to six antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion test. Overall, 90.4% of isolates were intermediate penicillin resistant, 99.1% were trimethoprim resistant, 73.0% were tetracycline resistant, and 33.9% were sulfamethoxazole resistant. Low resistance was recorded for erythromycin (2...... of this study was to determine the antibiogram of S. pneumoniae recovered from Ghanaian children younger than six years of age and to what extent resistances were due to the spread of certain sero- and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types. The susceptibility of 115 pneumococcal isolates, recovered...

  13. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t-test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231–255). Actinobacteria (2.8–24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2–25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9–50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5–57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2–17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample

  14. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t -test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231-255). Actinobacteria (2.8-24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2-25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9-50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5-57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2-17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample grouping by

  15. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal pain influences her evaluation of recurrent pain in 6- to 11-year-old healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Nielsen, Kirsten Lykke

    2016-01-01

    -based survey in Danish public schools. The participants were 131 healthy children aged 6-11 years and their mothers. The main outcome measures were the prevalence of recurrent pain reported by the mother and child, agreements between their reports and any associations between the child's pain, socio...

  17. Lifestyle Knowledge and Preferences in Preschool Children: Evaluation of the "Get up and Grow" Healthy Lifestyle Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Nicola; Harris, Neil; Lee, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood is considered a window of opportunity for lifestyle interventions, as this is a critical life-stage at which children accumulate knowledge and skills around behaviours such as eating and physical activity. This study examined how exposure to a settings-based healthy lifestyle programme influences knowledge and preference…

  18. Children with ADHD Show No Deficits in Plantar Foot Sensitivity and Static Balance Compared to Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, Gunther; Neubert, Tom; Worenz, Andreas; Milani, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate plantar foot sensitivity and balance control of ADHD (n = 21) impaired children compared to age-matched healthy controls (n = 25). Thresholds were measured at 200 Hz at three anatomical locations of the plantar foot area of both feet (hallux, first metatarsal head (METI) and heel). Body balance was…

  19. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Epstein-Barr Virus Type 2 Infects T Cells in Healthy Kenyan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carrie B; Daud, Ibrahim I; Ogolla, Sidney O; Ritchie, Julie A; Smith, Nicholas A; Sumba, Peter O; Dent, Arlene E; Rochford, Rosemary

    2017-09-15

    The 2 strains of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), EBV type 1 (EBV-1) and EBV-2, differ in latency genes, suggesting that they use distinct mechanisms to establish latency. We previously reported that EBV-2 infects T cells in vitro. In this study, we tested the possibility that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo. Purified T-cell fractions isolated from children positive for EBV-1 or EBV-2 and their mothers were examined for the presence of EBV and for EBV type. We detected EBV-2 in all T-cell samples obtained from EBV-2-infected children at 12 months of age, with some children retaining EBV-2-positive T cells through 24 months of age, suggesting that EBV-2 persists in T cells. We were unable to detect EBV-2 in T-cell samples from mothers but could detect EBV-2 in samples of their breast milk and saliva. These data suggest that EBV-2 uses T cells as an additional latency reservoir but that, over time, the frequency of infected T cells may drop below detectable levels. Alternatively, EBV-2 may establish a prolonged transient infection in the T-cell compartment. Collectively, these novel findings demonstrate that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo and suggest EBV-2 may use the T-cell compartment to establish latency. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Three Independent Evaluations of Healthy Kids Programs Find Substantial Gains in Children's Dental Health Care. In Brief, September 2008, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dana; Howell, Embry; Trenholm, Christopher; Hill, Ian; Dubay, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This brief presents highlights from rigorous, independent evaluations of the Healthy Kids programs in three California counties: Los Angeles, San Mateo, and Santa Clara. Launched by Children's Health Initiatives (CHIs) in these counties between 2001 and 2003, the three Healthy Kids programs provide children with comprehensive health insurance…

  2. Development of an Internet-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program (ENGAGE) for Parents of Children Previously Treated for Cancer: Participatory Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Kukkola, Laura; Börjesson, Helene; Cernvall, Martin; Woodford, Joanne; Grönqvist, Helena; von Essen, Louise

    2018-04-18

    Parenting a child through cancer is a distressing experience, and a subgroup of parents report negative long-term psychological consequences years after treatment completion. However, there is a lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for parents who experience distress in relation to a child's cancer disease after end of treatment. One aim of this study was to develop an internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer. Another aim was to identify acceptable procedures for future feasibility and efficacy studies testing and evaluating the intervention. Participatory action research methodology was used. The study included face-to-face workshops and related Web-based exercises. A total of 6 parents (4 mothers, 2 fathers) of children previously treated for cancer were involved as parent research partners. Moreover, 2 clinical psychologists were involved as expert research partners. Research partners and research group members worked collaboratively throughout the study. Data were analyzed iteratively using written summaries of the workshops and Web-based exercises parallel to data collection. A 10-week, internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) was developed in collaboration with parent research partners and expert research partners. The content of the intervention, mode and frequency of e-therapist support, and the individualized approach for feedback were modified based on the research partner input. Shared solutions were reached regarding the type and timing of support from an e-therapist (eg, initial video or telephone call, multiple methods of e-therapist contact), duration and timing of intervention (eg, 10 weeks, 30-min assessments), and the removal of unnecessary support functions (eg, removal of chat and forum functions). Preferences for study procedures in

  3. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2: A randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian families designed using community-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-04-01

    Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active

  4. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  5. Corneal biomechanical properties in healthy children measured by corneal visualization scheimpflug technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Ding, Hui; He, Hong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Liangping; Zhong, Xingwu

    2017-05-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate corneal biomechanical properties in a population of healthy children in China using corneal visualization Scheimpflug technology (CST). All children underwent complete bi-ocular examinations. CST provided intraocular pressure (IOP) and corneal biomechanical parameters, including time, velocity, length and deformation amplitude at first applanation (A1T, A1V, A1L, A1DA), at second applanation (A2T, A2V, A2L, A2DA), highest concavity time (HCT), maximum deformation amplitude (MDA), peak distance (PD), and radius of curvature (RoC). Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess the impacts of demographic factors, central corneal thickness (CCT), spherical equivalent (SE), and IOP on corneal biomechanics. One hundred eight subjects (32 girls and 76 boys) with the mean age of 10.80 ± 4.13 years (range 4 to18 years) were included in the final analyses. The right and left eyes were highly symmetrical in SE (p = 0.082), IOP (p = 0.235), or CCT (p = 0.210). Mean A1T of the right eyes was 7.424 ± 0.340 ms; the left eyes 7.451 ± 0.365 ms. MDA was 0.993 ± 0.102 mm in the right eyes and 0.982 ± 0.100 mm in the left eyes. Mean HCT of the right eyes was 16.675 ± 0.502 ms; the left eyes 16.735 ± 0.555 ms. All CST parameters of both eye were remarkably symmetrical with the exception of A2L (p = 0.006), A1DA (p = 0.025). The majority of CST parameters of both eyes were significantly correlated with CCT and IOP (p children eyes. Several CST biomechanical parameters in children are modified by CCT and IOP.

  6. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L; Buchvald, Frederik; Mortensen, Jann; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    The diffusing capacity (DL) of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm) and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc). DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values. The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) statistical method. A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio. These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.

  7. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Thomas

    Full Text Available The diffusing capacity (DL of the lung can be divided into two components: the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane (Dm and the pulmonary capillary volume (Vc. DL is traditionally measured using a single-breath method, involving inhalation of carbon monoxide, and a breath hold of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO. This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO, involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio in a single respiratory maneuver. The clinical utility of Dm, Vc, and DL,NO/DL,CO in the pediatric age range is currently unknown but also restricted by lack of reference values.The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO with a 5 second breath hold, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children.DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS statistical method.A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL,CO, respectively. Reference equations were established for the outcomes of DL,CO,NO and DL,CO, including the calculated values: Vc, Dm, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio.These reference values are based on the largest sample of children to date and may provide a basis for future studies of their clinical utility in differentiating between alterations in the pulmonary circulation and changes in the alveolar membrane in pediatric patients.

  8. Intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating among carers of left-behind children in rural China: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Bécares, Laia; Chandola, Tarani; Callery, Peter

    2015-12-01

    China's internal migration has left 61 million rural children living apart from parents and usually being cared for by grandparents. This study aims to explore caregivers' beliefs about healthy eating for left-behind children (LBC) in rural China. Twenty-six children aged 6-12 (21 LBC and 5 non-LBC) and 32 caregivers (21 grandparents, 9 mothers, and 2 uncles/aunts) were recruited in one township in rural China. Children were encouraged to keep food diaries followed by in-depth interviews with caregivers. Distinct intergenerational differences in beliefs about healthy eating emerged: the grandparent generation was concerned about not having enough food and tended to emphasise the importance of starchy foods for children's growth, due to their past experiences during the Great Famine. On the other hand, the parent generation was concerned about food safety and paid more attention to protein-source foods including meat, eggs and milk. Parents appeared to offer children high-energy food, which was viewed as a sign of economic status, rather than as part of a balanced diet. Lack of remittances from migrant parents may compromise LBC's food choices. These findings suggest the potential for LBC left in the care of grandparents, especially with experience of the Great Famine, may be at greater risk of malnutrition than children cared for by parents. By gaining an in-depth understanding of intergenerational differences in healthy eating beliefs for children, our findings could inform for the development of nutrition-related policies and interventions for LBC in rural China. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence

  10. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  11. A comparison of healthcare resource use for rotavirus and RSV between vulnerable children with co-morbidities and healthy children: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockett, Rhys D; Campbell, David; Carroll, Stuart; Rajoriya, Fiona; Adlard, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the differences in hospital length of stay (LOS) and cost between healthy and vulnerable children with cystic fibrosis (CF), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), cancer, and epilepsy who contract rotavirus (RVGE) or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data were collected for England, for children consideration, as for rotavirus vaccines, evaluation of a vaccination programme should consider the potentially positive impact on vulnerable children. Limitations of the study include a dependency on accurate coding, an expectation that patients are identified through laboratory testing, and the possibility of unidentified underlying conditions affecting the burden.

  12. Low calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy children and adolescents and their correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamoun, M M; Kizirian, A S; Tannous, R I; Nabulsi, M M; Choucair, M K; Deeb, M E; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G A

    2005-02-01

    Optimal dietary calcium and possibly vitamin D intake throughout childhood and adolescence may enhance bone mineral accrual. Little data on the intake of these nutrients in Mediterranean countries exist, and predictors of their suboptimal intake are not well defined. To evaluate systematically the effect of gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status on mean calcium and vitamin D intake in healthy school children and adolescents from Lebanon. A total of 385 students aged 10-16 y were selected from four public and four private schools between Fall 1999 and Spring 2000. Information on calcium and vitamin D intake, through a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire that was validated against a 7-day daily record, and on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were obtained. Only 12% of the students met the adequate intake (AI) recommendation of 1300 mg of calcium/day, and only 16% met the AI recommendation of 200 IU of vitamin D/day. Boys had a significantly higher mean daily calcium intake than girls. Socioeconomic status as assessed by children's pocket money was a predictor of higher calcium and vitamin D intake. Eating breakfast and physical activity were other correlates of daily calcium and vitamin D intake. Only a minority of students in our study met the AI for calcium and vitamin D. Gender, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status were significant predictors of calcium and vitamin D intake. Our findings have important implications regarding the institution of dietary public health strategies to promote skeletal health in Mediterranean countries during a critical time for bone mass accrual.

  13. Birth of healthy children after preimplantation diagnosis of β-thalassemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦泽旭; 庄广伦; 周灿权; 舒益民; 李洁; 梁晓燕

    2004-01-01

    Background Clinical programs for preventing β-thalassemia are presently based on prospective carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis. This paper report an achievement of a pregnancy with unaffected embryos using in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), in combination with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), for a couple at risk of having children with β-thalassemia.Methods A couple carrying different thalassemia mutations, both a codon 41-42 mutation and the IVS Ⅱ 654 mutation, received standard IVF treatment, with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, embryo biopsiy, single cell polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA analysis. Only unaffected or carrier embryos were transferred to the uterine cavity. After confirmation of pregnancy, a prenatal diagnosis was performed.Results Of a total of 13 embryos analyzed for β-globin mutations, PGD indicated that 2 were normal,3 were affected, and 6 were carriers. Diagnosis could not be made in the other 2 embryos. Three embryos were transferred to the uterus on the third day after oocyte retrieval. Ultrasonography revealed a twin pregnancy with one blighted ovum. The prenatal genetic diagnosis revealed that both fetuses were unaffected, and two healthy boys were born, confirming the results of PGD.Conclusions We developed a single-cell based primer extension preamplification (PEP)-PCR assay for the detection of β-thalassemia mutations. The assays were efficient and accurate at all stages of the procedure, and resulted in the birth of PGD-confirmed β-thalassemia free children in China. PEP was used here in PGD for β-thalassemia.

  14. Elevated plasma oxytocin levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lisa; Manzardo, Ann M; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with distinct abnormal behaviors including hyperphagia, profound social deficits, and obsessive-compulsive tendencies. PWS males showed reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression and density in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus that may play a role in PWS psychopathology. Oxytocin is an anorexigenic neuropeptide similar to vasopressin that is associated with social cognition and obsessive-compulsive behavior. To evaluate oxytocin biology in PWS, we examined overnight fasting plasma oxytocin levels in 23 children with PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.0 year) having genetic confirmation and 18 age matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS (mean ± SD age: 8.2 ± 2.3 year) and a similar gender ratio under the same clinical assessments, specimen processing and laboratory conditions. Multiplex immune assays were carried out using the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex system. Natural log-transformed oxytocin levels were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age and body mass index (BMI). Oxytocin plasma levels were significantly elevated in children with PWS (168 ± 121 pg/ml) compared with unrelated and unaffected siblings without the diagnosis of PWS (64.8 ± 83.8 pg/ml, F = 8.8, P model fit R(2) = 0.33 (P < 0.01). The symptoms of hyperphagia, anxiety and repetitive behaviors classically seen in PWS may be related to the disruption of oxytocin responsivity or feedback in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus possibly influencing vasopressin signaling. Further study is needed to characterize oxytocin function in PWS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Concordance of parent proxy report and child self-report of posttraumatic stress in children with cancer and healthy children: influence of parental posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Ashley H; Jurbergs, Niki; Lindwall, Jennifer; Phipps, Sean

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), child PTSS, and parent-child concordance for child PTSS. Participants were children with cancer (n = 199), and healthy children (n = 108) and their parents. Children self-reported on PTSS and parents completed measures of child and parent PTSS. In the cancer group, child and parent reports of child PTSS were significantly correlated with no mean differences between reporters. In contrast, correlations were non-significant in the control group, and parents reported significantly lower levels of child PTSS than children. Increased parental PTSS was associated with better concordance in the cancer group but not in the control group. In fact, in the cancer group, parent-child concordance was strongest at the highest level of parental PTSS. Parents of children with cancer were found to be accurate reporters of their children's distress, even with high levels of reported personal distress. In contrast, parents of healthy children appear primarily influenced by personal distress when reporting child PTSS. Although multiple informant assessments are always desirable, it appears that utilization of a single informant may be reasonable in the cancer setting when access to informants is limited. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Role modeling as an early childhood obesity prevention strategy: effect of parents and teachers on preschool children's healthy lifestyle habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan; Arheart, Kris L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a child care center-based parent and teacher healthy lifestyle role-modeling program on child nutrition and physical activity outcomes. Child care centers (N = 28) serving low-income families were randomized to intervention or control arms. Intervention centers (N = 12) implemented (1) menu modifications, (2) a child's healthy lifestyle curriculum, and (3) an adult (teacher- and parent-focused) healthy lifestyle role-modeling curriculum. Control centers (N = 16) received an attention control safety curriculum. Nutrition and physical activity data were collected at the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the school year. Exploratory factor analysis identified positive and negative nutrition and physical activity practices by children, parents, and teachers. Intervention parents' baseline (β = .52, p consumption (β = .47, p consumption of fruits/vegetables from T1 to T2. Intervention parents significantly influenced a decrease in children's junk food consumption (β = -.04, p junk food consumption (β = .60, p junk food consumption (β = .11, p = .01) and sedentary behavior (β = .09, p consumption of fruits/vegetables, junk food, and level of sedentary behavior. Future obesity prevention intervention efforts targeting this age group should include parents as healthy lifestyle role models for their children.

  17. Cost of Children's Healthy vs Unhealthy Snacks Does Not Differ at Convenience Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Robin S; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-03-01

    This study compared the prices of unhealthy (chips) and healthy (ready-to-eat fruit) snacks that students are likely to purchase from corner stores. Snacks were purchased from 325 New Jersey corner stores; chip prices were compared with fruit prices overall and by store sales volume and block group characteristics. Prices did not differ significantly between chips and fruit in the overall sample in which both items were available (n = 104) (chips: $0.46 ± $0.15; fruit: $0.49 ± $0.19; P = .48) or by store or block group characteristics. Neither mean fruit prices nor mean chip prices differed by store sales volume or by neighborhood characteristics. Promoting ready-to-eat fruits in corner stores to children as a price-neutral alternative to calorically dense snacks can be a viable strategy to improve the nutritional quality of snacks commonly purchased at corner stores. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents

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    Roseli B. D. Toffano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used. The strongest correlations were between fruits, vegetables and legumes with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, and β-carotene intakes. Milk and dairy correlated with plasma retinol and pyridoxine. All components rich in vegetable and animal protein sources correlated with plasma creatine. Total BHEI-R scores were positively associated with intakes of omega-6, omega-3, fiber and vitamin C, and inversely associated with energy and saturated fat intakes of individuals. Plasma β-carotene and riboflavin biomarkers were positively associated with total BHEI-R. An inadequate food consumption pattern was captured by both biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. BHEI-R was validated for the above dietary components and can be associated with metabolomics and nutritional epidemiological data in future pediatric studies.

  19. Sustainable capacity building among immigrant communities: the raising sexually healthy children program in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narushima, Miya; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Li, Anda; Sutdhibhasilp, Noulmook

    2014-03-01

    The Raising Sexually Healthy Children (RSHC) program is a peer-to-peer leadership training program for immigrant parents in Toronto, Canada. It was established in 1998 with the goal of promoting family sex education and parent-child communication. This evaluative study examined the developmental processes and outcomes of the RSHC program to identify the strengths, challenges and insights that can be used to improve the program. It employed a multi-case study approach to compare the RSHC programs delivered in the Chinese, Portuguese and Tamil communities. Data collection methods included focus groups, individual interviews and document analysis. The cross-case analysis identified both common and unique capacity building processes and outcomes in the three communities. In this paper, we report factors that have enhanced and hindered sustainable capacity building at the individual, group/organizational and community levels, and the strategies used by these communities to address challenges common to immigrant families. We will discuss the ecological and synergetic, but time-consuming processes of capacity building, which contributed to the sustainability of RSHC as an empowering health promotion program for immigrant communities. We conclude the paper by noting the implications of using a capacity building approach to promote family health in ethno-racial-linguistic minority communities.

