Sample records for previously encountered pupils

  1. Logic of Accounting: The Case of Reporting Previous Options in Norwegian Activation Encounters (United States)

    Solberg, Janne


    The article deals with the enactment of client resistance in Norwegian vocational rehabilitation encounters. More specific, a practice here called "reporting previous options" is analyzed by using the resources of ethnomethodological conversation analysis (CA) in five instances as doing some sort of accounting. In response to the…

  2. Re-Encountering Individuals Who Previously Engaged in Joint Gaze Modulates Subsequent Gaze Cueing (United States)

    Dalmaso, Mario; Edwards, S. Gareth; Bayliss, Andrew P.


    We assessed the extent to which previous experience of joint gaze with people (i.e., looking toward the same object) modulates later gaze cueing of attention elicited by those individuals. Participants in Experiments 1 and 2a/b first completed a saccade/antisaccade task while a to-be-ignored face either looked at, or away from, the participants'…

  3. Wellness Tourism among Seniors in Taiwan: Previous Experience, Service Encounter Expectations, Organizational Characteristics, Employee Characteristics, and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaung-Hwa Chen


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of the service encounter expectations of senior customers during wellness tours on customer satisfaction. The organizational attributes of hotels, organizational characteristics and employee characteristics, were adopted as mediating variables. A total of 346 valid questionnaires were retrieved from 50 year-old and above seniors in Taiwan. The results showed that the service encounter expectations of seniors had an indirect influence on customer satisfaction and the organizational attributes mediated the service encounter expectations of seniors and customer satisfaction. The moment of truth in the interactions between service staff members and seniors represents the pivotal management implication of this study.

  4. Is Tadpole Pupil in an Adolescent Girl Caused by Denervation Hypersensitivity? (United States)

    Hansen, Jonas Kjeldbjerg; Møller, Hans Ulrik


    Tadpole pupil is a rarely encountered phenomenon caused by episodic, segmental iris dilator muscle spasm of short duration (2-15 minutes), occurring in clusters without a known precipitating factor. It has most commonly been described in women aged 28 to 48 years. A few hypotheses on pathogenesis have been discussed but none has been proved. Here, we present an adolescent girl with bilateral tadpole pupil that appeared during physical exercise. This is the first pediatric case of tadpole pupil, not caused by preceding surgery, to be published. Based on (1) this case in which tadpole pupil developed when the norepinephrine level rose during exercise, (2) the high ratio of patients with tadpole pupil who concurrently have or later develop Horner syndrome, in which denervation hypersensitivity is well described, (3) a previous report of a patient with both tadpole pupil and Horner syndrome who had denervation hypersensitivity on pharmacological testing, (4) a 29-year-old man with unilateral tadpole pupil induced by exercise, and (5) a 19-year-old man with bilateral tadpole pupil and possible autonomic neuropathy, we suggest denervation hypersensitivity as a probable pathogenic mechanism causing tadpole pupil. In addition, a suggestion for investigations to be performed in future pediatric cases is provided. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Effects of a simulated wolf encounter on brain and blood biomarkers of stress-related psychological disorders in beef cows with or without previous exposure to wolves. (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Mehrkam, L R; Marques, R S; Lippolis, K D; Bohnert, D W


    This experiment compared mRNA expression of brain-blood biomarkers associated with stress-related psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in beef cows from wolf-naïve and wolf-experienced origins that were subjected to a simulated wolf encounter. Multiparous, non-pregnant, non-lactating Angus-crossbred cows from the Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center (Burns, OR; CON; = 10) and from a commercial operation near Council, ID (WLF; = 10) were used. To date, gray wolves are not present around Burns, OR, and thus CON were naïve to wolves. Conversely, wolves are present around Council, ID, and WLF cows were selected from a herd that had experienced multiple wolf-predation episodes from 2008 to 2015. After a 60-d commingling and adaptation period, CON and WLF cows were allocated to groups A or B (d -1; 5 CON and 5 WLF cows in each group). On d 0, cows from group A were sampled for blood and immediately slaughtered, and samples were analyzed to evaluate inherent differences between CON and WLF cows. On d 1, cows from group B were exposed in pairs (1 CON and 1 WLF cow) to experimental procedures. Cows were sampled for blood, moved to 2 adjacent drylot pens (1 WLF and 1 CON cow/pen) and subjected to a simulated wolf encounter event for 20 min. The encounter consisted of (1) cotton plugs saturated with wolf urine attached to the drylot fence, (2) reproduction of wolf howls, and (3) three leashed dogs that were walked along the fence perimeter. Thereafter, another blood sample was collected and cows were slaughtered. Upon slaughter, the brain was removed and dissected for collection of the hypothalamus, and one longitudinal slice of the medial pre-frontal cortex, amygdala, and Cornu Ammonis (1 region of the hippocampus from both hemispheres). Within cows from group A, expression of in hippocampus and amygdala were greater ( wolf-experienced herd presented biological evidence suggesting a psychological disorder, such as PTSD, after the

  6. Cosmopolitan encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Woodward, Ian


    pleasurable cosmopolitan pursuits to consider encounters that cause frictions or require notable efforts to bridge differences as an occasion for cosmopolitan conviviality. Based on qualitative interviews conducted in Australia, we aim to sharpen the demarcation between cosmopolitan encounters and those...

  7. Mobile encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Christensen, Mathilde Dissing; Simonsen, Kirsten


    The paper explores modes of encounters in the everyday practice of bus travel. Particularly, it addresses cross-cultural encounters located in the tension between familiarity and difference, between inclusion and exclusion. The paper is located in contemporary thoughts, approaching public transpo...... between passengers, with the socio-materiality of the bus and drivers as co-riders and gatekeepers.......The paper explores modes of encounters in the everyday practice of bus travel. Particularly, it addresses cross-cultural encounters located in the tension between familiarity and difference, between inclusion and exclusion. The paper is located in contemporary thoughts, approaching public transport...... not only as a moving device but also as a social arena. Furthermore, the bus is simultaneously perceived as a public space, at once composite, contradictory and heterogeneous, and as a meeting place involving ‘Throwntogetherness’. The encounters analysed are bodily, emotional charged and outspoken meetings...

  8. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie


    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  9. Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the effect of concentrated language encounter method in developing sight word recognition skill in primary school pupils in cross river state. The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of Primary One pupils' reading level, English sight word recognition skill. It also examine the extent to which the ...

  10. Effects of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Developing Comprehension Skills in Primary School Pupils in Cross River State, Nigeria. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of primary one pupils' reading level, English comprehension skill.

  11. Isolated dilated pupil: Is it adie's pupil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinharoy


    Full Text Available Adie's tonic pupil, though well known in literature is a rarity in practice. Few case reports have mentioned the occurrence of Adie's pupil during a migraine attack. We report a young female with a history of migraine without aura presenting with asymmetric pupils during migraine attack. Her right pupil was dilated, unresponsive to light with poor response to near reflex. She also had a bilateral loss of ankle jerks. In 0.125% pilocarpine test, the affected pupil responded significantly, and Holmes Adie's syndrome was diagnosed. The patient remained asymptomatic after adjustment of refraction of the right eye for the near vision. It is usually a benign condition. Early clinical detection of such condition is necessary to prevent unnecessary and costly investigations as well to reassure the patient.

  12. Moving Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Deslandes


    Full Text Available This essay explores my experience of losing an authoritative speaking position – that is, ‘falling on my face’ in a research encounter with the Brazilian Landless Worker’s Movement (O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra, or MST.  My specific movements through this locale invoke Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak’s concept of ‘unlearning one’s privilege as a loss’; and Sara Ahmed’s theory of ‘stranger fetishism’.  In writing my brief loss, I also; of course, recover my speaking position, meaning that I can always efface the loss by re-writing it as a source of ethnographic authority.  This essay is written in two voices in order to reflect this paradox: one which describes the encounter, and one that critically ruminates upon it.  I note, for example, that the MST as a variegated conglomerate of people takes the form of particular ‘Others’ when they are represented in the scholarship and polemic of ‘first world’ activists in the so called ‘global justice movement’.  ‘Falling on my face in the street’ of these Others locates particular processes of fetishization within the global justice movement and the relationships across power and difference that are contained herein; processes that impact on the idea of a ‘global’ solidarity against systemic ‘global’ oppressions.

  13. Encountering Difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foulkes, Nicol Marie


    their daily life and ultimately their freedom, as well as how the outcomes differ among them. The paper is based on the qualitative analysis of 29 interviews and questionnaire data collected from knowledge workers and their partners from Northern Europe, eight of whom were from Finland and eight from Denmark...... and navigate the social system in the Indian mega-cities Bangalore, Delhi and Mumbai. The analysis takes into consideration how Nordic shared values like trust and equality are negotiated in locations where there are stark cultural and environmental differences, investigating how these negotiations affect......, who have moved to India because of either their own or their partner’s job. The findings indicate that while the Nordic privileged migrants encounter similar challenges in Indian mega-cities, there are both similarities and dissimilarities in the way navigate and negotiate those challenges, possibly...

  14. Assessing Pupils' Progress (United States)

    Ollerton, Mike


    In this article, the author explores what Assessing Pupils' Progress (APP) is about. He contends that the predilection for testing is a catastrophe as far as the teaching and learning of mathematics is concerned; it is an outcome of the drive for collecting so-called "data" on pupils. What those people, who should know better, either choose to…

  15. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna


    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  16. Curricular Content for Pupils' Mental Health (United States)

    Ebadi, Seyed Hossein; Keshtiaray, Narges; Aghaei, Asghar; Yousefy, Alireza


    Present-day curricular designs have to take the pupils' psychological needs in account, thus becoming melodies of mental health and happiness for the next generation. Emphasizing the findings from previous investigations using the research synthesis methodology, the present study has been conducted aiming at achieving some integrative knowledge…

  17. Sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils and professional qualification of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Zachová


    Full Text Available The presented text shows the results of research carried out within the dissertation thesis. The main topic is the phenomenon of sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The research is based on the expert belief that integration of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue into Czech schools and the training of teachers in this field is still somewhat marginal, even though there is a growing debate about increasing cultural diversity, increasing heterogeneity of schools and introduction of inclusive measures. The aim of the research was to analyze professional training of teachers in relation to the sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The goal was refined by the formulation of research questions: What possible problems (difficulties reflect teachers in the teaching process of foreign pupils? What procedures and strategies do teachers use to help these pupils to be integrated successfully? How do teachers assess their professional readiness for education of foreign pupils (whether they were sufficiently prepared to work with foreign pupils in the course of their undergraduate studies, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? How do students assess their undergraduate education for foreign-pupil teaching (whether they were ready to work with foreign pupils in their previous undergraduate education, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? The research used questionnaire survey techniques for teachers and students and semi-structured interviews for teachers. The partial technique was the analysis of study subjects focused on the education of foreign pupils at the Faculty of Education at West Bohemian University in Pilsen (hereinafter WBU. The research group was made up of teachers of the 1st grade of primary schools of the Pilsen and Karlovy Vary regions and students of the 4th grade of the field of Teaching for the

  18. Learning strategies of gifted pupils


    Fink, Blaž


    This paper addresses learning strategies of gifted pupils. The purpose of this research is to determine the characteristics of gifted pupils’ learning strategies and compare them to those of their schoolmates. We will also compare learning strategies of gifted female pupils and male pupils. Lastly, we will determine how learning strategies of gifted pupils correlates with how they evaluate their learning. The theoretical part of this paper will define the concept of giftedness and learning...

  19. Pupil Transportation Management. (United States)

    Miller, Anthony R.

    The safest means of transportation in the United States is the school bus fleet. Each school day, over 350,000 school buses transport about 22,000,000 children ages 3 to 21--from wheelchair pupils to varsity football players--to and from school in weather conditions ranging from those for Fairbanks, Alaska, to those typical of Cave Creek, Arizona.…

  20. Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Concentrated Language Encounter Method in Development of Beginning Literacy Skills of Letter KnowledgeWords Among Primary School Pupils in Cross River State. ... The instrument used included the Letter Knowledge Test (LKT) which was a standardized instrument, used in several prior studies in English.

  1. Make pupils young researchers! (United States)

    Gouhier, Armelle


    With the 2011 educational reform in France, a new course has been created in secondary schools : Methods & Practices in Science (MPS). The main goal was to improve the pupils working methods in science, including laboratory and field works. In addition, the pedagogy develops pupils autonomy and creativity, a key factor in a research process. Three teachers are working together (Mathematics, Physics and Geology-Biology), showing how different disciplines complement one another. Eventually, this is aimed at attracting more students in scientific sections. This course is optional, in the "seconde" class in French secondary schools (i.e., for 15 years old students). For the next class, they will have to choose between scientific, economic and literature sections : it is a useful option for them to decide which section has their preference. In my high-school in Clermont-Ferrand, we have chosen a research subject on hydrogeology & water quality improvement in region "Auvergne". The pupils will have to develop and set up appropriate tools to check and improve the water quality, related to different disciplines : - Geology & Biology: hydrogeology, effects of different pollutants on aquatic life, solutions to improve water quality (example of the natural water treatment zone in the lake of "Aydat, Auvergne, France"). - Physics & Chemistry: water potability criteria, pollution tests in water, water treatment plants working. - Mathematics: algorithm development, modeling on excel of the dispersion of pollutants The pedagogy of this course is new in French high-schools : pupils work in groups of three, so as to develop cooperation and autonomy. The teachers give the guidelines at the beginning of each working session, and answer the students questions when necessary. The evaluation is competence-based : instead of a mark, which is the main evaluation method in France, the pupils have to evaluate their own skills. Then, the teachers make an evaluation, and the global process is

  2. Ethnicity, Gender, Bullying and Cyberbullying in English Secondary School Pupils


    Smith, Peter K.; Thompson, Fran; Bhatti, Saba


    This study investigated the effect of gender and ethnicity on both bullying and cyberbullying in English secondary school pupils. Although previous research had been carried out looking at the effect of ethnicity on bullying, no research has yet been carried out looking at the effect of ethnicity on cyberbullying. A sample of 2,268 pupils aged 11 to 16 years from 14 schools, fi lled in anonymous questionnaires. Gender differences were found in both bullying and cyberbullying with boys bullying...

  3. Effects of a Six-Session Introductory Psychology Programme on Year 9 Pupils' Interest in Psychology and Approaches to Learning (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Chaves, Tahirah De Aguiar; Dunsmuir, Sandra


    Psychology is a popular UK A-level, despite many pupils having no previous taught experience of it. Prior introduction to psychology teaching could help pupils make more informed choices to study it. This study evaluates a six-session introduction to psychology programme for 20 Year 9 pupils called "Myth-Busting the Brain." A…

  4. Pupil Center as a Function of Pupil Diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbegi, Diako; Hansen, Dan Witzner


    We investigate the gaze estimation error induced by pupil size changes using simulated data. We investigate the influence of pupil diameter changes on estimated gaze point error obtained by two gaze estimation models. Simulation data show that at wider viewing angles and at small eye...

  5. Automated Windowing Processing for Pupil Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebisawa, Y


    .... The pupil center in the video image is a focal point to determine the eye gaze. Recently, to improve the disadvantages of traditional pupil detection methods, a pupil detection technique using two light sources (LEDs...

  6. Organised Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull; Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten


    The article introduces the special issue by presenting the concept of organised cultural encounters that are encounters organised to manage and/or transform problems perceived to originate in or include cultural differences. Inspired by Pratt’s conceptualisation of the contact zone, a critical...... perspective on the particular historical and spatial context of any encounter and how this context frames and mediates what takes place during an encounter is applied. While the articles of the issue present different varieties of organised cultural encounters, it is argued that they are not only of the same...... kind because of our analytical framework, but also because they share various features. They are scripted events tied to the particular social arena with which the encounter is associated and thus shaped in important ways by the existing norms, discourses, roles and hierarchies that govern these arenas...

  7. [To encounter oneself, to encounter each other]. (United States)

    Kogan, A A


    The purpose of this article is to elucidate the concept of encounter within the realm of psycotherapy, either individual or group, with its inter and intrapersonal connotations. Its importance is emphasized and means for its achievement are suggested. A double course is followed to attain this end: on the one hand, the tracing of the concept in the contemporary philosophic anthropology (the positions of M. Buber and of K. Jaspers are briefly examined) and in the views of several psychotherapists who have placed it as a significant issue in their treatments (the therapists considered are K. Binswanger, C. Rogers, J. L. Moreno and E. Pichon-Rivière), and on the other hand, some clinical means, and very special attitudes, are indicated as particularly favourable for the promotion of that enlargement of subjectivity leading to the encounter of one-self as well as the other person. Some fragments of sessions are presented demonstrating that in general the "how" of the attitude prevailing in the therapeutic relation is more effective than the "what" of the specific technical resources employed. However, some of these are commendable as a more direct way to bring about the experience of encounter. This leads me to psychodrama, with its techniques of the double, the inversion of roles, the mirror, and most of all with the general group sharing that closes the sessions, and to the gestalt methods, which involve in many instances physical contacts with other people, with the precise object of achieving a maximum insight, or, in the already classical expression, awareness, which is basically an encounter with oneself. Implicit in all the above considerations lies the conviction that man must share his existence with others not only for biological reasons; it is an indispensable requirement for his full development as an individual, a requirement for being himself. If one of the goals of psychological treatments is to promote personal growth and proximity to oneself, an

  8. Frontcountry encounter norms among three cultures (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Robert M. Doctor; James P. Petruzzi


    Existing normative studies have focused on backcountry encounter norms reported by North Americans. This study extends previous research by comparing encounter norms reported by three different cultures - North Americans, Europeans, and Japanese - in a frontcountry day use recreation area. Data were obtained from on-site surveys distributed at the Columbia Icefield in...

  9. Pupil Clustering in English Secondary Schools: One Pattern or Several? (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Cheng, Shou Chen


    Previous international work has shown that clustering pupils with similar characteristics in particular schools yields no clear academic benefit, and can be disadvantageous both socially and personally. Understanding how and why this clustering happens, and how it may be reduced, is therefore important for policy. Yet previous work has tended to…

  10. Awkward Encounters and Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koning, Juliette; Ooi, Can-Seng


    to the fore, to discuss the consequences of ignoring awkward encounters, and to improve our understanding of organizational realities. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents awkward ethnographic encounters in the field: encounters with evangelizing ethnic Chinese business people in Indonesia...... reflexivity. Findings – By investigating awkward encounters, the authors show that these experiences have been left out for political (publishing culture in academia, unwritten rules of ethnography), as well as personal (feelings of failure, unwelcome self-revelations) reasons, while there is much to discover...... for the imperfectness of the researcher, but also enables a fuller and deeper representation of the groups and communities we aim to understand and, thus, will enhance the trustworthiness and quality of our ethnographic work. Originality/value – Awkwardness is rarely acknowledged, not to mention discussed...

  11. Dental Encounter System (DES) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Dental Encounter System (DES) is an automated health care application designed to capture critical data about the operations of VA Dental Services. Information on...

  12. Developing a Pupil Transportation Manual. (United States)

    Douglas, Dave


    District-level pupil transportation manuals that contain clear, concise information about objectives, policies, and regulations are a must. These manuals should also specify procedures concerning evaluation processes, personnel recruitment and selection, and the driver training program. (MLH)

  13. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig


    OBJECTIVES: To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed...... to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. KEY FINDINGS: The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers...... were not sufficiently assessed at the counter (n = 55, 65%), and that their latest encounter with an immigrant customer was less satisfactory than a similar encounter with an ethnic Danish customer (n = 48, 57%) (significantly more pharmacists than assistants: odds ratio, OR, 3.19; 95% confidence...

  14. Privacy encounters in Teledialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Bøge, Ask Risom; Danholt, Peter


    Privacy is a major concern when new technologies are introduced between public authorities and private citizens. What is meant by privacy, however, is often unclear and contested. Accordingly, this article utilises grounded theory to study privacy empirically in the research and design project...... Teledialogue aimed at introducing new ways for public case managers and placed children to communicate through IT. The resulting argument is that privacy can be understood as an encounter, that is, as something that arises between implicated actors and entails some degree of friction and negotiation....... An argument which is further qualified through the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The article opens with a review of privacy literature before continuing to present privacy as an encounter with five different foci: what technologies bring into the encounter; who is related to privacy by implication; what...

  15. Encounters in cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine


    Based on extensive ethnographic material from in-depth interviews with Danish cancer patients after treatment, this study analyzes their stories to explore how interactions with the physician configures and situates a need for rehabilitation. We identify three themes in the illness stories: (1...... by this encounter. The significance of the social encounters in cancer treatment is elucidated through this analysis, and we demonstrate how the need for recognition of the complex effects of cancer on one's life is central to counter experiences of objectification and dehumanization....

  16. Web of Design Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Christina


    In this PhD thesis spatial production becomes a common matter among employees and architects. From an ideal that issues and questions develops in the engagement with a work context it is exemplified and explored how design grows out of encounters between people and things. In that relation the th...

  17. Encounters with Alex (United States)

    Fossheim, Kristian

    In the 80th anniversary book for Alex M\\"uller I wrote a story of our scientific collaboration, Shared Fascinations. This time I will be more personal, about the human side of our collaboration and encounters, while also referring to episodes mentioned in Shared Fascinations.

  18. Global Diabetes Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Langstrup, Henriette


    As already recognized, though little theorized within International Relations, the capacity of technology to ensure the achievement of preset policy goals is often grossly overrated. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies, this chapter proposes a lens to investigate global encounters, which ta...

  19. Parents' and pupils' causal attributions for difficult classroom behaviour. (United States)

    Miller, Andy; Ferguson, Eamonn; Moore, Eleanor


    Studies of causal attributions for difficult pupil behaviour in schools have tended to focus on the perspectives of teachers. The present study examines the causal attributions made by parents for difficult behaviour in classrooms. It reveals the structure of these attributions and serves as a direct comparison to a previous study of pupils' attributions (Miller, Ferguson, & Byrne, 2000) and, more indirectly, with the teacher studies. The participants were 144 parents (106 mothers and 38 fathers) whose children all attended the same inner city school. A questionnaire was constructed following three initial small group interviews with parents to identify the wide range of factors they viewed as potential causes of difficult classroom behaviour. This was then administered to all the parents of children attending the same inner-city primary school. Factor analysis indicated that parents' attributions for misbehaviour were best represented by three factors: (1) 'fairness of teachers' actions', (2) 'pupil vulnerability to peer influences and adverse family circumstances', and (3) 'differentiation of classroom demands and expectations'. While there were no differences between parents in terms of gender or ethnicity, they did see the first two factors as more significant contributors to pupil misbehaviour than the third. There is both agreement and conflict between parents' attributions and those made by pupils and by teachers. The implementation of policy initiatives, such as home-school agreements and Pastoral Support Programmes, risk exacerbating tensions and difficulties if these differences in attributions are not acknowledged and acted upon.

  20. Festival as embodied encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Neergaard, Maja de


    This article is part of a project on Paradoxical Spaces: Encountering the Other in public space which explores how cultural difference is experienced, practiced and negotiated in public space. Specifically, it explores the ‘multicultural’ festival Kulturhavn taking place yearly along the harbour...... of Copenhagen. Multicultural festivals are seen as places for on-going identity negotiations, where individuals and groups define meaningful concepts of identity along with notions of exclusion. In the paper, we adopt a performative approach abandoning the distinction between bodies and space and embracing...... ideas of ‘embodiment’ and ‘rhythm’. We explore participant engagement emphasizing bodily practices as well as sensuous experiences, but also differential processes and orientalist images produced in, and through, encounters. Among the range of activities at the festival, we focus on three: food; dance...

  1. Strange culinary encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan; Kjær, Katrine Meldgaard


    In this article, we examine the ways in which the encountering of 'other' food cultures is played out in the two travelogue cooking shows Gordon's Great Escape and Jamie's Italian Escape. We investigate how the two protagonist chefs Jamie Oliver and Gordon Ramsay imagine, meet and evaluate...... approach to meeting the other (culinary culture), ultimately, their respective culinary adventures work to re-affirm a social hierarchy in their favor....

  2. Communication in medical encounters.


    Bensing, J.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.


    The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretical and empirical basis for the concept of communication as the core instrument in the medical encounter. Adequate communication, embedded in a warm and caring relationship, has always been recognized as essential to the concept of good doctoring, but for long periods of time this was considered as 'the art of medicine', distinguished and distinguishable from medical science. In the last decades empirical research has helped to turn art into sci...

  3. Does the "Pupil Enterprise Programme" Influence Grades among Pupils with Special Needs? (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Somby, Hege M.


    This paper asks whether the Pupil Enterprise Programme (PEP) is a suitable working method for improving academic performance among pupils with special needs. Overall, 20% of pupils participate in PEP at some point during lower secondary school. Results from multilevel regression modelling indicate that pupils with special needs who have…

  4. ‘Good practice’ for pupils with English as an additional\\ud language: patterns in student teachers’ thinking


    Read, Andrew


    Student teachers construct ideas around how to support the learning of pupils with English as an additional language (EAL), basing these ideas on university- and school-based training, reading, dialogue and reflection. For the purposes of this piece of research, postgraduate student teachers training to teach pupils aged 3–11 were each asked to ‘picture’ one child with EAL encountered during blocks of school-based training, to categorise this child in terms of English fluency, to suggest the ...

  5. Middle School Pupils Write Haiku. (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Pupils in the middle school can be motivated to enjoy and write haiku poetry. A student teacher taught two lessons to a sixth grade class in haiku writing. First, the student teacher read three haikus aloud to students. After discovering the characteristics of a haiku from two models, the class as a whole wrote a haiku based on slides from their…

  6. Pupil Transportation Safety Program Plan. (United States)

    Delahanty, Joseph F.; And Others

    This study has been undertaken to assess the magnitude of the school bus safety problem and to develop a plan to improve pupil transportation safety. The resulting report provides estimates of school bus population and daily usage, gives an account of injuries and fatalities that occur annually, and compares the safety records of school buses to…

  7. Pupil Authors and Teacher Innovators (United States)

    Parry, John.


    This article explores three aspects regarding the supporting of teaching and learning through ICT (information and communication technology). First, the use and value of storyboarding as a preferable technique prior to the creation of a pupil-authored CD-ROM by children aged 9 and 14. Second, responses to the innovation by practicing teachers.…

  8. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  9. Pupils teach to pupils about genetics or global warming (United States)

    Cuny, Delphine


    The idea of this project is to put pupils in a teaching situation. Classes of teenagers go to primary schools and animate a science workshop. Junior pupils are separated in small groups and they attend two different sessions in the same half-day. The whole workshop consists of 4 sessions. Each session is organized with an activity (microscope observation, counting of chromosomes, drawing of a curve, etc.) in which senior pupils coach the younger, and ends with a debate or an assessment. The first experiment of this type of project was realized with a class of 14 to 15 year old pupils on the theme: How do your parents transmit your characteristics? The four sessions are attended in disorder but when knowledge of other sessions are necessary, senior pupils explain them at the beginning of the session. Junior pupils have a notebook to write their activities and to note their conclusions. Session 1: What did my father give to make me? Drawing and measuring microscopic observations of human spermatozoons. Conclusion: my father gave a spermatozoon which measures less than one mm long, this spermatozoon met my mother's egg and it made my first cell. Session 2: What does the program that made me look like? Microscope observation of blood cells, identification of chromosomes in the core. On microscope pictures, counting of chromosomes. Conclusion: My program is in each cell of my body, inside the core. Sometimes, in this core, we can observe short sticks that are called chromosomes. All human beings have the same number of chromosomes in their cells: 46. Session 3: Where do my chromosomes come from? Counting of chromosomes in spermatozoons or ovums and playing with sets of chromosomes to deduct sex of a baby. Conclusion: Daddy gave me 23 chromosomes and mummy gave me 23 chromosomes too. My program is then constituted from half of daddy's program and half of mummy's program. My brothers and sisters also have half and half, but not the same halves! Session 4: Where is the

  10. Encounters of binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkola, S.


    Gravitational encounters of pairs of binaries have been studied numerically. Various cross-sections have been calculated for qualitative final results of the interaction and for energy transfer between the binding energy and the centre of mass kinetic energy. The distribution of the kinetic energies, resulting from the gravitational collision, were found to be virtually independent of the impact velocity in the case of collision of hard binaries. It was found that one out of five collisions, which are not simple fly-by's, leads to the formation of a stable three-body system. (author)

  11. Disciplining the audiological encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke


    patients are allowed to bring to the audiological encounter. Bureaucratic time imperatives preclude patients’ subjective experiences and standardised, normative accountabilities based on scientific knowledge work as an effective structuring principle to get the work done in the appropriate time....... of the structural level of rehabilitation practice for hard-of-hearing working age people in two outpatient clinics in two different public hospitals in Denmark. It is shown that the hearing aid fitting consultations are conducted in a ritualised manner which makes it possible to control what kind of experiences...

  12. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    ). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... framework for an investigation into MS’ organisation of what I have termed ‘the idealized cultural encounter’, while also questioning the ways in which ‘culture’ is envisioned in contexts where ‘encounter’ is seen as a positive and desirable force....

  13. Encountering empty architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik


    This essay is published in the Festschrift to art historian Donald Preziosi on his 75th birthday in 2016 and delves into the exploration of architectural perception and semiotic experience. The argument is the following: Claire Farago and Donald Preziosi once pointed out how recent art museums...... the fragmentary process of groundbreaking encounters with this building. The text shows how an embodied and reflexive experience of its architectural interiors and dis-courses go beyond the simplistic symbolism one finds in mainstream interpretations of Libe-skind’s architecture as well as in certain discourses...... by Libeskind himself. In reality, his ext-ra-functional architecture in Berlin and his early presentations of it constitute a kaleidoscopic field of experience in which critical self-reflexion may occur....

  14. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena


    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  15. Pupil dilation: a fingerprint of temporal selection during the ‘Attentional Blink’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel eZylberberg


    Full Text Available Pupil dilation indexes cognitive events of behavioral relevance, like the storage of information to memory and the deployment of attention. Yet, given the slow temporal response of the pupil dilation, it is not known from previous studies whether the pupil can index cognitive events in the short time-scale of ~100 ms. Here we measured the size of the pupil in the Attentional Blink (AB experiment, a classic demonstration of attentional limitations in processing rapidly presented stimuli. In the AB, two targets embedded in a sequence have to be reported and the second stimulus is often missed if presented between 200 ms and 500 ms after the first. We show that pupil dilation can be used as a marker of cognitive processing in AB, revealing both the timing and amount of cognitive processing. Specifically, we found that in the time range where the AB is known to occur: (i the pupil dilation was delayed, mimicking the pattern of response times in the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm, (ii the amplitude of the pupil was reduced relative to that of larger lags, even for correctly identified targets, and (iii the amplitude of the pupil was smaller for missed than for correctly reported targets. These results support two-stage theories of the Attentional Blink where a second processing stage is delayed inside the interference regime, and indicate that the pupil dilation can be used as a marker of cognitive processing in the time scale of ~100 ms. Furthermore, given the known relation between the pupil dilation and the activity of the locus coeruleus, our results also support theories that link the serial stage to the action of a specific neuromodulator, norepinephrine.

  16. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip (United States)

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  17. Zernike olivary polynomials for applications with olivary pupils. (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Sun, Shanshan; Li, Ying


    Orthonormal polynomials have been extensively applied in optical image systems. One important optical pupil, which is widely processed in lateral shearing interferometers (LSI) and subaperture stitch tests (SST), is the overlap region of two circular wavefronts that are displaced from each other. We call it an olivary pupil. In this paper, the normalized process of an olivary pupil in a unit circle is first presented. Then, using a nonrecursive matrix method, Zernike olivary polynomials (ZOPs) are obtained. Previously, Zernike elliptical polynomials (ZEPs) have been considered as an approximation over an olivary pupil. We compare ZOPs with their ZEPs counterparts. Results show that they share the same components but are in different proportions. For some low-order aberrations such as defocus, coma, and spherical, the differences are considerable and may lead to deviations. Using a least-squares method to fit coefficient curves, we present a power-series expansion form for the first 15 ZOPs, which can be used conveniently with less than 0.1% error. The applications of ZOP are demonstrated in wavefront decomposition, LSI interferogram reconstruction, and SST overlap domain evaluation.

  18. A Study of Moroccan Pupils' Difficulties at Second Baccalaureate Year in Solving Chemistry Problems Relating to the Reactivity of Ethanoate Ions and to Copper-Aluminium Cells (United States)

    Ouasri, Ali


    This paper investigates the difficulties that Moroccan pupils (18-19) of the second Baccalaureate year encountered in solving chemical equilibrium problems relating to ethanoate ions' reactivity with water and methanoic acid, and to copper-aluminum cells. The pupils were asked to provide answers to questions derived from two problems. The…

  19. The Active Pupil: Pupil size in attention, working memory, and active vision


    Mathôt, Sebastiaan


    Slides for the following talk: Mathôt, S. (2015, June). The Active Pupil: Pupil Size in Attention, Working Memory, and Active Vision. Talk presented at the Laboratoire de Psychologie de la Perception, Paris, France.

  20. Holocaust Denial among Slovenian Secondary School Pupils


    Maša Pavlič


    The article presents tendencies of Holocaust denial among secondary school pupils in Slovenia. It focuses on research implemented in January 2012, in which 400 Slovenian secondary school pupils were included. In spite of the assumption that Holocaust denial amongst the youth in Slovenia already exists, we also assumed that a degree of Holocaust denial amongs Slovenian pupils is lower that amongst their peers in other EU countries. Research also inquired about the level of anti-Semitism in con...

  1. High School Class for Gifted Pupils in Physics and Sciences and Pupils' Skills Measured by Standard and Pisa Test (United States)

    Djordjevic, G. S.; Pavlovic-Babic, D.


    The "High school class for students with special abilities in physics" was founded in Nis, Serbia ( in 2003. The basic aim of this project has been introducing a broadened curriculum of physics, mathematics, computer science, as well as chemistry and biology. Now, six years after establishing of this specialized class, and 3 years after the previous report, we present analyses of the pupils' skills in solving rather problem oriented test, as PISA test, and compare their results with the results of pupils who study under standard curricula. More precisely results are compared to the progress results of the pupils in a standard Grammar School and the corresponding classes of the Mathematical Gymnasiums in Nis. Analysis of achievement data should clarify what are benefits of introducing in school system track for gifted students. Additionally, item analysis helps in understanding and improvement of learning strategies' efficacy. We make some conclusions and remarks that may be useful for the future work that aims to increase pupils' intrinsic and instrumental motivation for physics and sciences, as well as to increase the efficacy of teaching physics and science.

  2. Knowledge and attitudes of high school pupils towards children with special health care needs: an Israeli exploration. (United States)

    Brook, U; Galili, A


    One hundred seventy-one pupils of a high school in Holon (Israel) were questioned regarding their attitudes towards chronically disabled individuals who have special health-care needs. The level of pupils' knowledge concerning the etiology, symptoms and complications of these chronic conditions was approximately 72%; it did not increase in four years of study. Previous personal knowledge of a child or adolescent with a chronic disease or handicap influenced the understanding of that particular ailment. The pupils' attitude towards handicapped individuals become more positive and tolerant with increasing age (and class level). A correlation was found between the level of knowledge about special medical-health needs and tolerant attitudes toward chronic patients. Most of the pupils think that the following occupational and recreational interests for the disabled will help to increase their self-image and improve their feelings of acceptance: computers, music (playing and listening), sports and domestic pets. The pupils believe the topics of chronic diseases and patients should be studied as a regular part of the school curriculum and these subjects should be taught with the participation of both physicians and teachers. The pupils stressed the role of the teacher in handling children with the chronic disease. Only half of the pupils think that their class peers should also know about the chronic disease of this individual pupil. The information sources of pupils concerning chronic disease are mainly TV, newspapers, adolescent periodicals, books, physicians and nurses, and lastly, the school. Conclusions are presented concerning health promotion activities in the school.

  3. Universalist ethics in extraterrestrial encounter (United States)

    Baum, Seth D.


    If humanity encounters an extraterrestrial civilization, or if two extraterrestrial civilizations encounter each other, then the outcome may depend not only on the civilizations' relative strength to destroy each other but also on what ethics are held by one or both civilizations. This paper explores outcomes of encounter scenarios in which one or both civilizations hold a universalist ethical framework. Several outcomes are possible in such scenarios, ranging from one civilization destroying the other to both civilizations racing to be the first to commit suicide. Thus, attention to the ethics of both humanity and extraterrestrials is warranted in human planning for such an encounter. Additionally, the possibility of such an encounter raises profound questions for contemporary human ethics, even if such an encounter never occurs.

