WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously established level

  1. Establishing diagnostic reference levels in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bana, Remy Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Medical application of radiation has gained wider study since diagnostic radiology plays a very important role in modern medicine. The need of the service seems to increase since the invention of digital radiology as a new technology that promises greater accuracy while minimizing patient dose. However, it is not exempted in the harmonization of doses delivered to the patient undergoing same radiologic examination in different institutions either regional or nationwide. The objective of this project was to review the establishment of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) in digital radiology at National level with the aim to reduce patient dose while maintaining appropriate image quality. A general discussion on digital radiology has been presented focusing on the optimization of patient dose as well as dosimetric quantities used for the establishment of DRLs. Recommendations have been provided for Rwanda to initiate steps to establish National Diagnostic Reference Levels for common procedures in digital radiology. (au)

  2. Repeated mirtazapine nullifies the maintenance of previously established methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M; Mickiewicz, Amanda L; Napier, T Celeste

    2011-11-20

    The atypical antidepressant mirtazapine enhances monoaminergic transmission; thus, mirtazapine therapy may counter the hypo-activation of monoamine systems associated with withdrawal from methamphetamine abuse. Human addiction therapy will likely require chronic administration that is given after brain and behavioral maladaptations are established. To emulate this scenario in rats, we ascertained if acute or repeated mirtazapine treatments could antagonize previously established consequences of repeated methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) was used, wherein methamphetamine (1mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in a unique environmental context once-daily for three days interposed by saline injections in an alternate context. Subsequently, mirtazapine (5mg/kg, i.p.) was administered in the home cage either as 10 once-daily injections or a single injection. The expression of CPP was determined in drug-free rats three days after the last mirtazapine injection. Expression of methamphetamine-induced CPP was inhibited by 10 home cage administrations of mirtazapine but not by a single injection of mirtazapine. These findings reveal that mirtazapine can inhibit the maintenance of methamphetamine-induced CPP and that treatment duration and/or treatment timing contributes to this effect of mirtazapine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between cerebrovascular complications and previously established use of antiplatelet therapy in left-sided infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Rasmussen, Rasmus Vedby; Hassager, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in infective endocarditis (IE) are common. The only established treatments to reduce the incidence of CVC in IE are antibiotics and in selected cases early cardiac surgery. Potential effects of previously established antiplatelet therapy are under debate....

  4. Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Girón-Martínez, Alvaro; Terrón-Expósito, Raúl; Díaz-Gil, Juan J; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán

    2014-11-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant, and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine whether short LGF treatment (1.7 μg/mouse ip; 2 times, 2 wk), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contributes to improvement of the regeneration of damaged lung tissue, reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: control (air-exposed), CSE (chronic CSE), and CSE + LGF (LGF-treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric data, and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level), and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinase activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocyte infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice and reversing the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice, and tends to reduce the neutrophil population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiological and morphological parameters and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model, which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Establishing Clinically Relevant Severity Levels for the Central Sensitization Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neblett, Randy; Hartzell, Meredith M; Mayer, Tom G; Cohen, Howard; Gatchel, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to create and validate severity levels for the central sensitization inventory (CSI), a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome instrument designed to identify patients whose presenting symptoms may be related to a central sensitivity syndrome (CSS; eg, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome), with a proposed common etiology of central sensitization (CS). Based on CSI score means and standard deviations from previously published subject samples, the following CSI severity levels were established: subclinical = 0 to 29; mild = 30 to 39; moderate = 40 to 49; severe = 50 to 59; and extreme = 60 to 100. The concurrent validity of the CSI severity levels was then confirmed in a separate chronic pain patient sample (58% with a CSS diagnosis and 42% without) by demonstrating associations between CSI scores and (1) the number of physician-diagnosed CSSs; (2) CSI score distributions in both CSS and non-CSS patient samples; (3) patient-reported history of CSSs; and (4) patient-reported psychosocial measures, which are known to be associated with CSSs. Compared to the non-CSS patient subsample, the score distribution of the CSS patient subsample was skewed toward the higher severity ranges. CSI mean scores moved into higher severity levels as the number of individual CSS diagnoses increased. Patients who scored in the extreme CSI severity level were more likely to report previous diagnoses of fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, temporomandibular joint disorder, tension/migraine headaches, and anxiety or panic attacks (P < 0.01). CSI severity levels were also associated with patient-reported depressive symptoms, perceived disability, sleep disturbance, and pain intensity (P ≤ 0.02). This study provides support for these CSI severity levels as a guideline for healthcare providers and researchers in interpreting CSI scores and evaluating treatment responsiveness. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  6. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  7. Alkylation induced cerebellar degeneration dependent on Aag and Parp1 does not occur via previously established cell death mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, Carrie M; Chaim, Isaac Alexander; Mazumder, Aprotim; Criscione, June; Samson, Leona D

    2017-01-01

    Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER) pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg). Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1). Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism of cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) sensitivity to MMS using primary ex vivo neuronal cultures. We first established a high-throughput fluorescent imaging method to assess primary neuron sensitivity to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Next, we verified that the alkylation sensitivity of CGNs is an intrinsic phenotype that accurately recapitulates the in vivo dependency of alkylation-induced CGN cell death on Aag and Parp1 activity. Finally, we show that MMS-induced CGN toxicity is independent of all the cellular events that have previously been associated with Parp-mediated toxicity, including mitochondrial depolarization, AIF translocation, calcium fluxes, and NAD+ consumption. We therefore believe that further investigation is needed to adequately describe all varieties of Parp-mediated cell death.

  8. Alkylation induced cerebellar degeneration dependent on Aag and Parp1 does not occur via previously established cell death mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie M Margulies

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are ubiquitous in our internal and external environments, causing DNA damage that contributes to mutations and cell death that can result in aging, tissue degeneration and cancer. Repair of methylated DNA bases occurs primarily through the base excision repair (BER pathway, a multi-enzyme pathway initiated by the alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (Aag, also known as Mpg. Previous work demonstrated that mice treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS undergo cerebellar degeneration in an Aag-dependent manner, whereby increased BER initiation by Aag causes increased tissue damage that is dependent on activation of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (Parp1. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism of cerebellar granule neuron (CGN sensitivity to MMS using primary ex vivo neuronal cultures. We first established a high-throughput fluorescent imaging method to assess primary neuron sensitivity to treatment with DNA damaging agents. Next, we verified that the alkylation sensitivity of CGNs is an intrinsic phenotype that accurately recapitulates the in vivo dependency of alkylation-induced CGN cell death on Aag and Parp1 activity. Finally, we show that MMS-induced CGN toxicity is independent of all the cellular events that have previously been associated with Parp-mediated toxicity, including mitochondrial depolarization, AIF translocation, calcium fluxes, and NAD+ consumption. We therefore believe that further investigation is needed to adequately describe all varieties of Parp-mediated cell death.

  9. Changes in the dominance hierarchy of captive female Japanese macaques as a consequence of merging two previously established groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily J; Weladji, Robert B; Paré, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Dominance hierarchies play an important role in reducing competition and aggression in social animals. In zoos, changes in group composition are often required due to management protocols, but these changes may have long lasting effects on dominance hierarchies, and, consequently, the wellbeing of the animals. We studied the changes in the female dominance hierarchy that occurred both during and after the formation of a group of 10 adult Japanese macaques at the Zoo de Granby by combining members from two previously established groups. There was no significant correlation between individual ranks in the old groups (groups A and B) and their ranks in the new group (group AB), indicating a significant change in the hierarchy. Alliances between kin appeared to be important in determining rank; when the sister of the dominant female was removed from group AB, the hierarchy changed significantly a second time. The average standardized rank of individuals added later in the formation process of group AB was not different from those added earlier. Ranks in the group AB did correlate with age of individual at the beginning of the field season, but not at the end, after the shift in hierarchy occurred. Zoo management must be aware of the consequences small changes in a social group can have when removing and transferring individuals in both primates and in other social species. Zoo Biol. 35:505-512, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Maternal serum screening marker levels in women with a previous aneuploidy pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin; Staboulidou, Ismini; De Jesus Cruz, Jader; Karagiannis, George; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2009-12-01

    To re-evaluate in a larger cohort of patients if the maternal serum biochemical markers used in first trimester aneuploidy screening have the same marker distributions in pregnancies with a previous history of aneuploidy compared with those that have no previous history. Information related to previous pregnancy history is routinely recorded as part of first trimester screening in three centres King George, Kings College and Fetal Medicine Centre, London. From the database, records were extracted for women who had a previous pregnancy diagnosed with trisomies 13, 18 or 21. For each woman with a previous aneuploidy, five unaffected pregnancies in women of the same maternal age and with no previous aneuploidy pregnancy were selected as controls. A comparison was made between the marker distributions for pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chronic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) amongst the cases and controls using nonparametric statistical tests. A series of 8240 controls were compared against group of 1032 cases with a previous trisomy 21, 293 with a previous trisomy 18 and 158 with a previous trisomy 13. Cases with multiple previous trisomies were excluded. There were no significant differences in the level of free beta-hCG; however, in cases of trisomy 21 and trisomy 13 the levels of PAPP-A were increased by 5 and 16%, respectively. Risk calculation algorithms may need to take account of the increased PAPP-A levels in women with a previous trisomy 21 or trisomy 13. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 20 CFR 416.1337 - Exceptions to the continuation of previously established payment level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... same address; (iv) The sex code for such individual is the same; and (v) The date of birth for such.... (ii) Federal supplemental security income benefit and optional supplementation, or optional supplementation only—$700 Recipients whose records indicate they were eligible for Federal supplemental security...

  12. Establishment of local Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is an essential optimization tool in radiography and radiological sciences. The objective of the study is to establish DRL for radiography examinations in north eastern Nigeria. A Prospective cross- sectional study conducted in two university teaching hospitals in north eastern Nigeria.

  13. Relationship between the public's belief in recovery, level of mental illness stigma, and previous contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    Disbelief exits that individuals who have a mental health condition are able to recover and fully function in life. This study analyzed 1,437 adults from the 2006 General Social Survey. Structural equation modeling (1) examined the relationship between respondents' level of prejudicial attitudes and social distance (i.e., stigma) toward individuals who have a mental health condition and their belief in the potential of recovery (2) tested whether previous contact with an individual who received treatment was a mediator. Findings indicated that the belief in recovery led to lower levels of social distance. Prejudicial attitudes were found to be a predictor of one's level of social distance. Previous contact was not a mediator however; males, minorities and those with less education were less likely to have had previous contact. Results indicated a need to emphasize the probability of recovering from a mental health condition when developing target-specific stigma reducing strategies.

  14. Approaches towards establishing of clearance levels in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitani, N.; Watanabe, I.; Okoshi, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to establish necessary regulatory systems for decommissioning waste management, especially to establish clearance levels from regulatory control. To establish the regulatory systems, the Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) has been discussing the unconditional clearance levels for materials from nuclear reactors since May 1997. The NSC tries to derive unconditional clearance levels for the materials such as concrete and ferrous metal, arising from nuclear reactor decommissioning. In the derivation, both disposal and recycle/reuse of the materials are considered. Typical scenarios and parameter values for dose estimation are selected considering the Japanese natural and social conditions. Preliminary clearance levels were derived from 10 μSv/yr of individual dose criterion and deterministic analysis. For most radionuclides, the preliminary results are the same order of magnitude recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. Some radionuclides such as β emitters, however, are different order of magnitude from those recommended in IAEA-TECDOC-855. It is necessary that international organizations lead the discussions on the clearance levels to conclude final consensus. (author)

  15. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures. Establishment of a DRL is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 529 dental intraoral radiographic facilities have been used in order to define DRLs for digital and film imaging modalities, taking into account the region of the mouth to be imaged. Thus, different DRL values have been proposed for minimum (usually incisors), maximum (usually maxillary molars) and average exposure settings, both for film and digital imaging. The results have been compared with similar studies performed in Europe and the USA and are in line with the most recent ones. (authors)

  16. Establishment of dose reference levels for mammography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalathaki, M.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Economides, S.; Tritakis, P.; Manousaridis, G.; Kalyvas, N.; Simantirakis, G.; Kipouros, P.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Diagnostic Reference Levels (D.R.L.) are dose levels established in medical practices for typical x-ray examinations concerning groups of standard size patients or standard phantoms and broadly defined types of equipment. When good and normal practice is performed, these levels are not expected to be exceeded. This work is an attempt to establish for the first time the D.R.L. for mammography in Greece. At present, there are 402 mammographic systems in clinical use all over the country. This study that lasted 3 years (2000-2003), includes 117 of these systems, 85% of which are installed in private and 15% in public sector countrywide. Measurements of entrance surface dose (E.S.D.) were performed as a part of the regular inspections performed by the Licensing and Inspections Department of Greek Atomic Energy Commission on the basis of the laboratories licensing procedure. Moreover, the entire performance of the mammographic units was assessed by quantitative and qualitative measurements of specific parameters. In order to establish the national D.R.L., a standard phantom was used during the quality control of the mammographic units and E.S.D. measurements were performed based on the clinical practice of each laboratory. The D.R.L. for this type of examination was established according to the 75. percentile of the E.S.D. curve and found equal to 7 mGy per single view. The comparison of this value with the one reported by the European Commission (10 mGy per view), indicates that the D.R.L. for mammography is lower in Greece. However, the primary concern of a mammographic examination is to keep breast dose as low as reasonably achievable while providing images with the maximum amount of diagnostic information. The quality of the produced images was therefore assessed for all systems examined, regardless of meeting or exceeding the quality criteria reference surface entrance dose. The results showed that the average total score of the

  17. Down syndrome screening marker levels in women with a previous aneuploidy pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuckle, Howard S; Spencer, K; Nicolaides, K H

    2005-01-01

    In Down syndrome screening programmes, women with a previous affected pregnancy are assumed to have the same marker distribution as those without a family history. This assumption needs to be tested. Information on previous aneuploidy pregnancies was routinely sought on the test request forms in three centres, Leeds, Romford and the Fetal Medicine Centre, London. For each woman with a previous aneuploidy (case), five unaffected pregnancies to women without a history were selected as controls. The markers tested included maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol and ultrasound nuchal translucency thickness. There were 375 cases: 303 with previous Down syndrome, 63 with Edwards syndrome and 9 with Patau's syndrome. There was a statistically significant difference between cases and controls, in the distribution of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels, adjusted for gestation. On average, free beta-hCG was increased by 10% in a subsequent pregnancy after aneuploidy (p pregnancies are available for study, it would be prudent to assume that the same increase as in unaffected pregnancies applies. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Establishing the level of exposure to radon gas in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karupa, Jackson Uakaningirua

    2016-04-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia will be estimated using passive or active radon detector. The primary objective of the study is to measure and establish radon levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund of Namibia. Measurements will be carried out for the period of twelve months and after three months period the detectors will be exchanged for laboratory analysis. The results obtained from the study will reveal the concentration of radon in most of the selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia. Once Radon level is measured or identified, the results with data from work done in other environments in Africa and elsewhere will be compared. In case of high radon concentrations in dwelling, the occupants will be advised to ensure good ventilation practices as cost effective means of mitigation of indoor radon gas level in the area. (au)

  19. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  20. Angiotensin (1-7) re-establishes heart cell communication previously impaired by cell swelling: implications for myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Walmor C

    2014-05-01

    The influence of hypertonic solution on dye coupling was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the left ventricle of adult Sprague Dawley rats.The hypertonic solution together with Lucifer Yellow CH, were dialyzed into one cell of the pair using the whole cell clamp tecnique, and the diffusion of dye in the dialyzed as well as in non-dialyzed cell, was followed by measuring the intensity of fluorescence in both cells as a function of time.The results indicated that: (1) Lucifer Yellow CH dialyzed into one cell of the pair diffuses easily into the nondialyzed cell through gap junctions; (2) the intracellular dialysis of an hypertonic solution into one cell of the pair, increases the area of the dialyzed cell and reduced the area of the non-dialyzed cell suggesting intercellular movement of water; (3) the hypertonic solution dialyzed into one cell of the pair abolished the dye coupling; (4) the gap junction permeability (Pj) estimated before and after administration of hypertonic solution showed an appreciably decrease of Pj; (5) angiotensin (1-7) (Ang (1-7) (10-9M) administered to the bath re-established the dye coupling abolished by hypertonic solution and reduced the cell area; (6) the effect of Ang (1-7) was related to the activation of Mas receptor and was dependent on the activation of PKA. the reestablishment of dye coupling elicited by Ang (1-7) seen in cell pairs dialyzed with hypertonic solution, might indicate that under similar conditions like that seen during myocardial ischemia, the peptide might be of benefit preventing the impairment of cell communication and impulse propagation associated with cardiac reentrant arrhytmias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of SWAT+ at field level and comparison with previous SWAT models in simulating hydrologic quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, J.; White, M. J.; Bieger, K.; Yen, H.; Arnold, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been adopted by many researches to assess water quantity and quality in watersheds around the world. As the demand increases in facilitating model support, maintenance, and future development, the SWAT source code and data have undergone major modifications over the past few years. To make the model more flexible in terms of interactions of spatial units and processes occurring in watersheds, a completely revised version of SWAT (SWAT+) was developed to improve SWAT's ability in water resource modelling and management. There are only several applications of SWAT+ in large watersheds, however, no study pays attention to validate the new model at field level and assess its performance. To test the basic hydrologic function of SWAT+, it was implemented in five field cases across five states in the U.S. and compared the SWAT+ created results with that from the previous models at the same fields. Additionally, an automatic calibration tool was used to test which model is easier to be calibrated well in a limited number of parameter adjustments. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of SWAT+ in simulating stream flow on field level at different geographical locations. The results demonstrate that SWAT+ demonstrated similar performance with previous SWAT model, but the flexibility offered by SWAT+ via the connection of different spatial objects can result in a more accurate simulation of hydrological processes in spatial, especially for watershed with artificial facilities. Autocalibration shows that SWAT+ is much easier to obtain a satisfied result compared with the previous SWAT. Although many capabilities have already been enhanced in SWAT+, there exist inaccuracies in simulation. This insufficiency will be improved with advancements in scientific knowledge on hydrologic process in specific watersheds. Currently, SWAT+ is prerelease, and any errors are being addressed.

  2. Individual-level factors associated with variation in mycobacterial-specific immune response: Gender and previous BCG vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sophie J; Knight, Gwenan M; Fielding, Katherine; Scriba, Thomas J; Pathan, Ansar A; McShane, Helen; Fletcher, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    A more effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is needed to eliminate TB disease. Many new vaccine candidates enhance the immunogenicity of the existing vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Understanding BCG induced immune variation is key to developing a new vaccine. We aimed to establish if individual-level covariates were associated with cell-mediated immune response (interferon gamma (IFN-γ)) at vaccine trial enrolment (baseline) in a long-term retrospective analysis (LTR) and after BCG vaccination in a short-term prospective analysis (STP). Four covariates were analysed: gender, country, BCG vaccination history and monocyte/lymphocyte cell count ratio. Univariable and multivariable linear regression were conducted on IFN-γ response at baseline for LTR, and area under the curve (AUC), 24 week and peak IFN-γ response for STP. Previous BCG vaccination was strongly associated with higher IFN-γ response at baseline (LTR analysis) (p-values response (p-value = 0.1). BCG revaccination was strongly associated with a larger response increase than primary-vaccination (AUC & peak p-values 0.1). This analysis suggests that previous BCG vaccination and gender are associated with durable IFN-γ responses. Vaccine trials may need to stratify by BCG vaccination history and gender. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Establishment of Guidance Levels in General Radiography and Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    Coordinated project report IAEA ARCAL LXXV-RLA/9/048 Pilot Exercise for Developing and Setting Levels Reference in General Radiography and Mammography as a Tool for Optimizing Radiation Protection and Reduce Patient Exposure in Latin America

  4. Establishing a national safeguards system at the State level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lizana, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the guide to a workshop designed to enable the participants to gain a better understanding of National Safeguards Systems and their functions. The workshop provides an opportunity to address the requirements for the organization that has to carry out the system functions at the State level in a country having a research reactor and ancillary laboratories

  5. Establishing action levels for EPID‐based QA for IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Iris P. N.; Jarrio, Christie S.

    2008-01-01

    Although portal dosimetry is used to provide quality assurance (QA) for intensity‐modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans, trends in agreement between the portal dose prediction (PDP) and the measured dose have not been clarified. In this work, we evaluated three scalar parameters of agreement for 152 treatment plans (1152 treatment fields): maximum gamma (γmax), average gamma (γavg), and percentage of the field area with a gamma value greater than 1.0 (γ%>1). These data were then used to set clinical action levels based on the institutional mean and standard deviations. We found that agreement between measured dose and PDP was improved by recalculating the fields at lower dose rates. We conclude that action levels are a useful tool for standardizing the evaluation of EPID‐based IMRT QA. PACS numbers: 87.53.Oq, 87.53.Mr, 87.53.Xd

  6. Method for restoring contaminants to base levels in previously leached formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, E.T.; Espencheid, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for restoring to environmentally acceptable levels the soluble contaminants in a subterranean formation that has been subjected to oxidative leaching. The contaminants are defined as those ionic species that when subjected to calcium ions form precipitates which are insoluble in the formation fluids. In accordance with the present invention, soluble calcium values are introduced into the formation. The level of contaminants is monitored and when such reaches the desired level, the introduction of soluble calcium values is stopped. The introduction of calcium values may be achieved in several ways one of which is to inject into the formation an aqueous solution containing therein solubilized calcium values. Another method of introducing calcium values into a formation, is to inject into the formation an aqueous solution containing carbon dioxide to solubilize calcium values, such as calcium carbonates, found in the formation

  7. Establishment of CT diagnostic reference levels in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Shane J.; McEntee, Mark F.; Rainford, Louise A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose Irish CT diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation doses for the most commonly performed CT examinations. Methods: A pilot study investigated the most frequent CT examinations. 40 CT sites were then asked to complete a survey booklet to allow the recording of CT parameters for each of 9 CT examinations during a 12-week period. Dose data [CT volume index (CTDIvol) and dose–length product (DLP)] on a minimum of 10 average-sized patients in each category we...

  8. Association of lipoprotein levels with mortality in subjects aged 50 + without previous diabetes or cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; Depont Christensen, René; Engers Pedersen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of lipoprotein and triglyceride levels with all-cause mortality in a population free from diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. The European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention state that in general total cholesterol (TC...

  9. Establishment of CT diagnostic reference levels in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, S J; McEntee, M F; Rainford, L A

    2012-10-01

    To propose Irish CT diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by collecting radiation doses for the most commonly performed CT examinations. A pilot study investigated the most frequent CT examinations. 40 CT sites were then asked to complete a survey booklet to allow the recording of CT parameters for each of 9 CT examinations during a 12-week period. Dose data [CT volume index (CTDI(vol)) and dose-length product (DLP)] on a minimum of 10 average-sized patients in each category were recorded to calculate a mean site CTDI(vol) and DLP value. The rounded 75th percentile was used to calculate a DRL for each site and the country by compiling all results. are compared with international DRL data. Results Data were collected for 3305 patients. 30 sites responded with data for 34 scanners, representing 54% of the national total. All equipment had multislice capability (2-128 slices). DRLs are proposed using CTDI(vol) (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for CT head (66/58 and 940, respectively), sinuses (16 and 210, respectively), cervical spine (19 and 420, respectively), thorax (9/11 and 390, respectively), high resolution CT (7 and 280, respectively), CT pulmonary angiography (13 and 430, respectively), multiphase abdomen (13 and 1120, respectively), routine abdomen/pelvis (12 and 600, respectively) and trunk examinations (10/12 and 850, respectively). These values are lower than current DRLs and comparable to other international studies. Wide variations in mean doses are noted across sites. Baseline figures for Irish CT DRLs are provided on the most frequently performed CT examinations. The variations in dose between CT departments as well as between identical scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of examinations.

  10. Analysis on Population Level Reveals Trappability of Wild Rodents Is Determined by Previous Trap Occupant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J Brouard

    Full Text Available Live trapping is central to the study of small mammals. Thus, any bias needs to be understood and accounted for in subsequent analyses to ensure accurate population estimates. One rarely considered bias is the behavioural response of individuals to the trap, in particular the olfactory cues left behind by previous occupants (PO. We used a data set of 8,115 trap nights spanning 17 separate trapping sessions between August 2002 and November 2013 in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire, UK to examine if the decision to enter a trap was affected by the PO, if this was detectable in traditional Capture-Mark-Recapture trapping data (i.e., individuals not uniquely marked, and if it was possible for this effect to bias the population estimates obtained. Data were collected on Apodemus sylvaticus, Myodes glareolus, and Microtus agrestis. Three Generalised Linear Models revealed a significant tendency for the three species to enter traps with same-species PO. With, for example, A. sylvaticus 9.1 times more likely to enter a same species PO trap compared to one that contained a M. agrestis in the grassland during the nocturnal period. Simulation highlighted that, when all other factors are equal, the species with the highest PO effect will have the highest capture rate and therefore return more accurate population estimates. Despite the large dataset, certain species-, sex-, and/ or age-combinations were under-represented, and thus no effects of any additional individual-specific characteristics could be evaluated. Uniquely marking individuals would allow for the PO effect to be disentangled from other biases such as trap-shyness and spatial heterogeneity, but may not be possible in all cases and will depend on the aims of the study and the resources available.

  11. Tails from previous exposures: a general problem in setting reference levels for the assessment of internal contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, F.; Frittelli, L.

    1988-01-01

    Reference levels for retention and excretion are evaluated for routine and special monitoring following the intake of a fraction of ICRP annual limits (ALIs) or of a unit activity. Methodologies are also suggested for taking into account the contribution by previous intakes to excretion or retention

  12. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a food additive, may be established to define a level of contamination at which a food may be... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a food additive, may be established to define a level of contamination at which a food may be... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 75 FR 45584 - Planning and Establishment of State-Level Exchanges; Request for Comments Regarding Exchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... taxpayers? 5. What factors are important in establishing minimum requirements for the actuarial value/level... demand for these loans and grants? What kinds of guidance are they likely to need from HHS and what...

  15. The comparative analysis of level of students' physical readiness of higher educational establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukh T.I.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research - to determine state and open up ways of perfection of students' physical preparation. In article questions of improvement of physical education of students high educational establishing are considered. It is carried out the analysis of level of physical readiness of students high educational establishing. In research has accepted 727 students of three educational establishing, the estimation of their physical readiness is given. It is defined low level of readiness in force indicators, endurance, and also speed and power qualities. Are described the coefficient of variation and level probability of results in indicators of dexterity, force - in the young man, and the dynamic force index, dexterity, high-speed endurance in the young woman. It is established insufficient level of physical readiness of students.

  16. No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Robert A; Chu, Audrey Y; Grarup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    to determine 2-h glucose levels is unknown. We meta-analyzed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) × BMI and SNP × physical activity (PA) interaction regression models for five SNPs previously associated with 2-h glucose levels from up to 22 studies comprising 54,884 individuals without diabetes. PA levels were...... dichotomized, with individuals below the first quintile classified as inactive (20%) and the remainder as active (80%). BMI was considered a continuous trait. Inactive individuals had higher 2-h glucose levels than active individuals (ß = 0.22 mmol/L [95% CI 0.13-0.31], P = 1.63 × 10(-6)). All SNPs were...... associated with 2-h glucose (ß = 0.06-0.12 mmol/allele, P = 1.53 × 10(-7)), but no significant interactions were found with PA (P > 0.18) or BMI (P = 0.04). In this large study of gene-lifestyle interaction, we observed no interactions between genetic and lifestyle factors, both of which were associated...

  17. The establishment and use of dose reference levels in general paediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.J.; Hardwick, J.; Mencik, C.; McLaren, C.; Young, C.; Mashford, P.

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels for general paediatric radiology have been established in terms of delivered exposure parameters rather than skin dose or dose-area product. With supporting measurements from equipment quality assurance and assumptions of standard patient sizes it was possible to derive reference levels in terms of entrance surface dose. This allowed comparison to be made with other published data. The reference levels for common examinations are presented for different age bands. There is a notable variation with patient age for some examinations which is not apparent in other published data. (author)

  18. A Study for Establishment of Diagnostic Reference Level of Patient Dose in Skull Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Jeong, Jin Baek; Lee, Hyun Koo

    2010-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is most widely used for X-Ray examination . among all artificial radiation exposure, it takes up the largest proportion. Even in Korea, the medical exposure by diagnostic X-Ray examination takes up 17.4% of all radiation exposure. It takes up 92% even in artificial radiation exposure. There were 111,567 cases X-Ray radiography for skull diagnosis in 2007, which is 3% annual increase since 2004. Thus, It is need to establish the diagnostic reference level and the medical facilities as a diagnostic reference level to optimize radiation protection of the patients and to reduce the doses of X-ray. In this paper, we survey patient dose on skull radiography - collected from 114 medical facilities nationwide by using human phantom and glass dosimeter. When the patient dose for the skull radiography was measured and evaluated to establish the diagnostic reference level, 2.23 mGy was established for posterior-anterior imaging and 1.87 mGy for lateral imaging was established. The posterior-anterior skull radiography entrance surface dose of 2.23 is less than the guidance level of 5 mGy from the global organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and 1.87 mGy for the lateral skull imaging is less than the guidance level of 3 mGy, which is guided by the global organizations such as World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  19. Establishment of standard low energy x-ray, radioprotection levels, for calibration of instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eliane Carmo

    1995-01-01

    Seven standard low energy X-rays fields were established, radioprotection level, at the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN. Five of the standard calibration qualities used at the National Physical Laboratory, England, with energies between 16 and 38 keV, and two recommended by the International Standard Organization, with energies of 33 and 48 keV, were reproduced. The calibration conditions, radiotherapy level, from 14 to 21 keV, were also verified. Different portable radiation monitors as ionization chambers and Geiger-Mueller detectors were studied in relation to their energy dependence. (author)

  20. Patient dose measurements in fluoroscopic examinations, aiming to the establishment of reference levels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canevaro, L.; Drexler, G.

    2001-01-01

    This work was performed to investigate the actual exposure levels of the patients submitted to fluoroscopic procedures in diagnostic radiology. The data will be useful for a baseline in the establishment of local reference levels for fluoroscopic procedures, as recommended by the European Commission and IAEA. At present time there are no internationally accepted definitions for references levels for fluoroscopic complex procedures. Dose-area product (DAP) meters were employed in a pilot survey expressing the radiation exposures in terms of this quantity. This class of instrumentation has not yet been employed in Brazil. Parameters recorded were radiographic technique, fluoroscopy time, number of images, fluoroscopic and radiographic field sizes and DAPs. For fluoroscopy practice, a reference parameters set is recommended, instead of one diagnostic reference level. High patient exposures were found, calling for joined actions of health authorities, physicians, medical physicists, technicians and manufacturers. Monitoring of patient exposure, optimizing the radiation protection and establishing quantitative assessments of the exposition to the population in Brazil in this kind of procedure is important. (author)

  1. The establishment of local diagnostic reference levels for paediatric interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, S.; Hughes, C.; D'Helft, C.I.; McGee, A.; Rainford, L.; Brennan, P.C.; McCrum-Gardner, E.; Winder, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information worldwide on radiation exposure in paediatric interventional cardiology. At present Nationally established Diagnostic Reference Levels exist for adult interventional cardiology procedures in the UK but little data is available for paediatrics. In addition, interventional cardiology has been identified as one the highest contributors to medical exposure to ionising radiation and children are more radiosensitive than adults. Objective: This study sought to determine current radiation dose levels in paediatric interventional cardiology (IC) with a view to establishing local diagnostic reference levels (LDRL). Methods: Radiation dose and examination details were recorded for 354 paediatric patients examined by IC in a specialised paediatric centre in Europe. Radiation doses were recorded using a Dose Area Product meter along with examination details. Procedures were categorised as either diagnostic (A) or therapeutic (B). Data was further sub-divided into five age ranges; (1) newborn <1 year (2) 1 <5 years (3) 5 <10 years (4) 10 <15 years (5) 15 years and over. Proposed LDRL were calculated from the mean dose area product readings. Results: The mean patient age was 2.6 years (range 0.0 days–16 years) and weight was 14.9 kg (range 2.4–112 kg). LDRL for the five age groupings were calculated as 190, 421, 582, 1289 and 1776 cGycm² respectively. Conclusion: Local dose reference levels have been proposed for paediatric IC and can be used as a benchmark for other hospitals to compare against their own radiation doses

  2. Depletion of selenium in blood, liver and muscle from beef heifers previously fed forages containing high levels of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Sharon E; Robinson, Peter H; Cun, Grace S

    2015-12-01

    Beef heifers which had grazed 'Jose' tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. 'Jose'; 10 heifers) and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. 'Rio'; 10 heifers) with high levels of Se (>2 mg/kg DM) due to growth in saline soils, accumulated high Se levels in blood, liver and muscle (Juchem et al., 2012). We determined the decrease in Se levels in blood, liver and muscle from these heifers, particularly the decrease of Se in muscle, in order to determine the maximum feeding length of a low Se diet (LSeD) required sustaining Se-enriched beef. Immediately after grazing, all heifers were fed a LSeD containing forages with high Se levels can result in Se-enriched beef, but a LSeD feeding period of <82 d is required to maintain enrichment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, A; Vaideki, K; Govindarajan, K N; Jayakumar, S

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDIw), volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDIw, CTDIv, and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDIv and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level.

  4. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saravanakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography (CT scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDI w , volumetric CT dose index (CTDI v , and dose length product (DLP are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDI w , CTDI v , and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDI v and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level.

  5. A recommended procedure for establishing the source level relationships between heroin case samples of unknown origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Weng Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A recent concern of how to reliably establish the source level relationships of heroin case samples is addressed in this paper. Twenty-two trafficking heroin case samples of unknown origins seized from two major regions (Kuala Lumpur and Penang in Malaysia were studied. A procedure containing six major steps was followed to analyze and classify these samples. Subsequently, with the aid of statistical control samples, reliability of the clustering result was assessed. The final outcome reveals that the samples seized from the two regions in 2013 had highly likely originated from two different sources. Hence, the six-step procedure is sufficient for any chemist who attempts to assess the relative source level relationships of heroin samples.

  6. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio T.; Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Taveira, Gerson L.S.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  7. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taveira, Gerson L.S., E-mail: gersonluizst@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao Civil

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  8. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.; Kostova-Lefterova, D.; Al-Naemi, H.M.; Al Suwaidi, J.S.; Arandjic, D.; Bashier, E.H.O.; Kodlulovich Renha, S.; El-Nachef, L.; Aguilar, J.G.; Gershan, V.; Gershkevitsh, E.; Gruppetta, E.; Hustuc, A.; Jauhari, A.; Hassan Kharita, Mohammad; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N.; Khosravi, H.R.; Khoury, H.; Kralik, I.; Mahere, S.; Mazuoliene, J.; Mora, P.; Muhogora, W.; Muthuvelu, P.; Nikodemova, D.; Novak, L.; Pallewatte, A.; Pekarovic, D.; Shaaban, M.; Shelly, E.; Stepanyan, K.; Thelsy, N.; Visrutaratna, P.; Zaman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75. percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. (authors)

  9. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaridis, G; Koukorava, C; Hourdakis, C J; Kamenopoulou, V; Yakoumakis, E; Tsiklakis, K

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from Ki, air and field size. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousaridis, G.; Koukorava, C.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Kamenopoulou, V.; Yakoumakis, E.; Tsiklakis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from K i , air and field size. (authors)

  11. Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niksirat, Fatemeh; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Gholami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures. The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75 th percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics. Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75 th percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75 th percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries. Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future

  12. Establishment of national diagnostic reference levels for breast cancer CT protocols in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Sean O'; Mc Ardle, Orla; Mullaney, Laura

    2016-10-01

    To establish whether CT dose variation occurs in breast cancer localization procedures between radiation therapy (RT) centres in Ireland and to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for this procedure. All RT centres in Ireland were invited to participate in a dose audit survey, providing data on the CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), current-time product (mAs), tube potential, scan length, slice thickness, scanning margins, use of automated exposure control (AEC) and scanner technology for 10 patients with breast cancer who were average sized. DRLs were derived for each dose descriptor by calculation of the rounded 75th percentile of the distribution of mean doses. Data were returned for 60 patients from 6 RT centres (50% response rate). Significant variation in mean CTDIvol and mean DLP was observed between centres (p CT dose variation occurs between centres, establishing a need for optimization. DRLs for breast cancer localization have been proposed with the potential for reduction in CT dose. This article provides the first reported DRL for breast cancer CT localization procedure in RT and can be used as a benchmark for comparison for other RT centres.