  20. Management of acute gastroenteritis in healthy children in Lebanon - A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Aouni; Mourad, Sawsan; Rifai, Nahida

    2010-11-01

    Acute gastroenteritis remains a common condition among infants and children throughout the world. In 1996, The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised its recommendations for the treatment of infants and children with acute gastroenteritis. The purpose of this survey was to determine how closely current treatment among Lebanese pediatricians compares with the AAP recommendations and to determine the impact of such management on the healthcare system. The outline of the study was based on a telephone questionnaire that addressed the management of healthy infants and children below five years of age with acute gastroenteritis complicated by mild to moderate dehydration. In addition, the costs of medical treatment and requested laboratory studies were calculated. A total of 238 pediatricians completed the questionnaire. Most pediatricians prescribed Oral Rehydration Solutions (ORS) for rehydration (92.4%), advised breastfeeding during acute gastroenteritis (81.5%), and avoided parenteral rehydration for mild to moderate dehydration (89.1%). In addition to ORS, oral fluids such as soda, juices, and rice water were allowed for rehydration by 43.7% of pediatricians. Thirty-one percent of pediatricians delayed re-feeding for more than 6 hours after initiation of rehydration. Only 32.8% of pediatricians kept their patients on regular full-strength formulas, and only 21.8% permitted full-calorie meals for their patients. 75.4% of pediatricians did not order any laboratory studies in cases of mild dehydration and 50.4% did not order any laboratory studies for moderate dehydration. Stool analysis and culture were ordered by almost half of the pediatricians surveyed. Seventy-seven percent prescribed anti-emetics, 61% prescribed probiotics, 26.3% prescribed antibiotics systematically and local antiseptic agents, 16.9% prescribed zinc supplements, and 11% percent prescribed antidiarrheal agents. Pediatricians in Lebanon are aware of the importance of ORS and the positive

  1. Comparison of penile length at 6–24 months between children with unilateral cryptorchidism and a healthy normal cohort

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    Dong Soo Ryu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urologic diseases affected by testosterone can be associated with smaller penis size compared to the normal population. We sought to compare penile length in children with unilateral cryptorchidism and normative data from a cohort of healthy Korean boys. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in 259 Korean boys (212, normal cohort; 47, cryptorchidism aged 6–24 months, each of whom had been brought to an outpatient clinic at one of five tertiary hospitals (Gyeongsangnam-do Province between April 2014 and June 2015. Penile length was measured via stretched penile length (SPL and testicular size was measured using orchidometry (mL. Results: SPL in children with cryptorchidism was significantly shorter compared to a cohort of healthy Korean boys aged 6–24 months (3.7±0.5 cm and 4.3±0.8 cm, p<0.001, although there were no differences with regard to height, body weight and contralateral testicular size between the two groups. According to the stratified ages (6–12, 12–18, and 18–24 months, SPL in children with cryptorchidism was persistently shorter at their ages than those without. Conclusions: It might be that the penile length aged 6–24 months of children with unilateral cryptorchidism is shorter than that of a cohort of healthy Korean boys.

  2. Impact of a family-oriented rehabilitation programme on behavioural and emotional problems in healthy siblings of chronically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besier, T; Hölling, H; Schlack, R; West, C; Goldbeck, L

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of a family-oriented inpatient rehabilitation programme on behavioural and emotional problems in healthy siblings of chronically ill children and to assess the association between these problems and quality of life. A total of 259 healthy children (4-16 years, M = 8.6 years, SD = 3.3) with a chronically ill sibling were enrolled in the study. Parents filled in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, while the children answered a self-report quality of life instrument (LQ-KID) at the time of admission and discharge from the clinic and at a 6-month follow-up. Comparisons were performed with a matched control group from the German general population (n= 777). Significant behavioural or emotional symptoms were found in 30.5% of the healthy siblings, the relative risk of having elevated scores being 2.2 compared with the control group. Symptoms were inversely correlated with quality of life (r=-0.42). During the inpatient rehabilitation, symptoms decreased significantly to a normal level. Similarly, quality of life significantly improved, except in the dimension family relations. Family-oriented inpatient rehabilitation is a promising approach to improve the mental health of children with a chronically ill sibling.

  3. Test-retest reliability of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response in healthy children at a low sensation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Normani; Jalaei, Bahram

    2017-11-01

    Auditory brainstem responses evoked by complex stimuli such as speech syllables have been studied in normal subjects and subjects with compromised auditory functions. The stability of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (speech-ABR) when tested over time has been reported but the literature is limited. The present study was carried out to determine the test-retest reliability of speech-ABR in healthy children at a low sensation level. Seventeen healthy children (6 boys, 11 girls) aged from 5 to 9 years (mean = 6.8 ± 3.3 years) were tested in two sessions separated by a 3-month period. The stimulus used was a 40-ms syllable /da/ presented at 30 dB sensation level. As revealed by pair t-test and intra-class correlation (ICC) analyses, peak latencies, peak amplitudes and composite onset measures of speech-ABR were found to be highly replicable. Compared to other parameters, higher ICC values were noted for peak latencies of speech-ABR. The present study was the first to report the test-retest reliability of speech-ABR recorded at low stimulation levels in healthy children. Due to its good stability, it can be used as an objective indicator for assessing the effectiveness of auditory rehabilitation in hearing-impaired children in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviours : a comparison of mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Haycraft, Emma; Karasouli, Eleni; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore differences between mothers with healthy weight versus overweight/obesity in a wide range of their reported child feeding practices and their reports of their children's eating behaviours. Mothers (N = 437) with a 2-6-year-old child participated. They comprised two groups, based on their BMI: healthy weight (BMI of 18.0–24.9, inclusive) or overweight/obese (BMI of 25.0 or more). All mothers provided demographic information and completed self-report measures of thei...

  5. "How to have healthy children". Responses to the falling birth rate in Norway, c. 1900-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Ida

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on initiatives to improve infant health, as they developed in Norway especially during the interwar period. Falling birth rates were felt as a menace to the survival of the nation and specific initiatives were taken to oppose it. But crises engendered by the reduction in fertility strengthened opportunities for introducing policies to help the fewer children born survive and grow up to become healthy citizens. Legislation supporting mothers started in 1892 increased in the interwar years including economic features. Healthy mother and baby stations and hygienic clinics, aimed at controlling births were developed by voluntary organisations inspired from France and England respectively. A sterilization law (1934) paralleled some German policies.

  6. Faecal calprotectin concentrations in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda: a community-based survey

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    Grahnquist Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calprotectin is a calcium and zinc binding protein, abundant in neutrophils and is extremely stable in faeces. Faecal calprotectin is used as a non-specific marker for gastrointestinal inflammation. It has a good diagnostic precision to distinguish between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Studies have established normal concentrations in healthy children; all these studies have been performed in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of faecal calprotectin in apparently healthy children aged 0-12 years in urban Kampala, Uganda. Method We tested 302 apparently healthy children aged, age 0-12 years (162 female, 140 male in urban Kampala, Uganda. The children were recruited consecutively by door-to-door visits. Faecal calprotectin was analyzed using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Faeces were also tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori antigen, for growth of enteropathogens and microscopy was performed to assess protozoa and helminths. A short standardized interview with socio-demographic information and medical history was obtained to assess health status of the children. Results In the different age groups the median faecal calprotectin concentrations were 249 mg/kg in 0 H. pylori or having other pathogens in the stool. Conclusion Concentrations of faecal calprotectin among healthy children, living in urban Ugandan, a low-income country, are comparable to those in healthy children living in high-income countries. In children older than 4 years, the faecal calprotectin concentration is low. In healthy infants faecal calprotectin is high. The suggested cut-off concentrations in the literature can be used in apparently healthy Ugandan children. This finding also shows that healthy children living under poor circumstances do not have a constant inflammation in the gut. We see an opportunity to use this relatively inexpensive test for

  7. Children of parents with BED have more eating behavior disturbance than children of parents with obesity or healthy weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-06-01

    A limited literature suggests an association between parental eating disorders and child eating-disorder behaviors although this research has focused primarily on restrictive-type eating disorders and very little is known about families with binge-eating disorder (BED). The current study focused on parents (N = 331; 103 fathers and 226 mothers), comparing parents with core features of BED (n = 63) to parents with obesity and no eating disorder (OB; n = 85) and parents with healthy-weight and no eating disorder (HW; n = 183). Parents with BED were significantly more likely than OB and HW parents to report child binge eating, and more likely than HW parents to report child overeating. Parents with BED felt greater responsibility for child feeding than OB parents, and felt more concern about their child's weight than OB and HW parents. Dietary restriction of the child by the parents was related to child binge eating, overeating, and child overweight, and parental group was related to child binge eating (parental BED), overeating (parental BED), and child weight (parental OB). Parents with BED report greater disturbance in their children's eating than OB and HW parents, and OB parents report higher child weight than HW parents. This suggests that it is important to consider both eating-disorder psychopathology and obesity in clinical interventions and research. Our cross-sectional findings, which require experimental and prospective confirmations, provide preliminary evidence suggesting potential factors in families with parental BED and obesity to address in treatment and prevention efforts for pediatric eating disorders and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:648-656). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Healthy eating behaviors and the cognitive environment are positively associated in low-income households with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Joy Rickman; Whaley, Shannon E

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine relationships between eating behaviors and the cognitive environment in primarily Hispanic low-income households with young children receiving WIC benefits in Los Angeles County. Survey data were collected from 3645 low-income families with children age 12-65 mo in Los Angeles County. Eating behaviors were measured through questions about fruit, vegetable, milk, soft drink, and fast food intake. The cognitive environment was evaluated through questions on the home literacy environment (HLE), reading frequency, and preschool enrollment. All healthy eating behaviors measured were significantly and positively associated with reading frequency and HLE scores after adjustment for confounders. HLE and reading frequency scores were 18% and 14% higher, respectively, in children eating two or more servings of fruit per day and 12% and 9% higher, respectively, in children eating three or more servings of vegetables per day. Preschool enrollment was not significantly associated with any eating behavior. Outcomes varied by language-ethnic groups and child sex. Results suggest that healthy eating behaviors are positively associated with stronger cognitive environments in low-income Hispanic families with young children. Interventions to prevent childhood obesity in this group may therefore benefit from including a home literacy component. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A treat for the eyes. An eye-tracking study on children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues in media content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielvogel, Ines; Matthes, Jörg; Naderer, Brigitte; Karsay, Kathrin

    2018-06-01

    Based on cue reactivity theory, food cues embedded in media content can lead to physiological and psychological responses in children. Research suggests that unhealthy food cues are represented more extensively and interactively in children's media environments than healthy ones. However, it is not clear to this date whether children react differently to unhealthy compared to healthy food cues. In an experimental study with 56 children (55.4% girls; M age  = 8.00, SD = 1.58), we used eye-tracking to determine children's attention to unhealthy and healthy food cues embedded in a narrative cartoon movie. Besides varying the food type (i.e., healthy vs. unhealthy), we also manipulated the integration levels of food cues with characters (i.e., level of food integration; no interaction vs. handling vs. consumption), and we assessed children's individual susceptibility factors by measuring the impact of their hunger level. Our results indicated that unhealthy food cues attract children's visual attention to a larger extent than healthy cues. However, their initial visual interest did not differ between unhealthy and healthy food cues. Furthermore, an increase in the level of food integration led to an increase in visual attention. Our findings showed no moderating impact of hunger. We conclude that especially unhealthy food cues with an interactive connection trigger cue reactivity in children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative evaluation of oral hygiene status and gingival enlargement among epileptic and healthy children as related to various antiepileptic drugs

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    Neelam Hasmukhbhai Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy is a gathering of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures. Epileptic children, who are on active treatment with antiepileptic drugs, have a well-recognized side effect of gingival enlargement. Therefore, all efforts should be made, particularly for the population who are diagnosed or affected by the systemic disease. This study was conducted with an aim to determine oral hygiene status and gingival enlargement among epileptic and healthy children as related to various antiepileptic drugs. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of pedodontics and attached general hospital. A sample size of 120 participants with 60 healthy and 60 epileptic children between age 2 and 14 years were included. Oral health status of participants was examined using oral hygiene simplified index and plaque index. Gingival enlargement was assessed using Miranda–Brunet index. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA test, independent t-test, and Pearson's Chi-square test were used. Results: From the total participants included in the study, 49% of participants had good oral hygiene from healthy group, and 28% participants had poor oral hygiene from the epileptic group. Sodium valproate was the most common drug used and was associated with increased gingival enlargement. Conclusion: Conclusion can be drawn that epileptic children under medication had poor oral hygiene and an increased risk for gingival enlargement as compared to their healthy counterparts. It must be stressed that the epileptic patients should be given dental care without conditions and provided with best possible care to restore esthetics and functions.

  11. Topological Organization of Functional Brain Networks in Healthy Children: Differences in Relation to Age, Sex, and Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Kai; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sato, Kazunori; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Thyreau, Benjamin; He, Yong; Evans, Alan C.; Li, Xiaobo; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then ...

  12. A randomized controlled trial for families with preschool children - promoting healthy eating and active playtime by connecting to nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobko, Tanja; Tse, Michael; Kaplan, Matthew

    2016-06-13

    Promotion of healthy lifestyles in children focuses predominantly on proper nutrition and physical activity, elements now widely recognised as essential for a healthy life. Systematic reviews have shown that nature-related activities also enhance general well-being as reflected in increased physical activity, a healthier diet, reduced stress and better sleep. Recent research suggests that many young children in Hong Kong between the ages of two and four in Hong Kong are more sedentary than recommended and seldom participate in active play, placing them at risk of becoming overweight or obese. The proposed project aims to investigate whether connecting families to nature positively influences physical activity (i.e., active playtime) and healthy eating routines in children aged 2 to 4. We recently conducted a pilot study in Hong Kong to develop a programme, Play & Grow, based on the most successful evidence-based international preschool interventions. In addition to adopting the healthy eating and physical activity elements of these interventions, this project will additionally include a third novel element of Connectedness to nature: discovering nature through games and awareness of sounds, touch, smells, and temperature. To test the effectiveness of this modified intervention, a randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving 240 families with children aged 2 to 4 will be conducted. Families and children will take part in weekly one-hour activity sessions for 10-weeks. Lifestyle-related habits will be assessed before and immediately after the 10-week intervention, with follow up testing at 6 and 12 months' post intervention. A novel measuring tool created specifically for assessing Connectedness to nature, Nature Relatedness Scale (NRS), will be validated and tested for reliability prior to the RCT. The results of the RCT are intended to be used to understand which components of the intervention are most effective. The objectives of this project will be achieved

  13. A randomized controlled trial for families with preschool children - promoting healthy eating and active playtime by connecting to nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Sobko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promotion of healthy lifestyles in children focuses predominantly on proper nutrition and physical activity, elements now widely recognised as essential for a healthy life. Systematic reviews have shown that nature-related activities also enhance general well-being as reflected in increased physical activity, a healthier diet, reduced stress and better sleep. Recent research suggests that many young children in Hong Kong between the ages of two and four in Hong Kong are more sedentary than recommended and seldom participate in active play, placing them at risk of becoming overweight or obese. The proposed project aims to investigate whether connecting families to nature positively influences physical activity (i.e., active playtime and healthy eating routines in children aged 2 to 4. Methods We recently conducted a pilot study in Hong Kong to develop a programme, Play & Grow, based on the most successful evidence-based international preschool interventions. In addition to adopting the healthy eating and physical activity elements of these interventions, this project will additionally include a third novel element of Connectedness to nature: discovering nature through games and awareness of sounds, touch, smells, and temperature. To test the effectiveness of this modified intervention, a randomised controlled trial (RCT involving 240 families with children aged 2 to 4 will be conducted. Families and children will take part in weekly one-hour activity sessions for 10-weeks. Lifestyle-related habits will be assessed before and immediately after the 10-week intervention, with follow up testing at 6 and 12 months’ post intervention. Discussion A novel measuring tool created specifically for assessing Connectedness to nature, Nature Relatedness Scale (NRS, will be validated and tested for reliability prior to the RCT. The results of the RCT are intended to be used to understand which components of the intervention are most

  14. Descriptive analysis of the masticatory and salivary functions and gustatory sensitivity in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquezin, Maria Carolina Salomé; Pedroni-Pereira, Aline; Araujo, Darlle Santos; Rosar, João Vicente; Barbosa, Taís S; Castelo, Paula Midori

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study is to better understand salivary and masticatory characteristics, this study evaluated the relationship among salivary parameters, bite force (BF), masticatory performance (MP) and gustatory sensitivity in healthy children. The secondary outcome was to evaluate possible gender differences. One hundred and sixteen eutrophic subjects aged 7-11 years old were evaluated, caries-free and with no definite need of orthodontic treatment. Salivary flow rate and pH, total protein (TP), alpha-amylase (AMY), calcium (CA) and phosphate (PHO) concentrations were determined in stimulated (SS) and unstimulated saliva (US). BF and MP were evaluated using digital gnathodynamometer and fractional sieving method, respectively. Gustatory sensitivity was determined by detecting the four primary tastes (sweet, salty, sour and bitter) in three different concentrations. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney/t-test, Spearman correlation and multiple regression analysis, considering α = 0.05. Significant positive correlation between taste and age was observed. CA and PHO concentrations correlated negatively with salivary flow and pH; sweet taste scores correlated with AMY concentrations and bitter taste sensitivity correlated with US flow rate (p salivary, masticatory characteristics and gustatory sensitivity was observed. The regression analysis showed a weak relationship between the distribution of chewed particles among the different sieves and BF. The concentration of some analytes was influenced by salivary flow and pH. Age, saliva flow and AMY concentrations influenced gustatory sensitivity. In addition, salivary, masticatory and taste characteristics did not differ between genders, and only a weak relation between MP and BF was observed.