  4. Stream Lifetimes Against Planetary Encounters (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Lega, E.; Froeschle, Cl.


    We study, both analytically and numerically, the perturbation induced by an encounter with a planet on a meteoroid stream. Our analytical tool is the extension of pik s theory of close encounters, that we apply to streams described by geocentric variables. The resulting formulae are used to compute the rate at which a stream is dispersed by planetary encounters into the sporadic background. We have verified the accuracy of the analytical model using a numerical test.

  5. Planning and Analysis Needs for Pupil Transportation. (United States)

    Stanley Associates, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This study was initiated to determine the pupil transportation planning and analysis needs of Alberta school systems and, based on these needs, to define an action plan for the development of an information or analytical package that would assist school boards with their pupil transportation activities. Based on the data collected from indepth…

  6. Turkish Primary School Pupils' Views on Punishment (United States)

    Aydin, Bahri


    Teachers meet with unwanted behavior when they are acting as facilitators of the learning process and they resort to certain tactics to deal with them. One of these tactics is punishment. This study aimed to identify the views held by Turkish primary school pupils on punishment. According to the results of the study, pupils were punished for…

  7. Junior High School Pupils' Perceptions of Air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Azure, J. A.. Department of Science Education. University of Education, Winneba, Ghana. Abstract. The study examined Junior High School (JHS) pupils' ideas of the concept air. The study compared the ideas that pupils from endowed schools have about air with those of their counterparts from un-endowed schools.

  8. Pupil Absenteeism and the Educational Psychologist (United States)

    Carroll, H. C. M.


    From a review of the literature, it is concluded that (i) each form of pupil absenteeism relates to a heterogeneous group of children; (ii) because of such heterogeneity, those who are involved in assessment and intervention in relation to pupil absenteeism are faced with a demanding task; (iii) as a consequence of their education and training,…

  9. The Understanding of Time by Deaf Pupils. (United States)

    Kaiser-Grodecka, Irmina; Cieszynska, Jagoda

    The natural sign language used by deaf children in Poland makes no distinction between present, future, and past tenses. Deaf pupils do not understand the notions of temporal sequence and duration of time intervals, and so are prevented from thinking of and planning for the future. The study with 15 deaf 12-year-old pupils and 15 deaf 14-year-old…

  10. Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has shown that teachers at that level lack knowledge of the reading process and often fail to engage the pupils in activities that promote literacy development. The result has been that these pupils leave school unable to achieve the goals of primary education. They often become dropouts. In other to empower ...

  11. Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. The reading failure of most public school pupils has engaged the attention of researchers and other stakeholders in the education industry for quite some time now. Efforts being made to help children to read often involve teacher training and retraining in the hope that this will impact on the pupils' literacy ...

  12. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav


    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  13. The method for staining of anterior lens capsule in cases with small and rigid pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar


    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of proposed method for staining with trypan blue anterior lens capsule in cases with small and rigid pupils.Methods: the safety and effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated in 169 cases having small and rigid pupils of III and IV grade. Surgical steps included: irrigation of anterior chamber with small amount of air, enough to block the pupil; irrigation of posterior chamber with little amount of dye followed by aspiration of air bubble. the excess dye came out and stained the capsule in pupillary area.Results: No difficulty was encountered in irrigating the posterior chamber with dye. Uneven staining of the capsule was noticed in 16 cases (9.5%. In 3 cases (1.8% extensive staining of iris and posterior capsule was observed. Continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was performed successfully in 97.6% cases. In 4 cases there was radial run of the rhexis extending up to posterior capsule. Postopera- tive inflammation of 1st and 2nd degree was observed in 5.9 and 23.1% cases, which was related to unavoidable trauma to iris tissue during pupil stretching.Conclusion: the proposed method of capsule staining in cases with small and rigid pupils is safe and effective.

  14. The method for staining of anterior lens capsule in cases with small and rigid pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kumar


    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of proposed method for staining with trypan blue anterior lens capsule in cases with small and rigid pupils.Methods: the safety and effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated in 169 cases having small and rigid pupils of III and IV grade. Surgical steps included: irrigation of anterior chamber with small amount of air, enough to block the pupil; irrigation of posterior chamber with little amount of dye followed by aspiration of air bubble. the excess dye came out and stained the capsule in pupillary area.Results: No difficulty was encountered in irrigating the posterior chamber with dye. Uneven staining of the capsule was noticed in 16 cases (9.5%. In 3 cases (1.8% extensive staining of iris and posterior capsule was observed. Continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was performed successfully in 97.6% cases. In 4 cases there was radial run of the rhexis extending up to posterior capsule. Postopera- tive inflammation of 1st and 2nd degree was observed in 5.9 and 23.1% cases, which was related to unavoidable trauma to iris tissue during pupil stretching.Conclusion: the proposed method of capsule staining in cases with small and rigid pupils is safe and effective.

  15. Tonic Pupil Following Traumatic Hyphema: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şaban Gönül


    Full Text Available A 7-year-old girl was admitted to our clinic after crash injury with air gun pellet in her right eye. There was an intense anterior chamber reaction and hyphema on the biomicroscopic examination. During the control examination after treatment of hyphema including cyclopentolate 1%, prednisolone acetate 1% and lomefloxacin 0.3%, anisocoria and mydriasis in the right eye were observed and the difference between both pupils was less in darkness. The case was diagnosed as tonic pupil following trauma, and diluted pilocarpine 0.125% test was performed. On diluted pilocarpine test, right pupil responded excessively to pilocarpine compared with the other pupil. As in our case, in cases with anisocoria following blunt trauma to orbit, tonic pupil should be keep in mind. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 132-4

  16. The Art of the Encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Vautrin


    Full Text Available As the archives from the second half of Grotowski’s life were made available, this text focuses on the Polish master’s conceptions of theatre where he describes theatre as the art of the encounter. This paper simultaneously places this proposition in the context of questions of a specific time period, and reveals how this encounter is the anathema that will revert viewpoints both about the art of acting and the creation of theatrical relations. These researches on theatre as the art of the encounter continue today through the Open Program, one of the two groups of the Workcenter of Jerzy Grotowski and Thomas Richards, and, notably, their creations around American poet Allen Ginsberg, an author whose poetry intends, in a similar way, to encounter the other and the world.

  17. Peer-assessed behavioural characteristics and sociometric rejection: differences between pupils who have moderate learning difficulties and their mainstream peers. (United States)

    Frederickson, Norah L; Furnham, Adrian F


    The outcomes of social inclusion and skills training programmes for pupils with special educational needs have been mixed. Programmes are generally based on research with mainstream samples yet it has been suggested that the social skills important for sociometric acceptance may be different for children who have special educational needs. The study aims to compare peer-assessed behavioural characteristics associated with sociometric status for included children who have moderate learning difficulties and their mainstream classmates. Mainstream classmates (N=867) of all the children ascertained as having Moderate Learning Difficulties (MLD) and included in mainstream middle schools (8-12 years) in one English county. Subgroups of rejected mainstream (n=38) and pupils with MLD (n=32) were further investigated. Discriminant function analysis was carried out with peer assessment items as predictors of sociometric status group membership in the mainstream sample and contrasted with previously reported data from pupils with MLD in the same classes. Cluster analysis was used to identify behavioural subtypes within the rejected groups drawn from each sample. For pupils with MLD subtypes were validated using teacher assessments of social behaviour. Systematic differences were identified across different analyses between the peer-assessed behavioural characteristics associated with rejected sociometric status for pupils with MLD and for mainstream pupils. The appropriateness of generic social skills training programmes for promoting the social inclusion of pupils with MLD should be questioned and consideration given to rejected pupil subtypes.

  18. Increasing Pupil Motivation: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary (United States)

    Sibieta, Luke; Greaves, Ellen; Sianesi, Barbara


    'Increasing Pupil Motivation' was designed to improve attainment of the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) by providing incentives to increase pupil effort in Year 11. Two schemes for incentivising pupil effort were implemented. The first provided a financial incentive, where pupils were told they had £80 ($110.66) at the beginning…

  19. Representation of wavefronts in free-form transmission pupils with Complex Zernike Polynomials (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Rivera, Ricardo; Aporta, Justiniano


    Purpose To propose and evaluate Complex Zernike polynomials (CZPs) to represent general wavefronts with non uniform intensity (amplitude) in free-from transmission pupils. Methods They consist of three stages: (1) theoretical formulation; (2) numerical implementation; and (3) two studies of the fidelity of the reconstruction obtained as a function of the number of Zernike modes used (36 or 91). In the first study, we generated complex wavefronts merging wave aberration data from a group of 11 eyes, with a generic Gaussian model of the Stiles-Crawford effective pupil transmission. In the second study we simulated the wavefront passing through different pupil stop shapes (annular, semicircular, elliptical and triangular). Results The reconstructions of the wave aberration (phase of the generalized pupil function) were always good, the reconstruction RMS error was of the order of 10−4 wave lengths, no matter the number of modes used. However, the reconstruction of the amplitude (effective transmission) was highly dependent of the number of modes used. In particular, a high number of modes is necessary to reconstruct sharp edges, due to their high frequency content. Conclusions CZPs provide a complete orthogonal basis able to represent generalized pupil functions (or complex wavefronts). This provides a unified general framework in contrast to the previous variety of ad oc solutions. Our results suggest that complex wavefronts require a higher number of CZP, but they seem especially well-suited for inhomogeneous beams, pupil apodization, etc.

  20. Corneal aberrations in keratoconic eyes: influence of pupil size and centering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comastri, S A; Perez, G D; Martin, G; Bianchetti, A; Perez, L I


    Ocular aberrations vary among subjects and under different conditions and are commonly analyzed expanding the wavefront aberration function in Zernike polynomials. In previous articles, explicit analytical formulas to transform Zernike coefficients of up to 7th order corresponding to an original pupil into those related to a contracted displaced new pupil are obtained. In the present paper these formulas are applied to 20 keratoconic corneas of varying severity. Employing the SN CT1000 topographer, aberrations of the anterior corneal surface for a pupil of semi-diameter 3 mm centered on the keratometric axis are evaluated, the relation between the higher-order root mean square wavefront error and the index KISA% characterizing keratoconus is studied and the size and centering of the ocular photopic natural pupil are determined. Using these data and the transformation formulas, new coefficients associated to the photopic pupil size are computed and their variation when coordinates origin is shifted from the keratometric axis to the ocular pupil centre is analyzed.

  1. Holocaust Denial among Slovenian Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Pavlič


    Full Text Available The article presents tendencies of Holocaust denial among secondary school pupils in Slovenia. It focuses on research implemented in January 2012, in which 400 Slovenian secondary school pupils were included. In spite of the assumption that Holocaust denial amongst the youth in Slovenia already exists, we also assumed that a degree of Holocaust denial amongs Slovenian pupils is lower that amongst their peers in other EU countries. Research also inquired about the level of anti-Semitism in conjunction with Holocaust denial. The research project confirmed that students on lower levels of high school education and with less history and sociology lessons in curriculum are more receptive for the Holocaust denial and anti-Semitism is more present in this demographic. The level of Holocaust denial amongst secondary school pupils is not negligible; it suggests that this topic should be more thoroughly discussed in secondary schools.

  2. Comparison of exact pupil astigmatism conditions with Seidel approximations. (United States)

    Zhao, Chunyu; Burge, James H


    The aberrations of axisymmetric imaging systems can be calculated to third order by use of the Seidel formula. The Coddington equations give aberrations that have quadratic dependence on the pupil, for all field points. The pupil astigmatism conditions were recently developed to predict and control aberrations that have quadratic field dependence and arbitrary pupil dependence. We investigate the relationship between the exact pupil astigmatism conditions and the classical Seidel treatment of pupil aberration.

  3. Bullying in Basic School: the Perspectives of Teachers and Pupils


    Katja Posnic; Katja Košir


    The main purpose of our study was to investigate how basic school pupils and teachers perceive and understand bullying. The participants in the study were 58 teachers and 396 pupils in basic school. The results indicate that both teachers and pupils perceive verbal bullying as the most frequent form of bullying compared to physical and relational bullying. Pupils report perceiving more bullying than teachers. Both pupils and teachers perceive physical and verbal bullying as more serious forms...

  4. Encountering social work through STS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Rasmus


    Encountering social work through STS: Marginalization, materials and knowledge In this presentation, I attempt to produce an encounter between STS and social work. Concretely, I focus on the subset of social work called “local community work”, which in Denmark is used to intervene on marginalized...... and their inhabitants. Local community work derives from this assemblage of policy and knowledge as the “social” intervention commonly deployed. Based on an ethnographic field work, I examine how local community practices attempt to interpellate specific futures for individuals and their local environments. I do...... this by examining the materials and types of knowledge that participate in shaping local community work practices and encounters between local community workers and residents in marginalized housing areas. Through this analysis, I argue that social work research can benefit from orienting itself more concretely...

  5. Correlates of Leadership Decision Patterns of High School Pupils Socio-Economic Status, High School Grade, and Connotative Meaning of the Word "Leadership." (United States)

    McMillion, Martin B.

    In a previous study by the investigator, it was determined that the lowest socioeconomic strata of pupils valued leadership significantly higher than did the upper socioeconomic group. This follow-up study attempted to determine whether pupils with similar connotations of leadership were more likely to be democratic leaders or autocratic leaders,…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  7. The pupil as an indicator of unconscious memory: Introducing the pupil priming effect. (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew


    We explored whether object behavioral priming and pupil changes occur in the absence of recognition memory. Experiment 1 found behavioral priming for unrecognized objects (Ms) regardless of whether they had been encoded perceptually or conceptually. Using the same perceptual encoding task, Experiment 2 showed greater pupil dilation for Ms than for correct rejections of unstudied objects (CRs) when reaction times were matched. In Experiment 3, there was relatively less pupil dilation for Ms than for similarly matched CRs when objects had been encoded conceptually. Mean/peak pupil dilation for CRs, but not Ms, increased in Experiment 3, in which novelty expectation was also reduced, and the pupillary time course for both Ms and CRs was distinct in the two experiments. These findings indicate that both behavioral and pupil memory occur for studied, but unrecognized stimuli, and suggest that encoding and novelty expectation modulate pupillary memory responses. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Interfaith dialogue as moral encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    The concept of interfaith dialogue has been introduced and developed by scholars of different religions. The aim has been to find solutions from within religion to handle and optimise encounters with religious ‘Others’. Furthermore, interfaith dialogue has increasingly become a tool to solve...

  9. Cartography of the b-plane of a close encounter I: semimajor axes of post-encounter orbits (United States)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Alessi, E. M.; Rossi, A.


    Close planetary encounters play an important role in the evolution of the orbits of small Solar system bodies and are usually studied with the help of numerical integrations. Here we study close encounters in the framework of an analytic theory, focusing on the so-called b-plane, which is the plane centred on the planet and perpendicular to the planetocentric velocity at infinity of the small body. As shown in previous papers, it is possible to identify the initial conditions on the b-plane that lead to post-encounter orbits of given semimajor axis. In this paper we exploit analytical relationships between b-plane coordinates and pre-encounter orbital elements and compute the probability of transition to these post-encounter states, and numerically check the validity of the analytic approach.

  10. Year 7 Pupils' Views of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Roberts


    Full Text Available This paper reports findings from a study among 610 Year 7 (typically age 12 pupils at 27 nonselective secondary schools in three English regions: Cornwall and Devon, London, and Greater Manchester. Data was gathered in workshops, each with 15–25 pupils, who completed questionnaires and performed individual tasks, all related to their vocational and educational aims, their ideas on what counted as success, and the main influences on their forward thinking, then discussed their answers and results. The discussions were tape recorded. Most pupils expressed robust occupational aims, and most said that they wanted to go to university. Family class did not predict levels of educational or occupational aims, but was related to the importance attached to “the job that I want to do” in the pupils' forward thinking. SAT scores did predict levels of occupational aspiration, ideas on what counted as success, and by whom and what the pupils were most influenced. These findings are interpreted to challenge the view, on which a raft of current policies are based, that social class disparities in educational and labour market outcomes are due to the intergenerational transmission of low aspirations in lower-class families and neighbourhoods. The paper concludes with an alternative model of status transmission processes in which attainments during secondary education are posited as the key intervening variable.

  11. Cognitive and Ocular Factors Jointly Determine Pupil Responses under Equiluminance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Knapen

    Full Text Available Changes in pupil diameter can reflect high-level cognitive signals that depend on central neuromodulatory mechanisms. However, brain mechanisms that adjust pupil size are also exquisitely sensitive to changes in luminance and other events that would be considered a nuisance in cognitive experiments recording pupil size. We implemented a simple auditory experiment involving no changes in visual stimulation. Using finite impulse-response fitting we found pupil responses triggered by different types of events. Among these are pupil responses to auditory events and associated surprise: cognitive effects. However, these cognitive responses were overshadowed by pupil responses associated with blinks and eye movements, both inevitable nuisance factors that lead to changes in effective luminance. Of note, these latter pupil responses were not recording artifacts caused by blinks and eye movements, but endogenous pupil responses that occurred in the wake of these events. Furthermore, we identified slow (tonic changes in pupil size that differentially influenced faster (phasic pupil responses. Fitting all pupil responses using gamma functions, we provide accurate characterisations of cognitive and non-cognitive response shapes, and quantify each response's dependence on tonic pupil size. These results allow us to create a set of recommendations for pupil size analysis in cognitive neuroscience, which we have implemented in freely available software.

  12. Dataset of red light induced pupil constriction superimposed on post-illumination pupil response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Lei


    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed pupil diameter data from of 7 visually normal participants to compare the maximum pupil constriction (MPC induced by “Red Only” vs. “Blue+Red” visual stimulation conditions.The “Red Only” condition consisted of red light (640±10 nm stimuli of variable intensity and duration presented to dark-adapted eyes with pupils at resting state. This condition stimulates the cone-driven activity of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC. The “Blue+Red” condition consisted of the same red light stimulus presented during ongoing blue (470±17 nm light-induced post-illumination pupil response (PIPR, representing the cone-driven ipRGC activity superimposed on the melanopsin-driven intrinsic activity of the ipRGCs (“The Absence of Attenuating Effect of Red light Exposure on Pre-existing Melanopsin-Driven Post-illumination Pupil Response” Lei et al. (2016 [1].MPC induced by the “Red Only” condition was compared with the MPC induced by the “Blue+Red” condition by multiple paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Keywords: Pupil light reflex, Chromatic pupillometry, Melanopsin, Post-illumination pupil response

  13. Influence of a Purposefully Negotiated Season of Sport Education on One Teacher and His Pupils (United States)

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Curtner-Smith, Matthew; Sinelnikov, Oleg


    A small body of previous research suggests that teachers who purposefully negotiated the physical education curriculum empowered their pupils and enhanced the quality of their experience. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of one purposefully negotiated season of sport education (SE) on one teacher and his 18 male eighth grade…

  14. From Social Class to Self-Efficacy: Internalization of Low Social Status Pupils' School Performance (United States)

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine


    Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…

  15. Adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscopy with annular pupils (United States)

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo


    Annular apodization of the illumination and/or imaging pupils of an adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) for improving transverse resolution was evaluated using three different normalized inner radii (0.26, 0.39 and 0.52). In vivo imaging of the human photoreceptor mosaic at 0.5 and 10° from fixation indicates that the use of an annular illumination pupil and a circular imaging pupil provides the most benefit of all configurations when using a one Airy disk diameter pinhole, in agreement with the paraxial confocal microscopy theory. Annular illumination pupils with 0.26 and 0.39 normalized inner radii performed best in terms of the narrowing of the autocorrelation central lobe (between 7 and 12%), and the increase in manual and automated photoreceptor counts (8 to 20% more cones and 11 to 29% more rods). It was observed that the use of annular pupils with large inner radii can result in multi-modal cone photoreceptor intensity profiles. The effect of the annular masks on the average photoreceptor intensity is consistent with the Stiles-Crawford effect (SCE). This indicates that combinations of images of the same photoreceptors with different apodization configurations and/or annular masks can be used to distinguish cones from rods, even when the former have complex multi-modal intensity profiles. In addition to narrowing the point spread function transversally, the use of annular apodizing masks also elongates it axially, a fact that can be used for extending the depth of focus of techniques such as adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (AOOCT). Finally, the positive results from this work suggest that annular pupil apodization could be used in refractive or catadioptric adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes to mitigate undesired back-reflections. PMID:22808435

  16. Suzuki Meets Polya: Teaching Mathematics to Young Pupils. (United States)

    Hazlewood, Donald G.; And Others


    Describes how Suzuki's methods of teaching young pupils to play the violin can be combined with Polya's ideas on problem solving to teach mathematics to elementary school pupils. Six references are listed. (YP)

  17. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.


    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  18. The eyes have it: sex and sexual orientation differences in pupil dilation patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerulf Rieger

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research.

  19. The Magnitude and Impact of Bullying among School Pupils in Muscat, Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study (United States)

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Rizvi, Syed; Al-Jabri, Abdullah; Almamari, Sufyan; Al-Baluki, Wafaa


    Research about bullying among school pupils in the Arab/Muslim population is scarce. This study evaluates the characteristics of bullying and its impact among school pupils in Oman via cross-sectional survey among eighth grade school pupils (n = 1,229) during the academic year 2006-2007. The participants were selected using stratified random selection among 6 administrative divisions of one the governorates in the country. Data were collected using self-completed structured questionnaires. This study found similar percentages of males and females (76%) have experienced one form of bullying, and the majority of the incidents (80%) occurred in the vicinity of the school. In almost half of the cases, the bullying was initiated by a student of the same age or older than the victim. The most common type of bullying encountered in this study was verbal (47.7%), followed by misuse (45.9%), physical (43.9%), and, finally, social isolation/exclusion (22.5%). Although the failure of an academic year was uncommon among victims of bullying, the number of pupils who missed 4–6 and ≥7 school days was higher among bullied pupils. If this study will withstand further research, educational initiatives are needed to mitigate the rate of bullying in Oman. PMID:25541623


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Adachi


    Full Text Available This paper describes how gender and age affect Japanese pupils’ motivation for learning English and their attitudes to communication with people from different cultures. A new foreign language curriculum was introduced to Japanese elementary schools in 2011. Although each school can officially choose any foreign language in its own right, most elementary schools are now conducting English activity. However, as most homeroom teachers lack both experiences and qualifications for teaching English, this activity puts them under pressure. In addition, the number of foreign assistant language teachers (ALTs is not sufficient in most elementary schools. The writer surveyed fifth and sixth grade pupils’ motivation and their communicative attitudes in Japan during 2010, before the new course program, “foreign language activities,” began in 2011. The data were collected from three elementary schools in Japan via a questionnaire. The items on the questionnaire are related to motivational attitudes, orientations (reasons for studying a foreign language, communicative attitudes and some other variables relevant to learning foreign languages. The main focus of this study is to examine motivational and attitudinal variables among the pupils with regard to learning English, especially gender and age effects on these variables. The results show that girls generally have higher scores on motivation and communicative attitudes. Most previous studies have also shown that girls generally have a positive attitude toward learning a foreign language. This study argues that the reason behind this positive attitude toward learning English is due to their positive attitude toward communication in general. With regard to the age, there are a few differences between two school grades. As there is only one year difference in age between fifth and sixth grade pupils, the result is to be expected. The study suggests that Japanese elementary schools face a number of

  1. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak


    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  2. Pupil – Teacher Ratio: Implication for Quality Education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, pupil-teacher ratios are very essential to quality of education. They perhaps rank alongside professional knowledge, skill, as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This paper discusses pupil-teacher ratio and relevance that pupils seem to have a greater impact on ...

  3. Junior High School Pupils' Perceptions of Air | Azure | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined Junior High School (JHS) pupils' ideas of the concept air. The study compared the ideas that pupils from endowed schools have about air with those of their counterparts from un-endowed schools. The study also sought to find out the misconceptions pupils have about air and the implications these ...

  4. Class composition influences on pupils' cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.; Koopman, P.; van Schooten, E.


    The proportion of low-achieving children in a class can affect the progress of individual pupils in that class. Having a large proportion of low achievers in a class could slow down growth in cognitive achievement but, might also boost such growth, due to the effects of specialist teaching geared to


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA. 1aAriyo, O., 2Olofintoye, L.K., 3Adeleke, R. A., 1Famurewa, O. departments of Microbiology, 2Zoology and Mathematical Sciences,. University of Ado-Ekiti, P. M. B. 5363, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. 'Present address: Disease Control Unit, Ekiti State Ministry of Health,. Ado-Ekiti ...

  6. Junior High School Pupils' Perceptions of Air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    464) JHS pupils made up of 235 ... Stavy (1991) reported that students in his physics class had memorised equations and problem-solving ... Sere (1986) used an open written question to find out the perceptions of children of the presence of air ...

  7. Environmental Variables and Pupils' Academic Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This causal-comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of environmental variables on pupils' academic performance in primary science in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study namely: environmental ...

  8. Pupils' Difficulties: What Can the Teacher Do? (United States)

    Dawson, C. J.


    Discusses how the teacher can deal with difficulties pupils of varying ages have in understanding certain chemical ideas. The article does not support using a Piagetian model for science courses in secondary schools. It suggests that Ausubel's learning theory is of much more use to the practicing teacher. (HM)

  9. Records of Pupil Achievement: Some Philosophical Issues. (United States)

    Bridges, David


    Discusses a British national initiative to introduce records of pupil achievement (RPAs) and student profiles into schools, focusing on practical issues (values, meaning, truth, and validity); what RPAs are; positive reporting; authenticity of assessment; agreeing upon statements; holistic student profiles; and the relationship between assessment…

  10. Educational Potential of Northern Canadian Native Pupils. (United States)

    MacArthur, R.S.

    Evidence presented in this paper indicates the existence of both general intellectual potential and differential abilities of Eskimo and Indian-Metis pupils in contrast to White classmates. A factor analytic technique is described which was used to treat data obtained from a sample of more than 1,800 students. One conclusion of the study is that a…

  11. Special relativity a first encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Giulini, Domenico


    Special relativity provides the foundations of our knowledge of space and time. Without it, our understanding of the world, and its place in the universe, would be unthinkable. This book gives a concise, elementary, yet exceptionally modern, introduction to special relativity. It is a gentle yet serious 'first encounter', in that it conveys a true understanding rather than purely reports the basic facts. Only very elementary mathematical knowledge is needed to master it (basichigh-school maths), yet it will leave the reader with a sound understanding of the subject. Special Relativity: A First

  12. Objective lens simultaneously optimized for pupil ghosting, wavefront delivery and pupil imaging (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G (Inventor)


    An objective lens includes multiple optical elements disposed between a first end and a second end, each optical element oriented along an optical axis. Each optical surface of the multiple optical elements provides an angle of incidence to a marginal ray that is above a minimum threshold angle. This threshold angle minimizes pupil ghosts that may enter an interferometer. The objective lens also optimizes wavefront delivery and pupil imaging onto an optical surface under test.

  13. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils. (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders, Joske


    Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors' understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils' mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students' mental

  14. Teachers on Perceived Traits and Academic Achievements of Regular Pupils and Pupils with Special Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools (United States)

    Lesar, Irena; Cuk, Ivan; Pecek, Mojca


    When looking for answers to the question of academic (non)achievement of regular pupils and pupils with special needs, it is necessary to take into account the extraordinary complexity of factors, ranging from psychological across instructional to home environment variables. The academic achievement is not only a reflection of the pupil's…

  15. Unobtrusively tracking mammographers' eye gaze direction and pupil diameter (United States)

    Barrett, James R.; deParedes, Ellen S.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III; Merickel, Michael B.; Hutchinson, Thomas E.


    We developed techniques to unobtrusively track direction and pupil diameter of radiologists reading a wide variety of films. This study concentrated on mammography since the use of mammograms is important for successful treatment of breast cancer, and we wished to determine how previous studies of eye gaze with lung films relate to the specialized field of mammography. Our objective was to identify eye gaze patterns in mammographic experts as they observe features, such as masses and microcalcification clusters: identification of these patterns could lead to improving the rate of early detection of breast cancer. Our near IR light system successfully tracked eye gaze direction and pupil diameter of mammographic experts evaluating films. The association of long eye gaze dwells with diagnostic accuracy varied with the type of object being viewed. In films with masses, false positive diagnoses were associated with long dwells: this is similar to published results of observing lung nodule diagnosis. In mammograms with microcalcifications, true positive diagnoses were associated with long dwells. The association of prolonged dwells with true positive diagnoses of microcalcifications is a new observation.

  16. Teacher-pupil model: improving poultry health and management through children. (United States)

    Msoffe, Peter L M; Kajuna, Flora F; Cardona, Carol J


    The perception of risks of exposure to avian influenza and other poultry diseases among adults in Tanzania is influenced by their previous experiences, beliefs, and values, which can stand in the way of learning new approaches. We tested a novel disease risk communication approach centered on elementary school pupils, involving their teachers and parents. Age-appropriate training modules were developed and taught to teachers who then taught their pupils through extracurricular activities. The pupils practiced what they learned through club projects and subsequently transmitted what they learned to their parents. In 2009 we developed a poultry health and production curriculum as part of efforts to prevent and control poultry diseases, including avian influenza, in Tanzania. The curriculum developed for veterinarians and veterinary paraprofessionals was adapted for use with elementary school children and translated into Kiswahili. Twenty teachers from 10 primary schools in Mzumbe ward, Morogoro, were trained by poultry veterinary extension experts on teaching the curriculum to standard 5 pupils (ages 11-12 yr). Pupils and teachers practiced the curriculum in four demonstration chicken coops established on the grounds of the Changarawe, Lubungo, Masanze, and Mzumbe primary schools. By October 2011, at the conclusion of the funded project, a total of 202 girls and 193 boys had been trained. Additionally, 34 adults from surrounding villages made official learning tours to the schools and received training from their children and teachers involved in the projects. With at least 75% of the 395 pupils coming from different households, it can be safely assumed that over 250 households have heard about poultry disease risks and how to manage poultry to prevent those risks.

  17. A Tentative Research on the Education of Teacher by "Adlerian Psychology" (II) : Using Structured Group Encounter Method


    柴山, 謙二; シバヤマ, ケンジ; Shibayama, Kenji


    This is a tentative research on the education of teacher explored in Adlerian Psychology that used the structured group encounter method. The purpose of teacher education by Adlerian Psychology is to develop and deepen social interests of teachers, and to learn this theory and psychological techniques at school. The process of short-time workshop for teachers who were specialized in guidance for pupils was designed and documented for the education of teacher, and the author participated in th...

  18. As Far as the Eye Can See: Relationship between Psychopathic Traits and Pupil Response to Affective Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Burley

    Full Text Available Psychopathic individuals show a range of affective processing deficits, typically associated with the interpersonal/affective component of psychopathy. However, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether psychopathy, within both offender and community populations, is associated with deficient autonomic responses to the simple presentation of affective stimuli. Changes in pupil diameter occur in response to emotionally arousing stimuli and can be used as an objective indicator of physiological reactivity to emotion. This study used pupillometry to explore whether psychopathic traits within a community sample were associated with hypo-responsivity to the affective content of stimuli. Pupil activity was recorded for 102 adult (52 female community participants in response to affective (both negative and positive affect and affectively neutral stimuli, that included images of scenes, static facial expressions, dynamic facial expressions and sound-clips. Psychopathic traits were measured using the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Pupil diameter was larger in response to negative stimuli, but comparable pupil size was demonstrated across pleasant and neutral stimuli. A linear relationship between subjective arousal and pupil diameter was found in response to sound-clips, but was not evident in response to scenes. Contrary to predictions, psychopathy was unrelated to emotional modulation of pupil diameter across all stimuli. The findings were the same when participant gender was considered. This suggests that psychopathy within a community sample is not associated with autonomic hypo-responsivity to affective stimuli, and this effect is discussed in relation to later defensive/appetitive mobilisation deficits.

  19. General Aviation Weather Encounter Case Studies (United States)


    This study presents a compilation of 24 cases involving general aviation (GA) pilots weather encounters over the : continental U.S. The project team interviewed pilots who had experienced a weather encounter, and we : examined their backgrounds, f...

  20. Initial Encounters : The Lived Experiences of Buyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Wright; J.J. Dekker


    The initial encounter between a buyer and a seller has received much attention among practitioners. The first time a buyer interacts with a seller is thought to be highly influential. The premise is that buyers form an opinion during this first encounter, or even the first minutes of this encounter.

  1. Financial Literacy of Pupils at Grammar School


    Nováková, Kateřina


    The diploma thesis "Financial literacy of pupils at grammar school" deals with the attitudes of students to the issue of financial literacy and the level of their knowledge. It focuses on individual components of financial literacy and key factors which influence and shape the students' knowledge and attitudes. Comparing available literature sources the definition of financial literacy is discussed in the theoretical part. The theoretical part also includes the way financial education is regu...

  2. Alien encounter a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk


    It has been nearly 100 years since the Apollo moon landings, when Jack and Vladimir, two astronauts on a mission to Venus, discover a mysterious void related to indigenous life on the planet. Subsequently more voids are detected on Earth, Mars, Titan, and, quite ominously, inside a planetoid emerging from the Kuiper belt. Jack is sent to investigate the voids in the Solar System and intercept the planetoid - which, as becomes increasingly clear, is inhabited by alien life forms. Jack and his crew will have little time to understand their alien biochemistry, abilities, behavior patterns, resilience, and technology, but also how these life forms relate to the voids. Humankind's first encounter with these exotic life forms couldn't be more fateful, becoming a race against time to save life on Earth and to reveal the true nature of the voids, which seem to be intrinsically related to life and the universe itself. In this novel, the author combines many topics related to state-of-the-art research in the field of...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena S. Lykova


    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to demonstrate the junior pupils' skills development in still life drawing. Being related to the child's cognitive abilities, well-developed linear space perception positively affects the personality and readiness for various activities. Therefore, pupils' acquaintance with the basics of still life drawing in arts classes has both the aesthetic and psychological and intellectual benefits.Methodology is based on the analysis of theoretical concepts of art criticism, psychological and pedagogical works on developing artistic and creative skills of junior pupils, along with the teaching problems of picturing the space in still life drawings. The author carried out the research and experimental work in the Omsk comprehensive schools to identify the age evolution of children's still life drawings.The research results denote the following development stages of junior pupils' skills related to still life picturing: the first stage – still life objects are aligned to the lower paper edge; the second stage – objects are placed on a horizontal line above the lower paper edge, the object plane being parallel to it; the third stage – still life objects are aligned to a single line with the spatial representations of the object planes pictured as a slightly inclined line dividing the paper below the middle of the sheet; the fourth stage – objects are pictured on different heights (above or below each other, the object plane is pictured with two lines reflecting the perspective; the fifth stage – still life objects are pictured on different heights, object overlapping being common and the perspective reflection of the object planes pictured with two or three lines; the sixth stage – objects are placed on different levels, overlapping being obligatory and a multilevel object planes possible.Scientific novelty implies a systematic analysis, description and illustration of development stages of space picturing in children

  4. Cognitive stimulation of pupils with Down syndrome: A study of inferential talk during book-sharing. (United States)

    Engevik, Liv Inger; Næss, Kari-Anne B; Hagtvet, Bente E


    In the education of pupils with Down syndrome, "simplifying" literal talk and concrete stimulation have typically played a dominant role. This explorative study investigated the extent to which teachers stimulated abstract cognitive functions via inferential talk during book-sharing and how pupils with Down syndrome responded. Dyadic interactions (N=7) were videotaped, transcribed and coded to identify levels of abstraction in teacher utterances and to evaluate the adequacy of pupil responses. One-third of the teachers' utterances contained high levels of abstraction and promoted inferential talk. Six of the seven children predominantly responded in ways which revealed inferential thinking. Dialog excerpts highlighted individual, contextual and interactional factors contributing to variations in the findings. Contrary to previous claims, the children with Down syndrome in the current sample appear able to draw inferences beyond the "here-and-now" with teacher support. This finding highlights the educational relevance and importance of higher-order cognitive stimulation of pupils with intellectual disabilities, to foster independent metacognitive skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Discriminative predation: Simultaneous and sequential encounter experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There are many situations in which the ability of animals to distinguish between two similar looking objects can have significant selective consequences. For example, the objects that require discrimination may be edible versus defended prey, predators versus non-predators, or mates of varying quality. Working from the premise that there are situations in which discrimination may be more or less successful, we hypothesized that individuals find it more difficult to distinguish between stimuli when they encounter them sequentially rather than simultaneously. Our study has wide biological and psychological implications from the perspective of signal perception, signal evolution, and discrimination, and could apply to any system where individuals are making relative judgments or choices between two or more stimuli or signals. While this is a general principle that might seem intuitive, it has not been experimentally tested in this context, and is often not considered in the design of models or experiments, or in the interpretation of a wide range of studies. Our study is different from previous studies in psychology in that a the level of similarity of stimuli are gradually varied to obtain selection gradients, and b we discuss the implications of our study for specific areas in ecology, such as the level of perfection of mimicry in predator-prey systems. Our experiments provide evidence that it is indeed more difficult to distinguish between stimuli – and to learn to distinguish between stimuli – when they are encountered sequentially rather than simultaneously, even if the intervening time interval is short [Current Zoology 58 (4: 649–657, 2012].