  13. The Effect of Retesting on End-of-Semester Performance in High School Chemistry at Three Levels of Previous Science Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, George E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines whether retesting: (1) affects achievement of students (N=95) grouped according to previous achievement in science; and (2) influences students to delay studying and perform at a low level on initial tests. Also examines whether procrastination of retested students is affected by their achievement level. (DS)

  14. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for paediatric patients in Sudan: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.

    2015-01-01

    Paediatric patients are recognised to be at higher risk of developing radiation-induced cancer than adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the radiation doses to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) procedures in order to propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A total of 296 patients (aged 6-10 y) were investigated in 8 hospitals equipped with 64-, 16- and dual-slice CT machines. The mean dose length product values were 772, 446 and 178 mGy cm for head, abdomen and chest, respectively. Imaging protocols were not adapted to the patient's weight in certain CT machines. The results confirmed that paediatric patients are exposed to an unnecessary radiation dose. The established DRLs were higher than those available in other countries. This study showed the need for harmonisation of the practice in CT departments and radiation dose optimisation. (authors)

  15. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  16. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, M K A; Hashim, S; Ang, W C; Bahruddin, N A; Bakar, K A; Muhammad, H; Sabarudin, A

    2016-01-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDI w (mGy), CTDI vol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDI vol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors. (paper)

  17. Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2018-03-16

    Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of the mini C-arm for wrist fractures - Establishing a diagnostic reference level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, G. J.; Pillai, A.; Gibson, S.

    2008-01-01

    The establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for all typical radiological examinations became mandatory following the implementation of the Ionising Radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulations Act 2000. At present, there are no national dosage guidelines in the UK regarding use of fluoroscopy in orthopaedic trauma. The increasing popularity of the mini C-arm image intensifier amongst surgeons has led to concerns regarding use of ionizing radiation by personnel who have not been trained in radiation protection. It is therefore essential to have formal protocols for use of the mini C-arm to comply with the law and to maintain safe clinical practice. It is attempted to provide dose data for wrist fracture manipulations that may be used as a basis for setting a DRL for this procedure. Screening times were recorded for 80 wrist manipulations in a fracture clinic setting using a mini C-arm image intensifier. A DRL was set using the third quartile value for screening time. The median screening time for wrist fractures was 20 s with a range from 1 to 177 s. The third quartile value for screening time was 34 s. This value can be used as a provisional DRL for wrist fracture manipulations. The DRL is a quantitative guide for the optimisation of radiological protection. IR(ME)R 2000 states that if it is consistently exceeded by an individual operator or a piece of equipment, investigation and remedial action must be taken. We recommend that trauma units establish their own local DRLs for common procedures as made mandatory by legislation. (authors)

  19. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency hosted a two day Symposium from 2-3 December 1974 at its Headquarters, organized by the 'International Academy for Environmental Safety and the Forum fur Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik' on the subject 'Scientific Basis for the Establishment of Threshold. Levels and Dose Response Relationships of Carcinogenesis'. Following an introductory paper by the Radiation Biology Section of the Agency on 'Radiation Carcinogenesis - Dose Response Relationship, Threshold and Risk Estimates', a series of papers dealt with this problem in chemical carcinogenesis.It was suggested that more experiments should be done using non-human primates for tests of carcinogens, especially chemicals. Preliminary experiments using monkeys with a potent carcinogen - nitrosoamine - indicate that there could possibly be a dose where no effect can be observed during the 5 year period of study. It was also pointed out that the overall cost/benefit and risk/ benefit relationships should be taken into consideration in determining limits for chemicals which are potentially carcinogenic but are used routinely by the public and industries; these considerations have been weighed in setting exposure limits for radiation

  20. ESTABLISHING DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS FOR CARDIAC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhailiy, Ali B; Kench, Peter L; McEntee, Mark F; Brennan, Patrick C; Ryan, Elaine A

    2018-01-17

    Cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a commonly used diagnostic imaging tool for cardiovascular disease. Despite constant improvements to imaging technologies, the radiation dose to patients remains a concern when using this procedure. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are used as a trigger to identify and alert individual facilities that are using high doses during CT. This study aims to assess patient radiation dose and establish new national DRLs (NDRL) associated with CCTA in Saudi clinical practices. A structured booklet survey was designed for recording patient and scanning protocols during CCTA procedures. The data were collected retrospectively from the participating centres. NDRLs for CCTA were defined as the 75th and 25th of volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). Specific DRLs based on two main ECG-gating modes were also proposed. Data sets related to 197 CCTAs with a mean weight of 77 kg were analysed in detail. The DRL values for CTDIvol and DLP for prospective gating mode and retrospective gating mode were 29 and 62 mGy and 393 and 1057 mGy cm, respectively. NDRLs for CCTA in Saudi Arabia are comparable or slightly lower than European DRLs due to the current use of dose-saving technology. There are major variations in patient doses during CCTA due to differences in CT scanners, scanning modes and departmental CCTA protocols. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Validating a Methodology for Establishing a Criteria and Proficiency Levels in Surgical Skills Simulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heinrichs, LeRoy; Lukoff, Brian; Youngblood, Patricia; Dev, Parvati; Shavelson, Richard

    2006-01-01

    .... To establish training criteria, we have assessed the performance of 18 experienced laparoscopic surgeons basic technical surgical skills of recorded electronically in 26 basic skills modules selected...

  2. Establishment of institutional diagnostic reference level for computed tomography with automated dose-tracking software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chong R; Chen, Priscilla X H; Kapur, Jeevesh; Ong, Michael K L; Quek, Swee T; Kapur, Subhash C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish institutional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by summarising doses collected across the five computed tomography (CT) system in our institution. CT dose data of 15940 patients were collected retrospectively from May 2015 to October 2015 in five institutional scanners. The mean, 75th percentile and 90th percentile of the dose spread were calculated according to anatomic region. The common CT examinations such as head, chest, combined abdomen/pelvis (A/P), and combined chest/abdomen/pelvis (C/A/P) were reviewed. Distribution of CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP) and effective dose (ED) were extracted from the data for single-phasic and multiphasic examinations. The institutional DRL for our CT units were established as mean (50th percentile) of CTDIvol (mGy), DLP (mGy.cm) and ED (mSv) for single and multiphasic studies using the dose-tracking software. In single phasic examination, Head: (49.0 mGy), (978.0 mGy.cm), (2.4 mSv) respectively; Chest: (6.0 mGy), (254.0 mGy.cm), (4.9 mSv) respectively; CT A/P (10.0 mGy), (514.0 mGy.cm), (8.9 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P (10.0 mGy), (674.0 mGy.cm), (11.8 mSv) respectively. In multiphasic studies: Head (45.0 mGy), (1822.0 mGy.cm), (5.0 mSv) respectively; Chest (8.0 mGy), (577.0 mGy.cm), (10.0 mSv) respectively; CT A/P: (10.0 mGy), (1153.0 mGy.cm), (20.2 mSv) respectively; CT C/A/P: (11.0 mGy), (1090.0 mGy.cm), (19.2 mSv) respectively. The reported metrics offer a variety of information that institutions can use for quality improvement activities. The variations in dose between scanners suggest a large potential for optimisation of radiation dose. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  3. Establishing national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Dina Husseiny; Vassileva, Jenia; Mahdaly, Gamal; Shawki, Mona; Salama, Ahmad; Gilley, Debbie; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2017-07-01

    To establish national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in Egypt for computed tomography (CT) examinations of adults and identify the potential for optimization. Data from 3762 individual patient's undergoing CT scans of head, chest (high resolution), abdomen, abdomen-pelvis, chest-abdomen-pelvis and CT angiography (aorta and both lower limbs) examinations in 50 CT facilities were collected. This represents 20% of facilities in the country and all of the 27 Governorates. Results were compared with DRLs of UK, USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and France. The Egyptian DRLs for CTDI vol in mGy are for head: 30, chest (high resolution): 22, abdomen (liver metastasis): 31, abdomen-pelvis: 31, chest-abdomen-pelvis: 33 and CT angiography (aorta and lower limbs): 37. The corresponding DRLs for DLP in mGy.cm are 1360, 420, 1425, 1325, 1320 and 1320. For head CT, the Egyptian DRL for CTDI vol is 2-3 times lower than the DRLs from other countries. However, the DRL in terms of DLP is in the same range or higher as compared to others. The Egyptian DRL for chest CT (high resolution) is similar to others for DLP but higher for CTDI vol . For abdomen and abdomen-pelvis DRLs for CTDI vol are higher than others. For DLP, the DRLs for abdomen are higher than DRL in UK and lower than those in Japan, while for abdomen-pelvis they are higher than other countries. Despite lower DRLs for CTDI vol , an important consistent problem appears to be higher scan range as DRLs for DLP are higher. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  4. Job Satisfaction Levels of Employees in Hotel Establisments: A Research on Employees in Resort and City Hotel Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbeyi Pelit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available No matter in which sector they function, the job satisfaction of the employees at desired level has the utmost importance for the employees’ performance and organizational efficiency. In this respect, applications and studies related to defining job satisfaction and the factors affecting job satisfaction also have importance for establishments to provide data sources to perfrom their functions in the long term. For this reason, establishments should revise their employees’ job satisfaction levels at times. Especially the issue is much more significant for labour-intensive hotel establishments. In this context, to determine the job satisfaction levels of the city and resort employees in hotel establishments ,this research is carried on 1854 employees employed at 114 five-star hotels in city and resort areas of Turkey using “Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale” to collect data. It is concluded that the employees whose job satisfaction is measured by questionnaires are not satisfied with such issues as the wage, making their own decisions, company policies and promotion opportunities. In the further analyses performed (independent-samples t test and ANOVA, it is found out that the job satisfaction level of the employees working in resort hotel establishments is higher than the employees working in the ciy hotel establishments. In addition this, it is found out that there are some differences between the job satisfaction level and education level of the employees.

  5. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  6. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, 240-402-1639. Hearing- impaired or speech... identity established under section 401 that is not identical to such standard of identity or that is not... speech-impaired individuals may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay...

  7. High 15-F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Patients with a Previous History of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: The Effects of Supplementary Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia de Jesus e Silva de Almendra Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Phase I of this study was aimed at comparing the profiles of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC, previously treated with surgery, to the healthy subjects. Phase II aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementary antioxidant therapy on the levels of biomarkers in the case group. Materials and Methods. In Phase I, oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in blood samples obtained from 24 healthy subjects and 60 patients with history of NMSC previously treated with surgery. In Phase II, the 60 patients with history of NMSC were randomized into two subgroups, one receiving placebo (n=34 and the other (n=26 receiving vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc supplementation for 8 weeks, followed by reevaluation of biomarkers. Results. In Phase I, patients with history of NMSC showed increased plasma concentrations of all biomarkers, but only 15-F2t-isoprostane was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects. Risk of NMSC increased by 4% for each additional 1 pg/mL increase in 15-F2t-isoprostane. In Phase II, supplementation did not significantly reduce levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Conclusion. Patients with history of NMSC had significantly high 15-F2t-isoprostane plasma levels; supplementation did not result in significant reduction of oxidative stress biomarkers. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT02248584.

  8. [Rocky Mountain regional low-level waste compact development and establishment of disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Compact Issue Study was intended to determine if state institutions in the Rocky Mountain region could reduce low-level radioactive waste shipping and disposal costs through jointly shipping their low-level radioactive wastes. Public institutions in the state of Colorado were used as a test case for this study

  9. Towards Establishment of National Dose Levels from Computed Tomography in Croatia - First Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasic, B.; Brnic, Z.; Popic, J.; Viskovic, K.; Sostarec-Crnic, M.; Posedel, D.

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a sectional imaging technique that uses a collimated X-ray beam perpendicular to the body axis to acquire image of a body slice of desired width. CT is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of a wide variety of disorders. Since its introduction, it has been known that CT is related to high radiation dose to the patient. Expanding the use of this diagnostic modality resulted in making it a major source of radiation exposure to population from diagnostic X-rays. In countries with developed healthcare it contributes up to 41 % of the annual collective dose from medical radiation exposures. Many ways are found in the literature to describe and measure radiation dose from CT. In an effort to further improve dose management in CT, European Commission published European Guidelines (EG) on quality criteria for CT. To our knowledge, there are no data currently available concerning nationwide patient doses from CT examinations in Croatia. The aim of the present work is to contribute to the establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for various CT examinations in our country. Our survey was performed on the helical CT scanner Shimadzu X-ray CT system SCT-7800 T (Shimadzu, Japan) during 2009 and 2010. 105 adult patients took part in our survey, 44 women (42 %) and 61 men (58 %). Mean patient age was 58, ranging from 21 to 94. Each patient signed the informed consent form. Typical CT examinations, namely routine head, chest and abdomen, were selected for the study. For each examination, the parameters, such as kVp, mAs, number of slices, slice thickness, pitch and length of examined body segment were recorded. CTDI 1 00 was measured with standard ionization chamber and Unfors Xi (Unfors, Sweden) measurement system. Radiation dose in mGy was multiplied with 10 cm length, equaling CTDI in mGyxcm. Results were normalized to 10 mm slice width. For our measurements we used standard polymethyl - methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms: body

  10. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Rehani, M.

    2015-01-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resource countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. (authors)

  11. Predictive value of serum progesterone level on β-hCG check day in women with previous repeated miscarriages after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Shin, Jung Ho; Hur, Jun Yong; Kim, Hoon; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of the progesterone level at the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) check day for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles in women with previous unexplained repeated miscarriages. One hundred and forty-eight women, with visible gestational sac after IVF, were recruited in this observational study. All subjects had unexplained recurrent miscarriages in more than two previous IVF cycles. The progesterone level at the β-hCG check day (i.e. 14 days after oocyte retrieval) was assessed. The area under the curve (AUC) of the progesterone level was evaluated to predict the ongoing pregnancy or miscarriage outcomes. The overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 60.8% (90/148). The cut-off value with β-hCG levels higher than 126.5 mIU/mL and with progesterone levels higher than 25.2 ng/mL could be the predictive factors for ongoing pregnancy maintenance (AUC = 0.788 and 0.826; sensitivity = 0.788 and 0.723; specificity = 0.689 and 0.833; P hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and 13.0% (10/77) in those with > 25.2 ng/mL. In the comparison of the ROC curves between both values, a similar significance was found. The subjects with β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL and progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL showed higher ongoing pregnancy rates [98.0% (49/50) vs. 41.8% (41/98)] than those with β-hCG ≤ 126.5 mIU/mL or progesterone ≤ 25.2 ng/mL. The progesterone level at 14 days after oocyte retrieval can be a good predictive marker for ongoing pregnancy maintenance in women with repeated IVF failure with miscarriage, together with the β-hCG level. The combined cut-off value of progesterone > 25.2 ng/mL and β-hCG > 126.5 mIU/mL may suggest a good prognosis.

  12. Influence of Lymphocyte T CD4 Levels on the Neuropsychological Performance of Population A ected by HIV and with a Previous History of Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vázquez-Justo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunological markers help to know if there is a good recovery of the immunological system in patients infected with HIV. Among them, the lymphocyte T CD4 rate is the main indicator of the patient’s immunological state being used for staging HIV infection, evaluating the mortality or comorbidity risk and the vulnerability to certain oportunistic infections. However, its link with the presence of cognitive alterations is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this article is to study if lymphocyte T CD4 levels are connected with the neuropsychological performance of a group of people infected with HIV and with a previous history of substance use. The sample consisted of 80 seropositive males with a previous history of substance use. They were evaluated by means of a neuropsychological battery which assesses the most affected cognitive domains in HIV population. The results showed that the patients having a higher level of immunodeficiency have a poorer performance in terms of attention, visuomotor dexterity, visual memory, visual perception, auditory-verbal learning and inhibition. Therefore, our results show a realtion between the lymphocyte T CD4 rate and the neuropsychological performance in seropositive people with a previsous history of substance use.

  13. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. The siting process: establishing a low-level waste-disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility encompasses many interrelated activities and, therefore, is inherently complex. The purpose of this publication is to assist state policymakers in understanding the nature of the siting process. Initial discussion focuses on the primary activities that require coordination during a siting effort. Available options for determining site development, licensing, regulating, and operating responsibilities are then considered. Additionally, the document calls attention to technical services available from federal agencies to assist states in the siting process; responsibilities of such agencies are also explained. The appendices include a conceptual plan for scheduling siting activities and an explanation of the process for acquiring agreement state status. An agreement state takes responsibility for licensing and regulating a low-level waste facility within its borders

  14. The development and use of decision aiding techniques for establishing intervention levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.; Sinnaeve, J.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident there has been considerable international discussion on the principles underlying the choice of intervention levels and their practical application. While there is broad agreement on the underlying principles - that is to put potentially exposed individuals into a better position in the sense that lower overall risks are achieved at reasonable cost in financial and social terms - the determination of what constitutes the most appropriate type and level of intervention in any particular circumstances is more complex. Within the CEC Radiation Protection Research Programme techniques are being developed to aid well founded and more transparent decisions on the choice of intervention levels. The techniques are described and areas identified where they might usefully be applied

  15. Establishing a system of nuclear materials accountancy and control at the facility level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Lizana, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the guide to a workshop designed to enable the participants to gain a better understanding of National Safeguards Systems and their functions. The workshop provides the opportunity to address the principal elements of the accounting system to be implemented at the facility level (research reactor and laboratory facilities) as a part of the national safeguards system

  16. Using Project Complexity Determinations to Establish Required Levels of Project Rigor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Thomas D.

    2015-10-01

    This presentation discusses the project complexity determination process that was developed by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office for implementation at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The complexity determination process was developed to address the diversity of NNSS project types, size, and complexity; to fill the need for one procedure but with provision for tailoring the level of rigor to the project type, size, and complexity; and to provide consistent, repeatable, effective application of project management processes across the enterprise; and to achieve higher levels of efficiency in project delivery. These needs are illustrated by the wide diversity of NNSS projects: Defense Experimentation, Global Security, weapons tests, military training areas, sensor development and testing, training in realistic environments, intelligence community support, sensor development, environmental restoration/waste management, and disposal of radioactive waste, among others.

  17. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanakumar, A.; Vaideki, K.; Govindarajan, K. N.; Jayakumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDI w ), volumetric CT dose index (CTDI v ), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south I...

  18. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  19. Circulating levels of endocannabinoids and oxylipins altered by dietary lipids in older women are likely associated with previously identified gene targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bruce A; Kim, Jeffrey; Kenny, Anne; Pedersen, Theresa L; Pappan, Kirk L; Newman, John W

    2016-11-01

    Postmenopausal women (PMW) report marginal n-3 PUFA intakes and are at risk of chronic diseases associated with the skeletal, muscular, neuroendocrine, and cardiovascular systems. How n-3 PUFA affect the amounts of endocannabinoids (ECs) and oxylipins (OLs) of metabolic and physiologic importance in PMW is not clear. Based on our recent findings that dietary n-3 PUFA alter gene targets of the EC system and lower pro-inflammatory OL we proceeded to characterize these actions in blood of PMW. Our aim was to determine levels of the ECs, OLs, and global metabolites (GM) in white PMW (75±7y), randomized in a double-masked manner, from baseline to 6mo after receiving a fish oil supplement of n-3 PUFA (720mg 20:5n3+480mg 22:6n3/d, n=20) or placebo (1.8g oleic acid/d, n=20). ECs and OLs in serum were determined by UPLC-MS/MS and GM by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS. Plasma 20:5n3 and 22:6n3 levels increased in PMW given fish oil. EC n-6 acyl-ethanolamides, arachidonate-derived diols were decreased and 20:5n3 and 22:6n3 diols, epoxides, and alcohols were increased in PMW given fish oil. GM analysis revealed that n-3 PUFA supplementation increased renal steroid hormone and proteolytic metabolite levels in PMW. Herein, we confirm that gene targets of the EC system, previously found as modifiable by n-3 PUFA result in changes in the levels of ECs and OLs in PMW. This study shows phenotypic responses (in levels) to n-3 PUFA supplementation in PMW and increases of n-3 acyl-ethanolamide and n-3-derived OL of clinical considerations in aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose evaluation and establishment of reference levels in activity for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Julio Cesar de Souza

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has emphasized the importance of accurately determining the mean dose levels, or administered activity, received by the patients for each medical procedure that uses ionizing radiation. However, the number of bibliographic references addressing the need to know and optimize these levels is insufficient, or rather limited, which may lead to non-standardizes techniques, a lack of exposures control, and also the increase of associated radiological risks of these procedures. In this context, a software in Visual Basic® of Microsoft© language was developed whose function is to elaborate a method of obtaining the Reference Levels in Activity (RLA) for nuclear medicine patients by determining the third quartile of the examinations carried out. The program also allows obtaining absorbed dose values in critical organs based on patient specificities as age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) in order to evaluate the risk involved in each procedure. The main nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures were evaluated through the database of two public hospitals and a private clinic, obtaining the NRAs of each facility, where the software was validated by comparison with the traditionally accepted calculation methods. Due to the results obtained in each installation, in addition to NRA determination, gaps in treatment capacities and unjustified dose variations for the same procedure were identified, indicating the need for optimization. Thus, the developed program is able to provide the estimated values of effective and absorbed doses involved in each procedure, for each patient, providing reference values for nuclear medicine field, not available in the national scenario so far. (author)

  1. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose

  2. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  3. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for CT trunk examinations in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurashi, Abdulaziz A.; Rainford, Louise A.; Foley, Shane J.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important optimisation tool, which aid in identifying abnormally high dose levels. These are currently not available in Saudi Arabia, and this research aims to remedy this. CT dose data (DLP and CTDIvol) were collected for a minimum number of 10 adult patients of average size (60-80 kg) presenting for a range of CT examinations from public hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. These include routine chest, high-resolution chest (HRCT), pulmonary angiography (CTPA), abdomen and pelvis (AP) and the combined chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) CT examinations. Mean values for each site were calculated, and the 75. percentile of DLP and CTDIvol was used as a basis for DRLs. Data for 550 patients were collected from 14 hospitals over a 7-month period. The rounded third-quartile CTDIvol and DLP were 18 mGy and 630 mGy cm -1 for chest CT, 20 mGy and 600 mGy cm -1 for HRCT, 18 mGy and 480 mGy cm -1 for CTPA, 15 mGy and 800 mGy cm -1 for AP, and 16 mGy and 1040 mGy cm -1 for CAP, respectively. Regional DRLs have been proposed from this study. Dose variations across CT departments have identified an urgent need for optimisation to improve distribution of observed doses for CT examinations. (authors)

  4. Approaches for establishing human health no effect levels for engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschberger, K; Christensen, F M

    2011-01-01

    Current Technical Guidance Documents for preparing risk assessments, like the guidance for the implementation of REACH, have limited focus on chemical substances in the particulate form and generally do not focus on substances in the nanoform. Within the ENRHES project a comprehensive and critical scientific review of publicly available health and safety information on four types of nanoparticles was performed. Based on the identified exposure and hazard data, basic human health risk assessment appraisals were carried out for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nano-silver and nano-titanium dioxide. These risk assessment appraisals followed the structure of a regulatory risk assessment and if possible and relevant, it was attempted to derive indicative human no-effect levels from key studies by applying assessment factors as suggested in the technical guidance document for REACH. These assessment factors address differences and uncertainty related to exposure features between test animals and humans (time, respiratory volume), other interspecies and intraspecies differences and factors for extrapolation to chronic duration. If required, the severity of effects and the quality of the database can be addressed by additional factors. Recently other procedures for deriving human no-effect levels have been published and these are compared to the ENRHES basic risk assessment appraisals. The main differences were observed in relation to evaluating the differences in animal and human exposure situations and interspecies differences, and in applying assessment factors for intraspecies differences for local effects. The applicability of the REACH guidance for nanomaterials is currently being investigated for possible adaptations, considering the specific behaviour and mode of action of nanomaterials.

  5. Approaches for establishing human health no effect levels for engineered nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschberger, K.; Christensen, F. M.

    2011-07-01

    Current Technical Guidance Documents for preparing risk assessments, like the guidance for the implementation of REACH, have limited focus on chemical substances in the particulate form and generally do not focus on substances in the nanoform. Within the ENRHES project a comprehensive and critical scientific review of publicly available health and safety information on four types of nanoparticles was performed. Based on the identified exposure and hazard data, basic human health risk assessment appraisals were carried out for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nano-silver and nano-titanium dioxide. These risk assessment appraisals followed the structure of a regulatory risk assessment and if possible and relevant, it was attempted to derive indicative human no-effect levels from key studies by applying assessment factors as suggested in the technical guidance document for REACH. These assessment factors address differences and uncertainty related to exposure features between test animals and humans (time, respiratory volume), other interspecies and intraspecies differences and factors for extrapolation to chronic duration. If required, the severity of effects and the quality of the database can be addressed by additional factors. Recently other procedures for deriving human no-effect levels have been published and these are compared to the ENRHES basic risk assessment appraisals. The main differences were observed in relation to evaluating the differences in animal and human exposure situations and interspecies differences, and in applying assessment factors for intraspecies differences for local effects. The applicability of the REACH guidance for nanomaterials is currently being investigated for possible adaptations, considering the specific behaviour and mode of action of nanomaterials.

  6. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janbabanezhad Toori A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. Objective: This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL. Methods: Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW, Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol and Dose Length Product (DLP were calculated. Results: The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6- 73, (3.8-25. 8, (4.5-16.3 and (7-16.3, respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981, (41.8-184, (131-342.3 and (283.6-486 for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses.

  7. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbabanezhad Toori, A; Shabestani-Monfared, A; Deevband, M R; Abdi, R; Nabahati, M

    2015-12-01

    Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT) are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT) examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL). Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW), Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol) and Dose Length Product (DLP) were calculated. The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6-73), (3.8-25. 8), (4.5-16.3) and (7-16.3), respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981), (41.8-184), (131-342.3) and (283.6-486) for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses.

  8. Role of 18F-Choline PET/CT in guiding biopsy in patients with risen PSA levels and previous negative biopsy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Londoño, G A; García Vicente, A M; Amo-Salas, M; Fúnez Mayorga, F; López Guerrero, M A; Talavera Rubio, M P; Gutierrez Martin, P; González García, B; de la Torre Pérez, J A; Soriano Castrejón, Á M

    To study 18 F-Choline PET/CT in the diagnosis and biopsy guide of prostate cancer (pCa) in patients with persistently high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and previous negative prostate biopsy. To compare the clinical risk factors and metabolic variables as predictors of malignancy. Patients with persistently elevated PSA in serum (total PSA >4ng/mL) and at least a previous negative or inconclusive biopsy were consecutively referred for a whole body 18 F-Choline PET/CT. Patient age, PSA level, PSA doubling time (PSAdt) and PSA velocity (PSAvel) were obtained. PET images were visually (positive or negative) and semiquantitatively (SUVmax) reviewed. 18 F-Choline uptake prostate patterns were defined as focal, multifocal, homogeneous or heterogeneous. Histology on biopsy using transrectal ultrasound-guided approach was the gold standard. Sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and accuracy (Ac) of PET/CT for diagnosis of pCa were evaluated using per-patient and per-prostate lobe analysis. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the value of SUVmax to diagnose pCa. Correlation between PET/CT and biopsy results per-prostate lobe was assessed using the Chi-square test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied to compare clinical risk factors and metabolic variables as predictors of malignancy. Thirty-six out of 43 patients with histologic confirmation were included. In 11 (30.5%) patients, pCa was diagnosed (Gleason score from 4 to 9). The mean values of patient age, PSA level, PSAdt and PSAvel were: 65.5 years, 15.6ng/ml, 28.1 months and 8.5ng/mL per year, respectively. Thirty-three patients had a positive PET/CT; 18 had a focal pattern, 7 multifocal, 4 homogeneous and 4 heterogeneous. Se, Sp and Ac of PET/CT were of 100%, 12% and 38% in the patient based analysis, and 87%, 29% and 14% in the prostate lobe based analysis, respectively. The ROC curve analysis of SUVmax showed an AUC of 0.568 (p=0.52). On a lobe

  9. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-01-01

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations. PMID:29558379

  10. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (<400 m or urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations.

  11. Combined intravenous, topical and oral tranexamic acid administration in total knee replacement: Evaluation of safety in patients with previous thromboembolism and effect on hemoglobin level and transfusion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Joris A; Lameijer, Joost R C; Snoeker, Barbara A M

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the safety of combined intravenous, oral and topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in primary total knee replacement. We assessed dose-related efficacy on hemoglobin level, transfusion, length of stay and thromboembolic complications. In addition, TXA safety in patients with previous history of thromboembolism >12months ago was monitored specifically. From January 2013 until January 2016, 922 patients were included who received TXA after primary total knee replacement. Patients without TXA administration or with thromboembolic events dosage groups were divided into ≤10mg/kg, >10-25mg/kg and >25-50mg/kg. Between the three TXA groups no significant difference was found in thromboembolic complications (deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)), wound leakage and transfusion rate. For patients with DVT or PE in their history >12months ago specifically, no more complications were noted in higher-TXA-dosage groups compared to the low-dosage group. Length of stay was shorter in the highest-TXA-dosage group compared with lower-dosage groups (median two vs three days). With high TXA dose a smaller difference between pre- and postoperative Hb was found: the >25-50mg/kg TXA group had a 0.419mmol/l smaller decrease in postoperative hemoglobin compared to the lowest-dosage group (P12months ago. High dosage (>25-50mg/kg) TXA resulted in the smallest decrease in postoperative hemoglobin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MO-FG-CAMPUS-IeP1-03: Establishment of Provincial Diagnostic Reference Levels in Pediatric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E [Dalhousie University (Canada); Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Ctr (Canada); O’Brien, K [Dalhousie University (Canada); IWK Health Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in pediatric general radiography and computed tomography (CT) as a tool for the optimization of exposure parameters. Methods: Patient dose survey was conducted in the only pediatric hospital in the province of Nova Scotia. The DRLs were established as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions in different age groups. For routine radiography projections the DRLs were determined in terms of entrance surface dose (ESD) calculated from the radiation output measurements and the tube current-exposure time product (mAs) recorded for each examination. Patient thickness was measured by the technologist during the examination. The CR and DR systems, employing respectively a fixed technique and phototiming, were evaluated separately; a two-tailed Student’s t-test was used to determine the significance of differences between the means of dose distributions. The CT studies included routine head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis. The volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) values were extracted retrospectively from PACS. The correction factors based on the effective diameter of the patient were applied to the CT dosimetry metrics based on the standard phantoms. Results: The provincial DRLs were established in the following age groups: newborn, 1, 5, 10, and 15 year olds. In general radiography the DR systems demonstrated slightly lower dose than the CR for all views, however the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) for all examinations. In CT the provincial DRLs were lower than the published data, except for head DLPs in all age categories. This might be due to the small patient sample size in the survey. Future work will include additional CT data collection over an extended period of time. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established in the dedicated children’s hospital to provide guidance for the other facilities in examinations of pediatric

  13. [Analysis of serum lipids levels and the establishment of reference intervals for serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Yue, Chaoyan; Zhang, Chunyi; Li, Xiaotian

    2015-12-01

    To explore the serum lipids levels in healthy pregnant women, and to establish the reference intervals of serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apo-lipoprotein-A(APO-A) and apo-lipoprotein-B (APO-B) were measured in 3 200 pregnant women and 3 200 healthy women of childbearing age(the control group) from January 2014 to Febuary 2015 in Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University. In the healthy pregnant women, serum lipids were measured at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks, respectively. All the parameters were detected by Hitachi 7180 automatic biochemical analyzer. The test results were calculated and determined by the C28-A3 standard of the National Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. And the normal reference intervals of serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy were defined as 2.5%-97.5%. (1) The levels of TG, TCH, HDL, LDL, APO-A and APO-B in the control group were 0.8, 4.2, 1.0, 2.7 mmol/L and 1.1, 0.8 g/L, respectively. The levels of TG, TCH, HDL, LDL, APO-A and APO-B in middle and late pregnancy were significantly higher than those in the control group (Plipids levels at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks in healthy pregnant women were compared with the control group as following. The TG levels were 1.9, 3.8 and 4.4 folds of the control group; the TCH levels were 1.1, 1.5 and 1.5 folds of the control group; the HDL levels were 1.2, 1.6 and 1.5 folds of the control group; the LDL levels were 1.1, 1.4 and 1.4 folds of the control group; the APO-A levels were 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 folds of the control group; and the APO-B levels were 1.1, 1.5 and 1.5 fold of the control group respectively. The TG level was the most increased, and it increased gradually with gestational age (Plipids at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks in healthy pregnant women were as following. The TG levels were 0.7-3.9, 1.7-6.3 and 1.6-8.1 mmol

  14. Cuban typical doses for 99mTc-DMSA renal gammagraphy studies: a methodology for the establishment of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Perea Diaz, M.; Paz Viera, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since a handful of years ago, international rules on Radiological Protection include the principle of optimization of given dose to patients, if this procedure doesn't lessen diagnosis quality, and the establishment of reference levels of activity. For these reasons, the Radiological Protection staff of Cuban Institute of Nephrology's Nuclear Medicine Service, where morpho functional renal studies are carried out, 70% on infants and young children, started a research on that way. Thus, because their biggest incidence, 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies were chosen, using a General Electric 400 AT Planar Gamma Camera. Studied sample was randomly selected, including adults (12 peoples) and children (23); divided into 4 groups, lessen given dose step by step. Other items were kept in mind in the research, such age, weight, time delayed between administrations and image getting, getting time of each view and total time of the study, as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and Gamma Camera performance. Image quality was evaluated for each case, using both, objective and subjective criteria. Objective evaluation was done by using contrast/noise ratios and variance of the random noise. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups with differentiated image quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. Subjective evaluation was performed using the criteria of two expert observers who had no information about the activity levels used. They evaluated image quality separately, giving a good, regular or bad evaluation for each image. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50% and thus, indirectly, to reduce doses for workers and for the public. Additionally, we propose a methodology for the establishment of reference levels for 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies in Cuba, both, for adults and paediatric patients. (author)

  15. Assessing the impact of previous experience, and attitudes towards technology, on levels of engagement in a virtual reality based occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaughey, Manus Dr.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current research project was to determine if there were significant differences between patients with higher or lower levels of experience with technology in terms of their level of engagement with virtual reality (VR) in occupational therapy, their future uptake of VR technology in therapy, and their attitudes towards technology. Patients’ experience of technology was also examined in relation to demographic characteristics such as age and education level.\\r\

  16. Establishment of national diagnostic reference level for renal doses in nuclear medicine departments at Khartoum-Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameen, Suhaib; Hamid, Alhadi; Rushdi, M. A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we established a diagnostic reference level (DRL) for patient dose focusing on the investigation of activity to the kidneys during(99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan, selected two department nuclear medicine in main hospitals in Khartoum state. The DRLs is an investigational level used to identify unusually high radiation doses for common diagnostic medical in Nuclear Medicine procedures and suggested action levels above which a facility should review its methods and determine if acceptable image quality can be achieved at lower doses. The high specific activity of 99mTc makes it suitable as a first pass agent, for multiple or sequential studies, 99mTc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is preferred to 99mTc-pertechnetate. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan 99mTc- DTPA were divided to three groups. The first group received dose less than 5 mCi, are represent (27.03%) from all patients, second group received dose 5 to 5.5 mCi are represent(66.67%) and the third group received dose from 5.6 to 6.2 mCi are represent (6.31%) from all patients 99mTc-DTPA. And according to the IAEA recommendation for adult doses(5-10mCi) this study show that about 93.1% of the sample examines by dose less than 5.5 mCi. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving reference doses for renal examinations for nuclear medicine departments in Sudan.(Author)

  17. Glucose homeostasis and metabolic adaptation in the pregnant and lactating sheep are affected by the level of nutrition previously provided during her late fetal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Sanne Munch; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Blache, D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether undernutrition (UN) during late fetal life can programme the subsequent adult life adaptation of glucose homeostasis and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-four primiparous experimental ewes were used. Twelve had been exposed to a prenatal NORM level...... during lactation. There was no effect of prenatal UN on glucose tolerance during G-IGTT, however, during RG-IGTT LOW was more glucose intolerant and apparently more insulin resistant compared to NORM. In conclusion, UN during late fetal life in sheep impairs subsequent pancreatic insulin secretory...