  15. Right anterior cingulate cortical thickness and bilateral striatal volume correlate with child behavior checklist aggressive behavior scores in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Simon; Hudziak, James J; Botteron, Kelly N; Ganjavi, Hooman; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D Louis; Albaugh, Matthew D; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2011-08-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and basal ganglia have been implicated in pathological aggression. This study aimed at identifying neuroanatomical correlates of impulsive aggression in healthy children. Data from 193 representative 6- to 18-year-old healthy children were obtained from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development after a blinded quality control. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were obtained with automated software. Aggression levels were measured with the Aggressive Behavior scale (AGG) of the Child Behavior Checklist. AGG scores were regressed against cortical thickness and basal ganglia volumes using first- and second-order linear models while controlling for age, gender, scanner site, and total brain volume. Gender by AGG interactions were analyzed. There were positive associations between bilateral striatal volumes and AGG scores (right: r = .238, p = .001; left: r = .188, p = .01). A significant association was found with right ACC and subgenual ACC cortical thickness in a second-order linear model (p right ACC cortex. An AGG by gender interaction trend was found in bilateral OFC and ACC associations with AGG scores. This study shows the existence of relationships between impulsive aggression in healthy children and the structure of the striatum and right ACC. It also suggests the existence of gender-specific patterns of association in OFC/ACC gray matter. These results may guide research on oppositional-defiant and conduct disorders. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Putting Children's Sleep Problems to Bed: Using Behavior Change Theory to Increase the Success of Children's Sleep Education Programs and Contribute to Healthy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Sarah; Benveniste, Tessa; Thompson, Kirrilly

    2016-07-01

    Sleep is critical for the healthy development of children, yet most children simply don't get enough. Whilst school based sleep education programs have been developed for parents and their children, they have had mixed success. We consider how use of behavior change theory in existing school-based sleep education programs can be improved by applying and apply a broader model to these programs. We find that the mixed success of school-based sleep education programs may be due to a plausible but misleading assumption that simply increasing information about the importance of sleep and the risks of insufficient and/or inefficient sleep will necessarily result in improved sleep behaviors. We identify the potential benefits of using behavior change theory in the development of sleep education programs but in particular, there is a need for theories incorporate the multiple biological, environmental and social impacts on children's sleep. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological model is presented to illustrate how one such behavior change theory could significantly improve the success of sleep education programs and ultimately support the healthy development of children.

  18. Parental competence programs to promote positive parenting and healthy lifestyles in children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayetana Ruiz‐Zaldibar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the available evidence regarding the efficacy of interventions on parents whose children were aged 2–5 years to promote parental competence and skills for children's healthy lifestyles. Source: Articles published in English and Spanish, available at PubMed, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Eric, and Cochrane Library were reviewed. Summary of the findings: The literature search yielded 2282 articles. Forty‐one full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion using the PRISMA flow diagram. Twenty‐six articles were excluded, as they did not meet the inclusion criteria. In the end, 15 studies were included. The studies were conducted between 2003 and 2016, nine in North America, four in Europe, and two in Asia. Extracted data were synthesized in a tabular format. CASPe guide was used to assess the quality of studies that was moderate overall. Parental self‐efficacy was the main construct assessed in most studies. Four studies reported an increase in parental self‐efficacy, although most of them were studies without control groups. Conclusions: Outcomes of interventions to improve parental competence in order to promote children's lifestyles are promising, but inconsistent. Additional studies with higher methodological and conceptual quality are needed. Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar as evidências disponíveis com relação à eficácia de intervenções em pais de filhos entre dois e cinco anos para promover a competência e as habilidades dos pais a respeito de estilos de vida saudáveis para as crianças. Fonte: Foram analisados artigos publicados em PubMed, Psycinfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, Eric e Biblioteca Cochrane. Inglês e espanhol. Resumo dos achados: A pesquisa da literatura encontrou 2.282 artigos; 41 textos completos foram selecionados e avaliados para inclusão com o fluxograma Prisma; 26 artigos foram excluídos, pois não atendiam aos critérios de inclusão. Por fim, 15 estudos foram incluídos. Os

  19. The mediating effects of family functioning on psychosocial outcomes in healthy siblings of children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Treadwell, Marsha; Weissman, Lina; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2011-12-01

    Children with siblings coping with chronic illness experience stresses and disruptions in daily life as families work together to care for the affected child. Research suggests that children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) may be at risk for adjustment problems, impaired psychosocial functioning, and reduced quality of life. These potential stressors affect the child with SCD as well as their caregivers and other family members. This study examined the role of family functioning on the psychosocial functioning of healthy siblings of children with SCD. Participants were 65 healthy African-American siblings of children with SCD with a mean age of 11.19 years (range: 7-16) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adjustment including demographic surveys, the Family Relations Scale (FRS), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Increased number of emergency room visits (β = -0.28, P Family functioning mediated this effect (β = 0.27; P family expressiveness (total score, r = -0.34; P family conflict (total score, r = 0.41; P family expressiveness, support, and conflict are indicated for this population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) of healthy school-age children is associated with grades in math and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Enros, Paul; Paquin, Soukaina; Kestler, Myra; Gillies-Poitras, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between objective measures of sleep duration and sleep efficiency with the grades obtained by healthy typically developing children in math, language, science, and art while controlling for the potential confounding effects of socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. We studied healthy typically developing children between 7 and 11 years of age. Sleep was assessed for five week nights using actigraphy, and parents provided their child's most recent report card. Higher sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) was associated with better grades in math, English language, and French as a second language, above and beyond the contributions of age, gender, and SES. Sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, is associated with academic performance as measured by report-card grades in typically developing school-aged children. The integration of strategies to improve sleep efficiency might represent a successful approach for improving children's readiness and/or performance in math and languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents: Estimation of daily phthalate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2011-01-01

    Background Phthalates are a group of chemicals with widespread use in the industrial production of numerous consumer products. They are suspected to be involved in male reproductive health problems and have also been associated with several other health problems in children including obesity...... and asthma. Objectives To study the urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites in Danish children recruited from the general population, and to estimate the daily intake of phthalates in this segment of the population. Method One 24 h urine sample and to consecutive first morning urine samples were collected...... from 129 healthy Danish children and adolescents (range 6–21 yrs). The concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites of 5 different phthalate diesters were analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results The analyzed metabolites were detectable in almost all 24 h urine samples...

  2. A community-based healthy living promotion program improved self-esteem among minority children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving self-esteem, dietary habits, and physical activity is essential for long-term success in childhood obesity prevention. The aim is to evaluate the effects of a healthy living promotion program, Healthy Kids-Houston, on BMI, dietary habits, self-esteem, and physical activity among minority c...

  3. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, S.; ter Stege, J.A.; Geurtsen, G.J.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Reiss, P.; Schmand, B.; Pajkrt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the declining incidence of severe neurological complications such as HIV encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is still associated with a range of cognitive problems. Although most HIV-infected children in industrialized countries are immigrants

  4. Prevalence of hypertension in healthy school children in Pakistan and its relationship with body mass index, proteinuria and hematuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshalooz Jamila Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP in healthy school Pakistani children and its association with high body mass index (BMI, asymptomatic hematuria and proteinuria, we studied 661 public school children and measured their body weight, height and BP and urine dipstick for hematuria performed on a single occasion. Hypertension (BP >95 th centile and pre-hypertension (BP >90 th centile were defined based on the US normative BP tables. Over-weight and obesity were defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO classification of BMI. The mean age of the children was 14 ± 1.3 years. The mean BMI was 18.5 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . The majority (81.8% of the children were found to be normotensive (BP 25 (RR for BMI b/w 25-30 = 2.6, RR for BMI >30 = 4.3, positive urine dipstick for proteinuria (RR = 2.3 95% CI 0.7-7.7 and positive urine dipstick for hematuria (RR 1.0 95% CI 0.2-8.3. Hypertension in children is strongly correlated with obesity, asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria. Community based screening programs for children should include BP recording, BMI assessment and urine dipsticks analysis and approach high-risk groups for early detection and lifestyle modifications.

  5. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP)--an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualisation and development of an innovative approach to promoting healthy lifestyles for children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jenny; Wyatt, Katrina

    2015-01-20

    Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP) is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity.

  6. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP — An Overview of and Recommendations Arising from the Conceptualisation and Development of an Innovative Approach to Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Children and Their Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rise in childhood obesity, there remains a paucity of evidence for effective interventions that engage children and parents sufficiently to make and sustain lifestyle behaviour change. The Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP is a school-located obesity prevention programme, which has been developed with teachers, families and healthcare professionals. The underpinning assumption in the development of HeLP was to take a relational approach to changing behaviour, building relationships with the schools, children and their families to create supportive environments for healthy lifestyle choices. Thus, HeLP was conceptualised as a complex intervention within a complex system and developed as a dynamic, evolving set of processes to support and motivate children towards healthy behaviours. The delivery methods used are highly interactive and encourage identification with and ownership of the healthy lifestyle messages so that the children are motivated to take them home to their parents and effect change within the family. We have good evidence that HeLP engages schools and children such that they want to participate in the Programme. Results from an exploratory trial showed that the Programme is feasible and acceptable and has the potential to change behaviours and affect weight status. This paper presents an overview of and recommendations arising from the conceptualization; development and evaluation of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme as part of a special issue focusing on novel approaches to the global problem of childhood obesity.

  7. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    fraction of the total IGF-I circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. However, our knowledge of the clinical or physiological value of determination of free IGF-I in serum is limited at present. In adults, the diagnostic value of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed...

  8. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    fraction of the total IGF-I circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. However, our knowledge of the clinical or physiological value of determination of free IGF-I in serum is limited at present. In adults, the diagnostic value of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...

  9. Discriminative capacity of bronchodilator response measured with three different lung function techniques in asthmatic and healthy children aged 2 to 5 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    as compared with placebo in healthy control subjects. Lung function improved to a significantly greater extent in asthmatic children than in control subjects as reflected by all methods. sRaw provided the best discriminative power of such a bronchodilator response, with a sensitivity of 66% and specificity......The primary aim of this study was to quantify and compare bronchodilator responsiveness in healthy and asthmatic children aged 2 to 5 yr. The secondary aim of the study was to compare discriminative capacity (i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of the reversibility test......) as measured with the impulse oscillation technique were assessed before and 20 min after inhalation of terbutaline from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler via a metal spacer by 92 children (37 healthy controls and 55 asthmatic subjects). The study of healthy children followed a randomized, double...

  10. Is Parenting Style Related to Children's Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Latino Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Campbell, Nadia; Baquero, Barbara; Duerksen, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Parenting styles influence a child's risk for obesity. The goals of this study are to evaluate the influence of (i) parenting style on children's health behaviors (physical activity and dietary intake), (ii) children's sociodemographic characteristics on parenting style and on children's health behaviors and (iii) parents' sociodemographic…

  11. Using Family Backpacks as a Tool to Involve Families in Teaching Young Children about Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisoo; Bales, Diane W.; Wallinga, Charlotte R.

    2018-01-01

    Children's obesity rates have increased substantially over the past several decades, due in part to unhealthy eating habits. About 75% of preschool-aged children consume fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended for health. Because children begin developing eating habits during early childhood, obesity prevention programs are increasingly…

  12. Analysis of impulse oscillometric measures of lung function and respiratory system model parameters in small airway-impaired and healthy children over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Pat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Is Impulse Oscillometry System (IOS a valuable tool to measure respiratory system function in Children? Asthma (A is the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease in children. Therefore, early and accurate assessment of respiratory function is of tremendous clinical interest in diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of respiratory conditions in this subpopulation. IOS has been successfully used to measure lung function in children with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to small airway impairments (SAI and asthma. IOS measures of airway function and equivalent electrical circuit models of the human respiratory system have been developed to quantify the severity of these conditions. Previously, we have evaluated several known respiratory models based on the Mead's model and more parsimonious versions based on fitting IOS data known as extended RIC (eRIC and augmented RIC (aRIC models have emerged, which offer advantages over earlier models. Methods IOS data from twenty-six children were collected and compared during pre-bronchodilation (pre-B and post- bronchodilation (post-B conditions over a period of 2 years. Results and Discussion Are the IOS and model parameters capable of differentiating between healthy children and children with respiratory system distress? Children were classified into two main categories: Healthy (H and Small Airway-Impaired (SAI. The IOS measures and respiratory model parameters analyzed differed consistently between H and SAI children. SAI children showed smaller trend of "growth" and larger trend of bronchodilator responses than H children. The two model parameters: peripheral compliance (Cp and peripheral resistance (Rp tracked IOS indices of small airway function well. Cp was a more sensitive index than Rp. Both eRIC and aRIC Cps and the IOS Reactance Area, AX, (also known as the "Goldman Triangle" showed good correlations. Conclusions What are the most useful IOS and model parameters? In

  13. Household-based costs and benefits of vaccinating healthy children in daycare against influenza virus: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria; Meltzer, Martin I; Hurwitz, Eugene S; Haber, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Vaccinating children against influenza virus may reduce infections in immunised children and household contacts, thereby reducing the household-based cost associated with respiratory illnesses. To evaluate the impact of influenza virus vaccination of daycare children on costs of respiratory illnesses of the children and their household contacts from the household and societal perspective. Cost analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial covering the period November to April of 1996-7 and 1998-9. Children (127 in 1996-7 and 133 in 1998-9) from daycare centres in Californian (USA) naval bases received influenza virus vaccine (inactivated) or hepatitis A virus vaccination. Direct and indirect costs (1997 and 1999 US dollars) of respiratory illnesses in households of vaccinated and not vaccinated daycare children, excluding the cost of vaccination. There were no statistically significant differences in household costs of respiratory illness between households with or without influenza virus-vaccinated children (USD 635 vs USD 492: p = 0.98 [1996-7]; USD 412.70 vs USD 499.50: p = 0.42 [1998-9]). In 1996-7, adult and 5- to 17-year-old contacts of vaccinated children had lower household costs than contacts of unvaccinated children (USD 58.50 vs USD 83.20, p = 0.01 and USD 32.80 vs USD 59.50, p = 0.04, respectively), while vaccinated children 0-4 years old had higher household costs than unvaccinated children in the same age group (USD 383 vs USD 236, p = 0.05). In 1998-9, there were no differences within individual age groups. Results from societal perspective were similar. Overall, from both the household and societal perspectives, there were no economic benefits to households from vaccinating daycare children against influenza virus. However, we found some over-time inconsistency in results; this should be considered if changing recommendations about routine influenza virus vaccination of healthy children. Our study size may limit the generalisability of the

  14. Special Features of a 24-hour Arterial Blood Pressure Profile in Healthy Children During the Period of Adaptation to Studying at Different School Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension in children is a serious socially important problem, because it holds a position within the top of cardiovascular diseases, beginning from the adolescent age. A timely start of preventive measures based on appropriate forecast assessment in children from risk groups will make it possible to reduce the disease burden in elder age groups. Research purpose. Based on comprehensive assessment of clinic-anamnestic, genealogic, psychologic data, peculiarities of daily profile of arterial tension in the course of adaptation to education in educational institutions, to characterize the markers and single out the factors associated with AT increase in children that are considered relatively healthy.Patients. On a voluntary basis, 199 children of 1–2 health groups were included in the research at the age of 10–12 years (11.3 ± 0.02 years who had just started their education at a cadet educational institution or middle school. The children did not have any complaints by the time of the research, nor did they have the necessity of taking medicines which could have an effect on the cardiovascular system and acute infectious diseases during the previous month.Methods. The research was carried out during the period from September 2013 until May 2014 in 2 successive stages corresponding to the first and second academic terms. The examination included clinic-anamnestic and genealogic methods, anthropometry, three-fold measuring of arterial pressure by Korotkoff’s method, 24-hour ECG and AP monitoring, monitoring of motion activity volume, study of general and school levels of anxiety and psychic tension, assessment of the vegetative nervous system condition, nature of exercise tolerance and volume of additional sports load, volume of additional academic load.Results. The most important predictors of AH development and elevated AP persistence in children aged 10–12 years of 1 and 2 health groups are: values of SAP and

  15. The Effects of Acculturation on Healthy Lifestyle Characteristics among Hispanic Fourth-Grade Children in Texas Public Schools, 2004-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…

  16. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  17. Awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Democratic People's Republic of Korea after a preventive programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvonen, Pirkko-Liisa; Sipilä, Kirsi; Ri, Yon Sil; Jang, Jong Hyon; Kim, Jong Hyok; Suominen, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to examine awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by children and their parents in Pyongyang, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), after a preventive programme. The data were collected in 2013 with self-completed, partly structured questionnaires from 1994 children aged 10 and 13 years and from 200 parents. Association between awareness of and compliance with healthy oral habits reported by the children and their parents was evaluated using Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses, children's oral health habits according to themselves and their parents were analysed using McNemar's test. Both children and their parents seemed to be familiar with healthy oral habits, although the awareness was not directly related to the reports of the children's oral practices. Most of the children reported brushing their teeth at least twice a day, using fluoride toothpaste and drinking water for thirst but frequent sweet snacking was common. Children's and their parents' reports were consistent with regard to sweet snacking frequency (p = 0.736) and the main thirst quencher (p = 0.349). Awareness of healthy oral habits appeared to be good among children and their parents. Unhealthy oral habits seemed to coincide with one another.

  18. Can School Organic Food Policy Promote Healthy Behaviors in Danish Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    in initiatives which promote healthy foods and physical activity. Concurrently, municipalities and other public bodies increasingly recognize their responsibility to support sustainable food production methods, such as organic agriculture, by choosing this kind of foods in public institutions. The question...... therefore arises whether these two trends - healthier eating strategies for youth, and increased public consumption of organic food, interact. This paper investigates the interrelation between the two trends: healthy eating and organic consumption. In Denmark, public schools are utilised for public organic...... explored the attitudes, policies/intentions and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Results indicate that organic food intervention strategies can be supportive for strategies to increase the healthiness of school eating patterns....

  19. Perceived Parental Barriers to and Strategies for Supporting Physical Activity and Healthy Eating among Head Start Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; B Robbins, Lorraine; Hines-Martin, Vicki

    2016-06-01

    Despite the need for parents to support their children's healthy behaviors, knowledge of factors preventing parents from doing so is still rudimentary. This study primarily aimed to explore perceived parental barriers to and strategies for supporting physical activity and healthy eating among Head Start children. A semi-structured interview format was used with four focus groups conducted at two urban Head Start centers in the Midwestern U.S. A qualitative content analysis of audio-recorded sessions was facilitated using ATLAS.ti7. A convenience sample of 32 parents (Mage = 34.97 years) participated. Over half were female (78.1 %), African Americans (65.6 %), and single (65.6 %). About 61.3 % reported an annual family income parent): lack of time and cooking skills and a tight family budget; and (3) environmental: inaccessible programs, lack of age-appropriate education, electronic media use, and unsafe environment. Parents across all groups expressed high interest in enrolling in a program with their children. Recommendations included: parents' support team; family outings at parks; taking a walk or enrolling in a class with children; and planting a garden. Many parents showed their preference for face-to-face meetings and a support group, but repulsion of counseling. To promote parental support in future interventions with Head Start children, their perceived intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental barriers should be considered as intervention targets. Involving parents through a support group and face-to-face meetings is recommended.