  6. Bullying in Basic School: the Perspectives of Teachers and Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Posnic


    Full Text Available The main purpose of our study was to investigate how basic school pupils and teachers perceive and understand bullying. The participants in the study were 58 teachers and 396 pupils in basic school. The results indicate that both teachers and pupils perceive verbal bullying as the most frequent form of bullying compared to physical and relational bullying. Pupils report perceiving more bullying than teachers. Both pupils and teachers perceive physical and verbal bullying as more serious forms of bullying compared to relational bullying and report feeling more empathy toward victims of these two forms of bullying. In addition, teachers report that they are more willing to intervene in cases of physical and verbal bullying. There are significant differences between pupils’ and teachers’ reports of the likelihood of teachers’ interventions in cases of bullying; compared to pupils teachers report a higher likelihood of their intervention..

  7. Invitation to Physics not Only for Gifted Pupils (United States)

    Zelenda, Stanislav

    In Talnet-we create new opportunities for gifted pupils in science. We suppose any level of giftedness or interest must have practical opportunities to be found and developed. We focus on study, research, inquiry, collaborative and modeling activities where the learning itself is not a primary goal. The activities combine online with face to face and are designed for 13-19 years old pupils. More than 1,000 pupils has participated in 28 different yearlong courses, more then 500 pupils in tens of different "T-excursions" and collaborative research activities. Gifted pupils involved such systemic and authentic activities can play an important role on the pupils' side of communication with "physics".

  8. Factors associated with pupil toilet use in kenyan primary schools. (United States)

    Garn, Joshua V; Caruso, Bethany A; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Kramer, Michael R; Brumback, Babette A; Rheingans, Richard D; Freeman, Matthew C


    The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils' use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils' use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils' use at specific facilities. We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p toilet use and newer facility age (p toilets in a facility (p toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.

  9. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia


    Sopheak Song


    Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional...

  10. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Song


    Full Text Available Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional time loss is significantly associated with poor performance. In light of these results, policies to boost academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia are discussed.

  11. Initial Encounters: The Lived Experiences of Buyers


    Dekker, J.J.; Wright, G.


    The initial encounter between a buyer and a seller has received much attention among practitioners. The first time a buyer interacts with a seller is thought to be highly influential. The premise is that buyers form an opinion during this first encounter, or even the first minutes of this encounter. Furthermore these first impressions tend to stay consistent over time (Tapp, 1999). Therefore the practitioner's literature suggests that sellers should create the best first impression possible: ...

  12. Protoplanetary disc response to distant tidal encounters in stellar clusters (United States)

    Winter, A. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Rosotti, G.; Booth, R. A.


    The majority of stars form in a clustered environment. This has an impact on the evolution of surrounding protoplanetary discs (PPDs) due to either photoevaporation or tidal truncation. Consequently, the development of planets depends on formation environment. Here, we present the first thorough investigation of tidally induced angular momentum loss in PPDs in the distant regime, partly motivated by claims in the literature for the importance of distant encounters in disc evolution. We employ both theoretical predictions and dynamical/hydrodynamical simulations in 2D and 3D. Our theoretical analysis is based on that of Ostriker (1994) and leads us to conclude that in the limit that the closest approach distance xmin ≫ r, the radius of a particle ring, the fractional change in angular momentum scales as (xmin/r)-5. This asymptotic limit ensures that the cumulative effect of distant encounters is minor in terms of its influence on disc evolution. The angular momentum transfer is dominated by the m = 2 Lindblad resonance for closer encounters and by the m = 1, ω = 0 Lindblad resonance at large xmin/r. We contextualize these results by comparing expected angular momentum loss for the outer edge of a PPD due to distant and close encounters. Contrary to the suggestions of previous works, we do not find that distant encounters contribute significantly to angular momentum loss in PPDs. We define an upper limit for closest approach distance where interactions are significant as a function of arbitrary host to perturber mass ratio M2/M1.

  13. Developing Mainstream Resource Provision for Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent and Pupil Perceptions (United States)

    Hebron, Judith; Bond, Caroline


    The diverse needs of pupils with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have led to a continuum of educational provision being promoted in many countries, and which is often developed at a local level. The majority of children and young people with ASD in the UK attend mainstream schools, and resourced mainstream schools are increasingly part of this…

  14. Training Teachers to Support Pupils' Listening in Class: An Evaluation Using Pupil Questionnaires (United States)

    Crosskey, Liz; Vance, Maggie


    Many children with speech, language and communication needs are educated in mainstream schools. Current policy and practice includes training for school staff in facilitating the development of speaking and listening skills. This study evaluates one such training package that focuses on supporting pupils' listening skills, delivered in a…

  15. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.


    Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of

  16. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters. (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng


    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  17. Pupil size and social vigilance in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Becket Ebitz


    Full Text Available Complex natural environments favor the dynamic alignment of neural processing between goal-relevant stimuli and conflicting but biologically salient stimuli like social competitors or predators. The biological mechanisms that regulate dynamic changes in vigilance have not been fully elucidated. Arousal systems that ready the body to respond adaptively to threat may contribute to dynamic regulation of vigilance. Under conditions of constant luminance, pupil diameter provides a peripheral index of arousal state. Although pupil size varies with the processing of goal-relevant stimuli, it remains unclear whether pupil size also predicts attention to biologically salient objects and events like social competitors, whose presence interferes with current goals. Here we show that pupil size in rhesus macaques both reflects the biological salience of task-irrelevant social distractors and predicts vigilance for these stimuli. We measured pupil size in monkeys performing a visual orienting task in which distractors—monkey faces and phase-scrambled versions of the same images—could appear in a congruent, incongruent, or neutral position relative to a rewarded target. Baseline pupil size under constant illumination predicted distractor interference, consistent with the hypothesis that pupil-linked arousal mechanisms regulate task engagement and distractibility. Notably, pupil size also predicted enhanced vigilance for social distractors, suggesting that pupil-linked arousal may adjust the balance of processing resources between goal-relevant and biologically important stimuli. The magnitude of pupil constriction in response to distractors closely tracked distractor interference, saccade planning and the social relevance of distractors, endorsing the idea that the pupillary light response is modulated by attention. These findings indicate that pupil size indexes dynamic changes in attention evoked by both the social environment and arousal.

  18. Building positive nature awareness in pupils using the "Rainforest of the Austrians" in Costa Rica. (United States)

    Aubrecht, Margit; Hölzl, Irmgard; Huber, Werner; Weissenhofer, Anton


    20 years ago, Michael Schnitzler founded the NGO "Rainforest of the Austrians" to help save one of the most diverse rainforests in Central America, the Esquinas rainforest on the Pacific coast of SW Costa Rica, from being destroyed through logging. In this abstract we present an interdisciplinary upper Austrian school project aiming at building positive awareness in pupils towards rainforest conservation by fund-raising to help purchase endangered forest areas. The acquired rainforest was donated to the Costa Rican government and became part of the National Park "Piedras Blancas". In the following, we present a chronology of events and actions of the school project. We started our rainforest project by face-to-face encounters, letting involved persons speak directly to the pupils. Dr. Huber, coordinator of the tropical rainforest station La Gamba in Costa Rica (, together with Dr. Weissenhofer, presented an introductory slide show about the "Rainforest of the Austrians". With rainforest images and sounds in their mind the pupils wrote "trips of a lifetime" stories, thus creating idyllic images of rainforest habitats. Following up on that, we visited the exhibition "Heliconia and Hummingbirds" at the Biology Center in Linz. Reports about the slide show and the exhibition followed. Tropical sites were compared by producing climate graphs of La Gamba, Costa Rica, and Manaus in Brazil. The global distribution and the decrease of rainforests were also analyzed. In biology lessons the symbiosis between plants and animals of the rainforest were worked out by searching the Internet. Flyers with profiles of rainforest animals were produced. We also discussed the ecotourism project "RICANCIE" in Ecuador using fact sheets. "RICANCIE" is a Spanish acronym standing for "Indigenous Community Network of the Upper Napo for Intercultural Exchange and Ecotourism". It was founded in 1993 aiming to improve the quality of life for some 200 indigenous Kichwa families

  19. Contextual responses to interreligious encounters online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, P.G.A.; Pons-de Wit, A.; Roeland, J.H.


    Increasingly, interreligious encounters occur through internet communication. The debate on the influence of internet communication on interreligious encounters is characterized by a contradiction between the theory of cyber-balkanization on the one hand and the theory of networked religion on the

  20. Marriage Encounter Casualties: A Preliminary Investigation. (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Walker, Brian J.


    Investigated the relationship between participation in Marriage Encounter and subsequent marital or family distress. An analysis of 13 case reports suggested that Marriage Encounter weekends can cause marital or family deterioration through increased marital conflict, avoidance of constructive problem solving, or marital enmeshment at the expense…

  1. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size cues, infer information about the state of mind of the observed. In humans, pupil-size tends to mimic that of the observed. Here we tested whether pupil-mimicry exists in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes. We conjectured that if pupil-mimicry has adaptive value, e.g. to promote swift communication of inner states and facilitate shared understanding and coordination, pupil-mimicry should emerge within but not across species. Pupillometry data was collected from human and chimpanzee subjects while they observed images of the eyes of both species with dilating/constricting pupils. Both species showed enhanced pupil-mimicry with members of their own species, with effects being strongest in humans and chimpanzee mothers. Pupil-mimicry may be deeply-rooted, but probably gained importance from the point in human evolution where the morphology of our eyes became more prominent. Humans' white sclera surrounding the iris, and the fine muscles around their eyes facilitate non-verbal communication via eye signals.

  2. Prevalence of intestinal helminthes among pupils of Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suggestions are made for the improvement and maintenance of environmental sanitation and general hygiene for the growth, physical and cognitive ability of the pupils. Keywords: Intestinal helminthes; prevalence; staff school; pupils; Nigeria International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Vol. 2 (3) 2006: pp. 250- ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kosak Babuder


    Full Text Available The results of Slovene and foreign studies reveal the connection between literacy levels and the level of education, employment opportunities and consequent socio-economic status of individuals and families. Reading efficiency relating to reading comprehension is an important element of reading literacy performance. The findings of several authors indicate empirical evidence of the existence of deficits and poor reading comprehension in pupils living in poverty and stress the importance of offsetting deficits and developing reading comprehension. Results of both foreign and Slovene studies indicate that the program of reading comprehension should be implemented in this group of pupils. In the article, we want to present effectiveness of the reading comprehension improvement program in pupils living in poverty. According to the findings of our research, in which we structured and implemented the reading comprehension program for pupils living in poverty with the Metacognitive-intersentential model of reading comprehension, the reading comprehension of the experimental group pupils who participated in the program improved compared to the control group pupils who did not participate in the program. Experimental group pupils also significantly improved correctness of their reading, their vocabulary and skills of verbal expression. When the program ended, we tested its efficiency by applied tests. The results on the manifest variables indicated that the program was good and efficient for pupils who live in poverty and experience reading comprehension problems.

  4. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement (United States)

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica


    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  5. Secondary School Pupils' Perceptions of Sexual Harassment by Peers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated how secondary school pupils perceive and conceptualise sexual harassment by peers. The study involved pupils drawn from secondary schools in Harare's high density suburbs. A questionnaire and follow-up interviews were the instruments used to source data from the subjects. The majority of the ...

  6. Change in dynamic visual acuity (DVA) by pupil dilation. (United States)

    Ueda, Tetsuo; Nawa, Yoshiaki; Yukawa, Eiichi; Taketani, Futoshi; Hara, Yoshiaki


    This study was conducted to assess dynamic visual acuity (DVA) under pupil dilation. Pupil dilation may negatively affect driving performance. Thirty healthy young adults (mean age 29.4 years) with pupil dilation participated in this study as the Mydrin P group. In addition to them, 15 healthy young adults (mean age 28.5 years) without pupil dilation were enrolled as the control group. DVA was measured binocularly with free-head viewing at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 360 min after mydriatic drop instillation in both eyes. Pupil size was measured at each time. In the Mydrin P group, DVA significantly improved at 30, 60, and 120 min (ANOVA; p DVA did not significantly change at all measured times (ANOVA; p > .9). DVA was significantly (p DVA was related to the enlargement of the pupil. This study suggests that the pupil size is one factor that may affect DVA. Potential applications of this study include useful information to assess the effect of pupil dilation on driving performance.

  7. Cultural influences on Ghanaian primary school pupils' conceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on a study which investigated how pupils' notions of measuring and sharing in out-of-school setting reflect their conceptions and practices in school. Two focus group interviews were carried out with 16 primary school pupils, eight each from grade 4 and grade 6 in two average achieving schools (one ...

  8. Pupils' Word Choices and the Teaching of Grammar (United States)

    Wyse, Dominic


    The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is…

  9. Edu-Mining for Book Recommendation for Pupils (United States)

    Nagata, Ryo; Takeda, Keigo; Suda, Koji; Kakegawa, Junichi; Morihiro, Koichiro


    This paper proposes a novel method for recommending books to pupils based on a framework called Edu-mining. One of the properties of the proposed method is that it uses only loan histories (pupil ID, book ID, date of loan) whereas the conventional methods require additional information such as taste information from a great number of users which…

  10. Teaching High-Ability Pupils in Early Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma


    This thesis describes the design and implementation of the intervention 'Excel Kwadraat' in primary schools. This intervention aims to improve teachers’ differentiation practices in order to better anticipate pupil differences, including excellent or high-ability pupils. In the end, the intervention

  11. Perspective reports of corporal punishment by pupils in Lesotho schools. (United States)

    Monyooe, L A


    This study surveyed reports of practices of corporal punishment at secondary schools in Lesotho by 60 randomly selected pupils. There were 34 males and 26 females, whose mean age was 21 years, with a range between 14 and 29 years. Responses to a questionnaire confirmed that punishment was associated with pupils' reports of academic impairment, psychological damage, and physical injury.

  12. Perceptions of elementary school teachers of their pupils\\' eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bearings on their pupils' eye health. Eye care specialists should find it easy to train this pool of qualified teachers for some roles in screening pupils for eye defects and diseases in school eye health programmes. Keywords: School health programme, Children eye health, Teachers perceptions. Sahel Medical Journal Vol.

  13. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Pupils in Rural North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitism among pupils in rural schools (Almajiris) in Konduga local Government Area of Borno state. Materials and Methods: A total of 257 stool specimens were collected at random among pupils (Almajiris) in rural quranic schools; the stools were processed ...

  14. Inclusive School Is (Not) Possible--Pupil's Voice (United States)

    Pavlovic, Slavica


    Inclusive education has been the focus of a number of research studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, most of the research was based on the teachers and to a lesser extent on parents' attitudes towards inclusive education, while pupils' views and voice were mainly neglected. The core of this paper is survey research on primary school pupils'…

  15. Self-Regulated Math Instructions for Pupils with Learning Disabilities (United States)

    Bishara, Saied


    In this research, we considered the different impact two methods of teaching had on pupils' ability to solve complex math problems. The methods considered were: self-regulated study and traditional teaching. We also examined the pedagogical consequences the differences made among the population of pupils with learning disabilities in special…

  16. Does Lego Training Stimulate Pupils' Ability to Solve Logical Problems? (United States)

    Lindh, Jorgen; Holgersson, Thomas


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a one-year regular robotic toys (lego) training on school pupils' performance. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the "constructionist theory," where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made…

  17. Pupils' Plans to Study Abroad: Social Reproduction of Transnational Capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.; Gerhards, J.; Hans, S.; Carlson, S.


    This chapter analyses Dutch pupils' plans to study abroad. The main question is to what extent these plans are related to their social class position, their parents' and their own transnational capital and the school type they attend. The analyses are based on survey data of 549 Dutch pupils, aged

  18. Teachers' Attitude and Gender Factor as Determinant of Pupils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    analyze the instruments. The result indicated that there exists a significant relationship between teachers' attitude and pupils' performance in primary science. ... gender on pupils' academic performance in primary science have not been ... the profession and this have caused loss of interest, look warm attitude and drift into ...

  19. Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (United States)

    Stanton, H. E.


    Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

  20. Pupil filter design by using a Bessel functions basis at the image plane. (United States)

    Canales, Vidal F; Cagigal, Manuel P


    Many applications can benefit from the use of pupil filters for controlling the light intensity distribution near the focus of an optical system. Most of the design methods for such filters are based on a second-order expansion of the Point Spread Function (PSF). Here, we present a new procedure for designing radially-symmetric pupil filters. It is more precise than previous procedures as it considers the exact expression of the PSF, expanded as a function of first-order Bessel functions. Furthermore, this new method presents other advantages: the height of the side lobes can be easily controlled, it allows the design of amplitude-only, phase-only or hybrid filters, and the coefficients of the PSF expansion can be directly related to filter parameters. Finally, our procedure allows the design of filters with very different behaviours and optimal performance.

  1. [Service encounters and customer satisfaction in hospitals]. (United States)

    de Moura, Gisela Maria Schebella Souto; Luce, Fernando Bins


    This research is about service encounters and customer satisfaction in hospitals. The study is exploratory and was aimed at identifying the service encounters maintained in hospitals and the satisfaction attributes related to them. The data were collected with hospital professionals and customer, in 2003, by means of interviews using the critical incident technique. The content analysis evidentiated the satisfaction attributes of the service encounters regarding admission, hospitalization and discharge procedures. The results provide important information to hospital service managers, allowing for the planning of customer-focused actions.

  2. ASRS Reports on Wake Vortex Encounters (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.; Taube, Elisa Ann; Drew, Charles Robert; Barclay, Tommy Earl


    ASRS is conducting a structured callback research project of wake vortex incidents reported to the ASRS at all US airports, as well as wake encounters in the enroute environment. This study has three objectives: (1) Utilize the established ASRS supplemental data collection methodology and provide ongoing analysis of wake vortex encounter reports; (2) Document event dynamics and contributing factors underlying wake vortex encounter events; and (3) Support ongoing FAA efforts to address pre-emptive wake vortex risk reduction by utilizing ASRS reporting contributions.

  3. Beyond the Embodied Digital Service Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    When a digital service encounter develops differently than anticipated, the client becomes a user. This transformation reveals the ambiguous nature of digital service encounter being neither well-functioning tools, nor having the same sensitivity to and tolerance for service failures as in human...... of Embodied Interaction. With a micro analysis of the interaction in this service journey, we identify the need for a category of knowledge intensive service encounters that acknowledge both the complexity of the service provided, but also the constraints and possibilities in the digital design material....

  4. Engaging Parents and Pupils in Astronomy (United States)

    Stevenson, Rod


    "The British National Space Centre partnership has recognised for some time that Space and Astronomy are particularly attractive subjects for school students and that including these in the science curriculum can have a positive effect on student interest in science. Drivers are that the number of young people studying science and engineering subjects at A-level and beyond is declining; young people should have an understanding of the importance of science and technology to the world around them; and that UK space industry (including technology, engineering, space science, Earth observation science) must renew itself." BRINGING SPACE INTO SCHOOL Professor Martin Barstow, University of Leicester Published by PPARC on behalf of the British National Space Centre Partnership October 2005 "It has become more and more difficult to persuade young people to follow a career in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics) subjects. Across the EU, the number of graduates in STEM subjects has dropped from 24.3% in 2002 to 22.6% in 2011" (Source EUSTAT) It was Martin Barstow's report in 2005 that started my attempt to interest people in Science and Technology, At Ormiston Victory Academy (OVA) for the past two years, we have embarked on a program to enthuse pupils to study science related subject through the medium of Astronomy. We teach Edexcel GCSE Astronomy to a joint parent and pupil group. They study together and at the end of the course, both take the GCSE examination. The idea is that the pupils see that science is important to their parents and that a very practical facet of science is also fun. Astronomy is a multidisciplinary course bringing together elements of Science, Maths, Technology, Geography and History. It is hoped that the enthusiasm shown by the pupils will spill over into the mainstream subjects including maths. The parents get an idea of the work and level of knowledge required by their children to complete a GCSE level subject. They also report

  5. Knowledge and Experiences of Risks among Pupils in Vocational Education. (United States)

    Andersson, Ing-Marie; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Rosèn, Gunnar; Moström Åberg, Marie


    Young male and female workers are over-represented in statistics concerning negative outcomes of poor work environment and risky work. Young workers often have low awareness of risk, a lack of safety training, and inadequate introduction to the work. The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and experiences of pupils of vocational schools concerning potential work environment risks in their future work. The study design was a dual one, and included a questionnaire and focus group interviews. The study group consisted of 239 pupils from 10 upper secondary schools, who were graduating pupils in four vocational programs: the Industrial Technology Programme, the Restaurant Management and Food Programme, the Transport Programme, and the Handicraft Programme (in which students specialize in wood products). The upper secondary schools were located in the central region of Sweden. The pupils had limited knowledge that employers must, by law, conduct risk analyses and prevent risks. Many felt that they themselves are mainly responsible for performing their tasks safely. Pupils in all programs mentioned acute risk as the greatest risk at work. The theoretical education about safety at work was provided in the 1(st) year of the 3-year vocational programs. A systematic approach to pupils' training in work environment, which is a basis for a safe and healthy workplace, is lacking. The study findings indicate that pupils are offered knowledge far from that intended by laws and by state-of-the-art occupational health risk research.

  6. The relationship between baseline pupil size and intelligence. (United States)

    Tsukahara, Jason S; Harrison, Tyler L; Engle, Randall W


    Pupil dilations of the eye are known to correspond to central cognitive processes. However, the relationship between pupil size and individual differences in cognitive ability is not as well studied. A peculiar finding that has cropped up in this research is that those high on cognitive ability have a larger pupil size, even during a passive baseline condition. Yet these findings were incidental and lacked a clear explanation. Therefore, in the present series of studies we systematically investigated whether pupil size during a passive baseline is associated with individual differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. Across three studies we consistently found that baseline pupil size is, in fact, related to cognitive ability. We showed that this relationship could not be explained by differences in mental effort, and that the effect of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence on pupil size persisted even after 23 sessions and taking into account the effect of novelty or familiarity with the environment. We also accounted for potential confounding variables such as; age, ethnicity, and drug substances. Lastly, we found that it is fluid intelligence, more so than working memory capacity, which is related to baseline pupil size. In order to provide an explanation and suggestions for future research, we also consider our findings in the context of the underlying neural mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge and Experiences of Risks among Pupils in Vocational Education (United States)

    Andersson, Ing-Marie; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Rosèn, Gunnar; Moström Åberg, Marie


    Background Young male and female workers are over-represented in statistics concerning negative outcomes of poor work environment and risky work. Young workers often have low awareness of risk, a lack of safety training, and inadequate introduction to the work. The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and experiences of pupils of vocational schools concerning potential work environment risks in their future work. Methods The study design was a dual one, and included a questionnaire and focus group interviews. The study group consisted of 239 pupils from 10 upper secondary schools, who were graduating pupils in four vocational programs: the Industrial Technology Programme, the Restaurant Management and Food Programme, the Transport Programme, and the Handicraft Programme (in which students specialize in wood products). The upper secondary schools were located in the central region of Sweden. Results The pupils had limited knowledge that employers must, by law, conduct risk analyses and prevent risks. Many felt that they themselves are mainly responsible for performing their tasks safely. Pupils in all programs mentioned acute risk as the greatest risk at work. The theoretical education about safety at work was provided in the 1st year of the 3-year vocational programs. Conclusion A systematic approach to pupils' training in work environment, which is a basis for a safe and healthy workplace, is lacking. The study findings indicate that pupils are offered knowledge far from that intended by laws and by state-of-the-art occupational health risk research. PMID:25379328

  8. Voyager 1 encounter with the jovian system. (United States)

    Stone, E C; Lane, A L


    An overview of the Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter is presented, including a brief discussion of the characteristics of the spacecraft and trajectory and highlights of the results which are described in the subsequent reports.

  9. First-Year Principal Encounters Homophobia (United States)

    Retelle, Ellen


    A 1st-year principal encounters homonegativity and an ethical dilemma when she attempts to terminate a teacher because of the teacher's inadequate and ineffective teaching. The teacher responds by threatening to "out" Ms. L. to the parents.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike


    peer) x xka (church), atx (suggestion). For a comparative study and better analysis, let us put the consonant sounds in a table/ chart. 75. 76. Ifeanyi S. Odinye. The Phonological Problems Encountered by Igbo Students in Chinese ...

  11. Reducing starbursts in highly aberrated eyes with pupil miosis. (United States)

    Xu, Renfeng; Kollbaum, Pete; Thibos, Larry; Lopez-Gil, Norberto; Bradley, Arthur


    To test the hypothesis that marginal ray deviations determine perceived starburst sizes, and to explore different strategies for decreasing starburst size in highly aberrated eyes. Perceived size of starburst images and visual acuities were measured psychophysically for eyes with varying levels of spherical aberration, pupil sizes, and defocus. Computationally, we use a polychromatic eye model including the typical levels of higher order aberrations (HOAs) for keratoconic and post-LASIK eyes to quantify the image quality (the visually weighted Strehl ratio derived from the optical transfer function, VSOTF) with different pupil sizes at both photopic and mesopic light levels. For distance corrected post-LASIK and keratoconic eyes with a night-time pupil (e.g., 7 mm), the starburst diameter is about 1.5 degrees (1 degree for normal presbyopic eyes), which can be reduced to ≤0.25 degrees with pupil sizes ≤3 mm. Starburst size is predicted from the magnitude of the longitudinal spherical aberration. Refracting the eye to focus the pupil margin also removed starbursts, but, unlike small pupils, significantly degraded visual acuity. Reducing pupil diameter to 3 mm improved image quality for these highly aberrated eyes by about 2.7 ×  to 1.7 ×  relative to the natural pupils when light levels were varied from 0.1 to 1000 cd m -2 , respectively. Subjects with highly aberrated eyes observed larger starbursts around bright lights at night predictable by the deviated marginal rays. These were effectively attenuated by reducing pupil diameters to ≤3 mm, which did not cause a drop in visual acuity or modelled image quality even at mesopic light levels. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  12. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.


    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented.

  13. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge Among Middle School Pupils: Receptive Versus Productive Knowledge. (United States)

    Makhoul, Baha


    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate coping with informational texts as appearing in the different content areas text-books. Six-hundred Arabic speaking middle school pupils from the different areas in Israel, representing the different Arab subgroups: general Arab community, Druze and Bedouins, have participated in the current study. Two academic vocabulary tests, including receptive and productive academic vocabulary evaluation tests, were administrated to the students across the different age groups (7th, 8th and 9th). The results pointed to no significant difference between 7th and 9th grade in academic vocabulary knowledge. In contrast, significant difference was encountered between the different Arab sub-groups where the lowest scores were noted among the Bedouin sub-group, characterized by the lowest SES. When comparing receptive and productive academic vocabulary knowledge between 7th and 9th grade, the results pointed to improvement in receptive academic knowledge towards the end of middle school but not on the productive knowledge level. In addition, within participants' comparison indicated a gap between the pupils' receptive and productive vocabulary. The results are discussed in relation to the existing scientific literature and to its implication of both research and practice in the domain of Arabic literacy development.

  14. Ethnic School Segregation and Self-Esteem: The Role of Teacher-Pupil Relationships (United States)

    Agirdag, Orhan; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van Avermaet, Piet


    The authors examine whether school segregation is related to pupils' global self-esteem and whether this association is mediated by teacher-pupil relationships. Multilevel analyses based on a survey of 2,845 pupils (aged 10 to 12) in 68 primary schools in Belgian urban areas reveal that, for native-Belgian pupils, a higher proportion of immigrants…

  15. Cooking and Hammering: Primary School Pupils' Concepts of Their Craft Skills (United States)

    Müürsepp, Mare; Kikkull, Andry


    The aim of the study is to clear the significance of craft skills for the pupils in age nine and twelve years. More than 200 pupils were asked to define, what are the most important skills for the pupils of their age. The results bring out that category of the skills related to craft subject is of the most presented categories in pupils' self…

  16. The Evolution of the Species: Pupil Perspectives and School Perspectives. (United States)

    Hallden, Ola


    Investigates how 11th graders think with respect to evolution and the development of species. Reports that the pupils have extensive factual knowledge, but have difficulty in relating these facts in coherent descriptions and explanations. (Author/YP)

  17. Model of excellent kindergarten learning for excellent pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Dijkstra, E. M., Mooij, T., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 9 November). Model of excellent kindergarten learning for excellent pupils. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  18. Model of Excellent Kindergarten Learning for Excellent Pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma; Mooij, Ton; Kirschner, Paul A.


    Dijkstra, E. M., Mooij, T., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 11 October). Model of excellent kindergarten learning for excellent pupils. Poster presentation at the Teacher Expertise Symposium, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  19. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  20. Determinants of customer satisfaction with service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Nefat


    Full Text Available Service encounters are the focal point of a customer’s perception of a service in terms of its quality, value and customer satisfaction. The paper researches the influence of the components of a service encounter on customer satisfaction. Among several factors that determine customer satisfaction the quality of service, which is related to the characteristics of service, plays an important role. However, a direct insight into the reasons that make a service encounter satisfactory or unsatisfactory is provided by the critical incident technique, where causes of dis/satisfaction differ primarily depending on whether they derive from interpersonal contact or from contact with technology. The evidence of service, which includes people, process and the physical evidence, plays a critical role in a customer’s dis/satisfaction. The influence of these elements cannot be observed separately; it must be observed in their interaction during the delivery of service and their strongest effect is achieved during face-to-face service encounters that have the characteristics of a theatre metaphor. Even though a high level of satisfaction may be achieved after the recovery of a service, enterprises should aim to conduct excellent service encounters right from the start.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina KARIКЈ


    Full Text Available This research represents a part of a broader research on forming and accepting concepts about living beings in the field of nature and society by hearing impaired pupils. Shown results relate to the comprehension of concepts on higher level acquired during two researches. The first research relates to examining comprehension of concepts by recognizing complete classifications and the other to examining comprehension of concepts by analyzing definitions in the same pupil sample.

  2. Pupils' evaluation and generation of evidence and explanation in argumentation. (United States)

    Glassner, Amnon; Weinstock, Michael; Neuman, Yair


    Studies on argument have found that participants tend to prefer explanations to evidence. This apparent bias toward explanation has been qualified recently by research that has found it to diminish with the availability of evidence. This study examines the use of explanation versus evidence in the context of argumentation with reference to the goals of particular argument situations. Seventy-nine eighth-grade pupils at a regular, urban middle school. The pupils read argumentation scenarios, each having the stated goal of either explaining or proving a claim. The pupils rated the degree to which each of two provided assertions (one a theoretical explanation, and the other evidence-based) helped achieve the goal of the argument. On a second task, the pupils chose which of the two assertions should be more effective in achieving the argument goal. On the third task, the pupils generated either an explanation or evidence for each of the argumentation scenarios. Pupils demonstrated sensitivity to the relative epistemic strength of explanation and evidence. They rated explanations as more advantageous in achieving the explanation goal, and evidence as more advantageous in achieving the proof goal. Conversely, however, when asked to generate or recall an explanation or evidence, pupils produced more explanations than evidence independent of the argumentation goal. The study refines the definition of argumentation context to include specific goals. Pupils were sensitive to the context of the argumentation situation (e.g.goals, availability of evidence). However, they appeared to have a disposition toward explanation when asked to produce an explanation or evidence-based justification.

  3. Musicality Development Among Primary School Pupils in Music Studies


    Vilde, Ilze


    Abstract Research goal. To explore the structure of musicality, to examine components that characterize musicality among primary school pupils and the pedagogic logic of its development during music lessons in primary school. As a result of the theoretical study, characterizing components and criteria of musicality among primary school pupils were researched and described and the description of musicality was broadened. The created model for music studies for facilitating the developme...

  4. Error analysis of pupils in calculating with fractions


    Uranič, Petra


    In this thesis I examine the correlation between the frequency of errors that seventh grade pupils make in their calculations with fractions and their level of understanding of fractions. Fractions are a relevant and demanding theme in the mathematics curriculum. Although we use fractions on a daily basis, pupils find learning fractions to be very difficult. They generally do not struggle with the concept of fractions itself, but they frequently have problems with mathematical operations ...

  5. Association of volume of patient encounters with residents' in-training examination performance. (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Stenerson, Matthew B; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Homme, Jason H; McDonald, Furman S


    Patient care and medical knowledge are Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. The correlation between amount of patient contact and knowledge acquisition is not known. To determine if a correlation exists between the number of patient encounters and in-training exam (ITE) scores in internal medicine (IM) and pediatric residents at a large academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study Resident physicians at Mayo Clinic from July 2006 to June 2010 in IM (318 resident-years) and pediatrics (66 resident-years). We tabulated patient encounters through review of clinical notes in an electronic medical record during post graduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2. Using linear regression models, we investigated associations between ITE score and number of notes during the previous PGY, adjusted for previous ITE score, gender, medical school origin, and conference attendance. For IM, PGY-2 admission and consult encounters in the hospital and specialty clinics had a positive linear association with ITE-3 % score (β = 0.02; p = 0.004). For IM, PGY-1 conference attendance is positively associated with PGY-2 ITE performance. We did not detect a correlation between PGY-1 patient encounters and subsequent ITE scores for IM or pediatric residents. No association was found between IM PGY-2 ITE score and inpatient, outpatient, or total encounters in the first year of training. Resident continuity clinic and total encounters were not associated with change in PGY-3 ITE score. We identified a positive association between hospital and subspecialty encounters during the second year of IM training and subsequent ITE score, such that each additional 50 encounters were associated with an increase of 1 % correct in PGY-3 ITE score after controlling for previous ITE performance and continuity clinic encounters. We did not find a correlation for volume of encounters and medical knowledge for IM PGY-1 residents or the pediatric cohort.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja SHILC


    Full Text Available The research analyses characteristics of pragmatic abilities of storytelling of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities (MID, in the light of vocabulary characteristics, grammar structure and substantive structure of a story, considering their age and gender. The sample consists of 60 pupils with MID, aged 7 to 9, who attend special school. Child’s pragmatic abilities are assessed with The Storytelling Test. The research results reveal considerable progress of the older group in vocabulary, whereas the progress in grammatical and substantive structure was less substantial. When comparing achievements of pupils with MID according to the vocabulary, grammatical and substantive story structure, no gender differences are determined. A comparison of pragmatic abilities of younger and older groups of pupils with MID with the norms for peers with typical development shows minor deviation of the younger group. The research results reveal characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with MID and can provide insights to speech therapists, teachers, special education teachers and counsellors when considering profiles of individuals that are taken as a basis for designing intervention programs. By implementing such program, we would encourage development of pragmatic abilities of pupils, thus affecting their academic achievements, communication competency and social skills.

  7. Are teachers' judgements of pupils' ability influenced by body shape? (United States)

    Shackleton, N L; Campbell, T


    Evidence indicates that teachers can judge pupils on the basis of their physical appearance, including their body shape. Teacher bias towards obese pupils has been suggested as a potential pathway through which obese children attain relatively lower academic levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by the body shape of the child. The sample includes English, singleton children in state schools from the Millennium Cohort Study. The data were taken from the fourth wave of data collection, when the children were approximately 7 years old. In all, 5086/5072 children had teacher ability ratings of reading and maths. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether teachers' perceptions of the child's reading and mathematics ability were influenced by the pupil's waist circumference, conditional upon cognitive test scores of reading and maths ability. After adjustment for cognitive test scores, no significant overall relationship was found between the pupil's waist circumference and the teacher's judgements of ability. No statistically significant differences were observed in the probability of being judged as above average after further adjustments were made for potential confounders. There is little evidence that teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by obesity.

