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Sample records for previously analyzed proterozoic

  1. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  2. Introduction: The Proterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Gregory S.; McKay, Christopher P.; McMenamin, Mark A. S.

    The Proterozoic (2.5 Ga-545 Ma) is perhaps the most intriguing period in Earth's history. In a typical high school physical science textbook it may be presented as a rather boring period that today's student is happy to pass over in lieu of the Mesozoic and the extinction of Tyrannosaurus rex by a large asteroid. In reality this was a period full of excitement as it opens (in the PalaeoProterozoic) with low-latitude glaciation in concert with a rise in atmospheric oxygen. The Proterozoic ends with a glacial period and a possible rise in atmospheric oxygen levels. Other highlights of the Proterozoic include: three or more severe glacial events, a long period (1 billion years) of apparent warmth without evidence of glacial deposits, significant fluctuations in δC13, two or more periods where supercontinents were assembled, cap carbonates, banded iron formations, the rise of eukaryotes and the first complex life. The juxtaposition of extreme climate conditions and major evolutionary change among complex organisms during the Proterozoic is particularly puzzling, and begs the following question: What are the factors controlling the appearance of complex life?

  3. Eumetazoan Fossils in Terminal Proterozoic Phosphorites?

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xunlai; Xiao, Shuhai; Knoll, Andrew Herbert

    2000-01-01

    Phosphatic sedimentary rocks preserve a record of early animal life different from and complementary to that provided by Ediacaran fossils in terminal Proterozoic sandstones and shales. Phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation, South China, contain eggs, egg cases, and stereoblastulae that document animals of unspecified phylogenetic position; small fossils containing putative spicules may specifically record the presence of sponges. Microfossils recently interpreted a...

  4. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Vindhyan basin is a classic example of Proterozoic intracontinental basin that developed in the central part of the Indian shield along with several other basins such as Cuddapah,Chattisgarh,etc.The strata are exposed in three major sectors:Son valley,Bundelkhand and Rajasthan. Substantially thick Vindhyan rocks ...

  5. Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    57

    Proterozoic A-type granites in parts of Madurai district, Tamil Nadu: Implications on uranium, rare earth, rare metal ... Key words: Southern Granulite Terrain, Cauvery Suture Zone, I-type and A-type granites, Neoproterozoic ...... I-S type characteristic in the Main Range Granite, Peninsular Malaysia; J. Asian Earth Sci.

  6. Eumetazoan fossils in terminal Proterozoic phosphorites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuhai; Yuan, Xunlai; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2000-01-01

    Phosphatic sedimentary rocks preserve a record of early animal life different from and complementary to that provided by Ediacaran fossils in terminal Proterozoic sandstones and shales. Phosphorites of the Doushantuo Formation, South China, contain eggs, egg cases, and stereoblastulae that document animals of unspecified phylogenetic position; small fossils containing putative spicules may specifically record the presence of sponges. Microfossils recently interpreted as the preserved gastrulae of cnidarian and bilaterian metazoans can alternatively be interpreted as conventional algal cysts and/or egg cases modified by diagenetic processes known to have had a pervasive influence on Doushantuo phosphorites. Regardless of this interpretation, evidence for Doushantuo eumetazoans is provided by millimeter-scale tubes that display tabulation and apical budding characteristic of some Cnidaria, especially the extinct tabulates. Like some Ediacaran remains, these small, benthic, colonial fossils may represent stem-group eumetazoans or stem-group cnidarians that lived in the late Proterozoic ocean. PMID:11095754

  7. Exceptional preservation of fossils in an Upper Proterozoic shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, N. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Swett, K.

    1988-01-01

    An exceptionally well-preserved and distinctive assemblage of Late Proterozoic fossils from subtidal marine shales is reported. In addition to the spheromorphic acritarchs and cyanobacteria sheaths routinely preserved in Proterozoic rocks, this assemblage includes multicellular algae, a diverse assortment of morphologically complex protistan vesicles, and probable heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, it provides one of the clearest and most taxonomically varied views of Proterozoic life yet reported.

  8. Sediment production and evolution of Proterozoic carbonate platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotzinger, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    The development of early Proterozoic platforms was broadly similar to the growth of Phanerozoic platforms, although in detail, early Proterozoic platforms differ significantly from Phanerozoic and even middle to late Proterozoic platforms. Specific unresolved problems include the sources and mechanisms of early Proterozoic carbonate production, environmental versus biologic control on stromatolite morphology/microfabric, and temporal restriction of unique facies. Major sites of early Proterozoic carbonate production include stromatolite reefs, tidal flats, and early cementation of most facies. Carbonate production was prolific, marine cements were locally precipitated directly on the sea floor, and widespread sheets of tufa (precipitated crusts including microdigitate stromatolites) formed on tidal flats. Cyanobacteria probably induced carbonate precipitation during CO/sub 2/ degassing related to photosynthesis. The decline of microdigitate stromatolites and other nonstromatolitic forms of tufa at the end of the early Proterozoic is interpreted to reflect a long-term evolution of Precambrian sea water and perhaps atmospheric pCO/sub 2/. Other important features of early Proterozoic platforms include the absence of bedded (massive) gypsum before 1.2 Ga, the occurrence of abundant halite casts in many sequences with rare or absent gypsum/anhydrite casts, the absence of important Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits, the abundance of tidal-flat chert, and ubiquitous fine-grained dolomite. Collectively these observations suggest that early Proterozoic sea water alkalinity was increased, possibly due to much higher values of total inorganic carbon in sea water such that HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exceeded 2Ca/sup + +/; this may have resulted from higher atmospheric pCO/sub 2/ relative to younger Proterozoic and Phanerozoic pCO/sub 2/, although other possibilities exist.

  9. Microfossils' diversity from the Proterozoic Taoudeni Basin, Mauritania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, Jérémie; Houzay, Jean-Pierre; Blanpied, Christian; Javaux, Emmanuelle

    2014-05-01

    Prokaryotes and microscopic eukaryotes are known to have appeared well before the Cambrian's adaptative radiation which flourished perceptibly as a generalized macroscopic world. What do we know about the trigger events which stimulated eukaryotic diversification during the Proterozoic? Biological innovations or environmental changes, and indeed probably both (Knoll et al., 2006), played a fundamental role controlling this important step of life's evolution on Earth. Javaux (2011), proposed a diversification pattern of early eukaryotes divided into three steps and focusing on different taxonomic levels, from stem group to within crown group, of the domain Eukarya. Here, we present a new, exquisitely preserved and morphologically diverse assemblage of organic-walled microfossils from the 1.1 Ga El Mreiti Group of the Taoudeni Basin (Mauritania). The assemblage includes beautifully preserved microbial mats comprising pyritized filaments, prokaryotic filamentous sheaths and filaments, microfossils of uncertain biological affinity including smooth isolated and colonial sphaeromorphs (eukaryotes and/or prokaryotes), diverse protists (ornamented and process-bearing acritarchs), as well multicellular microfossils interpreted in the literature as possible xanthophyte algae. Several taxa are reported for the first time in Africa, but are known worldwide. This study improves microfossil diversity previously reported by Amard (1986) and shows purported xanthophyte algae contrary to a previous biomarker study suggesting the absence of eukaryotic algae, other than acritarchs, in the basin (Blumenberg et al., 2012). This new microfossil assemblage and others provide, all together, evidences of early and worldwide diversification of eukaryotes. Thereby, those first qualitative results also provide a basis for further and larger quantitative studies on the Taoudeni Basin. To better understand the palaeobiology (stem or crown group, aerobic or anaerobic metabolism) and

  10. Geochronology and geochemistry of upper proterozoic granites from Southern Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.; Vancini, K.R.B.; Cadoppi, P.; Sacchi, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Upper Proterozoic basement of Benin, like that of nearby Nigeria and like the polycyclic basement of Central Hoggar, belongs to the hinterland of the Pharusian Chain (Pan-African Trans-Saharan Belt) generated by the collision between the (passive) margin of the West African craton and the (reactivated) margin of the Tuareg Shield and its southern extension. Rb-Sr dating of sub alkaline, meta-aluminums, syn-Kinematic granite forming tabular bodies near Dassa-Zoume and near Save yielded two WR isochron ages of 650 ± 35 Ma (I.R. = 0.7043) and 705 ± 70 Ma (I.R. = 0.7045). Emplacement of these bodies was clearly controlled by trans current movements along the Kandi Fault System. The analyzed granites are comparable with those of Central Hoggar and North-Central Nigeria on the ground of field, geochronological and geochemical data; they also display some affinities with the late-tectonic granites of the Adrar des Iforas. They are expected to find their Brazilian continuation in the Chaval Granitoids west of Fortaleza, but data for comparison are inadequate. (author)

  11. A model for the oceanic mass balance of rhenium and implications for the extent of Proterozoic ocean anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Alex I.; Kendall, Brian; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Creaser, Robert A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bekker, Andrey; Poulton, Simon W.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2018-04-01

    cycle and a higher temporal resolution for the Re compilation will enable further tests of these hypotheses regarding changes in the surficial Re geochemical cycle in response to variations in atmosphere-ocean oxygenation. Nevertheless, the existing Re compilation and model results are in agreement with previous Cr, Mo, and U evidence for pervasively anoxic and ferruginous conditions in mid-Proterozoic oceans.