  18. ESTIMATION OF CARDIAC CT ANGIOGRAPHY RADIATION DOSE TOWARD THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NATIONAL DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVEL FOR CCTA IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Nasab, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Shabestani-Monfared, Ali; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Paydar, Reza; Nabahati, Mehrdad

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, with the introduction of 64-slice CT and dual-source CT technology, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a useful diagnostic imaging modality as a non-invasive assessment of coronary heart disease. CT produces a larger radiation dose than other imaging tests and cardiac CT involves higher radiation dose with the advances in the spatial and temporal resolution. The aims of this study are patient dose assessment and establishment of national diagnostic reference level for CCTA in Iran. A questionnaire was sent to CCTA centers. Data for patient and CT protocols were obtained. The volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP) and total DLP were considered in the 32 cm standard body phantom. Calculation of estimated effective dose (ED) was obtained by multiplying the DLP by a conversion factor [k = 0.014 mSv (mGy·cm)-1]. Mean value of CTDIvol and DLP for CCTA was 50 mGy and 825 mGy·cm. The third quartile (75th) of the distribution of mean CTDIvol (66.54 mGy) and DLP (1073 mGy·cm) values was expressed as the diagnostic reference level (DRL) for CCTA in Iran. The median of ED was 10.26 mSv and interquartile range of ED was 7.08-15.03 mSv. A large variety in CTDIvol and DLP among CT scanner and different sites due to variability in CT parameter is noted. It seems that training could help to reduce patient's dose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. PAEDIATRIC CT EXPOSURE PRACTICE IN THE COUNTY OF RIO DE JANEIRO: THE NEED TO ESTABLISH DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Fillipe M; Magalhães, Luis A G; Kodlulovich, Simone

    2016-11-01

    A pilot study of dose indicators in paediatric computed tomography (CT) was conducted to prove the need to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for the county of Rio de Janeiro. The dose descriptors were estimated from the beam dosimetry by applying the protocols used in each examination. The total patient sample included 279 children. Regarding the comparison of the dose-length product values among the hospitals, the high-resolution chest CT scans were distinguished among the three types of examinations, due to the discrepancies of 1148 % (1-5 y age group) and 2248 % (5-10 y age group) presented in Hospital A's dose-length product values relative to Hospital D's dose-length product values. The results showed that without DRL, the dose variation can be significant between hospitals in the same county for the same age group in the same examination. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Common basis of establishing safety standards and other safety decision-making levels for different sources of health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    Current approaches in establishing safety standards and other decision-making levels for different sources of health risk are critically analysed. To have a common basis for this decision-making a specific risk index R is recommended. In the common sense R is quantitatively defined as LLE caused by the annual exposure to the risk source considered: R = annual exposure, damage (LLE) from the exposure unit. This common definition is also rewritten in specific forms for a set of different risk sources (ionising radiation, chemical pollutants, etc): for different risk sources the exposure can be measured with different quantities (the probability of death, the exposure dose, etc.). R is relative LLE: LLE in years referred to 1 year under the risk. The dimension of this value is [year/year]. In the statistical sense R is conditionally the share of the year, which is lost due to exposure to a risk source during this year. In this sense R can be called as the relative damage. Really lifetime years are lost after the exposure. R can be in some conditional sense considered as a dimensionless quantity. General safety standards R n for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index: R n = 0.0007 and 0.01 accordingly. Secondary safety standards are derived for a number of risk sources (ionising radiation, environmental chemical pollutants, etc). Values of R n are chosen in such a way that to have the secondary radiation BSS being equivalent to the current one's. Other general and derived levels for safety decision-making are also proposed including the de-minimus levels. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data (HDD) is considered. Such issues as the ways of the integration and averaging of risk indices considered through the national or regional HDD for different risk sources and the use of non-threshold linear exposure - response relationships for ionising radiation and chemical pollutants are analysed

  1. Outcomes following detection of low level plasma HIV RNA in HIV-infected patients previously virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Annabelle M; Cheng, Allen C; Watson, Kerrie; Lewin, Sharon R; Hoy, Jennifer F

    2017-06-01

    Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA 200 copies/mL. Factors associated with LLV included co-morbid type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count. Clinician management of VL 20-200 copies/mL was generally conservative, with infrequent requests for genotypic analysis (3.3% cases) or change in ART (<1% cases). LLV following virological suppression is common, and occurred as an isolated viral blip in half the patients. Those patients with persistent or recurrent LLV had higher rates of type 2 diabetes, shorter prior virological suppression and lower nadir CD4 cell count.

  2. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  3. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  4. A simple approach to integrate the ecotoxicological and chemical data for the establishment of environmental risk levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, multivariate and numeric methods were used to integrate the chemical and ecotoxicological data obtained for the sediments from the Santos Estuarine System, and for the vicinity of the discharges of the Submarine Sewage Outfall of Santos, in order to establish more accurately the environmental risks, identify the priority areas and thus provide guidance to control the programs and public policies. For both the datasets, the concentrations which exceeded numeric sediment guidelines tended to be associated to toxicity. For the estuary, this trend was corroborated by the correlations between the toxicity and Cu and PAHs levels, whereas for the sewage outfall region, this was observed through the correlation between the toxicity and Hg contents. Ratio-to-mean values were calculated for each sample, in order to rank them according to the toxicity and contamination. Cluster analyses confirmed the ranking results. For the estuary, three categories of sediments were established: stations SSV-2, SSV-3 and SSV-4 were under major risks, followed by SSV-6. Stations SSV-1 and SSV-5 were not altered. Concerning to the sewage outfall, stations 1 and 2 presented better quality, whereas station 5 seemed to be under risk, followed by stations 3 and 4, which exhibited some signs of alteration.O presente trabalho utilizou métodos multivariados e matemáticos para integrar dados químicos e ecotoxicológicos obtidos para o Sistema Estuarino de Santos e para a região próxima à zona de lançamento do emissário submarino de Santos, com a finalidade de estabelecer com maior exatidão os riscos ambientais, e assim identificar áreas prioritárias e orientar programas de controle e políticas públicas. Para ambos os conjuntos de dados, as violações de valores numéricos de qualidade de sedimento tenderam a estar associadas com a ocorrência de toxicidade. Para o estuário, essa tendência foi corroborada pelas correlações entre a toxicidade e as

  5. Exposure to a predator scent induces chronic behavioral changes in rats previously exposed to low-level blast: Implications for the relationship of blast-related TBI to PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Perez-Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been unfortunately common in veterans who served in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. The postconcussion syndrome associated with these mTBIs has frequently appeared in combination with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The presence of PTSD has complicated diagnosis since clinically PTSD and the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI have many overlapping symptoms. In particular establishing how much of the symptom complex can be attributed to the psychological trauma associated with PTSD in contrast to the physical injury of TBI has proven difficult. Indeed some have suggested that much of what is now being called blast-related postconcussion syndrome is better explained by PTSD. The relationship between the postconcussion syndrome of mTBI and PTSD is complex. Association of the two disorders might be viewed as additive effects of independent psychological and physical traumas suffered in a war zone. However we previously found that rats exposed to repetitive low-level blast exposure in the absence of a psychological stressor developed a variety of anxiety and PTSD-related behavioral traits that were present months following the last blast exposure. Here we show that a single predator scent challenge delivered 8 months after the last blast exposure induces chronic anxiety related changes in blast-exposed rats that are still present 45 days later. These observations suggest that in addition to independently inducing PTSD-related traits, blast exposure sensitizes the brain to react abnormally to a subsequent psychological stressor. These studies have implications for conceptualizing the relationship between blast-related mTBI and PTSD and suggest that blast-related mTBI in humans may predispose to the later development of PTSD in reaction to subsequent psychological stressors.

  6. Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or

  7. Survey of image quality and patient dose in simple radiographic examinations: establishing guidance levels and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatrakul, N.; Bunsoong, T.; Krisanachinda, A.; Suwanpradit, P.; Rungruengthanakit, P.; Kanchart, S.; Chaiwong, Rajikorn; Tsapakig, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate image quality and patient dose for commonly radiographic examinations in Thailand, to establish national reference or guidance levels (GL) and compare with international standards, as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project on Radiation Protection of Patients and Medical Exposure Control (RAS/9/034 and RAS/9/047). Materials and Methods: Film reject rate analysis, image quality and patient dose assessment before and after Quality Control (QC) implementation were investigated in 8 X-ray machines in 4 hospitals. Air kerma (in mGy) at 1 meter focus-detector-distance for different kVp settings for each X-ray machines were measured using an ionization chamber under standardized condition. The entrance skin air kerma (ESAK) for Chest PA, Lumbar spine AP, Lumbar spine LAT, Pelvis AP, Abdomen AP, Skull AP and Skull LAT were calculated for at least 10 adult patients of average body mass (60 to 80 kg) for each projection. The obtained values were compared with international standards. Results: The highest film rejection rate reduction recorded after corrective actions from 9.15% to 6.8%. Mean ESAK values were less than international standards both before and after QC implementation in all projections but Chest PA projection. Maximum ESAK in Chest PA projection before corrective action was 0.55 mGy which was higher than the IAEA GL of 0.2 mGy. However, it was reduced to 0.25 mGy after QC tests on X- ray machine and using high kilovoltage (kV) technique. Conclusion: Proposed national GL of Thailand were obtained by estimating the 3rd quartile of the whole sample: Chest PA: 0.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine AP: 2.1 mGy, Lumbar Spine LAT: 6.3 mGy, Pelvis AP: 1.8 mGy, Abdomen: 1.5 mGy, Skull PA: 1.3 mGy and Skull LAT: 0.9 mGy. (author)

  8. The effect of audiovisual and binaural listening on the acceptable noise level (ANL): establishing an ANL conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsiang; Stangl, Elizabeth; Pang, Carol; Zhang, Xuyang

    2014-02-01

    Little is known regarding the acoustic features of a stimulus used by listeners to determine the acceptable noise level (ANL). Features suggested by previous research include speech intelligibility (noise is unacceptable when it degrades speech intelligibility to a certain degree; the intelligibility hypothesis) and loudness (noise is unacceptable when the speech-to-noise loudness ratio is poorer than a certain level; the loudness hypothesis). The purpose of the study was to investigate if speech intelligibility or loudness is the criterion feature that determines ANL. To achieve this, test conditions were chosen so that the intelligibility and loudness hypotheses would predict different results. In Experiment 1, the effect of audiovisual (AV) and binaural listening on ANL was investigated; in Experiment 2, the effect of interaural correlation (ρ) on ANL was examined. A single-blinded, repeated-measures design was used. Thirty-two and twenty-five younger adults with normal hearing participated in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In Experiment 1, both ANL and speech recognition performance were measured using the AV version of the Connected Speech Test (CST) in three conditions: AV-binaural, auditory only (AO)-binaural, and AO-monaural. Lipreading skill was assessed using the Utley lipreading test. In Experiment 2, ANL and speech recognition performance were measured using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) in three binaural conditions, wherein the interaural correlation of noise was varied: ρ = 1 (N(o)S(o) [a listening condition wherein both speech and noise signals are identical across two ears]), -1 (NπS(o) [a listening condition wherein speech signals are identical across two ears whereas the noise signals of two ears are 180 degrees out of phase]), and 0 (N(u)S(o) [a listening condition wherein speech signals are identical across two ears whereas noise signals are uncorrelated across ears]). The results were compared to the predictions made based on the

  9. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Gou, Zhonghua; Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-03-20

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking-e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network-often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800-1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (transit stations.

  10. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  11. Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.M.; Avci, H.I.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10 - 4 carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 μg/ft 2 for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated

  12. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  13. Re-establishment of the air kerma and ambient dose equivalent standards for the BIPM protection-level 60Co beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, C.; Roger, P.

    2005-07-01

    The air kerma and ambient dose equivalent standards for the protection-level 60 Co beam have been re-established following the repositioning of the irradiator and modifications to the beam. Details concerning the standards and the new uncertainty budgets are described in this report with their implications for dosimetry comparisons and calibrations. (authors)

  14. Establishing a soil reference system for fertility assessment and monitoring at plot level in the highlands of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe D. Calalang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the crop production areas of Miarayon Village, along the volcanic footslope of Mt. Kalatungan, Talakag, Bukidnon, Philippines. The elevation range of the longitudinal toposequence is 1,900 to 1,300 m asl. Production areas in the intermediate part of the toposequence (Salsalan are located at about 1,600 to 1,400 m asl and in the lower part (Mambuaw at 1,400 to 1,300 m asl. A total of 24 plots (12 in each location which were planted to potatoes, carrots and corn were investigated. Soils are “Andic” Cambisol in open and convex positions and “Andic” Umbrisol in concave positions and toeslopes. The soil pH values ranged from 5.0-5.9. TOC and TN content were medium to high (4.1-8.9% and 0.30-0.80% respectively with C/N ratios from 8-15. Range values of available Ca, Mg, K and Na were 1.9-11.24, 0.16-2.14 and 0.20-1.13, 0.04-0.13 cmol+kg-1, respectively. Top soil horizon exchangeable Al in Mambuaw was higher than in Salsalan. The differences in TN, C/N ratio and available K levels between the two locations were very highly significant, TOC was highly significant and for soil pH and available Ca and sum of bases, their disparities were significant. Available Mg and Na did not differ between the two sites. Mean potato yield in Salsalan was 8.97 tha-1 more than in Mambuaw. Mean carrot yield in Salsalan was 2.39 tha-1 lesser than in Mambuaw. Mean corn yield in Salsalan was higher than in Mambuaw by 0.29 tha-1 only. Correlations between potato yields with TOC, TN, and available Ca were highly significant while soil pH and K were significant. There was no relationship detected between potato yields and Mg and Na. There was no association detected between carrot yields with topsoil nutrient levels. Correlations were noted in corn yields with available Ca, Mg and K.

  15. Elaboration of a questionnaire for establishment of the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A.A.; Silva, Fabio; Taddei, Maria Helena T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, has been working in the Project of Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, (RBMN Project) and the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) is responsible for the technical coordination of this project. Among activities under development, the survey of National radwaste inventory must be firstly concluded since it is a requirement for the project cost estimation. Hence, an electronic questionnaire was created to collect all information necessary to obtain the volume of the treated and non-treated waste, presently stored in Brazil. This questionnaire was elaborated after survey of the possible characteristics of radioactive waste generated in nuclear and radioactive facilities and it will be available online only for registered users. The information gathered with this questionnaire was related only with the amount of radioactive waste and some generic characteristics, the isotopic inventory will be performed in future. The objective of this work is to present this form and its creation process. (author)

  16. A comparison of the suitability of patient dosimetry methods for establishing diagnostic dose reference levels and optimisation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfirtner, Hans; Moores, B. Michael; Stieve, Friedrich E.

    2008-01-01

    For 50 adult patients referred for chest radiography, air kerma at the diaphragm KD, dose area product and entrance skin dose were measured. The air kerma at the diaphragm and the dose area product were determined using Diamentor M4KDK(PTW) which allows measuring air kerma and dose area product simultaneously. For the measurement of entrance skin dose TLDs are used. A 50% variation in dose, incident dose as well as entrance skin dose, was registered for the same patient thickness. The recommendation of ICRP to perform the measurements for DRLs at 'representative patients' and that of the CEC to use 'standard-sized patients' seem to make little sense in the case of chest radiography. It could be demonstrated, that the dose area product is the least appropriate dose quantity for patient measurements and to define dose reference levels. For some radiological examinations like chest, pelvis and lumbar spine the dose area product is even sex dependent. Incident dose and entrance surface dose are of equal quality for patient dose measurements in diagnostic radiography. (author)

  17. Mplications Of Establishing Location Physical Evidence And Customer Satisfaction Level Of Customer Loyalty In Ritel Modern In Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah Said

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently retailing business in Makassar from time to time increasingly in demand by the whole society. They tend to combine marketing activities and households in the shop with a variety of other recreational activities or simply stroll. This phenomenon is at least encouraging marketers to reach and use the market opportunity to market the product in the achievement of the goals and objectives of the company. This study will examine about Implications Siting Physical Evidence and Consumer Satisfaction Level Of Customer Loyalty In Modern Retail Company In Makassar. Where the author chose a modern retail company minimarkets supermarket hypermarket who offer products such as food and beverage for the daily needs in the area of Makassar as the object which is currently growing so rapidly. The research approach used was survey research methods which is a method of collecting primary data obtained directly from the original source through oral and written questions. While this type of research is Explanatory Research which explains the causal relationship between the study variables with hypothesis testing. Collecting technique uses scale Lkert variables 1 to 5. The technique of collecting data through interviews with managers and employees in each of the modern retail companies to obtain information or documentation in the form of consumer data that is still active in the purchase of existing products through questionnaires containing a list of questions which was distributed to respondents to obtain the data directly Maholtra 20061. The population in this study is a modern retail enterprise customers who have 3 cards of customers minimarket supermarkets hypermarkets in the city of Makassar. Further sampling is done by using random sampling techniques. As for determining the number of samples is done by using Slovin opinion of the Umar Husein 2001 782. In this study the type of data is qualitative and quantitative data obtained in the form of

  18. Rough wave-like heaped overburden promotes establishment of woody vegetation while leveling promotes grasses during unassisted post mining site development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouz, Jan; Mudrák, Ondřej; Reitschmiedová, Erika; Walmsley, Alena; Vachová, Pavla; Šimáčková, Hana; Albrechtová, Jana; Moradi, Jabbar; Kučera, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Geodiversity plays an important role in species establishment during spontaneous succession. At post-mining sites in the Czech Republic in 2003, we established plots in which the surface of the heaped overburden was either kept wave-like or leveled. Based on surveys conducted from 2006 to 2015, leveled plots were increasingly dominated by grasses and herbs (and especially by the grass Calamagrostis epigejos) while the wave-like plots were increasingly dominated by the trees Salix caprea and Betula pendula. In 2015, a detailed survey was conducted of the dominant species. Both S. caprea and B. pendula occurred more often in wave-like plots than in leveled plots; this was particularly true for trees taller than 1 m, which were absent in leveled plots. In wave-like plots, leaf and root biomasses of both woody species were higher on the wave slopes than on the wave depressions. Nitrogen content was higher but content stress indicating proline in leaves of S. caprea was lower in wave-like plots than in leveled plots. In wave-like plots, both woody species occurred mainly on wave slopes but C. epigejos occurred mainly in the depressions. We speculate that trees were more abundant in wave-like plots than in leveled plots because the waves trapped tree seeds and snow and because the soil porosity was greater in wave-like than in leveled plots. Grasses may have preferred the leveled plots because soil porosity was lower and clay content was higher in leveled than in wave-like plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is a Previously or Currently Reduced Testosterone Level in Male Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus a Risk Factor for the Development of Coronary Artery Disease? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng

    2018-04-04

    We aimed to systematically investigate the association between testosterone level and cardiovascular risk in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by comparing male T2DM patients with low testosterone levels to male T2DM patients with normal testosterone levels at baseline in terms of the number of cases of coronary artery disease (CAD). Online databases were carefully searched for studies relating to testosterone, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular risk by using the search terms 'testosterone,' 'diabetes mellitus,' and 'coronary artery/cardiovascular disease.' The only endpoint in this analysis was CAD/atherosclerosis/coronary plaque/major adverse coronary event prior to or following testosterone reduction at baseline. The analytical parameters used in this analysis were the risk ratio (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI), as obtained using the RevMan 5.3 software. 3467 male patients with T2DM (1079 patients with a low testosterone level versus 2388 patients with a normal testosterone level) were included. The results of this analysis showed that when a random effects model was used, a higher risk of CAD/cardiovascular disease was observed in diabetic patients with a low testosterone level than in those with a normal testosterone level (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.94-1.63; P = 0.13). However, the difference in risk was not statistically significant. Similarly, with a fixed effects model, a low testosterone level was associated with a higher CAD/cardiovascular risk of disease (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.98-1.34; P = 0.08); in this case, the difference in risk between the T2DM patients with low and normal testosterone levels approached statistical significance. A previously or currently reduced testosterone level was not found to be statistically significantly associated with a high risk of CAD/cardiovascular disease in male patients with T2DM. However, the difference in risk between the T2DM patients with low and normal testosterone levels was observed

  20. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  1. The establishment of local diagnostic reference levels in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a practical tool for the optimisation and for quality assurance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saukko, E.; Henner, A.; Nieminen, M.T.; Ahonen, S.-M.

    2017-01-01

    Fluoroscopic procedures are an area of special concern in relation to radiation protection. The aim of this study was to describe the current level of patient radiation doses in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) collected from a single centre, as well as to establish and review local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in ERCP. A total of 100 patients' radiation doses in ERCP were recorded, and the third-quartile method was adopted to establish local DRLs for ERCP. The mean dose area product (DAP) was 2.05 Gy cm 2 , fluoroscopy time (FT) 1.7 min and the number of images was 3. The proposed local DRLs for ERCP were 3.00 Gy cm 2 and 3.0 min. Local DRLs were reviewed in a sample of 25 patients 5 y after they had been established. In reviewing data, the averages of DAP and FT were below the local DRLs. Local DRLs help in the optimisation process of fluoroscopic procedures and guides to a good clinical practice. (authors)

  2. Effects of sea level rise on mangrove Avicennia population growth, colonization and establishment: Evidence from a field survey and greenhouse manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weizhi; Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Fung-Yee Tam, Nora; Lin, Guanghui

    2013-05-01

    Mangroves will either face longer tidal inundation or retreat landwards in response to on-going accelerated sea level rise. However, little is known about the growth, regeneration or colonization of mangrove seedlings under the different tidal inundation regimes associated with accelerated sea level rise. In the present study, a field survey and a greenhouse mesocosm experiment were conducted to evaluate possible effects of accelerated sea level rise on colonization, establishment and seedling growth of a mangrove pioneer species, Avicennia marina. Avicennia populations at different elevations of the intertidal zone on Xiamen Island in Fujian Province, China showed distinctive patterns in both seedling density and plant age. The seedlings at lower elevations had less annual biomass accumulation and population productivity, but higher shoot to root ratios, suggesting that elevation has positive effects on seedling growth. The greenhouse mesocosm experiment with 1-year-old A. marina seedlings utilized five inundation periods (0, 2, 4, 6 and 12 h in a semidiurnal tidal cycle) and two inundation depths (root immersion and canopy immersion). Both inundation period and depth exerted significant and negative effects on biomass accumulation, photosynthetic rate, leaf electron transportation and water use efficiency. However, the negative effects of canopy immersion were more profound than root immersion. Canopy immersion exacerbated the effects of prolonged inundation, with no seedlings surviving under canopy immersion at the 12-hour treatment. These results suggest that at lower elevations with higher sea level, canopy immersion will have greater negative effects on seedling colonization, establishment and early growth of A. marina. This finding is instrumental in predicting the future dynamics of mangrove forests under increasing sea levels.

  3. Serum C-X-C motif chemokine 13 is elevated in early and established rheumatoid arthritis and correlates with rheumatoid factor levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan D; Hamilton, B JoNell; Challener, Gregory J; de Brum-Fernandes, Artur J; Cossette, Pierre; Liang, Patrick; Masetto, Ariel; Ménard, Henri A; Carrier, Nathalie; Boyle, David L; Rosengren, Sanna; Boire, Gilles; Rigby, William F C

    2014-04-25

    We hypothesized that serum levels of C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13), a B-cell chemokine, would delineate a subset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients characterized by increased humoral immunity. Serum from patients with established RA (the Dartmouth RA Cohort) was analyzed for CXCL13, rheumatoid factor (RF) levels, anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibody (ACPA) and total immunoglobulin G (IgG); other parameters were obtained by chart review. A confirmatory analysis was performed using samples from the Sherbrooke Early Undifferentiated PolyArthritis (EUPA) Cohort. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, a t-test and Spearman's correlation analysis were utilized to determine relationships between variables. In both the Dartmouth and Sherbrooke cohorts, CXCL13 levels were selectively increased in seropositive relative to seronegative RA patients (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001 for the respective cohorts), with a strong correlation to both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA RF levels (P < 0.0001). There was a weaker relationship to ACPA titers (P = 0.03 and P = 0.006, respectively) and total IgG (P = 0.02 and P = 0.14, respectively). No relationship was seen with regard to age, sex, shared epitope status or inclusion high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in either cohort or regarding the presence of baseline erosions in the Sherbrooke Cohort, whereas a modest relationship with Disease Activity Score in 28 joints CRP (DAS28-CRP) was seen in the Dartmouth cohort but not the Sherbrooke cohort. Using both established and early RA cohorts, marked elevations of serum CXCL13 levels resided nearly completely within the seropositive population. CXCL13 levels exhibited a strong relationship with RF, whereas the association with clinical parameters (age, sex, DAS28-CRP and erosions) or other serologic markers (ACPA and IgG) was either much weaker or absent. Elevated serum CXCL13 levels may identify a subset of seropositive RA patients whose disease is shaped by or responsive to RF

  4. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel E Seavy

    Full Text Available The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010. We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33% was similar to that of control birds (39%, but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines.

  5. RADIATION DOSE FOR PEDIATRIC AND YOUNG ADULT CT: A SURVEY TO ESTABLISH AGE-BASED REFERENCE LEVELS OF 2015-2016 IN KOREA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MoonChan; Chang, KwangHyun; Hwang, JeongHoon; Nam, YoonChul; Han, DongKyoon; Yoon, Joon

    2017-06-15

    To assess the doses delivered to pediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) examinations of the brain, chest, high-resolution lung and abdomen, and to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for various age groups in Korea. Dose survey was done to the 19 hospitals performing CT on children, addressing the scan parameters, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). Per five age group (0, 1, 2-5, 6-10, 11-17 y of age), the proposed DRLs for brain, chest, high-resolution lung and abdomen CT are, respectively, in terms of CTDIvol: 18, 23, 26, 31, 36 mGy; 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 mGy; 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 mGy; 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 mGy; and in terms of DLP: 260, 350, 420, 500, 620 mGy•cm; 50, 80, 100, 170, 340 mGy•cm; 30, 40, 60, 90, 280 mGy•cm; 70, 80, 200, 300, 500 mGy•cm. Compared with published DRLs our suggestion for pediatric CT dose is the lower end. However, an optimization process should be initiated to reduce the spread in patient dose among hospitals despite same CT protocols shown in the study. A major element of this process should be the establishment of institution performance standard and the use of built DRLs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Establishing desirable fortificant levels for calcium, iron and zinc in foods for infant and young child feeding: examples from three Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Michelle M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Capanzana, Mario V; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2014-01-01

    We used the World Health Organization's recommended procedures to establish desirable fortificant levels for three problem micronutrients in children's diets, based on dietary data collected earlier from Filipino (n = 1374; 6-36 months), Mongolian (n = 179; 12-36 months) and Cambodian (n = 177; 12-36 months) children. Prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes of calcium and zinc (via cut-point method) and iron (via full-probability approach) was assessed after adjusting usual intake distributions with pc-side using internal or external within-person variances from Filipino (calcium and iron) and US National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey III (zinc) national surveys. Fortificant levels were determined by repositioning usual intake distributions so that the 2.5th percentile of the targeted populations equalled the estimated average requirement (calcium, zinc) or so that full-probability prevalence was no larger than 2.5% (iron). Prevalence of inadequate intakes was ≥70% for calcium and iron, except Filipino infants (30% for Ca) and Cambodian toddlers (41% for Fe); but calcium and iron, except for Mongolian toddlers (11% for Zn). Desirable fortificant levels, although apparently negligible for zinc, were 530-783 mg for calcium and 10.8-22.8 mg for iron (per 100 g). Fortificant levels can be estimated from 24-h recalls, preferably by applying internal within-person variances. Fortification with calcium and iron was necessary, but seemingly not for zinc, despite a high prevalence of low serum zinc, suggesting the need for better defined cut-offs for population risk of zinc deficiency based on dietary zinc intake and/or serum zinc. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Correlation between E. coli levels and the presence of foodborne pathogens in surface irrigation water: Establishment of a sampling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchado, Pilar; Hernandez, Natalia; Gil, Maria I; Ivanek, Renata; Allende, Ana

    2018-01-01

    To establish the association between microbial indicators and the presence of foodborne pathogens in irrigation water, Escherichia coli was enumerated using two quantification methods (plate counts and PMA-qPCR) and presence/absence of pathogenic microorganisms, including five strains from the Shiga toxigenic E. coli (O157:H7, O26, O103, O111 and O145) and Salmonella spp. were evaluated. The results confirmed that surface water can be considered a microbial hazard when used for irrigation. The levels of viable E. coli were very similar to those of cultivable E. coli, except for irrigation water obtained from water reservoirs. Comparison between the E. coli counts in samples positive and negative for the presence of pathogenic bacteria for the evaluated water sources identified E. coli level of 2.35 log cfu/100 mL as a cut-off able to correctly predict positive and negative samples with 93% sensitivity and 66% specificity, respectively. Thus, for the samples with levels of E. coli under 2.35 log cfu/100 mL (e.g., 2.24 log cfu/100 mL) there was a 90% probability that the samples were not contaminated with pathogenic microorganism in locations with similar prevalence. E. coli levels in irrigation water were affected by the ambient temperature confirming that water source and climate conditions should be taken into account by growers when designing a sampling program and the frequency of the monitoring to make a better and more efficient use of their resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuc-ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Jennifer K; Skiles, Amanda A; Yap, Eng-Hui; Fajardo, Eduardo J; Fiser, Andras; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Nuc-ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc-ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc-ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin-ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de-repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc-ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination-associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol-II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc-ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwann cells. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit significant decrease of histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity and reduced levels of H3K27me3. Collectively, nuc-ErbB3 is a master transcriptional repressor, which regulates HMT activity to establish a repressive chromatin landscape on promoters of genes during peripheral myelination. © 2016 The Authors. Glia Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Establishing empirical relationships to predict porosity level and corrosion rate of atmospheric plasma-sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. In this work, empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and corrosion rate of alumina coatings by incorporating independently controllable atmospheric plasma spray operational parameters (input power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate using response surface methodology (RSM. A central composite rotatable design with three factors and five levels was chosen to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Within the scope of the design space, the input power and the stand-off distance appeared to be the most significant two parameters affecting the responses among the three investigated process parameters. A linear regression relationship was also established between porosity and corrosion rate of the alumina coatings. Further, sensitivity analysis was carried out and compared with the relative impact of three process parameters on porosity level and corrosion rate to verify the measurement errors on the values of the uncertainty in estimated parameters.

  10. Principles for establishing intervention levels for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Safety Guide is based on the report of an Advisory Group which met in Vienna in October 1984 in order to develop guidance on the radiation protection principles concerning emergency response planning and the establishment of intervention levels to be applied for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. It considers the relationship between emergency response planning and various accident sequences, examines the pathways for radiation exposure and the sources of advice to decision makers during each of the three main accident phases, and specifies the dosimetric quantities that apply. The relevant pathological effects that must be protected against are summarized and the measures that may need to be implemented to provide protection with respect to each of the exposure pathways are discussed. It sets out the principles which underline decisions on intervention planning for each of the accident phases, gives guidance on dose values for the introduction of relevant protective measures and considers the application of cost-benefit analysis and the determination of the optimum dose level at which to withdraw protective measures

  11. A study for proposal of use of regulatory T cells as a prognostic marker and establishing an optimal threshold level for their expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-06-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been extensively studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is no uniform guideline or consensus regarding their use as a prognostic marker. This study describes the methodology used to develop an optimal threshold level for Tregs in these patients. Treg levels were assessed in the peripheral blood of 130 patients and 150 controls. Treg frequencies were linked to established prognostic markers as well as overall survival and time to first treatment. The cut-offs for Treg positivity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A cut-off of 5.7% for Treg cell percentage and of 35 cells/μL for absolute Treg cell count were determined as optimal in patients with CLL along with a median Treg percentage of 15.5% used to separate patients with low- and high-risk disease. The experiments presented here will possibly aid in the use of Treg frequencies as a potential prognostic marker in CLL.

  12. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan

  13. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H [Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of The C.G.M.F, Puzi City, Chiayi County, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan.

  14. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: Implications for non-invasive monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Colleen E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); College of Charleston, Grice Marine Laboratory, 205 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States)], E-mail: colleen.bryan@nist.gov; Christopher, Steven J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, Florida 34236 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n = 51) and skin (n = 40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r = 0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  15. Prognostic utility of plasma S100A12 levels to establish a novel scoring system for predicting mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a two-year prospective observational study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiotsu Yayoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background S100A12 protein is an endogenous receptor ligand for advanced glycation end products. In this study, the plasma S100A12 level was assessed as an independent predictor of mortality, and its utility in clinical settings was examined. Methods In a previous cross-sectional study, plasma S100A12 levels were measured in 550 maintenance hemodialysis patients to determine the association between S100A12 and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. In this prospective study, the risk of mortality within a two-year period was determined. An integer scoring system was developed to predict mortality on the basis of the plasma S100A12 levels. Results Higher plasma S100A12 levels (≥18.79 ng/mL were more closely associated with higher all-cause mortality than lower plasma S100A12 levels (P = 0.001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed higher plasma S100A12 levels [hazard ratio (HR, 2.267; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.195–4.302; P = 0.012], age ≥65 years (HR, 1.961; 95%CI, 1.017–3.781; P = 0.044, serum albumin levels P = 0.012, and history of CVD (HR, 2.068; 95%CI, 1.146–3.732; P = 0.016 to be independent predictors of two-year all-cause mortality. The integer score was derived by assigning points to these factors and determining total scores. The scoring system revealed trends across increasing scores for predicting the all-cause mortality [c-statistic = 0.730 (0.656–0.804]. The resulting model demonstrated good discriminative power for distinguishing the validation population of 303 hemodialysis patients [c-statistic = 0.721 (0.627–0.815]. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma S100A12 level is an independent predictor for two-year all-cause mortality. A simple integer scoring system was therefore established for predicting mortality on the basis of plasma S100A12 levels.