  8. Dealing with pupils digital everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl F. Dons.


    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to answer the following research question: How can we prepare student teachers to deal with pupils who have a wide range of day-to-day experiences of the digital world? This question arises out of the understanding that today's student-teacher training is inadequately equipped to realize the potential for learning found in the way that digital technology is now an integral part of the social and cultural practices of children and young people. Based on theory and practice from research and development activities in primary and lower secondary school, the article points out some perspectives connected to the technology culture of children and young people that may have importance for the professional training of student teachers. The article concludes by summarizing some findings from a research project in general teacher education, where it is argued that student teachers can be qualified to cope with the way children and young people use technology by teaching them to adopt solutions based on personal publishing. In many ways the article deals with classical issues in the education field; how the relations between cognition, learning, technology and fellow-citizenship raise practical issues connected to teaching and learning (Dewey, 1915; 1938; 1958.

  9. Born Pupils? Natural Pedagogy and Cultural Pedagogy. (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia


    The theory of natural pedagogy is an important focus of research on the evolution and development of cultural learning. It proposes that we are born pupils; that human children genetically inherit a package of psychological adaptations that make them receptive to teaching. In this article, I first examine the components of the package-eye contact, contingencies, infant-directed speech, gaze cuing, and rational imitation-asking in each case whether current evidence indicates that the component is a reliable feature of infant behavior and a genetic adaptation for teaching. I then discuss three fundamental insights embodied in the theory: Imitation is not enough for cumulative cultural inheritance, the extra comes from blind trust, and tweaking is a powerful source of cognitive change. Combining the results of the empirical review with these insights, I argue that human receptivity to teaching is founded on nonspecific genetic adaptations for social bonding and social learning and acquires its species- and functionally specific features through the operation of domain-general processes of learning in sociocultural contexts. We engage, not in natural pedagogy, but in cultural pedagogy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Pécseli, H.L.


    With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous and isot......With reference to studies of predator-prey encounters in turbulent waters, we demonstrate the feasibility of an experimental method for investigations of particle fluxes to an absorbing surface in turbulent flows. A laboratory experiment is carried out, where an approximately homogeneous...

  11. Service encounters as bases for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon; Sundbo, Donna; Henten, Anders


    customers with the innovating organization. Based on literature studies and pilot case studies, seven propositions are proposed and tested in a qualitative, hermeneutic way in field experiments in nine service organizations. Important new results are that encounter-based innovation requires mutual empathy...... between employees and customers, employees investing stubbornness and time can be a driver for innovation, and several layers of management can be a barrier. In the field experiments three new factors for encounter-based innovation were found: translation, multitasking, and hyper-professionalism. The two...

  12. Plankton motility patterns and encounter rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Kiørboe, Thomas


    measure of run length to reaction distance determines whether the underlying encounter is ballistic or diffusive. Since ballistic interactions are intrinsically more efficient than diffusive, we predict that organisms will display motility with long correlation run lengths compared to their reaction...... distances to their prey, but short compared to the reaction distances of their predators. We show motility data for planktonic organisms ranging from bacteria to copepods that support this prediction. We also present simple ballistic and diffusive motility models for estimating encounter rates, which lead...

  13. Can pupil size and pupil responses during visual scanning contribute to the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in children? (United States)

    Martineau, Joëlle; Hernandez, Nadia; Hiebel, Lorraine; Roché, Laetitia; Metzger, Aude; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether baseline pupil size and pupil responses during visual scanning with eye-tracking technology could discriminate children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from mental age-matched and chronological age-matched controls. To this end, we used stimuli consisting in still color photographs presented centrally to the participant's midline on a stimulus monitor. Each child was presented with a series of neutral faces, virtual faces (avatars) and different objects, separated by black slides. We recorded the mean pupil size and pupil size changes over time in each of the three categories of stimuli and during exposure to the black slides. Fifty-seven children participated in study (19 ASD, mean age 118 months; 19 mental age-matched controls, mean age 87 months; and 19 chronological age-matched controls, mean age 118 months). We compared the baseline pupil size and pupil responses during visual scanning among the three diagnostic groups. During the presentation of slides, the mean pupil size in the ASD group was clearly smaller than in the MA-matched and CA-matched groups. Discriminate analysis of pupil size during the presentation of black slides and slides with visual stimuli successfully predicted group membership in 72% of the participants. Group membership was correctly classified in 89% of the participants in the ASD group, in 63% in the MA-matched group and in 63% in the CA-matched group. These potential biomarkers may contribute to our understanding of the differences in neurological development in the brain in autism and could prove useful as indicators of ASD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamics of a stressful encounter: cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Dunkel-Schetter, C; DeLongis, A; Gruen, R J


    Despite the importance that is attributed to coping as a factor in psychological and somatic health outcomes, little is known about actual coping processes, the variables that influence them, and their relation to the outcomes of the stressful encounters people experience in their day-to-day lives. This study uses an intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal (what was at stake in the encounter), secondary appraisal (coping options), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of community-residing adults. Coping was strongly related to cognitive appraisal; the forms of coping that were used varied depending on what was at stake and the options for coping. Coping was also differentially related to satisfactory and unsatisfactory encounter outcomes. The findings clarify the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters.

  15. Thinking about the service encounter enhances encounter-related word-of-mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    ) the memorability of the service encounter and (b) the extent to which what had happened had been subject to rehearsal with the purpose of telling others about it. These findings should be seen in relation to the literature’s view that customer satisfaction, not thinking, is a dominant predictor of word......-of-mouth. Our results, however, indicate that satisfaction’s contribution to the variation in talking about the encounter was modest (and customer satisfaction played only a minor role in explaining why an encounter is thought about).......This study examines the impact of thinking about a service encounter, after it has been completed, on telling others about it (i.e., word-of-mouth). The main finding was that encounter-related thinking boosted word-of-mouth. We also found that the think-talk association was mediated by (a...

  16. Voyager 2 encounter with the jovian system. (United States)

    Stone, E C; Lane, A L


    An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Jupiter is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the major sequence modifications performed because of the Jupiter measurements obtained with Voyager 1, and high-lights of the results that are described in the subsequent reports.

  17. Challenges in the professional care encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaldal, Maiken Holm; Kristiansen, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    ; Negotiating evidence; Empathy as port of entry; Acknowledgement; Lost in the clinical setting; Intimacy. The themes illustrates that feelings of anxiety, distress and vulnerability characterize the encounter between nursing students and patients in a hospital. The students are constantly trying to find ways...

  18. Moral Relations in Encounters with Nature (United States)

    Andersson, Karin; Öhman, Johan


    The overall aim of this article is to develop in-depth knowledge about the connection between outdoor experiences and moral attitudes towards nature. The study focuses on processes in which moral relations are at stake in encounters between students and nature. The purpose is to identify such events, describe their specific circumstances and…

  19. Domestic Violence Encountered among Kurdish Women (United States)

    Ali, Sirwan Kamil


    Background and objective; There is growing recognition that violence against women has a large public health impact, in addition to being a gross violation of women's human rights. The study's aims were: To show the types of domestic abuse encountered by Kurdish women, and study the relationship between them. Methods; The study conducted in the…

  20. Phenomenology and Otherness - on embodied encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten; Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    Starting from phenomenology's notion of orientation towards and involvement with the other and the surrounding environment the paper want to pursue a development from the meeting and opening up to the universalized other of phenomenology towards a focus on encounters with particular others...

  1. Boundary Transgressions: An Issue In Psychotherapeutic Encounter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boundary transgressions tend to be conceptualized on a continuum ranging from boundary crossings to boundary violations. Boundary crossings (e.g. accepting an inexpensive holiday gift from a client, unintentionally encountering a client in public, or attending a client's special event) are described in the literature as ...

  2. Aesthetic Encounters: Contributions to Generalist Teacher Education (United States)

    White, Boyd


    This article describes the learning experiences of three pre-service teachers within a university-level course entitled "Aesthetics and Art Criticism for the Classroom." Discussion is focused on the nature of the meaning-making that emerges from aesthetic encounters and its educational value. Specifically, what can pre-service generalist teachers…

  3. Viral video: Live imaging of virus-host encounters (United States)

    Son, Kwangmin; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andres; Chisholm, Sallie W.; Sullivan, Matthew B.; Stocker, Roman


    Viruses are non-motile infectious agents that rely on Brownian motion to encounter and subsequently adsorb to their hosts. Paradoxically, the viral adsorption rate is often reported to be larger than the theoretical limit imposed by the virus-host encounter rate, highlighting a major gap in the experimental quantification of virus-host interactions. Here we present the first direct quantification of the viral adsorption rate, obtained using live imaging of individual host cells and viruses for thousands of encounter events. The host-virus pair consisted of Prochlorococcus MED4, a 800 nm small non-motile bacterium that dominates photosynthesis in the oceans, and its virus PHM-2, a myovirus that has a 80 nm icosahedral capsid and a 200 nm long rigid tail. We simultaneously imaged hosts and viruses moving by Brownian motion using two-channel epifluorescent microscopy in a microfluidic device. This detailed quantification of viral transport yielded a 20-fold smaller adsorption efficiency than previously reported, indicating the need for a major revision in infection models for marine and likely other ecosystems.

  4. MMS Encounters with Reconnection Diffusion Regions in the Earth's Magnetotail (United States)

    Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.; Argall, M. R.; Farrugia, C. J.; Alm, L.; Dors, I.; Payne, D.; Rogers, A. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Phan, T.; Ergun, R.; Goodrich, K.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Giles, B. L.; Rager, A. C.; Gershman, D. J.; Kletzing, C.


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) fleet of four spacecraft traversed the Earth's magnetotail in May through August of 2017 with an apogee of 25 Re, and encountered diffusion regions characteristic of symmetric reconnection. This presentation will describe in-situ measurements of large electric fields, strong electron cross-tail and Hall currents, and electron velocity distributions (frequently crescent-shaped) that are commonly observed in these regions. Positive electromagnetic energy conversion is also typical. The characteristics of symmetric reconnection observations will be contrasted with those of asymmetric reconnection that MMS observed previously at the dayside magnetopause.

  5. Attitudes of Primary School Pupils towards Physical and Sport Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Bartík


    Full Text Available One of the most important roles of spare time physical education is the formation of a positive attitude towards sports activities and sports among pupils. The formation of a positive attitude can play an important role in the matter of a child's healthy lifestyle. Therefore the authors of this article decided to find out what kind of a relationship and an attitude the pupils of primary schools take towards physical education and sports activities in the Detva and Zvolen regions. The authors of this article present the attitudes towards physical education and movement as well as sports activities of 8th grade primary school pupils in the Detva and Zvolen regions as well as to their frequency. The authors discuss which activities among extracurricular or spare-time activities are the most interesting for pupils. According to the results presented in the charts, it is clear that pupils take a positive attitude towards physical education and sports activities. Sports games belong among the most favourite interest groups.

  6. Eye gaze tracking based on the shape of pupil image (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqing; Peng, Li; Han, Peng


    Eye tracker is an important instrument for research in psychology, widely used in attention, visual perception, reading and other fields of research. Because of its potential function in human-computer interaction, the eye gaze tracking has already been a topic of research in many fields over the last decades. Nowadays, with the development of technology, non-intrusive methods are more and more welcomed. In this paper, we will present a method based on the shape of pupil image to estimate the gaze point of human eyes without any other intrusive devices such as a hat, a pair of glasses and so on. After using the ellipse fitting algorithm to deal with the pupil image we get, we can determine the direction of the fixation by the shape of the pupil.The innovative aspect of this method is to utilize the new idea of the shape of the pupil so that we can avoid much complicated algorithm. The performance proposed is very helpful for the study of eye gaze tracking, which just needs one camera without infrared light to know the changes in the shape of the pupil to determine the direction of the eye gazing, no additional condition is required.

  7. The pupil can control an artificial lens intuitively. (United States)

    Fliedner, Jan; Heine, Christian; Bretthauer, Georg; Wilhelm, Helmut


    After cataract surgery, the ability to accommodate is lost. For this reason, a mechatronic IOL is being developed at the moment: The Artificial Accommodation System. This device requires an easily measureable indicator of the distance of the observed object to determine the demand of accommodation. As the pupil constricts with near vision, pupil size might be such an indicator. Our research focused on whether the pupil can control an artificial lens. A study with 14 healthy subjects aged between 24 and 64 years was conducted. An artificial lens with variable refractive power was mounted in front of one eye. In this eye, natural accommodation was greatly reduced or absent due to presbyopia, pseudophakia, or iatrogenic cycloplegia. The lens' refractive power was changed in a computer-controlled manner depending on changes in the pupil diameter of the second eye, which could not see the fixation stimulus. The subject's task was to get a clear focused image of the target in different distances. The lens can be controlled by the pupil intuitively (P < 1.8 × 10(-18)). Without prior knowledge, 11/14 subjects passed the first trial, and 31/41 trials were successful. Only one subject was not able to control the lens at all. Most subjects comprehended instantly how to use the unfamiliar lens control to bring a target into focus. This study emphasizes the plasticity of the visual control system. Positioning accuracy was acceptable, but the control must be optimized to facilitate maintaining a defined refractive power.

  8. Caffeine intake is associated with pupil dilation and enhanced accommodation. (United States)

    Abokyi, S; Owusu-Mensah, J; Osei, K A


    PurposeIt is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation.Patients and methodsA double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux). Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size were taken at baseline, and at 30, 60 and 90 min time points post treatment. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used in analyzing data.ResultsAmplitude of accommodation and pupil size after caffeine intake were significantly greater than vehicle (Pcaffeine beverage was associated with significant increases in amplitude of accommodation and pupil size with time (Pcaffeine. This study suggests caffeine may have some influence on visual functions.

  9. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes. (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J


    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Adaptation vs authenticity: achieving leader effectiveness in intercultural encounters with followers–towards an integrated model


    Green, Michael J.


    Previous research on leader effectiveness in intercultural encounters has focused on the ‘cultural congruence proposition’ which indicates that leaders from one culture encountering followers from a different culture should modify their behaviour away from their own values towards the collective values of the followers in order to enhance their effectiveness. This proposition appears to contradict the basic tenets of authentic leadership theory which indicate that effective leaders align thei...

  11. The Effect of Feedback from Pupil to Teacher on Assessment for Leaning and Visible Learning: An Ethnographic Case Study in a Community School in England and the Outcome in a State High School in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ndisang


    Full Text Available This study shows that there is positive regulatory effect of feedback from pupils to teachers on Assessment for Learning (AfL, classroom proactiveness, and on visible and progressive learning but not on behaviour. This research finding further articulates feedback from pupil to teacher as a paradigm shift from the classical paradigm of feedback from teacher to pupil. Here, the emphasis is geared towards pupils understanding of objectives built from previous knowledge. These are then feedback onto the teachers by the pupils in the form of discrete loops of cues and questions, where they are with their learning. This therefore enables them to move to the next level of understanding, and thus acquired independence, which in turn is reflected by their success in both formative and summative assessments. This study therefore shows that when feedback from pupil to teacher is used in combination with teacher to pupil feedback, AfL is ameliorated and hence, visible and accelerated learning occurs in a gender, nor subject non-dependent manner.

  12. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone


    Collaboration is often described as a situation whereby two or more children work together towards a common goal. When viewed from a socio-cultural learning perspective, a broader understanding of collaboration is suggested. This article investigates the forms and pathways of children......’s collaboration and how the institutional demands influence children’s collaborative encounters. The study is based on video recordings of paedagogical activities (workshops and circle times) in two Danish pre-schools over a period of 11 months. Although institutional demands challenge children’s initiatives......, it is found that children build friendships, assist, inspire, and imitate one another in their collaborative encounters in paedagogical activities. In order to better support children’s learning and engaged participation in paedagogical activities, an increased attention to the institutional demands...

  13. Mobbing behaviors encountered by nurse teaching staff. (United States)

    Yildirim, Dilek; Yildirim, Aytolan; Timucin, Arzu


    The term 'mobbing' is defined as antagonistic behaviors with unethical communication directed systematically at one individual by one or more individuals in the workplace. This cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted for the purpose of determining the mobbing behaviors encountered by nursing school teaching staff in Turkey, its effect on them, and their responses to them. A large percentage (91%) of the nursing school employees who participated in this study reported that they had encountered mobbing behaviors in the institution where they work and 17% that they had been directly exposed to mobbing in the workplace. The academic staff who had been exposed to mobbing behaviors experienced various physiological, emotional and social reactions. They frequently 'worked harder and [were] more organized and worked very carefully to avoid criticism' to escape from mobbing. In addition, 9% of the participants stated that they 'thought about suicide occasionally'.

  14. Users’ encounter with normative discourses on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David


    This study asks whether users’ encounter with normative discourses of lifestyle, consumption, and health on social media such as Facebook gives rise to agency. The theoretical framework draws on reception analysis, for its implied, but central interest in agency that lies at the intersection...... an explicit focus on the socio-cultural practices of ordinary audiences in their encounters with media discourses. The study investigates user agency on seven Facebook groups and pages with the help of a three-pronged perspective based on the notion of the media–audience relationship as (1) power structure......, (2) nexus, and (3) reception. The analysis reveals that the structure at play on these Facebook groups and pages does not encourage user agency. However, user agency manifests itself through user interactions and expressive sense-making processes associated with reception. The benefits...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Eisner, Josh A.; Angel, Roger; Woolf, Neville J.; Bendek, Eduardo A.; Milster, Thomas D.; Mark Ammons, S.; Shao, Michael; Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Nemati, Bijan; Pitman, Joe; Woodruff, Robert A.; Belikov, Ruslan


    Astrometric detection and mass determination of Earth-mass exoplanets require sub-μas accuracy, which is theoretically possible with an imaging space telescope using field stars as an astrometric reference. The measurement must, however, overcome astrometric distortions, which are much larger than the photon noise limit. To address this issue, we propose to generate faint stellar diffraction spikes using a two-dimensional grid of regularly spaced small dark spots added to the surface of the primary mirror (PM). Accurate astrometric motion of the host star is obtained by comparing the position of the spikes to the background field stars. The spikes do not contribute to scattered light in the central part of the field and therefore allow unperturbed coronagraphic observation of the star's immediate surroundings. Because the diffraction spikes are created on the PM and imaged on the same focal plane detector as the background stars, astrometric distortions affect equally the diffraction spikes and the background stars and are therefore calibrated. We describe the technique, detail how the data collected by the wide-field camera are used to derive astrometric motion, and identify the main sources of astrometric error using numerical simulations and analytical derivations. We find that the 1.4 m diameter telescope, 0.3 deg 2 field we adopt as a baseline design achieves 0.2 μas single measurement astrometric accuracy. The diffractive pupil concept thus enables sub-μas astrometry without relying on the accurate pointing, external metrology, or high-stability hardware required with previously proposed high-precision astrometry concepts.

  16. The Voyager mission through the Jupiter encounters


    Stone, E. C.


    The Voyager mission is a major element in NASA's program of exploration of the outer solar system. Objectives of the Voyager mission include comparative studies of the Jovian and Saturnian planetary systems and exploratory studies of the interplanetary medium at increasing distances from the sun. With the successful Saturn encounter in November 1980, the objectives of the mission have been extended to include an exploration of Uranus and interplanetary studies to beyond 20 astronomical units....

  17. Winnicott and Lacan: a missed encounter? (United States)

    Vanier, Alain


    Winnicott was able to say that Lacan's paper on the mirror stage "had certainly influenced" him, while Lacan argued that he found his object a in Winnicott's transitional object. By following the development of their personal relations, as well as of their theoretical discussions, it is possible to argue that this was a missed encounter--yet a happily missed one, since the misunderstandings of their theoretical exchanges allowed each of them to clarify concepts otherwise difficult to discern.

  18. Numerical Study of a Convective Turbulence Encounter (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.


    A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The specific case was encountered during one of NASA's flight tests and was characterized by severe turbulence. The event was associated with overshooting convective turrets that contained low to moderate radar reflectivity. Model comparisons with observations are quite favorable. Turbulence hazard metrics are proposed and applied to the numerical data set. Issues such as adequate grid size are examined.

  19. Youtube? SFBTube! - Through pupils to the people (United States)

    Wilms, Mareike; Dengg, Joachim


    Humankind is strongly affected by natural hazards: Earthquakes and volcanoes shake the solid earth, storms and floods happen more and more frequently due to climate change, tsunamis threaten coastal areas. As the human population continues to expand, and stresses on the environment multiply, the need for an understanding of the fundamental issues becomes more urgent. A major task of Collaborative Research Centre "Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" and Collaborative Research Centre "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones" is to explain how the different components of the earth system interact and how they affect the world's population. Both Collaborative Research Centres implement a joint outreach program to communicate their research activities and results to the general public. In doing so, new strategies in public outreach are essential - considering the fast pace of changes in communication media and the increasing importance of edutainment as a way to reach the public and particularly the younger generations. Outreach materials have to be interesting, easy to understand and fun to explore, but without sacrificing the scientific content. Therefore, videos for the internet (e. g. Youtube) are one promising way to reach that target group. Blogs, podcasts, wikis or being part of social networks such as Facebook are further ways. But "being present where young people are" is not enough. You have to speak their language, too. To take another step forward we hence involve a critical part of the target audience actively into this new communication strategy. School students are able to contribute innovative views and their own language in presenting science to the public. In cooperation with pupils and teachers, we experiment with those new approaches to public outreach. Wherever it is possible, we are also making use of international cooperations of both Collaborative Research Centres with partner institutions in Latin America and Western

  20. Pupil-mimicry conditions trust in partners: moderation by oxytocin and group membership. (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W


    Across species, oxytocin, an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide, facilitates social communication by attuning individuals to conspecifics' social signals, fostering trust and bonding. The eyes have an important signalling function; and humans use their salient and communicative eyes to intentionally and unintentionally send social signals to others, by contracting the muscles around their eyes and pupils. In our earlier research, we observed that interaction partners with dilating pupils are trusted more than partners with constricting pupils. But over and beyond this effect, we found that the pupil sizes of partners synchronize and that when pupils synchronously dilate, trust is further boosted. Critically, this linkage between mimicry and trust was bound to interactions between ingroup members. The current study investigates whether these findings are modulated by oxytocin and sex of participant and partner. Using incentivized trust games with partners from ingroup and outgroup whose pupils dilated, remained static or constricted, this study replicates our earlier findings. It further reveals that (i) male participants withhold trust from partners with constricting pupils and extend trust to partners with dilating pupils, especially when given oxytocin rather than placebo; (ii) female participants trust partners with dilating pupils most, but this effect is blunted under oxytocin; (iii) under oxytocin rather than placebo, pupil dilation mimicry is weaker and pupil constriction mimicry stronger; and (iv) the link between pupil constriction mimicry and distrust observed under placebo disappears under oxytocin. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is parochial and evolved in social species in and because of group life. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Neurophysiological model of the normal and abnormal human pupil (United States)

    Krenz, W.; Robin, M.; Barez, S.; Stark, L.


    Anatomical, experimental, and computer simulation studies were used to determine the structure of the neurophysiological model of the pupil size control system. The computer simulation of this model demonstrates the role played by each of the elements in the neurological pathways influencing the size of the pupil. Simulations of the effect of drugs and common abnormalities in the system help to illustrate the workings of the pathways and processes involved. The simulation program allows the user to select pupil condition (normal or an abnormality), specific site along the neurological pathway (retina, hypothalamus, etc.) drug class input (barbiturate, narcotic, etc.), stimulus/response mode, display mode, stimulus type and input waveform, stimulus or background intensity and frequency, the input and output conditions, and the response at the neuroanatomical site. The model can be used as a teaching aid or as a tool for testing hypotheses regarding the system.

  2. Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils


    Brabcová, Věra


    Title: English: Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils Author: Věra Brabcová Department: Pedagogy Supervisor: PaedDr. Eva Marádová, CSc. ANNOTATION: The objective of the Bachelor Thesis, divided into two parts, is to find out whether there are any differences in the approach to catering; the discussed group of diners are basic school pupils of the second stage (Czech education system). The work compares the attitude of boys and girls at the age of 11 - 16. The the...

  3. "My math and me": Nursing students' previous experiences in learning mathematics. (United States)

    Røykenes, Kari


    In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. "Peace to Learn"-- A Discourse Analysis of Pupils' Perceptions (United States)

    Paaso, E.; Uusiautti, S.; Maatta, K.


    Peace to learn refers to a peaceful state that makes meaningful and productive learning possible--in other words, the conditions that allow or hinder pupils to work peacefully in the classroom. How pupils perceive their

  5. Pupil's motivation in the 3. grades for required reading and The Reading Badge


    Logar, Renata


    Reading is extremely important for pupils and their development. The pupil with reading habits riches his vocabulary and gaining knowledge. On the other hand the pupil through reading entry into the world of imagination and stories. Major role in motivating students to read have parents and teachers. In this graduation thesis I was interested in how third grade teachers motivate their pupils to read. In doing so, I was focused mainly to reading for required reading and The Reading Badge. ...

  6. Atmospheric Impacts of a Close Cometary Encounter (United States)

    Aylett, Tasha; Chipperfield, Martyn; Diego Carrillo Sánchez, Juan; Feng, Wuhu; Forster, Piers; Plane, John


    Although a close encounter with a comet is extremely unlikely, a significant perturbation to the flux of Earth-bound dust from a comet's close passage could have huge implications for both the chemistry of the atmosphere and climate. For example, following the close passage of Comet Halley to Earth in A.D. 536, dark skies, reduced day lengths and a protracted global cooling were reported [1], for which an extraterrestrial disturbance is likely to be at least partly responsible. Indeed, the recent encounter of Comet Siding Spring with Mars provided evidence that the risks posed by such an event are significant [2]. We have run sensitivity simulations using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) with an elevated Meteoric Input Function (MIF) to investigate such an encounter - specifically, Comet Halley in A.D. 536. The simple analytical model developed by Moorhead et al. [3] has been incorporated into an atmospheric chemical ablation model to provide the MIF of several meteoric species (Na, Fe, Si, Mg and S) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (70-120 km) for input into WACCM. Key effects of this additional input on the chemistry of the upper atmosphere and the metal layers have been explored in the simulations and effects on mesospheric and stratospheric ozone chemistry have been assessed. In addition to any effects on atmospheric chemistry, WACCM will also be used to provide insight into the impacts of a high dust flux on the Earth's climate. References [1] Stothers, R. B. (1984), Mystery Cloud of Ad-536, Nature, 307(5949), 344-345. [2] Schneider, N. M., et al. (2015), MAVEN IUVS observations of the aftermath of the Comet Siding Spring meteor shower on Mars, Geophys Res Lett, 42(12), 4755-4761. [3] Moorhead, A. V., P. A. Wiegert, and W. J. Cooke (2014), The meteoroid fluence at Mars due to Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring), Icarus, 231, 13-21.

  7. Rethinking social identity theory in international encounters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob


    In a globalized business environment, interaction across linguistic boundaries is becoming a normal part of everyday life. In these encounters language differences may affect the formation of social identities among organization members. While studies based on Social Identity Theory perceive...... the link between identity and language to be linear, this article takes a different approach. By drawing on anthropological theories on ethnic identity it is argued that the relation between language and social identity is negotiated in interaction. In the empirical analysis the article focuses...

  8. The Impact of School Culture on Schools' Pupil Well-Being Policy-Making Capacities (United States)

    Van Gasse, Roos; Vanhoof, Jan; Van Petegem, Peter


    Pupil well-being has been an important topic in educational research for some time. Differences between schools in their influence on the well-being of their pupils are attributed to the policy-making capacities of the school. Little is known about schools' policy-making capacities with regard to pupil well-being, and the impact of school culture…

  9. High School Pupils' Attitudes and Self-Efficacy of Using Mobile Devices (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis


    This paper regards a study aiming to investigate junior high school pupils' attitudes and self-efficacy of using mobile devices. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to 260 pupils aged 12-15 years old, in Greece. Pupils' attitudes were positive, and four factors were extracted, "perceived usefulness", "affection",…

  10. Entrepreneurship Education: Motivation and Effort for Pupils with Special Needs in Norwegian Compulsory School (United States)

    Somby, Hege Merete; Johansen, Vegard


    Pupil enterprises are a widespread type of entrepreneurship education. In this working method, pupils start up, manage and close a business over short period of time. National and international policy documents claim that practical working methods through the use of pupil enterprises are beneficial to increase motivation by being a realistic and…

  11. How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School (United States)

    Vik, Astrid Kristin; Lassen, Liv M.


    This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used an audio-text format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of…

  12. What Can National Data Sets Tell Us about Inclusion and Pupil Achievement? (United States)

    Florian, Lani; Rouse, Martyn; Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Jull, Stephen


    Recent developments in the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) have produced a national pupil database (NPD) that contains information about the attainments of individual pupils. Every child in the country has been allocated a unique pupil number (UPN), which means that the academic progress of individuals can be tracked over time. It is…

  13. "What Rough Beast?" Conceptualising the Poetry Teacher in Ireland through the Eyes of the Pupil (United States)

    Hennessy, Jennifer; Mannix McNamara, Patricia


    Pupils have a significant contribution to make in the construction of knowledge about teaching and learning in schools. Therefore, consultation with pupils should play a significant role in the pursuit of pedagogical advancement. This study explores pupils' conceptions of effective poetry teachers at Leaving Certificate level in Ireland. Taking a…

  14. Gaining Views from Pupils with Autism about Their Participation in Drama Classes (United States)

    Loyd, Daisy


    Pupils with autism (aged 16-18) were interviewed as part of a study examining the participation of individuals with autism in drama education. This paper reflects on the approaches devised to gain views from ten pupils with autism who communicated in different ways. The procedure for gaining views from the pupils is explained, and the views they…

  15. Pupils' Opinions About the Factors That Affect Teaching and Learning of Junior Science in Lesotho. (United States)

    Talukdar, A. H. U.


    Administered opinion questionnaires to 440 male and 465 female pupils in 20 secondary and high schools in Lesotho to collect views of pupils on various aspects affecting the quality of science instruction at the junior secondary level. Discusses facilities for instruction, circumstances of pupils, and characteristics of teachers. (Author/JRH)

  16. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans


    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  17. Parental Involvement as a Correlate of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Edo State, Nigeria (United States)

    Fajoju, Samuel A.; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Ojugo, Augustine I.


    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement in children's education and the academic achievement of primary six pupils in Edo State, Nigeria. The ex-post facto research design was employed in this study. The sample consisted of 1,895 primary six pupils (1,024 males and 863 females drawn from 37,908 primary six pupils in…

  18. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies (United States)

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca


    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  19. Relationship of Pupils' Spatial Perception and Ability with Their Performance in Geography (United States)

    Likouri, Anna-Aikaterini; Klonari, Aikaterini; Flouris, George


    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between pupils' spatial perception and abilities and their performance in geography. The sample was 600 6th-grade pupils from various areas of Greece selected by the cluster sampling method. The study results showed that: a) the vast majority of pupils showed low spatial ability; b) there…

  20. Cooperative Group, Risk-Taking and Inclusion of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Physical Education (United States)

    Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale


    The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…

  1. The Matthew effect in Dutch primary education, differences between school, cohorts and pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; Cremers-van Wees, L.M.C.M.; Bosker, Roel


    Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from Dutch primary education was used to assess to what extent differences between educationally disadvantaged pupils and other pupils increase during their school careers. For language and arithmetic the differences between pupils with poorly educated and

  2. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence


    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  3. Are Polish Primary School Pupils in Favor of Wearing Uniforms? Snapshot Comment (United States)

    Asotska, Julia; Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Brown, Veda E.; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan


    The purpose of this article is to discuss whether Polish primary school pupils want to wear uniforms, and it is motivated by the Polish government's recently proposed policy: Zero Tolerance for Violence at School. Seventy one pupils, who attend Podstawowka Nr30 school in Cracow, were surveyed, and the authors found that most pupils are not in…

  4. Comparative Study of Pupils' Academic Performance between Private and Public Primary Schools (United States)

    Adeyemi, Sunday B.


    This paper compares pupils' academic performance between the private and public primary schools. The sample, made up of 240 pupils were randomly selected from the private and public primary schools in Ilesa East and West Local Government Council Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used. A structured questionnaire and Pupils'…

  5. Sticky Assessments--The Impact of Teachers' Grading Standard on Pupils' School Performance (United States)

    Keller, Tamás


    This paper argues that school grades cannot be interpreted solely as a reward for a given school performance, since they also reflect teachers' assessments of pupils. A teacher's evaluation of a pupil's performance, as reflected in the grade awarded, might influence the effort that the pupil invests in learning. Grades might therefore serve as…

  6. Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Fabius, Jasper; Van Heusden, Elle; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a

  7. The Performance of Mouse Pointing and Selecting for Pupils with and without Intellectual Disabilities (United States)

    Lin, Yun-Lung; Chen, Ming-Chung; Chang, Yun-Ting; Yeh, Chih-Ching; Meng, Ling-Fu


    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of mouse pointing and selecting in the tasks with different index of difficulty between 20 pupils with intellectual disabilities and 21 pupils without disabilities. A mouse proficiency assessment software was utilized to collect data. Pupils with intellectual disabilities executed tasks more…

  8. Tomorrow's Workforce: School Pupils' Views of a Career in Hospitality. Research Report. (United States)

    Tregaskis, Olga; And Others

    A survey involving 1,024 secondary pupils and 22 career educators from schools throughout the United Kingdom collected information on pupils' perceptions of entering the hotel and catering industry as a career. The research looked in detail at the job expectations of pupils, the status they associated with hotel and catering and nonhotel and…

  9. Adie’s Tonic Pupil in Systemic Sclerosis: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Venkataraman


    Full Text Available We report a rare association of Adie’s tonic pupil in a patient with systemic sclerosis who was otherwise systemically stable. This paper is an effort to unravel whether the tonic pupil and systemic sclerosis are an association by chance (which may be the case or systemic sclerosis is the source of the tonic pupil.

  10. Super-resolution by pupil plane phase filtering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... Several new paradigms for super-resolution in optical systems use 'a posteriori' digital image processing. In these ventures the three-dimensional point spread function (PSF) of the lens plays a key role in image acquisition. A straightforward tailoring of the PSF can be performed by appropriate pupil plane ...

  11. Pupil size influences the eye-tracker signal during saccades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyström, M.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Anderson, R.


    While it is known that scleral search coils—measuring the rotation of the eye globe—and modern, video based eye trackers—tracking the center of the pupil and the corneal reflection (CR)—produce signals with different properties, the mechanisms behind the differences are less investigated. We measure

  12. Educational Blogs and Their Effects on Pupils' Writing (United States)

    Barrs, Myra; Horrocks, Sarah


    Many schools are launching school blogs as a way of developing their online profiles and involving pupils in digital writing. Blogs are used in many different ways. This research study developed as a result of a small survey carried out in three schools in Lambeth in South London in 2012. The survey was part of a scoping paper carried out for…

  13. Intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in Ekwulumili Community, Nnewi South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria, between April and July 2012. Five primary schools were involved in the study namely, Bethel Nursery and Primary ...

  14. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kret, M.E.; Tomonaga, M.; Matsuzawa, T.


    Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size

  15. The Antlion Project with School Pupils in Zomba, Malawi (United States)

    Young, Simon


    This article presents an account of a practical outdoor science project using the larvae of antlions with year 5 and 6 (age 10-11) pupils from Sir Harry Johnston International Primary School in Zomba, Malawi. Aim: To conduct a science project outdoors using scientific enquiry and knowledge in a typical African school environment and to see whether…

  16. Teaching Experimental Design to Elementary School Pupils in Greece (United States)

    Karampelas, Konstantinos


    This research is a study about the possibility to promote experimental design skills to elementary school pupils. Experimental design and the experiment process are foundational elements in current approaches to Science Teaching, as they provide learners with profound understanding about knowledge construction and science inquiry. The research was…

  17. Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying Advanced Level Sciences: A Survey of One Province in Zimbabwe. C Pinias, VS Matswetu. Abstract. In spite of advances in the field of science and technology, females are still under-represented in the sciences. The study sought to explore the perceptions of ...

  18. breakfast skipping and academic / social development of pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abasiama Akpan

    academic achievement of pupils have no significant relationship. 2. There is no significant relationship between breakfast skipping and social development of the .... fasting, financial poverty, ignorance/superstition, laziness to prepare breakfast, lack of devotion by parents/guardians to force children to each before going to ...

  19. The Relationship between Pupil Control Ideology and Academic Optimism (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael J.