  12. Paleosol at the Archean–Proterozoic contact in NW India revisited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India Memoir 79 339p. Holland H D 1992 Distribution and paleoenvironment inter- pretation of Proterozoic paleosols; In: The Proterozoic. Biosphere, (eds) Schopf J W and Klein C (Cambridge. Univ. Press) 153–155. Holland H D 1994 Early Proterozoic atmospheric change; In: Early Life on Earth, Noble Symposium, (ed.) ...

  13. Evolving provenance in the Proterozoic Pranhita-Godavari Basin, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeni Amarasinghe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pranhita-Godavari Basin in central eastern India is one of the Proterozoic “Purāna” basins of cratonic India. New geochronology demonstrates that it has a vast depositional history of repeated basin reactivation from the Palaeoproterozoic to the Mesozoic. U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry dating of detrital zircons from two samples of the Somanpalli Group—a member of the oldest sedimentary cycle in the valley—constrains its depositional age to ∼1620 Ma and demonstrates a tripartite age provenance with peaks at ∼3500 Ma, ∼2480 Ma and ∼1620 Ma, with minor age peaks in the Eoarchaean (∼3.8 Ga and at ∼2750 Ma. These ages are consistent with palaeocurrent data suggesting a southerly source from the Krishna Province and Enderby Land in East Antarctica. The similarity in the maximum depositional age with previously published authigenic glauconite ages suggest that the origin of the Pranhita-Godvari Graben originated as a rift that formed at a high angle to the coeval evolving late Meosproterozoic Krishna Province as Enderby Land collided with the Dharwar craton of India. In contrast, detrital zircons from the Cycle III Sullavai Group red sandstones yielded a maximum depositional age of 970 ± 20 Ma and had age peaks of ∼2550 Ma, ∼1600 Ma and then a number of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons terminating in three analyses at ∼970 Ma. The provenance of these is again consistent with a southerly source from the Eastern Ghats Orogen and Antarctica. Later cycles of deposition include the overlying Albaka/Usur Formations and finally the late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic Gondwana Supergroup.

  14. Folds in multilayered rocks of Proterozoic age, Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    First phase folds F1 developed in polydeformed Ajabgarh Group rocks of Proterozoic age are studied using various geometrical methods of analysis for compatibility of homogeneous strain in both class. 1–3 pairs by correlating tα/α plots with existing curves for competent layers and matching tα/α plots with the flattening ...

  15. Radiochronological age and correlation of proterozoic sediments in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.; Macedo, M.-H.F.; Filho, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    A review of available Rb-Sr and K-Ar datings obtained on sedimentary sequences, metamorphosed or not, interbedded volcanics and cross-cutting intrusives of the Precambrian of Brazil yields the following conclusions: (1) The Roraima and Rio Fresco Formations, resting upon the Amazonian craton, have been affected by the Trans-Amazonian orogeny and are of Lower Proterozoic age. (2) The Beneficiente Group, in the same region, seems to be of Middle Proterozoic, Lower Riphean age. (3) Upon the Sao Francisco craton, and upon the Lower Proterozoic Rio dos Remedios complex, the Paraguacu Group might be of middle Riphean age and the glacial sequences, Macaubas Group and Bebedouro Formation, date back to between 950 and 1000 Ma. (4) The age of the Bambui and Una Groups, in the same region, remains undetermined. It might be either Upper Riphean, or Upper Riphean and Vendian. (5) The molassic series associated with the Brazilian orogeny are dated back to between the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary and the Ordovician. (Auth.)

  16. Isotopic evidence of Middle Proterozoic magmatism from Bombay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Isotopic evidence of Middle Proterozoic magmatism from. Bombay High Field: Implications to crustal evolution of western offshore of India. S S Rathore1,∗, A R Vijan2, M P Singh2, B N Prabhu3 and Anand Sahu1. 1Forward Base Office, Assam & Assam Arakan Basin-Tripura, ONGC, Agartala 799 014, India.

  17. Folds in multilayered rocks of Proterozoic age, Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First phase folds F1 developed in polydeformed Ajabgarh Group rocks of Proterozoic age are studied using various geometrical methods of analysis for compatibility of homogeneous strain in both class 1-3 pairs by correlating ′/ plots with existing curves for competent layers and matching / plots with the flattening ...

  18. Geochemistry of lower proterozoic greywackes from the Birim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Birim Diamondiferous field from which most of the alluvial diamonds are recovered is underlain by Lower Proterozoic Birimian metasedimentary and associated mafic rocks. Bulk rock geochemistry was carried out on the sandstones from the metasedimentary rocks to constrain the tectonic setting during the early ...

  19. Folds in multilayered rocks of Proterozoic age, Rajasthan, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Johnson and Johnson 2002 etc) shows that the fold shape modification may be brought about by buckling and flattening operating simultaneously throughout the development of fold. In the present paper a series of F1 folds devel- oped in slates with interlayered alternations with quartzite of Proterozoic age and unaffected ...

  20. An overview on geochemistry of Proterozoic massif-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A critical study of 311 published WR chemical analyses, isotopic and mineral chemistry of anorthosites and associated rocks from eight Proterozoic massif anorthosite complexes of India,. North America and Norway indicates marked similarities in mineralogy and chemistry among similar rock types. The anorthosite and ...

  1. Marine pisolites from Upper Proterozoic carbonates of East Greenland and Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swett, K.; Knoll, A. H.

    1989-01-01

    Upper Proterozoic carbonate successions from central East Greenland (the Limestone-Dolomite 'Series' of the Eleonore Bay Group) and Svalbard (the Backlundtoppen Formation of the Akademikerbreen) Group, Spitsbergen, and the Upper Russo Formation of the Raoldtoppen Group, Nordaustlandet) contain thick sequences dominated by pisolites. These rocks were generated in shallow marine environments, and the pisoids are essentially oversized ooids. A marine environment is supported by the thickness and lateral extent of the carbonates; by a sedimentary association of pisolites with stromatolites, flake-conglomerates, calcarenites, calcilutites, microphytolites, and ooids similar to that found in numerous other Proterozoic carbonate successions; by sedimentary structures, including cross-beds and megaripples that characterize the pisolitic beds; and by microorganisms that inhabit modern marine ooids of the Bahama Banks. Petrographic features and strontium abundances suggest that the pisoids were originally aragonitic, but neomorphism, silicification, calcitization, and dolomitization have extensively modified original mineralogies and fabrics. The East Greenland and Svalbard pisolitic carbonates reflect similar depositional environments and diagenetic histories, reinforcing previous bio-, litho-, and chemostratigraphic interpretations that the two sequences accumulated contiguously in a coastal zone of pisoid genesis which extended for at least 600, and probably 1000 or more, kilometres.