  16. Elaboración de corredores o canales endémicos mediante planillas de cálculo Establishing endemic levels or ranges with computer spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bortman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Las epidemias o brotes pueden ser definidos como un exceso en el número de casos de un problema de salud dado, en una población, un período y un lugar en particular. Sin embargo, determinar lo que constituye un exceso implica conocer lo que es normal o de esperar. La elaboración de canales o corredores endémicos permite definir los valores de casos esperados y de esta forma evidenciar de forma gráfica la aparición de un nú mero mayor de casos. En el presente trabajo se describe una nueva metodología para la realización de estos canales endémicos, en la que se utilizan las planillas de cálculo Qpro y Excel, mediante la determinación de la media geométrica de lastasas históricas y su in tervalo de confianza. Se presenta también un corredor endémico acumulativo que facilita la vigilancia de sucesos endémicos de baja incidencia.Epidemics or disease out breaks can be defined as an excess in the number of cases of a given health problem, in a particular population, period, and place. However, to determine what constitutes an excess implies knowing what is normal or to be expected. Establishing endemic levels or ranges makes it possible to determine figures for the number of expected cases and to show in graphic form the appearance of a higher number of cases. In this work a new methodology is described to develop these endemic ranges, in which the Quattro Pro (Qpro and Excel software programs are used to calculate the geometric mean of historical rates and their confidence intervals. Also presented is a procedure for cumulative endemic ranges that facilitates surveillance of endemic events with a low incidence.

  17. Persistent High IgG Phase I Antibody Levels against Coxiella burnetii among Veterinarians Compared to Patients Previously Diagnosed with Acute Q Fever after Three Years of Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielders, Cornelia C. H.; Boerman, Anneroos W.; Schimmer, Barbara; van den Brom, René; Notermans, Daan W.; van der Hoek, Wim; Schneeberger, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the development of chronic Q fever in occupational risk groups. The aim of this study was to perform long-term follow-up of Coxiella burnetii seropositive veterinarians and investigate the course of IgG phase I and phase II antibodies against C. burnetii antigens and to compare this course with that in patients previously diagnosed with acute Q fever. Methods Veterinarians with IgG phase I ≥1:256 (immunofluorescence assay) that participated in a previous seroprevalence study were asked to provide a second blood sample three years later. IgG antibody profiles were compared to a group of acute Q fever patients who had IgG phase I ≥1:256 twelve months after diagnosis. Results IgG phase I was detected in all veterinarians (n = 76) and in 85% of Q fever patients (n = 98) after three years (pveterinarians and 12% of patients (OR 3.95, 95% CI: 1.84–8.49). Conclusions IgG phase I persists among veterinarians presumably because of continuous exposure to C. burnetii during their work. Serological and clinical follow-up of occupationally exposed risk groups should be considered. PMID:25602602

  18. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  19. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  20. Feasibility of establishing a biosafety level 3 tuberculosis culture laboratory of acceptable quality standards in a resource-limited setting: an experience from Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssengooba, Willy; Gelderbloem, Sebastian J.; Mboowa, Gerald; Wajja, Anne; Namaganda, Carolyn; Musoke, Philippa; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the recent innovations in tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) diagnosis, culture remains vital for difficult-to-diagnose patients, baseline and end-point determination for novel vaccines and drug trials. Herein, we share our experience of establishing a BSL-3

  1. Development and application of techniques to assist in the establishment of intervention levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the event of an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann Jensen, P.; Konstantinov, Y.O.; Demin, V.F.

    1993-02-01

    International and CIS (Commenwealth of independent states) guidance on intervention after nuclear or radiological accidents are reviewed, both the guidance existing at the time of the Chernobyl accident and the present guidance from ICRP, IAEA, OECD/NEA, WHO, CAC and CEC. The new thinking on intervention policy in the CIS is briefly addressed. The basic justification/optimisation principles for intervention as recommended by the international organisations have been applied for the longer term protective measures of relocation and foodstuff restrictions to derive intervention levels based on averted doses and monetary costs. Numerical values of the Intervention Levels as well as Operational Intervention Levels are presented. (au) (23 refs.)

  2. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  3. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  4. Revised guidance of the principles for establishing intervention levels for the protection of the public in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    An IAEA Advisory Group met in February 1987 to: i) review existing Agency guidance on intervention levels of dose and whether, and if so, what, revision is required; ii) consider whether, and if so, what additional guidance is required on limiting the stochastic risk and collective dose equivalent, and; iii) consider whether, and if so, what, additional guidance should be developed on derived intervention levels. The purpose of this Interim Report is to present to a broader audience the initial conclusions and recommendations of the Advisory Group in order that they may be used in conjunction with the guidance currently presented in Safety Series No. 72, pending publication of the revised Safety Series, scheduled for late 1989. 14 refs

  5. The relationship between anxiety level and health, social and demographical factors in the students of a newly established university in Eastern Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Açık

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study is carried out to determine possibleanxiety levels and related factors in Tunceli Universitystudents.Materials and methods: Totally 604 students receivingeducation from Tunceli University included. Field work ofthe study is done in May, 2010. A questionnaire includinga group of questions about socio-demographical features,health, social and demographical factors, and about continuousanxiety that are thought to be related to anxiety ismade under direct supervision to the students.Results: 52.2% of the students are men and 47.8 %are women, and the average age of them is 21.38±3.59years. The students’ average point of state anxiety inventoryis found to be 43.37±10.46 and continuous anxietyinventory 45.17±8.79. According to our results if the studentsparent’s monthly income is less, started to study inthe department of the university unwillingly, had shelteringproblems at the beginning of the university, expressedthat they had chronic diseases, evaluated their healthconditions as bad, feel ambiguous or desperate aboutfinding a job after graduation and described their charactersas introverted had higher anxiety scores (p0.05.Conclusion: Continuous anxiety level of the universitystudents was found at a significant level and affected byseveral variables. It is thought that counseling and interventionunits, particularly for related factors, will be useful.

  6. Feasibility of establishing a biosafety level 3 tuberculosis culture laboratory of acceptable quality standards in a resource-limited setting: an experience from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Willy; Gelderbloem, Sebastian J; Mboowa, Gerald; Wajja, Anne; Namaganda, Carolyn; Musoke, Philippa; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Joloba, Moses Lutaakome

    2015-01-15

    Despite the recent innovations in tuberculosis (TB) and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) diagnosis, culture remains vital for difficult-to-diagnose patients, baseline and end-point determination for novel vaccines and drug trials. Herein, we share our experience of establishing a BSL-3 culture facility in Uganda as well as 3-years performance indicators and post-TB vaccine trials (pioneer) and funding experience of sustaining such a facility. Between September 2008 and April 2009, the laboratory was set-up with financial support from external partners. After an initial procedure validation phase in parallel with the National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and legal approvals, the laboratory registered for external quality assessment (EQA) from the NTRL, WHO, National Health Laboratories Services (NHLS), and the College of American Pathologists (CAP). The laboratory also instituted a functional quality management system (QMS). Pioneer funding ended in 2012 and the laboratory remained in self-sustainability mode. The laboratory achieved internationally acceptable standards in both structural and biosafety requirements. Of the 14 patient samples analyzed in the procedural validation phase, agreement for all tests with NTRL was 90% (P 80% in all years from NTRL, CAP, and NHLS, and culture was 100% for CAP panels and above regional average scores for all years with NHLS. Quarterly DST scores from WHO-EQA ranged from 78% to 100% in 2010, 80% to 100% in 2011, and 90 to 100% in 2012. From our experience, it is feasible to set-up a BSL-3 TB culture laboratory with acceptable quality performance standards in resource-limited countries. With the demonstrated quality of work, the laboratory attracted more research groups and post-pioneer funding, which helped to ensure sustainability. The high skilled experts in this research laboratory also continue to provide an excellent resource for the needed national discussion of the laboratory and quality management systems.

  7. Responding to the deaf in disasters: establishing the need for systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) individuals have been underserved before and during emergencies. This paper will assess Deaf/HH related emergency preparedness training needs for state emergency management agencies and deaf-serving community-based organizations (CBOs). Methods Four approaches were used: 1) a literature review; 2) results from 50 key informant (KI) interviews from state and territorial-level emergency management and public health agencies; 3) results from 14 KI interviews with deaf-serving CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area; and 4) a pilot program evaluation of an emergency responder training serving the Deaf/HH in one urban community. Results Results from literature review and state and territorial level KIs indicate that there is a substantive gap in emergency preparedness training on serving Deaf/HH provided by state agencies. In addition, local KI interviews with 14 deaf-serving CBOs found gaps in training within deaf-serving CBOs. These gaps have implications for preparing for and responding to all-hazards emergencies including weather-related or earthquake-related natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and nuclear-chemical disasters. Conclusion Emergency preparedness trainings specific to responding to or promoting preparedness of the Deaf/HH is rare, even for state agency personnel, and frequently lack standardization, evaluation, or institutionalization in emergency management infrastructure. This has significant policy and research implications. Similarly, CBOs are not adequately trained to serve the needs of their constituents. PMID:23497178

  8. Responding to the deaf in disasters: establishing the need for systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Alina; Ivey, Susan L; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Brune, Jim; Neuhauser, Linda

    2013-03-07

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) individuals have been underserved before and during emergencies. This paper will assess Deaf/HH related emergency preparedness training needs for state emergency management agencies and deaf-serving community-based organizations (CBOs). Four approaches were used: 1) a literature review; 2) results from 50 key informant (KI) interviews from state and territorial-level emergency management and public health agencies; 3) results from 14 KI interviews with deaf-serving CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area; and 4) a pilot program evaluation of an emergency responder training serving the Deaf/HH in one urban community. Results from literature review and state and territorial level KIs indicate that there is a substantive gap in emergency preparedness training on serving Deaf/HH provided by state agencies. In addition, local KI interviews with 14 deaf-serving CBOs found gaps in training within deaf-serving CBOs. These gaps have implications for preparing for and responding to all-hazards emergencies including weather-related or earthquake-related natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and nuclear-chemical disasters. Emergency preparedness trainings specific to responding to or promoting preparedness of the Deaf/HH is rare, even for state agency personnel, and frequently lack standardization, evaluation, or institutionalization in emergency management infrastructure. This has significant policy and research implications. Similarly, CBOs are not adequately trained to serve the needs of their constituents.

  9. The utility of biochemical, physiological and morphological biomarkers of leaf sulfate levels in establishing Brachylaena discolor leaves as a bioindicator of SO2pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areington, Candyce Ann; Varghese, Boby; Sershen

    2017-09-01

    The negative impacts of air pollution have made monitoring of air quality increasingly important, especially in heavily industrialized areas such as the South Durban Basin (SDB), in South Africa. Bioindicators such as trees can complement conventional air quality monitoring and be used to prioritise vulnerable areas. This study assessed the utility of Brachylaena discolor DC. tree leaves as a bioindicator of sulfur dioxide pollution. This involved correlating ground level sulfur dioxide concentrations ([SO 2 ]) with B. discolor leaf sulfate concentrations ([sulfate]) at three industrial (treatment) sites within the SBD and control site at which [SO 2 ] was significantly lower for all four seasons. Based on this significant positive correlation between the aforementioned (p = 0.005; ρ = 0.667) leaf sulfate levels were related to various biochemical (intracellular hydrogen peroxide production, total aqueous [TAA] and enzymic antioxidants [superoxide dismutase and catalase], lipid peroxidation [LPO] and electrolyte leakage), physiological (leaf chlorophyll fluorescence [LCF] and relative chlorophyll content) and morphological (leaf area [LA]) biomarkers of stress measured on leaves from trees at the treatment and control sites. Annual [SO 2 ] and leaf [sulfate] at the treatments were significantly (p bioindicator of SO 2 pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs fact that sporadic high concentrations of POPs were detected in some pellet samples from the remote islands is underscored. Some plastic debris which were contaminated in industrialized coastal zones may have rapidly transported to the remote islands before they would reach equilibrium (i.e., desorption completed). Because POPs concentrations in the other media are at trace

  11. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  12. H.R. 1083: a bill to amend the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act to improve procedures for the implementation of compacts providing for the establishment and operation of regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, and for other purposes. Introduced in the US House of Representatives, Ninety-Nineth Congress, First Session, February 7, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of H.R. 1083 is to amend the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Act to improve the procedures for establishing regional disposal facilities. The bill defines several terms affecting compacts between states and the federal government. It also outlines state and federal responsibilities for disposing of low-level radioactive wastes, establishes procedures for Congressional review of each compact every five years, and designates the limitations of regional facilities for accepting wastes. The bill concludes with requirements for adequate financing of waste disposal facilities and both technical and financial assistance to states. Implementation of this Act will be the cooperative responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Secretary of Energy, and Secretary of Transportation

  13. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  14. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  15. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  16. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  17. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  18. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  19. Attempted establishment of proficiency levels for laparoscopic performance on a national scale using simulation: the results from the 2004 SAGES Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) learning center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, K R; Ritter, E M; McClusky, D A; Lederman, A; Baghai, M; Gallagher, A G; Smith, C D

    2007-01-01

    The Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) has been well validated as a training device for laparoscopic skills. It has been demonstrated that training to a level of proficiency on the simulator significantly improves operating room performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The purpose of this project was to obtain a national standard of proficiency using the MIST-VR based on the performance of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Surgeons attending the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) 2004 Annual Scientific Meeting who had performed more than 100 laparoscopic procedures volunteered to participate. All the subjects completed a demographic questionnaire assessing laparoscopic and MIST-VR experience in the learning center of the SAGES 2004 meeting. Each subject performed two consecutive trials of the MIST-VR Core Skills 1 program at the medium setting. Each trial involved six basic tasks of increasing difficulty: acquire place (AP), transfer place (TP), traversal (TV), withdrawal insert (WI), diathermy task (DT), and manipulate diathermy (MD). Trial 1 was considered a "warm-up," and trial 2 functioned as the test trial proper. Subject performance was scored for time, errors, and economy of instrument movement for each task, and a cumulative total score was calculated. Trial 2 data are expressed as mean time in seconds in Table 2. Proficiency levels for laparoscopic skills have now been established on a national scale by experienced laparoscopic surgeons using the MIST-VR simulator. Residency programs, training centers, and practicing surgeons can now use these data as guidelines for performance criterion during MIST-VR skills training.

  20. Systematic approach to establishing criticality biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    A systematic approach has been developed to determine benchmark biases and apply those biases to code results to meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24 regarding documenting criticality safety margins. Previously, validation of the code against experimental benchmarks to prove reasonable agreement was sufficient. However, DOE Order 5480.24 requires contractors to adhere to the requirements of ANSI/ANS-8.1 and establish subcritical margins. A method was developed to incorporate biases and uncertainties from benchmark calculations into a k eff value with quantifiable uncertainty. The method produces a 95% confidence level in both the k eff value of the scenario modeled and the distribution of the k eff S calculated by the Monte Carlo code. Application of the method to a group of benchmarks modeled using the KENO-Va code and the SCALE 27 group cross sections is also presented

  1. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  2. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    school system from department level to the level of individual learner. .... H02: There is no relationship between teacher empowerment and key values and ... Importance of activity. Figure 1 Staff empowerment matrix (Steyn, 2001:154) formation and decision back for review or approval. Short and Geer (1997:141) and ...

  3. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  4. Blood Establishment Registration Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This application provides information for active, inactive, and pre-registered firms. Query options are by FEI, Applicant Name, Establishment Name, Other Names,...

  5. Establishing software quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malsbury, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper is concerned with four questions about establishing software QA: What is software QA. Why have software QA. What is the role of software QA. What is necessary to ensure the success of software QA

  6. Establishment of floor ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Robič, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    After the socioeconomic system had been changed in 1991 the right of ownership and land registry seemed to gain a much greater importance. In that time the concept of floor ownership has also started to develop, but after 25 years a significant number of multi-unit buildings without the established floor ownership still exist in Slovenia. In this thesis both theoretical background and practical solutions for establishing a floor ownership are presented, furthermore, possible causes for an ina...

  7. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B

    2013-10-01

    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  8. Establishing utility values for the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) using a crosswalk to the EuroQol-five-dimensional questionnaire-three-level version (EQ-5D-3L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, R Trafford; Lai, Ernest; Liu, Guiping; Janjua, Arif; Sutherland, Jason M

    2017-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common condition for which there are numerous medical and surgical treatments. The 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) is a patient-reported outcome measure often used with patients diagnosed with CRS. However, there are no utility values associated with the SNOT-22, limiting its use in comparative effectiveness research. The purpose of this study was to establish utilities for the SNOT-22 by mapping responses to utility values associated with the EuroQol-5-dimensional questionnaire-3-level version (EQ-5D-3L). This study used data collected from patients diagnosed with CRS awaiting bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery in Vancouver, Canada. Study participants completed both the SNOT-22 and the EQ-5D-3L. Ordinary least squares was used for 3 models that estimated the EQ-5D-3L utility values as a function of the SNOT-22 items. A total of 232 participants completed both the SNOT-22 and the EQ-5D-3L. As expected, there was a negative relationship between the SNOT-22 global scores and EQ-5D-3L utility values. Adjusted R 2 for the 3 models ranged from 0.28 to 0.33, and root mean squared errors between 0.23 and 0.24. A nonparametric bootstrap analysis demonstrated robustness of the findings. This study successfully developed a mapping model to associate utility values with responses to the SNOT-22. This model could be used to conduct comparative effectiveness research in CRS to evaluate the various interventions available for treating this condition. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  9. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  10. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy following previous abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L

    1984-01-01

    During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334

  11. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  12. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  14. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  15. Establishing a University Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  16. Secular Religious Establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Secularism as a political doctrine claims that religion and politics should be separated. The compatibility question is whether secularism can accept some forms of religious establishment in the form of institutional linkages between state and organised religion. I argue that the answer to the co...

  17. Factores socioacadémicos, estilo de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo de médicos internos de pregrado Socioacademic factors, style of learning, intellectual level and their relationship with the previous academic yield of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Padierna-Luna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El aprendizaje es una actividad compleja, en la que intervienen factores individuales, sociales-culturales y académicos. Objetivo. Describir factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje, nivel intelectual y su relación con el rendimiento académico previo (promedio de los médicos internos de pregrado (MIP. Sujetos y métodos. Se realizó una encuesta transversal analítica a MIP aplicando tres cuestionarios: datos socioacadémicos, cuestionario CHAEA (estilos de aprendizaje y test de Raven para adultos (nivel intelectual. La muestra incluyó 174 alumnos procedentes de nueve universidades, tres privadas (n = 43; 24,7% y seis públicas (n = 131; 75,29%. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y regresión múltiple para establecer asociaciones entre variables. Resultados y conclusiones. Predominó el género femenino, con el 59,2% (n = 103, frente al masculino, con el 40,8% (n = 71. El promedio de edad fue de 23,63 años, con un rango de 21 a 33. No hubo diferencias significativas de género en el rendimiento previo (8,21 frente a 8,25. Se midió la relación entre los factores socioacadémicos, estilos de aprendizaje y nivel intelectual con el rendimiento académico, con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. De los datos socioacadémicos, sólo la edad se relaciona inversamente con el rendimiento, con r = 0,2 y p Introduction. The learning is a complex activity, in that takes part individual factors, social and academic factors, among others. Aim. To describe socioacademic factors, styles of learning (SL, intellectual level (IL and its relation with previous academic yield (academic average of the Pre-degree interns (PDI. Subjects and methods. A cross-sectional and analytic survey to PDI was applied with three questionnaires: socioacademic data, adult questionnaire CHAEA (SL and test Raven (IL. The sample included 174 students coming from nine universities, three private (n = 43; 24.7% and six public (n = 131; 75.29%. It was used

  18. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  19. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  20. Re-establishing dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente; Hall, E.O.C

    2012-01-01

    study with 29 nurses and nurse assistants was performed following Van Manen’s hermeneutic phenomenology. Findings show that caring mainly concerns ‘re-establishing dignity’ especially through ‘seeing the patient as a unique person’, ‘assisting in getting rid of the bed’ and ‘supporting patient...... appearance’. The study documents that caring for older people is about creating small everyday circumstances in which patient dignity can flourish. Shortcomings of a secondary analysis are discussed and suggestions for future research, such as how older hospital patients experience caring and dignity...

  1. Reproductive compatibility between mite populations previously identified as Euseius concordis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Aloyséia Cristina da Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the reproductive compatibility between populations of predatory mites previously identified as Euseius concordis (Chant) based on morphological characteristics. Colonies of these mite populations were established in the lab with specimens collected from different localities and host plants. Reproductive compatibility was evaluated through crosses and backcrosses within and between populations and the subsequent observation of females' oviposition, over a period of 10 days. The levels of oviposition obtained in the crosses between individuals from the same population were higher than those obtained in the crosses between individuals from different populations. Results indicate the occurrence of post-mating reproductive incompatibility between the mite population from Petrolina and the other populations studied. Crosses and backcrosses between populations involving female mites from Petrolina did not produce offspring, although endospermatophores were present inside the spermathecas of those females. Oviposition was reduced, and only sons were obtained, in crosses between populations with males from Petrolina. Crosses of females from Pontes e Lacerda and males from Jaguariúna and vice versa produced only male progeny. Our results established that the populations originating from Arroio do Meio, Pontes e Lacerda, Jaguarúna and Viçosa, are reproductively compatible. However, the latter populations and the population from Petrolina are genetically isolated. Based on these results we suggest that more cytological and genetic studies are needed to establish if this reproductive isolation represents a species barrier.

  2. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  3. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  4. Establishment of mesenchymal cell line derived from human developing odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, H; Kudo, Y; Ogawa, I; Shimasue, H; Shigeishi, H; Ohta, K; Higashikawa, K; Takechi, M; Takata, T; Kamata, N

    2012-11-01

    An odontoma, which shows proliferating odontogenic epithelium and mesenchymal tissue, is one of the most common odontogenic tumors encountered. These are commonly found in tooth-bearing regions, although the etiology remains unknown. There are no previous reports of an established line of immortalized human odontoma cells. Using odontoma fragments obtained from a girl treated at our department, we established an immortalized human odontoma cell line and investigated cell morphology, dynamic proliferation, the presence of contamination, and karyotype. Moreover, cell characterization was examined using osteogenic and odontogenic markers. We successfully established a mesenchymal odontoma cell (mOd cells). The cells were found to be fibroblastic and had a high level of telomerase activity. Cell growth was confirmed after more than 200 population doublings without significant growth retardation. mOd cells expressed mRNA for differentiation markers, including collagen type I (COLI), alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, cementum-derived protein (CP-23), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3), as well as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In addition, they showed a high level of calcified nodule formation activity in vitro. We successfully established a cell line that may be useful for investigating the mechanisms of normal odontogenesis as well as characteristics of odontoma tumors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  6. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype.The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10 were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose.Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l, PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33% to F6 (38.46%. These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively.These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin.

  7. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  8. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  9. Epstein-Barr Viruses (EBVs) Deficient in EBV-Encoded RNAs Have Higher Levels of Latent Membrane Protein 2 RNA Expression in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and Efficiently Establish Persistent Infections in Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorovic, Goran; Boulden, Elizabeth A; Bosshard, Rachel; Elgueta Karstegl, Claudio; Skalsky, Rebecca; Cullen, Bryan R; Gujer, Cornelia; Rämer, Patrick; Münz, Christian; Farrell, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Functions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs (EBERs) were tested in lymphoblastoid cell lines containing EBER mutants of EBV. Binding of EBER1 to ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22) was confirmed. Deletion of EBER1 or EBER2 correlated with increased levels of cytoplasmic EBV LMP2 RNA and with small effects on specific cellular microRNA (miRNA) levels, but protein levels of LMP1 and LMP2A were not affected. Wild-type EBV and EBER deletion EBV had approximately equal abilities to infect immunodeficient mice reconstituted with a human hematopoietic system. Copyright © 2015, Gregorovic et al.

  10. The Establishing Operation and Teaching Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Vincent J.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago Michael (1993) refined and extended the concept of the conditioned establishing operation (CEO). With this paper he updated his previous treatment of the topic (Michael, 1982) by providing terminological refinements and conceptually clear descriptions of the reflexive and transitive CEOs. In the 20 years since the publication of…

  11. Risoe Research Establishment, Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    On the poetic Roskilde Fjord, 40 kilometers from Copenhagen, and near Roskilde, capital of Denmark in the 12th century, stands the Risoe Research Establishment of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. ere 700 men and women are engaged in searching for ways in which atomic energy can be used to make the world a better and healthier place. The work at Risoe comprises fundamental research, reactor technology and other technological studies, agricultural research and health and safety studies. Nuclear power stations are scheduled to be operative in Denmark some time between 1975 and 1980, and the planning of these stations and development of the many processes this will involve has become a major task at Risoe. Special conditions have to be fulfilled in selecting the site of an atomic research station, and the barren Risoe peninsula had them all: safety, because the site was free from buildings to permit continuous control; closeness to the scientific institutions of the capital, Copenhagen; social amenities in Roskilde; finally, access to an a adequate water supply. his special series of photos covering some aspects of the work and safety conditions at Risoe was commissioned by WHO. (author)

  12. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  13. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  14. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  15. The Role Of Business Education At The K-12 Level: Faculty Perceptions On Establishing A Business Education Department In The College Of Basic Education At The Public Authority For Applied Education And Training

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah AlSagheer; Areej Al-Sagheer

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, business education has grown rapidly at the university level, though there have been some critics who believe that this approach does not instill the outcomes that business schools claim.  One possible approach suggested is the expansion of business education to general education at the   K-12 level in order to better instill business skills among the general student population.  The validity of this theory and the proposal to add a business education component to the College...

  16. A three year review of injuries to professional footballers (1995-98) and comparison with previous observations (1990-93).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, J C; Rae, A; Melvin, W D

    2000-02-01

    A prospective study over a three year period (1995-8) of footballers' injuries in first team players was undertaken in a similar fashion to a previous study (1990-3). During the present study the Club had a major cup success and appeared to have a younger squad with less major injury and subsequent time out of action. As a result of the earlier paper it would appear that some lessons and observations may have been put into action and helped produce a more consistent standard for the club. Increasing recognition of the need to reduce and monitor the levels and types of injuries seems now to be established.

  17. S. 705: A Bill to assure fair consideration of the interests of states likely to be affected by the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, April 5, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    S. 705 is a bill to assure fair consideration of the interests of states likely to be affected by the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Notification of adjacent states is proposed when waste disposal operations are contemplated at border sites

  18. Clinical Governance: Efficacy of Establishment in Mashhad Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoodi R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Clinical governance is a framework in which the organizations providing clinical services are responsible in exchange for the permanent improvement of quality and preserving the service’s high standard. It relies on the responsibility to maintain current levels of care and on clinical governance pillars to improve the quality of future care. Also, it is a concept that attempts to integrate the previous methods and tools in measuring and improving quality of care. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic-interventional study was conducted to evaluate the hospitals of Mashhad before and after the establishment of clinical governance in 2011. Data were collected by both questionnaires and observation. Results: Comparing the range of clinical governance’s pillars obtained, from the selected hospitals, showed a significant improvement in all studied axes following the establishment of clinical governance. The highest effectiveness was related to clinical audit, staff management and training axes, whereas the least effective part was the interaction with patients, their relatives and the community. Conclusion: Regarding the significant difference in the obtained results after the establishment of clinical governance in this study, it could be concluded that the establishment of clinical governance and its performance could remarkably improve the quality of health services.

  19. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  20. Dose evaluation and establishment of reference levels in activity for nuclear medicine; Avaliação de dose e estabelecimento de níveis de referência em atividade para a medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Julio Cesar de Souza

    2017-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has emphasized the importance of accurately determining the mean dose levels, or administered activity, received by the patients for each medical procedure that uses ionizing radiation. However, the number of bibliographic references addressing the need to know and optimize these levels is insufficient, or rather limited, which may lead to non-standardizes techniques, a lack of exposures control, and also the increase of associated radiological risks of these procedures. In this context, a software in Visual Basic® of Microsoft© language was developed whose function is to elaborate a method of obtaining the Reference Levels in Activity (RLA) for nuclear medicine patients by determining the third quartile of the examinations carried out. The program also allows obtaining absorbed dose values in critical organs based on patient specificities as age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) in order to evaluate the risk involved in each procedure. The main nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures were evaluated through the database of two public hospitals and a private clinic, obtaining the NRAs of each facility, where the software was validated by comparison with the traditionally accepted calculation methods. Due to the results obtained in each installation, in addition to NRA determination, gaps in treatment capacities and unjustified dose variations for the same procedure were identified, indicating the need for optimization. Thus, the developed program is able to provide the estimated values of effective and absorbed doses involved in each procedure, for each patient, providing reference values for nuclear medicine field, not available in the national scenario so far. (author)

  1. Diagnosis of Beta-thalassaemia major in previously transfused patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Rehman, Z.; Karamat, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blood transfusion(s) on the haematological picture of beta-thalassaemia major. Results: Out of the 280 patients 109 (39%) had received one or more blood transfusions (cases). The remaining 171 patients who did not receive any transfusion served as controls. The mean MCV, MCH and Hb-F in cases were significantly higher than in the controls (p 4 transfusions (17%) (p=0.016). In the occasionally transfused patients Hb-F level was directly related to the time since last transfusion. In 44/109 (40%) transfused patients (Hb-F>30%) the diagnosis of thalassaemia was not difficult. In 54/109 (50%) patients (Hb-:5-30%) the diagnosis was aided by parent's study, while PCR for thalassaemia mutation was required in 11/109 (10%) patients (Hb-F <5%). Conclusion: In most transfused patients of thalassaemia major MCV and MCH were significantly higher while Hb-F was lower than in the un-transfused patients. There was a linear correlation between Hb-F level and time since last transfusion in the occasionally transfused patients. However, the reduction in Hb-F level was more marked and sustained in multipally transfused patients. Parent's study and PCR are useful aids in establishing the correct diagnosis in these patients. (author)

  2. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  3. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  4. Establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the safe and efficient steady-following state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Deng; Zheng Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We present an integrated mathematical model of vehicle-following control for the establishment, maintenance, and re-establishment of the previous or new safe and efficient steady-following state. The hyperbolic functions are introduced to establish the corresponding mathematical models, which can describe the behavioral adjustment of the following vehicle steered by a well-experienced driver under complex vehicle following situations. According to the proposed mathematical models, the control laws of the following vehicle adjusting its own behavior can be calculated for its moving in safety, efficiency, and smoothness (comfort). Simulation results show that the safe and efficient steady-following state can be well established, maintained, and re-established by its own smooth (comfortable) behavioral adjustment with the synchronous control of the following vehicle’s velocity, acceleration, and the actual following distance. (paper)

  5. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimized. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. The ''weighting'' factors appropriate to irradiation of particular tissues from internal emitters can thus be defined in terms of their likely individual contributions to the harm of whole-body irradiation. In this way the limits for different modes of exposure by external or internal radiation can be related so as to ensure that protection should be equally effective for different distributions of absorbed dose in the body. In particular, the over-simplified concept of a single critical organ determining the

  6. Establishment of Maximum Voluntary Compressive Neck Tolerance Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Bridges Casey Pirnstill Chris Burneka John Plaga Grant Roush Biosciences and Performance Division Vulnerability Analysis Branch July 2011...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT...S) Michael Cote, John Buhrman, Nathaniel Bridges, Casey Pirnstill, Chris Burneka, John Plaga , Grant Roush 5d. PROJECT NUMBER OSMS 5e. TASK

  7. Establishing Ground Vibration Threshold Level for Open Pit Mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of blasting activities on building structures in open pit mining districts in Ghana a study was carried out in Prestea, a township very close to the perimeter of the Plant North pit of the Bogoso Gold Ltd (now Golden Star Resources Bogoso/Prestea Mines), in the Western Region of Ghana. It was observed ...

  8. An Establishment-Level Test of the Statistical Discrimination Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald; Skaggs, Sheryl

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of a sample of 306 workers shows that neither the gender nor racial composition of the workplace is associated with productivity. An alternative explanation for lower wages of women and minorities is social closure--the monopolizing of desirable positions by advantaged workers. (SK)

  9. Preliminary Collaborative Steps in Establishing CEFR Sign Language Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadlier, L.; van den Bogaerde, B.; Oyserman, P.; Tsagari, D.; Csepes, I.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores the role of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in the context of teaching, learning, and more specifically, assessing signed languages. An exploration of various approaches used in selected universities across Europe provides perspectives on how the

  10. Establishing Ozone Critical Levels II. UNECE Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Per Erik; Sellden, Gun; Pleijel, Haakan (eds.)

    2003-06-01

    This document is the final report from the workshop. It contains the overall summary of the conclusions from the workshop, the reports from the three working groups that were active during the workshop as well as all background papers presented at the workshop.

  11. Microinstability of the hip: a previously unrecognized pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Ioanna; Chahla, Jorge; Locks, Renato; Briggs, Karen; Philippon, Marc J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hip microinstability is an established diagnosis; however, its occurrence is still debated by many physicians. Diagnosis of hip microinstability is often challenging, due to a lack of specific signs or symptoms, and patients may remain undiagnosed for long periods. This may lead to early manifestation of degenerative joint disease. Consequently, careful patient and family history must be obtained and diagnostic imaging should follow. After a thorough clinical evaluation of the patient with suspected hip microinstability, the physician should focus on how to improve symptoms and functionality in daily and sports activities. Purpose The purpose of this review article was to give a current update regarding this diagnosis and to provide a complete diagnostic approach in order to effectively treat hip microinstability. Methods We reviewed the literature on the diagnosis, the non-operative and operative indications for the treatment of this complex and often misdiagnosed pathology. Conclusion Conservative treatment is considered the best initial approach, though, surgical intervention should be considered if symptoms persist or other hip pathology exists. Successful surgical intervention, such as hip arthroscopy, should focus on restoring the normal anatomy of the hip joint in order to regain its functionality. The role of the hip joint capsule has gained particular research interest during the last years, and its repair or reconstruction during hip arthroscopy is considered necessary in order to avoid iatrogenic hip microinstability. Various capsular closure/plication techniques have been developed towards this direction with encouraging results. Level of evidence V. PMID:28066740

  12. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  13. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain : Findings From 19 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of

  14. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  15. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers: report of previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress over the course of the Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study is reported. The derivation of the study population, the gathering of health histories, the US Navy radiation protection program, and the determination of radiation exposures is described

  16. Toothbrushing procedure in schoolchildren with no previous formal instruction: variables associated to dental biofilm removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Glenda N; Sorazabal, Ana L; Salgado, Pablo A; Squassi, Aldo F; Klemonskis, Graciela L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the association between features regarding brushing procedure performed by schoolchildren without previous formal training and the effectiveness of biofilm removal. Out of a population of 8900 6- and 7-year-old schoolchildren in Buenos Aires City, 600 children were selected from schools located in homogeneous risk areas. Informed consent was requested from parents or guardians and formal assent was obtained from children themselves. The final sample consisted of 316 subjects. The following tooth brushing variables were analyzed: toothbrush-gripping, orientation of active part of bristles with respect to the tooth, type of movement applied, brushing both jaws together or separately, including all 6 sextants and duration of brushing. The level of dental biofilm after brushing was determined by O'Leary's index, acceptable cut-off point = 20%. Four calibrated dentists performed observations and clinical examinations. Frequency distribution, central tendency and dispersion measures were calculated. Cluster analyses were performed; proportions of variables for each cluster were compared with Bonferroni's correction and OR was obtained. The most frequent categories were: palm gripping (71.51%); perpendicular orientation (85.8%); horizontal movement (95.6%); separate addressing of jaws (68%) and inclusion of all 6 sextants (50.6%). Mean duration of brushing was 48.78 ± 27.36 seconds. 42.7% of the children achieved an acceptable biofilm level. The cluster with the highest proportion of subjects with acceptable post-brushing biofilm levels (p<0.05) differed significantly from the rest for the variable "inclusion of all 6 sextants in brushing procedure". OR was 2.538 (CI 95% 1.603 - 4.017). Inclusion of all six sextants could be a determinant variable for the removal of biofilm by brushing in schoolchildren, and should be systematized as a component in oral hygiene education. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  17. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  18. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  19. Analysis Of Navy Hornet Squadron Mishap Costs With Regard To Previously Flown Flight Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    HORNET SQUADRON MISHAP COSTS WITH REGARD TO PREVIOUSLY FLOWN FLIGHT HOURS by Jason R. Baumann June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Robert Eger Co...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF NAVY HORNET SQUADRON MISHAP COSTS WITH REGARD TO PREVIOUSLY FLOWN...flown flight hours with mishap costs . It uses a macro level approach by evaluating how a squadron’s previously flown flight hours affect mishap cost and

  20. Overview on establishing flax industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Blouw, S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available has bedding and fillers as end products. However the challenges that are met during the establishment of a flax industry are the development of economic viable models, human capacity development and local and overseas markets....