    This study investigates the relationship between pupil control ideology and academic optimism. Information was generated through responses to a questionnaire emailed to teachers in two school districts in Central New Jersey. The districts were categorized GH, as determined by the State's district factor grouping. The research concludes that there…

  20. Assess the physical activity of pupils aged 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to assess physical activity among pupils in primary schools in Novi Sad, aged 11 years. The sample consisted of 185 participants (90 boys and 95 girls. Data were collected through a questionnaire, and modified Beacke Q questionnaire was used. Physical activity related to school - physical education, sports and leisure were assessed. Frequencies were calculated for all data, and significance of differences in inclusion and type of physical activity of pupils by sex was determined by Chi-square test. In all three dimensions of physical activity, the significant differences between boys and girls (p ≤ 0.05 were established. Boys have a higher level of physical activity compared to girls. Regular attendance of physical education is high, but the class intensity is low, while girls exercise with yet lower intensity compared to the boys. Boys are more active in sports and the most common sports for them are: football and basketball, while for girls those are volleyball and tennis. Pupils involved in sports generally carry out their activities more than 4 hours per week and 9 months per year. Most of their leisure time pupils spend with computers and TV, boys spend more time in sports, while girls spend more time walking.

  1. The Value of Bilingualism in Pupils' Understanding of Scientific Language. (United States)

    Kearsey, John; Turner, Sheila


    Argues that, although some bilingual pupils may be at a disadvantage in understanding scientific language, there may be some circumstances where being bilingual is an advantage in understanding scientific language. Presents evidence of circumstances where being bilingual was an advantage and circumstances where it was a disadvantage in…

  2. Anthropometric assessment of primary one pupils from different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A descriptive survey using multistage sampling technique was conducted among 542 primary one pupils in ASLGA. Schools were divided into Type I, II, and III for low, medium and upper socio-economic classes respectively. Validated semi-structured and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain ...

  3. Classroom furniture design--correlation of pupil and chair dimensions. (United States)

    Domljan, Danijela; Grbac, Ivica; Hadina, Julijana


    The present study aimed at determining the relationship of anthropometric dimensions of pupils from grades 1 to 8 in primary school with the dimensions of school chairs. Two dimensions of the chairs in daily use were evaluated to ascertain whether the fit is sufficient and the effect on pupils' sitting posture. The work included a sample of 556 pupils from three primary schools in Zagreb, Croatia and two types of furniture. Dimensions of school chairs were compared with three anthropometric variables of the pupils. Descriptive statistics were analysed for all variables. These study results have shown that furniture of appropriate dimensions is not available to a large number of students in Croatia. Currently supplied classroom equipment is provided in only two sizes and does not fit the users. It is recommended that task chairs may be acceptable if they are issued in four heights or individually adjustable chairs be introduced in Croatian schools. Furthermore it is strongly recommended that schools actively promote appropriate active sitting behaviour.

  4. autism among primary school pupils in benin metropolis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    Abstract. The study investigated the existence of autism among primary school pupils in. Benin City. The rationale for this study was as a result of the growing concern about autism worldwide. Knowledge about this disorder is still limited. Most parents and teachers still do not understand its diagnosis, symptoms and effects.

  5. Junior Secondary School Pupils' Perception of the Relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study draws on only one of the themes covered by the ROSE instrument and pupils were asked to indicate the extent to which they agree with 18 statements on a 4-point Likert-type scale which goes from 'Disagree' to 'Agree'. The responses were analysed using SPSS and Excel. Descriptive statistics was conducted

  6. Teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to ascertain the influence of teachers' pattern of instruction and location on pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve this objective, two hypotheses were formulated. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of ninety (90) teachers and one thousand ...

  7. Finnish Pupils' Views on the Place of Religion in School (United States)

    Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto


    This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…

  8. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  9. Gender differences in junior secondary school pupils' intention to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purposive sampling method was used to select nine Junior Secondary Schools in the Cape coast Municipality involving 581 pupils. Questionnaires on intention to participate in elective mathematics were used to gather data. The analysis of data involved calculating means and finding significant differences in means of ...

  10. Differences In Pupils\\' Motivation To Learn Mathematics By Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends that mathematics teachers should come up with effective motivational techniques, help learners to set up personal standards that enhance intrinsic motivation and explain the importance of mathematics and its application in society. Keywords: Pupils' Motivation, Mathematics, gender. Journal of ...

  11. Junior Secondary School Pupils' Perception of the Relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    pupils' knowledge, attitudes towards and conceptions of the environmental protection issues. Some studies in children's perception about environmental issues. Empowering learners to be responsible towards the environment should be one of the important goals of science education. Unfortunately, much attention of ...

  12. School absenteeism among primary school pupils in cross river state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is against this background that this study attempted to examine the causes of school absenteeism among primary school pupils in the three senatorial zones of Cross River State and proffer solution to remedy the problem. Two research questions were posed to direct the study. Data were collected with the researcher's ...

  13. Civil Liability of Schools, Teachers and Pupils for Careless Behaviour. (United States)

    Wenham, David


    Identifies elements that (British) courts consider in school or teacher negligence cases. Reviews significant case law establishing liability of schools and teachers for harm sustained by pupils and children's personal liability for careless acts leading to personal harm. Discusses implications of a recent child negligence case. (Contains 14…

  14. The South African Military Nursing College Pupil Enrolled Nurses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 6, 2013 ... This work is licensed under the. Creative Commons. Attribution License. The study focused on the clinical learning experiences of Pupil Enrolled Nurses ..... Original Research doi:10.4102/hsag.v18i1.611 in the military health service and public health institutions. The aim is also to ...

  15. Indoor environment and pupils' health in primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan


    the associations between indoor environmental quality in Dutch schools and pupils' health, also taking into account the children's home environment and personal factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 11 classrooms in 11 different schools in the Netherlands. The study included exposure measurements...

  16. Engaging Pupils in Decision-Making about Biodiversity Conservation Issues (United States)

    Grace, Marcus; Byrne, Jenny


    Our pupils' generation will eventually have the daunting responsibility of making decisions about local and global biodiversity. School provides an early opportunity for them to enter into formal discussion about the science and values associated with biodiversity conservation; but the crowded curriculum offers little time for such activities.…

  17. Towards Scientific Literacy for Basic School Pupils: Which Profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 30, 2005 ... Towards Scientific Literacy for Basic School Pupils: Which Profile Dimensions are Emphasised in the Ghanaian Basic Science. Curricula? ... rapid global scientific and technological age. ... the most important profile dimension in teaching, learning and assessment at the primary school level. The JSS ...

  18. Carriage rate of Neisseria meningitides among pupils of islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a cross-sectional study that determined the carriage rate of Neisseria meningitides among pupils of Islamic boarding schools (Tsangaya Almajirai) in Kano, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were randomly collected from 150 children aged 5 years to 10 years and above from three selected Tsangaya Almajiri schools in ...

  19. Effects of Bilingual Teaching Strategy on Pupils' Achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After a careful analytical observation, Primary Education which is the foundation upon which further education is built is considered not to be at its best presently in Nigeria. The mode of instruction used by teachers of Mathematics (being a core subject) seems to be contributory to the performance of pupils in primary schools ...

  20. Applying a workbook at Aikido lessons when teaching younger pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova O. P.


    Full Text Available the article is devoted to creating the structure and the contents of a workbook for the first year children learning Aikido. The results prove the effectiveness of using the workbook: children learn the material successfully, younger pupils get enough theoretical and practical Aikido skills during the course of this martial art.

  1. A Comparison of Middle School Teachers' Pupil Control Ideology (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Garner, Arthur E.


    Compares pupil control ideology--discipline policy--of middle school classroom teachers with the intent of finding what attributes are needed for middle school teachers and the particular type classroom environment that facilitates optimum learning conditions for middle school children. (Author/RK)

  2. Radio listening habits of pupils of Nomadic Pastoralists and Migrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to integrate Nigeria with other nations in the world that have achieved landmark results in Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) innovation necessitated this study on radio listening habits of pupils of nomadic pastoralists and migrant fisherfolks in Nigeria. The study was carried out in four pastoralists' states of Borno, ...

  3. Perceptions of elementary school teachers of their pupils\\' eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the significant roles that school teachers are expected to play in school eye health programmes, their perceptions on their pupils' eye health have not been adequately determined. Objective: The study aims to ascertain the perceptions of elementary school teachers in Ilorin, Nigeria, of some factors that ...

  4. Indoor environment and pupils' health in primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan


    Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess...

  5. Family Integrants Obstructing Pupils' School Attendance and Girl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is hinged on finding out the family integrants obstructing pupils' school attendance, the girl – child education and proffering solution to it via counsellors' strategies. The samples were three hundred (300) parents and twenty (20) counsellors. This brought the total sample to three hundred and twenty (320).

  6. Guided Reading: Young Pupils' Perspectives on Classroom Practice (United States)

    Hanke, Veronica


    Guided reading is widely perceived to be tricky in English primary schools; prior research has found difficulties with teacher interpretation and implementation. The study reported here suggests that to understand the problems associated with it we should also take into account pupils' perspectives on their guided reading lessons. In this case,…

  7. Pupils' Fear in the Classroom: Portraits from Palestine and England (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Affouneh, Saida


    This article explores the concept of fear related to the authoritarian classroom and how children express its influence on their learning. Its investigations draw on the comments of four classes of primary-age pupils, two from a school near London, England, and two from boys' and girls' schools in the West Bank, Palestine. It is written by one…

  8. Brief Report Teachers' work as appreciated by pupils, parents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deviation of 6.2 years. The teachers believed that their work was appreciated by pupils, parents, department heads and principals. Being appreciated for what one does contributes to job satisfaction which in turn leads to a high level of job productivity and retention. Journal of Psychology in Africa 2004, 14(1): 79–82 ...

  9. Timewise : Improving pupils' understanding of historical time in primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot-Reuvekamp, M.J.


    The understanding of historical time is an essential aim for the subject of history. However, evaluations in the Netherlands show that that too few pupils at the end of primary school, reach a sufficient understanding of historical time, despite the implementation of the ten-era curriculum (2006),

  10. school absenteeism among primary school pupils in cross river state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    children and/or wards should be counselled on the effect of absenteeism on school performance and its long term consequences on national development. KEYWORDS: School Absenteeism, Pupils, Primary School, National Development, Cross River. INTRODUCTION ..... Use of substance and cannabis. 164. 51.3. 156.

  11. Primary Education in Vietnam and Pupil Online Engagement (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thi; Naguib, Raouf N. G.; Das, Ashish K.; Papathomas, Michail; Vallar, Edgar A.; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Santos, Gil Nonato; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Nguyen, Viet Anh


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the disparities in social awareness and use of the internet between urban and rural school children in the North of Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 525 pupils, aged 9-11 years old, randomly selected from seven urban and rural schools, who are internet users, participated in the…

  12. Co-creation of Innovations in ICT based service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Henten, Anders


    Innovations in services often emanate from service encounters (i.e. the touch points between the service producers and the customers). Two different types of service encounters are dealt with: face-to-face and ICT-based service encounters. The aim of the chapter is to examine the specific...... conditions for innovations from ICT-based service encounters. The service encounter research tradition is mostly concerned with customer satisfaction. The perspective of the present chapter is on innovations in the service encounter. The specific contribution of the chapter is to establish a conceptual...

  13. Close Encounters of Asteroids and Comets to Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.; Solem, J.C.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors find by numerical simulations that the elongated-potato shape that is characteristic of Earth-crossing asteroids (ECAs) is likely the result of previous close tidal encounters with Earth. Some meteoroids graze the atmosphere of Earth before returning to space (at reduced speed). They used a spherical atmospheric model to study such grazers to find the condition under which they are captured into gravitationally bound orbits around Earth. They find that for about every thousand iron asteroids that hit the Earth, one is captured into a gravitational-bound orbit. Some fraction of these captured objects will have their orbits stabilized for many revolutions by tidal encounters with the Moon and the sun. They have also studied how the damage produced by such grazing and near-grazing asteroids differs from that produced by asteroids that hit Earth more directly.

  14. Pupil Selection Segments Urban Comprehensive Schooling in Finland: Composition of School Classes in Pupils' School Performance, Gender, and Ethnicity (United States)

    Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Seppänen, Piia


    The Finnish comprehensive school system is regularly referred to as a uniform and "no-tracking". In this article, we show with novel urban case data in Finland that school performance differed significantly between schools, most strikingly between school classes, and was connected to the school's selectiveness in pupil admission. A…

  15. High-performance 3D waveguide architecture for astronomical pupil-remapping interferometry. (United States)

    Norris, Barnaby; Cvetojevic, Nick; Gross, Simon; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Stewart, Paul N; Charles, Ned; Lawrence, Jon S; Withford, Michael J; Tuthill, Peter


    The detection and characterization of extra-solar planets is a major theme driving modern astronomy. Direct imaging of exoplanets allows access to a parameter space complementary to other detection methods, and potentially the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and surfaces. However achieving the required levels of performance with direct imaging from ground-based telescopes (subject to Earth's turbulent atmosphere) has been extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate a new generation of photonic pupil-remapping devices which build upon the Dragonfly instrument, a high contrast waveguide-based interferometer. This new generation overcomes problems caused by interference from unguided light and low throughput. Closure phase measurement scatter of only ∼ 0.2° has been achieved, with waveguide throughputs of > 70%. This translates to a maximum contrast-ratio sensitivity between star and planet at 1λ/D (1σ detection) of 5.3 × 10(-4) (with a conventional adaptive-optics system) or 1.8 × 10(-4) (with 'extreme-AO'), improving even further when random error is minimized by averaging over multiple exposures. This is an order of magnitude beyond conventional pupil-segmenting interferometry techniques (such as aperture masking), allowing a previously inaccessible part of the star to planet contrast-separation parameter space to be explored.

  16. Being Disoriented: Uncertain Encounters with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Parrey


    Full Text Available Disorienting encounter with disability are those in which the meaning of disability is an open question, and in which our relation to it is questionable. This essay explores the relationship between disability and disorientation on conceptual but also concrete levels. First, I examine the connection between disability and disorientation within disability studies. Second, I provide a preliminary sketch of disorientation through what I call ontic disruption and ontological disorientation. Third, I take up Leder's (1990 articulation of bodily disappearance and embodied dysappearance to address ableist violence. Finally, I develop the notion of dysorientation — a prolonged, persistent or recurrent sense of disorientation — as a useful concept for understanding experiences of ableism but also as a significant meeting point between impairment and disability.

  17. Ethics in the bank internet encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Mattsson, Jan


    the difficulties that customers expressed from an ethical standpoint. Design/methodology/approach – The key problem of the paper is “how does research handle the user's lack of competence in a web-based commercial environment?” The authors illustrate this ethical dilemma with data from a Danish Bank collected......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss some ethical issues in the internet encounter between customer and bank. Empirical data related to the difficulties that customers have when they deal with the bank through internet technology and electronic banking. The authors discuss...... in 2002. The data have been structured by an advanced text analytic method, Pertex (by generation of intentionality of verbal actors from text). Findings – The authors can conclude that the experience of lack of competency in internet banking implies a severe damage on the experience of the ethics...

  18. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism. (United States)

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth


    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical Simulation of a Convective Turbulence Encounter (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hamilton, David W.; Bowles, Roland L.


    A numerical simulation of a convective turbulence event is investigated and compared with observational data. The numerical results show severe turbulence of similar scale and intensity to that encountered during the test flight. This turbulence is associated with buoyant plumes that penetrate the upper-level thunderstorm outflow. The simulated radar reflectivity compares well with that obtained from the aircraft's onboard radar. Resolved scales of motion as small as 50 m are needed in order to accurately diagnose aircraft normal load accelerations. Given this requirement, realistic turbulence fields may be created by merging subgrid-scales of turbulence to a convective-cloud simulation. A hazard algorithm for use with model data sets is demonstrated. The algorithm diagnoses the RMS normal loads from second moments of the vertical velocity field and is independent of aircraft motion.

  20. Focus Groups as Transformative Spiritual Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Moloney PhD


    Full Text Available Focus groups are a valuable method for exploring the construction and negotiation of meanings. In her doctoral research the author explored how Australian women's experiences of menstruation, birth, and spirituality are invested with meaning and how that meaning influences and shapes those experiences. The focus group has been described as a potentially liminal space, which enables the discussion of taboo subjects by breaking the ice and giving people permission to comment. In addition, she discovered that the groups could be occasions of empowerment and transformation for both participants and researcher. In a way that far exceeded her expectations, the group format was ideally suited to feminist research and the organic inquiry methodology she used. Some groups became deeply spiritual encounters that were nourishing and transformative for all. This article explores how focus groups can be vehicles of spiritual transformation, examining one group in particular to highlight the points raised.

  1. Modifications in children's goals when encountering obstacles to conflict resolution. (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Asher, Steven R


    Previous studies have demonstrated that children's goals are associated with their success in peer relationships. The current study extends earlier findings by examining changes in children's goals during hypothetical conflicts. Participants were 252 children ages 9 to 12 years old (133 boys, 119 girls). As predicted, children's goals changed significantly when they encountered obstacles to conflict resolution, and these changes were predictive of their subsequent strategy choices. Both aggressive- and submissive-rejected children were more likely to evidence antisocial changes in their goals, including an increased desire to retaliate. They also showed reluctance to forego instrumental objectives. Other findings highlighted the need to investigate the combinations of goals children pursue as predictors of their strategies and the quality of their peer relationships.

  2. Software Integration in Multi-scale Simulations: the PUPIL System (United States)

    Torras, J.; Deumens, E.; Trickey, S. B.


    for the potential user. A general main program allows the management of every package with a special communication protocol between their interfaces following the directives introduced by the user which are stored in an XML structured file. The initial prototype of the PUPIL (Program for User Packages Interfacing and Linking) system has been done using Java as a fast, easy prototyping object oriented (OO) language. In order to test it, we have applied this prototype to a previously studied problem, the fracture of a silica nanorod. We did so joining two different packages to do a QM/MD calculation. The results show the potential for this software system to do different kind of simulations and its simplicity of maintenance.

  3. Separability Filter for Localizing Abnormal Pupil: Identification Criteria of Input Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Ida Rosanti


    Full Text Available Separability filter method is a reliable method for pupil detection. However, so far this method is implemented for detecting pupil of normal eye, while for abnormal eye such as cataract and glaucoma patients; they have different characteristics of pupil such as color, shape and radius size of pupil. In this paper we propose to use separability filter for detecting pupil of abnormal patients with different characteristics. We faced a problem about radius size, shape and color of pupil; therefore we implemented Hough Transform, Blob area and Brightness for identifying input images before applying separability filter. The experiment results show that we can increase performance of pupil detection for abnormal eye to be 95.65%.

  4. Academic Procrastination of Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Ribič Hederih


    Full Text Available Procrastination is a trait and/or a form of behavior that denotes an individual’s delay in an activity which should be done, and which causes discomfort. In the study we wished to determine the differences between high school students regarding gender, educational programme and learning success of the previous school year in three factors. On a sample of 284 high school students of different Slovenian secondary schools, we found that on average boys show statistically significantly more shortage of learning self-discipline than girls, while girls, on average, significantly more discomfort than boys. Comparison of secondary school students between programmes showed that, on average, gimnazija students show significantly more learning self-discipline than students in secondary technical education. The comparison in relation to different levels of learning success at the end of the previous school year and the factors of procrastination showed, however, no statistically significant differences.

  5. Guest-Host Encounters in Diaspora-Heritage Tourism: The Taglit-Birthright Israel Mifgash (Encounter) (United States)

    Sasson, Theodore; Mittelberg, David; Hecht, Shahar; Saxe, Leonard


    More than 300,000 diaspora Jewish young adults and tens of thousands of their Israeli peers have participated in structured, cross-cultural encounters--"mifgashim"--in the context of an experiential education program known as Taglit-Birthright Israel. Drawing on field observations, interviews, and surveys, the formal and informal…

  6. A Training Programme on Managing Science Class Interactions: Its Impact on Teachers' Practises and on Their Pupils' Achievement (United States)

    Morge, Ludovic; Toczek, Marie-Christine; Chakroun, Nadia


    This research evaluates the impact of a training programme on trainee physics and chemistry teachers, focusing on the way pupils' explanations are dealt with during teacher-pupil interaction. The population is composed of 10 teachers and 303 pupils, from which the experimental sample was taken (8 teachers and 172 pupils). The qualitative analysis…

  7. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters


    Lee, Linda


    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  8. Assessing the impact of a school-based latrine cleaning and handwashing program on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial. (United States)

    Caruso, Bethany A; Freeman, Matthew C; Garn, Joshua V; Dreibelbis, Robert; Saboori, Shadi; Muga, Richard; Rheingans, Richard


    Improving school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions reduces pupil absence and illness. However, these benefits may depend on the conditions of the latrines and availability of consumables. We sought to determine whether a low-cost, policy-relevant, environmental-level latrine cleaning intervention could improve latrine cleanliness, increase its use and reduce absenteeism. In a three-arm, cluster-randomized trial we assessed absence via periodical roll-call among 17 564 pupils in 60 schools that had previously received WASH improvements as part of the SWASH+ project. Latrine conditions and use were also assessed using structured observation. Latrine cleanliness increased significantly during the post-intervention period among schools receiving the latrine cleaning package compared to controls, as did handwashing with soap. We found no difference in latrine use and absence across arms. The additive impact of cleaning may not have been strong enough to impact absence above and beyond reductions attributable to the original WASH infrastructure improvements and basic hygiene education the schools previously received. Improving latrine conditions is important for the dignity and well-being of pupils, and investments and strategies are necessary to ensure that school toilets are clean and pupil-friendly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Innovation from the ICT-based service encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders


    The pupose of the paper is to develop a framework for analyzing the dynamics of innovations emanating from the ICT-based service encounters. Many innovations are based on the direct encounter between employees and customers, and the paper aims to extend the analysis of such encounters to ICT...

  10. Teachers' Inclusive Strategies to Accommodate 5th Grade Pupils' Crossing of Cultural Borders in Two Greek Multicultural Science Classrooms (United States)

    Piliouras, Panagiotis; Evangelou, Odysseas


    The demographic changes in Greek schools underline the need for reconsidering the way in which migrant pupils move from their everyday culture into the culture of school science (a process known as "cultural border crossing"). Migrant pupils might face difficulties when they attempt to transcend cultural borders and this may influence their progress in science as well as the construction of suitable academic identities as a means of promoting scientific literacy. In the research we present in this paper, adopting the socioculturally driven thesis that learning can be viewed and studied as a meaning-making, collaborative inquiry process, we implemented an action research program (school year 2008-2009) in cooperation with two teachers, in a primary school of Athens with 85% migrant pupils. We examined whether the two teachers, who became gradually acquainted with cross-cultural pedagogy during the project, act towards accommodating the crossing of cultural borders by implementing a variety of inclusive strategies in science teaching. Our findings reveal that both teachers utilized suitable cross-border strategies (strategies concerning the establishment of a collaborative inquiry learning environment, and strategies that were in accordance with a cross-border pedagogy) to help students cross smoothly from their "world" to the "world of science". A crucial key to the teachers' expertise was their previous participation in collaborative action research (school years 2004-2006), in which they analyzed their own discourse practices during science lessons in order to establish more collaborative inquiry environments.

  11. Pupil interest in physics: A survey in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Lavonen


    Full Text Available Factors interrelating with interest in physics learning are gender, perceived relevance, contents and contexts of physics, and teaching methods. Finnish ninth grade secondary school pupil interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international ROSE project. The sample consisted of 3626 pupils (median age 15 in 61 schools. Means of all items that belong to school physics context for both girls and boys were under the middle of the scale. The most interesting things (especially for girls were connected with human being and the less interesting (especially for girls were connected in artefacts and technological processes. Astronomical context was rather interesting for both genders. The main message of the study is that interesting new curricular approaches and textbooks can be developed by combining technological and human or astronomical contexts.

  12. Fractal images induce fractal pupil dilations and constrictions. (United States)

    Moon, P; Muday, J; Raynor, S; Schirillo, J; Boydston, C; Fairbanks, M S; Taylor, R P


    Fractals are self-similar structures or patterns that repeat at increasingly fine magnifications. Research has revealed fractal patterns in many natural and physiological processes. This article investigates pupillary size over time to determine if their oscillations demonstrate a fractal pattern. We predict that pupil size over time will fluctuate in a fractal manner and this may be due to either the fractal neuronal structure or fractal properties of the image viewed. We present evidence that low complexity fractal patterns underlie pupillary oscillations as subjects view spatial fractal patterns. We also present evidence implicating the autonomic nervous system's importance in these patterns. Using the variational method of the box-counting procedure we demonstrate that low complexity fractal patterns are found in changes within pupil size over time in millimeters (mm) and our data suggest that these pupillary oscillation patterns do not depend on the fractal properties of the image viewed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing Teachers' Capacity for Teaching Pupils' Initial Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The t-test results showed a significant difference between the pre- and post-test scores of the pupils and this difference was attributed to the treatment given to the teachers t- calculated value of 24.6 and t-value of 1.984 at 0.05 level of significance with degree of freedom 98. Also the t-test t-test comparison of the mean ...

  14. Prevalence and pattern of intestinal parasites among pupils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pupils from the public schools were 17.23 times more likely to have intestinal parasitic infestation compared to those from private schools (OR =17.23, 95% CI = 10.6-28.01, p = <0.0001). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most frequent isolate in both the public (62.8%) and private (66.7%) schools. The prevalence of multiple ...

  15. Pupil size following dark adaptation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezovsky A.


    Full Text Available According to the equivalent light hypothesis, molecular defects in the photoreceptor lead to a continuous activation of the photoreceptor cascade in a manner equivalent to real light. The consequences in diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP are as disruptive to the cells as real light. Two forms of the equivalent light hypothesis can be distinguished: strong - mutations in rhodopsin or other cascade proteins in some forms of RP continuously excite the visual phototransduction cascade; weak - disruption of outer segments in all patients with RP eliminates circulating dark current and blocks neurotransmitter release in a manner similar to real light. Both forms of the equivalent light hypothesis predict that pupils of patients with RP will be constricted like those of normal subjects in the light. The purpose of this study was to test the equivalent light hypothesis by determining whether steady-state pupil diameter following full dark adaptation is abnormally small in any of a sample of patients with RP. Thirty-five patients with RP and 15 normal subjects were tested. Direct steady-state pupillometric measures were obtained from one eye in a full-field dome after 45 min of dark adaptation by videotaping the pupil with an infrared camera. Mean pupil diameter in the dark was comparable (t = -0.15, P = 0.88 between patients with RP (6.85 ± 0.58 mm and normal subjects (6.82 ± 0.76 mm. The results of the present study are clearly counter to the prediction of the second (weaker form of the equivalent light hypothesis.

  16. The influence of playing computer games on pupil's development


    Pospíšilová, Lenka


    This thesis is about the effects of playing computer games on pupils and students behavior. It is divided into a theoretical and an investigative part. The theoretical part is dedicated to historical development of technologies and principals of game systems in relationship to technical progress. It adverts to psychological, social and biological effects of long time, intensive playing of games. It shows positive and negative effects ofthis activity. The work analyses typical pathological eve...

  17. Forecasting transient sleep episodes by pupil size variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andy


    Full Text Available The ability to predict when a person is about to fall asleep is an important challenge in recent biomedical research and has various possible applications. Sleepiness and fatigue are known to increase pupillary fluctuations and the occurrence of eye blinks. In this study, we evaluated the use of the pupil diameter to forecast sleep episodes of short duration (>1s. We conducted multi-channel physiological and pupillometric recordings (diameter, gaze position in 91 healthy volunteers at rest in supine position. Although they were instructed to keep their eyes open, short sleep episodes were detected in 20 participants (16 males, age: 26.2±5.6 years, 53 events in total. Before each sleep event, pupil size was extracted in a window of 30s (without additional sleep event. Mean pupil diameter and its standard deviation, Shannon entropy and wavelet entropy in the first half (15s were compared to the second half of the window (15s. Linear and nonlinear measures demonstrated an elevation of pupil size variability before sleep onset. Most obviously, WE and SD increased significantly from 0.054±0.056 and 0.38±0.16 mm to 0.113±0.103 (T(102=2.44, p<0.001 and 0.46±0.18 mm (T(104=3.67, p<0.05 in the second half of each analysis window. We were able to identify 83% of the pre-sleep segments by linear discriminant analysis. Although our data was acquired in an experimental condition, it suggests that pupillary unrest might be a suitable predictor of events related to transient sleep or inattentiveness. In the future, we are going to involve the other recorded physiological signals into the analysis.

  18. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils. (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Magee, Linda; Osborne, Susan; Hall, Linda K; Whorwell, Peter J


    As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. 620 pupils (aged 11-17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1%) males, 322 (51.9%) females) at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an 'experiment' to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p color was chosen by 48.9% of normal and only 18.8% of depressed pupils (p colors which reached significance for sport and music. This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  19. Teaching Foreign Languages to Pupils with Specific Learning Disability


    VOLDÁNOVÁ, Veronika


    This diploma thesis deals with the topic of specific learning disability. In the theoretical part I define the term specific learning disability and I mention the related terms. I deal with the history, types and causes of specific learning disability, further I describe the possibilities of diagnostics and re-education concerning specific learning disability. I also attend to the situation of a pupil in the family and school background. The main attention is especially paid to teaching forei...

  20. The pupil is faster than the corneal reflection (CR): are video based pupil-CR eye trackers suitable for studying detailed dynamics of eye movements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, I.T.C.; Holmqvist, K.; Nyström, Marcus


    Most modern video eye trackers use the p-CR (pupil minus CR) technique to deal with small relative movements between the eye tracker camera and the eye. We question whether the p-CR technique is appropriate to investigate saccade dynamics. In two experiments we investigated the dynamics of pupil, CR

  1. On mini-halo encounters with stars (United States)

    Green, Anne M.; Goodwin, Simon P.


    We study, analytically and numerically, the energy input into dark matter mini-haloes by interactions with stars. We find that the fractional energy input in simulations of Plummer spheres agrees well with the impulse approximation for small and large impact parameters, with a rapid transition between these two regimes. Using the impulse approximation, the fractional energy input at large impact parameters is fairly independent of the mass and density profiles of the mini-halo; however, low-mass mini-haloes experience a greater fractional energy input in close encounters. We formulate a fitting function which encodes these results and use it to estimate the disruption time-scales of mini-haloes, taking into account the stellar velocity dispersion and mass distribution. For mini-haloes with mass on typical orbits which pass through the disc, we find that the estimated disruption time-scales are independent of mini-halo mass, and are of the order of the age of the Milky Way. For more massive mini-haloes, the estimated disruption time-scales increase rapidly with increasing mass.

  2. Aging and Osteoarthritis: An Inevitable Encounter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hügle


    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a major health burden of our time. Age is the most prominent risk factor for the development and progression of OA. The mechanistic influence of aging on OA has different facets. On a molecular level, matrix proteins such as collagen or proteoglycans are modified, which alters cartilage function. Collagen cross-linking within the bone results in impaired plasticity and increased stiffness. Synovial or fat tissue, menisci but also ligaments and muscles play an important role in the pathogenesis of OA. In the elderly, sarcopenia or other causes of muscle atrophy are frequently encountered, leading to a decreased stability of the joint. Inflammation in form of cellular infiltration of synovial tissue or subchondral bone and expression of inflammatory cytokines is more and more recognized as trigger of OA. It has been demonstrated that joint movement can exhibit anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Therefore physical activity or physiotherapy in the elderly should be encouraged, also in order to increase the muscle mass. A reduced stem cell capacity in the elderly is likely associated with a decrease of repair mechanisms of the musculoskeletal system. New treatment strategies, for example with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC are investigated, despite clear evidence for their efficacy is lacking.

  3. Thermal fluctuation problems encountered in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelineau, O.; Sperandio, M.; Martin, P.; Ricard, J.B.; Martin, L.; Bougault, A.


    One of the most significant problems of LMFBRs deals with thermal fluctuations. The main reason is that LMFBRs operate with sodium coolant at very different temperatures which leads to the existence of several areas of transition between hot and cold sodium. These transitions areas which are the critical points, maybe found in the reactor block as well as in the secondary and auxiliary loops. The characteristics of these thermal fluctuations are not easy to quantify because of their complex (random) behaviour, and often demand the use of thermalhydraulic mock-up tests. A good knowledge of these phenomena is essential because of the potential high level of damage they can induce on structures. Two typical thermal fluctuation problems encountered on operation reactors are described. They were not originally anticipated at the design stage of the former Phenix and the latter Superphenix reactors. Description and the analyses performed to describe the damaging process are explained. A well known thermal fluctuation problem is presented. It is pointed out how the feedback from the damages observed on operating reactors is used to prevent the components from any high cycle fatigue

  4. Close encounters of the prototype kind

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. Close encounters of the prototype kind CERN is building a new control centre for the operation of its entire accelerator complex and technical infrastructure. The prototype console for the new centre has just been installed and tested. The prototype of the control consoles that will be at the heart of the future CERN Control Centre (CCC) has just been installed in the Roy Billinge Room in Building 354. Until now, there have been four separate control rooms for the CERN accelerators and technical infrastructure. The CCC, which will be located on the Prévessin site, will bring them all together in a single room. The Centre will consist of 40 consoles for four different areas (LHC, SPS, PS complex and technical infrastructure). The prototype was tested by the technicians for a month. Following installation and con...

  5. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Pendergrast


    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.

  6. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters (United States)

    Pendergrast, Robert A.


    Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations. PMID:28300761

  7. LHC experiences close encounters with UFOs

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    On 29 May, yet another record was set as 1092 bunches per beam were injected into the LHC, hitting a peak luminosity of 1.26x1033 cm-2 s-1. While running at 3.5 TeV each beam now packs a total energy of over 70 MJ – equivalent to a TGV travelling at a 70 kph.   Operators in the LHC Control Centre happily show off their display screens after succesfully injecting 1092 bunches injected into the machine for the first time.  As the total beam intensity has been pushed up, the LHC has encountered a number of related problems, such as the so-called UFOs (Unidentified Falling Objects). These are thought to be dust particles falling through the beam, causing localized beam loss. The losses can push nearby beam loss monitors over the threshold and dump the beam. This is more of an annoyance than a danger for the LHC, but UFOs do reduce the operational efficiency of the machine. Despite this, the luminosity delivered to the experiments has steadily increased. On three occasions there ha...

  8. Pupil size dynamics during fixation impact the accuracy and precision of video-based gaze estimation. (United States)

    Choe, Kyoung Whan; Blake, Randolph; Lee, Sang-Hun


    Video-based eye tracking relies on locating pupil center to measure gaze positions. Although widely used, the technique is known to generate spurious gaze position shifts up to several degrees in visual angle because pupil centration can change without eye movement during pupil constriction or dilation. Since pupil size can fluctuate markedly from moment to moment, reflecting arousal state and cognitive processing during human behavioral and neuroimaging experiments, the pupil size artifact is prevalent and thus weakens the quality of the video-based eye tracking measurements reliant on small fixational eye movements. Moreover, the artifact may lead to erroneous conclusions if the spurious signal is taken as an actual eye movement. Here, we measured pupil size and gaze position from 23 human observers performing a fixation task and examined the relationship between these two measures. Results disclosed that the pupils contracted as fixation was prolonged, at both small (estimation, in both the ellipse and the centroid methods of pupil tracking. When pupil size was regressed out, the accuracy and reliability of gaze position measurements were substantially improved, enabling differentiation of 0.1° difference in eye position. We confirmed the presence of systematic changes in pupil size, again at both small and large scales, and its tight relationship with gaze position estimates when observers were engaged in a demanding visual discrimination task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary Factors Associated To Obesity In Ahwaz Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosty A.R; Tabatabaei M


    Full Text Available Background: Increase in obesity prevalence in recent years are associated to genetics as well environmental and behavioral factors. Change in dietary patterns including fatty and high density energy foods consumption have been reported to be very important. This study aimed to determine dietary factors (daily energy and macronutrient intakes, energy percentage of macronutrient, energy and macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight, frequency of cola, natural fruit juice drinking, dairy products except cheese, tomato chips, puff, chocolate and fast food consumption and eating speed associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils. Materials and Methods: Using two stage cluster sampling from 35 Ahwaz primary schools, all 10-11y students who had a BMI 95th percentile of Hosseini et al. (1999 reference, were identified as obese (n=150 and 150 same age and gender pupils (having BMI0.05. macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight were significantly lower in obese group (p0.05. Obese students used to eat faster (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, high intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, tomato chips and puff and high eating speed were associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils.