  2. Molar tooth carbonates and benthic methane fluxes in Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bing; Dong, Lin; Xiao, Shuhai; Lang, Xianguo; Huang, Kangjun; Peng, Yongbo; Zhou, Chuanming; Ke, Shan; Liu, Pengju

    2016-01-01

    Molar tooth structures are ptygmatically folded and microspar-filled structures common in early- and mid-Proterozoic (~2,500-750 million years ago, Ma) subtidal successions, but extremely rare in rocks tooth structures may have formed within sediments where microbial sulphate reduction and methanogenesis converged. The convergence was driven by the abundant production of methyl sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and methanethiol) in euxinic or H2S-rich seawaters that were widespread in Proterozoic continental margins. In this convergence zone, methyl sulphides served as a non-competitive substrate supporting methane generation and methanethiol inhibited anaerobic oxidation of methane, resulting in the buildup of CH4, formation of degassing cracks in sediments and an increase in the benthic methane flux from sediments. Precipitation of crack-filling microspar was driven by methanogenesis-related alkalinity accumulation. Deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation around 750 Ma brought molar tooth structures to an end.

  3. Instability of the southern Canadian Shield during the late Proterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannell, Kalin T.; Zeitler, Peter K.; Schneider, David A.

    2018-05-01

    Cratons are generally considered to comprise lithosphere that has remained tectonically quiescent for billions of years. Direct evidence for stability is mainly founded in the Phanerozoic sedimentary record and low-temperature thermochronology, but for extensive parts of Canada, earlier stability has been inferred due to the lack of an extensive rock record in both time and space. We used 40Ar/39Ar multi-diffusion domain (MDD) analysis of K-feldspar to constrain cratonic thermal histories across an intermediate (∼150-350 °C) temperature range in an attempt to link published high-temperature geochronology that resolves the timing of orogenesis and metamorphism with lower-temperature data suited for upper-crustal burial and unroofing histories. This work is focused on understanding the transition from Archean-Paleoproterozoic crustal growth to later intervals of stability, and how uninterrupted that record is throughout Earth's Proterozoic "Middle Age." Intermediate-temperature thermal histories of cratonic rocks at well-constrained localities within the southern Canadian Shield of North America challenge the stability worldview because our data indicate that these rocks were at elevated temperatures in the Proterozoic. Feldspars from granitic rocks collected at the surface cooled at rates of gap. These data also raise questions about the evolution of cratons during the Proterozoic and the nature of cratonic stability across deep time.

  4. Constraining the redox landscape of the mid-Proterozoic oceans: new insights from the carbonate uranium isotope record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleaudeau, G. J.; Kaufman, A. J.; Luo, G.; Romaniello, S. J.; Zhang, F.; Kah, L. C.; Azmy, K.; Bartley, J. K.; Sahoo, S. K.; Knoll, A. H.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    suggest that euxinia was spatially restricted and that suboxic to oxic conditions may have been more widespread than previously thought. Future work should seek to reconcile possible interpretations of our data with recent pO2 estimates to provide a more holistic view of mid-Proterozoic redox conditions.

  5. An example of Lower Proterozoic sediments: the Francevillian in Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Weber, F.

    1982-01-01

    New mineralogical and isotopic data have been obtained on diagenetic fine fractions of the Francevillian sediments. Together with the Rb-Sr age of a syenitic intrusive and already published isotopic ages determined by means of uranium ore and uranium fission products, they allow us to present a more complete geological history of the Francevillian. The main steps are: deposition of the FA Formation before 2140 Ma deposition of the FB-FE Formations between 2140 and 2050 Ma, siliceous diagenesis followed by nuclear reactions between 2050 and 1930 Ma, carbonate diagenesis at nearly 1870 Ma, end of cooling at 1700 Ma and dolerite intrusion at ca. 970 Ma. The Francevillian sediments are, to date, the oldest true sediments known; they are diagenetic, Lower Proterozoic sediments. (Auth.)

  6. Uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This report is the result of an effort to gather together the most important information on uranium deposits in Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerates in the United States of America, Canada, Finland, Ghana, South Africa and Australia. The paper discusses the uranium potential (and in some cases also the gold potential in South Africa, Western Australia and Ghana) in terms of ores, sedimentation, mineralization, metamorphism, placers, geologic formations, stratigraphy, petrology, exploration, tectonics and distribution. Geologic history and application of geologic models are also discussed. Glacial outwash and water influx is also mentioned. The uranium deposits in a number of States in the USA are covered. The Witwatersrand placers are discussed in several papers. Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczydlowska-Vidal, Malgorzata

    2010-05-01

    Proterozoic microfossils revealing the time of algal divergences Małgorzata Moczydłowska-Vidal Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, SE 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden (malgo.vidal@pal.uu.se) Morphological and reproductive features and cell wall ultrastructure and biochemistry of Proterozoic acritarchs are used to determine their affinity to modern algae. The first appearance datum of these microbiota is traced to infer a minimum age of the divergence of the algal classes to which they may belong. The chronological appearance of microfossils that represent phycoma-like and zygotic cysts and vegetative cells and/or aplanospores, respectively interpreted as prasinophyceaen and chlorophyceaen microalgae, is related to the Viridiplantae phylogeny. These divergence times differ from molecular clock estimates, and the palaeontological evidence suggests that they are older. The best examples of unicellular, organic-walled microfossils (acritarchs) from the Mesoproterozoic to Early Ordovician are reviewed to demonstrate features, which are indicative of their affinity to photosynthetic microalgae. The first indication that a microfossil may be algal is a decay- and acid-resistant cell wall, which reflects its biochemistry and ultrastructure, and probably indicates the ability to protect a resting/reproductive cyst. The biopolymers synthesized in the cell walls of algae and in land plants ("plant cells"), such as sporopollenin/algaenan, are diagnostic for photosynthetic taxa and were inherited from early unicellular ancestors. These preservable cell walls are resistant to acetolysis, hydrolysis and acids, and show diagnostic ultrastructures such as the trilaminar sheath structure (TLS). "Plant cell" walls differ in terms of chemical compounds, which give high preservation potential, from fungal and animal cell walls. Fungal and animal cells are fossilized only by syngenetic permineralization, whereas "plant cells" are fossilized as body

  8. New proposal for the Piedras de Afilar lithostratigraphic formation, upper Neo proterozoic of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Gaucher, C.; Poire, D.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the Piedras de Afilar lithostratigraphic formation which is part of Tandilia Precambrian terrain of Uruguay. This sedimentary sequence of Neo proterozoic age is supported by a Paleoproterozoic basement

  9. Geochronology of La Tinta Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cingolani, C.A.; Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Olavarria-Sierras Bayas, Barker-San Manuel and Balcarce-Mar del Plata fine-grained sedimentary rocks from La Tinta Formation, the pre-Cenozoic cover of the Tandilia region, were studied using the Rb-Sr and K-Ar geochronology. The mineralogical study of the fine fraction has shown that only the Olavarria-Sierras Bayas area presents suitable material comprising typical sedimentary clays, affected only by diagenetic processes. Two Rb-Sr isochrons were obtained from Olavarria-Sierras Bayas rocks. They show: (1) an age of 769 +- 12 Ma with ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 = 0.7121 +- 0.0005, for Aust Quarry rocks; and (2) an age of 723 +- 21 Ma with ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 = 0.7171 +- 0.0012 for Cerro Negro and Losa Quarries rocks. Considering the above-mentioned isochron data and the mineralogy of the clays studied, the conclusion is drawn that the ages obtained reflect the isotopic setting of a late diagenetic process, dated back to nearly 720 Ma. K-Ar data also support the Rb-Sr isochrons and the late diagenetic clay origin. The lower section of La Tinta sequence in the Sierras Bayas area must then be considered as Upper Proterozoic in age. These new data support the recently reported stratigraphical divisions and ages. (Auth.)

  10. Proterozoic strata-bound uranium deposits of Zambia and Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghel, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)

  11. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D T; Wolfe-Simon, F; Pearson, A; Knoll, A H

    2009-10-06

    Molecular oxygen (O(2)) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580-550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O(2) production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O(2) budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(2+) rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms.

  12. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  13. A new ‘superassemblage’ model explaining proximal-to-distal and lateral facies changes in fluvial environments, based on the Proterozoic Sanjauli Formation (Lesser Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mukhopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Facies analysis of fluvial deposits of the Proterozoic Sanjauli Formation in the Lesser Himalaya was combined with an architectural analysis. On this basis, a model was developed that may be applied to other fluvial systems as well, whether old or recent. The new model, which might be considered as an assemblage of previous models, explains lateral variations in architecture and facies but is not in all respects consistent with the standard fluvial models. The Sanjauli fluvial model is unique in that it deals with lateral facies variations due to shifts of the base-level along with fluctuations in accommodation space owing to changes in palaeoclimate.