  20. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A transversal pilot study of oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae in healthy children younger than 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulou, Vasiliki; Brändle, Gabriel; Maggio, Albane Bertha Rosa; Anderson Della Llana, Rebecca; Cherkaoui, Abdessalam; Renzi, Gesuele; Schrenzel, Jacques; Manzano, Sergio; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the extent of oropharyngeal Kingella kingae carriage during the first 6 months of life. We conducted a monocentric transversal pilot study on healthy children younger than 6 months in order to define the oropharyngeal carriage rate. Participants were recruited between December 2013 and September 2015 among children without symptoms or signs of invasive infections. We demonstrated an oropharyngeal carriage rate of 0.67% in children younger than 6 months. Due to the really low carriage rate, it was not possible to draw statistically significant conclusion about any other characteristic of our population. The present study suggests that the oropharyngeal carriage of Kingella kingae among a Swiss population of healthy infants younger than 6 months is exceptional. The scarcity of colonization and disease in the early months of life suggests thus that defense against mucosal carriage and invasive infection is above all provided by vertically acquired immunity. Limited exposure of the neonates due to limited social contacts may also represent another factor avoiding neonates' mucosal Kingella kingae carriage.

  2. Reducing hospital admissions of healthy children with functional constipation: a quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneau, Mark; Mutyala, Ramakrishna; Sandweiss, David; Harnsberger, Janet; Varier, Raghu; Pohl, John F; Allen, Lauren; Thackeray, Callie; Zobell, Sarah; Maloney, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Functional constipation (FC) is a common medical problem in children, with minimal risk of long-term complications. We determined that a large number of children were being admitted to our children's hospital for FC in which there was no neurological or anatomical cause. Our hospital experienced a patient complication in which a patient died after inpatient treatment of FC. Subsequently, we developed a standardised approach to determine when paediatric patients needed hospitalisation for FC, as well as to develop a regimented outpatient therapeutic approach for such children to prevent hospitalisation. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a large decrease in the number of children with FC admitted into the hospital as well as a decrease in the number of children needing faecal disimpaction in the operating room. Our quality improvement process can be used to decrease hospitalisations, decrease healthcare costs and improve patient care for paediatric FC.

  3. Body image of children and adolescents with chronic illness: a meta-analytic comparison with healthy peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, M

    2013-03-01

    This meta-analysis integrates results from 330 studies on differences between body image of children and adolescents with and without chronic physical illness. Young people with a chronic illness had a less positive body image than their healthy peers although the average size of differences was small (g=-.30 standard deviation units). A comparison of diseases showed that young people with obesity (g=-.79), cystic fibrosis (g=-.50), scoliosis (g=-.41), asthma (g=-.37), growth hormone deficits (g=-.35), spina bifida (g=-.23), cancer (g=-.20), and diabetes (g=-.17) evaluated their body less positively than their healthy peers. Furthermore, levels of body dissatisfaction varied by age at onset of the disease, method for assessing body image, ethnicity, year of publication, and comparison group. Recommendations are stated for reducing effects of chronic illness on the body image of people with chronic illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of an active video game on healthy children's physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, TA; Cerin, E; Baranowski, T; Abdelsamad, D; Baranowski, J; O'Connor, TM; Thompson, D; Barnett, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This naturalistic study tests whether children receiving a new (to them) active video game spontaneously engage in more physical activity than those receiving an inactive video game, and whether the effect would be greater among children in unsafe neighborhoods, who might not be allowed to play outside. METHODS: Participants were children 9 to 12 years of age, with a BMI >50th percentile, but

  5. Concordance of the Resting State Networks in Typically Developing, 6-to 7-Year-Old Children and Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Narayana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Though fairly well-studied in adults, less is known about the manifestation of resting state networks (RSN in children. We examined the validity of RSN derived in an ethnically diverse group of typically developing 6- to 7-year-old children. We hypothesized that the RSNs in young children would be robust and would reliably show significant concordance with previously published RSN in adults. Additionally, we hypothesized that a smaller sample size using this robust technique would be comparable in quality to pediatric RSNs found in a larger cohort study. Furthermore, we posited that compared to the adult RSNs, the primary sensorimotor and the default mode networks (DMNs in this pediatric group would demonstrate the greatest correspondence, while the executive function networks would exhibit a lesser degree of spatial overlap. Resting state functional magnetic resonance images (rs-fMRI were acquired in 18 children between 6 and 7 years recruited from an ethnically diverse population in the Mid-South region of the United States. Twenty RSNs were derived using group independent component analysis and their spatial correspondence with previously published adult RSNs was examined. We demonstrate that the rs-fMRI in this group can be deconstructed into the fundamental RSN as all the major RSNs previously described in adults and in a large sample that included older children can be observed in our sample of young children. Further, the primary visual, auditory, and somatosensory networks, as well as the default mode, and frontoparietal networks derived in this group exhibited a greater spatial concordance with those seen in adults. The motor, temporoparietal, executive control, dorsal attention, and cerebellar networks in children had less spatial overlap with the corresponding RSNs in adults. Our findings suggest that several salient RSNs can be mapped reliably in small and diverse pediatric cohort within a narrow age range and the evolution of these

  6. High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Avenarius, Derk [University Hospital North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    In our experience, diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) is hard to interpret in children who commonly have foci of restricted diffusion in their skeletons unrelated to pathology, sometimes in an asymmetrical pattern. This raises serious concern about the accuracy of DWIBS in cancer staging in children. To describe the signal distribution at DWIBS in the normal developing lumbar spine and pelvic skeleton. Forty-two healthy children underwent an MR DWIBS sequence of the abdomen and pelvis. An axial short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence was used. Two radiologists did a primary review of the images and based on these preliminary observations, separate scoring systems for the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femoral epiphyses/femoral heads were devised. Visual evaluation of the images was then performed by the two radiologists in consensus. The scoring was repeated separately 2 months later by a third radiologist. Restricted diffusion was defined as areas of high signal compared to the background. Coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats were used to assess the vertebral bodies. For the pelvis, the extension of high signal for each bone was given a score of 0 to 4. Cohen's Kappa interobserver agreement coefficients of signal distribution and asymmetry were calculated. All children had areas of high signal, both within the lumbar vertebral bodies and within the pelvic skeleton. Three patterns of signal distribution were seen in the lumbar spine, but no specific pattern was seen in the pelvis. There was a tendency toward a reduction of relative area of high signal within each bone with age, but also a widespread interindividual variation. Restricted diffusion is a normal finding in the pelvic skeleton and lumbar spine in children with an asymmetrical distribution seen in 48% of normal children in this study. DWIBS should be used with caution for cancer staging in children as this could

  7. High signal in bone marrow at diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) in healthy children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ording Mueller, Lil-Sofie; Avenarius, Derk; Olsen, Oeystein E.

    2011-01-01

    In our experience, diffusion-weighted imaging with body background suppression (DWIBS) is hard to interpret in children who commonly have foci of restricted diffusion in their skeletons unrelated to pathology, sometimes in an asymmetrical pattern. This raises serious concern about the accuracy of DWIBS in cancer staging in children. To describe the signal distribution at DWIBS in the normal developing lumbar spine and pelvic skeleton. Forty-two healthy children underwent an MR DWIBS sequence of the abdomen and pelvis. An axial short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence was used. Two radiologists did a primary review of the images and based on these preliminary observations, separate scoring systems for the lumbar spine, pelvis and proximal femoral epiphyses/femoral heads were devised. Visual evaluation of the images was then performed by the two radiologists in consensus. The scoring was repeated separately 2 months later by a third radiologist. Restricted diffusion was defined as areas of high signal compared to the background. Coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) reformats were used to assess the vertebral bodies. For the pelvis, the extension of high signal for each bone was given a score of 0 to 4. Cohen's Kappa interobserver agreement coefficients of signal distribution and asymmetry were calculated. All children had areas of high signal, both within the lumbar vertebral bodies and within the pelvic skeleton. Three patterns of signal distribution were seen in the lumbar spine, but no specific pattern was seen in the pelvis. There was a tendency toward a reduction of relative area of high signal within each bone with age, but also a widespread interindividual variation. Restricted diffusion is a normal finding in the pelvic skeleton and lumbar spine in children with an asymmetrical distribution seen in 48% of normal children in this study. DWIBS should be used with caution for cancer staging in children as this could lead

  8. The influences of factors associated with decreased iron supply to the fetus during pregnancy on iron status in healthy children aged 0.5 to 3 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijterschout, L.; Vloemans, J.; Rövekamp-Abels, L.; Feitsma, H.; van Goudoever, J. B.; Brus, F.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal anemia, pregnancy-induced diabetes, hypertension and smoking contributed to the recently found high prevalence of iron deficiency in a population of otherwise healthy children. Iron status was assessed in 400 children aged 0.5 to 3 years. We obtained information on

  9. Ghrelin gene: identification of missense variants and a frameshift mutation in extremely obese children and adolescents and healthy normal weight students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Anke; Hoch, Anne; Geller, Frank; Schäfer, Helmut; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Goldschmidt, Hanspeter; Remschmidt, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2002-06-01

    Ghrelin induces obesity via central and peripheral mechanisms. Administration of ghrelin leads to increased food intake and decreased fat utilisation in rodents. Ghrelin levels are decreased in obese individuals. Recently, a polymorphism (Arg-51-Gln) within the ghrelin gene (GHRL) was described to be associated with obesity. We screened the GHRL coding region in 215 extremely obese German Children and adolescents (study group 1) and 93 normal weight students (study group 2) by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP). We found the two previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP: Arg-51-Gln and Leu-72-Met) in similar frequencies in study groups 1 and 2 (allele frequencies were: 0.019 and 0.016 for the 51-Gln allele and 0.091 and 0.086 for the 72-Met allele, respectively). Hence, we could not confirm the previous finding. Additionally, two novel variants were identified within the coding region: (1) We detected one healthy normal weight individual with a frameshift mutation (2bp deletion at codon 34). This frameshift mutation affects the coding region of the mature ghrelin. Hence, it is highly likely that the normal weight student is haplo-insufficient for ghrelin. (2) An A to T transversion leads to an amino acid exchange from Gln to Leu at amino acid position 90. The frequency of the 90-Leu allele was significantly higher in the extremely obese children and adolescents (0.063) than in the normal weight students (0.016; nominal p = 0.011). Additionally, we genotyped 134 underweight students and 44 normal weight adults for this SNP. Genotype frequencies were similar in extremely obese children and adolescents, underweight students and normal weight adults (p > 0.8). In conclusion, we identified four sequence variants in the coding region of the ghrelin gene in individuals belonging to different weight extremes. A frameshift mutation was detected in a normal weight individual. None of the variants seem to influence weight regulation.

  10. Impact of an active video game on healthy children's physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This naturalistic study tests whether children receiving a new (to them) active video game spontaneously engage in more physical activity than those receiving an inactive video game, and whether the effect would be greater among children in unsafe neighborhoods,who might not be allowed to play outsi...

  11. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Sophie; ter Stege, Jacqueline A.; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Schmand, Ben; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2015-01-01

    Despite the declining incidence of severe neurological complications such as HIV encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is still associated with a range of cognitive problems. Although most HIV-infected children in industrialized countries are immigrants with a

  12. Assessment of self-reported self-esteem in healthy and diabetic children and adolescents in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachioti, Efrosini; Petsios, Konstantinos; Boutopoulou, Barbara; Chrisostomou, Anthi; Galanis, Petros; Matziou, Vasiliki

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate any possible negative effect of diabetes on the self-esteem of children and adolescents with diabetes. Self-esteem was evaluated using the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory (CFSEI-2) in 144 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM; 7-18 years of age) treated in a diabetes center and compared against that of 136 healthy children and adolescents. Self-esteem was correlated with age (P = 0.017), but not with diabetes (P = 0.886). The median CFSEI-2 score for both healthy and diabetic children was 22. There was no significant correlation between self-esteem and sex, body mass index (BMI), physical exercise, HbA1c or parental educational level. According to Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r(s)), there was a significant association between age and self-esteem (r(s) = -0.15). Conversely, although BMI (r(s) = -0.09) and treatment duration (r(s) = -0.107) had a slight negative effect on self-esteem and the duration of physical exercise (r(s) = 0.11) and parental education (r(s) = 0.07) seemed to have a positive effect, the associations did not reach statistical significance. Self-esteem in diabetic children is mainly affected by their age, level of physical activity and level of family support. These findings emphasize the need to discriminate between glycemic control and diabetic adjustment. © 2010 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12®-supplemented yogurt in healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tina P.; Ba, Zhaoyong; Sanders, Mary Ellen; D’Amico, Frank J.; Roberts, Robert F.; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Merenstein, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Probiotics are live microorganisms that may provide health benefits to the individual when consumed in sufficient quantities. For studies conducted on health or disease endpoints on probiotics in the United States, the Food and Administration (FDA) has required those studies to be conducted as investigational new drugs. This phase I, double-blinded, randomized, controlled safety study represents the first requirement of this pathway. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12® (BB-12®)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of children. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of BB-12®-supplemented yogurt on the gut microbiota of the children. Methods Sixty children aged 1–5 years were randomly assigned to consume four ounces of either BB-12®-supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 days. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, as determined by the number of reported adverse events. Results A total of 186 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no significant differences between the control and BB-12® groups. No significant changes due to probiotic treatment were observed in the gut microbiota of the study cohort. Conclusions BB-12®-supplemented yogurt is safe and well-tolerated when consumed by healthy children. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential effects of BB-12®-supplemented yogurt in different disease states. PMID:28114246

  14. Can School Organic Food Policy Promote Healthy Behaviors in Danish Children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    can support the development of healthier eating patterns among pupils. Food strategies of “organic” schools were compared to those of “non organic” schools. The study was undertaken among school food coordinators through a web-based questionnaire in selected public primary schools. The questionnaire...... explored the attitudes, policies/intentions and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Results indicate that organic food intervention strategies can be supportive for strategies to increase the healthiness of school eating patterns....

  15. Impact of an active video game on healthy children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Abdelsamad, Dina; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia Margareta; Thompson, Debbe; Barnett, Anthony; Cerin, Ester; Chen, Tzu-An

    2012-03-01

    This naturalistic study tests whether children receiving a new (to them) active video game spontaneously engage in more physical activity than those receiving an inactive video game, and whether the effect would be greater among children in unsafe neighborhoods, who might not be allowed to play outside. Participants were children 9 to 12 years of age, with a BMI >50th percentile, but video games. A randomized clinical trial assigned children to receiving 2 active or 2 inactive video games, the peripherals necessary to run the games, and a Wii console. Physical activity was monitored by using accelerometers for 5 weeks over the course of a 13-week experiment. Neighborhood safety was assessed with a 12 item validated questionnaire. There was no evidence that children receiving the active video games were more active in general, or at anytime, than children receiving the inactive video games. The outcomes were not moderated by parent perceived neighborhood safety, child BMI z score, or other demographic characteristics. These results provide no reason to believe that simply acquiring an active video game under naturalistic circumstances provides a public health benefit to children.

  16. Dental development in Down syndrome and healthy children: a comparative study using the Demirjian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, M S; Vucic, S; van Marrewijk, D J F; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2017-05-01

    In children with Down syndrome, the timing of dental eruption is important for orthodontics treatment planning. Aim of this study was to determine whether tooth eruption and development of the dentition in children with Down syndrome are impaired. Dental development was scored on orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 95 children with Down syndrome. The dental age was determined at the left mandibular side according to the Demirjian method and by converting the assigned scores to the dental maturity score. Dental development scores of control children and DS children were compared with a mixed model linear regression analysis. The model showed statistically significant changes relating to increasing age (Pchildren and the control group after using the Nyström imputation (with and without hypodontia). The findings showed that dental development in DS children is similar to the development of control children and that a relationship exists between hypodontia and dental development. The clinically observed late eruption is probably not due to late dental development but due to the other processes that take place during eruption, such as the possible impaired processes at the apical side and the occlusal side of an erupting element. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Neurological soft signs, but not theory of mind and emotion recognition deficit distinguished children with ADHD from healthy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Grelloni, Clementina; Casarelli, Livia; D'Agati, Elisa; Spiridigliozzi, Simonetta; Curatolo, Paolo; Pasini, Augusto

    2017-10-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with social cognition impairment, executive dysfunction and motor abnormalities, consisting in the persistence of neurological soft signs (NSS). Theory of mind (ToM) and emotion recognition (ER) deficit of children with ADHD have been interpreted as a consequence of their executive dysfunction, particularly inhibitory control deficit. To our knowledge, there are not studies that evaluate the possible correlation between the ToM and ER deficit and NSS in the population with ADHD, while this association has been studied in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate ToM and ER and NSS in a sample of 23 drug-naïve children with ADHD and a sample of 20 healthy children and the possible correlation between social cognition dysfunction and NSS in ADHD. Our findings suggest that ToM and ER dysfunction is not a constant feature in the population with ADHD, while NSS confirmed as a markers of atypical neurodevelopment and predictors of the severity of functional impairment in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Construction of web-based nutrition education contents and searching engine for usage of healthy menu of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyong; Chung, Hea-Jung; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Nam, Hye-Seon; Jung, Soon-Im; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    A diet habit, which is developed in childhood, lasts for a life time. In this sense, nutrition education and early exposure to healthy menus in childhood is important. Children these days have easy access to the internet. Thus, a web-based nutrition education program for children is an effective tool for nutrition education of children. This site provides the material of the nutrition education for children with characters which are personified nutrients. The 151 menus are stored in the site together with video script of the cooking process. The menus are classified by the criteria based on age, menu type and the ethnic origin of the menu. The site provides a search function. There are three kinds of search conditions which are key words, menu type and "between" expression of nutrients such as calorie and other nutrients. The site is developed with the operating system Windows 2003 Server, the web server ZEUS 5, development language JSP, and database management system Oracle 10 g. PMID:20126375

  19. Association between Hair Cortisol Concentration and Adiposity Measures among Children and Parents from the "Healthy Start" Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C.; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2016-01-01

    and different measures of adiposity among a selected group of children predisposed to obesity and their parents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study based on 363 children and their parents (301 mothers and 231 fathers) participating in the "Healthy Start" study. Linear regression analysis was used......, the association between HCC and BMI among the parents was explored. Finally, we examined the association between parental HCC and children's adiposity measures. Results HCC was directly associated with a higher BMI among the fathers (0.49 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.09, 0.90, P = 0.02] per 100 pg/mg) and the mothers (0.......93 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.24, 1.61, P = 0.01] per 100 pg/mg). We found no clear evidence of an association between HCC and adiposity measures among children. However, a high maternal HCC was associated with a high fat mass index and low fat free mass index z-score in the offspring (0.14 SD [95% CI: 0.02, 0...