  10. Olanzapine Overdose in a Pin Point Pupil with Altered Sensorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Midha


    Full Text Available Background:Olanzapine is a highly tolerable and easily affordable atypical antipsychotic drug which has been commonly prescribed in both inpatient and outpatient settings for several mental disorders. Olanzapine overdose is commonly seen in psychiatric patients, who attempt suicide by intoxicating themselves with their own prescribed medications. Increased olanzapine use is associated with increased incidence of overdosing. Case Presentation:We are reporting a case of olanzapine overdosage as a cause of pinpoint pupils and altered sensorium with exclusion of other differentials. The mainstay of managementof olanzapine overdose is general supportive and symptomatic measures. Discussion: Pinpoint pupils with altered sensorium and agitation are always an alarming situation for a clinician, because of differentials like organophosphorus poisoning, pontine hemorrhage and opium overdosing. Due to olanzapine overdosage, similar clinical picture can be confusing in the emergency department and early identification of such cases is helpful to decrease the risk of fatality. Conclusion: This case highlights the significance of olanzapine overdosing as a differential diagnosis for patients presented with altered sensorium and pinpoint pupils in the emergency department. Olanzapine overdosage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, appropriate history, assessment and early diagnosis are very useful for the better outcome.

  11. Freqency of depressive symptoms among grammar school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Vesel


    Full Text Available On a sample of 180 pupils (90 boys, 90 girls of Grammar school Kočevje a frequency of depressive symptoms among adolescents has been researched as well as the impact of gender, learning achievements and age on a depressive reaction phenomenon. A Depressive Moods Scale (Vesel, 1999 has been used, which is very reliable (0,93. A factor analysis has shown that it measures one common factor - depressive reactions, which illustrate 31 % variance. It has been established that one third of pupils are experiencing depressive symptoms frequently or very frequently. Disappointment with oneself because of one's own mistakes is the most frequent, then concentration difficulties and rambling of thoughts, which have been frequently or very frequently experienced by 40 % of pupils. Among five groups of depressive symptoms, cognitive and emotional ones are the most frequent. A high score on the Depressive Moods Scale has been achieved by 10 % of boys and 32 % of girls included in our sample, which shows that girls have more difficulties in experiencing depressive reactions, while learning achievements as well as age do not seem to have any impact on differences in experiencing depressive reactions.

  12. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging. (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris


    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  13. School-based theories of pupil assessment: a case study. (United States)

    Veal, M L


    Case study design was used in this investigation of the pupil assessment theories of two middle school physical education teachers whose program was identified as a good program in which pupil assessment was taking place. An assumption guiding the study was that teachers' actions are rational and are designed to produce desired results. Therefore, a comparison is made only between two theories of action (espoused and enacted) rather than between theory and practice. Informal and semistructured interviews were employed to elicit teachers' espoused theories, and enacted theories were identified during field visits over a semester in which classes were observed and school documents examined. Teachers' theories of assessment are identified for the categories of participation, effort, and improvement; grading; written tests; fitness testing; performance tests; and formative recordkeeping. Espoused and enacted theories are then examined for congruency. The highest level of incongruency was found in the areas of performance tests and formative recordkeeping. Barriers to the use of pupil assessment techniques in this program include organizational, knowledge, and contextual factors. Change in the assessment practices of secondary teachers may be facilitated, however, through the identification and examination of teachers' theories of assessment by both preservice and inservice teachers.

  14. Pupil behaviour on school buses and potential risk factors for injury: an observational study. (United States)

    Goldman, Sharon; Peleg, Kobi


    To observe pupil behaviour on school buses in Israel and identify hazards as a basis for improving school bus safety. Data on student, bus driver and chaperone behaviours and on hazards associated with school buses, bus loading zones and bus stops were collected during an observational study conducted on school buses in rural communities in Israel. This report focuses on observations of student behaviour during school bus rides. Future reports will discuss the other findings. Student behaviours were assessed by means of chi(2) tests and logistic regression models. Observations were made on 362 rides on 125 buses on which 11 000 pupils travelled to and from school. Seatbelt use among the pupils was limited: on 23% of the rides all pupils fastened seatbelts, while on 42% none did. Seatbelt use was more frequent among primary school pupils than among older pupils. Pupil behaviours, such as rowdiness, noisiness, conflicts between pupils and not remaining seated were observed. These and other unsafe behaviours were more frequent on afternoon bus rides (odds ratio, OR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.1-5.3), on routes with 5+ bus stops (OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 2.5-6.5) and on rides with primary school pupils (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9). Without enforcement, government regulations and seatbelt availability on school buses are not enough to ensure seatbelt usage among pupils. Bus drivers cannot be expected to enforce seatbelt use and deal with pupil misconduct while also driving safely. Innovative strategies for improving pupil behaviour on school buses are needed to increase pupil safety.

  15. Spatial capture-recapture models for search-encounter data (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, Marc; Guelat, Jerome


    1. Spatial capture–recapture models make use of auxiliary data on capture location to provide density estimates for animal populations. Previously, models have been developed primarily for fixed trap arrays which define the observable locations of individuals by a set of discrete points. 2. Here, we develop a class of models for 'search-encounter' data, i.e. for detections of recognizable individuals in continuous space, not restricted to trap locations. In our hierarchical model, detection probability is related to the average distance between individual location and the survey path. The locations are allowed to change over time owing to movements of individuals, and individual locations are related formally by a model describing individual activity or home range centre which is itself regarded as a latent variable in the model. We provide a Bayesian analysis of the model in WinBUGS, and develop a custom MCMC algorithm in the R language. 3. The model is applied to simulated data and to territory mapping data for the Willow Tit from the Swiss Breeding Bird Survey MHB. While the observed density was 15 territories per nominal 1 km2 plot of unknown effective sample area, the model produced a density estimate of 21∙12 territories per square km (95% posterior interval: 17–26). 4. Spatial capture–recapture models are relevant to virtually all animal population studies that seek to estimate population size or density, yet existing models have been proposed mainly for conventional sampling using arrays of traps. Our model for search-encounter data, where the spatial pattern of searching can be arbitrary and may change over occasions, greatly expands the scope and utility of spatial capture–recapture models.

  16. Muslim women and medical students in the clinical encounter. (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Al Ahbabi, Salma; Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansoori, Muneera; Al Yahyaei, Fatima; Bernsen, Roos


    Increasingly, male medical students report being refused by female patients, particularly in obstetrics and gynaecology, which is impacting on recruitment into the discipline. However, little has been documented in terms of Muslim patients and medical students in the clinical consultation. Female Emirati nationals (n = 218) attending out-patient clinics at a public hospital in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE), were interviewed by medical students. Participants were provided with four hypothetical clinical scenarios (three personal, one concerning a pre-pubertal child) and asked whether they would allow male and female students to be present at a consultation, take a history or perform an examination. They were also canvassed about their past experiences with medical students and their social responsibility to contribute towards the training of Emirati doctors. Significant differences were recorded in terms of female versus male student involvement for all activities (P problems, patients would generally refuse male students. More than 50% of interviewees would not allow a male student to examine their face. Students of either gender could, however, examine their 8-year-old child. Although 47% of the women had had previous clinical encounters with students, in only 58% of consultations had the attending doctor asked their permission. Despite this, the women had generally felt comfortable, although satisfaction decreased with increasing age (P = 0.088). Almost 90% of the women believed that Emiratis had a social responsibility to contribute towards the training of Emirati doctors, but this decreased with increasing income (P = 0.004). As many medical students will encounter Muslim patients during their training, they need to be sensitive to religious and cultural issues, particularly for personal examinations. In contexts where most patients are Muslim, alternative options (e.g. manikins, international rotations) may be required for male students. In the UAE

  17. Pupil Dilation in the Simon Task as a Marker of Conflict Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eVan Steenbergen


    Full Text Available Cognitive demands in response conflict paradigms trigger negative affect and avoidance behavior. However, not all response conflict studies show increases in physiological indices of emotional arousal, such as pupil diameter. In contrast to earlier null-results, this study shows for the first time that small (about 0.02 mm conflict-related pupil dilation can be observed in a Simon task when stimuli do not introduce a light reflex. Results show that response-conflict in Simon trials induces both pupil dilation and reaction-time costs. Moreover, sequential analyses reveal that pupil dilation mirrors the conflict-adaptation pattern observed in reaction time. Although single-trial regression analyses indicated that pupil dilation is likely to reflect more than one process at the same time, in general our findings imply that pupil dilation can be used as an indirect marker of conflict processing.

  18. Pupils' and teachers' experiences of school-based physical education: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Lewis, Kiara


    To explore pupils' and teachers' experiences of physical education (PE). A qualitative investigation employing semistructured interviews. Self Determination Theory was used as a guiding theory and Template Analysis was used to analyse the data. A secondary school in the North East of England. 14 pupils (aged 13 and 14, boys and girls) with a range of self-perceived competencies regarding PE and four PE teachers of the pupils (3 male, 1 female). (1) Attitudes and perceptions of PE pupils regarding their experiences of compulsory school PE lessons. (2) PE teachers' experiences of teaching PE. Key results from pupils and teachers suggest pupils enjoy participation in PE when they feel competent, in control and supported by others. Feeling competent depended on (1) the activity within PE and (2) the pupils perceived physical capabilities/aptitude. Feeling in control related to (1) having a choice of activities, (2) being able to set exertion levels and (3) control over clothes worn while taking part. Relationships within pupil groups and between pupils and teachers were perceived as important. Teachers could positively influence their pupils' enjoyment by understanding and supporting their personal goals, as opposed to dictating and controlling what they did and for how long, and by promoting a non-threatening atmosphere between pupils. Rising obesity levels and concerns over the fitness of children and young people has returned the focus of PE to its potential as a vehicle for promoting health. This study suggests schools and PE teachers in particular can positively influence the PE experience of both boys and girls by providing more choice of activities and letting pupils make their own decisions based on their personal needs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Learning Through Imaginative Play; A Collaboration of Primary School Pupils and Architecture Students


    Stott, CR; Warren, S


    In 2013 the Leeds School of Architecture’s Project Office [a design and research collaboration of staff and students] was approached by Morley Newlands Primary School to design and construct a play area through which their 550 pupils aged 3 – 11 would learn and develop skills through imaginative play. An innovative process of social engagement between the school pupils and architecture students evolved, creating a playful learning environment which empowered the pupils as patron whilst simult...

  20. The double-edged experience of healthcare encounters among women with endometriosis: A qualitative study. (United States)

    Grundström, Hanna; Alehagen, Siw; Kjølhede, Preben; Berterö, Carina


    To identify and describe the experience of healthcare encounters among women with endometriosis. Endometriosis is a "hidden" chronic gynaecological disease appearing in every 10th woman of fertile age. Different manifestations of pain are the main symptoms, often leading to impaired physical and mental health, and lower quality of life. Previous research on healthcare experiences among women with endometriosis has focused on diagnostic delay and experiences of encountering general practitioners. A qualitative, interpretive, phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed nine women aged 23-55, with a laparoscopy-confirmed diagnosis of endometriosis. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed following the steps of the interpretive phenomenological approach. Two themes were identified in the interview transcripts: being treated with ignorance and being acknowledged. The essence: "the double-edged experience of healthcare encounters" emerged from the themes. The women's experience was double-edged as it involved contradictory feelings: the encounters were experienced as both destructive or constructive. On the one hand, the destructive side was characterised by ignorance, exposure and disbelief. On the other hand, the constructive side made the women feel acknowledged and confirmed, boosting their self-esteem. The new and important aspects of the findings are that the experience of healthcare encounters is for the first time expressed as double-edged: both destructive and constructive. The experience was of specific importance as it affected the women's perceptions of themselves and of their bodies. The information about the constructive side of the experience is of clinical valuable for all healthcare professionals (nurses, midwives and doctors) encountering these women, as it provides a new level of understanding of the experiences. The findings demonstrate both psychological and practical aspects that can help professionals to

  1. Due Regard Encounter Model Version 1.0 (United States)


    Note that no existing model covers encoun- ters between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters...encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12NM. 2 TABLE 1 Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder...Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional Unconventional CONUS IFR C C U X VFR C U U X Offshore IFR C C U X VFR C U

  2. Encountering whales: How encounter rates became the basis for managing whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith


    Full Text Available Declining rates of encountering whales, including both sighting and catching, were noted by whalers throughout the 19th century, and these declines became the first indication that whaling was adversely affecting whale abundance. The interpretation of declines in both sighting and catch rates proved to be a difficult scientific task. Satisfactory quantitative methods of interpreting changes in whale encounter rates were not developed until the second half of the 20th century. Rates of encountering whales played a key role in the International Whaling Commission (IWC Scientific Committee from its beginning in the early 1950s, as well as in the US in implementing its Marine Mammal Protection Act beginning in the early 1970s. The development of methods of collecting and interpreting sighting and catch data was intimately interwoven with the development of themanagement of whaling and cetacean by-catches in fisheries throughout the world, but especially within the context of the Scientific Committees of the IWC and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO. Although overfishing of whales was initially identified through the use of sighting rate data, catch rate data provided the IWC’s Committee its first firm footing for management advice. However, it was sighting rate data that ultimately became the basis for the scientific advice on whaling and for management advice in other settings. This led to the development of large scale cetacean sighting programmes, such as the IWC’s International Decade of Cetacean Researchsurveys in Antarctic aboard Japanese ships, the North Atlantic Sighting Surveys (NASS aboard Norwegian, Icelandic, Spanish, Greenlandic and Faroese vessels and aircraft (coordinated by NAMMCO through its Scientific Committee from 1995, and surveys under the US’s Marine Mammal Protection Act and the European Union’s Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS programme. Fishery independent cetacean sighting surveys

  3. Physical education and leisure time preferences of pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kurková


    Full Text Available Education in the Czech Republic in accordance with the current legislation enables the children, pupils and students with disabilities to have equal access to education, where content, forms and methods meet the educational requirements of those individuals. From the point of view of the health aspect in their adulthood, especially the educational fields of health and physical education are crucial for pupils. The purpose of this study was to compare the dimensions of emotional reactions of pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing in schools for the deaf and those compare with integrated pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing at basic school (grades 6th-9th enrolled in physical education classes. It was also compared preferences in leisure time activities and the knowledge of pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing in both schools settings with regard to sport and sports activities related to this community. Participants in this study were integrated pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing (n = 7, whose average age was 14.43 ± 1.27 years. These pupils were compared with pupils from schools for the deaf (n = 32; age 15.19 ± 1.24 years. At school for the deaf who was evaluated separately, were included 27 pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing (n = 27, age 15.41 ± 1.28 years. The standardized questionnaire DEMOR (dimensions of emotional reactions was used in data collection. This questionnaire was adapted with regards to conditions of pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing. In presented study positive relationships to physical education in pupils who are deaf or hard of hearing were found. Only at schools for the deaf (not counting school for the deaf, which was evaluated separately strongly lower negative relationships than in pupils from general schools were found. Those negative attitudes of pupils to physical education could be related to the followings: lower physically fitness and the impact of teachers (these variables were not tested in

  4. The Predictive Role of Maternal Parenting and Stress on Pupils' Bullying involvement. (United States)

    Alizadeh Maralani, Fatemeh; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Hashemi, Touraj


    The link between inappropriate parenting style and both bullying and victimization is well documented. However, it is not clear as to which kind of parenting style is associated with victimization. Furthermore, no studies have yet been conducted regarding the role of parental stress in bullying and victimization. This study aimed to examine the role of parenting styles and maternal stress in pupils' bullying and victimization. A total of 300 primary school pupils, enrolled in fourth and fifth grades, participated in the study. Initially, 100 noninvolved pupils were randomly selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Then using a screening method, 100 bully pupils and 100 victimized peers were selected. Olweus Bullying Scale and teacher nomination were administered for screening these pupils. Baumrind Parenting Style Questionnaire and revised version of Abidin Parental Stress Index (short form) were also applied to all pupils in the study. Data were analyzed using discriminant function analysis. The findings showed that (a) with regard to parenting styles, significant differences were found among groups. Authoritarian parenting style could significantly predict pupils' bullying behavior, whereas victimization was predictable in families with permissive parenting style. In addition, noninvolved pupils were predicted to have authoritative parenting style. (b) Considering maternal stress, significant differences were observed across groups. Parents of bullies and victims were predicted to have higher maternal stress than noninvolved pupils. The implications of the study in relation to the role of mothers in bullying and victimization are discussed.

  5. Exit pupil expander: image quality performance enhancements and environmental testing results (United States)

    Powell, Karlton D.; Lopez, Peggy A.; Malik, Amjad


    The numerical aperture of the light emanating from display pixels in a given display system determines the exit pupil size. In retinal scanning displays, the exit pupil is defined by the scanner optics, creating a rastered, projected image at an intermediate plane, typically resulting in an exit pupil approximately the size of an eye's pupil. Positional freedom of the eye and relative display placement define the required expansion of the limited input NA for producing the desired exit pupil size for the display system. Currently Microvision utilizes an optical element comprised of two Microlens Arrays (MLAs) in tandem to expand the NA. The dual-MLA system has demonstrated exit pupil size that is independent of color; and uniformity of the beamlet structure is quite Top-Hat like. To further improve the perceived image quality, Microvision has now refined the optical system to minimize interference effects in the Exit Pupil plane that were caused by the coherent nature of the light source. We describe here a single refractive double-sided aspheric element that diminishes this interference effect by converting an input Gaussian beam profile to a Top-Hat profile. We also discuss the theory behind the use of a Gaussian-to-Top-Hat Converter, the tradeoffs associated with its use, as well as experimental results showing the uniformity improvements when using a Top-Hat converter element in conjunction with the MLA-based Exit Pupil Expander. In addition, we report the progress of environmental testing of the Exit Pupil Expander (EPE).

  6. Science investigation: the views of 14 to 16 year old pupils (United States)

    Toplis, Rob; Cleaves, Anna


    This paper reports research about upper secondary school pupils' views about science investigations in school. Although researchers, teachers and examiners have expressed opinions about investigative work in science, there have been relatively few studies of pupils' experiences. The present study identified pupils' concerns about the limited time available, timing of the investigations, lack of familiarity with apparatus and the association of investigation almost exclusively with assessment, all factors which contributed to stress. One exceptional school apart, pupils perceived the teacher's role as a didactic supporter of strategies to maximise performance for assessment. We discuss these views and examine the potential for putting policy into practice.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation instrument during the Jupiter encounter...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation instrument during the Pluto encounter...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation instrument during the Jupiter encounter...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera instrument during the Jupiter encounter mission phase.

  11. Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking institutions: Prospects and possibilities for Islamic economic empowerment and Black Economic Empowerment in a Democratic South Africa.

  12. Capability to self-mobilization of individually - psychological possibilities as constituting personal mobility of pupils of a comprehensive school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyushenko A.A.


    Full Text Available Features of self-mobilization of natural possibilities of pupils are construed during executing physical exercises and commitments of different character. The concept «personal mobility» is given. 128 pupils of elementary grades, 126 adolescents and 106 pupils of the higher classes participated in experiment. It is exhibited that at pupils the range of individual parameters of self-mobilization constitutes from 20 up to 40 %. The greatest gain of parameters of self-mobilization is fixed at adolescents - 47,4 %, at pupils of the higher school age - 42,1 %, at pupils of elementary grades - 29,7 %.

  13. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruthers Helen R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW. This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. Methods 620 pupils (aged 11–17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1% males, 322 (51.9% females at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an ‘experiment’ to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Results Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p  Conclusion This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  14. Professional orientation of pupils attending special elementary school


    Bělová, Iva


    This diploma thesis approaches the development of an idea that mentally challenged pupils form about their future employment and introduces aspects that are involved in such process. This is applied to all ages of students with mild mental disability who attend the Primary Special School in Chabařovice. Another goal is to cover the level and the rate of success of pre-vocational training at this school. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part deals with the explanation of t...

  15. Danish teachers' expectations of year one pupils' additive competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtker Sunde, Pernille; Sayers, Judy


    , mathematical content, and differentiation. The teachers’expectationsrangedfrom one teacher stating that most studentsshould be able to do single-digit addition, but more importantly know the everyday language of addition, to a teacher requiring all students to be proficient in two-digit addition without...... bridging ten, and 20%of their pupils should be able to manipulatetwo-digit addition bridging tenoperations. The results are discussed in relation to thecommon objectives of the Danish curriculum andthe general findings ofrelationships between early proficiency and later achievements....

  16. Emotion, working memory, and cognitive control in patients with first-onset and previously untreated minor depressive disorders. (United States)

    Li, Mi; Lu, Shengfu; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Fu, Bingbing; Zhong, Ning


    To explore working memory and the ability to process different emotional stimuli in patients with first-onset and untreated minor (mild or moderate) depression. Patients with first-onset and previously untreated minor depression, and healthy controls, were enrolled. Using a modified Sternberg working memory paradigm to investigate the combined effects of emotional stimuli with working memory, participants were exposed to experimental stimuli comprising pictures that represented positive, neutral and negative emotions. Working memory ability was measured using reaction time and accuracy, and emotion-processing ability was measured using pupil diameter. Out of 36 participants (18 patients with minor depression and 18 controls), there were no statistically significant between-group differences in response time and accuracy. Positive stimuli evoked changes in pupil diameter that were significantly smaller in patients with minor depression versus controls, but changes in pupil diameter evoked by negative stimuli were not significantly different between the two groups. Healthy subjects showed a stronger emotional response to positive emotional stimuli than patients with first onset and previously untreated minor depression, but there were no differences in response to negative emotions. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in terms of speed of cognitive response, but this may have been due to the relatively small samples sizes assessed. Studies with larger sample populations are required to further investigate these results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Complications encountered in contrast roentgenography of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Steinkamp, U.


    The following problems are analysed referring to the literature and to practical experience of the authors: - Types of complications encountered in contrast roentgenography or in endoscopy of the colon, and their frequency. - Risk factors and secondary injuries. Intestinal perforation is the most frequent complication experienced as a consequence of contrast barium enema. The main risk factors are to be seen in the use of balloon-tipped catheters, or of intestinal tubes with hard tips, in a rise of hydrostatic pressure above 80 cm water column, and in an excessively strong air insufflation. Frequency of complications for contrast barium enema is stated to be 0.002 p.c. (Welin and Welin, 1980) or 0.08 p.c. (Clark et al. 1961). The frequency of perforations in rectoscopy is shown to be in the same order of magnitude. For diagnostic colonoscopy, the frequency of complications is about one per mil. Existing diseases such as carcinoma, diverticulosis, diverticulitis, colitis ulcerosa, or morbus Crohn are factors enhancing the risk. Also, patients of advanced age are running a higher risk due to decreasing intestine wall elasticity with age. Previous biopsy or excision forbids contrast barium enema for the next two weeks. Injuries and sequelae to be expected after perforation are abscesses, phlegmon, peritonitis including formation of adhesion and bands, retroperitoneal fibrosis with formation of hydronephrosis, and anus praeter, the latter being temporary or permanent. An extensive literature survey covering 200 publications has been prepared and is available from the authors upon request. (orig.) [de

  18. Complications encountered in contrast roentgenography of the colon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H.; Steinkamp, U.


    The following problems are analysed referring to the literature and to practical experience of the authors: - Types of complications encountered in contrast roentgenography or in endoscopy of the colon, and their frequency. - Risk factors and secondary injuries. Intestinal perforation is the most frequent complication experienced as a consequence of contrast barium enema. The main risk factors are to be seen in the use of balloon-tipped catheters, or of intestinal tubes with hard tips, in a rise of hydrostatic pressure above 80 cm water column, and in an excessively strong air insufflation. Frequency of complications for contrast barium enema is stated to be 0.002 p.c. (Welin and Welin, 1980) or 0.08 p.c. (Clark et al. 1961). The frequency of perforations in rectoscopy is shown to be in the same order of magnitude. For diagnostic colonoscopy, the frequency of complications is about one per mil. Existing diseases such as carcinoma, diverticulosis, diverticulitis, colitis ulcerosa, or morbus Crohn are factors enhancing the risk. Also, patients of advanced age are running a higher risk due to decreasing intestine wall elasticity with age. Previous biopsy or excision forbids contrast barium enema for the next two weeks. Injuries and sequelae to be expected after perforation are abscesses, phlegmon, peritonitis including formation of adhesion and bands, retroperitoneal fibrosis with formation of hydronephrosis, and anus praeter, the latter being temporary or permanent. An extensive literature survey covering 200 publications has been prepared and is available from the authors upon request.

  19. Jewish Arab Activism through Dialogical Encounters: Changing an Israeli Campus (United States)

    Hager, Tamar; Saba, Tuffaha; Shay, Nava


    This paper introduces a Jewish Arab dialogue model of national encounters which has been developed at Tel Hai College in Upper Galilee in Israel. These planned encounters, which have taken place for eight consecutive years within the framework of a course entitled "A Jewish-Arab dialogue--action research" are recognized as part of the…

  20. Motherhood, Medicine, and Morality: Scenes from a Medical Encounter. (United States)

    Heritage, John; Lindstrom, Anna


    Examines moments in the course of informal medical encounters between English health visitors and mothers in which motherhood and medicine collide. Within the conversations, motherhood, medicine, and morality are yoked to the interaction order that is inflected and influenced by the medical context of the encounters. The paper discusses motherhood…

  1. The space of togetherness--a caring encounter. (United States)

    Holopainen, Gunilla; Kasén, Anne; Nyström, Lisbet


    Encounters in relation to the nurse-patient relationship are often discussed within nursing and caring literature without a reflection on the actual meaning of the concept. Assuming that an encounter is essential for nursing care, this article seeks to create a deeper understanding of the concept through a hermeneutic approach to texts by the philosophers Buber and Marcel. Presence, recognition, availability and mutuality seem to be essential prerequisites for an encounter. As these prerequisites are fulfilled within and between human beings who encounter each other, it is possible to speak of a space of togetherness, a mutual existence, where life's mystery shines forth and caring is realized. The challenge lies in creating these encounters within nursing care. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. Service Encounter Related Process Quality, Patient Satisfaction, and Behavioral Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandakumar Mekoth


    Full Text Available This study identifies some of the critical service encounters thatthe outpatients undergo in a health care facility and investigateswhether the service encounter related process quality as perceivedby the patients leads to patient satisfaction, repeat visit, and recommendationintentions. Personal visits, observations, and enquiriesat the outpatient center have been conducted to identifythe various service encounters that outpatients undergo in thehospital. Exit interviews of the outpatients have been conductedto identify service encounter related process quality variableswhich determine patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions.A preliminary scale to measure service encounter related processquality was developed and its factor structure and internal consistencyreliability were established. The study reveals that boththe physician quality and laboratory quality have been found tobe significantly related to patient satisfaction. However, quite interestingly,courtesy shown by the registration or outpatient staff,perceived length of waiting time, or even the salient aspects of theservicescape, did not influence patient satisfaction.

  3. ADRIAN HATOS, School Performance and Language of Hungarian Ethnic Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available One of the thorniest issues of the linguistic policies in North-Western Transylvania was the establishment of linguistic arrangements in the mandatory education system. Supported also by arguments which refer to the equal opportunity rule, native language education for ethnic minority children, concerning especially the Hungarian language, has flourished both in mixed schools, and in schools that are segregated in terms of the teaching language. This article assesses the effects that the various linguistic contexts in which a Hungarian teenager in the region studies can have on his/her performance in school, compared to the performance of his/her colleagues who study in Romanian. I start from two hypotheses: linguistic shortcoming and opposition culture. The hierarchical linear regression modeling of the average of school results scores in the seventh grade, on a sample of over 3 700 pupils in the eighth grade in Bihor County, indicates a significant and systematic disadvantage of Hungarian pupils, although small as an absolute value, irrespective of the linguistic arrangement. Moreover, both the linguistic disadvantage thesis and the opposition culture model can be supported, although the results are not conclusive from this point of view.

  4. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes. (United States)

    Querino, Emanuel; Dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro


    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task's cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  5. A Xhosa communicative test for senior L2 pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Gxilishe


    Full Text Available The writer shows to what extent the aims of the Xhosa syllabus for the Senior Certificate examination (Higher and Standard Grade under the Cape Education Department are met by constructing and administering an oral proficiency test in Xhosa. The writer takes into account the two main objectives of the syllabus: to use the communication means in every day situations and to develop the listening and speaking skills of the pupils. The emphasis of the test items is not on linguistic accuracy but on the pupil's ability to function effectively through language in particular settings and contexts. The validity, reliability and practicability of the test are discussed as well as the trial test and the administration. Die skrywer wys in watter mate die doelstellings van die Xhosaleerplan vir die Senior Sertifikaat-eksamen (Hoer en Standaard Graad van die Kaapse Onderwysdepartement bereik word deur die samestelling en toepassing van 'n vaardigheidstoets in mondelinge werk. Die skrywer neem die twee hoofdoelstellings van die leerplan in ag, nl. om die bedrewenheid om te kommunikeer in alledaagse situasies te gebruik en die luister- en mondelinge vermoe van die Ieerlinge te ontwikkel. Die klem van die toetsitems val nie op taalkundige akkuraatheid nie, maar op die vermoe van die leerlinge om in spesifieke situasies en omstandighede doeltreffend te kommunikeer. Die geldigheid, betroubaarheid en uitvoerbaarheid van die toets word bespreek asook die voorlopige toets en die administrasie daarvan.

  6. The peculiarities of physical development of pupils and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Menshikh


    Full Text Available Presented results of physical development of young people. 965 pupils and 438 students participated in research. One measured length and mass of the body, registered cardiorespiratory indexes – cardiac rate at peace and after 20 squats, vital capacity of lungs, breath-holding on inhalation and exhalation. The coefficient of physical development was calculated on a formula taking into account actual and middling population indexes. Gradual development of morphofunctional indexes is set for pupils and students from 7 to 20 years old. Rates of such changes were different both in age-old and sexual groups. It is educed that for boys and girls 7-8 years middling the statistical values of coefficient of physical development exceeded standard indexes. In 9-13 years on a background of further increase of morphofunctional parameters the rates of increase of physical development diminished a bit. From 13 to 16 years the index of coefficient of physical development changed a little, except for an insignificant increase in 14 years. It is shown that in an age-old period 17-20 years a mesosomia prevails for the inspected students. It is educed reliable differences between the values of coefficient of physical development in the groups of boys and girls 17 and 19 years.

  7. The prevalence of computer and Internet addiction among pupils. (United States)

    Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Talarowska, Monika; Darmosz, Anna; Janiak, Aneta; Janiak, Marcin; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr


    Media have an influence on the human psyche similar to the addictive actions of psychoactive substances or gambling. Computer overuse is claimed to be a cause of psychiatric disturbances such as computer and Internet addiction. It has not yet been recognized as a disease, but it evokes increasing controversy and results in mental disorders commonly defined as computer and Internet addiction. This study was based on a diagnostic survey in which 120 subjects participated. The participants were pupils of three kinds of schools: primary, middle, and secondary school (high school). Information for this study was obtained from a questionnaire prepared by the authors as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Psychological Inventory of Aggression Syndrome (IPSA-II). he results confirmed that every fourth pupil was addicted to the Internet. Internet addiction was very common among the youngest users of computers and the Internet, especially those who had no brothers and sisters or came from families with some kind of problems. Moreover, more frequent use of the computer and the Internet was connected with higher levels of aggression and anxiety. Because computer and Internet addiction already constitute a real danger, it is worth considering preventive activities to treat this phenomenon. It is also necessary to make the youth and their parents aware of the dangers of uncontrolled Internet use and pay attention to behavior connected with Internet addiction.

  8. Extracting information of fixational eye movements through pupil tracking (United States)

    Xiao, JiangWei; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqin; Peng, Li; Han, Peng


    Human eyes are never completely static even when they are fixing a stationary point. These irregular, small movements, which consist of micro-tremors, micro-saccades and drifts, can prevent the fading of the images that enter our eyes. The importance of researching the fixational eye movements has been experimentally demonstrated recently. However, the characteristics of fixational eye movements and their roles in visual process have not been explained clearly, because these signals can hardly be completely extracted by now. In this paper, we developed a new eye movement detection device with a high-speed camera. This device includes a beam splitter mirror, an infrared light source and a high-speed digital video camera with a frame rate of 200Hz. To avoid the influence of head shaking, we made the device wearable by fixing the camera on a safety helmet. Using this device, the experiments of pupil tracking were conducted. By localizing the pupil center and spectrum analysis, the envelope frequency spectrum of micro-saccades, micro-tremors and drifts are shown obviously. The experimental results show that the device is feasible and effective, so that the device can be applied in further characteristic analysis.

  9. Monitoring the Achievement of Deaf Pupils in Sweden and Scotland: Approaches and Outcomes (United States)

    Hendar, Ola; O'Neill, Rachel


    Over the past two decades there have been major developments in deaf education in many countries. Medical and technical advances have made it possible for more deaf children to hear and speak successfully. Most deaf pupils learn in ordinary classes in mainstream schools. In this article we explore patterns of achievements of deaf pupils to see if…

  10. Pupil Perceptions of National Tests in Science: Perceived Importance, Invested Effort, and Test Anxiety (United States)

    Eklof, Hanna; Nyroos, Mikaela


    Although large-scale national tests have been used for many years in Swedish compulsory schools, very little is known about how pupils actually react to these tests. The question is relevant, however, as pupil reactions in the test situation may affect test performance as well as future attitudes towards assessment. The question is relevant also…

  11. Habermas, Pupil Voice, Rationalism, and Their Meeting with Lacan's Objet Petit A (United States)

    Moran, Paul; Murphy, Mark


    "Pupil voice" is a movement within state education in England that is associated with democracy, change, participation and the raising of educational standards. While receiving much attention from educators and policy makers, less attention has been paid to the theory behind the concept of pupil voice. An obvious point of theoretical…

  12. Differential ability and attainment in language and arithmetic of Dutch primary school pupils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Driessen, Geert


    Background. In pre-school and primary education pupils differ in many abilities and competences (‘giftedness’). Yet mainstream educational practice seems rather homogeneous in providing age-based or grade-class subject matter approaches. Aims. To clarify whether pupils scoring initially at high

  13. Teacher Stress and Pupil Behaviour Explored through a Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy Framework (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra


    Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…

  14. Using Advance Organizers to Enhance Pupils' Achievement in Learning Poetry in English Language (United States)

    Muiruri, Mary; Wambugu, Patriciah; Wamukuru, Kuria


    The study was a quasi-experimental that investigated the effects of Advance Organizers (AO) on achievement in poetry. Target population was class seven pupils of Nakuru North Sub-county primary schools in Kenya. 160 pupils were involved in the study. Four sampled schools were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups in Solomon Four…

  15. Using of Video Modeling in Teaching a Simple Meal Preparation Skill for Pupils of Down Syndrome (United States)

    AL-Salahat, Mohammad Mousa


    The current study aimed to identify the impact of video modeling upon teaching three pupils with Down syndrome the skill of preparing a simple meal (sandwich), where the training was conducted in a separate classroom in schools of normal students. The training consisted of (i) watching the video of an intellectually disabled pupil, who is…

  16. The Last Place to Look: The Place of Pupil Councils within Citizen Participation in Scottish Schools (United States)

    Cross, Beth; Hulme, Moira; McKinney, Stephen


    This article critically examines pupil councils as a means of developing pupils' citizenship participation. It draws on findings across two research projects. The first study is a mixed method study commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS) that reviews the range of participatory activities in Scottish schools and their contribution to…

  17. Personality Correlates of Academic Achievement and Laboratory Learning of Elementary School Pupils. Final Report. (United States)

    Butterfield, Earl C.; Weaver, S. Joseph

    This paper reports three studies designed to determine if significant increases could be made in the prediction of elementary school pupils' academic achievement by adding personality measures to intellectual measures after mental age and intelligent quotient leveling. A fourth study examined the utility of leveling pupils on socioeconomic…

  18. Ethnic segregation in context : Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Baerveldt, C.


    Social discrimination, defined as the relative preference for intra-ethnic over inter-ethnic relationships, was studied in pupils' networks in Dutch secondary school classes. While native Dutch pupils (ethnic majority members) mainly named fellow majority members, ethnic minority members reported

  19. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice (United States)

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin


    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  20. Socio-demographic factors of pupils who use tobacco in randomly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report the prevalence and socio-economic correlates of tobacco use among primary school pupils in Nairobi‚ Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting: Ten primary schools in Nairobi‚ Kenya. Subjects: A questionnaire was administered to 1198 primary school pupils aged 12 to 17 years ...

  1. Sensitive "Heritage" of Slavery in a Multicultural Classroom: Pupils' Ideas Regarding Significance (United States)

    Savenije, Geerte; van Boxtel, Carla; Grever, Maria


    Pupils' attribution of significance to sensitive "heritage" of slavery may differ, particularly in multicultural classrooms. Little is known about the ways in which pupils establish a relationship with the present when discussing the significance of heritage of slavery. Starting from theories of historical significance and identity,…

  2. What pupils can learn from working with robotic direct manipulation environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou Slangen; Hanno van Keulen; Koeno Gravemeijer


    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four

  3. What pupils can learn from working with robotic direct manipulation environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou Slangen; Hanno van Keulen; Koeno Gravemeijer


    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four

  4. Prevalence for Private Tuition among Parents, Teachers and Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Machakos County (United States)

    Kirigwi, Lucy Wambui; Maithya, Redempta


    Private tuition refers to tutoring offered outside mainstream teaching. The study sought to establish the difference in prevalence for private tuition among parents, teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Machakos County. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target populations were all teachers, parents and pupils of public…

  5. Septo-Optic Dysplasia in a Newborn Presenting with Bilateral Dilated and Fixed Pupils


    Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hairfield, Amber; Swischuk, Leonard E.; Jain, Sunil K.