  14. Proterozoic rifting and major unconformities in Rajasthan, and their implications for uranium mineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha-Roy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Evolution of the Precambrian terrain in Rajasthan has taken place via crustal consolidation of the basement at ca. 2.9 Ga, its cratonisation at ca. 2.5 Ga, through protracted tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Proterozoic cover sequences, following repeated rifting and Wilson cycles in the Aravalli and Delhi foldbelts. Consequently, the Proterozoic rift basins are characterised by growth faults and pull-aparts, and multitier volcanose dimentary sequences that contain a number of unconformities and stratigraphic breaks. The Archaean basement of the Mewar terrain that witnessed end-Archaean K-magmatism and ductile shearing, led to the creation of a possible uranium province, namely uranium enriched basement. This province acted as the source of remobilised uranium and its concentration at suitable multilevel structural and stratigraphic traps within the Proterozoic rift basins to give rise to unconformity-related syngenetic uranium mineralisation. Late Neoproterozoic to Pan-African tectonothermal reworking of the basement rocks produced fracture zones and caused Na-metasomatism giving rise to albitite-related uranium mineralisation. Based on an analysis of Proterozoic rift kinematics and lithofacies characteristics, five possible uranium-enriched stratigraphic horizons have been identified in the Aravalli and its equivalent sequences as well as in the North Delhi foldbelt sequences. From a regional synthesis, ten possible uranium metallogenic events, spanning ca. 2.5-0.5 Ga, are recognised in Rajasthan. These uranium events have predictive value for delineation of target areas for exploration. (author)

  15. Revised stratigraphic nomenclature and correlation of early proterozoic rocks of the Darwin - Katherine region, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    New stratigraphic names and correlations are given for parts of the Early Proterozoic Pine Creek Geosyncline metasedimentary sequence and overlying felsic volcanics of the Darwin-Katherine region. They have significant implications for the stratigraphic distribution of uranium mineralisation in the Rum Jungle, Alligator Rivers and South Alligator Valley uranium fields

  16. A proterozoic tectonic model for northern Australia and its economic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiter, A.G.; Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    It is argued that at the end of Archaean time the Australian continent was confined to the area now occupied by the Yilgarn, Pilbara, Gawler, and Musgrave Blocks, and the southern part of the Arunta Block. During the Early Proterozoic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks were laid down in an extensive depositional zone trending roughly east-west along the northern margin of the Archaean continent. Copper and gold mineralization, commonly showing stratigraphic control, is widespread in this belt. Following deformation and metamorphism of the Early Proterozoic rocks, felsic and mafic igneous activity, and accumulation of platform sediments on the newly stabilized crust, a predominantly north-south depositional zone developed along the eastern margin of the continent during the Middle Proterozoic. Lead and zinc assume much more importance in the mineral deposits of this belt. It is postulated that the present positions of rocks of the Pine Creek and Georgetown regions are due to horizontal displacements of several hundred kilometres along major fault zones. Apparent rifting of these blocks away from palaeo-continental margins may be related to the occurrence of uraniferous granitic rocks and uranium mineralization within them via a mantle plume mechanism. Although current data are limited, tectonic environments suggested for Proterozoic mafic igneous rocks of northern Australia by their geochemistry are compatible with the geological settings of these rocks and with the tectonic model put forward. (author)

  17. Corona textures in Proterozoic olivine melanorites of the equeefa suite, Natal metamorphic province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grantham, GH

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Olivine-plagioclase and phlogopite-plagioclase coronas have been identified from olivine melanorites of the mid- to late Proterozoic Equeefa Suite in southern Natal, South Africa. Olivine, in contact with plagioclase, is mantled by a shell of clear...

  18. What the ~1.4 Ga Xiamaling Formation can and cannot tell us about the mid-Proterozoic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, C W; Planavsky, N J; Wang, C; Lyons, T W

    2018-03-25

    Despite a surge of recent work, the evolution of mid-Proterozoic oceanic-atmospheric redox remains heavily debated. Constraining the dynamics of Proterozoic redox evolution is essential to determine the role, if any, that anoxia played in protracting the development of eukaryotic diversity. We present a multiproxy suite of high-resolution geochemical measurements from a drill core capturing the ~1.4 Ga Xiamaling Formation, North China Craton. Specifically, we analyzed major and trace element concentrations, sulfur and molybdenum isotopes, and iron speciation not only to better understand the local redox conditions but also to establish how relevant our data are to understanding the contemporaneous global ocean. Our results suggest that throughout deposition of the Xiamaling Formation, the basin experienced varying degrees of isolation from the global ocean. During deposition of the lower organic-rich shales (130-85 m depth), the basin was extremely restricted, and the reservoirs of sulfate and trace metals were drawn down almost completely. Above a depth of 85 m, shales were deposited in dominantly euxinic waters that more closely resembled a marine system and thus potentially bear signatures of coeval seawater. In the most highly enriched sample from this upper interval, the concentration of molybdenum is 51 ppm with a δ 98 Mo value of +1.7‰. Concentrations of Mo and other redox-sensitive elements in our samples are consistent with a deep ocean that was largely anoxic on a global scale. Our maximum δ 98 Mo value, in contrast, is high compared to published mid-Proterozoic data. This high value raises the possibility that the Earth's surface environments were transiently more oxygenated at ~1.4 Ga compared to preceding or postdating times. More broadly, this study demonstrates the importance of integrating all available data when attempting to reconstruct surface O 2 dynamics based on rocks of any age. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  20. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  1. Middle proterozoic supra crustal and brazilian orogeny in the southeast Ceara state: a mono cyclic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, J.M.; Bezerra, F.H.R.; Freitas Macedo, M.H. de; Pereira, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Oros belt is situated in the southeastern part of Ceara state, Brazil, and geologically pertains to the Borborema province. This belt comprises a volcano-sedimentary sequence of middle proterozoic age resting unconformably upon basement of Archean/low proterozoic age. In the geological map of Ceara state, this belt displays an elongate shape towards N-S, turning to ENE-WSW in the south, and reaches 12 km wide in the central park. This paper describes the relationships between the country rocks and the supra crustal sequence, as well as the plutonic intrusions and their tectonic metamorphic evolution. New Rb-Sr whole-rock dates are presented which are very important to separate anorogenic and syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  2. Understanding and modelling Neo-proterozoic glaciations and their associated phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hir, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to provide a consistent image of extreme glaciations which occurred during the Neo-proterozoic era. By using climate and carbon cycle models (or model of bio-geochemical cycles), the author aims at answering various scientific questions raised by the Snowball Earth hypothesis. After a description of the main geological features which characterize the Proterozoic, scientific problems are presented. The author then reports the study of carbon cycle during glaciation in order to understand its operation. Based on this constraint, a consistent scenario of exit from glaciation is defined. The physical-chemical evolution of the ocean during and after a global glaciation is then quantified in order to assess its potential effects on the environment and on the Precambrian biosphere. The last part focuses on the post-glacial evolution to establish the delay for a return to equilibrium of climate after such an extreme event [fr

  3. Geology of uranium vein deposits (including Schwartzwalder Mine) in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Front Range, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voto, R.H. de; Paschis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is one of many uranium vein occurrences in the Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Front Range, Colorado. The principal veins of significant uranium content occur marginal to the Colorado Mineral Belt; are localized by structural dilation zones, vein junctions, fault deflections or branching; and occur dominantly within or at the contact of certain preferred metamorphic-stratigraphic units, particularly the siliceous, garnetiferous gneisses, where these rock units are broken by faults and fractures associated with the north-northwest-trending throughgoing faults. Uranium at the Schwartzwalder mine occurs primarily as open-space brecciated vein filling along the steeply west-dipping Illinois vein and numerous east-dipping subsidiary veins where they cut preferred metamorphic host rocks that are tightly folded. Uraninite occurs with molybdenite, adularia, jordisite, ankerite, pyrite, base-metal sulphides, and calcite in vein-filling paragenetic sequence. Minor wall-rock alteration is mainly hematite alteration and bleaching. Vertical relief on the developed ore deposit is 900 metres and still open-ended at depth. No vertical zonation of alteration, vein mineralogy, density of the subsidiary veins, or ore grade has been detected. The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is of substantial tonnage (greater than 10,000 metric tons of U 3 O 8 ) and grade (averaging 0.57% U 3 O 8 ). Structural mapping shows that the Illinois vein-fault is a Proterozoic structure. Discordant Proterozoic (suggested) and Laramide dates have been obtained from Schwartzwalder ore. The data suggest, therefore, a Proterozoic ancestry of this heretofore presumed Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary) hydrothermal uranium deposit. The authors suggest a polygenetic model for the origin of the Schwartzwalder uranium deposit

  4. Evidences of a tangential proterozoic tectonic from Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belo de Oliveira, O.A.; Teixeira, W.