  20. Age-related changes in liver, kidney, and spleen stiffness in healthy children measured with acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi-Jung, E-mail: mjl1213@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Joon, E-mail: mjkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyung Hwa, E-mail: khhan@yuhs.ac [Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Choon Sik, E-mail: yooncs58@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, 211 Unjoo-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and age-related changes of shear wave velocity (SWV) in normal livers, kidneys, and spleens of children using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging. Materials and methods: Healthy pediatric volunteers prospectively underwent abdominal ultrasonography and ARFI. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1: <5 years old; group 2: 5–10 years old; and group 3: >10 years old. The SWV was measured using a 4–9 MHz linear probe for group 1 and a 1–4 MHz convex probe for groups 2 and 3. Three valid SWV measurements were acquired for each organ. Results: Two hundred and two children (92 male, 110 female) with an average age of 8.1 years (±4.7) were included in this study and had a successful measurement rate of 97% (196/202). The mean SWVs were 1.12 m/s for the liver, 2.19 m/s for the right kidney, 2.33 m/s for the left kidney, and 2.25 m/s for the spleen. The SWVs for the right and left kidneys, and the spleen showed age-related changes in all children (p < 0.001). And the SWVs for the kidneys increased with age in group 1, and those for the liver changed with age in group 3. Conclusions: ARFI measurements are feasible for solid abdominal organs in children using high or low frequency probes. The mean ARFI SWV for the kidneys increased according to age in children less than 5 years of age and in the liver, it changed with age in children over 10.

  1. Effects of the Healthy Start randomized intervention on dietary intake among obesity-prone normal-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeanett F; Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Olsen, Nanna J; Stougaard, Maria; Mortensen, Erik L; Heitmann, Berit L

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the impact of a 15-month intervention on dietary intake conducted among obesity-prone normal-weight pre-school children. Information on dietary intake was obtained using a 4 d diet record. A diet quality index was adapted to assess how well children's diet complied with the Danish national guidelines. Linear regression per protocol and intention-to-treat analyses of differences in intakes of energy, macronutrients, fruit, vegetables, fish, sugar-sweetened beverages and diet quality index between the two groups were conducted. The Healthy Start study was conducted during 2009-2011, focusing on changing diet, physical activity, sleep and stress management to prevent excessive weight gain among Danish children. From a population of 635 Danish pre-school children, who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g), high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (≥28·0 kg/m2) or low maternal educational level (dietary intake. Children in the intervention group had a lower energy intake after the 15-month intervention (group means: 5·29 v. 5·59 MJ, P=0·02) compared with the control group. We observed lower intakes of carbohydrates and added sugar in the intervention group compared with the control group after the intervention (P=0·002, P=0·01). The intervention resulted in a lower energy intake, particularly from carbohydrates and added sugar after 15 months of intervention, suggesting that dietary intake can be changed in a healthier direction in children predisposed to obesity.

  2. SERUM ANALYSIS OF AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN 1-40 IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS, AUTISTIC CHILDREN AND ALZHEIMER’S PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra K. SINGH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid beta-protein1-40 (AP40 is a low molecu­lar weight peptide produced throughout life during normal cell metabolism and neurodegenerative diseases. Owing to its neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects, the present study was conducted to evalu­ate serum levels of AP40 in healthy subjects, au­tistic children and Alzheimer’s disease patients. Serum AP40 was measured by enzyme-linked im­munosorbent assay (ELISA. AP40 was signifi­cantly higher in normal children compared to nor­mal older controls, in normal children compared to autistic children, and in autistic children compared to Alzheimer’s patients (p value was less than 0.05 for all groups. This finding suggests an age-re­lated decline of serum AP40 in normal aging, as well as in autism and Alzheimer’s disease. This decline may result from abnormal processing of amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP during nor­mal aging and age-related diseases such as autism in children and Alzheimer’s disease in elderly. Possible explanations for this decline may include age-related increased interactions of AP40 with cytoskeletal proteins for brain tissue deposition, increased serine proteases for APP metabolism or hyperimmune reaction (antibodies to AP40 for removal of circulating AP40. To conclude, the AP40 metabolism declines with normal aging and in addition to its role in Alzheimer’s disease this protein might also be a contributing factor in au­tism.

  3. Using Pediatric Visits to Support Children and Families: Ten Positive Outcomes From HealthySteps

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaughlin, Sarah; Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric health care practices are ideal settings within which to provide vital screenings, support, and parent education to families of infants and toddlers. HealthySteps (HS) uses an integrated, relationship-based approach to deliver a range of services and supports such as anticipatory guidance, developmental and behavioral screenings,…

  4. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids' Choice Restaurant Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Castro, Iana A; Pickrel, Julie L; Lin, Shih-Fan; Williams, Christine B; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants.

  5. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Castro, Iana A.; Pickrel, Julie L.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Williams, Christine B.; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants. PMID:29194392

  6. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe X. Ayala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants.

  7. Reference values for serum total adiponectin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2015-01-01

    : A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6-18years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Total serum adiponectin concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by a DuoSet® ELISA human Adiponectin/Acrp30 (R&D Systems) following...

  8. Reference values for serum leptin in healthy non-obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2016-01-01

    . Methods: A total of 1193 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (730 girls, 463 boys) aged 6–18 years (median 11.9) were examined by trained medical staff. Serum leptin and sOB-R concentrations in venous fasting blood samples were quantitated by immunoassay. Percentile curves of leptin, sOB-R, and free...

  9. Neither Good nor Useful: Looking Ad Vivum in Children's Assessments of Fat and Healthy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Fat bodies are not, fait accompli, bad. Yet in our international research, we found overwhelmingly that fat functioned as a marker to indicate health or lack of health. A body with fat was simply and conclusively unhealthy. This article reports on how this unbalanced view of fat was tied to assessments of healthy bodies that were achieved by…

  10. Be a Healthy Role Model for Children: 10 Tips for Setting Good Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Discuss where vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods calls later. Try to make eating meals a stress-free time. 7 listen to your child If your child says he or she is hungry, offer a small, healthy snack—even if it is not a scheduled ...

  11. Developmental Trajectories From Birth to School Age in Healthy Term-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, E.; Meijer, Lisethe; Van Braeckel, K.N.J.A.; Ruiter, S.A.J.; Bruggink, J.L.M.; Bos, A.F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of the scores obtained on tests of motor development from birth until school age in healthy, term singletons and to determine if early motor scores are associated with more complex cognitive functions at school age, such as attention and memory. PATIENTS AND

  12. Some Words Are Not Healthy for Children and Other Living Things!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padover, Ann

    1973-01-01

    Criticized are conventional special education approaches which are said to diagnose, label, and exclude handicapped children from educational services; and described is the diagnostic prescriptive teacher model developed at George Washington University in Washington,D.C. (DB)

  13. Impulse oscillometry, spirometry, and passive smoking in healthy children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I.S. Schivinski

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Children and adolescents exposed to PS had lower values for the spirometric variables and higher values for the oscillometric variables, indicating changes in forced and quiet parameters of lung function compared to the NPSG.

  14. Cognitive development in children with migraine and their healthy unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, F; Hönscheid, A; Müller-Sinik, K

    2002-09-01

    The discussion about neuropsychological sequalae from migraine occurring in adults is controversial. The purpose of our study was to examine whether children with migraine may be at risk for impaired intellectual development compared with their siblings free of migraine.

  15. Functional Brain Activation to Emotional and non-Emotional Faces in Healthy Children: Evidence for Developmentally Undifferentiated Amygdala Function During the School Age Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Belden, Andrew C.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. Particularly, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous research has consistently found greater amygdala responses to fearful faces as compared to neutral faces in adults, convergent with a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in fear processing. Studies have found that the amygdala also responds differentially to other facial emotion types in adults. Yet, the literature regarding when this differential amygdala responsivity develops is limited and mixed. Thus, the goal of current study was to examine amygdala responses to emotional and neutral faces in a relatively large sample of healthy school age children (N = 52). While the amygdala was active in response to emotional and neutral faces, the results do not support the hypothesis that the amygdala responds differentially to emotional faces in 7 – 12 year old children. Nonetheless, amygdala activity was correlated with the severity of subclinical depression symptoms and emotional regulation skills. Additionally, sex differences were observed in frontal, temporal, and visual regions as well as effects of pubertal development in visual regions. These findings suggest important differences in amygdala reactivity in childhood. PMID:23636982

  16. A comparison of Theory of Planned Behavior beliefs and healthy eating between couples without children and first-time parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Levy-Milne, Ryna; Naylor, Patti Jean; Symons Downs, Danielle; Benoit, Cecilia; Warburton, Darren E R; Blanchard, Chris M; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) beliefs and eating behavior, explore which beliefs have the greatest association with eating behavior, and explore differences between adults without children and first-time parents. Longitudinal evaluation via questionnaires and food records at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Couples without children (n = 72) and first-time parents (n = 100). fruit and vegetable consumption and fat consumption. TPB beliefs. Pearson correlations between TPB beliefs and eating behavior; exploratory data reduction via linear regression. Control beliefs were associated with eating behavior (r = .26-.46; P controlling for past behavior, control beliefs were associated with eating behavior for first-time parents only. Control beliefs regarding preparation and time had the strongest associations with fruit and vegetable consumption for mothers (β = .26; P control beliefs suggests room for improvement via intervention. Interventions guided by TPB should target control beliefs to enhance healthy eating among new parents. Strategies (eg, individual, environmental, policy) to enhance control beliefs regarding healthy eating despite limited time and opportunity for preparation may be particularly valuable. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Family meal frequency, weight status and healthy management in children, young adults and seniors. A study in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuvoli, Gianfranco

    2015-06-01

    To examine family meal frequency, and weight management as a protective factor throughout life. Selected by city and by town in Sardinia (Italy), the 522 participants were divided into 162 children (7-11 years), 187 young adults (19-30 years), and 173 seniors (65-90 years). Chi-square analyses were used to compare the frequency of family meals, weight (self-reported and perceived) and healthy management (physical activity, dieting, perceived appetite) between age groups. In addition, multinomial regression analyses were carried out to find associations, with age group as the dependent variable and frequency of family meal, weight status, and healthy management categories as independent variables, adjusted for moderating effects. Significant associations with age variables were observed in mealtime frequency (skipping breakfast and mid-morning snack in adults and lunch in children and seniors), in decreasing self-reported normal weight with age and increasing perceived overweight with age, and in physical activity, dieting and perceived appetite. The results suggest the protective nature of family meals for adults and seniors, and identify significant associations (and some differences) between age groups. Discrepancies suggest the importance of education about body weight awareness throughout life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Healthy School, Happy School: Design and Protocol for a Randomized Clinical Trial Designed to Prevent Weight Gain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schneid Schuh

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Schools have become a key figure for the promotion of health and obesity interventions, bringing the development of critical awareness to the construction and promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity, and the monitoring of the nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. Objectives: To describe a study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve knowledge of food choices in the school environment. Methods: This is a cluster-randomized, parallel, two-arm study conducted in public elementary and middle schools in Brazil. Participants will be children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 15 years, from both genders. The interventions will be focusing on changes in lifestyle, physical activities and nutritional education. Intervention activities will occur monthly in the school’s multimedia room or sports court. The control group arm will receive usual recommendations by the school. The primary outcome variable will be anthropometric measures, such as body mass index percentiles and levels of physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: We expect that after the study children will increase the ingestion of fresh food, reduce excessive consumption of sugary and processed foods, and reduce the hours of sedentary activities. Conclusion: The purpose of starting the dietary intervention at this stage of life is to develop a knowledge that will enable for healthy choices, providing opportunities for a better future for this population.

  19. The stress-reducing effects of art in pediatric health care: art preferences of healthy children and hospitalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Sarajane L; Ulrich, Roger S; Shepley, Mardelle M; Varni, James W; Sherman, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Art is assumed to possess therapeutic benefits of healing for children, as part of patient-focused design in health care. Since the psychological and physiological well-being of children in health care settings is extremely important in contributing to the healing process, it is vitally important to identify what type of art supports stress reduction. Based on adult studies, nature art was anticipated to be the most preferred and to have stress-reducing effects on pediatric patients. Nature art refers to art images dominated by natural vegetation, flowers or water. The objective of this study was to investigate what type of art image children prefer, and what type of art image has potentially stress-reducing effects on children in hospitals. This study used a three-phase, multi-method approach with children aged 5-17 years: a focus group study (129 participants), a randomized study (48 participants), and a quasi-experimental study design (48 participants). Findings were evaluated from three phases.

  20. Management of acute gastroenteritis in healthy children in Lebanon - A national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alameddine, Aouni; Mourad, Sawsan; Rifai, Nahida

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute gastroenteritis remains a common condition among infants and children throughout the world. In 1996, The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised its recommendations for the treatment of infants and children with acute gastroenteritis. Aim: The purpose of this survey was to determine how closely current treatment among Lebanese pediatricians compares with the AAP recommendations and to determine the impact of such management on the healthcare system. Patients and Methods...

  1. Comparison of hepatitis A and E virus infections among healthy children in Mongolia: evidence for infection with a subgenotype IA HAV in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Takahashi, Masaharu; Endo, Kazunori; Agiimaa, Dondog; Buyankhuu, Osorjin; Okamoto, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    To compare the epidemiologic profiles of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in children in Mongolia, the prevalence of HAV and HEV infections was investigated serologically and molecularly among 717 apparently healthy individuals of 0-20 years of age (mean +/- standard deviation, 8.6 +/- 4.9 years) using serum samples obtained between October 2005 and January 2006. Total antibody against HAV (anti-HAV [total]) was detected in 494 (68.9%) of the 717 subjects, while IgG antibody against HEV (anti-HEV IgG) was detected in only five subjects (0.7%) (P hepatitis or jaundice. In conclusion, HEV infection was uncommon, but HAV infection lacking overt clinical features was prevalent among children in Mongolia.

  2. The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and maintaining strong parent-child bond: focus on children in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milteer, Regina M; Ginsburg, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Play is essential to the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical well-being of children beginning in early childhood. It is a natural tool for children to develop resiliency as they learn to cooperate, overcome challenges, and negotiate with others. Play also allows children to be creative. It provides time for parents to be fully engaged with their children, to bond with their children, and to see the world from the perspective of their child. However, children who live in poverty often face socioeconomic obstacles that impede their rights to have playtime, thus affecting their healthy social-emotional development. For children who are underresourced to reach their highest potential, it is essential that parents, educators, and pediatricians recognize the importance of lifelong benefits that children gain from play.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of a new recombinant asparaginase preparation in children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A randomized phase 2 clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pieters (Rob); I.M. Appel (Inge); H.J. Kuehnel; I. Tetzlaff-Fohr (Iris); U. Pichlmeier (Uwe); I. van der Vaart (Inekee); E. Visser (Eline); R.L. Stigter

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynam-ics, efficacy, and safety of a new recom-binant Escherichia coli - asparaginase preparation was compared withAsparagi-nase medac. Thirty-two children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were randomized to receive one of both agents at a dose of 5000

  4. Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

  5. High Incidence of Recurrent Wheeze in Children With Down Syndrome With and Without Previous Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, B.; van Furth, A.M.; Weijerman, M.E.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Broers, C.J.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bont, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with the subsequent development of recurrent wheeze. In a recent study, we found a high incidence (9.9%) of hospitalization for RSV-induced LRTI among children with Down syndrome (DS),

  6. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  7. Correlates of Healthy Lifestyle Beliefs and Behaviors in Parents of Overweight or Obese Preschool Children Before and After a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Intervention With Text Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Lisa K; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Hekler, Eric; Small, Leigh; Jacobson, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Significant gaps exist in the published literature regarding the treatment of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children, especially in primary care settings. Parental influence plays an important factor in the development of healthy behaviors in children, yet there is no consensus about why some behavior change intervention strategies for parents of young children are more influential and effective than others. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to assess correlations among the study variables (healthy lifestyle beliefs, perceived difficulty, and healthy lifestyle behaviors) in parents of overweight/obese preschool children. A second aim explored if the parent's level of cognitive beliefs and perceived difficulty of engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors correlated with text messaging cognitive behavioral support. Fifteen preschool-parent dyads from primary care clinics completed a 7-week cognitive behavioral skills building intervention. Beck's Cognitive Theory guided the intervention content, and Fogg's Behavior Model guided the implementation. The intervention was delivered using a combination of face-to-face clinic visits and ecological momentary interventions using text messaging. Supported are the interconnected relationships among the study variables, that is, parental healthy lifestyle beliefs, thoughts, and behaviors. At baseline, parental healthy lifestyle belief scores significantly correlated with perceived difficulty (rs = 0.598, p behaviors (rs = 0.545, p cognitive behavioral skills building and tailored text messaging, the need for general support via text messaging lessened, warranting additional research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  9. Areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and health behaviors of their children in the Freely Associated States, Micronesia: Findings from the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, Yvette C; Ettienne, Reynolette; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shomour, Moria; Sigrah, Cecilia; Remengesau, Shelley D; Johnson, Emihner L; Alfred, Julia M; Gilmatam, Daisy F

    2017-10-01

    Chewing areca (betel) nut has been deemed carcinogenic. The practice has become a public health concern in Micronesia. The Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program included an areca (betel) nut questionnaire in a survey of household characteristics in the Freely Associated States (FAS). This paper describes areca (betel) nut chewing practices of adults and the health behaviors of their children. A cross-section of 1200 children (2-8 year-olds) and their caregivers in Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Republic of Palau, Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and Yap were recruited. Socio-demographics, adult areca (betel) nut chewing practices, and other health behaviors of children and adults were assessed. Child anthropometric measurements were collected to estimate weight status. The FAS areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence was 42%, ranging from 3% (RMI) to 94% (Yap). Among chewers, 84% added tobacco, 97% added slaked lime, 85% added betel leaf, and 24% mixed the components with alcohol. Among FAS children, 95% practiced daily teeth-brushing and 53% visited the dentist annually. Compared to non-chewing households, areca (betel) nut chewing households were more likely to have very young children enrolled, more highly educated adults, and members that used tobacco and alcohol. The FAS areca (betel) nut chewing prevalence (42%) is above the world prevalence of 10-20%, with wide variability across the islands. The oral health findings in this study may inform future oral cancer prevention programs or policies. Regular monitoring of areca (betel) nut use is needed to measure the impact of such programs or policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of micellized vs. fat-soluble vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy school children from Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Raman K; Yenamandra, Vamsi K; Ganie, Mohammed Asraf; Sethuraman, Gomathy; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Mathur, Sathish K; Sharma, Vinod K; Mithal, Ambrish

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a widely recognized public health problem. Efficacy of a recently developed micellized form of vitamin D3 has not been studied. Hence, we undertook this study to compare its efficacy with the conventionally used fat-soluble vitamin D3. In this open-labeled nonrandomized pilot study, we recruited 180 healthy children, aged 13-14 years in two groups and supplemented Group A (60 children) with 60,000 IU of fat-soluble vitamin D3/month with milk and Group B (120 children) with 60,000 IU/month of water miscible vitamin D3 under supervision for 6 months. Serum 25(OD)D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were evaluated before and after supplementation in 156 children (54 in Group A and 102 in Group B) who completed the study. We observed a significantly greater increase in the serum 25(OH)D levels in group B as compared to group A (31.8±9.1 ng/mL vs. 23.7±10.4 ng/mL; pchildren in group B achieved adequate levels of serum 25(OH)D (>20 ng/mL) as against 83.3% children in group A. Serum PTH and ALP levels declined considerably in both the groups following supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased the serum 25(OH)D levels in both groups. Miscible form of vitamin D3 appears to be better in achieving higher levels of serum 25(OH)D than that observed with a similar dose of fat-soluble vitamin D3. Further studies with different dose regimens are required to establish its efficacy over the conventionally used fat-soluble vitamin D3.