  1. Establishing Tools for Computing Hybrids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thiem, Clare; Bhat, Sunil; Blount, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Establishing Tools for Computing hybrids (ETCH) provides a starting point from which to explore how advanced computing technology, based upon biotechnology, might enable intelligent systems and provide new capabilities to the Air Force...

  2. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  3. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  4. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  5. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  6. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  7. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  8. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  9. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  10. Previous Webinars about Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Center of Expertise for School IPM hosts a webinar series featuring national experts from across the country relaying educational and practical strategies for establishing and improving integrated pest management programs in schools.

  11. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  12. Previous cultivation of palisade grass and soil correctives: influence on growth and yield of soybean cultivated under various soil compaction levels Cultivo prévio de braquiarão e corretivos de solo: influência sobre o crescimento e produção da soja cultivada sob vários níveis de compactação do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Silva Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction directly interferes on crop yield. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of previous cultivation with palisade grass [Urochloa brizantha (C. Hochstetter ex A. Rich. R. Webster cv. Marandu] and the use of soil correctives on the growth and yield of soybeans (Glycine max L. cultivated under various soil compaction levels, in greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted in pots (columns of 0.2 m diameter PVC tubes, composed of two rings: the lower ring, 0.4 m in height, received the soil (dystrophic Red Latosol, clayey texture without corrective and a density of 1.0 Mg m-3; and the upper ring, 0,2 m in height, received the treatments of soil correctives and density. The experimental design was fully randomized in a 4 x 6 x 2 factorial outline, being four soil density levels (1.0; 1.20; 1.40 and 1.60 Mg m-3, six soil correctives (without corrective, lime, calcium silicate, gypsum, lime + gypsum and calcium silicate + gypsum and two cultivation systems of the soybean (with and without previous cultivation of palisade grass. Starting from 1.2 Mg m-3 of soil density the soybean growth and yield were decreased. The use of soil correctives and previous soil cultivation with palisade grass decreased the harmful effects of the soil compaction on the soybean growth and yield. For the treatments that received previous cultivation with palisade grass, the soybean growth and yield were higher with application of lime + gypsum and calcium silicate + gypsum.A compactação do solo interfere diretamente sobre a produção das culturas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do cultivo prévio do braquiarão e o uso de corretivos do solo sobre o crescimento e produção da soja cultivada sob solo com vários níveis de compactação, em condições de casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos (colunas de tubos de PVC de 0,2 m de diâmetro, compostos por dois anéis: o anel inferior, de 0,4 m de altura

  13. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  14. catering establishments of Awassa Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    practices of catering business establishments in Awassa Town, Southern Ethiopia, February to. April 1996. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires, free listings, parasitological and bacteriological laboratory analyses. A total of 164 catering ..... identified include: a) Good coverage of safe water (defined as ...

  15. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  16. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  17. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  18. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  19. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  20. Dental health in workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, R I; Ellingsen, D G; Olstad, M L; Kjuus, H

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The dental health of 73 workers previously exposed to mercury vapour at a chloralkali plant was studied and compared with that of 51 non-exposed referents. METHODS--A record of oral, periodontal, gingival and mucosal conditions, including teeth, restorations, prostheses, and oral hygiene, was established during a 30 min examination. The participants' periodontal conditions were assessed according to the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN). The results with the C...

  1. Establishment of ITER: Relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    At the Geneva Summit Meeting in November, 1985, a proposal was made by the Soviet Union to build a next-generation tokamak experiment on a collaborative basis involving the world's four major fusion blocks. In October, 1986, after consulting with Japan and the European Community, the United States responded with a proposal on how to implement such an activity. Ensuing diplomatic and technical discussions resulted in the establishment, under the auspices of the IAEA, of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Conceptual Design Activities. This tome represents a collection of all documents relating to the establishment of ITER, beginning with the initial meeting of the ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee in Vienna on 15-16 March, 1987, through the meeting of the Provisional ITER Council, also in Vienna, on 8-9 February, 1988

  2. Establishment for Nuclear Equipment: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracz, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The main objective of the activity of the Establishment for Nuclear Equipment (ZdAJ) in 1999 was to obtain the ISO 9001 certificate. Work on this problem has been successfully completed. The changes introduced in agreement with requirements of ISO in supervising the construction, manufacturing and servicing eliminate possible deficiencies of our products and will pay in the future. Two new important ventures have been undertaken: design of an accelerator with two photon energies and a reconstruction of simulator directed towards better geometrical parameters. The completion of the improvements in accelerator is foreseen for the year 2002. The changes comprise almost all sub-assemblies of the device. The modernized simulator will be installed in the hospital already in the year 2000 - the ameliorations concern mainly the arm of the apparatus, collimator, driving gears and control system. Of course - apart from this, the routine production activity of the Establishment was continued in 1999. (author)

  3. Establishing the isolated Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim ''there is no new physics at the weak scale,'' namely that the Standard Model (SM) is ''isolated.'' The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all ''connected'' BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts - both theoretical and experimental - are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  4. Establishing the isolated standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James D.; Zhang, Zhengkang; Zhao, Yue

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this article is to initiate a discussion on what it takes to claim "there is no new physics at the weak scale," namely that the Standard Model (SM) is "isolated." The lack of discovery of beyond the SM (BSM) physics suggests that this may be the case. But to truly establish this statement requires proving all "connected" BSM theories are false, which presents a significant challenge. We propose a general approach to quantitatively assess the current status and future prospects of establishing the isolated SM (ISM), which we give a reasonable definition of. We consider broad elements of BSM theories, and show many examples where current experimental results are not sufficient to verify the ISM. In some cases, there is a clear roadmap for the future experimental program, which we outline, while in other cases, further efforts—both theoretical and experimental—are needed in order to robustly claim the establishment of the ISM in the absence of new physics discoveries.

  5. Case Report - Sudden onset methaemoglobinaemia in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... country but we managed to get it all the way from Nairobi, Kenya. A diagnosis of Methaemoglobinaemia was made using Spectrophotometry and she was successfully treated using 2 doses of intravenous Methylene blue. The cause of Methaemoglobinaemia was established to have been nitrites from food preservatives.

  6. Research report for fiscal 1997 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology; 1997 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Tests and researches have been performed with the objectives to establish an evaluation technology for load leveling effect by using a small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use, to clarify the effectiveness of the system as a discrete power supply source through demonstration operation, and furthermore to achieve optimization of designs of the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1997. The current fiscal year has performed the continued collection of data of the demonstration operation, and analysis and evaluation on the photovoltaic power generation characteristics and the house load characteristics. According to the data analysis result for fiscals 1995 through 1997, it was shown that, although the photovoltaic power generation system for residential use does not contribute much to load leveling in a house, it contributes to load leveling in the distribution line on the whole or a case as large as a grid. In addition, according to the survey on users who have installed the photovoltaic power generation system, it was indicated that the consciousness of electric power and energy conservation has heightened. The capacity of a photovoltaic power generation system for residential use is 3 kW for a standard type of home, which can take care of more than 60% of the house load. It was concluded that, if a storage battery of small capacity is accommodated, the system is effective for reduction of momentary peak load, enhancement of the power quality, and supply of power at a disaster. (NEDO)

  7. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O

    2014-01-01

    : Platelet inhibition declined significantly during the 24-hour dosing interval in aspirin-treated patients with previous definite ST or stable coronary artery disease and in healthy individuals. Increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin were observed in patients with previous definite ST....... through 24 h in patients with previous definite ST. Furthermore, we explored whether increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin are associated with a particularly rapid recovery of platelet function. METHODS: This case-control study included 50 patients with previous definite ST matched...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity, platelet...

  8. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  9. Should previous mammograms be digitised in the transition to digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Phillips, S.; Gale, A.G.; Wallis, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Breast screening specificity is improved if previous mammograms are available, which presents a challenge when converting to digital mammography. Two display options were investigated: mounting previous film mammograms on a multiviewer adjacent to the workstation, or digitising them for soft copy display. Eight qualified screen readers were videotaped undertaking routine screen reading for two 45-min sessions in each scenario. Analysis of gross eye and head movements showed that when digitised, previous mammograms were examined a greater number of times per case (p=0.03), due to a combination of being used in 19% more cases (p=0.04) and where used, looked at a greater number of times (28% increase, p=0.04). Digitising previous mammograms reduced both the average time taken per case by 18% (p=0.04) and the participants' perceptions of workload (p < 0.05). Digitising previous analogue mammograms may be advantageous, in particular in increasing their level of use. (orig.)

  10. Should previous mammograms be digitised in the transition to digital mammography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Phillips, S.; Gale, A.G. [Loughborough University, Applied Vision Research Centre, Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Wallis, M.G. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Breast screening specificity is improved if previous mammograms are available, which presents a challenge when converting to digital mammography. Two display options were investigated: mounting previous film mammograms on a multiviewer adjacent to the workstation, or digitising them for soft copy display. Eight qualified screen readers were videotaped undertaking routine screen reading for two 45-min sessions in each scenario. Analysis of gross eye and head movements showed that when digitised, previous mammograms were examined a greater number of times per case (p=0.03), due to a combination of being used in 19% more cases (p=0.04) and where used, looked at a greater number of times (28% increase, p=0.04). Digitising previous mammograms reduced both the average time taken per case by 18% (p=0.04) and the participants' perceptions of workload (p < 0.05). Digitising previous analogue mammograms may be advantageous, in particular in increasing their level of use. (orig.)

  11. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. The prevalence of previous self-harm amongst self-poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal

    2011-01-01

    was to investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients presenting to medical wards at two hospitals in Sri Lanka were interviewed about their previous episodes...... with previous Asian research and is considerably lower than that seen in the West. Explanations for these low levels of repeat self-harm require investigation. Our data indicate that a focus on the aftercare of those who attempt suicide in Sri Lanka may have a smaller impact on suicide incidence than may...

  13. Establishment of Filipino standard man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.; San Jose, V.; Napenas, D.

    1984-01-01

    The initial data gathered on measurements of total body weight and weights of specific organs from autopsy cases of normal Filipinos are reported. Comparison of the above data with the Reference Man data of ICRP which was based primarily on Caucasians suggests some differences in the average weight and height of whole body and in the weights of some organs. Hence there appears to be a need for the establishment of Filipino standard man which can be used in the estimation of internal dose commitment of the Filipinos. (author)

  14. A well-established profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2011-01-01

    It was during the economic boom of the 1960s that the demand for landscape architects began to explode in Denmark as the expanding welfare state brought about rapid physical changes. At this time the country’s first specific education for landscape architects was established and 2010 marked the 5......th anniversary of landscape architecture teaching, at the Faculty of Life Science – the University of Copenhagen(KU-Life). It’s origins can be traced further back but, then as now, the essence of the education is that of creating a dynamic synergy of the sciences and the arts....

  15. Biochemical effectiveness of allopurinol and allopurinol-probenecid in previously benzbromarone-treated gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Mattheus K; van Roon, Eric N; Houtman, Pieternella M; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Jansen, Tim L Th A

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the uricosuric drug benzbromarone was withdrawn from the market. The first alternative drug of choice was the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. The purpose was to (1) investigate the efficacy of allopurinol (standard dosage) compared with previous treatment with benzbromarone; and (2) investigate the combination therapy allopurinol-probenecid as an effective alternative treatment compared with previous benzbromarone treatment. A prospective, open study was carried out in a cohort of 51 gout patients who discontinued benzbromarone therapy because of market withdrawal. Patients were given 200-300 mg allopurinol (stage 1). When allopurinol failed to attain the target serum urate (sUr) levels probenecid 1,000 mg/day was added (stage 2). Treatment with benzbromarone monotherapy (range: 100-200 mg/day; mean 138 mg/day) resulted in 92% of patients reaching target levels sUr probenecid combination therapy, which resulted in 86% of patients attaining target sUr levels (after failure on allopurinol monotherapy), which was comparable to previous treatment with benzbromarone (p = 0.81). Decrease in sUr levels was 53[9]% (CI 95%: 48-58%), which was a non-significant difference compared to previous treatment with benzbromarone (p = 0.23). Benzbromarone is a very effective antihyperuricemic drug with 91% success in attainment of target sUr levels probenecid proves to be an effective treatment strategy for attaining sUr target levels (86% success).

  16. Pilot project for the establishment of diagnosis reference level in pediatric computerized tomography in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil; Projeto piloto para o estabelecimento de niveis de referencia de diagnostico em tomografia computadorizada pediatrica no municipio do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Fillipe Machado de

    2014-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an important method of diagnostic imaging has been widely used around the world. However, this important diagnostic tool has led to a considerable increase in the frequency of examinations, often without proper clinical justification. Consequently, CT is one of the diagnostic procedures that contributes most to the collective dose. Scientific studies show that the concern in pediatric procedures should be even higher. Despite the fact that these patients have a higher radiosensitivity and a higher life expectancy, the protocols of the examinations are not optimized and adult protocols are applied. Moreover, a recent study performed in the United States showed that one third of the examinations was not justified. The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot study of dose indicators in pediatric CT in four hospitals, in order to verify the feasibility of the diagnostic reference levels establishment for the county of Rio de Janeiro. The dose descriptors were estimated from the beam dosimetry by applying the protocols used in each examination. The total patient sample included 358 children of different age groups. The results observed in examinations of whole trunk (routine chest, upper abdomen and pelvis) and upper abdomen in Institution A, for patients aged 5-10 years, indicated that the mAs values used were not properly selected for patients' body mass index, presenting however, conformity with UK reference levels. In the case of head CT scans and routine chest CT scans in Institution B, although patients aged 5-10 years have shown conformity with UK reference levels, the kV and mAs values used, in some examinations, were also inappropriate for the patient characteristics. Similar result was observed in examinations of head and high resolution chest for patients neonates, in Institution D. For head and routine chest examinations of 1-5 years' age group, was Institution B that showed the lowest DLP values. This result was due to

  17. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  18. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  19. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  20. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  1. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  2. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  3. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  5. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  6. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  7. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  9. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  10. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  11. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  12. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  13. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  14. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  15. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  16. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  17. Research report for fiscal 1996 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology. Evaluation on durability of device installed with inverter to protect grid connection; 1996 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka - Inbata tsuki keito renkei hogo sochi no taikyusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Discussions and evaluations have been performed on the safety and durability of the device installed with inverter to protect grid connection being an important device in the photovoltaic power generation system. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1996. The current fiscal year performed data collection and long-term continuous operation according to the durability test program for the device installed with inverter to protect grid connection, as the continuation from the previous fiscal year. In the electrical characteristics, although no large changes have been found in AC overvoltage and AC undervoltage, instability was observed in the detection level. With regard to temperatures in different components, the temperature rise has become nearly the same as in the maximum output continuous operation as a result of the repetition of the operation and shutdown, whereas the influence on the electrical and thermal stresses have increased. Particularly, when temperature rise in the AC side noise filter was given observation, the measurement of conductive high-frequency terminal voltage showed a value higher by several ten dB than in the previous fiscal year. The current fiscal year has gone farther to starting the measurement of noise electric field intensity as the base of electromagnetic interference. (NEDO)

  18. Establishment for Nuclear Equipment -Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracz, J.

    2006-01-01

    Research and development works conducted in the Establishment for Nuclear Equipment (ZdAJ) were focused around 3 subject areas: an accelerator for cancer treatment, therapeutical tables, systems and methods for controlling objects that cross international borders. The new, medium energy accelerator for cancer therapy cases is being designed in the Establishment for several years. In 2005 progress was achieved. A physical part, containing an electron beam has been completed and the parameters of that beam make it useful for therapeutical purposes. Consequently, the work on designing and testing of beam control systems, ensuring its high stability, repetition of irradiation parameters and accuracy of dosage have been started. Results of these tests make it very probable that 2006 will be the final year of scientific works and in 2007 the new apparatus will be ready for sales. Therapeutical tables have become a leading product of ZdAJ IPJ. Their technical parameters, reliability and universality in uses are appreciated by many customers of ZdAJ. In 2005, the table Polkam 16 was registered by the national Office for Registration of Medical Equipment as the first product of ZdAJ that meets all technical and formal requirements of the safety mark CE. This allows sales of the product on the market of the European Union. The research and development part of designing a therapeutical table for uses in the total body irradiation technique was also concluded in 2005. After the September 11 terrorist attacks on WTC a matter of controlling international borders have become a priority for many countries. In 2005 in ZdAJ IPJ, we conducted many preliminary calculations and experiments analyzing systems of irradiation sources, both photon and neutron as well as systems of detection and designing of signals triggered by controlling objects crossing the border. The results so far have enabled us to formulate a research project which has been positively evaluated by experts and found

  19. lithopaedon presenting as intestinal obstruction with a previous co

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-11

    Jun 11, 2013 ... B. Riogi, MBChB, Kisii Level 5 Hospital, K. Odhiambo, MBChB, MMed, (Surgery), Kisii Level 5 Hospital, Consultant. Surgeon ... high morbidity and mortality. ... abdominal swelling. On examination there was a large mass in the right upper quadrant, extending from the umbilicus to the epigastric region, hard.

  20. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  1. Research report for fiscal 1995 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology; 1995 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research and development has been performed with the objectives to establish an evaluation technology for load leveling effect by using a small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use, to clarify the effectiveness of the system as a discrete power supply source through demonstration operation, and furthermore to achieve optimization of the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1995. With the demonstration operation in the current fiscal year, through-the-year data have been accumulated for the first time since the start of the demonstration operation, and were mounted on the load leveling database. As a result of analyzing the demonstration operation data, the following points were revealed: regarding the housing load, the lighting load is the main factor both in summer and winter; the effect of reducing the peak load by photovoltaic power generation is recognized at about 60% as maximum, but the substantial effect has large variation, hence stochastic; and the reverse current becomes the main factor during daytime, not necessarily leading to improvement of the housing load characteristics in the aspect of load rate. According to the surveys on the energy demand trends up to the year 2030, the power supply configuration, and introduction cost, it was revealed that the photovoltaic power generation can be sufficiently expected as a power supply to handle the peak load. (NEDO)

  2. Research report for fiscal 1995 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology (putting of related data into order); 1995 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka (Kanren data no seibi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Research and development has been performed with the objectives to establish an evaluation technology for load leveling effect by using a small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use, to clarify the effectiveness of the system as a discrete power supply source through demonstration operation, and furthermore to achieve optimization of the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. This paper describes the actual state survey data related to grid connection systems for the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. The survey has been performed mainly on the system for individuals' use inside and outside Japan with regard to the small grid connection systems of 1-10 kW scale. The number of survey has reached 216 cases for 46 prefectures in Japan (1,004.02 kW in total), and 47 cases for 13 other countries (205.60 kW in total), or 263 cases in grand total (1,209.63 kW). These 263 cases were tabulated with items of owners (or the facility names and installation locations) as seen by territories (prefectures or countries), facility operators (or executing organizations), connection modes, and power generation scales. These data will serve for discussions on the load leveling effect and the optimized system forms. (NEDO)

  3. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  4. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  5. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  6. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  7. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  8. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  9. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  10. Establishment of the International Power Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Julius E.

    2000-04-29

    Building on the two previous trips to Central America last year, International Power Institute (IPI) and its partner Tennessee Valley Infrastructure Group (TVIG) have focused their attention this quarter on project sites in Honduras. TVIG's unit--an Integrated Infrastructure Platform or IIP--combines water and electricity production in a single integrated unit, thereby providing both products at a lower cost than could be attained for each one separately. Because of the unmet demand for clean drinking water and electricity in remote towns throughout the developing world, the need for such units is widespread. Previous visits to Honduras have resulted in strong in-country commercial interest, support in the form of memorandums of understanding by key government agencies, and identification of four prospective project sites for IIP installations. From March 5 to March 15 and with IPI support and participation, representatives from the TVIG, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), IPI, and market research firm International Business Initiatives (IBI) conducted an intensive survey of project opportunities in the four communities, to establish how IIPs might help these four communities enhance their economic development, A key aspect of the projects examined is the need to make them economically self-supporting so that they will be viable in the private sector. Summary of specific project site studies follow here, and feasibility studies for the four sites are included as attachments.

  11. AWRE: Atomic Weapons Research Establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This reviews the work of AWRE at Aldermaston and Foulness. The main programme is nuclear and is concerned with the design and development of warheads for strategic and tactical nuclear weapons for the British nuclear deterrent, including those for the Royal Navy's missile carrying submarine fleet. The work is described grouped as design physics, development and materials. Services to these groups and to the whole establishment are provided by Engineering, Safety and Administration. The work ranges from long-term fundamental research, the development of technology, design, prototype development to the environmental testing of engineered products. In materials research the emphasis is on plutonium, uranium and beryllium, on high explosives and a wide range of inorganic and organic materials. The physics of the earth's crust is studied to aid detection of underground nuclear explosions. Reactor research facilities include the two reactors, Herald and Viper. (U.K.)

  12. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  13. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  14. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (pparents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.

  16. Should the Department of Defense Establish a Joint Corrections Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    ... and control element at the combatant command level. The military and the Coalition Provisional Authority's ability to establish a national penal system, conduct standardized training and effective prison operations to rebuild the Iraqi penal system...

  17. Significantly Increased Odds of Reporting Previous Shoulder Injuries in Female Marines Based on Larger Magnitude Shoulder Rotator Bilateral Strength Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Shawn R; Connaboy, Chris; Nindl, Bradley C; Allison, Katelyn F

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries to the extremities are a primary concern for the United States (US) military. One possible injury risk factor in this population is side-to-side strength imbalance. To examine the odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury in US Marine Corps Ground Combat Element Integrated Task Force volunteers based on side-to-side strength differences in isokinetic shoulder strength. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Male (n = 219) and female (n = 91) Marines were included in this analysis. Peak torque values from 5 shoulder internal/external rotation repetitions were averaged and normalized to body weight. The difference in side-to-side strength measurements was calculated as the absolute value of the limb difference divided by the mean peak torque of the dominant limb. Participants were placed into groups based on the magnitude of these differences: 20%. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. When separated by sex, 13.2% of men reported an injury, while 5.5% of women reported an injury. Female Marines with >20% internal rotation side-to-side strength differences demonstrated increased odds of reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with female Marines with reporting a previous shoulder injury compared with those with lesser magnitude differences. Additionally, female sex appears to drastically affect the increased odds of reporting shoulder injuries (OR, 13.9-15.4) with larger magnitude differences (ie, >20%) compared with those with lesser magnitude differences (ie, <10% and 10%-20%). The retrospective cohort design of this study cannot delineate cause and effect but establishes a relationship between female Marines and greater odds of larger magnitude strength differences after returning from an injury.

  18. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  19. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non......-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup...

  20. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  1. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  3. Is the prefrontal cortex necessary for establishing cognitive sets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowe, James B; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Lund, Torben E

    2007-01-01

    first instructed as to whether to perform a spatial or a verbal working memory task and then given spatial and verbal items after a delay of 4-12 s. The patients showed an increase in switch costs, making more errors by repeating what they had done on the previous trial. They were able to establish...

  4. Petten establishment. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    1978 was the second year in the Joint Research Centre's 1977-1980 multiannual research programme. Since the following exercise is intended to run from 1980 to 1983 with a one year overlap, new proposals will be placed before the Council of Ministers in 1979. To this end, a considerable part of the programme and project management staff activities has been devoted to the peliminary preparation of future plans. In general it is expected that the Establishment's three research activities will continue along the lines already proceeding successfully in the present programme in the materials testing reactor (HFR), high temperature materials and organic chemistry spheres with some updating and refocussing where necessary. Consultation with the appropriate Advisory Committees for Programme Management has been contributed to these processes. Another important development has been the question of site security, following decisions of the European Commission and the Dutch Government to apply International Atomic Agency regulations. The work to apply the necessary measures has had to be executed in the shortest possible time. We have endeavoured to maintain and increase for all three programmes the already intensive contacts with research institutes and industry in the Member States. Important in this connection are the international conferences, 'Alloy 800' held in March and 'Ramping and Load following Behaviour of Reactor Fuel' in December, as well as an international meeting of the 'irradiation Devices Working Party' which took place in May

  5. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  6. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  7. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  8. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  9. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. DNA relatedness among established Ureaplasma species and unidentified feline and canine serogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, R; Stephens, E B; Koshimizu, K; Pan, I J; Barile, M F

    1990-01-01

    The levels of DNA relatedness among two unclassified feline ureaplasma serogroups, four unclassified canine ureaplasma serogroups, and the three previously established Ureaplasma species were examined and compared. The strains examined included five feline strains representing two feline serogroups, four canine strains representing four canine serogroups, and the type strains of the three established species. Each strain representing each species or serogroup exhibited 78% or more actual DNA homology with its homologous DNA, but less than 10% DNA homology with DNAs from the heterologous strains. These findings indicate that each of these human, bovine, avian, feline, and canine strains is genomically distinct. In addition, the three previously recognized species (Ureaplasma urealyticum [human], Ureaplasma diversum [bovine], and Ureaplasma gallorale [avian]), which were established on the basis of phenotypic properties, were also shown to be genomically distinct. The three feline serogroup SI strains were genomically related (from 89 to 100% DNA homology) to each other but were unrelated (less than 10% DNA homology) to the feline serogroup SII strains, indicating that these two feline serogroups are also genomically distinct. Conversely, the two feline serogroup SII strains were genomically very similar (from 83 to 100% DNA homology) to each other but were unrelated (less than 10% DNA homology) to the three feline serogroup SI strains. However, canine serogroup SI strain D1M-C exhibited 73% DNA homology with serologically distinct canine serogroup SII strain D29M, indicating that these strains representing two separate serogroups belong to the same genomic species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Ecthyma gangrenosum in the periorbital region in a previously healthy immunocompetent woman without bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality.

  12. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  13. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  14. Research report for fiscal 1996 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology; 1996 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Tests and researches have been performed with the objectives to establish an evaluation technology for load leveling effect by using a small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use, to clarify the effectiveness of the system as a discrete power supply source through demonstration operation, and furthermore to achieve optimization of designs of the small photovoltaic power generation system for residential use. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1996. The current fiscal year has performed collection of data of the demonstration operation, checked the consistency in photovoltaic power generation characteristics, and housing and distribution line load characteristics, and the results were mounted on the database. The demonstration operation data were used to analyze and evaluate the facility utilization rate in the photovoltaic power generation, photovoltaic power generation dependence of the house load, load rate, and peak load reduction rate. As a result, it was found that not much of the peak load reduction effect by the photovoltaic power generation was recognized because the house load is related mainly on lighting load. However, as seen from the distribution line load, the peak load reduction was recognized when the house load and the commercial and industrial load are mixed, whereas it was revealed that the reduction effect is worth evaluation. (NEDO)

  15. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  16. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  18. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  19. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Satwant K

    2011-01-01

    Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. The study is based on field investigations. Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects' mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.

  20. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  1. Nuclear Physics in High School: what are the previous knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, F. de O.

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that about a century occupies an important space in the theoretical, experimental and scientific fields. Currently, its relevance in application is concentrated in several areas such as energy production, diagnostic processes and medical treatment and nuclear bombs, high destructive power. Whereas, according to legal regulations, the teaching of physics must make the student competent in the understanding of the world and assuming the perspective of Paulo Freire (2011) that education is not done on the subject, but together with him, in dialogue with his point of departure, his prior knowledge, we established the general objective of raising students prior knowledge of the third year of high School at Nair Ferreira Neves school, in São Sebastião-SP, about nuclear physics. We concluded that the school has not fulfilled its role in relation to nuclear physics, because students have information from other means of information and these knowledge are stereotyped and mistaken, damaging the world's reading and exercising full citizenship.

  2. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for previously untreated malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsushita, Haruo; Takeda, Ken; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is one of the methods used to deliver a large single dose to the tumor tissue while reducing the exposure of normal surrounding tissue. However, the usefulness of intraoperative electron therapy for malignant gliomas has not been established. During the period from 1987 to 1997, 32 patients with malignant gliomas were treated with IORT. The histological diagnoses were anaplastic astrocytoma in 11 patients and glioblastoma in 21 patients. Therapy consisted of surgical resection and intraoperative electron therapy using a dose of 12–15 Gy (median, 15 Gy). The patients later underwent postoperative external radiation therapy (EXRT) with a median total dose of 60 Gy. Each of the 32 patients treated with IORT was randomly matched with patients who had been treated with postoperative EXRT alone (control). Patients were matched according to histological grade, age, extent of tumor removal, and tumor location. In the anaplastic astrocytoma group, the one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 81%, 51% and 15%, respectively in the IORT patients and 54%, 43% and 21%, respectively in the control patients. In the glioblastoma group, one-, two- and five-year survival rates were 63%, 26% and 0%, respectively in the IORT patients and 70%, 18% and 6%, respectively in the control patients. There was no significant difference between survival rates in the IORT patients and control patients in either the anaplastic astrocytoma group or glioblastoma group. IORT dose not improve survival of patients with malignant gliomas compared to that of patients who have received EXRT alone

  3. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  4. Lithopaedon Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction with a Previous Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of a 25 year old lady Para 4 + 0 gravida 5, who was referred to Kisii level 5 hospital from a district hospital with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction and a four year history of an intra-abdominal mass. A year prior to the admission she conceived and delivered vaginally at home but the baby died a few ...

  5. Níveis críticos de fósforo para o estabelecimento de gramíneas forrageiras em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, álico. I: ensaio em casa de vegetação Critical levels of phosphorus for the establishment of pasture grasses on a Red Yellow Latosol. I: greenhouse test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de A. Corrêa

    1993-05-01

    establishment were observed among the species, for 80% of maximum growth. The critical level of soil P, in the first cut, varied from 8.0 to 12.0 ppm (Mehlich I and 13.0 to 18.0 ppm (Resin; for the second, cut, the levels were 11.5; 12.0 and 14.0 ppm (Mehlich I and 18.0; 22.0 and 24.0 ppm (Resin, for the Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizaníha and Panicum maximum, respectively. The critical levels of P in the plant were, in the same order, 0.11; 0.13 and 0.12% for the first cut and 0.09; 0.12 and 0.10%, for the second cut.

  6. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  7. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  8. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  9. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  10. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  11. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  12. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  13. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  14. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  15. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  16. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  17. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  18. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  19. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  20. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  1. Do alcohol compliance checks decrease underage sales at neighboring establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Smolenski, Derek J; Toomey, Traci L; Carlin, Bradley P; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2013-11-01

    Underage alcohol compliance checks conducted by law enforcement agencies can reduce the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales at checked alcohol establishments, and theory suggests that an alcohol establishment that is checked may warn nearby establishments that compliance checks are being conducted in the area. In this study, we examined whether the effects of compliance checks diffuse to neighboring establishments. We used data from the Complying with the Minimum Drinking Age trial, which included more than 2,000 compliance checks conducted at more than 900 alcohol establishments. The primary outcome was the sale of alcohol to a pseudo-underage buyer without the need for age identification. A multilevel logistic regression was used to model the effect of a compliance check at each establishment as well as the effect of compliance checks at neighboring establishments within 500 m (stratified into four equal-radius concentric rings), after buyer, license, establishment, and community-level variables were controlled for. We observed a decrease in the likelihood of establishments selling alcohol to underage youth after they had been checked by law enforcement, but these effects quickly decayed over time. Establishments that had a close neighbor (within 125 m) checked in the past 90 days were also less likely to sell alcohol to young-appearing buyers. The spatial effect of compliance checks on other establishments decayed rapidly with increasing distance. Results confirm the hypothesis that the effects of police compliance checks do spill over to neighboring establishments. These findings have implications for the development of an optimal schedule of police compliance checks.

  2. Establishing a relationship with media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesaru, Dana

    2000-01-01

    The Cernavoda NPP site is in Constanta County in the Dobrogea region. Within a 30-km radius of the Cernavoda NPP site there are several historical monuments and archaeologically significant ruins, some of which date to Greek and Roman times. There are also four natural reserves. None of these features are sufficiently close to the NPP to be disturbed by its operation The start of the nuclear program in Romania, about 20 years ago, was a high-level government decision based on economical and political considerations, but without any commitment or acceptance of the people. Unit 1 delivers to the national grid 20% of the national electricity demand, in 1998 the gross capacity factor was 86.19%. Cernavoda is the only nuclear station operating in the country. The plant has been in commercial operation a little more than three years, so the Public Relations Department is a fledgling one. The site PR group was first formed during the latter stages of the construction. The PR group has to deal with the changing of the access to the information, still going on in Romania. First, the PR group had the public who used to view the information with apathy and scepticism, as the information was coming from a single controlled source. The same public today views the information with the scepticism and apathy, confused by the unrestricted access to the information. First, the information was unbelievable, and now it is bewildering. The PR group is in the middle of this change. We must convince the public that the messages we put out are factual and that this is an honest exchange. The challenge before is to build a bridge of understanding and trust between the NPP and the public. The PR group has the necessary foundation on the NPP side and the full commitment from the management. What are needed are a formation of a group of public sufficiently interested in the affairs of the NPP and the influence of the NPP on the life of community

  3. [Consensus on the establishment of urban trauma rescue system in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid economic development in China, the incidence of all sorts of accidental injury, such as traffic injuries and fall-induced injuries, increased significantly. Trauma, particularly severe trauma, often involves multiple organs and multiple system damage, and needs a scientific, standardized comprehensive multidisciplinary approach for treatment. Due to meticulous sub-division of clinical department sand lack of professional trauma treatment team in general hospitals in China's major cities, the overall level of trauma rescue in China is much lower than the developed countries. So the urgent need is to establish and form an efficient and standardized urban trauma treatment system. In order to further guarantee the establishment of urban trauma rescue system, and to further improve the success rate of trauma rescue in China, nationally well-known trauma experts of China developed the "Expert consensus document on the establishment of urban trauma rescue system in China" based on its previous research results, foreign countries' successful experience and China's national conditions. This document would be an important reference for our local governments at all levels to create urban trauma rescue system.