    1990-01-01

    Radiometric Rb/Sr ages of 2,1 - 2,2 Ga determined for milonites of the Caete complex, combined with tectonic relationships among the sequences of the Espinhaco, Minas and Rio das Velhas Supergroups, suggest that the thrust and fold tectonic style observed around Caete results from two deformation episodes, with similar vergence and style. The parautochthonous domain in Caete Region has been affected by both deformations episodes (Early Proterozoic and Upper Proterozoic) whereas the allochthonous domain apparently was affected only by the younger episode. A preliminary analysis of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero as a whole, considering these two major deformation episodes, is compatible, at least in part, with the large scale features observed in maps. In an effort to understand the tectonic framework of Q.F. an speculation is made on av evolutive model, considering also the existence of two district extensional events (Late Archean and Middle Proterozoic), respectively related to the deposition of Minas and Espinhaco Supergroups in a rift/aulacogen systems. (author)

  5. Controls on Atmospheric O2: The Anoxic Archean and the Suboxic Proterozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemists have now reached consensus that the Archean atmosphere was mostly anoxic, that a Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred at around 2.5 Ga, and that the ensuing Proterozoic atmosphere was consistently oxidized [1,2]. Evidence for this broad-scale change in atmospheric composition comes from a variety of sources, most importantly from multiple sulfur isotopes [3,4]. The details of both the Archean and Proterozoic environments remain controversial, however, as does the underlying cause of the GOE. Evidence of 'whiffs' of oxygen during the Archean [5] now extend back as far as 3.0 Ga, based on Cr isotopes [6]. This suggests that O2 was being produced by cyanobacteria well before the GOE and that the timing of this event may have been determined by secular changes in O2 sinks. Catling et al. [7] emphasized escape of hydrogen to space, coupled with progressive oxidation of the continents and a concomitant decrease in the flux of reduced gases from metamorphism. But hydrogen produced by serpentinization of seafloor could also have been a controlling factor [8]. Higher mantle temperatures during the Archean should have resulted in thicker, more mafic seafloor and higher H2 production; decreasing mantle temperatures during the Proterozoic should have led to seafloor more like that of today and a corresponding decrease in H2 production, perhaps by enough to trigger the GOE. Once the atmosphere became generally oxidizing, it apparently remained that way during the rest of Earth's history. But O2 levels in the mid-Proterozoic could have been as low at 10-3 times the Present Atmospheric Level (PAL) [9]. The evidence, once again, is based on Cr isotopes. Possible mechanisms for maintaining such a 'suboxic' Proterozoic atmosphere will be discussed. Refs: 1. H. D. Holland, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3811 (2002). 2. H. D. Holland, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 361, 903 (Jun 29, 2006). 3. J. Farquhar, H. Bao, M. Thiemans, Science

  6. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  7. Carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur geochemistry of Archean and Proterozoic shales from the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yumiko; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Condie, Kent C.; Ohmoto, Hiroshi

    1997-08-01

    The C, N, and S contents and VC and δ 13Cδ 34S values were analyzed for 100 shale samples from ten formations, 3.0 to 2.1 Ga in age, in the central and eastern regions of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. The Kaapvaal shales are characterized by generally low contents of organic C (range 0.06-2.79 wt%, average 0.47 wt%), N (range kerogens from the shales indicated that the Kaapvaal shales lost considerable amounts of N, C, S, and H during diagenesis and regional metamorphism (up to the greenschist facies). From the theoretical relationships between the H/C ratios of kerogen and organic C contents of shales, the original C contents of the Archean and Proterozoic shales from the Kaapvaal Craton are estimated to be on average ˜2 wt%. These values are similar to the average organic C content of modern marine sediments. This suggests that the primary organic productivity and the preservation of organic matter in the ocean during the period of 3.0 to 2.1 Ga were similar to those in the Phanerozoic era, provided the flux of clastic sediments to the ocean was similar. This would also imply that the rate of O 2 accumulation in the atmosphere-ocean system, which has equaled the burial rate of organic matter in sediments, has been the same since ˜3.0 Ga. The δ 34S values of bulk-rock sulfides (mostly pyrite) range from +2.7 to +7.4%‰ for seven sulfide-rich samples of ˜2.9 Ga to ˜2.6 Ga. These values are consistent with a suggestion by Ohmoto (1992) and Ohmoto et al. (1993) that most pyrite crystals in Archean shales were formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate with δ 34S values between +2 and +10‰, and that the Archean seawater was sulfate rich. Changes in the δ 13C org values during maturation of kerogen were evaluated with theoretical calculations from the experimental data of Peters et al. (1981) and Lewan (1983), and from the observations by Simoneit et al. (1981) on natural samples. These evaluations suggest that the magnitudes of δ 13C org

  8. Analyzing Clickstreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Giversen, Anders; Jensen, Allan H.

    On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) enables analysts to gain insight into data through fast and interactive access to a variety of possible views on information, organized in a dimensional model. The demand for data integration is rapidly becoming larger as more and more information sources appear...... integration efforts have focused almost exclusively on the logical level of data models, creating a need for techniques focused on the conceptual level. Also, previous integration techniques for web-based data have not addresses the special needs of OLAP tools such as handling dimensions with hierarchies....... Extensible Markup Language (XML) is fast becoming the new standard for data representation and exchange on the World Wide Web. The rapid emergence of XML data on the web, e.g., business-to-business (B2B) ecommerce, is making it necessary for OLAP and other data analysis tools to handleXML data as well...

  9. Model photoautrophs isolated from a Proterozoic ocean analog - aerobic life under anoxic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; de Beer, D.; Klatt, J.; Macalady, J.; Weber, M.; Lott, C.; Chennu, A.

    2016-12-01

    The 1-2 billion year delay before the final rise of oxygen at the end of the Proterozoic represents an important gap in our understanding of ancient biogeochemical cycling. Primary production fueled by sulfide-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis, including the activity of metabolically versatile cyanobacteria, has been invoked as a mechanism for sustaining low atmospheric O2 throughout much of the Proterozoic. However, we understand very little about photoautotrophs that inhabit Proterozoic-like environments present on Earth today. Here we report on the isolation and characterization of a cyanobacterium and a green sulfur bacterium that are the dominant members of pinnacle mats in Little Salt Spring—a karst sinkhole in Florida with perennially low levels of dissolved oxygen and sulfide. The red pinnacle mats bloom in the anoxic basin of the sinkhole and receive light that is of very poor quality to support photosynthesis. Characterization of the isolates is consistent with observations of oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis in situ—both organisms perform anoxygenic photosynthesis under conditions of very low light quality and quantity. Oxygenic photosynthesis by the cyanobacterium isolate is inhibited by the presence of sulfide and under optimal light conditions, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double that of oxygenic photosynthesis. The green sulfur bacterium is tolerant of oxygen and has a very low affinity for sulfide. In Little Salt Spring, oxygenic photosynthesis occurs for only four hours a day and the water column remains anoxic because of a continuous supply of sulfide. Isolation and characterization of these photoautotrophs combined with our high resolution microsensor data in situ highlight microbial biogeochemical cycling in this exceptional site where aerobic microorganisms persist in a largely anoxic ecosystem.