  11. The cost of community-managed viral respiratory illnesses in a cohort of healthy preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kelly M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs during childhood are often caused by respiratory viruses, result in significant morbidity, and have associated costs for families and society. Despite their ubiquity, there is a lack of interdisciplinary epidemiologic and economic research that has collected primary impact data, particularly associated with indirect costs, from families during ARIs in children. Methods We conducted a 12-month cohort study in 234 preschool children with impact diary recording and PCR testing of nose-throat swabs for viruses during an ARI. We used applied values to estimate a virus-specific mean cost of ARIs. Results Impact diaries were available for 72% (523/725 of community-managed illnesses between January 2003 and January 2004. The mean cost of ARIs was AU$309 (95% confidence interval $263 to $354. Influenza illnesses had a mean cost of $904, compared with RSV, $304, the next most expensive single-virus illness, although confidence intervals overlapped. Mean carer time away from usual activity per day was two hours for influenza ARIs and between 30 and 45 minutes for all other ARI categories. Conclusion From a societal perspective, community-managed ARIs are a significant cost burden on families and society. The point estimate of the mean cost of community-managed influenza illnesses in healthy preschool aged children is three times greater than those illnesses caused by RSV and other respiratory viruses. Indirect costs, particularly carer time away from usual activity, are the key cost drivers for ARIs in children. The use of parent-collected specimens may enhance ARI surveillance and reduce any potential Hawthorne effect caused by compliance with study procedures. These findings reinforce the need for further integrated epidemiologic and economic research of ARIs in children to allow for comprehensive cost-effectiveness assessments of preventive and therapeutic options.

  12. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Kersten; Noortje Vriends; Martin Steppan; Nora M. Raschle; Martin Praetzlich; Helena Oldenhof; Robert Vermeiren; Lucres Jansen; Katharina Ackermann; Anka Bernhard; Anne Martinelli; Karen Gonzalez-Madruga; Ignazio Puzzo; Amy Wells; Jack C. Rogers

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also te...

  13. Reference values for fasting serum resistin in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise

    2017-01-01

    are needed for the risk stratification and interpretation of individual serum resistin concentrations. METHODS: A total of 1191 healthy, non-obese Danish schoolchildren (727 girls) aged 6-18years (median 11.9) were included. Fasting serum resistin concentrations were quantitated by Human Resistin ELISA...... in both boys (p=0.02) and girls (pFasting serum resistin concentrations differ between sexes...

  14. TRADITIONAL GAMES RESULTED IN POST-EXERCISE HYPOTENSION AND A LOWER CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO THE COLD PRESSOR TEST IN HEALTHY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliane Beatriz Rauber

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to verify if blood pressure (BP reactivity could be reduced through a previous single session of active playing when compared to sedentary leisure. Sixteen pre-pubertal healthy children participated in this study. After familiarization with procedures and anthropometric evaluation, participants performed three sessions in randomized order: 1 30 min of traditional Brazilian games (PLAY; 2 30 min of video game playing (DDR; and 3 30 min of watching TV (TV. Each session lasted ~80 minutes, being 10 min of rest; 30 min of intervention activity; and 40 min of recovery. After recovery, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT was used for the assessment of acute cardiovascular reactivity. Blood Pressure (BP was recorded at 30 s and 1 min during the CPT. Analysis of variance showed post-exercise hypotension (PEH only after PLAY, and that systolic and diastolic BP were significantly increased in all conditions during CPT. However, the magnitude of the CPT-induced blood pressure response was significantly less in PLAY compared to DDR and TV. The PEH observed during recovery and the reduced BP response to CPT following playing traditional games may be due its higher cardiovascular and metabolic demand as was indicated by the increased heart rate, oxygen consumption, and blood pressure. It was concluded that BP reactivity to stress may be reduced through a previous single session of traditional games and that PEH was recorded only after this exercise form. This benefit indicates a potential role of playing strategies for cardiovascular health in childhood.

  15. Traditional games resulted in post-exercise hypotension and a lower cardiovascular response to the cold pressor test in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauber, Suliane B; Boullosa, Daniel A; Carvalho, Ferdinando O; de Moraes, José F V N; de Sousa, Ioranny R C; Simões, Herbert G; Campbell, Carmen S G

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to verify if blood pressure (BP) reactivity could be reduced through a previous single session of active playing when compared to sedentary leisure. Sixteen pre-pubertal healthy children participated in this study. After familiarization with procedures and anthropometric evaluation, participants performed three sessions in randomized order: (1) 30 min of traditional Brazilian games (PLAY); (2) 30 min of video game playing (DDR); and (3) 30 min of watching TV (TV). Each session lasted 80 min, being 10 min of rest; 30 min of intervention activity; and 40 min of recovery. After recovery, the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) was used for the assessment of acute cardiovascular reactivity. BP was recorded at 30 s and 1 min during the CPT. Analysis of variance showed post-exercise hypotension (PEH) only after PLAY, and that systolic and diastolic BP were significantly increased in all conditions during CPT. However, the magnitude of the CPT-induced BP response was significantly less in PLAY compared to DDR and TV. The PEH observed during recovery and the reduced BP response to CPT following playing traditional games may be due its higher cardiovascular and metabolic demand as was indicated by the increased heart rate, oxygen consumption, and BP. It was concluded that BP reactivity to stress may be reduced through a previous single session of traditional games and that PEH was recorded only after this exercise form. This benefit indicates a potential role of playing strategies for cardiovascular health in childhood.

  16. Comparison between exercise performance in asthmatic children and healthy controls – Physical Activity Questionnaire application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Santos-Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The PAQ questionnaire (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen is a self-administered 7-day recall validated questionnaire that measures physical activity levels in young people. A final activity score is obtained (1 indicates low and 5 indicates high physical activity level.Our aim was to determine whether there was any difference between the level of physical activity of children with controlled allergic disease and healthy children. Patients and methods: We used the PAQ questionnaire with a group of asthmatic children attending hospital outpatient clinic and a group of healthy children matched for age. Results: 155 children with allergic disease (median age of 11 years; 63% males and 158 healthy controls (median age of 10 years; 46% males answered the questionnaire.There were no differences in the overall level of physical activity, estimated by PAQ score, between allergic and healthy children (2,40 ± 0,7 vs 2,48 ± 0,62; p = 0,32. Performance in physical education classes and after school sports activity was found to be different between the study groups; healthy children were more active (p = 0,011 and did more sports between 6 and 10 pm (p = 0,036. No other statistically significant differences were found between the study groups. Conclusion: Despite the fact that a majority of the parents of allergic children stated that their child's disease was a barrier to physical activity, in our study there seems to be no difference between the level of physical activity of controlled asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Resumo: Introdução: O questionário PAQ (Physical Activity Questionnaire - Kowalski, Crocker, Donen é um questionário validado, que mede os níveis de atividade física em jovens através de perguntas referentes aos últimos 7 dias. É obtido um resultado final (1 indica um nível de atividade física baixo e 5 um nível elevado

  17. Developing Healthy Food Preferences in Preschool Children Through Taste Exposure, Sensory Learning, and Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekitsing, Chandani; Hetherington, Marion M; Blundell-Birtill, Pam

    2018-03-01

    The present review was undertaken in order to summarize and evaluate recent research investigating taste exposure, sensory learning, and nutrition education interventions for promoting vegetable intake in preschool children. Overall, taste exposure interventions yielded the best outcomes for increasing vegetable intake in early childhood. Evidence from sensory learning strategies such as visual exposure and experiential learning also show some success. While nutrition education remains the most common approach used in preschool settings, additional elements are needed to strengthen the educational program for increasing vegetable intake. There is a substantial gap in the evidence base to promote vegetable intake in food fussy children. The present review reveals the relative importance of different intervention strategies for promoting vegetable intake. To strengthen intervention effects for improving vegetable intake in preschool children, future research could consider integrating taste exposure and sensory learning strategies with nutrition education within the preschool curriculum.

  18. If we offer it, will children buy it? Sales of healthy foods mirrored their availability in a community sport, commercial setting in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; McCargar, Linda J; Raine, Kim D

    2015-04-01

    Community sports settings are often sources of unhealthy foods for children. Many managers in these settings are reluctant to increase availability of healthy food options because they perceive that healthy foods are not profitable. This study assessed the independent contribution of increased availability of healthy foods to their sales in a community sport, commercial context. Change in revenues per patron was also examined. The availability of healthy items was increased from 9.1% at baseline (35 days) to 25.0% during the intervention period (40 days), returning to 9.1% postintervention (6 days). Purchases of all patrons who bought foods/beverages (n=17,262 items sold) from two concessions at an outdoor community pool were assessed from baseline to postintervention. Chi-square analyses assessed differences in the proportion of healthy and unhealthy items sold, as well as in the proportion of total revenues per patron across periods. A trained observer also recorded qualitative observations pertaining to a subset of patrons' (n=221) dietary behaviors and activities. Healthy items represented 7.7%, 22.7%, and 9.8% of sales during the preintervention, intervention, and postintervention periods, respectively (ppatron did not differ by period. Food availability was an important environmental determinant of food purchasing behaviors in this community commercial context, given that sales of healthy foods closely mirrored their availability. Increased availability of healthy foods in community and commercial settings is important because concurrent changes within multiple environments will be required to improve children's dietary behaviors.

  19. Naturally occurring tolerance acquisition to foods in previously allergic children is characterized by antigen specificity and associated with increased subsets of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, N; Fishbein, A B; Erickson, K A; Cai, M; Szychlinski, C; Bryce, P J; Schleimer, R P; Fuleihan, R L; Singh, A M

    2015-11-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 6-8% of children, and increasing in prevalence. Some children naturally outgrow their food allergy without intervention, but the mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly understood. We sought to investigate the role of regulatory T cells in the development of naturally acquired tolerance. Fifty-eight children (1-18 years) with either egg or peanut allergy, recent acquisition of natural tolerance to egg or peanut, or no food allergy were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these groups were stimulated with relevant antigen for 48 h and flow cytometry performed to characterize both surface (CD3, CD4, CD25, CD14, CD19, and CD127) and intracellular markers (IL-10, Foxp3, and IL-5). Resting PBMC from naturally tolerant patients had significantly increased CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127loFoxp3+ cells, when compared to allergic or control patients (mean 6.36 vs. 2.37 vs. 2.62%, respectively, P naturally tolerant patients also had increased IL-10-expressing CD25+CD127lo cells (6.33 vs. 1.65 vs. 0.7, P naturally tolerant patients suggests an important role for regulatory T cell subsets in the acquisition of natural tolerance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) an

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin FAYYAZI; Ali KHAJEH; Hosein ESFAHANI

    2012-01-01

    Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) and probably secondary methemoglobinemia, following the ingestion of fava beans.

  1. Late-night overeating is associated with smaller breakfast, breakfast skipping, and obesity in children: The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Moschonis, George; Choupi, Eurikleia; Manios, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    Excessive energy intake during evening hours is associated with several health problems. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the possible association of late-night overeating with breakfast habits and obesity in a large sample of Greek children ages 9 to 13 y. In all, 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 y) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiologic study conducted in 77 primary schools in four large regions in Greece. The present study presents results on 1912 children having full data regarding anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, and physical examination indices. High-energy intake at dinner and evening snack was associated with higher likelihood of skipping breakfast (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval 1.42-2.39) and with lower caloric intake at breakfast (β = 0.14; P overeating is associated with skipping and/or consuming a smaller breakfast. In children with low levels of physical activity, it is associated with increased body mass index. Future relevant studies are essential to further explore and confirm the findings of the present study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reference Values of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content and Their Relation With Other Indicators of Iron Status in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruzafa, Encarnación; Vázquez-López, Maria A; Lendinez-Molinos, Francisco; Poveda-González, Juan; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio; Martín-González, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered an indicator of functional iron deficiency, but is understudied in children. The goals of this study are to determine the reference intervals for CHr in healthy children, and their relation with iron parameters, erythropoiesis, and individual conditions. A total of 902 children without iron deficiency, aged 1 to 11 years were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Besides a physical examination of the subjects and a questionnaire completed by their parents, the complete blood count, serum transferrin receptor, ferritin, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum erythropoietin, C-reactive protein, and CHr levels were measured. Changes in CHr, iron status, and erythropoiesis at different age intervals were analyzed and linear multiple regression was used to identify the factors that determine CHr variability. Mean value obtained for CHr was 30.9±1.8 pg (P2.5-P97.5: 26.9 to 34.3 pg), but the influence of age on CHr (the values increased with age) and on the iron parameters justified the establishment of different reference ranges. In addition to age, nutritional status, hematologic measurements, reticulocytes, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin accounted for 39% of CHr variability.

  3. No long-term evidence of hyporesponsiveness after use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children previously immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, Paul V; Toh, Zheng Quan; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Balloch, Anne; Marimla, Rachel A; Tikkanen, Leena; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn J; Rabuatoka, Uraia; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Satzke, Catherine; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pollard, Andrew J; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, Edward K

    2016-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial in Fiji examined the immunogenicity and effect on nasopharyngeal carriage after 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar) in infancy followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV; Pneumovax) at 12 months of age. At 18 months of age, children given 23vPPV exhibited immune hyporesponsiveness to a micro-23vPPV (20%) challenge dose in terms of serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytosis, while 23vPPV had no effect on vaccine-type carriage. This follow-up study examined the long-term effect of the 12-month 23vPPV dose by evaluating the immune response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administration 4 to 5 years later. Blood samples from 194 children (now 5-7 years old) were taken before and 28 days after PCV13 booster immunization. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken before PCV13 immunization. We measured levels of serotype-specific IgG to all 13 vaccine serotypes, opsonophagocytosis for 8 vaccine serotypes, and memory B-cell responses for 18 serotypes before and after PCV13 immunization. Paired samples were obtained from 185 children. There were no significant differences in the serotype-specific IgG, opsonophagocytosis, or memory B-cell response at either time point between children who did or did not receive 23vPPV at 12 months of age. Nasopharyngeal carriage of PCV7 and 23vPPV serotypes was similar among the groups. Priming with 1, 2, or 3 PCV7 doses during infancy did not affect serotype-specific immunity or carriage. Immune hyporesponsiveness induced by 23vPPV in toddlers does not appear to be sustained among preschool children in this context and does not affect the pneumococcal carriage rate in this age group. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early life stress and trauma and enhanced limbic activation to emotionally valenced faces in depressed and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Luby, Joan L; Botteron, Kelly N; Dietrich, Rachel; McAvoy, Mark P; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have examined the relationships between structural brain characteristics and early life stress in adults. However, there is limited evidence for functional brain variation associated with early life stress in children. We hypothesized that early life stress and trauma would be associated with increased functional brain activation response to negative emotional faces in children with and without a history of depression. Psychiatric diagnosis and life events in children (starting at age 3-5 years) were assessed in a longitudinal study. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study acquired data (N = 115 at ages 7-12, 51% girls) on functional brain response to fearful, sad, and happy faces relative to neutral faces. We used a region-of-interest mask within cortico-limbic areas and conducted regression analyses and repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Greater activation responses to fearful, sad, and happy faces in the amygdala and its neighboring regions were found in children with greater life stress. Moreover, an association between life stress and left hippocampal and globus pallidus activity depended on children's diagnostic status. Finally, all children with greater life trauma showed greater bilateral amygdala and cingulate activity specific to sad faces but not the other emotional faces, although right amygdala activity was moderated by psychiatric status. These findings suggest that limbic hyperactivity may be a biomarker of early life stress and trauma in children and may have implications in the risk trajectory for depression and other stress-related disorders. However, this pattern varied based on emotion type and history of psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Statistical Learning, Syllable Processing, and Speech Production in Healthy Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Preschool Children: A Mismatch Negativity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer-Eichenberger, Esther; Studer-Eichenberger, Felix; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate temporal/spectral sound-feature processing in preschool children (4 to 7 years old) with peripheral hearing loss compared with age-matched controls. The results verified the presence of statistical learning, which was diminished in children with hearing impairments (HIs), and elucidated possible perceptual mediators of speech production. Perception and production of the syllables /ba/, /da/, /ta/, and /na/ were recorded in 13 children with normal hearing and 13 children with HI. Perception was assessed physiologically through event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded by EEG in a multifeature mismatch negativity paradigm and behaviorally through a discrimination task. Temporal and spectral features of the ERPs during speech perception were analyzed, and speech production was quantitatively evaluated using speech motor maximum performance tasks. Proximal to stimulus onset, children with HI displayed a difference in map topography, indicating diminished statistical learning. In later ERP components, children with HI exhibited reduced amplitudes in the N2 and early parts of the late disciminative negativity components specifically, which are associated with temporal and spectral control mechanisms. Abnormalities of speech perception were only subtly reflected in speech production, as the lone difference found in speech production studies was a mild delay in regulating speech intensity. In addition to previously reported deficits of sound-feature discriminations, the present study results reflect diminished statistical learning in children with HI, which plays an early and important, but so far neglected, role in phonological processing. Furthermore, the lack of corresponding behavioral abnormalities in speech production implies that impaired perceptual capacities do not necessarily translate into productive deficits.