  4. Outcome of trial of scar in patients with previous caesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.; Bashir, R.; Khan, W.

    2016-01-01

    Medical evidence indicates that 60-80% of women can achieve vaginal delivery after a previous lower segment caesarean section. Proper selection of patients for trial of scar and vigilant monitoring during labour will achieve successful maternal and perinatal outcome. The objective of our study is to establish the fact that vaginal delivery after one caesarean section has a high success rate in patients with previous one caesarean section for non-recurrent cause. Methods: The study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Abbottabad, Gynae-B Unit. All labouring patients, during the study period of five years, with previous one caesarean section and between 37 weeks to 41 weeks of gestation for a non-recurrent cause were included in the study. Data was recorded on special proforma designed for the purpose. Patients who had previous classical caesarean section, more than one caesarean section, and previous caesarean section with severe wound infection, transverse lie and placenta previa in present pregnancy were excluded. Foetal macrosomia (wt>4 kg) and severe IUGR with compromised blood flow on Doppler in present pregnancy were also not considered suitable for the study. Patients who had any absolute contraindication for vaginal delivery were also excluded. Results: There were 12505 deliveries during the study period. Total vaginal deliveries were 8790 and total caesarean sections were 3715. Caesarean section rate was 29.7%. Out of these 8790 patients, 764 patients were given a trial of scar and 535 patients delivered successfully vaginally (70%). Women who presented with spontaneous onset of labour were more likely to deliver vaginally (74.8%) as compared to induction group (27.1%). Conclusion: Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary caesarean section. (author)

  5. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  6. Investigating the effect of previous treatments on wheat biomass over multiple spatial frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, A. E.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Lark, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    In this study we use the maximum overlap discrete packet transform (MODWPT) to investigate residual effects on wheat biomass of fertigation treatments applied to a previous crop. The wheat crop covered nine subplots from a previous experiment on melon response to fertigation. Each subplot had previously received a different level of applied nitrogen. Many factors affect wheat biomass, causing it to vary at different spatial frequencies. We hypothesize that these will include residual effects from fertilizer application (at relatively low spatial frequencies) and the local influence of individual plants from the previous melon crop (at high frequency). To test this hypothesis we use the MODWPT to identify the dominant spatial frequencies of wheat biomass variation, and analyse the relationship to both the previous fertilizer application and the location of individual melon plants in the previous crop. The MODWPT is particularly appropriate for this because it allows us first to identify the key spatial frequencies in the wheat biomass objectively and to analyse them, and their relationship to hypothesized driving factors without any assumptions of uniformity (stationarity) of wheat-biomass variation. The results showed that the applied nitrogen dominated the wheat biomass response, and that there was a noticeable component of wheat-biomass variation at the spatial frequency that corresponds to the melon cropping. We expected wheat biomass to be negatively correlated with the position of melons in the previous crop, due to uptake of the applied nitrogen. The MODWPT, which allows us to detect changes in correlation between variables at different frequencies, showed that such a relationship was found across part of the experiment but not uniformly.

  7. Previous Land Use and Invasive Species Impacts on Long-term Afforestation Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua B. Nickelson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of agricultural lands to forests has increased worldwide over the past few decades for multiple reasons including increasing forest connectivity and wildlife habitat. However, previous land cover and competing vegetation often impede afforestation. We established 219 plots in 29 Quercus plantations on four previous land cover types (LCT: Clover, Soybeans, Woody Brush, and Herbaceous Weeds. Plantations were located in Illinois, USA and were sampled 15–18 years after planting. Sampling data for all trees (planted and volunteer included species, diameter, and vine presence on the main bole of the tree. Free-to-grow status was recorded for all Quercus species and estimated cover of two invasive species, Elaeagnus umbellata and Lonicera japonica, was documented on each plot. There was a strong relationship between total tree density and invasive species cover across all sites. Stocking success was lower and E. umbellata cover was higher on Woody Brush sites compared to Clover and Soybean cover types. Additionally, significantly more free-to-grow Quercus saplings occurred in Clover and Soybean cover types compared to the Woody Brush sites. The results indicate that previous land cover plays a critical role in forest afforestation. Furthermore, while historically, volunteer tree species were thought to be detrimental to the development of planted species these results suggest that with the increasing prevalence of invasive species worldwide the role of volunteer species in afforestation should be reconsidered and silvicultural protocols adjusted accordingly.

  8. Nutritional Status of Children from Women with Previously Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Jessica Cristina; Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; de Souza Pinhel, Marcela Augusta; Cortes-Oliveira, Cristiana; Salgado Júnior, Wilson; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2018-04-01

    Number of pregnancies has been increasing in women of childbearing age after the gastric bypass. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of children of women submitted to gastric bypass. We evaluated anthropometric, breastfeeding and biochemical profile, body composition, and dietary intake indicators of children of both sexes who were born alive after the surgery. For statistical analysis, were performed Shapiro-Wilk and ANOVA test (p deficiency of iron and vitamin A. 7.6 and 30.7% of children presented carbohydrate and lipid, respectively, lower than the recommendation. Fiber intake was inadequate in all children, calcium in 61.5%, vitamin A in 30.7%, and folate in 76.9% of them. Also, 84.6% presented sodium intake higher than the recommendations. The blood glucose levels were lower in children with maternal breastfeeding (65.5 ± 2.1 mg/dL, p deficiency of iron and vitamin A and inadequate alimentary intake mainly of sodium and fibers. Breastfeeding may play a protective role in the development of obesity in these children.

  9. Weaning and establishment of pineapple (Ananas Comosus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vitro propagation). The paper reports on establishment after treatment with two different auxins in-vitro. About ninety-nine (99) percent of the transported plantlets successfully established in compost. Spiny individuals increased with higher ...

  10. 75 FR 50036 - Petition To Modify an Exemption of a Previously Approved Antitheft Device; Ford Motor Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... additional level of security to the IAwPB device. Specifically, in the SecuriLock/PATS device, when the... Exemption of a Previously Approved Antitheft Device; Ford Motor Company AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... petition to modify an exemption of a previously approved antitheft device. SUMMARY: On February 14, 2006...

  11. Out Come Of Trial Of Scar In Patients With Previous Caesarean Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bushra; Deeba, Farhat; Bashir, Rubina; Khan, Wajiha

    2016-01-01

    Patients who had one caesarean section were previously not given a trial of scar due to fear of increased morbidity. However, recently there has been a trend to give a trial of labour to patients with a previous caesarean section for a non-recurrent cause. Medical evidence indicates that 60-80% of women can achieve vaginal delivery after a previous lower segment caesarean section. Proper selection of patients for trial of scar and vigilant monitoring during labour will achieve successful maternal and perinatal outcome. The objective of our study is to establish the fact that vaginal delivery after one caesarean section has a high success rate in patients with previous one caesarean section for non-recurrent cause. The study was conducted in Ayub Teaching Abbottabad, Gynae-B Unit. All labouring patients, during the study period of five years, with previous one caesarean section and between 37 weeks to 41 weeks of gestation for a non-recurrent cause were included in the study. Data was recorded on special pro forma designed for the purpose. Patients who had previous classical caesarean section, more than one caesarean section, and previous caesarean section with severe wound infection, transverse lie and placenta previa in present pregnancy were excluded. Foetal macrosomia (wt>4 kg) and severe IUGR with compromised blood flow on Doppler in present pregnancy were also not considered suitable for the study. Patients who had any absolute contraindication for vaginal delivery were also excluded. There were 12505 deliveries during the study period. Total vaginal deliveries were 8790 and total caesarean sections were 3715. Caesarean section rate was 29.7%. Out of these 8790 patients, 764 patients were given a trial of scar and 535 patients delivered successfully vaginally (70%). Women who presented with spontaneous onset of labour were more likely to deliver vaginally (74.8%) as compared to induction group (27.1%). Trial of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) in selected

  12. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  13. Should the Department of Defense Establish a Unified U.S. Logistics Command?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenzel, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This monograph asserts that DoD should establish a Unified Combatant Command (COCOM)-level U.S. Logistics Command (USLOGCOM). DoD should begin a deliberate 10-20 year process to establish a USLOGCOM...

  14. Feasibility study to establish a new value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrid Herman, Marie; Thai, Thi Minh

    Since the 90s value chain (VC) approaches have received considerable attention by governments and development agencies for poverty reduction and strengthening the private sector. VC analysis has been used for developing intervention strategies to upgrade existing or to establish new VCs. Despite......-harvesting of Gleichenia ferns in New Caledonia using a holistic framework combining relevant conceptual elements and various analytical tools in VC literature. Results showed the importance of starting with understanding goals of establishing the VC. In this case goals were creating employment in remote areas...... responsibility for value-creation and distribution activities. Finally, the feasibility analysis underlined the importance of reflecting on findings from the previous analyses with regards to set goals in order to identify (mis)matches between expected benefits from the established VC and goals as well...

  15. Distribution of physical therapists working on public and private establishments in different levels of complexity of health care in Brazil Distribuição de fisioterapeutas entre estabelecimentos públicos e privados nos diferentes níveis de complexidade de atenção à saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa R. Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Brazilian Health System is organized on a regional and hierarchical form with three levels of complexity of health care. The Primary Care represents the first element of a continuing health care process, complemented by specialized actions. However, the centrality of the specialized care is still a problem in Brazil, especially in the private sector. Studies on the distribution of professionals in the health system allowing the formulation of appropriate policies are needed. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the distribution of physical therapists in the levels of complexity of health care and between public and private establishments, according to data from the National Register of Health Service Providers (NRHSP. METHOD: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed considering NRHSP-national bank data collected in March 2010 and demographic census 2010 data. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics techniques. RESULTS: We identified 53,181 registries of physical therapists, 60% linked to the private sector. Only 13% of all entries were linked to primary care. The predominance in specialized care occurred in the public sector (65% and private sector (100%. The specialized establishments of private sector linked to the southeast region (16,043 were the main sites of physical therapists. Only the public sector in the south had a majority in the Primary Care. When considering the sizes of the cities, there is focus on specialist care in bigger cities. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the concentration of physical therapists in the specialized care, mostly in metropolis and big cities and in the private sector, with restricted to participation in the primary care.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS é organizado de forma regionalizada e hierarquizada, apresentando três níveis de complexidade de atenção à saúde. A atenção primária à saúde (APS representa o primeiro elemento de um continuado

  16. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  17. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  18. Mucosal immunization confers long-term protection against intragastrically established Neospora caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Teixeira-Coelho, Maria; Osório, Hugo; Teixeira, Luzia; Rocha, António; Vilanova, Manuel

    2016-12-07

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite responsible for heavy economic losses in dairy and beef cattle farms worldwide. Although vaccination is widely regarded as the preferable strategy to prevent neosporosis no commercial vaccine is currently available. We have previously shown that intranasal immunization with an N. caninum antigen extract enriched in hydrophobic proteins plus CpG adjuvant protected mice against intragastrically established neosporosis. Nevertheless, the antigen specificity as well as the long-term protective effect of this immunization strategy were not determined. Here, we show that the protective effect of this intranasal immunization procedure lasted for at least 20weeks. Protection was accompanied by long-lasting elevated levels of parasite-specific serum IgG and intestinal IgA. Moreover, spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells obtained from non-infected long-term immunized mice responded by producing interferon-γ following in vitro parasite-antigen recall. Analysis of serum IgG and intestinal IgA antibody reactivity in immunized mice identified dense granule antigen 7 (NcGRA7) and microneme associated protein 1 (NcMIC1) as immunodominant antigens respectively recognized by those antibody fractions. In summary, this work shows that a previously reported mucosal immunization strategy against N. caninum infection established through the gastrointestinal tract is effective in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous exerted on the victim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Yepes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile. All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H (n=11, homicides with previous violence (VH (n=9 and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B (n=26. The aim of the study was to analyze the possible existence of three different kinds of profiles and more specifically if it’s possible to obtain an independent profile for domestic homicides with previous episodes of violence against their wives. The results neither confirm the hypothesis as whole nor for the violent homicides. However, differences between groups were obtained in the admission and description of the facts, in the risk of future violence, in some sociodemographical characteristics (i.e., level of education, social status, in the couple relationship, in the dissatisfaction concerning the unachieved ideal woman, in the use of extreme physical force during the aggression, the time of the first aggression, the use of verbal threats during the aggression, explanation of the events to the family and the period of time between the beginning of the romantic relationship and the manifestation of violence. The implications of the results for the theoretical frameworks proposed and future research are discussed.

  20. Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Kathrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.

  1. Validation of the Online version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire for schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel ENGEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the validity of the web-based version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online for schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of elementary school. Methods Participants were 312 schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years of a public school from the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Validity was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, as well as by agreement rates (match, omission, and intrusion rates of food items reported by children on the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online, using direct observation of foods/beverages eaten during school meals (mid-morning snack or afternoon snack on the previous day as the reference. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of participants’ characteristics on omission and intrusion rates. Results The results showed adequate sensitivity (67.7% and specificity (95.2%. There were low omission and intrusion rates of 22.8% and 29.5%, respectively when all food items were analyzed. Pizza/hamburger showed the highest omission rate, whereas milk and milk products showed the highest intrusion rate. The participants who attended school in the afternoon shift presented a higher probability of intrusion compared to their peers who attended school in the morning. Conclusion The Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online possessed satisfactory validity for the assessment of food intake at the group level in schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of public school.

  2. Association between obstetric complications & previous pregnancy outcomes with current pregnancy outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepti; Goli, Srinivas; Parsuraman, Sulabha

    2014-01-01

    A substantial proportion of pregnant women in India are at the risk of serious obstetric complications and reliable information on obstetric morbidity is scanty, particularly in socio-economically disadvantaged society. We studied the association between the obstetric complications in women in their current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data from District Level Household Survey (2007-2008) were used for empirical assessment. Bivariate, trivariate and Cox proportional hazard regression model analyses were applied to examine the effect of obstetric complications and previous pregnancy outcome on current pregnancy outcome among currently married women (age group 15-49 yr) in Uttar Pradesh, India. The results of this study showed that the obstetric complications in the current pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes in previous pregnancies were associated with the outcome of the current pregnancy. Cox proportional hazard regression model estimates revealed that the hazard ratio of having stillbirths were significantly higher among women with any obstetric complications compared to women with no obstetric complications. The adverse pregnancy outcome in a previous pregnancy was the largest risk factor for likelihood of developing similar type of adverse pregnancy outcome in the current pregnancy. The findings provided key insights for health policy interventions in terms of prevention of obstetric complications to avoid the adverse pregnancy outcome in women.

  3. Occupational psychophysics to establish vision requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris A

    2008-10-01

    To develop and implement a comprehensive procedure for determining vision requirements for different vocational and occupational tasks. Evaluations performed for more than 10 state agencies and businesses were conducted over a period of approximately 9 years. The procedure included a literature review, an assessment of potential visual functions to address, a formal job analysis, interviews with incumbent workers, obtaining advice and recommendations from subject matter experts (experienced incumbents and administrators), development of job-related simulation studies, linkage of simulation results to the job analysis, a review of appeals and critical incidents, a thorough assessment of work environments and conditions, and final recommendations. Examples of occupational simulations for quantitative job-related task performance for best-corrected visual acuity, uncorrected visual acuity, color vision, peripheral vision, the use of one vs. two eyes, naïve vs. experienced incumbents, and impoverished visual conditions are presented. Changes in task performance and confidence ratings were obtained for various levels of degraded vision. This procedure, referred to as "occupational psychophysics," provides a quantitative systematic method of defining the vision requirements for various essential job functions. In conjunction with the frequency of performance, requirements at entry to the job, safety, reasonable accommodation, alteration of the work environment, and administrative issues, this approach provides a quantitative, rational basis for establishing job-related vision requirements.

  4. Establishing exemption and clearance criteria by the regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, A.E.A.

    2012-04-01

    This Project work discusses the relationship between the concepts of exemption and clearance, and their practical use in the overall scheme of regulatory control of practices. It also discusses how exemptions and clearance is established and the scope of its applications for regulatory control. The concept of general clearance levels for any type of material and any possible pathway of disposal is also introduced in this work. Guidance of the Group of Experts establishing scenarios for general clearance, parameter values, and a nuclide-specific list of calculated clearance levels is also presented. Regulatory authorities are required to develop guidance on exemption and clearance levels to assist licensees and registrants to know which practices and sources within practices are exempted from regulatory control and those to be cleared from further controls. Exemption and clearance levels are tools for assisting the Regulatory Authority to optimize the use of resources. (author)

  5. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill

    2002-01-01

    of the activated area and the signal change following ON, and compared the results with results of neuroophthalmological testing. We studied nine patients with previous acute ON and 10 healthy persons served as controls using fMRI with visual stimulation. In addition to a reduced activated volume, patients showed...... a reduced blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increase and a greater asymmetry in the visual cortex, compared with controls. The volume of visual cortical activation was significantly correlated to the result of the contrast sensitivity test. The BOLD signal increase correlated significantly......The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...

  6. Repetition of previously novel melodies sometimes increases both remember and know responses in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J M; Kaminska, Z; Dixon, M; Java, R I

    1996-09-01

    Recognition memory for previously novel melodies was tested in three experiments in which subjects usedremember andknow responses to report experiences of recollection, or of familiarity in the absence of recollection, for each melody they recognized. Some of the melodies were taken from Polish folk songs and presented vocally, but without the words. Others were taken from obscure pieces of classical music, presented as single-line melodies. Prior to the test, the melodies were repeated for varying numbers of study trials. Repetition of the Polish melodies increased both remember and know responses, while repetition of classical melodies increased remember but not know responses. When subjects were instructed to report guesses, guess responses were inversely related to remember and know responses and there were more guesses to lures than to targets. These findings establish that remembering and knowing are fully independent functionally and, by the same token, they provide further evidence against the idea that response exclusivity causes increases in remembering to force decreases in knowing. The findings also suggest that simultaneous increases in remembering and knowing occurred because the Polish melodies came from a genre for which the subjects had relatively little previous experience.

  7. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorder...

  8. Establishing Cynodon dactylon on mining tailings and mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining for copper and cobalt generates extensive mounds of removed topsoil and subsoil, and tailings with toxic levels of copper and cobalt. The threat of soil erosion in a high rainfall regime can be countered with rapid establishment of a sod-forming grass, such as Cynodon dactylon, that covers and binds the soil.

  9. Establishment of a Nothofagus alessandrii plantation using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a lack of information regarding the establishment of Nothofagus alessandrii plantations, including any impacts that shading and weed control may have on early survival and growth. A trial was therefore initiated where four shade levels (0% and Rachel® plastic net of 50%, 65%, and 80%) and two weed control ...

  10. Establishment of proteome spot profiles and comparative analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 'Bon Rouge' pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar is characterized by high levels of anthocyanins, the pigments responsible for the red leaf and red fruit skin phenotype. Branches of 'Bon Rouge' pear trees planted in commercial orchards often revert to the original green phenotype. The study aimed at establishing ...

  11. Acoustic attenuation design requirements established through EPNL parametric trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    An optimization procedure for the provision of an acoustic lining configuration that is balanced with respect to engine performance losses and lining attenuation characteristics was established using a method which determined acoustic attenuation design requirements through parametric trade studies using the subjective noise unit of effective perceived noise level (EPNL).

  12. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F

    2014-02-01

    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  14. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  15. Performans Değerlendirme Yöntemi Olarak 360 Derece Geribildirim Sürecinin Orta Kademe Yöneticilerin İş Başarısına Olan Etkisi: 5 Yıldızlı Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Uygulama = The Effect of 360 Degree Feedback Performance Evaluation Process on the Achievement of Middle-Level Managers: an Application in 5-Star Accommodation Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya KARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to reveal the effect of 360 degree feedback performance evaluation process on the achievement of middle-level managers. To serve this purpose, 5-star establishments, in total 182, with tourism certification and operating in 5 major provinces (Antalya, İstanbul, Muğla, Ankara, İzmir made up the application field of the study. The study aims to determine to what extent the 360 degree feedback performance evaluation process differentiate compared to traditional performance evaluation processes within the context of job achievement. The results of the study suggest that 7 dimensions (leadership, task performance, adaptation to change, communication, human relations, creating output, employee training and development were found to be more effective in the job performances of the middle-level managers.

  16. Revision and simplification of the boarding previous minimum of the lumbar column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazannec, JY; Del Vecchio, R; Ramare, S; Saillant, G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the boarding retroperineal previous minimum, which provides access at any level discal and vertebral between T12 and S1. It is carried out a technique of dissection retroperineal that facilitates the renal and duodenum-pancreatic mobilization to consent to the face previous left of the whole lumbar column and of the thoracic-lumbar union. They were carried out careful anatomical dissections in fresh cadavers and preserved to determine the topography and the anatomical relationships of interest and this way to develop a sure boarding and easily reproducible. Special attention has been paid to the description of the lumbar veins and the anastomosis between the vein renal left and the hemiacigos system for the exhibition of the expensive left anterolateral of T12 and L1. A series of 94 patients is reported with lesions caused by traumas or degenerative processes. For all the lumbar levels, even in-patient with antecedents of surgery intraperitoneal, the boarding minimum retroperitoneal, was safe for the kidneys, ureters, spleen, hypo gastric plexus and duodenum-pancreatic union. Better cosmetic results are reported, decrease of the time surgical, scarce bled intraoperatory and easiness for the decortications and placement of implants. The previous boarding minimum retro peritoneal of the column developed starting from the boarding classic retroperineals, offers significant advantages on the endoscopic techniques, which require sophisticated machinery and they are technically plaintiffs. The exhibition of all the lumbar levels, as well as the reduction maneuvers and placement of implants, they can be carried out with easiness without causing muscular damage

  17. Modified Latarjet Procedure Without Capsulolabral Repair for the Treatment of Failed Previous Operative Stabilizations in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Bertona, Agustin; Tanoira, Ignacio; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L

    2018-02-03

    To analyze time to return to sport, functional outcomes, and recurrences of the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair in athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after a failed previous operative stabilization. We included athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a previous failed operative stabilization treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Return to sports, range of motion, the Rowe score, a visual analog scale for pain in sport activity, and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System were used to assess functional outcomes. Recurrences were also evaluated. The postoperative bone block position and consolidation were assessed with computed tomography. Between June 2008 and June 2015, 68 athletes were treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent shoulder instability after a previous failed stabilization surgery. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range, 24-108 months), and the mean age at the time of operation was 26.8 years (range, 17-35 years). All the patients returned to sports, and 95% returned to the same sport they practiced before the surgery, all to the same level. No significant difference in shoulder range of motion was found between preoperative and postoperative results. The Rowe score, visual analog scale, and Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System showed statistical improvement after operation (P Latarjet without capsulolabral repair produced excellent functional outcomes with most athletes returning to sport at the same level they had before the surgery without recurrences. Level IV, therapeutic, case series study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Cardiac markers in different degrees of chronic kidney disease: influence of inflammation and previous heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Borja; Goicoechea, Marian; García de Vinuesa, Soledad; Verde, Eduardo; Verdalles, Ursula; Yuste, Claudia; Reque, Javier; Luño, José

    2012-06-30

    Troponin T (TnT), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its precursor (NT-proBNP) are useful markers of acute coronary events and heart failure. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of chronic renal failure, inflammation and heart disease in these biomarkers. In 266 patients with different stages of chronic renal diseases, the following parameters were measured: cardiac markers (TnT, BNP and NT-proBNP), renal function, inflammatory markers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, albumin, uric acid and white blood cells). We recorded the cardiovascular history. Ventricular dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed by echocardiography. A significant correlation between cardiac markers and inflammatory parameters such as fibrinogen, hsCRP and albumin was found. Age (OR 1.05, P = .021), serum albumin (OR: 0.06, P=.006), ischemic heart disease (OR: 8.17, P=.0092) and renal failure (OR: 1.67, P=.05) were predictors of higher BNP levels. Age (OR 1.05, P=.0097), serum albumin (OR: 0.12, P=.001), ischemic heart disease (OR: 3.43, P=.034), renal failure (OR: 1, 65, P=.036) and heart failure (OR: 4.33, P=.0312) were predictors of elevated NT-proBNP. Previous ischemic heart disease alone increased TnT levels (OR: 6.51, P=.0012). Age, previous cardiac disease and inflammation increase cardiac marker levels in patients with different stages of renal disease, but the degree of renal failure is an important factor influencing NT-proBNP levels. However, ischemic heart disease alone increases the levels of TnT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Cervicothoracic junction arthroplasty after previous fusion surgery for adjacent segment degeneration: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Lali

    2005-01-01

    This is the first reported case of cervical arthroplasty using the Bryan Cervical Disc Prosthesis System (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Inc., Memphis, TN) in the management of adjacent segment degeneration associated with previous fusion surgery and surgery at the cervicothoracic junction. This case report describes a 25-year-old woman who initially underwent a two-level anterior cervical fusion in 1998, 2 years after being involved in a motor vehicle accident. She was well until 18 months before presentation, when she developed bilateral shoulder pain, mechanical neck pain worse on flexion, and bilateral C8 distribution arm pain and paresthesia. On clinical examination, no focal deficits were found, although the range of motion was reduced. Preoperative cervical spine x-rays and magnetic resonance scanning confirmed accelerated degeneration of the C4-C5 and C7-T1 disc spaces, with evidence of neural compression at those levels. After careful consideration of various treatment options and failure of all conservative measures, the patient underwent an anterior C4-C5 and C7-T1 decompression with removal of the anterior cervical plate and placement of two artificial disc prostheses. After surgery, her course was uncomplicated and she was discharged from hospital well. There was complete resolution of the arm symptoms and reduction of the neck pain, with a reduction in the amount of analgesia she was taking. Seven months after surgery, she remains well with repeat x-rays confirming motion at the operated levels. This case demonstrates that cervical arthroplasty is a reasonable treatment option for patients who have had previous surgery in which interbody fusion has been performed and who have developed degeneration of adjacent levels. Despite the altered biomechanics at the cervicothoracic junction, no adverse features were noted with arthroplasty at this level.

  20. Collision vulnerability of vultures at established windfarms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    Vulture News 65. November 2013. Collision vulnerability of vultures at established windfarms. Warren Goodwin. 177 Fraser Road North, Canning vale, WA 6155, Australia. shikra_g@yahoo.com. Established wind farms are commonly situated on mountain ridges or hillsides, in order to make optimal use of prevailing winds,.

  1. Improving tree establishment with forage crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Holzmueller; Carl W. Mize

    2003-01-01

    Tree establishment in Iowa can be difficult without adequate weed control. Although herbicides are effective at controlling weeds, they may not be desirable in riparian settings and some landowners are opposed to using them. An alternative to herbicides is the use of forage crops to control weeds. A research project was established in 1998 to evaluate the influence of...

  2. VAT and Fixed Establishment : Mysteries Solved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Schippers (Martijn); Boender, J.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThe Sixth Value Added Tax (VAT) Directive introduced the concept of the fixed establishment in VAT. For a long time, the criteria for classifying activities as a fixed establishment seemed relatively clear. However the introduction in 2011 of the VAT Implementing Regulation3

  3. 39 CFR 11.1 - Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishment. 11.1 Section 11.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE ADVISORY BOARDS (ARTICLE XI) § 11.1 Establishment. The Board of Governors may create such advisory boards as it may deem...

  4. Somatostatin receptor gene transfer inhibits established pancreatic cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celinski, Scott A; Fisher, William E; Amaya, Felipe; Wu, Yuan Qing; Yao, Q; Youker, Keith A; Li, Min

    2003-11-01

    Most human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells do not express somatostatin receptors, and somatostatin does not inhibit the growth of these cancers. We have demonstrated previously that somatostatin inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancers expressing somatostatin receptor subtype-2 (SSTR2), but not receptor-negative cancers. SSTR2 expression may be an important tumor-suppressor pathway that is lost in human pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that SSTR2 gene transfer would restore the growth-inhibitory response of human pancreatic cancer to somatostatin. Palpable human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors were established on the backs of nude mice by subcutaneous injection of cultured cells (Panc-1). The animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 10/group). Group I served as an untreated control. Group II received an intramuscular injection of the long-acting somatostatin analogue Sandostatin LAR. Group III received Lac-Z expressing adenovirus via intraperitoneal injection. Group IV received SSTR2 expressing adenovirus via intraperitoneal injection. Group V received SSTR2 expressing adenovirus via intraperitoneal injection and an intramuscular injection of Sandostatin LAR. The rate of tumor growth was assessed with calipers. After 28 days, the animals were anesthetized and exsanguanated, and the tumors were excised and weighed. Plasma somatostatin and octreotide levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Expression of cell-surface somatostatin-receptor protein and known tumor-suppressor proteins was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Systemic delivery of SSTR2-expressing adenovirus by intraperitoneal injection resulted in expression of SSTR2 protein in the subcutaneous human pancreatic cancers. Final tumor weight was significantly decreased in the groups expressing SSTR2 receptors compared to the other 3 groups. Treatment with Sandostatin LAR increased plasma octreotide levels as determined by radioimmunoassay

  5. Are levels of bone turnover related to lower bone mass of adolescents previously fed a macrobiotic diet?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, T.J.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Seibel, M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dutch adolescents who consumed a macrobiotic (vegan-type) diet in early life, demonstrate a lower relative bone mass than their omnivorous counterparts. We investigated whether subjects from the macrobiotic group showed signs of catching up with controls in terms of relative bone mass, reflected by

  6. Moisture availability limits subalpine tree establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Harvey, Brian J; Rodman, Kyle C; Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2018-03-01

    In the absence of broad-scale disturbance, many temperate coniferous forests experience successful seedling establishment only when abundant seed production coincides with favorable climate. Identifying the frequency of past establishment events and the climate conditions favorable for seedling establishment is essential to understanding how climate warming could affect the frequency of future tree establishment events and therefore future forest composition or even persistence of a forest cover. In the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, research on the sensitivity of establishment of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)-two widely distributed, co-occurring conifers in North America-to climate variability has focused on the alpine treeline ecotone, leaving uncertainty about the sensitivity of these species across much of their elevation distribution. We compared annual germination dates for >450 Engelmann spruce and >500 subalpine fir seedlings collected across a complex topographic-moisture gradient to climate variability in the Colorado Front Range. We found that Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir established episodically with strong synchrony in establishment events across the study area. Broad-scale establishment events occurred in years of high soil moisture availability, which were characterized by above-average snowpack and/or cool and wet summer climatic conditions. In the recent half of the study period (1975-2010), a decrease in the number of fir and spruce establishment events across their distribution coincided with declining snowpack and a multi-decadal trend of rising summer temperature and increasing moisture deficits. Counter to expected and observed increases in tree establishment with climate warming in maritime subalpine forests, our results show that recruitment declines will likely occur across the core of moisture-limited subalpine tree ranges as warming drives increased moisture deficits. © 2018 by the

  7. Dietary self-efficacy predicts AHEI diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Narayan, K M Venkat; Reilly, Carolyn M; Foster, Jennifer; McCullough, Marjorie; Ziegler, Thomas R; Guo, Ying; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of intrapersonal influences of diet quality as defined by the Health Belief Model constructs in women with recent histories of gestational diabetes. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to analyze relationships between diet quality and intrapersonal variables, including perceptions of threat of type 2 diabetes mellitus development, benefits and barriers of healthy eating, and dietary self-efficacy, in a convenience sample of 75 community-dwelling women (55% minority; mean age, 35.5 years; SD, 5.5 years) with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Diet quality was defined by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Multiple regression was used to identify predictors of AHEI diet quality. Women had moderate AHEI diet quality (mean score, 47.6; SD, 14.3). Only higher levels of education and self-efficacy significantly predicted better AHEI diet quality, controlling for other contributing variables. There is a significant opportunity to improve diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Improving self-efficacy may be an important component to include in nutrition interventions. In addition to identifying other important individual components, future studies of diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are needed to investigate the scope of influence beyond the individual to potential family, social, and environmental factors. © 2014 The Author(s).

  8. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  9. [The role of heterochrony in the establishment of archetype in higher Echinoderm taxa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnov, S V

    2009-01-01

    The analysis based on paleontological data shows that the body plans of higher echinoderm taxa were established through the combination of previously developed characters. These combinations appeared due to various heterochronies and resulted in more or less complete filling of the morphological space of logical capabilities. The maximum rank of new taxa decreased with time. New body plans of higher taxa did not replace the old plans but rather overlay them, extending the hierarchy of body plans and the respective hierarchy of taxa. The macroevolution of echinoderms and other metazoans progressed from the formation of an archetype (a general body plan) to individual details, the development of structural plans of lower levels. Heterochrony resulted in mosaic evolution and obscurity of intermediate forms.

  10. Opportunities for establishment of financial market in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atia Milad Aljbiri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to show the importance of financial markets to the Libyan economy. At present, the country is preparing to establish a financial market as a requirement of economic reform with its goal to achieve economic stability and improve the volume of investment, as well as raising the growth rate. As the analysis in this paper shows, there are achievements with respect to the financial indicators, but it is limited with respect to the volume of investment and the level of incomes. This leads to the importance of establishing the financial market which is one of the primary requirements to achieve these goals.

  11. Establishment of a Learning Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Min, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    A web-based learning management system (LMS) has been established to address the need of customized education and training of Nuclear Training Center (NTC) of KAERI. The LMS is designed to deal with various learning types (e.g. on-line, off-line and blended) and a practically comprehensive learning activity cycle (e.g. course preparation, registration, learning, and postlearning) as well as to be user-friendly. A test with an example course scenario on the established system has shown its satisfactory performance. This paper discusses details of the established webbased learning management system in terms of development approach and functions of the LMS

  12. Effect of graded levels of Saccharum officinarum as an additive to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of graded levels of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) as an additive to Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) silage. A previously established guinea grass plot, totaling an area of 625m2 was cut back and fertilized with urea at the rate of 200 kgN/ha. The pasture was then ...

  13. [Repeated ectopic pregnancy in previous caesarean scar: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Ortiz, Fred; Retes-Angulo, Benjamín; Retes-Lapizco, Benjamín; Morgan-Ruiz, Fred V

    2015-10-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in previous caesarean scar, which is detected in the first trimester, is a recognized and documented today alteration. Female of 38 years old with a history of five pregnancies (two cesarean sections and three ectopic pregnancies, two EPCSS and one tubal ectopic). In March 2013 she presented the first eight weeks EPCSS diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Gestational sac at the level of the previous cesarean section (CS) over the inner hole and a living embryo were observed. The patient received medical treatment with methotrexate. In March 2014 she was diagnosed with a new tubal ectopic pregnancy which was managed with laparoscopic salpingectomy. In February 2015 (Second EPCSS) she was checked for seven weeks amenorrhea and symptoms of pregnancy. A vaginal ultrasound was performed, finding a gestational sac implanted in the lower uterine segment cesarean scar level and a living embryo. The patient undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy. The recurrent pregnancy caesarean section scar is rare and needs to be properly diagnosed as soon as possible to avoid complications. Transvaginal ultrasound is a suitable tool for diagnosis. Management must be individualized according to patient characteristics.

  14. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B, bad (Group D, and minimal handling (Group C conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.