  10. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low‐oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well‐preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane‐derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O 2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co‐occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low‐oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic

  11. The tectonics and mineral systems of Proterozoic Western Australia: Relationships with supercontinents and global secular change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.A. Aitken

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cratonisation of Western Australia during the Proterozoic overlapped with several key events in the evolution of Earth. These include global oxidation events and glaciations, as well as the assembly, accretionary growth, and breakup of the supercontinents Columbia and Rodinia, culminating in the assembly of Gondwana. Globally, Proterozoic mineral systems evolved in response to the coupled evolution of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere. Consequently, mineral deposits form preferentially in certain times, but they also require a favourable tectonic setting. For Western Australia a distinct plate-margin mineralisation trend is associated with Columbia, whereas an intraplate mineralisation trend is associated with Rodinia and Gondwana, each with associated deposit types. We compare the current Proterozoic record of ore deposits in Western Australia to the estimated likelihood of ore-deposit formation. Overall likelihood is estimated with a simple matrix-based approach that considers two components: The “global secular likelihood” and the “tectonic setting likelihood”. This comparative study shows that at least for the studied ore-deposit types, deposits within Western Australia developed at times, and in tectonic settings compatible with global databases. Nevertheless, several deposit types are either absent or poorly-represented relative to the overall likelihood models. Insufficient exploration may partly explain this, but a genuine lack of deposits is also suggested for some deposit types. This may relate either to systemic inadequacies that inhibited ore-deposit formation, or to poor preservation. The systematic understanding on the record of Western Australia helps to understand mineralisation processes within Western Australia and its past connections in Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana and aids to identify regions of high exploration potential.

  12. Geotectonic aspects of the proterozoic triple junction in the center-south part of Goias state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to made up, in a regional synthesis the tectonical framework of intracontinental proterozoic rifts, from the point of view of an evolutive model through plate tectonic mechanism. based upon lithoenvironment and geotectonics. In this context, this analysis take into account the tectonical interpretation and typification of Canastra, Cuiaba, Estrondo and Tocantins Groups. Structurally these geological entities are found to be settled in rifts of triple junction, in the center-south part of Goias State, individualized among the Oriental Plate (Sao Francisco Craton and Goias Central Massif) Occidental Plate (Amazonic Craton) and Meridional Plate (Paramirim Craton and Parana Block). (author)

  13. Characterization of organic matter associated with uranium deposits in the Francevillian formation of Gabon (Lower Proterozoic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortial, F.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.; Weber, F.; Oberlin, A.

    1990-01-01

    Elemental analysis, organic petrography, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to study organic matter in Lower Proterozoic rocks of the Francevillian Series in Africa. Results show a convincing relationship between solid bitumens derived from thermal alteration of crude oil, and deposition of uraninite ores. Evidence is presented that suggests the presence of migration paths for crude oil in associated sandstones. Moreover, the solid bitumens appear to have been further altered by radiation damage as a consequence of oxidation and uranium mineralization. (author)

  14. Tectonics and sedimentation of late Proterozoic Damaran convergent continental margin, Khomas Hochland, central Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukla, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Late Proterozoic Khomas Trough comprises metasedimentary and metabasic rocks of the Kuiseb Formation and its evolution plays an important role in understanding the Damara orogenic belt as a whole. An attempt was made to characterize the metasedimentary and metabasic rocks encountered by means of sedimentological, structural, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical methods. This led to the modelling of the geotectonic evolution of the Khomas Trough with particular focus on the sedimentary palaeoenvironments and the structural evolution of this area during Pan-African orogeny in Namibia. 251 refs., 81 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Iron-dependent nitrogen cycling in a ferruginous lake and the nutrient status of Proterozoic oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiels, Céline C.; Darchambeau, Francois; Roland, Fleur A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen limitation during the Proterozoic has been inferred from the great expanse of ocean anoxia under low-O2 atmospheres, which could have romoted NO3-reduction to N2 and fixed N loss from the ocean. The deep oceans were Fe rich (ferruginous) during much of this time, yet the dynamics of N...... cycling under such conditions remain entirely conceptual, as analogue environments are rare today. Here we use incubation experiments to show that a modern ferruginous basin, Kabuno Bay in East Africa, supports high rates of NO3- reduction. Although 60% of this NO3- is reduced to N2 through canonical...

  16. Extreme Carbon Isotope Anomalies of the Proterozoic Eon: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Post-Paleozoic carbon isotope variations constructed from time-series analyses of calcareous microfossils generally pale in comparison with the extreme variations recorded in Paleozoic and Proterozoic aged successions. The latter are primarily preserved in fine-grained inorganic carbonates, which due to their great antiquity and potential for diagenetic alteration have been viewed by some as imperfect recorders of seawater chemistry. In part, this bias stems from the study of Modern carbonate platforms, where significant carbon isotope variations result from vital effects, bioturbation, and sea grass aeration of sediments. In addition, the open framework of biotic reefs allows for the infiltration of diagenetic fluids through lithified platforms. None of these biological issues, however, applies to Proterozoic carbonate accumulations, which are generally fine-grained and pervasively cemented. While geochemical tests of diagenetic alteration have been used for Proterozoic samples (e.g., δ18O, Δδ13C, and Mn/Sr), they have been variably applied and appear as moving targets from basin to basin, if reported at all. Greatest confidence in the validity of carbon isotope trends come from stratigraphic measurements that reveal smooth δ13C variations, and the comparative analysis of multiple, broadly equivalent basins. For both the Neoproterozoic and the Paleoproterozoic these show profound changes in carbon isotope distribution with time, especially related to widespread paleoclimatic and biotic events. High resolution stratigraphic and geochemical studies of carbonate and co-existing organic matter in post-glacial Neoproterozoic cap carbonates from Namibia and Brazil, and of Ediacaran aged successions in the western USA, South China, and elsewhere provide new insight into extremes of the ancient carbon cycle. On the one hand, the standard model of proportional fluxes is consistent with detailed observations of the cap carbonates. However, there is also strong evidence

  17. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low?oxygen Proterozoic oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Trinity L.; Bryant, Donald A.; Macalady, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well?preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5?Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5?Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and m...

  18. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Paleo-Proterozoic granitoids from Mahakoshal Supracrustal Belt (MSB), CITZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Bhupendra; Ahmad, Talat; Kaulina, Tatiana; Bayanova, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    Voluminous granitic magmatism of Proterozoic age occupies a vast expanse at the southern margin of Mahakoshal Supracrustal Belt (MSB), CITZ. The present study focuses on eastern part of this belt and discusses possible crustal evolution processes based on the geochemical, geochronological and Sm-Nd isotopic constraints on these rocks. The rocks present are predominantly granites and gneisses viz. grey to pink granite gneiss and leuco- to mesocratic granites. In general these rocks are medium to coarse grained and microscopically show typical granitic assemblages with apatite, titanite, zircon and allanite as accessories. Mineralogically these rocks are grouped into three categories viz. Hbl-Bt granite gneiss, Bt- granite gneiss and Bt-granite. Major oxide characteristics show that the Hbl-Bt granite Gneiss are metaluminous (ASI~0.98), whereas Bt- granite gneiss (ASI=1.05-1.22) and Bt- granite (ASI=1.03-1.21) are weakly peraluminous to strongly peraluminous. In terms of Fe* number and alkali-lime index these rocks belong to magnesian and calc-alkalic series respectively. Overall these rocks range from 59.43 to 72.01 wt.% SiO2 and have low Na2O content (average ~2.60 wt.%) with average ~4.02 wt.% K2O and high K2O/Na2O ratio. On Harker variation diagrams, all rock types show negative correlation for TiO2, P2O5, CaO, MnO, MgO, Fe2O3T and Al2O3 against SiO2 suggesting fractionation of Pl-Hbl-Ttn-Mag-Ap during evolution of these rocks. On chondrite-normalized Rare Earth Element (REE) plot, the Bt-granite is enriched in LREE ((La/Sm)N ~10.21) and show negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.39) with depleted HREE ((Gd/Yb)N ~4.38). The Hbl-Bt granite gneiss shows LREE ((La/Sm)N ~6.68) depletion and enriched HREE ((Gd/Yb)N ~2.05) patterns compared to Bt-granite, with negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.44). Whereas Bt-gneiss is moderate in comparison with LREE enrichment ((La/Sm)N ~9.17) and HREE depletion ((Gd/Yb)N ~3.02) with weak negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.60). Multi-elemental plot