    Introduction?We describe a newborn female infant with septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) presenting with bilateral dilated and fixed pupils. Conclusion?Our report is unique because the incidental finding of bilateral dilated and fixed pupils on the newborn exam was the only clinical finding which led to a prompt work-up and eventual diagnosis of SOD.

  6. Socially Shared Metacognition of Dyads of Pupils in Collaborative Mathematical Problem-Solving Processes (United States)

    Iiskala, Tuike; Vauras, Marja; Lehtinen, Erno; Salonen, Pekka


    This study investigated how metacognition appears as a socially shared phenomenon within collaborative mathematical word-problem solving processes of dyads of high-achieving pupils. Four dyads solved problems of different difficulty levels. The pupils were 10 years old. The problem-solving activities were videotaped and transcribed in terms of…

  7. Researching Pupil Well-Being in UK Secondary Schools: Community Psychology and the Politics of Research (United States)

    Duckett, Paul; Sixsmith, Judith; Kagan, Carolyn


    This study explores the relationships between a school, its staff and its pupils and the impact of these relationships on school pupils' well-being. The authors adopted a community psychological perspective and applied critical, social constructionist epistemologies and participatory, multi-method research tools. The article discusses the…

  8. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson


    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  9. Teachers' Views about Pupil Diversity in the Primary School Classroom (United States)

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Govaris, Christos; Filippatou, Diamanto


    The present study explores Greek primary school teachers' perceptions and views on pupil diversity in the classroom environment. A large-scale survey was carried out in order to examine teachers' perceptions about pupil diversity and to identify personal and/or educational characteristics that can influence or predict these perceptions. The…

  10. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production (United States)

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle


    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning and…

  11. Diagnostic Tests in Czech for Pupils with a First Language Different from the Language of Schooling (United States)

    Vodicková, Katerina; Kostelecká, Yvona


    Mastering a second language, in this case Czech, is crucial for pupils whose first language differs from the language of schooling, so that they can engage more successfully in the educational process. In order to adjust language teaching to pupils' needs, it is necessary to identify which language skills or individual competences set out within…

  12. Pupils' perceptions of teaching behaviour : Evaluation of an instrument and importance for academic motivation in Indonesian secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim


    The present study investigates the psychometric quality of a measure tapping pupils' perceptions of teachers' teaching behaviour in the Indonesian context. It also examines the relationship between pupils' perceptions of teaching behaviour and their perceived academic motivation. Surveys from a

  13. An epidemiological study of pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis among pupils in the peri-urban zone of Kumba town, Meme Division, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefie-Arrey Charles


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis have previously been reported in two zones of the Southwest Province of Cameroon including the Kupe mountain and Mundani foci. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and epidemiology of paragonimiasis in the peri-urban zone of Kumba, Meme Division, located about 50 km away from the Kupe mountain focus. Methods Pupils of several government primary schools in 5 villages around Kumba underwent both parasitologic and clinical investigations in search of signs and symptoms of paragonimiasis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also searched for in the differential diagnosis.Freshwater crabs from neighbouring streams in the five villages were dissected in search of paragonimus metacercariae. Results Out of a total of 1482 pupils examined in all five villages, 309 individuals (147 males and 162 females were recruited for this study based on the presence of one or more signs or symptoms of paragonimiasis. Eggs of Paragonimus africanus were found in stools and/or sputum of pupils from all five villages, giving an overall paragonimus prevalence of 2.56%. There was no significant difference in the disease prevalence between the villages (X2 = 8.36, P = 0.08. The prevalence of Paragonimus africanus eggs amongst pupils with symptoms of paragonimiasis was 12.3% (38 of 309. Males were infected more than females (17.0% versus 8.0%, but the difference was not significant (X2 = 5.76, P = 0.16. All the 38 paragonimus egg positive subjects presented with cough, 23 (60.53% complained of chest pain while 16 (42.11% had haemoptysis. Stool examinations also detected some intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides (29.45%, Trichuris trichiura (6.47%, Necator americanus (2.27%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.62%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.65%, and Entamoeba histolytica (4.53%. No case of M. tuberculosis was noted. Out of a total of 85 dissected crabs (Sudanonautes africanus, 6.02 % were infected with paragonimus

  14. Understanding Basic Temporal Relations in Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairments. (United States)

    Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka


    Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.

  15. The "subjective" pupil old/new effect: is the truth plain to see? (United States)

    Montefinese, Maria; Ambrosini, Ettore; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola


    Human memory is an imperfect process, prone to distortion and errors that range from minor disturbances to major errors that can have serious consequences on everyday life. In this study, we investigated false remembering of manipulatory verbs using an explicit recognition task and pupillometry. Our results replicated the "classical" pupil old/new effect as well as data in false remembering literature that show how items must be recognize as old in order for the pupil size to increase (e.g., "subjective" pupil old/new effect), even though these items do not necessarily have to be truly old. These findings support the strength-of-memory trace account that affirms that pupil dilation is related to experience rather than to the accuracy of recognition. Moreover, behavioral results showed higher rates of true and false recognitions for manipulatory verbs and a consequent larger pupil diameter, supporting the embodied view of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical student delivery of alcohol education to high school pupils: the MEDALC programme. (United States)

    Alcolado, R; Alcolado, J C


    There is increasing concern about the inappropriate use of alcohol by teenagers and young adults. The objective of this study was to assess the practicality of developing an alcohol education programme for school pupils delivered by medical students. The study design was of a prospective, observational, interventional cohort study. The primary outcomes were the number of schools, school pupils and medical students participating in the programme. Secondary outcomes were quantitative and qualitative measures derived from the feedback received from the participants. Over a three-year period, 60 medical students provided alcohol education sessions to 1,780 high school pupils (aged 13-15 years) within seven schools in Wales. Strongly positive feedback was obtained from all stakeholders and all schools asked to be included in future programmes. In conclusion, medical student-delivered teaching of alcohol education programmes to school pupils appears to be feasible and welcome by schools, teachers, pupils and medical students.

  17. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Hein

    Full Text Available Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  18. Common Factors Among Family Medicine Residents Who Encounter Difficulty. (United States)

    Binczyk, Natalia M; Babenko, Oksana; Schipper, Shirley; Ross, Shelley


    Residents in difficulty are costly to programs in both time and resources, and encountering difficulty can be emotionally harmful to residents. Approximately 10% of residents will encounter difficulty at some point in training. While there have been several studies looking at common factors among residents who encounter difficulty, some of the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are common factors among the residents who encounter difficulty during training in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Secondary data analysis was performed on archived resident files from a Canadian family medicine residency program. Residents who commenced an urban family medicine residency program between the years of 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. Five hundred nine family medicine residents were included in data analysis. Residents older than 30 years were 2.33 times (95% CI: 1.27-4.26) more likely to encounter difficulty than residents aged 30 years or younger. Nontransfer residents were 8.85 times (95% CI: 1.17-66.67) more likely to encounter difficulty than transfer residents. The effects of sex, training site, international medical graduate status, and rotation order on the likelihood of encountering difficulty were nonsignificant. Older and nontransfer residents may be facing unique circumstances and may benefit from additional support from the program.

  19. Brain systems underlying encounter expectancy bias in spider phobia. (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Hoeppli, Marie-Eve; Piguet, Camille; Hofstetter, Christoph; Rieger, Sebastian W; Vuilleumier, Patrik


    Spider-phobic individuals are characterized by exaggerated expectancies to be faced with spiders (so-called encounter expectancy bias). Whereas phobic responses have been linked to brain systems mediating fear, little is known about how the recruitment of these systems relates to exaggerated expectancies of threat. We used fMRI to examine spider-phobic and control participants while they imagined visiting different locations in a forest after having received background information about the likelihood of encountering different animals (spiders, snakes, and birds) at these locations. Critically, imagined encounter expectancies modulated brain responses differently in phobics as compared with controls. Phobics displayed stronger negative modulation of activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex by encounter expectancies for spiders, relative to snakes or birds (within-participants analysis); these effects were not seen in controls. Between-participants correlation analyses within the phobic group further corroborated the hypothesis that these phobia-specific modulations may underlie irrationality in encounter expectancies (deviations of encounter expectancies from objective background information) in spider phobia; the greater the negative modulation a phobic participant displayed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and visual cortex, the stronger was her bias in encounter expectancies for spiders. Interestingly, irrationality in expectancies reflected in frontal areas relied on right rather than left hemispheric deactivations. Our data accord with the idea that expectancy biases in spider phobia may reflect deficiencies in cognitive control and contextual integration that are mediated by right frontal and parietal areas.

  20. Partner violence and medical encounters: African-American women's perspectives. (United States)

    McNutt, L A; van Ryn, M; Clark, C; Fraiser, I


    To examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and patient satisfaction with medical encounters among an African-American population. Cross-sectional, self-administered, anonymous survey. Community-based, primary care center. Consecutive African-American women recruited from an urban health center. A total of 102 women provided sufficient information to reveal whether they were currently experiencing IPV and to allow us to assess their experiences in their most recent primary care encounter. Patients' perceptions of their most recent encounter using questions adopted from the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale and Consultation Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used the Conflicts Tactics Scale, supplemented with questions measuring sexual violence and emotional abuse, to assess IPV "in the past year." Women who reported current IPV rated several aspects of the encounter more negatively than did women who did not report current abuse. The IPV victims were less likely to report that they felt respected and accepted during the encounter, and they provided lower ratings of the quality of communication with their providers. It is unclear why victims of partner violence experience medical encounters as less satisfactory. Researchers need to expand studies of medical encounters as experienced by abused women to determine whether IPV status adversely affects general medical care.

  1. The nutritional status of Grade 1 pupils, in Bloemfontein, South Africa and its association with socio-demographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Brits


    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that UNICEF declared freedom from hunger and malnutrition abasic human right in 1948, more than 20 million children were severely malnourished in 2010 and a further 170 million were stunted. Malnutrition attributes to > 50% of child deaths by potentiating infectious diseases.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the extent of malnutrition in Grade 1 pupils in public sector schools in Bloemfontein. An objective of the study was to identify relationships between socio-economic parameters and malnutrition.Method: Grade 1 pupils from ten public schools in Bloemfontein, selected from a random table, were included in the study. Their parents/caregivers gave informed consent and completed a questionnaire regarding baseline characteristics and feeding practices at home.The children were then weighed and measured, and the 2007 WHO Growth Reference forschool-aged children and adolescents used as reference.Results: A total of 187 children were included in the study. The combination of underweight, wasting and stunting gave an 18% prevalence of malnutrition in this study. A BMI of less than the fifth percentile occurred in 27% of the pupils. Factors positively associated withmalnutrition included: Absence of a fridge and/or running water in the house and loweducation and/or unemployment of parents. Illness in the previous month was reported by 41% of the malnourished children.Conclusion: As socio-economic factors that contribute to malnutrition are now known, teachers will be able to identify and refer children with or at risk of malnutrition and indirectly decrease child mortality.

  2. Learning for self-regulation: Improving instructional benefits for pupils, teachers, parents, schools, and society at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton


    Compulsory education laws oblige primary and secondary schools to give each pupil positive encouragement in, for example, social, emotional, cognitive, creative, and ethical respects. This is a fairly smooth process for most pupils, but it is not as easy to achieve with others. A pattern of pupil,

  3. A cartography of maternity, subjectivity and art-encounters


    McCloskey, Paula


    This text introduces a research project in motion. The area is maternity, subjectivity and art encounters. The text gives a sense of this research, presenting both the process of thinking within and about the work, showing it to be a living inquiry. The research itself is located in my disrupted maternal-self and an encounter with the oeuvre of Louise Bourgeois; an encounter that had a transformative impact on me by creating a space to contemplate my experiences and beyond to explore maternit...

  4. Remembering the First World War: Using a Battlefield Tour of the Western Front to Help Pupils Take a More Critical Approach to What They Encounter (United States)

    Freeman, Jerome


    The first year of the government's First World War Centenary Battlefield Tours Programme is now under way, allowing increasing numbers of students from across Britain to visit Western Front battle sites. As its Programme Director, Jerome Freeman has sought to encourage teachers to make these visits meaningful and historically rigorous. He tackles…

  5. The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander (United States)

    Varao Sousa, Trish L.; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Smilek, Daniel


    We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: (1) reading a passage aloud, (2) listening to a passage being read to them, and (3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage participants also rated how interesting it was and completed a content recognition test. Results showed that reading aloud led to the least amount of mind wandering, while listening to the passage led to the most mind wandering. Listening to the passage was also associated with the poorest memory performance and the least interest in the material. Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings. Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts. PMID:24348444

  6. The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trish L Varao Sousa


    Full Text Available We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: 1 reading a passage aloud, 2 listening to a passage being read to them, and 3 reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage participants also rated how interesting it was and completed a content recognition test. Results showed that reading aloud led to the least amount of mind wandering, while listening to the passage led to the most mind wandering. Listening to the passage was also associated with the poorest memory performance and the least interest in the material. Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings. Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts.

  7. Encounters along Micro-Level Borders: Silence and Metacommunicative Talk in Service Encounter Conversations between Finnish Employment Officials and Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tanttu


    Full Text Available This article examines the interaction between Finnish employment officials and their immigrant clients in service encounter conversations. It employs the concepts of metacommunicative talk, silence, agency and asymmetric interaction situation. Such service encounters between native speakers of Finnish and immigrants going through the integration process and speaking Finnish as their second language constitute situations of institutional interaction, characterised by asymmetry. Asymmetry during the service encounter arises from the roles and power relations between the official and client, a familiarity with the routines associated with service encounters, and the use of Finnish as the language of conversation during the encounter. This article examines two authentic service encounters, recorded in a Finnish employment office. The encounters are analysed using discourse analysis, combining micro-level analysis of language use and macro-level analysis of the situation. Interviews with the employment officials and background information collected from the officials and clients via questionnaires are used in support of the qualita-tive analysis. Officials use different methods of interaction with their clients. In addition, the individual characteristics of officials and clients and their cultural differences in-fluence the construction of interaction during a service encounter. Finnish officials can sometimes handle service encounters with very little talk - sometimes with hardly any talk at all. However, metacommunicative talk can serve as a vehicle for reinforcing the client's agency and supporting the immigrant in learning the language and customs, as well as in establishing a foothold in the new community, and thereby promoting the integration process as a whole.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Solar Wind Around Pluto instrument during the Jupiter encounter mission phase. This is VERSION 3.0 of this...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Solar Wind Around Pluto instrument during the Jupiter encounter mission phase. This is VERSION 3.0...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager instrument during the Pluto encounter mission phase. This is...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation instrument during the Jupiter encounter mission...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Alice Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph instrument during the Pluto encounter mission phase. This is VERSION...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera instrument during the Pluto encounter mission phase. This is...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array instrument during the Pluto encounter mission phase. This is VERSION...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Alice Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph instrument during the Pluto encounter mission phase. This is...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array instrument during the Pluto encounter mission phase. This is...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager instrument during the Pluto encounter mission phase. This is VERSION 1.0...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation instrument during the Pluto encounter mission...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Raw data taken by the New Horizons Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation instrument during the Jupiter encounter mission...

  20. Availability and Usability of BHO Encounter Data in MAX 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Availability and Usability of Behavioral Health Organization Encounter Data in MAX 2009, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...

  1. Preliminary Uncorrelated Encounter Model of the National Airspace System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochenderfer, M. J; Kuchar, J. K; Espindle, L. P; Gertz, J. L


    ...) and which may not be in contact with air traffic control. In response to the need to develop a model of these types of encounters, Lincoln Laboratory undertook an extensive radar data collection and modeling effort...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Calibrated data taken by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager instrument during the Jupiter encounter mission phase. This is...

  3. Reading strategies of primary school pupils in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Najvarová


    Full Text Available This article focuses on reading with comprehension – an activity of the readerwhich is seen as an interaction between the author and the recipient. In order tounderstand a text better, a reader may employ various techniques and strategies. Thearticle consists of three parts. In the first part, categories reading strategy and readingskill and the relationship between them are defined. In the second part, classificationsof reading strategies are presented and sorted according to various criteria. The thirdpart summarises the findings of a research project that concentrated on the readingstrategies of primary school pupils in Czech primary schools in the 2005/06 schoolyear. The findings indicate primary school teachers’ preferred procedures of using textsin teaching and pupils’ preferred reading strategies by the end of primary education.

  4. Monitoring the Achievement of Deaf Pupils in Sweden and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendar, Nils Ola Ebbe; O'Neill, Rachel


    the field to narrow the achievement gap further. The results further suggest that differing methods in two contrasting educational contexts can lead to some similar results and point to the need for different support to children with hearing loss and language disadvantages.......Over the past two decades there have been major developments in deaf education in many countries. Medical and technical advances have made it possible for more deaf children to hear and speak successfully. Most deaf pupils learn in ordinary classes in mainstream schools. In this article we explore...... that deaf children, after two decades of social reform and technical advances, still lag behind their hearing peers. The results also show how large-scale surveys can contribute to a greater understanding of educational outcomes in a small, vulnerable group and make it possible to continue to reform...

  5. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section


    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir


    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  6. Spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley encounter: a summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.


    A summary of the present volume is presented in which the separate disciplines are drawn together to give an overview of the spacecraft environment during the GIOTTO-Halley interaction. Specific recommendations are made as to how the work of the Plasma Environment Working Group might continue to contribute to the GIOTTO program during encounter and post-encounter data analysis. 28 references, 3 tables

  7. The Power of Citizens and Professionals in Welfare Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    relationships with welfare workers. However, other factors impact these interactions; factors which often pull in different directions. Welfare encounters are thus influenced by bureaucratic principles and market values as well. Consequently, this book engages with both Weberian (bureaucracy) and Foucauldian...... (market values/NPM) studies when investigating the powerful welfare encounter. The book is targeted Academics, post-graduates, and undergraduates within sociology, anthropology and political science....

  8. Orbital perturbations of the Galilean satellites during planetary encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Nesvorný, David [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Vokrouhlický, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Yokoyama, Tadashi, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)


    The Nice model of the dynamical instability and migration of the giant planets can explain many properties of the present solar system, and can be used to constrain its early architecture. In the jumping-Jupiter version of the Nice model, required from the terrestrial planet constraint and dynamical structure of the asteroid belt, Jupiter has encounters with an ice giant. Here, we study the survival of the Galilean satellites in the jumping-Jupiter model. This is an important concern because the ice-giant encounters, if deep enough, could dynamically perturb the orbits of the Galilean satellites and lead to implausible results. We performed numerical integrations where we tracked the effect of planetary encounters on the Galilean moons. We considered three instability cases from Nesvorný and Morbidelli that differed in the number and distribution of encounters. We found that in one case, where the number of close encounters was relatively small, the Galilean satellite orbits were not significantly affected. In the other two, the orbital eccentricities of all moons were excited by encounters, Callisto's semimajor axis changed, and, in a large fraction of trials, the Laplace resonance of the inner three moons was disrupted. The subsequent evolution by tides damps eccentricities and can recapture the moons in the Laplace resonance. A more important constraint is represented by the orbital inclinations of the moons, which can be excited during the encounters and not appreciably damped by tides. We find that one instability case taken from Nesvorný and Morbidelli clearly does not meet this constraint. This shows how the regular satellites of Jupiter can be used to set limits on the properties of encounters in the jumping-Jupiter model, and help us to better understand how the early solar system evolved.

  9. Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, S M; Bendek, E; Guyon, O


    The practical use of astrometry to detect exoplanets via the reflex motion of the parent star depends critically on the elimination of systematic floors in imaging systems. In the diffractive pupil technique proposed for space-based detection of exo-earths, extended diffraction spikes generated by a dotted primary mirror are referenced against a wide-field grid of background stars to calibrate changing optical distortion and achieve microarcsecond astrometric precision on bright targets (Guyon et al. 2010). We describe applications of this concept to ground-based uncrowded astrometry using a diffractive, monopupil telescope and a wide-field camera to image as many as {approx}4000 background reference stars. Final relative astrometric precision is limited by differential tip/tilt jitter caused by high altitude layers of turbulence. A diffractive 3-meter telescope is capable of reaching {approx}35 {micro}as relative astrometric error per coordinate perpendicular to the zenith vector in three hours on a bright target star (I < 10) in fields of moderate stellar density ({approx}40 stars arcmin{sup -2} with I < 23). Smaller diffractive apertures (D < 1 m) can achieve 100-200 {micro}as performance with the same stellar density and exposure time and a large telescope (6.5-10 m) could achieve as low as 10 {micro}as, nearly an order of magnitude better than current space-based facilities. The diffractive pupil enables the use of larger fields of view through calibration of changing optical distortion as well as brighter target stars (V < 6) by preventing star saturation. Permitting the sky to naturally roll to average signals over many thousands of pixels can mitigate the effects of detector imperfections.

  10. Cognitive load during speech perception in noise: the influence of age, hearing loss, and cognition on the pupil response. (United States)

    Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E; Festen, Joost M


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age, hearing loss, and cognitive ability on the cognitive processing load during listening to speech presented in noise. Cognitive load was assessed by means of pupillometry (i.e., examination of pupil dilation), supplemented with subjective ratings. Two groups of subjects participated: 38 middle-aged participants (mean age = 55 yrs) with normal hearing and 36 middle-aged participants (mean age = 61 yrs) with hearing loss. Using three Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) in stationary noise tests, we estimated the speech-to-noise ratios (SNRs) required for the correct repetition of 50%, 71%, or 84% of the sentences (SRT50%, SRT71%, and SRT84%, respectively). We examined the pupil response during listening: the peak amplitude, the peak latency, the mean dilation, and the pupil response duration. For each condition, participants rated the experienced listening effort and estimated their performance level. Participants also performed the Text Reception Threshold (TRT) test, a test of processing speed, and a word vocabulary test. Data were compared with previously published data from young participants with normal hearing. Hearing loss was related to relatively poor SRTs, and higher speech intelligibility was associated with lower effort and higher performance ratings. For listeners with normal hearing, increasing age was associated with poorer TRTs and slower processing speed but with larger word vocabulary. A multivariate repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated main effects of group and SNR and an interaction effect between these factors on the pupil response. The peak latency was relatively short and the mean dilation was relatively small at low intelligibility levels for the middle-aged groups, whereas the reverse was observed for high intelligibility levels. The decrease in the pupil response as a function of increasing SNR was relatively small for the listeners with hearing loss. Spearman

  11. Emotions in relation to healthcare encounters affecting self-esteem. (United States)

    Räty, Lena; Gustafsson, Barbro


    This study identifies emotions in patients with epilepsy as a result of confirming and disconfirming healthcare experiences. A discussion of emotions as a motive for patients' goal-directed actions was a further aim of this study. The critical incident method was used for data collection. Emotions occurring in confirming and disconfirming healthcare encounters were analyzed using the Belief-Desire Theory of Emotions and were categorized as basic, complex, or self-evaluating. Confirming encounters aroused emotions like hope, a feeling of security, joy, relief, and pride, while disconfirming encounters aroused emotions like despair, fear, unrest, resignation, shame, and guilt. The emotions identified in the healthcare encounters were recognized as motives for action. An emotion such as a feeling of security aroused a desire in the patients to strengthen their positive self and motivated them to have a constructive and sympathetic attitude toward the healthcare experience. An emotion such as anger caused patients to strive to maintain their self-respect either by avoiding difficult situations and ignoring the problem (patients with a low self-esteem) or by trying to re-create a positive self-image (patients with a high self-esteem). Healthcare encounters between patient and caregiver considerably affect the patient's emotional status and thereby his or her well-being. The importance of establishing healthcare encounters that evoke positive emotions that strengthen patients' resources must be addressed in future nursing care.

  12. Pupil old/new effects reflect stimulus encoding and decoding in short-term memory. (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Graf, Tim


    We conducted five pupil old/new experiments to examine whether pupil old/new effects can be linked to familiarity and/or recollection processes of recognition memory. In Experiments 1-3, we elicited robust pupil old/new effects for legal words and pseudowords (Experiment 1), positive and negative words (Experiment 2), and low-frequency and high-frequency words (Experiment 3). Importantly, unlike for old/new effects in ERPs, we failed to find any effects of long-term memory representations on pupil old/new effects. In Experiment 4, using the words and pseudowords from Experiment 1, participants made lexical decisions instead of old/new decisions. Pupil old/new effects were restricted to legal words. Additionally requiring participants to make speeded responses (Experiment 5) led to a complete absence of old/new effects. Taken together, these data suggest that pupil old/new effects do not map onto familiarity and recollection processes of recognition memory. They rather seem to reflect strength of memory traces in short-term memory, with little influence of long-term memory representations. Crucially, weakening the memory trace through manipulations in the experimental task significantly reduces pupil/old new effects. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. [Correspondence analysis of association between types of unintentional injuries and influential factors among rural rear pupils]. (United States)

    Dou, Dongmei; Wang, Peixi


    To explore the association between types of unintentional injuries and influential factors among rural rear pupils. The multistage stratified sampling method was used to select the study participant and thus 594 rural pupils were sampled, 292 rear pupils were confirmed and measured with unintentional injuries and influential factors of rural rear pupils scale. Binary logistic regression analysis indicate that the risk facts related to unintentional injury were left-behind status (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.06-6.79), gender (OR = 5.12, 95% C2.68-9.79) and surrounding environment (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.37-8.70). Correspondence analysis showed living with father, middle personality and low age were related possibly with traffic accident injury. Living with grandparents, extrovert personality and elder pupils were related possibly with unintentional falls injury. Living with mother, introvert personality and middle-age pupils were related possibly with animmal injury. The personality, ages and guardian types of rural rear pupils are correlated with types of unintentional injuries.

  14. Relationship between pupils\\' mastery of the language of instruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the teaching of English language at the primary school level should be strengthened. The paper concludes by recommending that code switching be encouraged as a way of solving some of the language difficulties encountered in primary science lessons. Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol.

  15. School Xenophobia and Interethnic Relationships Among Secondary Level Pupils in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Deusdad


    Full Text Available Migratory processes in southern Europe over the last two decades have brought about substantial changes to the ethnic makeup of secondary schools. Classrooms have increased in their complexity in terms of teaching, as there are pupils with different cultural and economic backgrounds and educational needs, but also in the relationships among the peer groups of pupils. What kinds of attitudes and relations can be found among the members of this culturally diverse pupil body? What kinds of views are held by the pupils about each other? The aim of this paper is to shed light on stereotypes and xenophobic attitudes towards immigrant pupils in secondary schools in Spain, principally among peer groups, and on how teachers address this multicultural classroom dynamic and complexity and any possible prejudices towards stereotypes and racist attitudes that surface inside the classroom. Relationships tend to be formed among peer groups of the same ethnicity and there is a marked rejection of pupils from Moroccan origin. Teachers are neither aware of pupils’ stereotypes nor of their own. As a consequence, they are not giving sufficient pedagogical responses to resolve arguments or disrespectful situations against immigrant pupils. This in turn is contributing, on the one hand, to racist and xenophobic societies (Banks 2011; Deusdad 2013. On the other hand, teachers’ low expectations of these immigrant pupils has had an effect on their academic achievements and on dropout rates (Deusdad 2009. The present study is based on 2196 questionnaires administered to pupils at 43 Spanish secondary schools. In-depth interviews with 54 secondary school teachers were also carried out, so as to understand teachers’ discourses and pedagogical resources. 

  16. Impact of stimulus-related factors and hearing impairment on listening effort as indicated by pupil dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Lunner, Thomas


    Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results...... in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared......-talker masker) on the PPD during speech perception. Twenty-five HI and 32 age-matched NH participants listened to sentences across a broad range of SNRs, masked with speech from a single talker (-25 dB to +15 dB SNR) or with stationary noise (-12 dB to +16 dB). Correct sentence recognition scores and pupil...

  17. Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds; A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009 (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Budding, Karin


    , infrequent events. Moderate-size (Volcanic Explosivity Index 3) eruptions are responsible for nearly half of the damaging encounters. Vigilance is required during the early phases of eruptive activity when data about ash emission may be the most limited and warning capabilities the most strained, yet the risk the greatest. The risk-mitigation strategy for minimizing damaging encounters continues to rely on the combination of real-time volcano monitoring and rapid eruption reporting, detection and tracking of ash clouds in the atmosphere using satellite-based sensors, dispersion modeling to forecast expected ash-cloud movement, and global dissemination of specialized warning messages. To obtain the entire Data Series 545 report, download the text file and appendixes 1-4, which are available as separate files. Click on the links at right. Please Send Updates We hope that publication of this compilation will encourage more reporting of encounters by the aviation industry and civil aviation authorities. We actively seek corrections and additions to the information presented here. Persons who have corrections or additional data pertaining to incidents already in the database or who have data about previously unreported incidents are urged to contact the authors.

  18. Managed airing behaviour and the effect on pupil perceptions and indoor climate in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Wohlgemuth, Mette Malene; Christensen, Ulrik Sloth


    An intervention study with four different scenarios for airing classrooms were carried out in a school where manual opening of windows was the main source of ventilation. Two scenarios included a visual CO2 display unit to signal to the pupils and teachers when to open windows. The other two...... scenarios used two different window opening schedules. Measurements of CO2, temperature and periods with open windows were recorded, and pupils expressed their perception of the indoor environment in the classroom. With a visual CO2 display unit in the classroom, pupils were able to modify their behavior...

  19. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests. (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P


    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  20. Helping Behaviour during Cooperative Learning and Learning Gains: The Role of the Teacher and of Pupils' Prior Knowledge and Ethnic Background (United States)

    Oortwijn, Michiel B.; Boekaerts, Monique; Vedder, Paul; Strijbos, Jan-Willem


    Is helping behaviour (i.e., solicited help and peer tutoring) during cooperative learning (CL) related to subsequent learning gains? And can teachers influence pupils' helping behaviour? One hundred and one 5th grade pupils from multiethnic schools, 10-12 years old, participated in the study. Forty-two pupils (31 immigrant pupils) worked in an…

  1. Imaging Obsearvations of Jupiter's Sodium Magneto-Nebula During the Ulysses Encounter. (United States)

    Mendillo, M; Flynn, B; Baumgardner, J


    Jupiter's great sodium nebula represents the largest visible structure traversed by the Ulysses spacecraft during its encounter with the planet in February 1992. Ground-based imaging conducted on Mount Haleakala, Hawaii, revealed a nebula that extended to at least +/-300 Jovian radii (spanning approximately 50 million kilometers); it was somewhat smaller in scale and less bright than previously observed. Analysis of observations and results of modeling studies suggest reduced volcanic activity on the moon lo, higher ion temperatures in the plasma torus, lower total plasma content in the torus, and fast neutral atomic clouds along the Ulysses inbound trajectory through the magnetosphere. Far fewer neutrals were encountered by the spacecraft along its postencounter, out-of-ecliptic trajectory.

  2. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.


    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  3. Applying the framework for culturally responsive teaching to explore the adaptations that teach first beginning teachers use to meet the needs of their pupils in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Hramiak


    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that beginning teachers are capable of adapting their practice to the needs of ethnically diverse pupils. This paper investigates the possibility that such teachers were developing their practice into what I have termed culturally adaptive teaching. A variety of methods were used to collect qualitative data that focused on the perspectives of teachers in schools across Yorkshire and Humberside, (UK over the course of an academic year. The framework for culturally responsive teaching (CRT was used as a lens through which to analyse the data collected. It enabled findings to emerge that took the framework beyond that of CRT, to one of culturally adaptive teaching. Teachers continually adapted their practice, in terms of cultural sensitivity, to better meet the needs of their pupils. If we can apply this framework and support beginning teachers to help them understand issues of cultural diversity in the classroom, we might be able to engender a real systematic change in teaching for the benefit of pupils.

  4. Athletic Training Student Core Competency Implementation During Patient Encounters. (United States)

    Cavallario, Julie M; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew; Manspeaker, Sarah A; Pribesh, Shana L


      Health care research evidence suggests that early patient encounters (PEs), as well as the purposeful implementation of professional core competencies (CCs), for athletic training students (ATSs) may be beneficial to their ability to provide care. However, no investigators have related facets of the clinical education experience with CC implementation as a form of summative assessment of the clinical experience.   To determine the relationship between the frequency and length of PEs, as well as the student's role and clinical site during PEs, and the students' perceived CC implementation during these encounters.   Cross-sectional study.   Professional athletic training program, National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institution.   We purposefully recruited 1 athletic training program that used E*Value software; 40 participants (31 females, 9 males) enrolled in the professional phase (12 first year, 14 second year, 14 third year) participated.   Participants viewed a 20-minute recorded CC educational module followed by educational handouts, which were also posted online for reference throughout the semester. The E*Value software was used to track Pes, including the type of encounter (ie, actual patient, practice encounter, didactic practice scenario), the type of site where the encounter occurred (university, high school), and the participant's role (observed, assisted, performed), as well as responses to an added block of questions indicating which, if any, of the CCs were implemented during the PE.   Variables per patient were PE length (minutes), participant role, site at which the encounter occurred, and whether any of the 6 CCs were implemented ( yes/ no). Variables per participant were average encounter length (minutes), encounter frequency, modal role, clinical site assignment, and the number of times each CC was implemented. Separate 1-way analyses of variance were used to examine the relationships between role or clinical site


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazier, K. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Newman, W. I. [University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Sharp, P. W., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)


    We present, analyze, and test a multirate Stoermer-based algorithm for integrating close encounters when performing N-body simulations of the Sun, planets, and a large number of test particles. The algorithm is intended primarily for accurate simulations of the outer solar system. The algorithm uses stepsizes H and h{sub i} , i = 1, ..., N{sub p} , where h{sub i} << H and N{sub p} is the number of planets. The stepsize H is used for the integration of the orbital motion of the Sun and planets at all times. H is also used as the stepsize for the integration of the orbital motion of test particles when they are not undergoing a close encounter. The stepsize h{sub i} is used to integrate the orbital motion of test particles during a close encounter with the ith planet. The position of the Sun and planets during a close encounter is calculated using Hermite interpolation. We tested the algorithm on two contrasting problems, and compared its performance with the existing method which uses the same stepsize for all bodies (this stepsize must be significantly smaller than H to ensure the close encounters are integrated accurately). Our tests show that the integration error for the new and existing methods are comparable when the stepsizes are chosen to minimize the error, and that for this choice of stepsizes the new method requires considerably less CPU time than the existing method.

  6. Humor During Clinical Practice: Analysis of Recorded Clinical Encounters. (United States)

    Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor


    Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  7. Automatically measuring the effect of strategy drawing features on pupils' handwriting and gender (United States)

    Tabatabaey-Mashadi, Narges; Sudirman, Rubita; Guest, Richard M.; Khalid, Puspa Inayat


    Children's dynamic drawing strategies have been recently recognized as indicators of handwriting ability. However the influence of each feature in predicting handwriting is unknown due to lack of a measuring system. An automated measuring algorithm suitable for psychological assessment and non-subjective scoring is presented here. Using the weight vector and classification rate of a machine learning algorithm, an overall feature's effect is calculated which is comparable in different groupings. In this study thirteen previously detected drawing strategy features are measured for their influence on handwriting and gender. Features are extracted from drawing a triangle, Beery VMI and Bender Gestalt tangent patterns. Samples are related to 203 pupils (77 below average writers, and 101 female). The results show that the number of strokes in drawing the triangle pattern plays a major role in both groupings; however Left Tendency flag feature is affected by children's handwriting about 2.5 times greater than their gender. Experiments indicate that different forms of a feature sometimes show different influences.