  15. Effect of Genotype and Previous GH Treatment on Adiposity in Adults With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupaye, Muriel; Tauber, Maithé; Cuisset, Laurence; Laurier, Virginie; Bieth, Eric; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Clément, Karine; Poitou, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) have an increased proportion of sc fat mass compared with body mass index (BMI)-matched controls, but whether the genotype influences body composition and metabolic profile remains controversial. To assess body composition and metabolic features in adults with PWS, according to genetic subtype. In addition, the effect of previous GH treatment was assessed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) and metabolic parameters were compared in PWS adults (mean age, 25.5 ± 8.9 y) with deletion (n = 47) or uniparental disomy (UPD) (n = 26), taking into account GH treatment in childhood and/or adolescence. In subgroups, adipocyte size, fasting total ghrelin levels, and resting energy expenditure were measured, and hyperphagia was assessed by the Dykens Hyperphagia Questionnaire. In the whole sample, the deletion group had a higher BMI compared with UPD (40.9 ± 11.5 vs 34.6 ± 9.6 kg/m 2 , P = .02), but there was no difference between groups in percent body fat, metabolic profile, adipocyte size, resting energy expenditure, hyperphagia score, or ghrelin levels. In subjects previously treated with GH, BMI was not different between UPD and deletion groups (33.0 ± 9.7 vs 33.5 ± 11.1 kg/m 2 ). In addition, previous GH treatment was associated with decreased percent body fat and adipocyte volume only in the deletion group. A deletion genotype in adults with PWS is associated with increased BMI. GH treatment in childhood and/or adolescence limits this deleterious phenotypic effect with improved adiposity markers. This study suggests relationships between the molecular phenotype of PWS and adipose tissue development as well as sensitivity to GH.

  16. 21 CFR 1.337 - What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify the nontransporter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify the nontransporter and transporter immediate previous sources of food? 1.337... Previous Sources of Food § 1.337 What information must nontransporters establish and maintain to identify...

  17. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  18. Establishments of scientific radiation protection management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1988-01-01

    Some aspects for establishing the radiation protection management program have been discussed. Radiation protection management program includes: definite aims of management, complete data register, strict supervision system, and scientific management methodology

  19. Sustainable landscaping practices for enhancing vegetation establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Soil compaction can severely limit the success of vegetation establishment. Current grading and landscaping : practices commonly produce compacted soils of varied textures and profiles within SHA medians and roadsides, : resulting in limited capacity...

  20. Personnel fluctuations in large research establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckel, S.; Schwarz, W.

    1975-12-01

    The present personnel situation in large West Germany research establishments, reasons for and direction of mobility, a so-called status-quo-projection, and the influenceability of the situation are discussed. (HK/AK) [de

  1. Learning and Action Alliances: defining and establishing

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Emily; Lamond, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    A factsheet describing how you define and establish a Learning and Action Alliance (LAA) using a demonstration example in Newcastle, UK, as part of the research being conducted by the Blue-Green Cities Research Project

  2. Genetic modifications of established varieties of potato through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the high intercrossability of improved clones with primitive cultivars and many wild species there is little justification for use of induced mutations in potato to increase variability per se. Modification of certain traits while leaving the genotype basically intact is a promising use of mutagenesis in potato. The successful curing of defects in clones will depend on the establishment a priori of three principles. First, the clones undergoing mutagenesis should be well established varieties tolerant or resistant to the major biotic and abiotic stresses in the area of cultivation. The yield and culinary quality should also be considered high. Second, there should exist some indication that the variation desired is induceable, either through reports of natural intra-clone variation or previous mutagenesis studies. Third, initial screening should be done in virus-free materials

  3. Establishing Natural Nootropics: Recent Molecular Enhancement Influenced by Natural Nootropic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Noor Azuin; Mat Taib, Che Norma; Mohd Moklas, Mohamad Aris; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Hidayat Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik; Basir, Rusliza

    2016-01-01

    Nootropics or smart drugs are well-known compounds or supplements that enhance the cognitive performance. They work by increasing the mental function such as memory, creativity, motivation, and attention. Recent researches were focused on establishing a new potential nootropic derived from synthetic and natural products. The influence of nootropic in the brain has been studied widely. The nootropic affects the brain performances through number of mechanisms or pathways, for example, dopaminergic pathway. Previous researches have reported the influence of nootropics on treating memory disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. Those disorders are observed to impair the same pathways of the nootropics. Thus, recent established nootropics are designed sensitively and effectively towards the pathways. Natural nootropics such as Ginkgo biloba have been widely studied to support the beneficial effects of the compounds. Present review is concentrated on the main pathways, namely, dopaminergic and cholinergic system, and the involvement of amyloid precursor protein and secondary messenger in improving the cognitive performance.

  4. Evaluation of PAWP and PLC? Expression in Infertile Men with Previous ICSI Fertilization Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Nahid; Nazarian, Hamid; Nazari, Leila; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Piryaei, Abbas; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Sadjadpour, Seyedeh Susan

    2018-02-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postacrosomal sheet WW domain binding protein (PAWP) and phospholipase C ? (PLC?) protein expression in patients with fertilization failure. Semen samples were collected from 15 fertile men (control group) and 15 patients with previous fertilization failure following ICSI (FF group) and were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The mean percentages of PAWP and PLC? positive sperm and the total level of PAWP and PLC? proteins were assessed using immunofluorescence staining. A significantly lower level and lower percentage of PAWP positive sperm in patients with fertilization failure was found compared to the control group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). The mean percentage ofPLC? positive sperm and level of PLC? protein were significantly lower in FF group compared to the control group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.04, respectively). Significant positive correlations was observed between PAWP and PLC? positive sperms (r = 0.4, P = 0.008) and also total level of expression of PLC? and PAWP proteins (r = 0.4, P = 0.02) in all participants in the study. This is the first study that evaluates two main candidates for sperm-borne oocyte activating factors (SOAFs) simultaneously in patients with fertilization failure. Considering lower expression of PAWP and PLC? proteins in such patients, it seems like both factors might have the potential to be considered as SOAFs and diagnostic markers for the oocyte activation ability.

  5. Establishing community trust at radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, E.

    1999-01-01

    Establishing community trust is an essential element in the successful remediation of a radioactively contaminated site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 2 has been involved in the clean up of numerous radioactively contaminated Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), and Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites in New Jersey and New York. Each site presented a unique challenge which centered around establishing and, often, re-establishing the trust of the surrounding community. Thanks to the United States government's history regarding the use of radioactive materials, people question whether governmental regulators could possibly have the public's best interests in mind when it comes to addressing radioactively contaminated sites. It has been our experience that EPA can use its position as guardian of the environment to help establish public confidence in remedial actions. The EPA can even use its position to lend credibility to remedial activities in situations where it is not directly responsible for the clean-up. Some ways that we have found to instill community confidence are: establishing radioanalytical cross-check programs using EPA's National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory to provide analytical quality assurance; and establishing an environmental radiation monitoring program for the contaminated site and surrounding community. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  8. The Relationship Between Functional Movement, Balance Deficits, and Previous Injury History in Deploying Marine Warfighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah J; Lisman, Peter; Sabatino, Marc; Beutler, Anthony I; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2016-06-01

    Screening for primary musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I) is costly and time-consuming. Both the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y-Balance Test (YBT) have been shown to predict future MSK-I. With a goal of optimizing the efficiency of primary MSK-I screening, we studied associations between performance on the FMS and YBT and whether history of MSK-I influenced FMS and YBT scores. In total, 365 deploying Marines performed the FMS and YBT as prescribed. Composite and individual scores were each categorized as high risk or low risk using published injury thresholds: High-risk FMS included composite scores ≤14 and right-to-left (R/L) asymmetry for Shoulder Mobility, In-Line Lunge, Straight Leg Raise, Hurdle Step, or Rotary Stability. High-risk YBT consisted of anterior, posteromedial, and/or posterolateral R/L differences >4 cm and/or composite differences ≥12 cm. Pearson's χ tests evaluated associations between: (a) all FMS and YBT risk groups and (b) previous MSK-I and all FMS and YBT risk groups. Marines with high-risk FMS were twice as likely to have high-risk YBT posteromedial scores (χ = 10.2, p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2). History of any MSK-I was not associated with high-risk FMS or high-risk YBT. However, previous lower extremity MSK-I was associated with In-Line Lunge asymmetries (χ = 9.8, p = 0.002, OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.6). Overall, we found limited overlap in FMS and YBT risk. Because both methods seem to assess different risk factors for injury, we recommend FMS and YBT continue to be used together in combination with a thorough injury history until their predictive capacities are further established.

  9. Global Distribution of Extreme Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides in 2010 Relative to Previous Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Adler, David; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Huffman, George

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that extreme or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides worldwide. While research has evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of extreme rainfall and landslides at local or regional scales using in situ data, few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This study uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from TRMM data. For the first time, these two unique products provide the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurrence of precipitation and landslides globally. Evaluation of the GLC indicates that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in extreme and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This study characterizes the variability of satellite precipitation data and reported landslide activity at the globally scale in order to improve landslide cataloging, forecasting and quantify potential triggering sources at daily, monthly and yearly time scales.

  10. Factors influencing return-to-work after cerebrovascular disease: the importance of previous cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis Miguel; Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel Angel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Cabrera-Sierra, Martha; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Ruiz-Moraga, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva

    2015-09-01

    The role of prior cardiovascular risk (CVR) in the multifactorial process of returning to work after a cerebrovascular event has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to analyse the association between previous CVR level, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and return-to-work (RTW) following cerebrovascular disease. This was a prospective observational study. We analysed a cohort of 348 patients who had experienced an episode of cerebrovascular disease-related work absence. These individuals were selected from the ICARIA study (Ibermutuamur CArdiovascular RIsk Assessment). Global CVR was assessed using the SCORE system. We investigated the association between demographics, work-related variables, CVRFs and RTW following a cerebrovascular event. We found that a total of 254 individuals (73.0%; 95% CI: 68.3-77.7) returned to work after cerebrovascular disease. Also, we observed a median loss of 12 working years due to disability. Moreover, adjusting for potential confounders revealed that low CVR level and the absence of the following CVRFs was associated with a higher likelihood of RTW: low vs moderate-to-high CVR level (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.42-4.57), no hypertension before stroke (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.11-3.41), non-smoker status (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.30-3.93) and no previous diabetes (OR: 2.46; 95% CI: 1.26-4.79). Low CVR, along with the absence of several CVRFs, can be used to predict RTW rates following cerebrovascular events. Therefore, controlling hypertension, tobacco consumption and diabetes might contribute to the effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation and/or secondary/tertiary prevention programs for cerebrovascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  11. Establishing space research capability in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosinger, T.; Damtie, B.; Usoskin, I. G.

    It is often considered by various sources and institutions around the world that promotion of space physics activities in a developing country like Ethiopia is a waste of time and resources. It has, of course, some sense: developing countries should put all their efforts in improving the standard of life, infrastructure and basic education. However, it is straightforward to realize that nowadays improvement in any of the basic needs of developing countries is related to high technology (e.g. mobile phones, GPS, remote sensing). This means that a developing country has to take care of recruiting specialists among their own people who can take part in the decision making processes which are increasingly of global nature. Moreover, many citizens of developing countries are studying and working abroad attaining high expertise. As a matter of fact, there are more Ethiopians with PhD in physics working abroad than in the country. These people are lost for the benefit of their own country if there is no need for their profession in their home country. There is no doubt that the main task of improving the standard of living cannot be achieved without development and social transformation of the society, which can take place efficiently in a self-adopting and dynamic process. In line with the above argument, we have initiated the establishment of the Washera Space Physics Laboratory (WASPL) at Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia. It is a collaboration project between Oulu University and Addis Ababa University. The laboratory is expected to start operation of a pulsation magnetometer and photometer in September 2004. Other types of standard geophysical instruments are to be installed in subsequent missions. The project is of mutual interest of both parties. The equatorial ionosphere is still a poorly investigated region of our near Earth's space. In a first pilot investigation the existence and properties of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) in the equatorial ionosphere

  12. 21 CFR 207.40 - Establishment registration and drug listing requirements for foreign establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the English language. (c) Each foreign drug establishment required to register under paragraph (a... requirements for foreign establishments. 207.40 Section 207.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... LISTING OF DRUGS IN COMMERCIAL DISTRIBUTION Procedure for Foreign Drug Establishments § 207.40...

  13. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  14. Microwave Cooking Practices in Minnesota Food Service Establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedeen, Nicole; Reimann, David; Everstine, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Uneven cooking due to consumer use of microwave ovens to cook food products that have been prepared but are not ready to eat has been a documented risk factor in several foodborne disease outbreaks. However, the use of microwave ovens in restaurants and other food service establishments has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to describe the types of food service establishments that use microwave ovens, how these ovens are used, types of foods heated or cooked in these ovens, types of microwave ovens used in food service establishments, and the level of compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. From 2008 to 2009, the Minnesota Department of Health collected data from a convenience sample of 60 food establishments within the state. Facility types included fast-food restaurants, sit-down restaurants, school food service, nursing homes, hotels and motels, and daycare centers. Food preparation practices were classified as prep-serve, cookserve, or complex. Minnesota environmental health specialists administered a study questionnaire to managers during routine inspections. Establishments included in this study reported using microwave ovens primarily to warm commercial ready-to-eat products (67%) and to warm foods for palatability (50%). No minimum temperatures are required for these processes because these foods do not require pathogen destruction. However, food establishments using complex preparation practices more often reported using microwave ovens for multiple processes and for processes that require pathogen destruction. For establishments that did report microwave oven use for food requiring pathogen destruction, the majority of managers reported following most FDA recommendations for cooking and reheating for hot-holding potentially hazardous foods, but many did not report letting food stand for 2 min after cooking. Additional training on stand time after microwave cooking could be beneficial because of low reporting

  15. Establishing Local Reference Dose Values and Optimisation Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, P.; Moores, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    The revised EC Patient Directive 97/43 EURATOM introduces the concepts of clinical audit, diagnostic reference levels and optimisation of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology. The application of reference dose levels in practice involves the establishment of reference dose values as actual measurable operational quantities. These values should then form part of an ongoing optimisation and audit programme against which routine performance can be compared. The CEC Quality Criteria for Radiographic Images provides guidance reference dose values against which local performance can be compared. In many cases these values can be improved upon quite considerably. This paper presents the results of a local initiative in the North West of the UK aimed at establishing local reference dose values for a number of major hospital sites. The purpose of this initiative is to establish a foundation for both optimisation strategies and clinical audit as an ongoing and routine practice. The paper presents results from an ongoing trial involving patient dose measurements for several radiological examinations upon the sites. The results of an attempt to establish local reference dose values from measured dose values and to employ them in optimisation strategies are presented. In particular emphasis is placed on the routine quality control programmes necessary to underpin this strategy including the effective data management of results from such programmes and how they can be employed to optimisation practices. (author)

  16. Research report for fiscal 1995 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology. Evaluation on durability of device installed with inverter to protect grid connection; 1995 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka - Inbata tsuki keito renkei hogo sochi no taikyusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Discussions and evaluations have been performed on the safety and durability of the device installed with inverter to protect grid connection being an important device in the photovoltaic power generation system. In discussing the durability test items, electrical property changes were observed on AC overvoltage, AC undervoltage, frequency rise, and frequency fall, as the continuation from the previous fiscal year, in order to evaluate temperature rise in different parts due to lapse of operation time and the effects of thermal stress in each component on the stress of the entire product. Furthermore, verification of single operation detecting function, tests on sudden input power change, sudden grid voltage change, and measurement of conductive high frequency terminal voltage were conducted in addition to the above observations. In discussing the durability test methods, repetition of operation and shutdown during the rated operation was adopted in place of the simulated operation using variation in the insolation having been discussed in the previous year. As a result of the tests, no noticeable changes were recognized from the evaluation result after a lapse of 5,000 hours from the start of the operation, as compared to those after the aging operation. (NEDO)

  17. Groin Problems in Male Soccer Players Are More Common Than Previously Reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harøy, Joar; Clarsen, Ben; Thorborg, Kristian; Hölmich, Per; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2017-05-01

    The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus, the magnitude of groin problems in soccer has probably been underestimated in previous studies based on traditional injury surveillance methods. To investigate the prevalence of groin problems among soccer players of both sexes and among male soccer players at different levels of play through a new surveillance method developed to capture acute and overuse problems. Descriptive epidemiology study. We registered groin problems during a 6-week period of match congestion using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. A total of 240 players from 15 teams across different levels of play and from both sexes were included, and they responded to the weekly questionnaire. We calculated the average weekly prevalence of all groin problems and substantial groin problems. Of the 240 players, 112 male players (59%) and 20 female players (45%) reported at least 1 episode of groin problems. The average weekly prevalence of any groin problem and substantial groin problem for all male players was 29% (range, 23%-32% across different levels) and 10% (7%-13%), respectively. Elite male players had an increased risk of experiencing groin problems (odds ratio: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.5-6.4, P = .03) compared with elite female players. There was no difference in the risk of experiencing groin problems among elite, subelite, and amateur male players. For substantial problems, there was no difference between elite male and elite female players or among levels of play for senior male soccer players. We found a high prevalence of groin problems among male soccer players during a period with match congestion. Time-loss definition as used in previous injury surveillance studies captured only one

  18. Prevention of Tetanus Outbreak Following Natural Disaster in Indonesia: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.

  19. Klassevirus 1, a previously undescribed member of the family Picornaviridae, is globally widespread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipas James M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 2 million deaths a year. While many infectious causes of diarrhea have been established, approximately 40% of all diarrhea cases are of unknown etiology. In an effort to identify novel viruses that may be causal agents of diarrhea, we used high throughput mass sequencing to analyze stool samples collected from patients with acute diarrhea. Results Sequences with limited similarity to known picornaviruses were detected in a stool sample collected in Australia from a child with acute diarrhea. Using a combination of mass sequencing, RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE, a 6383 bp fragment of the viral genome was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus was highly divergent from, but most closely related to, members of the genus Kobuvirus. We have tentatively named this novel virus klassevirus 1. We also detected klassevirus 1 by RT-PCR in a diarrhea specimen collected from a patient in St. Louis, United States as well as in untreated sewage collected in Barcelona, Spain. Conclusion Klassevirus 1 is a previously undescribed picornavirus that is globally widespread and present on at least three continents. Further investigations to determine whether klassevirus 1 is a human pathogen are needed.

  20. Social participation in early and established rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benka, Jozef; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Macejova, Zelmira; Lazurova, Ivica; van der Klink, Jac L L; Groothoff, Johan W; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with different levels of restriction in social participation differ in disease related as well as psychosocial variables and whether a similar pattern can be found among early and established RA patients. Two samples of RA patients with early (n = 97; age = 53 ± 12.3 years; disease duration = 2.8 ± 1.2 years; 76% women) and established (n = 143; age = 58 ± 10.3 years; disease duration = 16.1 ± 3.6 years; 86% women) were collected. The pattern of differences for the patients with different level of participation restriction (no restriction, mild, moderate or high restriction) was explored by the Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Significant differences were found between patients with different levels of social participation restrictions in both samples in pain, fatigue, functional disability, anxiety, depression and mastery. Generally, it was found that patients with higher restrictions experienced more pain and fatigue, more anxiety and depression and reported lower mastery. Similar pattern of differences concerning disease activity and self-esteem was found mainly in the established group. The study shows that the level of perceived restrictions in social participation are highly relevant regarding the disease related variables such as pain, fatigue and functional disability as well as psychological status and personal resources in both early and established RA. Supporting involvement and participation of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis is important for decreasing the impact of RA symptoms on everyday life. Recognition and empowerment of individual resources such a mastery and self-esteem of RA patients could be beneficial for overcoming restrictions in participation.

  1. Partnering to Establish and Study Simulation in International Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Shelby L; Killingsworth, Erin; Raj, Leena

    The purpose of this article was to describe an international partnership to establish and study simulation in India. A pilot study was performed to determine interrater reliability among faculty new to simulation when evaluating nursing student competency performance. Interrater reliability was below the ideal agreement level. Findings in this study underscore the need to obtain baseline interrater reliability data before integrating competency evaluation into a simulation program.

  2. Misoprostol use for second-trimester termination of pregnancy among women with one or more previous cesarean deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar Torriente, Martin; Steinberg, Wilhelm J; Joubert, Gina

    2017-07-01

    To establish the safety and efficacy of misoprostol for second-trimester termination of pregnancy among women with one or more previous cesarean deliveries. In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from women attending a reproductive health clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa, for second-trimester termination between 2010 and 2013. The study group, comprising women with one or more previous cesareans, was compared with a control group, comprising women with no previous cesarean or uterine scarring. Procedure-specific information was compared, including misoprostol use, termination duration, need for other methods (e.g. oxytocin), placenta delivery, termination outcome, and bleeding. The study group comprised 268 women: 231 (86.2%) with one and 37 (13.8%) with two previous cesareans. The control group comprised 266 women. Incomplete abortion was recorded in 223 (85.4%) of 261 women in the study group and 213 (80.4%) of 265 in the control group. The number of women with retained placenta was higher in the study than in the control group (158/261 [60.5%] vs 146/265 [55.1%]; PMisoprostol was safe for second-trimester termination among women with previous cesareans; however, the efficacy of the local regimen was reduced owing to high placental retention. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus

  4. Establishment for quality control of experimental animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Soo Kwan; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    1999-06-01

    Until now, because we have imported experimental animal from foreign experimental animal corporation, we could have saved money by establishing the quality control of animal in barrier system. In order to improve the quality of animal experiment and efficiency of biomedical study, it is indispensable to control many factors that effect in the experiment. Therefore, it is essential to organize the system of laboratory animal care for enhancing reliability and revivability of experimental results. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish the quality control system of experimental animals that we can provide good quality animals according to the experimental condition of each investigator although the exact quality control system to estimate the infection of bacteria and virus easily remains ill-defined yet. Accordingly, we established the useful quality control system for microbiologic monitoring and environmental monitoring to protect experimental animal from harmful bacteria and virus.

  5. Establishing a Comprehensive Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleeter, Sanford [Purdue University

    2012-09-30

    This project was directed at establishing a comprehensive wind energy program in Indiana, including both educational and research components. A graduate/undergraduate course ME-514 - Fundamentals of Wind Energy has been established and offered and an interactive prediction of VAWT performance developed. Vertical axis wind turbines for education and research have been acquired, instrumented and installed on the roof top of a building on the Calumet campus and at West Lafayette (Kepner Lab). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have been performed to simulate these urban wind environments. Also, modal dynamic testing of the West Lafayette VAWT has been performed and a novel horizontal axis design initiated. The 50-meter meteorological tower data obtained at the Purdue Beck Agricultural Research Center have been analyzed and the Purdue Reconfigurable Micro Wind Farm established and simulations directed at the investigation of wind farm configurations initiated. The virtual wind turbine and wind turbine farm simulation in the Visualization Lab has been initiated.

  6. Establishing soil loss tolerance: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Di Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance is a criterion for establishing if a soil is potentially subjected to erosion risk, productivity loss and if a river presents downstream over-sedimentation or other off-site effects are present at basin scale. At first this paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil loss and summarises the available definitions and the knowledge on the recommended values and evaluating criteria. Then a threshold soil loss value, at the annual temporal scale, established for limiting riling was used for defining the classical soil loss tolerance. Finally, some research needs on tolerable soil loss are listed.

  7. Manuscripts on establishment of Korea nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Su

    1999-12-01

    This book mentions establishment of Korea nuclear power with twelve manuscripts. It is comprised of twelve documents with conversation and recollection the contents of this book are summary, conversation with Yoon, Se Won, conversation with Choe, Paeng Seop, conversation with Lee, Dong Jip, conversation with Lee, Sang Su, conversation with Kim, Jong Ju, conversation with Lee, Jong Hun, conversation with Youn, Young Ryeok, conversation with Han, Pil Sun, recollection on my nuclear energy by Kim, Dong Hun, recollection on my nuclear power by Lee, Chang Gun, I and nuclear power by Park, Ik Su. It reports the establishment on history and process of Korea nuclear power plant through dialogue with twelve people.

  8. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes.

  9. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Joon Ho; Kwak, Soo Heon; Jang, Hak C.

    2017-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy, is characterized by underlying maternal defects in the β-cell response to insulin during pregnancy. Women with a previous history of GDM have a greater than 7-fold higher risk of developing postpartum diabetes compared with women without GDM. Various risk factors for postpartum diabetes have been identified, including maternal age, glucose levels in pregnancy, family history of diabetes, pre-pregnancy and postpartum body mass index, dietary patterns, physical activity, and breastfeeding. Genetic studies revealed that GDM shares common genetic variants with type 2 diabetes. A number of lifestyle interventional trials that aimed to ameliorate modifiable risk factors, including diet, exercise, and breastfeeding, succeeded in reducing the incidence of postpartum diabetes, weight retention, and other obesity-related morbidities. The present review summarizes the findings of previous studies on the incidence and risk factors of postpartum diabetes and discusses recent lifestyle interventional trials that attempted to prevent postpartum diabetes. PMID:28049284

  10. Impacts of Current and Previous Land Use on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes for Biofuel Cropping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Grosso, S.; Parton, W.; Adler, P.; Ogle, S.; West, T.

    2008-12-01

    Biofuel cropping systems are both a source and sink of greenhouse gases (GHG). Fertilizer and pesticide manufacture and transport, farm machinery operation, and processing of biomass into fuel all lead to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but the largest GHG sources for biofuel systems are often soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and loss of organic carbon as a result of land use change. However, improved land management can increase soil carbon levels and decrease N2O emissions, thus complementing the CO2 sink from displaced fossil fuel combustion. Previously cropped land, grazed land, and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land is being converted to biofuel cropping. We report results for the central US because most of the land used for biofuel cropping is in the central region of the country (corn/soy belt). The primary tool for this analysis is the DAYCENT ecosystem model. The ability of the model to simulate soil GHG fluxes and crop yields is demonstrated and results from simulations of different land management scenarios are presented. Our analyses suggest that conversion of CRP or grazed land to corn ethanol cropping under conventional management leads to a net source of GHG, but that converting these lands to perennial cellulosic biofuel cropping results in a GHG sink. Previously cropped land converted to corn ethanol under conventional management is a small GHG sink, but improved management and conversion to cellulosic based crops can greatly increase this sink strength.

  11. Recurrent severe invasive pneumococcal disease in an adult with previously unknown hyposplenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe C; Schejbel, Lone; Hoffmann, Steen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of life-threatening and invasive infections with encapsulated bacteria is increased in patients with hyposplenia or asplenia. We report a case of recurrent invasive pneumococcal meningitis in a woman with previous unknown hyposplenia. She was vaccinated after the first episode...... was found. Despite immunization against S. pneumoniae and measurement of what was interpreted as protective levels of serotype-specific IgG antibodies after vaccination, the patient suffered from a third episode of IPD. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with predisposing medical conditions or a history of severe...... infections with encapsulated bacteria should be screened for spleen dysfunction. If splenic function is impaired, prevention against severe invasive infection with encapsulated bacteria are a major priority....

  12. Establishing a normative atlas of the human lung: computing the average transformation and atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baojun; Christensen, Gary E; Hoffman, Eric A; McLennan, Geoffrey; Reinhardt, Joseph M

    2012-11-01

    To establish the range of normal for quantitative computed tomography (CT)-based measures of lung structure and function, we seek to develop methods for matching pulmonary structures across individuals and establishing a normative human lung atlas. In our previous work, we have presented a three-dimensional (3D) image registration method suitable for pulmonary atlas construction based on CT datasets. The method has been applied to a population of normative lungs in multiple experiments and, in each instance, has resulted in significant reductions in registration errors. This study is a continuation to our previous work by presenting a method for synthesizing a computerized human lung atlas from previously registered and matched 3D pulmonary CT datasets from a population of normative subjects. Our method consists of defining the origin of the atlas coordinate system; defining the nomenclature and labels for anatomical structures within the atlas system; computing the average transformation based on the displacement fields to register individual subject to the common template subject; constructing the atlas by deforming the template with the average transformation; and calculating shape variations within the population. The feasibility of pulmonary atlas construction was evaluated using CT datasets from 20 normal volunteers. Substantial reductions in shape variability were demonstrated. In addition, the constructed atlas depends only slightly on a specific subject being selected as the template. These results indicate the framework is a robust and valid method for pulmonary atlas construction based on CT scans. The atlas consists of a grayscale CT dataset of the template, a labeled mask dataset of the template (ie, lungs, lobes, and lobar fissures are labeled with different gray levels), a data set representing the population's average shape, datasets representing the population's shape variations (ie, the magnitude of standard deviation), a data structure to contain

  13. Using the modified Delphi method to establish a new Chinese clinical consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lei; Fan, Ning; Hai, Yong; Lu, S B; Su, Q J; Yang, J C; Du, Peng; Gao, Y J

    2015-06-01

    Although cervical radiculopathy is very common, there is no standard treatment for this condition, with little high-level evidence available to guide the treatment choice. Thus, this study aimed to review the current data on the management of cervical radiculopathy; and, further, to establish a new Chinese clinical consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy using the Delphi method. First, a systematic review of the previously established treatment guidelines and of articles related to cervical radiculopathy was conducted to establish a protocol for the clinical consensus of the treatment for cervical radiculopathy. Second, from February 2012 to June 2014, we performed a modified Delphi survey in which the current professional opinions from 30 experienced experts, representing almost all of the Chinese provinces, were gathered. Three rounds were performed, and consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement. Consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy was reached on seven aspects, including the proportion of patients requiring only non-surgical therapies; the effectiveness of neck immobilization, physiotherapy, pharmacologic treatment; surgical indications; contraindications; surgery. The modified Delphi study conducted herein reached a consensus concerning several treatment issues for cervical radiculopathy. In the absence of high-level evidence, at present, these expert opinion findings will help guide health care providers to define the appropriate treatment in their regions. Items with no consensus provide excellent areas for future research.

  14. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one's daily life? Pro-Saude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal de; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling) at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001) of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study), asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6), regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  15. Establishment and maintenance of a standardized glioma tissue bank: Huashan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibaidula, Abudumijiti; Lu, Jun-feng; Wu, Jin-song; Zou, He-jian; Chen, Hong; Wang, Yu-qian; Qin, Zhi-yong; Yao, Yu; Gong, Ye; Che, Xiao-ming; Zhong, Ping; Li, Shi-qi; Bao, Wei-min; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2015-06-01

    Cerebral glioma is the most common brain tumor as well as one of the top ten malignant tumors in human beings. In spite of the great progress on chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as the surgery strategies during the past decades, the mortality and morbidity are still high. One of the major challenges is to explore the pathogenesis and invasion of glioma at various "omics" levels (such as proteomics or genomics) and the clinical implications of biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis or treatment of glioma patients. Establishment of a standardized tissue bank with high quality biospecimens annotated with clinical information is pivotal to the solution of these questions as well as the drug development process and translational research on glioma. Therefore, based on previous experience of tissue banks, standardized protocols for sample collection and storage were developed. We also developed two systems for glioma patient and sample management, a local database for medical records and a local image database for medical images. For future set-up of a regional biobank network in Shanghai, we also founded a centralized database for medical records. Hence we established a standardized glioma tissue bank with sufficient clinical data and medical images in Huashan Hospital. By September, 2013, tissues samples from 1,326 cases were collected. Histological diagnosis revealed that 73 % were astrocytic tumors, 17 % were oligodendroglial tumors, 2 % were oligoastrocytic tumors, 4 % were ependymal tumors and 4 % were other central nervous system neoplasms.

  16. Competition between free-floating plants is strongly driven by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations in the water column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Neefjes, Rozemarijn; Zuidam, van B.G.

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients can determine the outcome of the competition between different floating plant species. The response of floating plants to current phosphorus levels may be affected by previously experienced phosphorus concentrations because some species have the ability to store excess phosphorus for later

  17. Procedures to establish National Rules of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to establish the EPA National Rules of Behavior to comply with OMB Circular A-130, regarding rules of behavior for users of information systems applicable to all users of EPA information and information systems for users.

  18. Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study are presumed to be of paramount importance in providing input information for policy makers towards establishing financial markets in Ethiopia. As a way forward the Government of ... addressing the direct challenges. Keywords: Financial Market, Securities Market, Environment, Governance ...

  19. Establishing And Managing Development Networks In Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishing And Managing Development Networks In Africa: Perspectives On The African Virtual Library And Information Network (Avlin) ... In times like this when libraries are facing problems with access and acquisition of materials, networking becomes very important. This paper discusses issues relating to networking in ...

  20. Establishment of an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spine gourd (Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd) is a medicinally and economically important plant and also used as vegetable. In this study, we established an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure for M. dioica. Leaf explants were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing a binary ...

  1. Waste management in healthcare establishments within Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Poor management of healthcare waste exposes health workers and the public to the toxic effects of wastes generated from health establishments. The disposal of these wastes could also lead to environmental problems if not done properly. This study has assessed the waste management practices in hospitals and ...

  2. Establishing and agreeing on research priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian de Ia Roche

    1999-01-01

    The organizers asked me to share with you my experiences in developing and implementing a process for establishing and agreeing on research priorities in a multi-stakeholder research institute such as Forintek. The mechanism we have in place has been well received by Forintek's membership and certain aspects have been adopted by other research organizations. While...

  3. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to establish a stable regeneration system with 4 landraces collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting induction, proliferation rate, fresh and dry weight as a biomass of cells were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed that BAP in ...

  4. Polystoma umthakathi (Monogenea): establishment, mortality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of Polystoma umthakathi oncomiracidia were studied in experimentally infected Natalobatrachus boneberg tadpoles to establish a normal reference of parasite performance in the natural host. The anteroventral body wall is transparent in these tadpoles and it was possible to follow the destiny of each ...

  5. 45 CFR 1620.3 - Establishing priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... should address the need for outreach, training of the recipient's employees, and support services. (c... IN USE OF RESOURCES § 1620.3 Establishing priorities. (a) The governing body of a recipient must... the cases and matters which may be undertaken by the recipient. (b) The procedures adopted must...

  6. Establishing a Center for Instructional Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, George H.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews how the University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin) established a center to support its faculty. Addresses key questions related to the development of instructional technology (IT) centers through examples from UT-Austin. Discusses funding, fees, types of services and support, staffing, facilities provided, and training philosophy.…

  7. Establishment of high effective regeneration and propagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to establish efficient regeneration system for ornamental tissue culture, we used Malus spp. 'Indian Magic as the experimental materials and investigated the effects of disinfection and antibrowning agents, culture mediums and hormones proportion on differentiation, multiplication, callus induction and rooting, and ...

  8. Attitudes of Children Established by Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnabei, Fred; And Others

    This study examined the attitudes of children established by classical conditioning. Subjects were 4th graders (26 males and 31 females). Each child was randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. A posttest-only design was used with positive and negative word associations presented to the experimental group, and neutral word…

  9. Optimization of micropropagation and establishment of cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... those established conditions to produce useful essential oil. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Seed sterilization procedure. Viable seeds of M. officinalis ..... technology. UK: Butler and Tammer. Gopi C, Vatsala TM (2006) In vitro studies on effects of plant growth regulators on callus and suspension culture ...

  10. ESTABLISHING A PUBLISHING OUTFIT IN NIGERIA EMENYONU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    undertake, steps to follow in establishing a publishing company, networking with stakeholders in the publishing industry,the legal .... should network with the following stakeholders. The book industry,like any other industry, needs ..... Author, publisher and bookseller: a tripartite synergy in book development in Nigeria.