  19. Evidence of proterozoic crust under the coastal Cordillera of Central Chile: Grenville age xenocrystic zircons in cretaceous volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentilli, M; Pop, N; Heaman; L; Boric, R

    2001-01-01

    In the central Andes, Proterozoic basement rocks outcrop in isolated areas from beneath a Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover in southern Peru, northernmost Chile, Bolivia, and in northwestern Argentina. Their role in Andean magmatism and metallogenesis is well documented. In the southern Central Andes, Proterozoic rocks are so far known to outcrop in Argentina, east of the continental divide. In the course of U-Pb dating of the bimodal volcanic and sub-volcanic host rocks for Mesozoic manto-type copper deposits, we have encountered xenocrystic zircon with Proterozoic and Paleozoic ages. In the Punta del Cobre Cu-Fe (Au) District (27 o 30' S / 70 o 15' W) 22 km south of Copiapo xenocrystic zircon in the Lower Cretaceous host dacite yields ca. 1 Ga ages. In the El Soldado Cu District, (32 o 38' S /71 o 04' W), 120 km northwest of Santiago, scarce and strongly resorbed zircon crystals in the Lower Cretaceous host rhyodacite yield ages of 0.5 to 1.3 Ga. The early Cretaceous bimodal volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, which consists of primitive calc-alkaline basalts and rhyodacites, display geochemical evidence of crustal contamination. Our results suggest that, during their formation and ascent, the felsic magmas picked up zircons in the Proterozoic and Paleozoic crystalline basement of the Coastal Cordillera. The presence of Proterozoic (Grenville age) basement underlying localities as close as 30 km from the Pacific coast has implications for the extent and age of the Chilenia Terrane and gives further credence to correlation models that juxtapose eastern North America (Laurentia) and southwestern South America (Gondwana) during the Late Proterozoic (au)

  20. Proterozoic microbial reef complexes and associated hydrothermal mineralizations in the Banfora Cliffs, Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    The Proterozoic Guena-Souroukoundinga Formation of the Mopti arm (Gourma Aulacogen, southerm Taoudeni Basin) consists of a shale-dominated succession, up to 200 m thick, with scattered microbial reef complexes. Quarry exposures of the Tiara reef complex allow reconstruction of a transect across back-reef peritidal laminites, reef margin and peri-reef ooidal shoals, and fore-reef slope strata. Microbial carbonate productivity nucleated on isolated palaeohighs during transgression, whereas its end was controlled by two tectonically induced drowning pulses that led to the successive record of onlapping kerogenous limestones and pelagic shales. Reef carbonates are crosscut by fractures and fissures occluded by hydrothermal mineralizations, which are related to the rifting activity of the Gourma Aulacogen. The Tiara reef complex is similar to other Proterozoic reefs in being composed nearly entirely of stromatolites, although calcimicrobial (filamentous) and thromboid textures are locally abundant, which contrast with their scarcity or absence in coeval stable-platform microbial reefs of the northern Taoudeni Basin.

  1. Nitrogen cycle feedbacks as a control on euxinia in the mid-Proterozoic ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R A; Clark, J R; Poulton, S W; Shields-Zhou, G; Canfield, D E; Lenton, T M

    2013-01-01

    Geochemical evidence invokes anoxic deep oceans until the terminal Neoproterozoic ~0.55 Ma, despite oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere nearly 2 Gyr earlier. Marine sediments from the intervening period suggest predominantly ferruginous (anoxic Fe(II)-rich) waters, interspersed with euxinia (anoxic H(2)S-rich conditions) along productive continental margins. Today, sustained biotic H(2)S production requires NO(3)(-) depletion because denitrifiers outcompete sulphate reducers. Thus, euxinia is rare, only occurring concurrently with (steady state) organic carbon availability when N(2)-fixers dominate the production in the photic zone. Here we use a simple box model of a generic Proterozoic coastal upwelling zone to show how these feedbacks caused the mid-Proterozoic ocean to exhibit a spatial/temporal separation between two states: photic zone NO(3)(-) with denitrification in lower anoxic waters, and N(2)-fixation-driven production overlying euxinia. Interchange between these states likely explains the varying H(2)S concentration implied by existing data, which persisted until the Neoproterozoic oxygenation event gave rise to modern marine biogeochemistry.

  2. Proterozoic metamorphism and uplift history of the north-central Laramie Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S.C.; Frost, B.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Snyder, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Laramie Mountains of south-eastern Wyoming contain two metamorphic domains that are separated by the 1.76 Ga. Laramie Peak shear zone (LPSZ). South of the LPSZ lies the Palmer Canyon block, where apatite U-Pb ages are c. 1745 Ma and the rocks have undergone Proterozoic kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphism. In contrast, in the Laramie Peak block, north of the shear zone, the U-Pb apatite ages are 2.4-2.1 Ga, the granitic rocks are unmetamorphosed and supracrustal rocks record only low-T amphibolite facies metamorphism that is Archean in age. Peak mineral assemblages in the Palmer Canyon block include (a) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-garnet-staurolite-kyanite in the pelitic schists; (b) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-low-Ca amphiboles-kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists, and locally (c) hornblende-plagioclase-garnet in amphibolites. All rock types show abundant textural evidence of decompression and retrograde re-equilibration. Notable among the texturally late minerals are cordierite and sapphirine, which occur in coronas around kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists. Thermobarometry from texturally early and late assemblages for samples from different areas within the Palmer Canyon block define decompression from > 7 kbar to textures. The Proterozoic tectonic history of the central Laramie Range is similar to exhumation that accompanied late-orogenic oblique convergence in many Phanerozoic orogenic belts.

  3. Modern and ancient geochemical constraints on Proterozoic atmosphere-ocean redox evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, D. S.; Horner, T. J.; Wankel, S. D.; Lu, Z.; Lyons, T.; Nielsen, S.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere-ocean system through the Precambrian has important implications for the environments capable of sustaining early eukaryotic life and the evolving oxidant budget of subducted sediments. Proxy records suggest an anoxic Fe-rich deep ocean through much of the Precambrian and atmospheric and surface-ocean oxygenation that started in earnest at the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE). The marine photic zone represented the initial site of oxygen production and accumulation via cyanobacteria, yet our understanding of surface-ocean oxygen contents and the extent and timing of oxygen propagation and exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean are limited. Here, we present an updated perspective of the constraints on atmospheric, surface-ocean, and deep-ocean oxygen contents starting at the GOE. Our research uses the iodine content of Proterozoic carbonates as a tracer of dissolved iodate in the shallow ocean, a redox-sensitive species quantitatively reduced in modern oxygen minimum zones. We supplement our understanding of the ancient record with novel experiments examining the rates of iodate production from oxygenated marine environments based on seawater incubations. Combining new data from iodine with published shallow marine (Ce anomaly, N isotopes) and atmospheric redox proxies, we provide an integrated view of the vertical redox structure of the atmosphere and ocean across the Proterozoic.

  4. Hydrocarbon source-rock evaluation - Solor Church Formation (middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup), southeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, J.R.; Morey, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    In the type section (Lonsdale 65-1 core, Rice County, Minnesota) the Solor Church Formation (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup) consists primarily of reddish-brown mudstone and siltstone and pale reddish-brown sandstone. The sandstone and siltstone are texturally and mineralogically immature. Hydrocarbon source-rock evaluation of bluish-gray, greenish-gray and medium-dark-gray to grayish-black beds, which primarily occur in the lower 104 m (340 ft) of this core, shows: (1) the rocks have low organic carbon contents (<0.5 percent for 22 of 25 samples); (2) the organic matter is thermally very mature (Tmax = 494°C, sample 19) and is probably near the transition between the wet gas phase of catagenesis and metagenesis (dry gas zone); and (3) the rocks have minimal potential for producing additional hydrocarbons (genetic potential <0.30 mgHC/gm rock). Although no direct evidence exists from which to determine maximum depths of burial, the observed thermal maturity of the organic matter requires significantly greater depths of burial and(or) higher geothermal gradients. It is likely, at least on the St. Croix horst, that thermal alteration of the organic matter in the Solor Church took place relatively early, and that any hydrocarbons generated during this early thermal alteration were probably lost prior to deposition of the overlying Fond du Lac Formation (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup).