  6. Sudden and fulminant deaths of healthy children in Italy during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons: results of an online study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Prandoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 pandemic in Italy has been viewed as a false alarm, and it has not been properly understood based on historical precedents and more in-depth studies that have been conducted in other countries. Some of these studies have pointed to a phenomenon of sudden and fulminant death among healthy children, which is not the sole prerogative of pandemic influenza, but was, in 2009, a more frequent occurrence than in previous years. The purpose of this study is to gather such cases occurring during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons. Google Search was used in order to find cases of children and teens with no reported preexisting conditions of relevance and who died suddenly and unexpectedly after exhibiting flu-like symptoms during the two seasons. During the 2010-11 season, 29 deaths were found to meet the above conditions, 18 of which were fulminant and 11 sudden. For the 2011-12 season, there were ten such cases: five fulminant and five sudden. Most of these cases occurred during the period of maximum circulation of the flu virus. Fulminant deaths were three times more frequent during the first of these seasons and involved children of a higher average age than the more recent season. It is not possible to come to any definite conclusions, but there is reason to suspect that the driver of this significant increase may be the A(H1N1pdm09 virus. Regardless of how one wishes to interpret these results, it is advisable that the surveillance systems be strengthened and more recent study techniques be adopted in order to determine the causes of similar deaths in the future.

  7. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico); Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J. [Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexico). Dept. de Genetica

    1996-03-01

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author).

  8. Can a Brief Educational Intervention Improve Parents' Knowledge of Healthy Children's Sleep? A Pilot-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline H. D.; Owens, Judith A.; Pham, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Insufficient and poor quality sleep is prevalent in children, and is a significant public health concern due to the negative consequences for health. Certain sleep-related behaviours are associated with improved sleep, and sleep behaviours are amenable to efforts targeted towards behaviour change. Parental educational interventions have…

  9. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    .p.b. respectively. Twenty-three children completed measurements of within-day and day-to-day variations, none of which showed significant variation. In conclusion, the established reference values and data on variability within and between days may facilitate the clinical application for measurement of eNO during...

  10. Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva of healthy and cystic fibrosis children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Sanchez-Aguirre, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sodium and chlorine concentrations in mixed saliva were simultaneously measured by neutron activation analysis in nine normal children and in nine patients with cystic fibrosis. Sodium levels showed a significant difference (P < 0.01) between patients and controls. The concentration of chlorine was similar in both the control and the cystic fibrosis groups. (author)

  11. Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anne E.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether grip strength is related to total muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults. The second purpose was to provide reference charts for grip strength, which could be used in the clinical and research setting. This cross-sectional

  12. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    a Jaeger Masterscreen PFT. The data were analyzed using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) statistical method. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 326 children were eligible for diffusing capacity measurements, resulting in 312 measurements of DL,CO,NO and 297 of DL...

  13. Rationale and Guidelines for a Pre-Crisis Curriculum to Prepare Healthy Preschool Children for Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, Elizabeth C.

    Questions associated with an alternative approach to preparing nursery and elementary school children for hospitalization are addressed, and the basic components of a pre-crisis curriculum are outlined in this paper. Questions broached focus on (1) the effectiveness of a general curriculum approach as opposed to a crisis approach to preparing…

  14. 77 FR 71426 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... may influence the future development and funding of policies and programs to reduce childhood obesity. Furthermore, HCS results will be published in scientific journals and will be used for the development of..., and physical activity in children; and (2) identify the community, family, and child factors that...

  15. Dysphagia in healthy children: Characteristics and management of a consecutive cohort at a tertiary centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svystun, Orysya; Johannsen, Wendy; Persad, Rabin; Turner, Justine M; Majaesic, Carina; El-Hakim, Hamdy

    2017-08-01

    Whereas the literature is replete with reports on complex children with dysphagia (DP), the parameters characterizing non-neurologically impaired (NNI) children have been underreported, leaving a substantial knowledge gap. We set to characterize a consecutive cohort of NNI children, their management, and outcomes. We undertook a retrospective case series. Children (<18 years old) attending a tertiary multidisciplinary swallowing clinic were eligible. Patients with neuro-developmental, neuromuscular, or syndromic abnormalities were excluded. Primary outcomes included demographics, co-morbidities, presentations, McGill score, swallowing and airway abnormalities (and their predictors). Secondary outcomes were interventions and management response. From 171 consecutive patients (37-month period), 128 were included (69 males, median age 6.6 months (0.5-124.2)). Significant clinical presentations included recurrent pneumonias (20), cyanotic spells (14) and life-threatening events (10). Swallowing assessments revealed laryngeal penetration (67), aspiration (25). Other investigations included overnight oximetry (77), airway (70), and gastrointestinal endoscopy (24); revealing laryngomalacia (29), laryngeal mobility disorder (8), and subglottic stenosis (8). Non-surgical interventions involved oral diet modifications (85) and enteral nutrition (15). Surgical interventions included supraglottoplasties (18), endoscopic laryngeal cleft repair (14), and injection (19). 119 patients received intervention and at last follow-up (median 5.2 months (0.3-88.8)) 94 had improved. Of those treated 116 were on an unmodified oral diet, and 24 on a modified diet. ALTE and snoring predicted airway abnormalities, recurrent pneumonia predicted swallowing abnormalities, and age and airway lesions predicted the McGill score. a significant proportion of NNI children with DP harbor airway and swallowing abnormalities warranting endoscopic and instrumental assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  16. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Vonaesch

    Full Text Available Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR, about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414 were boys, and 36 percent (148/414 exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148 showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148 presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  17. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Tondeur, Laura; Breurec, Sébastien; Bata, Petula; Nguyen, Liem Binh Luong; Frank, Thierry; Farra, Alain; Rafaï, Clotaire; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  18. Healthy casetas: A potential strategy to improve the food environment in low-income schools to reduce obesity in children in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlke, Elisa L; Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries have undergone transitions driven by globalization and development, accelerating increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Schools have been identified as effective settings for interventions that target children's dietary behaviors. In Guatemala, public schools commonly have food kiosks (Casetas) that sell products to children. From July through October 2013, observations during recess, in-depth interviews with school principals (n = 4) and caseta vendors (n = 4), and focus groups with children (n = 48) were conducted. This article explores products available to children at casetas. Factors that affect what casetas offer include regulations and enforcement, vendor investment and earnings, vendor resources, product demand, pricing, and children's preferences. These factors influence the products that are available and children's tendency to purchase them. Potential strategies for improvement include healthy food preparation, price manipulation and promotions, raffles and games to encourage healthier choices, and policy to push toward development of healthier products.

  19. Meningitis, spondylodiscitis, pneumonia and septic shock with Streptococcus pneumoniae in a previously healthy woman with isolated IgG2-, IgG3-, IgA-deficiency and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Gudnason, David; Steig, Bjarni

    2018-01-01

    A 66 years old Caucasian woman with pneumococcal meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Five months later she was readmitted with fever and right side abdominal pain and diagnosed with pneumococcal spondylodiscitis. One year later she was treated for a severe chest X...... not respond serologically on vaccination with 13-valent conjugate and 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines. Further evaluations revealed a positive M-component in her blood and a bone marrow biopsy diagnosed her to have monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. To protect her against...... significance in an apparently healthy woman with at least three life threatening documented pneumococcal infections in a two-year period and poor pneumococcal vaccine response....

  20. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-10-01

    American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.

  1. BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN URBAN HEALTHY SCHOOL CHILDREN- A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bhuvaneswari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypertension is a chronic non-communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality. Prevailing number of hypertensives diagnosed in society indicate just the tip of iceberg as it was documented that almost 75% hypertension cases and 90% of prehypertension cases are undiagnosed. Evidence suggests that pre-hypertension in childhood is precursor of hypertension in adulthood and children maintain their position in the blood pressure distribution over time.1 Evidence suggests that anthropometric measurements such as weight, height and BMI can be taken as surrogate marker of prevalence hypertension. Hence, measurement of these parameters can help in early detection children at risk of hypertension. Primary hypertension, once considered a rare occurrence in pediatric patients, is seen more often particularly in obese patients. Other factors responsible for increased prevalence of hypertension in children include lifestyle changes such as decreased physical activity, increased intake of high calories, high sodium and low potassium foods, use of caffeinated and alcohol beverages, smoking, mental stress and sleep deprivation.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a cross sectional study. A total of 980 children were taken as sample from various urban schools of Kurnool city. Study was conducted during period of October 2016 to December 2017. The study was conducted after taking consent from the school authorities and parents of the concerned school children. The objectives and importance of the study were explained to the school staff a day prior to the commencement of the study to get their cooperation. The questionnaire comprised of information regarding the history of child, history of any past illness, family history of hypertension, dietary factors, socioeconomic status which may be potentially related to the development of hypertension. Following are the measurements made on the children: 1 Weight: Taken in kilograms using a pre

  2. Maternal educational level and children's healthy eating behaviour: role of the home food environment (cross-sectional results from the INPACT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ansem, Wilke Jc; Schrijvers, Carola Tm; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-09-12

    The aims of this study are 1) to investigate the association between maternal educational level and healthy eating behaviour of 11-year-old children (fruit, vegetables and breakfast consumption), and 2) to examine whether factors in the home food environment (parental intake of fruit, vegetables and breakfast; rules about fruit and vegetables and home availability of fruit and vegetables) mediate these associations. Data were obtained from the Dutch INPACT study. In total, 1318 parent-child dyads were included in this study. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate whether factors of the home food environment mediated the association between maternal educational level and children's healthy eating behaviour. Children of mothers with a high educational level consumed more pieces of fruit per day (B = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.22), more grams of vegetables per day (B = 23.81, 95% CI = 14.93-32.69) and were more likely to have breakfast on a daily basis (OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.38-6.39) than children of mothers with a low educational level. Home availability, food consumption rules and parental consumption mediated the association between maternal education level and children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Parental breakfast consumption mediated the association between maternal education level and children's breakfast consumption. Factors in the home food environment play an important role in the explanation of socio-economic disparities in children's healthy eating behaviour and may be promising targets for interventions.

  3. [Instability and sensitivity of the genome of healthy children in Magnitogorsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingel', F I; Krivtsova, E K; Iurtseva, N A; Antipanova, N A; Legostaeva, T B

    2013-01-01

    Problem of the influence of factors of the industrial city on the hereditary apparatus of its residents has not been fully resolved, because of traditionally in such studies only the pollution of environment components is taken into account. However the existence of a set of contributing socialfactors that modify the genotoxic effects ofpollution, requires the creation of a new methodology for genetic and toxicological studies. For this purpose, in Magnitogorsk, where one of Russia's largest steel plants is located, we conducted a comprehensive survey, whose tasks included the analysis of the influence of the complex of exogenous and endogenous factors on the genome of children. In this publication there are presented the results of the fifth fragment of this work - the analysis of instability and individual sensitivity of the genome of 166 children of 5-7 years, residing in two districts of Magnitogorsk: around the steel plant and on the opposite bank of Ural river, where there are no large-scale industrial enterprises. The study was conducted in the micronucleus test on peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured with cytochalasin B. For assessment of individual sensitivity of genome blood cultures were exposed to standard N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) mutagen. Cytogenetic analysis was performed in binucleated cells accordingly to international protocol, as well as with the use of an extended protocol including 32 indices. Average group frequency of binuclear cells with micronuclei (0.5-0.7%) were found not differ from the levels defined in children residing in Europe, and not differ between areas of the town. However the extended protocol of cytogenetic analysis discovered that the real frequency of dividing cells with lesions in blood cultures of children was 1,49-1,66%. Higher spontaneous proliferative activity of the cells and the frequency of dividing cells with injuries were found in blood cultures of children residing in settlements around the

  4. Developing an award program for children's settings to support healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Creina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper aimed to identify the best way to engage, motivate and support early childhood services (ECS and primary schools (PS to create policy and practise changes to promote healthy eating and physical activity. This information would be used to develop a suitable program to implement within these children's settings to reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Methods The Medical Research Council's (UK framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide the development of the healthy eating and physical activity program suitable for ECS and PS. Within this framework a range of evaluation methods, including stakeholder planning, in-depth interviews with ECS and PS staff and acceptability and feasibility trials in one local government area, were used to ascertain the best way to engage and support positive changes in these children's settings. Results Both ECS and PS identified that they had a role to play to improve children's healthy eating and physical activity. ECS identified their role in promoting healthy eating and physical activity as important for children's health, and instilling healthy habits for life. PS felt that these were health issues, rather than educational issues; however, schools saw the link between healthy eating and physical activity and student learning outcomes. These settings identified that a program that provides a simple guide that recognises good practise in these settings, such as an award scheme using a health promoting schools approach, as a feasible and acceptable way for them to support children's healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Through the process of design and evaluation a program - Kids - 'Go for your life', was developed to promote and support children's healthy eating and physical activity and reduce the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Kids - 'Go for your life' used an award program, based on a health promoting

  5. Respiratory tract pathology and cytokine imbalance in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Devlin, R B; Miller, F J

    2000-11-01

    Chronic exposure of children to a complex mixture of air pollutants leads to recurrent episodes of upper and lower respiratory tract injury. An altered nasal mucociliary apparatus leaves the distal acinar airways more vulnerable to reactive gases and particulate matter (PM). The heterogeneity of structure in the human lung can impart significant variability in the distribution of ozone dose and particle deposition; this, in turn, influences the extent of epithelial injury and repair in chronically exposed children. Cytokines are low-molecular-weight proteins that act as intercellular mediators of inflammatory reactions, including lung injury of various etiologies. Cytokines are involved in generating inflammatory responses that contribute to injury at the lung epithelial and endothelial barriers. Mexico City is a 20-million-person megacity with severe air pollution problems. Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, PM, and aldehydes. There is radiological evidence that significant lower respiratory tract damage is taking place in clinically healthy children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants while growing up in SWMMC. We hypothesize that there is an imbalanced and dysregulated cytokine network in SWMMC children with overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and cytokines involved in lung tissue repair and fibrosis. The nature of the sustained imbalance among the different cytokines ultimately determines the final lung histopathology, which would include subchronic inflammation, emphysema, and fibrosis. Cytokines likely would reach the systemic circulation and produce systemic effects. Individuals with an underlying respiratory or cardiovascular disease are less able to maintain equilibrium of the precarious cytokine networks.

  6. Regression equations for calculation of z scores for echocardiographic measurements of right heart structures in healthy Han Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Chen, Shu-Bao; Huang, Guo-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Fang; Wu, Lan-Ping; Hong, Wen-Jing; Shen, Rong; Liu, Yi-Qing; Zhu, Jun-Xue

    2017-06-01

    Clinical decision making in children with congenital and acquired heart disease relies on measurements of cardiac structures using two-dimensional echocardiography. We aimed to establish z-score regression equations for right heart structures in healthy Chinese Han children. Two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography was performed in 515 patients. We measured the dimensions of the pulmonary valve annulus (PVA), main pulmonary artery (MPA), left pulmonary artery (LPA), right pulmonary artery (RPA), right ventricular outflow tract at end-diastole (RVOTd) and at end-systole (RVOTs), tricuspid valve annulus (TVA), right ventricular inflow tract at end-diastole (RVIDd) and at end-systole (RVIDs), and right atrium (RA). Regression analyses were conducted to relate the measurements of right heart structures to 4body surface area (BSA). Right ventricular outflow-tract fractional shortening (RVOTFS) was also calculated. Several models were used, and the best model was chosen to establish a z-score calculator. PVA, MPA, LPA, RPA, RVOTd, RVOTs, TVA, RVIDd, RVIDs, and RA (R 2  = 0.786, 0.705, 0.728, 0.701, 0.706, 0.824, 0.804, 0.663, 0.626, and 0.793, respectively) had a cubic polynomial relationship with BSA; specifically, measurement (M) = β0 + β1 × BSA + β2 × BSA 2  + β3 × BSA. 3 RVOTFS (0.28 ± 0.02) fell within a narrow range (0.12-0.51). Our results provide reference values for z scores and regression equations for right heart structures in Han Chinese children. These data may help interpreting the routine clinical measurement of right heart structures in children with congenital or acquired heart disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:293-303, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Negative associations between corpus callosum midsagittal area and IQ in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Ganjavi

    Full Text Available Documented associations between corpus callosum size and cognitive ability have heretofore been inconsistent potentially owing to differences in sample characteristics, differing methodologies in measuring CC size, or the use of absolute versus relative measures. We investigated the relationship between CC size and intelligence quotient (IQ in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development sample, a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (aged six to 18, n = 198 recruited to be representative of the US population. CC midsagittal area was measured using an automated system that partitioned the CC into 25 subregions. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. After correcting for total brain volume and age, a significant negative correlation was found between total CC midsagittal area and IQ (r = -0.147; p = 0.040. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant negative correlation in children (age<12 (r = -0.279; p = 0.004 but not in adolescents (age≥12 (r = -0.005; p = 0.962. Partitioning the subjects by gender revealed a negative correlation in males (r = -0.231; p = 0.034 but not in females (r = 0.083; p = 0.389. Results suggest that the association between CC and intelligence is mostly driven by male children. In children, a significant gender difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ, and in males, a significant age-group difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ. These findings suggest that the correlation between CC midsagittal area and IQ may be related to age and gender.

  8. Hunger and thirst numeric rating scales are not valid estimates for gastric content volumes: a prospective investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Sabin; Hanke, Ursula; Klaghofer, Richard; Fruehauf, Melanie; Weiss, Markus; Schmitz, Achim

    2014-03-01

    A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children. Numeric scales with scores from 0 to 10 combined with smileys to rate thirst and hunger were analyzed and compared with residual gastric volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and fasting times in three settings: before and for 2 h after drinking clear fluid (group A, 7 ml/kg), before and for 4 vs 6 h after a light breakfast followed by clear fluid (7 ml/kg) after 2 vs 4 h (crossover, group B), and before and for 1 h after drinking clear fluid (crossover, group C, 7 vs 3 ml/kg). In 30 children aged 6.4-12.8 (median 9.8) years, participating on 1-5 (median two) study days, 496 sets of scores and gastric volumes were determined. Large inter- and intra-individual variations were seen at baseline and in response to fluid and food intake. Significant correlations were found between hunger and thirst ratings in all groups, with children generally being more hungry than thirsty. Correlations between scores and duration of fasting or gastric residual volumes were poor to moderate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that thirst and hunger rating scales cannot predict gastric content. Hunger and thirst scores vary considerably inter- and intra-individually and cannot predict gastric volume, nor do they correlate with fasting times in school age children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Association of particulate air pollution and secondhand smoke on endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilation in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the association of particulate matters with endothelial function, measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD of brachial artery, in children with or without exposure to secondhand smoke. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2011 in Isfahan, which is the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The areas of the city with lowest and highest air pollution were determined, and in each area, 25 prepubescent boys with or without exposure to daily tobacco smoke in home were selected, i.e. 100 children were studied in total. Results: FMD was significantly smaller in those living in high-polluted area and those exposed to secondhand smoke. Multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, showed that both passive smoking status and living area in terms of particulate air pollution were effective determinants of the brachial artery diameter. The standardized coefficient of passive smoking status was –0.36 (SD = 0.09, P < 0.0001 showing negative association with percent increase in FMD. Likewise, the percent increase in brachial artery diameter was lower in passive smoker children. Similar relationship was documented for PM 10 concentration with a regression coefficient of –0.32 (SD = 0.04, P < 0.0001. Without considering passive smoking variable, PM 10 concentration has significant independent effect on FMD level. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence on the association of environmental factors on endothelial dysfunction from early life. Studying such associations among healthy children may help identify the underlying mechanisms. The clinical implications of environmental factors on early stages of atherosclerosis should be confirmed in longitudinal studies.