  11. Polystoma umthakathi (Monogenea): establishment, mortality and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-02-28

    Feb 28, 1989 ... at 23°C (± 1°C), and were fed on pulverized alfalfa and goldfish flakes. N. bonebergi tadpoles infected with P. umthakathi were c()llected from streams ... the complete history of each parasite present can be followed. For each tadpole the numbers and locations of established parasites were determined on ...

  12. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, F.J.; Yielder, J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  13. innovation platforms for establishment and management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    designed to document important processes, lessons and challenges encountered from the participatory nursery ... The processes of establishing nurseries were started by forming Innovation Platforms (IPs). The IPs in each watershed consisted of local community, a local administrator, ..... would share that money equally.

  14. 36 CFR 901.2 - Establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States subject to the Government Corporation Control Act (31 U.S.C. 841 et seq.), was established by the Pennsylvania Avenue Development Corporation Act of 1972 (Pub. L. 92-578, 86 Stat. 1266 (40 U.S.C. 871 et seq.)), as amended, hereinafter referred to as the Act. (b) Purposes. The purposes for which this Corporation...

  15. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  16. Introduction, establishment and spread of the Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... native fishes and predation on fish larvae. Pseudocrenilabrus philander in the Baakens River therefore satisfies all criteria for an invasive species in this river and was categorised as invasive using a unified framework for biological invasions. Keywords: abundance, cichlid, electrofishing, establishment, invasion, spread ...

  17. Disturbance and California riparian tree establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, J.; Cowell, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    As is the case in many ecosystems, tree establishment in riparian corridors is often episodic, following disturbance events that clear colonization sites. In many riparian settings, flooding is the most obvious, and relevant disturbance agent. However, in Mediterranean-climate regions, fire is an equally important disturbance agent. In California, the frequency and severity of both floods and fire are expected to change with projected climate change, making an understanding of their roles key to understanding future ecological processes in California riparian environments. In this paper, we use tree-ring data from the Transverse Ranges of Southern California to explore the relative importance of fire and flood in the establishment of riparian gallery forest. We examined 42 cores of Alnus rhombifolia, Populus fremontii and Quercus agrifolia from the riparian zone adjacent to Piedra Blanca and Potrero John Creeks in California’s Transverse Ranges, and compared their establishment dates with records of fire and floods, to see how establishment related to disturbance history. Our results show some evidence for major fire having an impact, as all of the largest stems dated to the few years following the 1932 Matilija fire, which had burned all of the sites in our sample. The remainder of the record is less straightforward, although there is an establishment peak in the 1970s, which may be related to a 1975 fire that burned part of the Potrero John watershed. Of note, the establishment chronology shows no relationship to the flood record, as years of major floods do not relate to either prolific or sparse years in the tree-ring record. This record suggests that large fires may serve as a trigger for tree establishment in California riparian settings, but that they are hardly a prerequisite, as many stems germinated between fires. Indeed, ongoing regeneration is apparently independent of disturbance, given the apparent irrelevance of flooding in this regard. The result

  18. Hormone profile in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with previous or current amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Clovis A; Deen, Maria E J; Febrônio, Marilia V; Oliveira, Sheila K; Terreri, Maria T; Sacchetti, Silvana B; Sztajnbok, Flavio R; Marini, Roberto; Quintero, Maria V; Bica, Blanca E; Pereira, Rosa M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Ferriani, Virginia P; Robazzi, Teresa C; Magalhães, Claudia S; Hilário, Maria O

    2011-08-01

    To identify the underlying mechanism of amenorrhea in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients, thirty-five (11.7%) JSLE patients with current or previous amenorrhea were consecutively selected among the 298 post-menarche patients followed in 12 Brazilian pediatric rheumatology centers. Pituitary gonadotrophins [follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estradiol were evaluated in 32/35 patients, and prolactin and total testosterone in 29/35 patients. Patient's medical records were carefully reviewed according to demographic, clinical and therapeutic findings. The mean duration of amenorrhea was 7.2 ± 3.6 months. Low FSH or LH was observed in 7/32 (22%) JSLE patients and normal FSH or LH in 25 (78%). Remarkably, low levels of FSH or LH were associated with higher frequency of current amenorrhea (57% vs. 0%, P = 0.001), higher median disease activity (SLEDAI) and damage (SLICC/ACR-DI) (18 vs. 4, P = 0.011; 2 vs. 0, P = 0.037, respectively) and higher median current dose of prednisone (60 vs. 10 mg/day, P = 0.0001) compared to normal FSH or LH JSLE patients. None of them had decreased ovarian reserve and premature ovarian failure. Six of 29 (21%) patients had high levels of prolactin, and none had current amenorrhea. No correlations were observed between levels of prolactin and SLEDAI, and levels of prolactin and SLICC/ACR-DI scores (Spearman's coefficient). We have identified that amenorrhea in JSLE is associated with high dose of corticosteroids indicated for active disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-ovary axis suppression.

  19. Is there a link between previous exposure to sport injury psychology education and UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals' attitudes and behaviour towards sport psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Caroline A; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K

    2017-01-01

    The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not. Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists with a mean of 9.22 years' experience of working in sport) completed an online survey and were grouped according to their level of previous exposure to sport injury psychology education at an undergraduate/postgraduate level. Analyses were undertaken to establish whether there were any differences in sport psychology related attitude (MANOVA), usage (MANOVA), and referral behaviours (chi square) between the groups. The MANOVA and chi square tests conducted revealed that those who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury reported using significantly more sport psychology in their practice and making more referrals to sport psychologists. It was concluded that sport injury psychology education appears to be effective in increasing the sport psychology related behaviours (use of sport psychology and referral) of SIRPs and should be integrated into professional training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Establishment of human cell lines showing circadian rhythms of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Aki; Shimada, Hiroko; Numazawa, Kahori; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kawashima, Minae; Kato, Nobumasa; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Ebisawa, Takashi

    2008-11-28

    We have established human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines stably expressing the luciferase gene, driven by the human Bmal1 promoter, to obtain human-derived cells that show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence after dexamethasone treatment. The average circadian period of bioluminescence for the obtained clones was 24.07+/-0.48 h. Lithium (10 mM) in the medium significantly lengthened the circadian period of bioluminescence, which is consistent with previous reports, while 2 mM or 5 mM lithium had no effect. This is the first report on the establishment of human-derived cell lines that proliferate infinitely and show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence, and also the first to investigate the effects of low-dose lithium on the circadian rhythms of human-derived cells in vitro. The established cells will be useful for various in vitro studies of human circadian rhythms and for the development of new therapies for human disorders related to circadian rhythm disturbances.

  1. Research report for fiscal 1997 on analysis and evaluation of demonstration tests for establishment of residential photovoltaic power generation load leveling technology. Evaluation on durability of device installed with inverter to protect grid connection; 1997 nendo kenkyu hokokusho. Jutaku you taiyoko hatsuden fuka heijunka gijutsu tou kakuritsu jissho shiken ni kansuru kaiseki hyoka - Inbata tsuki keito renkei hogo sochi no taikyusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Tests and discussions have been performed on the safety and durability of the device installed with inverter to protect grid connection, being an important device in the photovoltaic power generation system. The particularly important requirements demanded in the device were specified as maintenance of electric power quality, coordination with the protection system in the grid side, and assurance of safety of personnel and facilities. The current fiscal year has performed operation corresponding to that in the actual field for 20 years in total, and the evaluation tests on electrical characteristics and electric power quality. This paper summarizes the achievements in four years including the results available up to the previous fiscal year. Although no large change has been identified in the electrical characteristics, variance has been found in the detection time of overvoltage in the grid side. With regard to the electric power quality, the value has exceeded 89 dB as the determining condition for the certification test in the conduction interfering waves of 5 kHz to 10 kHz. In addition, it was confirmed that the conductive high-frequency noise terminal voltage in the grid side after the repetition of operations and shutdowns tends to increase according to the operation lapse time. (NEDO)

  2. Association Between Previous Meniscal Surgery and the Incidence of Chondral Lesions at Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; David, Tal S.; McCormack, Robert G.; Sekiya, Jon K.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Huston, Laura J.; Haas, Amanda K.; Steger-May, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Knees undergoing revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction typically have more intra-articular injuries than do knees undergoing primary reconstruction. Hypothesis Previous partial meniscectomy (PM) is associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, whereas previous meniscal repair (MR) is not associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, compared with knees undergoing revision ACL with no previous meniscal surgery. Study design Cohort study (Prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Data from a multicenter cohort was reviewed to determine the history of prior meniscal surgery (PM/MR) and the presence of grade II/III/IV chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction. The association between previous meniscal surgery and the incidence of chondral lesions was examined. Patient age was included as a covariate to determine if surgery type contributes predictive information independent of patient age. Results The cohort included 725 ACL revision surgeries. Chondrosis was associated with patient age (P meniscal surgery (P meniscal surgery (P meniscal surgery and knees with previous MR (P = .7). Previous partial meniscectomy was associated with a higher rate of chondrosis in the same compartment compared with knees without previous meniscal surgery (P meniscal surgery independent of the effect of patient age. Previous partial meniscectomy is associated with a higher incidence of articular cartilage lesions, whereas previous meniscal repair is not. Although this association may reflect underlying differences in the knee at the time of prior surgery, it does suggest that meniscal repair is preferable when possible at the time of ACL reconstruction. PMID:22374942

  3. Examining Daily Electronic Cigarette Puff Topography Among Established and Non-established Cigarette Smokers in their Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Nonnemaker, James M; Bradfield, Brian; Hensel, Edward C; Robinson, Risa J

    2017-10-04

    Understanding exposures and potential health effects of ecigarettes is complex. Users' puffing behavior, or topography, affects function of ecigarette devices (e.g., coil temperature) and composition of their emissions. Users with different topographies are likely exposed to different amounts of any harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs). In this study, we compare ecigarette topographies of established cigarette smokers and non-established cigarette smokers. Data measuring e-cigarette topography were collected using a wireless hand-held monitoring device in users' everyday lives over 1 week. Young adult (aged 18-25) participants (N=20) used disposable e-cigarettes with the monitor as they normally would and responded to online surveys. Topography characteristics of established versus non-established cigarette smokers were compared. On average, established cigarette smokers in the sample had larger first puff volume (130.9ml vs. 56.0ml, ptopography characteristics differ by level of current cigarette smoking. This suggests that exposures to constituents of e-cigarettes depends on user characteristics and that specific topography parameters may be needed for different user populations when assessing ecigarette health effects. A user's topography affects his or her exposure to HPHCs. As this study demonstrates, user characteristics, such as level of smoking, can influence topography. Thus, it is crucial to understand the topography profiles of different user types to assess the potential for population harm and to identify potentially vulnerable populations. This study only looked at topography of cigarette smokers using disposable e-cigarettes. Further research is needed to better understand potential variation in ecigarette topography and resulting exposures to HPHCs among users of different e-cigarette devices and liquids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights

  4. Prevalence, distribution, and diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in retail environments, focusing on small establishments and establishments with a history of failed inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Karin; Sauders, Brian D; Sanchez, Maria D; Olsen, Peter T; Pickett, Michele M; Mangione, Kurt J; Rice, Daniel H; Corby, Joe; Stich, Stephen; Fortes, Esther D; Roof, Sherry E; Grohn, Yrjo T; Wiedmann, Martin; Oliver, Haley F

    2011-07-01

    Despite growing concerns about cross-contamination of ready-to-eat foods with Listeria monocytogenes, our knowledge about the ecology and transmission of L. monocytogenes in retail establishments has remained limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to characterize the prevalence, distribution, and subtype diversity of L. monocytogenes in 120 New York State retail deli establishments that were hypothesized to present an increased risk for environmental L. monocytogenes contamination (i.e., small establishments and establishments with a history of failed New York State Agriculture and Markets inspections). Analysis of these data along with previously reported data for 121 predominantly larger retail establishments in New York State identified establishment size, geographic location, and inspection history as significant predictors of L. monocytogenes presence and prevalence. The odds of an establishment being L. monocytogenes positive were approximately twice as high for large establishments, establishments located in New York City, or establishments with poor inspection history (as compared with establishments without these attributes), even though correlation between location and inspection history complicated interpretation of results. Within an establishment, L. monocytogenes was significantly more prevalent on nonfood contact surfaces than on food contact surfaces; prevalence was particularly high for floors and in floor drains, sinks, the dairy case, and milk crates. L. monocytogenes subtype diversity differed between sites, with lineage I isolates significantly associated with nonfood contact surfaces and lineage II isolates significantly associated with food contact surfaces. Isolates belonging to the same ribotype were often found dispersed across multiple sites within an operation. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  5. Groin Problems in Male Soccer Players Are More Common Than Previously Reported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harøy, Joar; Clarsen, Ben; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus, the mag......BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus......, the magnitude of groin problems in soccer has probably been underestimated in previous studies based on traditional injury surveillance methods. PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of groin problems among soccer players of both sexes and among male soccer players at different levels of play through a new...... across different levels of play and from both sexes were included, and they responded to the weekly questionnaire. We calculated the average weekly prevalence of all groin problems and substantial groin problems. RESULTS: Of the 240 players, 112 male players (59%) and 20 female players (45%) reported...

  6. Identification of Previously Unknown Groups of Microorganisms Under the Tundra Snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Schadt, C. W.; Lipson, D. A.; Martin, A. P.

    2003-12-01

    Recent work has shown that microbial communities are active under snow. In fact, in some tundra soils these organisms reach their year-round peak in late winter. These communities can function at temperatures down to at least -5° C and are fuelled by dead plant material laid down in the Autumn. Until now the identity of these cold adapted microbial communities was a complete mystery. We used microbiological and molecular techniques to elucidate the phylogenetic composition of these under-snow microbial communities. At the broadest taxonomic level, we show that fungi dominate the under-snow world. More detailed molecular analyses revealed a high diversity within the fungi and we identified three clades that constitute major new groups of fungi (at the subphylum or class level) that have not been previously described or cultured. An abundance of hitherto unknown fungi that are active beneath the snow significantly broadens our understanding of both the diversity and biogeochemical functioning of fungi in cold environments.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY FOR ESTABLISHING PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (PMO IN COMPANIES IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Project Management Office (PMO is an organizational unit established to help project managers, project teams and the various levels of management in carrying out the principles of project management. The research was carried out in Serbia, in 2011, with the aim to establish which methodologies and techniques are used for project m anagement, and which of them are used the most frequently. Furthermore, the need for establishment of PMOs in Serbia is discussed. These offices should help in establishing a standardized methodology (at the organization level and thus overcome the obviou s poor use of any project management methodology at all.

  8. Previous exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack and posttraumatic symptoms among older adults following Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrira, Amit; Palgi, Yuval; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Goodwin, Robin; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2014-01-01

    The present study tested the maturation and inoculation hypotheses by examining whether age and previous exposure to the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack moderated the relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. An online sample of 1,000 participants from affected states completed self-report questionnaires one month after Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast. Participants reported their degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack and to Hurricane Sandy, and their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following Hurricane Sandy. The positive relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and level of PTSD symptoms was weaker among older adults. An additional significant three-way interaction suggested that both age and previous exposure to the WTC terrorist attack moderated the relationship between degree of exposure to Hurricane Sandy and level of PTSD symptoms. Previous high degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack was related to a weaker effect of current exposure to Hurricane Sandy on PTSD symptoms among older adults. However, among younger adults, previous high degree of exposure to the WTC terrorist attack was related to a stronger effect of current exposure on PTSD symptoms. When confronted by a natural disaster, American older adults are generally resilient. Supporting the inoculation hypothesis, resilience of older adults may be partly related to the strength successfully extracted from previous exposure to adverse events.

  9. Developing criteria to establish Trusted Digital Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper details the drivers, methods, and outcomes of the U.S. Geological Survey’s quest to establish criteria by which to judge its own digital preservation resources as Trusted Digital Repositories. Drivers included recent U.S. legislation focused on data and asset management conducted by federal agencies spending $100M USD or more annually on research activities. The methods entailed seeking existing evaluation criteria from national and international organizations such as International Standards Organization (ISO), U.S. Library of Congress, and Data Seal of Approval upon which to model USGS repository evaluations. Certification, complexity, cost, and usability of existing evaluation models were key considerations. The selected evaluation method was derived to allow the repository evaluation process to be transparent, understandable, and defensible; factors that are critical for judging competing, internal units. Implementing the chosen evaluation criteria involved establishing a cross-agency, multi-disciplinary team that interfaced across the organization. 

  10. Aortic root replacement after previous surgical intervention on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, E W Matthias; Radu, N Costin; Mekontso-Dessap, Armand; Hillion, Marie-Line; Loisance, Daniel

    2006-03-01

    Aortic root replacement after a previous operation on the aortic valve, aortic root, or ascending aorta remains a major challenge. Records of 56 consecutive patients (44 men; mean age, 56.4 +/- 13.6 years) undergoing reoperative aortic root replacement between June 1994 and June 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation was performed 9.4 +/- 6.7 years after the last cardiac operation. Indications for reoperation were true aneurysm (n = 14 [25%]), false aneurysm (n = 10 [18%]), dissection or redissection (n = 9 [16%]), structural or nonstructural valve dysfunction (n = 10 [18%]), prosthetic valve-graft infection (n = 12 [21%]), and miscellaneous (n = 1 [2%]). Procedures performed were aortic root replacement (n = 47 [84%]), aortic root replacement plus mitral valve procedure (n = 5 [9%]), and aortic root replacement plus arch replacement (n = 4 [7%]). In 14 (25%) patients coronary artery bypass grafting had to be performed unexpectedly during the same procedure or immediately after the procedure to re-establish coronary perfusion. Hospital mortality reached 17.9% (n = 10). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the need for unplanned perioperative coronary artery bypass grafting as the sole independent risk factor for hospital death (P = .005). Actuarial survival was 83.8% +/- 4.9% at 1 month, 73.0% +/- 6.3% at 1 year, and 65.7% +/- 9.0% at 5 years after the operation. One patient had recurrence of endocarditis 6.7 months after the operation and required repeated homograft aortic root replacement. Reoperative aortic root replacement remains associated with a high postoperative mortality. The need to perform unplanned coronary artery bypass grafting during reoperative aortic root replacement is a major risk factor for hospital death. The optimal technique for coronary reconstruction in this setting remains to be debated.

  11. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  12. Streptococcus oralis previously identified as uncommon 'Streptococcus sanguis' in Behçet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narikawa, S; Suzuki, Y; Takahashi, M; Furukawa, A; Sakane, T; Mizushima, Y

    1995-08-01

    The relation between the biochemical and serological properties of 'Streptococcus sanguis' was studied to characterize the strains isolated from dental plaque of patients with Behçet's disease and controls. Seven reference and 100 clinical strains preserved by the Behçet's Disease Research Committee of Japan were identified using established criteria and differentiated with antisera against Strep. oralis ATCC 10557, Strep. sanguis ATCC 10556 and 'Strep. sanguis' ST7, compatible with the criteria. Uncommon serovars (serotypes) KTH-1 (= ATCC 49298), KTH-2 (= ATCC 49296), KTH-3 (= ATCC KTH-4 (= ATCC 49297) and B220 (serovar KTH-1) with both IgA1 protease and neuraminidase (sialidase) were identified as Strep. oralis, whereas common serovars ST3 with IgA1 protease alone and ST7 without both enzymes were identified as Strep. sanguis and Strep. gordonii, respectively. Isolates previously ranked as uncommon serovars were identified as Strep. oralis, whereas the rest ranked as common serovars were identified as the same species as those of the grouping strains. A soft-agar technique was available for species identification except for Strep. oralis serovar KTH-1 reacting with the antiserum against Strep. gordonii ST7. The frequency of isolation of Strep. oralis was higher in Behçet's disease (52%) than in controls (38%), but no difference was observed between the properties of the two groups of isolates. Strep. oralis virulence factors may be involved in breach the mucosal barrier in patients with specific reactivity to these antigens and inducing Behçet's disease.

  13. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SERBIAN FADN INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Ivkov, Ivana; Vasiljevic, Zorica; Ghelfi, Rino

    2013-01-01

    While the Republic of Serbia is increasingly moving towards EU integration, and while one of the many EU requirements is the yearly transmission of the accountancy data that are important for the annual determination of the incomes of agricultural holdings and analysis of their business operation, the need to establish and develop Serbian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) system becomes a crucial strategic option. This research paper describes how this requirement has been fulfilled for th...

  14. Establishing Key Performance Indicators : Case company X

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    The key performance indicators serve as the navigational tools for a business organization to monitor its performance. They enable the management team to take real time decisions to keep organization’s resources aligned to its business strategy to accomplish its strategic objec-tives. This research was conducted to analyse the process of establishing successful key per-formance indicators for a business organization. The research was conducted to recommend key performance indicators developme...

  15. Post Gliphosate treatments establishment of some grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan ROTAR; Mariana RUSU; Fl. PRICA

    1997-01-01

    The sward dominated by Festuca rubra/Agrostis tenuis was treated to reduce the Nardus component and others weed by spraying with Gliphosate. Treatments were applied in the autumn of 1993. In the spring of 1994 a mixture of Phleum pratense, Fesuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata, Trifolium repens and Lotus corniculatus was oversown. Establishment of each species and botanical composition of the pasture were measured over the next three years. Nardus and weed was largely replaced by Phleum/Festuca mi...

  16. Joint Research Centre. Ispra establishment-Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, Antonio

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the work carried out during 1974 and 1975 in the Ispra establishment of the Joint Research Centre is presented. A description of the activity carried out within the context of the running programmes is given. Some of the most relevant scientific and technical achievement are described from the viewpoints of the Scientific Departments of the Centre. The technical and administrative support activities are also presented. A list of publications issued by the Ispra Scientific staff is given

  17. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  18. Natural course of sensitization to hen's egg in children not previously exposed to egg ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, D; Dupont, C

    2006-04-01

    Clinical adverse reactions to egg may occur in infants or children who have never eaten egg. They may be sensitized or even react at first egg ingestion. Few studies are available concerning the reality of egg white allergy in such sensitized children, the natural evolution of this condition and the appropriate decisions to make. To analyze the actuality and natural course of egg allergy in children sensitized without previous of hen's egg ingestion. We set up a clinical decision tree based on clinical history and specific egg white IgE to manage patients who had never ingested egg but were sensitized as demonstrated by a positive SPT and report a cohort of 30 such children The mean level of egg white specific IgE at first analysis, i.e. before 12 months, was high, 28.3 KU(A) /L, with a large range, from 0.6 to >100 KU(A) /L, below 6 KU(A) /L in only 8 patients. In 6 children ("no challenge" group), IgE values remained >8 KU(A) /L by the end of the survey and the oral challenge with egg was always denied. Their mean + SD IgE level was at 51.7 + 38 KU(A) /L at 1 year and 19.7 + 13 KU(A) /L at a mean age of 34 + 5 months. All had an associated anaphylactic reaction with milk and 5 were still allergic to milk by the end of the survey. In the remaining 24 infants, egg was given for the first time at a mean age of 30 + 9 months, by error in 4 cases, all exhibiting an immediate reaction, and in a hospital setting in 20, among whom 14 reacted. Among those 18, with a specific IgE level at 9.1 + 10 KU(A) /L at 28 + 9 months, 4 became tolerant between 3 and 4 years, with specific IgE levels below 1.3 KU(A) /L and a 5th one with specific IgE >100 KU(A) /L at 6 months tolerated scrambled eggs at age 7 year, with specific IgE at 2.6 KU(A) /L. In the 6 others, labeled "non allergic", egg white specific IgE levels were significantly lower, whatever the age, than in the "no challenge" group. The age at challenge was 35 + 8 months, with a mean specific IgE level at 1.0 + 0.9 KU

  19. For establishment on nuclear disaster prevention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)

  20. Dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia in renal transplant recipients: more prevalent than previously thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsides, N; Green, D; Middleton, R; New, D; Lamerton, E; Allen, J; Redshaw, J; Chadwick, P R; Subudhi, C P K; Wood, G

    2014-02-01

    After an outbreak of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in our nephrology unit, dapsone was used as the second-line chemoprophylactic agent. Dapsone is the most common cause of drug-induced methemoglobinemia (MHb). Its prevalence is poorly described in the renal transplant population. Because dapsone is excreted by the kidneys, we hypothesized that the rate of MHb in these patients would be higher than previously reported. We aimed to describe the demographics, risk factors, and presenting features of MHb in these renal transplant patients. Twenty-six transplant recipients commenced on dapsone for chemoprophylaxis against PCP from February to September 2011. All patients had normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase levels before treatment. Characteristics of patients with MHb were compared with those of the rest of the cohort to determine potential risk factors. Twelve (46%) patients developed MHb (levels 6.4 ± 4.1%). Six (50%) of the patients with MHb were asymptomatic on presentation. Cases had a mean drop in hemoglobin of 19 ± 7%. MHb led to five admissions (median length of stay 5 days, range 1-10 days). MHb level showed a strong correlation with the length of stay (correlation coefficient 0.762, P = 0.002). This is the highest reported prevalence of MHb, to our knowledge, in patients receiving dapsone, and its use led to significant hospitalization in this population. This study raises concerns about the use of dapsone as chemoprophylaxis in renal transplant recipients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Insulin Secretion and Incretin Hormone Concentration in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hoon Yu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe examined the change in the levels of incretin hormone and effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 on insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM.MethodsA 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was conducted on 34 women with pGDM. In addition, 11 women with normal glucose tolerance, matched for age, height and weight, were also tested. The insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon concentrations were measured, and their anthropometric and biochemical markers were also measured.ResultsAmong 34 women with pGDM, 18 had normal glucose tolerance, 13 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 1 had diabetes. No significant differences were found in GLP-1 concentration between the pGDM and control group. However, a significantly high level of glucagon was present in the pGDM group at 30 minutes into the OGTT. The GIP concentration was elevated at 30 minutes and 60 minutes in the pGDM group. With the exception of the 30-minute timepoint, women with IGT had significantly high blood glucose from 0 to 120 minutes. However, there was no significant difference in insulin or GLP-1 concentration. The GIP level was significantly high from 0 to 90 minutes in patients diagnosed with IGT.ConclusionGLP-1 secretion does not differ between pGDM patients and normal women. GIP was elevated, but that does not seem to induce in increase in insulin secretion. Therefore, we conclude that other factors such as heredity and environment play important roles in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  2. 29 CFR 779.369 - Funeral home establishments may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., long distance calls, newspaper notices, flowers, livery service, honoraria to participating personnel... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Funeral Homes § 779.369 Funeral home establishments may qualify as exempt 13(a)(2...

  3. The effects of previous open renal stone surgery types on PNL outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Sarilar, Omer; Erbin, Akif; Yanaral, Fatih; Sahan, Murat; Binbay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to demonstrate the effect of insicion of renal parenchyma during open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcomes. Patients with history of ORSS who underwent PNL operation between June 2005 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their type of previous ORSS. Patients who had a history of ORSS with parenchymal insicion, such as radial nephrotomies, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, lower pole resection, and partial nephrectomy, were included in Group 1. Other patients with a history of open pyelolithotomy were enrolled in Group 2. Preoperative characteristics, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complications were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was defined as complete clearance of stone(s) or presence of residual fragments smaller than 4 mm. The retrospective nature of our study, different experience level of surgeons, and lack of the evaluation of anesthetic agents and cost of procedures were limitations of our study. 123 and 111 patients were enrolled in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. In Group 1, the mean operative time was statistically longer than in Group 2 (p=0.013). Stone-free status was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p=0.027). Complication rates were similar between groups. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was the most common complication in both groups (10.5% vs. 9.9%). Our study demonstrated that a history of previous ORSS with parenchymal insicion significantly reduces the success rates of PNL procedure.

  4. Polymorphism in SFTPD gene affects assembly and constitutional serum levels of surfactant protein D in a Lebanese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fakih, Dalia; Chamat, Soulaima; Medlej-Hashim, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D), an oligomeric lung-derived lectin, has essential roles in innate immunity. It can be measured in serum. Previous studies have shown that constitutional SP-D serum levels and the protein degree of multimerization are genetically influenced. We aimed to establish the di...

  5. 75 FR 39192 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (Previously Utah State University), et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    .... (Previously Jamie R. Hill and Southwest Florida Aviation); Tamarack Helicopters, Inc. (Previously Ranger... 6220: Main Rotor Head. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on June 5, 2010. Mark R. Schilling, Acting Manager...

  6. Establishing requirements for information gathering tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Amin (Alia)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractThis PhD project aims at understanding and supporting the complex activities of information gathering. To date, most search applications support one aspect of search namely low-level keyword-based search to find documents. However, in reality, users search tasks are often high-level

  7. Informing Approaches in Establishing Stand Alone Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literacy is usually considered the ability to read at a basic level. Now it is beginning to be defined more broadly to include applying reading, writing, and mathematical skills to obtain and use information and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function in society, to achieve one's goals and develop one's ...

  8. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS IN MEN AFTER PREVIOUS SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kalininа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the efficacy and safety of natural complex multi-component biologically active additives (BAA to food Spermstrong and Testogenona in the diagnosis and treating 63 men with reproductive disorders after illness, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. During the 12 weeks 41 patients the primary group assigned Spermstrongom combination therapy in combination with Testogenonom, 22 patient control group received only Spermstrong. Immediate treatment results evaluated through 4 weeks and distant through 12 weeks after stopping treatment. It has been established that the appointment of a combination therapy of complex components Spermstrong and Testogenon was statistically significantly increases the effectiveness of treatment. In the main group was marked by a more pronounced positive clinical effect through 12 weeks after treatment in 84.5 % of patients receiving combination therapy (increase the concentration and mobility of spermatozoa to normozoospermii, increase testosterone levels to normal values, improving the quality of erections, improve blood flow in the prostate gland, testes, in the control group who received Spermstrong, the effect is achieved in two times fewer patients, i. e. normozoospermija in 40.9 % have patients. The results confirm that the components of the Spermstrong complexes and Testogenon in combination therapy is effective, safe, have no side effects and can be used in complex treatment of reproductive disorders in men who have STDs, as well as for prophylaxis of incremental sexual glands: prostate, testicules and improve sexual function. 

  9. Level structure of 105Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanjee, M.K.; Okon, O.B.; Bakhru, H.; Preiss, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    The excited lvels of 105 Ag have been investigated from the decay of 105 Cd with high-resolution Ge(Li) and Si(Li) detectors as well as with standard scintillation counters. 105 Cd was produced via 106 Cd (n,2n) 105 Cd and 102 Pd (α,n) 105 Cd reactions. Levels of the following energies (in keV) have been established in 105 Ag: 25.5, 53.2, 111.5, 198.0, 973.6, 1014.7, 1032.2, 1096.8, 1364.3, 1413.4, 1635.2, 1670.1, 1718.9, 1923.7, 1933.5, 1986.2, 2144.6, 2257.1, 2326.8, 2333.4, 2419.5, 2449.5, 2472.6, and 2582.0. The use of two Ge(Li) detectors in connection with the PDP-8/I computer and a program for two-dimensional analysis with a 4096-dual analog-to-digital converter revealed the presence of several previously unreported transitions in 105 Ag. Based on the γ-γ and β-γ coincidence results, a consistent lvel scheme for 105 Ag is given. The spin and parity assignments of levels of 105 Ag are discussed. (author)

  10. 12 CFR 563b.260 - May I use previously executed proxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I use previously executed proxies? 563b.260... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.260 May I use previously executed proxies? You may not use previously executed proxies for the plan of conversion vote. If members...

  11. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien described...

  12. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  13. Establishment of nuclear equipment qualification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Po Kook; Lim, Nam Jin; Lee, Young Gun

    2003-04-01

    This study is carried out by KEARI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) as the lead organization in cooperation with KIMM(Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials), KTL(Korea Testing Laboratory) and KRISS(Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) to construct a basis of efficient management of nuclear equipment qualification business by expanding test equipment of each of participating organization, and developing qualification technologies. As for KIMM, control system of large scale shaker was replaced with advanced system, and LOCA(Loss of Coolant Accident) test facility was installed. KTL is now capable of conducting seismic tests of nuclear I and C as a result of installation of seismic test equipment during the first two project years. KRISS participated in the Project with a view to have large scale EMI test equipment and related technologies. In parallel with expansion of test equipment, a industrial-educational-research cooperation committee, as an intermediate step toward integrated equipment qualification system to maximize the usage of test equipment, was established and cooperation methods were investigated. As a result, Korea Nuclear Equipment Qualification Association, an corporate juridical person, was established. Research on development of thermal and radiation aging test technology of nuclear materials was carried out by Hanyang University and SECO(Saehan Engineering and Qualification Co., Ltd.). Integrated Equipment Qualification Database was developed which contains material test data, equipment qualification data and other EQ related informations. Standard qualification procedures were developed in order for test laboratories and manufacturers to establish design requirements and to efficiently perform tests

  14. Monitoring process hygiene in Serbian retail establishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesković Moračanin, S.; Baltić, T.; Milojević, L.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted to estimate the effectiveness of sanitary procedures on food contact surfaces and food handlers’ hands in Serbian retail establishments. For that purpose, a total of 970 samples from food contact surfaces and 525 samples from workers’ hands were microbiologically analyzed. Results of total aerobic plate count and total Enterobacteriaceae count showed that the implemented washing and disinfection procedures, as a part of HACCP plans, were not effective enough in most retail facilities. Constant and intensive education of employees on proper implementation of sanitation procedures are needed in order to ensure food safety in the retail market.

  15. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...... patients were referred to the local General Hospital and about half of the patients in each diagnostic group were sent on the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing on Zealand, Denmark. Since the establishment of the department, admissions have increased in all diagnostic groups, especially in the group...

  16. Establishment of heart teams in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Uva, M; Leite Moreira, A; Gavina, C; Pereira, H; Lopes, M G

    2014-01-01

    Whenever several therapeutic options exist, multidisciplinary decision-making is beneficial for the patient and for society at large. The main obstacles to the establishment of heart teams in Portugal are organizational and logistical. Implementing a heart team approach entails definition of the situations requiring multidisciplinary discussion, creation of clear lines of communication, written protocols and obtaining patient informed consent. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines define the clinical scenarios where intervention of the heart team is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualization of information with an established order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung [Richland, WA; Foote, Harlan P [Richmond, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wong, Kwong-Kwok [Sugar Land, TX

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is a system including one or more processors operable to access data representative of a biopolymer sequence of monomer units. The one or more processors are further operable to establish a pattern corresponding to at least one fractal curve and generate one or more output signals corresponding to a number of image elements each representative of one of the monomer units. Also included is a display device responsive to the one or more output signals to visualize the biopolymer sequence by displaying the image elements in accordance with the pattern.

  18. Research Establishment Risoe 1975/76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    A summary of the chief activities of the research establishment Risoe is given. These are roughly divided into sections dealing with nuclear technology, applied research, basic research, and research facilities and auxiliary services. For more detailed descriptions of the work in progress, readers are referred to the annual reports published in the two report series, as well as to articles appearing in scientific journals. A selected list of staff publications is given, and the design data on research facilities are presented. (B.P.)

  19. Case study of establishing a clean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kun; Nam, Yoon Mi [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study was implemented to derive suggestions for improving policies in Korea through the examination and analysis on the present policies related to the clean production and its establishment in enterprises. The characters of concept on clean production presented in pollution prevention, waste minimization, zero emission, environmental friendly design, and industrial ecology were analyzed and the mechanism for implementing clean production and government policy were arranged comprehensively. The related policies of major countries with international organizations including UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) and EU (European Union) were reviewed and compared to those of Korea to propose future policy plan. 73 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.