  8. Sleep disturbances are associated with reduced school achievements in first-grade pupils. (United States)

    Ravid, Sarit; Afek, Iris; Suraiya, Suheir; Shahar, Eli; Pillar, Giora


    Several previous studies have demonstrated deteriorated scholastic achievements in school-aged children who experience sleep disturbances. In the current study, we examined the association between sleep disturbances during kindergarten (fifth to sixth year of children), and behavior, neurocognitive skills, as well as the children's future academic performance in first grade. The population included 98 kindergarten students who were scheduled to attend first grade. All children/parents filled out a sleep questionnaire and underwent one week of actigraphic sleep/wake study, as well as cognitive and behavioral assessments. Toward the end of first grade achievement evaluation in reading, writing, and arithmetic as well as teachers' evaluations were administrated. Of the 98 pupils, 6 failed the end of first grade's achievement tests (6.1%). When looking at their sleep patterns a year earlier, they had significantly longer sleep latencies (41 +/- 14 vs. 21 +/- 12 min, p sleep (4.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.8 +/- 1.1, p sleep efficiencies (89.5 +/- 1.1 vs. 94.3 +/- 2.7%, p sleep variables and cognitive and behavioral scores. The correlation between sleep efficiency in kindergarten and grades at the end of first year of school was r = .64 (p sleep patterns. Sleep disturbances were associated with cognitive and emotional immaturity.

  9. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton


    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  10. Pituitary apoplexy presenting with light-near dissociation of the pupils. (United States)

    Nichols, B D; Romanchuk, K G


    We describe a patient with pituitary apoplexy causing sudden visual loss and light-near dissociation of the pupils but minimal ophthalmoplegia. Good visual recovery occurred despite an 8-day delay in neurosurgical treatment.

  11. Dilemma of Basic School Pupils in Northern Ghana with respect to Their Learning Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim Abdallah


    Full Text Available Lately, basic school pupils have performed poorly in the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE as well as in their end of term examinations and this necessitated an enquiry into the phenomenon. The study used the cross-sectional study design. The sample size was 195. The study collected data using a questionnaire. Data analysis involved using descriptive statistics. The study found that largely pupils from academically performing and nonacademically performing schools have similar perceptions about causes of poor academic performance. Again, the combined effect of home and school environmental factors emerged as the major contributor to poor academic performance. The study recommends that providing a conducive home environment for the pupils, tackling pupil and teacher related factors, would help to ensure that poor academic performance is a thing of the past.

  12. Pupil Diameter Does Not Correlate with Fixation Duration - or Does It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt; Carl, Michael; Elming, Jakob


    A number of pupillometric studies have suggested that dynamic differences in pupil diameter correlate with dierent levels of cognitive intensity or excitement. Other studies have suggested a similar correlation between fixation duration and cognitive effort. Since both methodologies for hypothesi...

  13. Workshop to review problem-behavior research programs : pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety (United States)


    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop on pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety. The purpose of this workshop was to develop specific recommendations for the planning and implementation of NHTSA research, development, and d...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Education of socially disadvantaged pupils is a current issue widely discussed, especially in the context of the philosophy of inclusive education. The present article focuses on presentation of results of a research study aimed at finding out the relevance to teachers of selected determinants involved in education of socially disadvantaged pupils. For this purpose the Q-methodology was used. We found that teachers teaching at the selected elementary schools saw as the most relevant determinants of education of socially disadvantaged pupils reduced class numbers and interest of the socially disadvantaged pupils in their own education, while determinants of the teacher’s side (social environment the teacher comes from, their religious belief and race were considered less relevant.

  15. Awareness of HIV/AIDS among primary school pupils in north central region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwori EE


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among primary school pupils in north central area of Nigeria. Methods: 2 000 randomly selected primary school pupils in and around eastern part of Idoma area of Benue state were interviewed using an open-ended questionnaire. Data analysis was done with EPI-INFO 2000. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and the 0.05 level of significance was adopted. Results: A totle of 1 010 males and 990 females at ages between five and sixteen years were drawn from 10 primary schools in the area. Pupils in the higher classes were more knowledgeable and sex difference was not statistically significant. Certain misconceptions were noted. Conclusions: There is need for health education for all cadres of primary school pupils in the area, which will increase the awareness of the disease.

  16. The Relationship between Capital Investment and Pupil Performance: An Analysis by the United Kingdom. (United States)

    PEB Exchange, 2001


    Discusses a United Kingdom comparative study showing a positive link between educational capital spending and student performance. The study, which compared both qualitative and quantitative research, further reveals a positive link between capital spending and teacher and pupil motivation. (GR)

  17. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael


    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kiryk


    Full Text Available The articles describes the role of analiztor system (auditory, visual, kinesthetic at the initial stage of learning literacy and language development six years old. They from specific integration system, that provides more efficient perception, memorization and reproduction of educational material. The article deals with attempt to ascertain linguadidactic interconnections and interdependence between grammar education (reading, writing and speech of six-year pupils. Summing up it should be mentioned to organize 6-year pupils studing in the country mountain school becides pedagogical, economical, geographic and social problems psychologic linguadidactic are added. Preferences of mountain country children: –                    Formation from childhood ability to live in harmony with nature; –                    Sensitive  perception of alive and inanimate surrounding nature; –                    Life-style form children’s responsibility for entrusted things, labour habits, training by hard nature conditions. They should be solved in complex providing achievents of psychology, pedagogics, linguists and up-to-date technology. The aim of the article  - to reveal individual peculiarities of country mountain child who needs special method of approach to grammar studing as well as to help country teacher who strongly feels lack for efficient method help. All these affect on prepearing level, children’s outlook, general development. Scientific and methodogical institutions have not easy task-system training and skill raising of primary school teachers to realize State standart of primary general education. Acquaintance of country teacher with up-to-date achievements in psychologic, pedagogic and linguistic education will help him to organize his work in the country school on rather higher level as well as let him give more qualitative education services and save country school as the

  19. [Interpersonal relations in the consciousness of pupils and students]. (United States)

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Jaglarz, Małgorzata; Jaworska-Szyc, Jagoda


    The quality, satisfaction and being pleased of life depend on proper relations in the family, in the group of persons at the same age and at school or at the University. The aim of this study was the estimation of interpersonal relations in the chosen group of Cracovian secondary school pupils and medical students thanks the examinations conducted by auditory system with the use of an inquiry "Woman Self Image and Social Ideal". There were 713 persons belonging to 2 groups included in the examination: Group I: 313 pupils, including 128 boys and 185 girls attending to the second and third classes of two Cracovian secondary schools: Group II: 400 students of Medical Department and Health Protection Department of Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University in Cracow--106 male students and 294 female students. In the actual analysis the answers given to 64 questions of the "Interpersonal problems Inventory" questionnaire were estimated. Every question contained 5 possibilities: no, a little bit, more or less, much, very much. The hierarchy of these problems was estimated with the use of the method of step wise regression on the basis of the frequency of opposite answers to the particular questions. The most often the young persons stated (74%-63%) that it is never difficult for them to make a present to somebody else, to feel happy about one's happiness and to show positive emotions to others. About half of the examined persons (60%-47%) thought that they were never aggressive to others, that they never put their needs on the first position and they were not afraid of contacts with other people. In the questions connected with one's own personality determining the frequency of answers given to particular dystractors was not strongly marked e.g.: It is difficult for me to be alone: no (39%I/35%II), a little bit (18%I/16%II), moderately (13%I/11%II), much (13%I/18%II), very much (17%I/20%II); I am too credulous: no (46%I/37%II), a little bit (26%I/ 26%II), moderately (12

  20. Connection between encounter volume and diffusivity in geophysical flows (United States)

    Rypina, Irina I.; Smith, Stefan G. Llewellyn; Pratt, Larry J.


    Trajectory encounter volume - the volume of fluid that passes close to a reference fluid parcel over some time interval - has been recently introduced as a measure of mixing potential of a flow. Diffusivity is the most commonly used characteristic of turbulent diffusion. We derive the analytical relationship between the encounter volume and diffusivity under the assumption of an isotropic random walk, i.e., diffusive motion, in one and two dimensions. We apply the derived formulas to produce maps of encounter volume and the corresponding diffusivity in the Gulf Stream region of the North Atlantic based on satellite altimetry, and discuss the mixing properties of Gulf Stream rings. Advantages offered by the derived formula for estimating diffusivity from oceanographic data are discussed, as well as applications to other disciplines.

  1. N-Body simulations of tidal encounters between stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.D.; Ramamani, N.; Alladin, S.M.


    N-Body simulations have been performed to study the tidal effects of a primary stellar system on a secondary stellar system of density close to the Roche density. Two hyperbolic, one parabolic and one elliptic encounters have been simulated. The changes in energy, angular momentum, mass distribution, and shape of the secondary system have been determined in each case. The inner region containing about 40% of the mass was found to be practically unchanged and the mass exterior to the tidal radius was found to escape. The intermediate region showed tidal distension. The thickness of this region decreased as we went from hyperbolic encounters to the elliptic encounter keeping the distance of closest approach constant. The numerical results for the fractional change in energy have been compared with the predictions of the available analytic formulae and the usefulness and limitations of the formulae have been discussed. (author)

  2. Special Issue: Every picture tells a story: Pupil representations of learning the violin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Creech


    Full Text Available Abstract: The influence on learning outcomes of interpersonal interaction amongst teachers, pupils and parents is the subject of an inquiry that took this researcher on a voyage from the qualitative to the quantitative side of the “methodological divide”, and back again. This paper presents findings from first phase of the research, which included a quantitative survey to examine how learning and teaching experience for violin pupils was influenced by the interpersonal dynamics of responsiveness and control, within pupilparent and pupil-teacher relationships. As part of the survey pupils were asked to draw pictures of their violin lessons. It was thought that the pictures might reveal pupils’ perceptions of their experience of learning an instrument and that the pictures would add depth to the quantitative scales that measured interpersonal mechanisms and pupil outcomes. The pictures were subjected to content analysis and coded accordingly. These codes were matched with pupil artists’ scores for control and responsiveness, as well as with their scores for outcomes that included enjoyment of music, personal satisfaction, self esteem, self efficacy, friendship, motivation and musical attainment. Analysis of variance was computed in order to test the null hypotheses that a pupil-teacher-parent interpersonal behaviour (control and responsiveness was not represented in their pictures and b pupil outcomes were not reflected in their depictions of violin lessons. This paper presents the results of this analysis, thus addressing the question of whether the pictures could be accepted as telling a credible and coherent story about pupils’ perceptions of learning the violin.

  3. Constructivist Instructional Strategy and Pupils' Achievement and Attitude Towards Primary Science


    E.N. Etuk; G.K. Etuk; E. Etudor-Eyo; J. Samuel


    The study investigated a constructivist instructional strategy and pupils’ achievement in and attitude towards primary science. The population was 650 Basic-5 pupils in 21 public primary schools in Western Senatorial District of Rivers State, Nigeria. The sample of 180 pupils was drawn from four intact classes from four schools in the area. Primary Science Achievement Test (PAST) and Primary Science Attitude Scale (PSAS) were the instruments used for the study. Test-retest reliability coeffic...

  4. The use of mnemonics as the way to help the pupils with specific learning difficulties


    Juretič, Sara


    The purpose of this diploma thesis is to examine and present the usefulness of mnemonics in working with pupils with specific learning difficulties. It also aims to determine how certain factors such as learning styles, strengths, certain memory structures and the characteristics of pupils with specific learning difficulties, affect the choice of methods and techniques of memorizing. The diploma thesis also presents mnemonics that can be used as one of the approaches in dealing and working...

  5. Swimming level of pupils from elementary schools with own swimming pool


    Zálupská, Klára


    Title: Swimming level of pupils from primary school with private swimming pool. Work objectives: The aim is to identify assess level of swimming of pupils from first to ninth grade of primary school with a private pool in Chomutov district using continuous swimming test with regular swimming lessons, which is started in the first grade and persists until the ninth grade. The condition was organizing a school swimming lessons once a week for 45 minutes in all grades. Methodology: Swimming leve...

  6. Blue and Red Light-Evoked Pupil Responses in Photophobic Subjects with TBI. (United States)

    Yuhas, Phillip T; Shorter, Patrick D; McDaniel, Catherine E; Earley, Michael J; Hartwick, Andrew T E


    Photophobia is a common symptom in individuals suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent evidence has implicated blue light-sensitive intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in contributing to the neural circuitry mediating photophobia in migraine sufferers. The goal of this work is to test the hypothesis that ipRGC function is altered in TBI patients with photophobia by assessing pupillary responses to blue and red light. Twenty-four case participants (mean age 43.3; 58% female), with mild TBI and self-reported photophobia, and 12 control participants (mean age 42.6; 58% female) were in this study. After 10 minutes of dark adaptation, blue (470 nm, 1 × 10 phots/s/cm) and red (625 nm, 7 × 10 phots/s/cm) flashing (0.1 Hz) light stimuli were delivered for 30 seconds to the dilated left eye while the right pupil was recorded. The amplitude of normalized pupil fluctuation (constriction and dilation) was quantified using Fourier fast transforms. In both case and control participants, the amplitude of pupil fluctuation was significantly less for the blue light stimuli as compared to the red light stimuli, consistent with a contribution of ipRGCs to these pupil responses. There was no significant difference in the mean pupil fluctuation amplitudes between the two participant groups, but case participants displayed greater variability in their pupil responses to the blue stimulus. Case and control participants showed robust ipRGC-mediated components in their pupil responses to blue light. The results did not support the hypothesis that ipRGCs are "hypersensitive" to light in TBI participants with photophobia. However, greater pupil response variability in the case subjects suggests that ipRGC function may be more heterogeneous in this group.

  7. The Opininons of Primary School Teachers Concerning Administrators’ Leardership Behaviors and Pupil Control Ideologies


    Yılmaz, Kürşad


    The aim of this study is to find out the opinions of primary school teachers concerning administrators’ leardership behaviors and pupil control ideologies. It is a survey type study. In order to collect the necessary data, Leadership Behaviors Scale and Pupil Control Ideologies Scale were used. There were 322 teachers from the primary schools at the city center of Kütahya as the population of the study. Deterministic analysis and corelation analysis were used for the analysis of the data. Acc...

  8. Disorders in melanopsin effect of pupil constriction as a risk factor causing eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov


    Full Text Available Risks of eye damage and eyesight deterioration to a great extent depend on how efficient a biomechanical eye system is under energy-saving lighting conditions. The system's efficiency is determined by its adequacy in managing pupils and ciliary muscle. We analyzed mathematical models describing changes in pupil's diameter which were determined by light-technical parameters of illumination environment (luminance level and brightness. We highlighted the importance of ganglionic cells and the role they play in managing pupil's diameter (miosis when they are exposed to blue light within 480 nm spectrum. Basing on the assessment of a pupil's constriction under exposure to various light stimuli (blue, red, and green ones we worked out a melanopsin effect concept of a pupil's retention at miosis and showed that it could be a diagnostic sign of some diseases (age-related direct retinopathy, pancreatic diabetes under exposure to a blue light impulse with a certain wave length. Under exposure to blue light within 480 nm spectrum ganglionic cells form a managing signal for a sphincter muscle of a pupil and ciliary muscle which provides accommodation (as per Helmholtz and regulates aqueous humor flow in ciliary channel. All modern energy-saving light sources have a low energy level at wave length equal to 480 nm due to gap in their spectrum in comparison with sunlight spectrum with the same light temperature and luminance level. Inadequate management of pupil's diameter under artificial lighting conditions leads to melanopsin effect disorders and causes disharmony in managing aqueous humor outflow. All the above-stated factors under long-term visual load cause eye diseases risks in modern illumination environment. We detected that contemporary mathematic models describing pupil's diameter fluctuations needed to be refined allowing for new knowledge on functional peculiarities of retina cells and energy-saving light sources spectrum.

  9. Fine-grained versus categorical: Pupil size differentiates between strategies for spatial working memory performance. (United States)

    Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega


    Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Impact of teachers' feedback on pupils' self-concept in foreign language


    Premože, Alja


    The progression of pupils in their reading development and the creation of their reading self-concept depends to a large extent on the feedback of teachers to pupils about their reading and performance. On the other hand incentives, praise and other content feedback provide students with an explanation of their own mistakes and the creation of reading self-concept. On the other hand, students who have negative responses from the social environment can have many problems. When they have poor r...

  11. The methods of confronting violence committed by pupils and students against pedagogical workers


    Kramar, Tjaša


    The M.A. thesis discusses the problem of violence committed by pupils and students against pedagogical workers; to be specific, it discusses how the pedagogical workers confront different types of violence committed by pupils and students. The primary goals of the thesis are to explore the pedagogical workers' experiences with a certain type of violence and to contribute to an increased visibility and understanding of the problem. In the theoretical part of the thesis a variety of definitions...

  12. Behavioral responses to encounter of fishing boats in wandering albatrosses. (United States)

    Collet, Julien; Patrick, Samantha C; Weimerskirch, Henri


    Animals are attracted to human food subsidies worldwide. The behavioral response of individuals to these resources is rarely described in detail, beyond chances of encounters. Seabirds for instance scavenge in large numbers at fishing boats, triggering crucial conservation issues, but how the response to boats varies across encounters is poorly known. Here we examine the behavioral response of wandering albatrosses ( Diomedea exulans ), equipped with GPS tags, to longline fishing boats operating near their colony for which we had access to vessel monitoring system data. We distinguish between encounters (flying within 30 km of a boat) and attendance behavior (sitting on the sea within 3 km of a boat), and examine factors affecting each. In particular, we test hypotheses that the response to encountered boats should vary with sex and age in this long-lived dimorphic species. Among the 60% trips that encountered boats at least once, 80% of them contained attendance (but attendance followed only 60% of each single encounter). Birds were more attracted and remained attending longer when boats were hauling lines, despite the measures enforced by this fleet to limit food availability during operations. Sex and age of birds had low influence on the response to boats, except the year when fewer boats came fishing in the area, and younger birds were attending further from boats compared to older birds. Net mass gain of birds was similar across sex and not affected by time spent attending boats. Our results indicate albatrosses extensively attend this fishery, with no clear advantages, questioning impacts on foraging time budgets. Factors responsible for sex foraging segregation at larger scale seem not to operate at this fleet near the colony and are not consistent with predictions of optimal foraging theory on potential individual dominance asymmetries. This approach complements studies of large-scale overlap of animals with human subsidies.

  13. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone


    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  14. Lesbians on Medical Encounters: Tales of Heteronormativity, Deception, and Expectations. (United States)

    Marques, António Manuel; Nogueira, Conceição; de Oliveira, João Manuel


    The experiences of lesbian women in medical encounters prove particularly relevant for understanding their difficulties in their relationship with professionals and health services. We carried out semistructured interviews with 30 women aged 21 to 63 years, who define themselves as lesbian. The analysis highlights the difficulties experienced in disclosure of sexuality in medical encounters, the tendency for doctors to come across as heteronormative, and also medical practices experienced as appropriate by interviewees. Analysis of participant experiences demonstrates the need for reflection and decision making to promote the recognition of the sexual citizenship of lesbian women and their empowerment.

  15. Shaped pupil Lyot coronagraphs: high-contrast solutions for restricted focal planes (United States)

    Zimmerman, Neil T.; Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Carlotti, Alexis; Vanderbei, Robert J.


    Coronagraphs of the apodized pupil and shaped pupil varieties use the Fraunhofer diffraction properties of amplitude masks to create regions of high contrast in the vicinity of a target star. Here we present a hybrid coronagraph architecture in which a binary, hard-edged shaped pupil mask replaces the gray, smooth apodizer of the apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC). For any contrast and bandwidth goal in this configuration, as long as the prescribed region of contrast is restricted to a finite area in the image, a shaped pupil is the apodizer with the highest transmission. We relate the starlight cancellation mechanism to that of the conventional APLC. We introduce a new class of solutions in which the amplitude profile of the Lyot stop, instead of being fixed as a padded replica of the telescope aperture, is jointly optimized with the apodizer. Finally, we describe shaped pupil Lyot coronagraph (SPLC) designs for the baseline architecture of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) coronagraph. These SPLCs help to enable two scientific objectives of the WFIRST-AFTA mission: (1) broadband spectroscopy to characterize exoplanet atmospheres in reflected starlight and (2) debris disk imaging.

  16. Effect of pupil size on visual acuity in a laboratory model of pseudophakic monovision. (United States)

    Kawamorita, Takushi; Uozato, Hiroshi; Handa, Tomoya; Ito, Misae; Shimizu, Kimiya


    To investigate the effect of pupil size on visual acuity in pseudophakic monovision. For the simulation, a modified Liou-Brennan model eye was used. The model eye was designed to include a centered optical system, corneal asphericity, an iris pupil, a Stiles-Crawford effect, an intraocular lens, and chromatic aberration. Calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) was performed with ZEMAX software. Visual acuity was estimated from the MTF and the retinal threshold curve. The sizes of the entrance pupil were 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0 mm. Decreasing pupil diameter and increasing myopia progressively improved near visual acuity. For an entrance pupil size of 2.5 mm and a refractive error of -1.50 diopters, the logMAR value (Snellen; metric) in the non-dominant eye at 40 cm was 0.06 (20/23; 6/6.9). Knowledge of the patient's pupil diameter at near fixation can assist surgeons in determining the optimum degree of myopia for successful monovision.

  17. Teachers' perceptions of academic failure: Is it worth to bother about unsuccesful pupils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinić Dušica


    Full Text Available We analyzed the convictions of the teachers about scholastic failure and their perception of the activities they use in work with unsuccessful pupils. The theoretical basis for our research was the belief that there is a connection between the teacher's convictions and their everyday practices. The aim was to examine: 1 the teachers' convictions about the nature of academic failure, traits of the failing students, adequacy of after-class sessions and group work in overcoming the problem of academic failure, and 2 the teachers' perception of their own responsibility and engagement in supporting failing pupils. A set of parametric statistical techniques was used to analyze the responses of 1441 elementary-school teachers to the items related to academic failure in the questionnaire about current school problems. The results show that 1 the teachers have optimistic convictions about cognitive abilities of failing pupils and see after-class sessions as a good opportunity to work with them; they state that 2 they additionally prepare classes for work with failing pupils and stimulate them during regular classes and believe that failing pupils are successful in outdoor activities; 3 they have no definite opinion about the role of the teacher and adequacy of group work in overcoming the problem. The concluding observations stress the need for a detailed analysis of the activities based on the teacher's convictions about academic failure and support to failing pupils.

  18. Monitoring risk behaviour in adolescent pupils regarding consumption of psychoactive substances. (United States)

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Klimberg, Aneta; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Diatczyk, Jarosław; Urbaniak, Monika; Ulatowska-Szostak, Ewa; Bołdowski, Tomasz; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T


    Introduction. Taking psychoactive substances constitutes a significant problem for Public Health, particularly in preventing drug abuse and addiction. Objectives. To estimate the amount and incidence of drug consumption in middle and high school pupils, including the circumstances in which drug taking first started, and to determine pupils' knowledge about the consequences of taking psychoactive substances and designer drugs (DDs). Materials and methods. A randomised study was conducted throughout Poland on 9,360 pupils attending middle school (junior high school) in 2009 and 7,971 pupils from middle and high school pupils in 2011. The survey consisted of a questionnaire devised by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS) and the replies obtained were subject to the relevant statistical analyses. Results. Drug taking was found to have increased between 2009-2011, especially among those attending high school; proportionally rising from 4% - 11%. The numbers who had ever taken designer drugs were 3% for middle school pupils and 4% from high school. Conclusions. 1) Adolescent drug consumption has increased, particularly in those of older age and in boys. 2) Despite the only brief interval for which designer drugs were legal, they have gained high popularity among the young. 3) Adolescents have insufficient knowledge about the dangers of using DDs. 4) Faced with the growing threat of a dynamic designer drug market, appropriate counter-measures in education and prevention are therefore necessary.

  19. Pupil dilation reveals top-down attentional load during spatial monitoring. (United States)

    Lisi, Matteo; Bonato, Mario; Zorzi, Marco


    It has long been known that the diameter of human pupil enlarges with increasing effort during the execution of a task. This has been observed not only for purely mechanical effort but also for mental effort, as for example the computation of arithmetic problems with different levels of difficulty. Here we show that pupil dilation reflects changes in visuospatial awareness induced by attentional load during multi-tasking. In the single-task condition, participants had to report the position of lateralized, briefly presented, masked visual targets ("right", "left", or "both" sides). In the multitasking conditions, participants also performed additional tasks, either visual or auditory, to increase the attentional load. Sensory stimulation was kept constant across all conditions to rule out the influence of low-level factors. Results show that event-related pupil dilation strikingly increased with task demands, mirroring a concurrent decrease in visuospatial awareness. Importantly, pupil dilation significantly differed between two dual-task conditions that required to process the same number of stimuli but yielded differed levels of accuracy (difficulty). In contrast, pupil dilation did not differ between two conditions which were equally challenging but differed both in the modality of the dual task (auditory vs. visual) and in the number of stimuli to be attended. We conclude that pupil dilation genuinely reflects the top-down allocation of supramodal attentional resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pattern of ocular trauma among primary school pupils in Ilorin, Nigeria. (United States)

    Ayanniyi, A A; Mahmoud, O A; Olatunji, F O; Ayanniyi, R O


    To report the pattern of ocular trauma among school pupils in Ilorin, Nigeria, a cross sectional survey of primary school children in 10 randomly selected primary schools within Ilorin, Nigeria was carried out between July 2005 and January 2006. Relevant ocular history and basic ocular examinations were carried out on the children that were selected from a multi-stage sampling process. Diagnosis of ocular trauma was based on historical recollection together with corroborating ocular signs among affected pupils. Ocular trauma was found among 11 (8 boys and 3 girls) out of 1393 (0.8%) pupils and their ages ranged from 5 to 13 years. The trauma related ocular pathology found among the 11 pupils included unilateral phthisis bulbi (2, 0.14%), couching (1, 0.07%) and retinal detachment (1, 0.07%) all leading to blindness in the affected eyes. There was also a unilateral visual impairment caused by traumatic optic atrophy. Others included eyelid bruises (2, 0.14%) and one pupil (0.07%) each with hyphema, eyelid ecchymosis, eyelid laceration, and subconjunctival haemorrhage. The ocular trauma occurred following unsupervised play (4, 36.40%), corporal punishment at school and at home (3, 27.30%), fight (2, 18.20%), home accident (1, 9.10%) and couching (1, 9.10%). School pupils can lose vision to preventable traumatic eye injuries both at school and at home. Measures to minimize ocular trauma both in the home and at school are advocated.

  1. Pupil Size Tracks Attentional Performance In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (United States)

    Wainstein, G; Rojas-Líbano, D; Crossley, N A; Carrasco, X; Aboitiz, F; Ossandón, T


    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task. A sub group of ADHD children performed the task twice, with and without methylphenidate, a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Off-medication patients showed a decreased pupil diameter during the task. This difference was no longer present when patients were on-medication. Pupil size correlated with the subjects' performance and reaction time variability, two vastly studied indicators of attention. Furthermore, this effect was modulated by medication. Through pupil size, we provide evidence of an involvement of the noradrenergic system during an attentional task. Our results suggest that pupil size could serve as a biomarker in ADHD.

  2. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi. (United States)

    Ruhagaze, Patrick; Njuguna, Kahaki Kimani Margaret; Kandeke, Lévi; Courtright, Paul


    To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%), followed by lens pathology (18.3%), uveal lesions (14.7%) and optic nerve lesions (11.9%). In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%). More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  3. Association of pupil vandalism, bullying and truancy with teachers' absence due to illness: a multilevel analysis. (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Puusniekka, Riikka; Luopa, Pauliina; Pentti, Jaana; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna


    The aim of this study was to examine whether vandalism, bullying, and truancy among pupils at school are associated with absence due to illness among teachers. Data on such problem behaviour of 17,033 pupils in 90 schools were linked to absence records of 2364 teachers. Pupil reported vandalism and bullying at the school-level were associated with teachers' short-term (1- to 3-day) absences. Cumulative exposure to various forms of pupils' problem behaviour was associated with even higher rates of short-term absences among teachers. No association was found between pupils' problem behaviour and teachers' long-term (>3-day) absences. In conclusion, there seems to be a link between pupils' problem behaviour and teachers' short-term absence due to illness. Further work should determine whether problem behaviour is a cause or a consequence of absences or whether the association is noncausal. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pupil dilation indicates the coding of past prediction errors: Evidence for attentional learning theory. (United States)

    Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald


    The attentional learning theory of Pearce and Hall () predicts more attention to uncertain cues that have caused a high prediction error in the past. We examined how the cue-elicited pupil dilation during associative learning was linked to such error-driven attentional processes. In three experiments, participants were trained to acquire associations between different cues and their appetitive (Experiment 1), motor (Experiment 2), or aversive (Experiment 3) outcomes. All experiments were designed to examine differences in the processing of continuously reinforced cues (consistently followed by the outcome) versus partially reinforced, uncertain cues (randomly followed by the outcome). We measured the pupil dilation elicited by the cues in anticipation of the outcome and analyzed how this conditioned pupil response changed over the course of learning. In all experiments, changes in pupil size complied with the same basic pattern: During early learning, consistently reinforced cues elicited greater pupil dilation than uncertain, randomly reinforced cues, but this effect gradually reversed to yield a greater pupil dilation for uncertain cues toward the end of learning. The pattern of data accords with the changes in prediction error and error-driven attention formalized by the Pearce-Hall theory. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Russification of non-Estonian pupils in Tallinn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Rannut


    Full Text Available In the article home languages, their qualities and use by pupils in grades 2 to 5 in Tallinn are analyzed. Two larger and more characteristic groups (Ukrainians and Belarusians and two groups with Islamic backgrounds (Azerbaijanis and Tatars were compared with the aim of analysing different language loss and preservation factors. Although Ukrainians and Belarusians form much larger ethnic groups within Estonia, they have not managed to preserve their language anywhere near as successfully as the Azerbaijanis and Tatars. Comparison of the data suggests that language preservation in Estonia and the ability to withstand Russification are most influenced by the degree of difference of the language from Russian and the religious difference from the Russian Orthodox faith (and Soviet era atheism. Home languages are characterised by their use mainly in the verbal form, with skills in the literary language generally low or even non-existent. Languages are for the most part learned informally, primarily through communication with parents and/or grandparents. The result is a supersaturated vernacular with a large degree of variation and loans from superstratum languages which falls far from the standard of the language in question.DOI:

  6. Neuropsychological intervention in dyslexia: two studies on British pupils. (United States)

    Robertson, J


    The theoretical context of this research is developmental neuropsychology--in particular, the educational implications for the classification of and intervention in specific developmental dyslexia (SDD). Controlled and validated research can help identify optimal teaching methods for groups and individuals. Within this framework, neuropsychological theory can be explored as a medium for improving intervention for pupils with SDD. Neuropsychological stimulation cannot change the macro aspects of the brain but can change its "finetuning" and its response to written text. Within the psycho-neurological approaches, Bakker (1979, 1990, 1998) developed both a diagnostic procedure and empirically investigated intervention procedures. The theory rests on the Balance Model of learning to read, in which differential hemisphere involvement is implicated in beginning and advanced reading. Intervention can take place via hemisphere-specific stimulation using visual or tactile stimulation or hemisphere-alluding stimulation using modified text. Two investigations are presented, one experimental and another clinical. The results support the validity of dyslexia subtyping and the effectiveness of the treatment methods.

  7. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique (United States)

    Spanò, P.


    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc CANKAR


    Full Text Available Introduction: In the last years, the demand to include children with special needs in the mainstream kindergartens and schools in Slovenia has grown. This brought with it the need for changing the role of the special schools and institutes for children with special needs and for their transformation into resource centres. Methodology: We pilot tested a resource centre for support of blind and visually impaired children. We included 15 educational institutes and one blind or visually impaired pupil from each institute. Data were collected at the beginning of the school year 2010/11, and at the end of the school year 2011/12. In both cases the same instruments were used, which made comparison of the collected data possible. Results: The results have shown progress in the development of competences, attitudes, and rehabilitation competences in the participants of the study. Discussion: The results confirmed the efficiency of the initially designed model. By investing into its staff capacity building, we expect that the centre will gain recognition and increase its quality. In this way, it will be able to realise its developmentally-supportive role for the children with visual disability in Slovenia.

  9. Efektivitas Penambahan Natrium Diklofenak terhadap Larutan Obat Dilatasi Pupil pada Pasien Retinopati Diabetik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief S. Kartasasmita


    Full Text Available Pemeriksaan fundus memerlukan akses visualisasi yang baik. Pada penderita diabetes melitus, pupil sulit lebar menggunakan obat pelebar pupil standar sehingga perlu ditambahkan agen pelebar pupil. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Rumah Sakit Mata Cicendo periode Januari sampai Juli 2014 menggunakan metode double masked rendomized cotrolled trial terhadap 64 mata dari 32 subjek penelitian yang telah didiagnosis menderita retinopati diabetika dengan tingkat yang sama antara mata kiri dan kanan. Dibuat larutan kombinasi campuran 10 mL tropikamid 0,5%/fenilefrin 0,5%, 10 mL fenilefrin 5% dan 10 ml 0,1% Na diklofenak (larutan I dan campuran 10 mL tropikamid 0,5%/fenilefrin 0,5%, dan 10 mL fenilefrin 5% (larutan II. Setiap subjek mendapat salah satu larutan pada mata dan larutan yang lain pada sebelahnya secara acak. Dilakukan pemantauan dengan cara memotret pupil pada menit ke-15, 20, dan 25 pada kedua mata. Lebar pupil kedua kelompok perlakuan diukur dengan perangkat lunak khusus (image processing. Dari penenelitian terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara penggunaan larutan I dan larutan II dalam melebarkan pupil baik pada menit ke-15 (t=2,02; p=0,047, menit ke 20 (t=2,23; p=0,029, dan pada menit ke-25 (t=2,041; p=0,045. Larutan kombinasi fenilefrin, tropikamid, dan natrium diklofenak menghasilkan efek dilatasi pupil yang lebih baik dibanding dengan larutan kombinasi fenilefrin dan tropikamid saja pada kasus retinopati diabetes. [MKB. 2017;49(3:199–207] Kata kunci: Dilatasi pupil, natrium diklofenak, retinopati diabetika Effectiveness of Sodium Diclofenac Addition to Pupil Dilatation Agent on Diabetic Retinopathy Patients Fundus examination requires good visualization of fundus. In diabetic patients, it is difficult for the pupil to dilate using the standard pupilarry dilating agent. To achieve proper dilation, special agents have to be added to the standard dilation agent. The study was conducted in Cicendo Eye Hospital from January to July 2014, using

  10. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  11. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  12. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy. (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K


    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  13. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses. (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.


    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  14. 'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    otherness of a text into the sameness of the prejudices and traditions projected by the preunderstanding in order to understand. This essay poses the hermeneutical objective of validity in interpretation by advocating an encounter with the otherness of the text that is orientated to the speech performance of the author, as it is ...

  15. Analysis of Problems Encountered during the Rehabilitation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rehabilitation is of paramount importance to reduce the physical and neuropsychological disabilities due to stroke. The outcome depends on the severity of the impairment, the cultural and economic factor. Objective To evaluate the current rehabilitation practice in Abidjan with the aim of identifying problems encountered ...

  16. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van


    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  17. Therapists' Perceptions of Their Encounter With Sex Offenders. (United States)

    Elias, Haneen; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M


    Despite the increasing interest in therapists' responses to their encounter with sex offenders, there is a lack of research on their subjective perceptions of this encounter and on their experience working with this client population. The study presented in this article is part of a larger qualitative research project conducted among 19 social workers (12 were women and 7 were men; their ages ranged from 30 to 66 years; 15 of them were Jewish and 4 were Arab). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to examine their attitudes toward and perceptions of their encounter with sex offenders. The questions related to the therapists' perceptions regarding motives for committing sex offenses, therapists' perceptions of sex offenders, therapists' perceptions of the victims of sex offenders, and therapists' perceptions of the nature of their professional role. In this article, emphasis is placed on the development and changes of the therapists' perceptions following that encounter. The following five major domains of perceptions were revealed in the study: Therapists' perceptions of the offenders' personal motives for committing sex offenses, therapists' perceptions of sex offenders, therapists' perceptions of the experience of victimization, the process of changing perceptions, and the nature of the therapists' role. The results are discussed in light of Ajzen's conceptualization of the process of acquiring beliefs. The limitations of the study as well as its implications for future research and for shaping the perceptions of therapists toward sex offenders are discussed.

  18. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters (United States)

    Asan, Onur


    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  19. Problems encountered by teenage mothers in the southern Hho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research approach was followed to study the problems experienced by teenage mothers in the southern Hho-Hho region of Swaziland. The findings of transcribed in-depth individual interviews indicated that the major problem encountered by the participants was the lack ...

  20. Encountering Gender in Student Life at UDSM: Chrester Tells Her ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article tells the life history of a young female student, Chrester, as she enjoyed her life while encountering gender contradictions throughout her student life during 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s at the University of Dar es Salaam. The narration covers the age of naiveté as well as her mature age as a senior student.