  10. [Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcal serotypes in healthy pre-school aged children after 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vera, César; Ruiz Andrés, María Ángeles; Arana Navarro, Teresa; Moneo Hernández, Isabel; Castillo Laita, José Antonio; Macipe Costa, Rosa; Revillo Pinilla, María José

    2011-06-11

    To determine the characteristics influencing pneumococcal serotype colonization in healthy pre-school aged children, the distribution of serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (VNC-7 v). SUJETOS AND METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 6 years of age attending well-child examinations in the province of Zaragoza (Spain). Logistic regression was used to study different variables related to the status of the carriers. Of the 371 children studied 30.7% were found to be carriers. With a vaccine coverage rate of 66%, factors related with presence of pneumococcal carriage were found to be the number of siblings (OR 1.44; CI 95% 1.05-1.97 for each sibling), attending a school or child day care centre (OR 3.99; CI 95% 2.00-7.96) and suffering from a minor upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (OR 1.72; CI 95% 1.02-2.90). Only 8.7% corresponded to VNC-7 v serotypes. The most common non VNC-7 v serotypes isolated were 19A, 6A, 15B, 11, and 15A. Significantly greater resistance was detected among VNC-7 v serotypes. Children in the setting of this study carried pneumococci more commonly when they have siblings, attend school or day care, or suffer from minor URTI. In the VNC-7 v vaccine era, VNC-7 v serotypes have become rare occurrences (8.7%) and emerging serotypes present better susceptibility to antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. The BBaRTS Healthy Teeth Behaviour Change Programme for preventing dental caries in primary school children: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Cynthia; Adair, Pauline; Robinson, Louise; Burnside, Girvan; Moynihan, Paula; Wade, William; Kistler, James; Curnow, Morag; Henderson, Mary

    2016-02-20

    Oral health behaviours such as establishing twice-daily toothbrushing and sugar control intake need parental self-efficacy (PSE) to prevent the development of childhood dental caries. A previous study has shown that behaviour change techniques (BCTs) delivered via a storybook can improve parental self-efficacy to undertake twice-daily toothbrushing. to determine whether an intervention (BBaRTS, Bedtime Brush and Read Together to Sleep), designed to increase PSE; delivered through storybooks with embedded BCTs, parenting skills and oral health messages, can improve child oral health compared to (1) an exactly similar intervention containing no behaviour change techniques, and (2) the BBaRTS intervention supplemented with home supply of fluoride toothpaste and supervised toothbrushing on schooldays. A 2-year, three-arm, multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial. children (estimated 2000-2600) aged 5-7 years and their families from 60 UK primary schools. Test group 1: a series of eight children's storybooks developed by a psychologist, public health dentist, science educator, children's author and illustrators, with guidance from the Department for Education (England). The books feature animal characters and contain embedded dental health messages, parenting skills and BCTs to promote good oral health routines focused on controlling sugar intake and toothbrushing, as well as reading at bedtime. Books are given out over 2 years. Test group 2: as Test group 1 plus home supplies of fluoride toothpaste (1000 ppmF), and daily supervised toothbrushing in school on schooldays. Active Control group: series of eight books with exactly the same stories, characters and illustrations, but without BCTs, dental health messages or parenting skills. Annual child dental examinations and parental questionnaires will be undertaken. A sub-set of participants will be invited to join an embedded study of the child's diet and salivary microbiota composition. dental caries experience

  12. Exposure to urban air pollution and bone health in clinically healthy six-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Francolira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Peña-Cruz, Bernardo; Palacios-López, Carolina; Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Linglong; Mendoza-Mendoza, Nicolás; Montesinoscorrea, Hortencia; Romero, Lina; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Kavanaugh, Michael; Frenk, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution induces systemic inflammation, as well as respiratory, myocardial and brain inflammation in children. Peak bone mass is influenced by environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that six-year-olds with lifetime exposures to urban air pollution will have alterations in inflammatory markers and bone mineral density (BMD) as opposed to low-polluted city residents when matched for BMI, breast feeding history, skin phototype, age, sex and socioeconomic status. This pilot study included 20 children from Mexico City (MC) (6.17 years ± 0.63 years) and 15 controls (6.27 years ± 0.76 years). We performed full paediatric examinations, a history of outdoor exposures, seven-day dietary recalls, serum inflammatory markers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children in MC had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), marked reductions in total blood neutrophils (p= 0.0002) and an increase in monocytes (p=0.005). MC children also had an insufficient Vitamin D intake and spent less time outdoors than controls (p<0.001) in an environment characterized by decreased UV light, with ozone and fine particulates concentrations above standard values. There were no significant differences between the cohorts in DXA Z scores. The impact of systemic inflammation, vitamin D insufficiency, air pollution, urban violence and poverty may have long-term bone detrimental outcomes in exposed paediatric populations as they grow older, increasing the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis. The selection of reference populations for DXA must take into account air pollution exposures.

  13. The differences in aspects of parent-child interactions in healthy and oncologically ill children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezáčková, Alena; Jamrichová, J.; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Kepák, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2011), s. 59-60 ISSN 0887-0446. [European Health Psychology Conference: Engaging with Other Health Professions: Challenges and Perspectives /25./. 20.09.2011-24.09.2011, Hersonissos, Kréta] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : oncologically ill children * parent-child interactions * family functioning Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. Long-Term Nationwide Follow-Up Study of Simple Congenital Heart Disease Diagnosed in Otherwise Healthy Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk, Jørgen; Laursen, Henning Bækgaard; Olsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic follow-up is currently not recommended for patients with simple congenital heart disease; however, only a few data exist on the long-term prognosis of simple congenital heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook a nationwide follow-up study of a cohort of 1241 simple...... congenital heart disease patients, diagnosed from 1963 through 1973, in otherwise healthy children and alive at 15 years of age. We identified 10 age- and sex-matched general population controls per patient. We followed the study population through Danish public registries from the age of 15 years up...... with simple congenital heart disease in the 1960s have substantially increased long-term mortality and cardiac morbidity compared with the general population. Further studies on the effectiveness of systematic medical follow-up programs appear warranted....

  15. A multicomponent, school-initiated obesity intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Milena; Rutigliano, Irene; Rago, Alfonso; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Campanozzi, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    In the context of a 6-mo obesity program, incorporating school- and family-based components, nutritional education, fun-type skill-learning physical activities, and exercise training, this study examined relationships among changes in nutritional status, physical fitness, and some psychosocial and behavioral treatment-related outcomes, using a before and after comparison. Eighteen obese and overweight children ages 10 to 12 y were assessed with respect to body weight, height, circumferences, skinfold thickness, and fat mass. Health-related fitness tests, and self-reported physical activity enjoyment and perceived physical ability also were administered. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; dietary habits were collected using a 7-d food diary. The WinFood software was used for the estimation of nutrient and caloric intake. After treatment, children showed decreases in body mass index z-score (P = 0.001), body fat percentage (P children, and place emphasis on directing such interventions toward improving perceived physical competence that could lead to increased exercise adherence and promotion of the health benefits associated with it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of lower body pressure support on the walking patterns of healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Max J; Deffeyes, Joan E; Arpin, David J; Karst, Gregory M; Stuberg, Wayne A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a lower body positive pressure support system on the joint kinematics and activity of the lower extremity antigravity musculature of adults and children during walking. Adults (age = 25 ± 4 years) and children (age = 13 ± 2 years) walked at a preferred speed and a speed that was based on the Froude number, while 0-80% of their body weight was supported. Electrogoniometers were used to monitor knee and ankle joint kinematics. Surface electromyography was used to quantify the magnitude of the vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscle activity. There were three key findings: (1) The lower extremity joint angles and activity of the lower extremity antigravity muscles of children did not differ from those of adults. (2) The magnitude of the changes in the lower extremity joint motion and antigravity muscle activity was dependent upon an interaction between body weight support and walking speed. (3) Lower body positive pressure support resulted in reduced activation of the antigravity musculature, and reduced range of motion of the knee and ankle joints.

  17. Do Preschools Offer Healthy Beverages to Children? A Nationwide Study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Myszkowska-Ryciak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children’s beverage consumption patterns have received increased attention in light of the obesity epidemic in this group. In day care centers (DCCs, children spend up to 10 h a day, and typically consume half to three quarters of their daily food intake. The purpose of the study was to investigate what beverages are typically served to children in preschools in Poland, and to evaluate the practices associated with adding sugar and other sweetening agents to beverages. Methods: Direct interviews with preschools staff were conducted with a questionnaire regarding offered beverages and adding sugar and other sweetening agents. The menu of 10 consecutive days and inventory reports were analyzed to verify information. Results: A total of 720 preschools were included in the study. Cocoa and milk coffee substitute were served in 95% of preschools, followed by compote (92%, tea (84%, fruit/herbal tea (73% and water (69%. Water was the only beverage available between meals (93% DCCs. 86% of preschools added sugar to tea/cocoa/coffee substitute drinks, and 74% to compote. Conclusions: In the majority of preschools, beverages which are not recommended were offered. Such an assortment of beverages and common practice of sweetening can increase the amount of added sugar in a children diet. Nutrition education and legal regulations concerning the assortment of beverages served in preschools are urgently needed.

  18. [The influence of healthy lifestyle habits on weight status in school aged children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mauro, Ismael; Megias, Ana; García de Angulo, Belén; Bodega, Patricia; Rodríguez, Paula; Grande, Graciela; Micó, Víctor; Romero, Elena; García, Nuria; Fajardo, Diana; Garicano, Elena

    2015-05-01

    Overweight and obesity has high prevalence in children and adolescents in Spain. To determine the degree of influence of four modifiable factors (dietary habits, physical activity, sedentary and sleep) jointly on the weight status of a group of school children and adolescents in Madrid. 189 schoolchildren aged 6 to 16 years, who underwent an anthropometric study. To exercise the IPAQ questionnaire was used, establishing a minimum of one hour of exercise a day, as a recommendation, and two hours per day in case of sedentary, which took into account the hours of computer, consoles and TV. Sleep quality was assessed by collecting sleeping hours weekdays and weekend nap. Stating that school children should sleep 10 hours a day. The KIDMED Index was used for the diet quality, the score can be accessed from 0-12 and classified into 3 categories, it was regrouped for statistical measure. The first two results (0-7) as "Bad adherence" and ≥ 8 value as "Good adherence". 27.6% of students had excess weight. No significant differences were reported analyzing the four factors studied versus weight status among those who keep recommendations and excess weight, either individually or multifactor analysis was observed. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Asymtomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in relation to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae colonization in healthy children: Apropos of 1400 children sampled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Mustafa; Yagci, Aysegul; Ulger, Nurver; Akbenlioglu, Cengiz; Ilki, Arzu; Soyletir, Guner

    2001-01-01

    Meningococcal disease is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality among children in many parts of the world. Main reservoir of carriage and site of meningococcal dissemination appears to be the upper respiratory tract. Colonization of Neisseria meningitidis and lactamica and factors affecting this carriage were determined in a group of healthy children aged 0-10 years. Meningococcus and N. lactamica carriage were detected in 17 (1.23%) and 245 (17.7%) of 1382 subjects, respectively. Number (%) of serogroups for meningococci was 1 (6), 5 (29), 0 (0), 1 (6), 1 (6), and 9 (53) for A, B, C, D, W135, and Y, respectively. Having more than three household members, elementary school attendance, pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were associated with carriage of meningococci, whereas age less than 24-month was associated with carriage of N. lactamica. There was a reverse carriage rate between N. meningitidis and N. lactamica by age which may suggest a possible protective role of N. lactamica against meningococcal colonization among pre-school children

  20. A restaurant-based intervention to promote sales of healthy children's menu items: the Kids' Choice Restaurant Program cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Castro, Iana A; Pickrel, Julie L; Williams, Christine B; Lin, Shih-Fan; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2016-03-10

    Away-from-home eating is an important dietary behavior with implications on diet quality. Thus, it is an important behavior to target to prevent and control childhood obesity and other chronic health conditions. Numerous studies have been conducted to improve children's dietary intake at home, in early care and education, and in schools; however, few studies have sought to modify the restaurant food environment for children. This study adds to this body of research by describing the development and launch of an innovative intervention to promote sales of healthy children's menu items in independent restaurants in Southern California, United States. This is a cluster randomized trial with eight pair-matched restaurants in San Diego, California. Restaurants were randomized to a menu-only versus menu-plus intervention condition. The menu-only intervention condition involves manager/owner collaboration on the addition of pre-determined healthy children's menu items and kitchen manager/owner collaboration to prepare and plate these items and train kitchen staff. The menu-plus intervention condition involves more extensive manager/owner collaboration and kitchen staff training to select, prepare, and plate new healthy children's menu items, and a healthy children's menu campaign that includes marketing materials and server training to promote the items. The primary outcome is sales of healthy children's menu items over an 18-week period. In addition, dining parties consisting of adults with children under 18 years of age are being observed unobtrusively while ordering and then interviewed throughout the 18-week study period to determine the impact of the intervention on ordering behaviors. Manager/owner interviews and restaurant audits provide additional evidence of impact on customers, employees, and the restaurant environment. Our process evaluation assesses dose delivered, dose received, and intervention fidelity. Successful recruitment of the restaurants has been

  1. Autism-associated gene expression in peripheral leucocytes commonly observed between subjects with autism and healthy women having autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Yuki; Kamio, Yoko; Kawai, Tomoko; Katsuura, Sakurako; Inada, Naoko; Takaki, Akiko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has complex pathobiology with profound influences of genetic factors in its development. Although the numerous autism susceptible genes were identified, the etiology of autism is not fully explained. Using DNA microarray, we examined gene expression profiling in peripheral blood from 21 individuals in each of the four groups; young adults with ASD, age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (ASD control), healthy mothers having children with ASD (asdMO), and asdMO control. There was no blood relationship between ASD and asdMO. Comparing the ASD group with control, 19 genes were found to be significantly changed. These genes were mainly involved in cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and nerve system development and function. In addition, the asdMO group possessed a unique gene expression signature shown as significant alterations of protein synthesis despite of their nonautistic diagnostic status. Moreover, an ASD-associated gene expression signature was commonly observed in both individuals with ASD and asdMO. This unique gene expression profiling detected in peripheral leukocytes from affected subjects with ASD and unaffected mothers having ASD children suggest that a genetic predisposition to ASD may be detectable even in peripheral cells. Altered expression of several autism candidate genes such as FMR-1 and MECP2, could be detected in leukocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ASD-associated genes identified in leukocytes are informative to explore the genetic, epigenetic, and environmental background of ASD and might become potential tools to assess the crucial factors related to the clinical onset of the disorder.

  2. Topological organization of functional brain networks in healthy children: differences in relation to age, sex, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sato, Kazunori; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Thyreau, Benjamin; He, Yong; Evans, Alan C; Li, Xiaobo; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then investigated the effects of age, sex, and IQ on economic small-world properties and regional nodal properties of the functional brain networks. At a global level of whole networks, we found significant age-related increases in the small-worldness and local efficiency, significant higher values of the global efficiency in boys compared with girls, and no significant IQ-related difference. Age-related increases in the regional nodal properties were found predominately in the frontal brain regions, whereas the parietal, temporal, and occipital brain regions showed age-related decreases. Significant sex-related differences in the regional nodal properties were found in various brain regions, primarily related to the default mode, language, and vision systems. Positive correlations between IQ and the regional nodal properties were found in several brain regions related to the attention system, whereas negative correlations were found in various brain regions primarily involved in the default mode, emotion, and language systems. Together, our findings of the network topology of the functional brain networks in healthy children and its relationship with age, sex, and IQ bring new insights into the understanding of brain maturation and cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.

  3. Topological organization of functional brain networks in healthy children: differences in relation to age, sex, and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wu

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated developmental changes of functional brain networks derived from functional connectivity using graph theoretical analysis, which has been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. However, little is known about sex- and IQ-related differences in the topological organization of functional brain networks during development. In this study, resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI was used to map the functional brain networks in 51 healthy children. We then investigated the effects of age, sex, and IQ on economic small-world properties and regional nodal properties of the functional brain networks. At a global level of whole networks, we found significant age-related increases in the small-worldness and local efficiency, significant higher values of the global efficiency in boys compared with girls, and no significant IQ-related difference. Age-related increases in the regional nodal properties were found predominately in the frontal brain regions, whereas the parietal, temporal, and occipital brain regions showed age-related decreases. Significant sex-related differences in the regional nodal properties were found in various brain regions, primarily related to the default mode, language, and vision systems. Positive correlations between IQ and the regional nodal properties were found in several brain regions related to the attention system, whereas negative correlations were found in various brain regions primarily involved in the default mode, emotion, and language systems. Together, our findings of the network topology of the functional brain networks in healthy children and its relationship with age, sex, and IQ bring new insights into the understanding of brain maturation and cognitive development during childhood and adolescence.

  4. Autism-associated gene expression in peripheral leucocytes commonly observed between subjects with autism and healthy women having autistic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kuwano

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder which has complex pathobiology with profound influences of genetic factors in its development. Although the numerous autism susceptible genes were identified, the etiology of autism is not fully explained. Using DNA microarray, we examined gene expression profiling in peripheral blood from 21 individuals in each of the four groups; young adults with ASD, age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (ASD control, healthy mothers having children with ASD (asdMO, and asdMO control. There was no blood relationship between ASD and asdMO. Comparing the ASD group with control, 19 genes were found to be significantly changed. These genes were mainly involved in cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and nerve system development and function. In addition, the asdMO group possessed a unique gene expression signature shown as significant alterations of protein synthesis despite of their nonautistic diagnostic status. Moreover, an ASD-associated gene expression signature was commonly observed in both individuals with ASD and asdMO. This unique gene expression profiling detected in peripheral leukocytes from affected subjects with ASD and unaffected mothers having ASD