  5. Hydrocarbon source rock evaluation: Solor Church Formation. (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup) southeastern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, J.R.; Morey, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    In the type section (Lonsdale 65-1 core, Rice County, Minnesota) the Solar Church Formation (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup) consists primarily of reddish-brown mudstone and siltstone and pale reddish-brown sandstone. The sandstone and siltstone are texturally and mineralogically immature. Hydrocarbon source-rock evaluation of bluish-gray, greenish-gray and medium-dark-gray to grayish-black beds, which primarily occur in the lower 104 m (340 ft) of this core, shows: (1) the rocks have low organic carbon contents (<0.5% for 22 of 25 samples); (2) the organic matter is thermally very mature (T/sub max/ = 494/sup 0/C, sample 19) and is probably near the transition between the wet gas phase of catagenesis and metagenesis (dry gas zone); and (3) the rocks have minimal potential for producing additional hydrocarbons (genetic potential <0.30 mgHC/gm rock). Although no direct evidence exists from which to determine maximum depths of burial, the observed thermal maturity of the organic matter requires significantly greater depths of burial and(or) higher geothermal gradients. It is likely, at least on the St. Croix horst, that thermal alteration of the organic matter in the Solor Church took place relatively early, and that any hydrocarbons generated during this early thermal alteration were probably lost prior to deposition of the overlying Fond du Lac Formation (Middle Proterozoic, Keweenawan Supergroup). 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E

    2008-11-11

    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  7. Uraniferous concentrations in the Francevillian of Gabon: their association with fossil hydrocarbon-bearing ore deposits of the lower Proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois; Weber, Francis

    1981-01-01

    The Francevillian U deposits of Gabon are located in one of the oldest non metamorphic sedimentary series of the Lower Proterozoic 2150 M.Y. old. The uraniferous mineralization 2050 M.Y. old is strongly related to organic matter concentrated in oil-bearing structures after migration. No geological event remobilized the mineralizations since their settling [fr

  8. Strongly seasonal Proterozoic glacial climate in low palaeolatitudes: Radically different climate system on the pre-Ediacaran Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Williams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran glaciations occurred under strongly seasonal climates near sea level in low palaeolatitudes. Metre-scale primary sand wedges in Cryogenian periglacial deposits are identical to those actively forming, through the infilling of seasonal (winter thermal contraction-cracks in permafrost by windblown sand, in present-day polar regions with a mean monthly air temperature range of 40 °C and mean annual air temperatures of −20 °C or lower. Varve-like rhythmites with dropstones in Proterozoic glacial successions are consistent with an active seasonal freeze–thaw cycle. The seasonal (annual oscillation of sea level recorded by tidal rhythmites in Cryogenian glacial successions indicates a significant seasonal cycle and extensive open seas. Palaeomagnetic data determined directly for Proterozoic glacial deposits and closely associated rocks indicate low palaeolatitudes: Cryogenian deposits in South Australia accumulated at ≤10°, most other Cryogenian deposits at 54° during Proterozoic low-latitude glaciations, whereby the equator would be cooler than the poles, on average, and global seasonality would be greatly amplified.

  9. Shear wave velocity structure of the lower crust in southern Africa: evidence for compositional heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic terrains

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgaswane, EM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available . For large parts of both Archaean and Proterozoic terrains, the velocity models obtained from the inversions show shear wave velocities =4.0 km/s below ~20–30 km depth, indicating a predominantly mafic lower crust. However, for much of the Kimberley terrain...

  10. The role of biology in planetary evolution: cyanobacterial primary production in low-oxygen Proterozoic oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Bryant, Donald A; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the role of biology in planetary evolution remains an outstanding challenge to geobiologists. Progress towards unravelling this puzzle for Earth is hindered by the scarcity of well-preserved rocks from the Archean (4.0 to 2.5 Gyr ago) and Proterozoic (2.5 to 0.5 Gyr ago) Eons. In addition, the microscopic life that dominated Earth's biota for most of its history left a poor fossil record, consisting primarily of lithified microbial mats, rare microbial body fossils and membrane-derived hydrocarbon molecules that are still challenging to interpret. However, it is clear from the sulfur isotope record and other geochemical proxies that the production of oxygen or oxidizing power radically changed Earth's surface and atmosphere during the Proterozoic Eon, pushing it away from the more reducing conditions prevalent during the Archean. In addition to ancient rocks, our reconstruction of Earth's redox evolution is informed by our knowledge of biogeochemical cycles catalysed by extant biota. The emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis in ancient cyanobacteria represents one of the most impressive microbial innovations in Earth's history, and oxygenic photosynthesis is the largest source of O2 in the atmosphere today. Thus the study of microbial metabolisms and evolution provides an important link between extant biota and the clues from the geologic record. Here, we consider the physiology of cyanobacteria (the only microorganisms capable of oxygenic photosynthesis), their co-occurrence with anoxygenic phototrophs in a variety of environments and their persistence in low-oxygen environments, including in water columns as well as mats, throughout much of Earth's history. We examine insights gained from both the rock record and cyanobacteria presently living in early Earth analogue ecosystems and synthesize current knowledge of these ancient microbial mediators in planetary redox evolution. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that anoxygenic photosynthesis

  11. Distribution and sedimentary arrangement of carbon in South African proterozoic placer deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon, which occurs as grains, films, and thin seams in Witwatersrand Proterozoic placer deposits, is generally confined to carbon-seam reefs that were deposited in distal environments. The distribution of carbon on paleosurfaces, on sedimentary accumulation surfaces like pebble layers, on trough-shaped bedforms of pi-crossbedded units and foresets, and on the winnowed top of placer sediments implies that its growth took place contemporaneously with placer deposition in an aquatic fluvial environment. The areal distribution of carbon seams in distal environments is patchy, and its sparsity or total absence in some areas does not affect either the gold or the uranium content of the placer. High gold and uranium contents that appear to be associated with carbon seams are at the base of the reef because that position represents both the stable consolidated paleosurface upon which the plant material anchored itself and also the surface of bedload concentration

  12. Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic Tides, Retreat of the Moon, and Rotation of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonett; Kvale; Zakharian; Chan; Demko

    1996-07-05

    The tidal rhythmites in the Proterozoic Big Cottonwood Formation (Utah, United States), the Neoproterozoic Elatina Formation of the Flinders Range (southern Australia), and the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation (Alabama, United States) and Mansfield Formation (Indiana, United States) indicate that the rate of retreat of the lunar orbit is dxi/dt approximately k2 sin(2delta) (where xi is the Earth-moon radius vector, k2 is the tidal Love number, and delta is the tidal lag angle) and that this rate has been approximately constant since the late Precambrian. When the contribution to tidal friction from the sun is taken into account, these data imply that the length of the terrestrial day 900 million years ago was approximately18 hours.

  13. Iron-dependent nitrogen cycling in a ferruginous lake and the nutrient status of Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Céline C.; Darchambeau, François; Roland, Fleur A. E.; Morana, Cédric; Llirós, Marc; García-Armisen, Tamara; Thamdrup, Bo; Borges, Alberto V.; Canfield, Donald E.; Servais, Pierre; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Crowe, Sean A.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen limitation during the Proterozoic has been inferred from the great expanse of ocean anoxia under low-O2 atmospheres, which could have promoted NO3- reduction to N2 and fixed N loss from the ocean. The deep oceans were Fe rich (ferruginous) during much of this time, yet the dynamics of N cycling under such conditions remain entirely conceptual, as analogue environments are rare today. Here we use incubation experiments to show that a modern ferruginous basin, Kabuno Bay in East Africa, supports high rates of NO3- reduction. Although 60% of this NO3- is reduced to N2 through canonical denitrification, a large fraction (40%) is reduced to NH4+, leading to N retention rather than loss. We also find that NO3- reduction is Fe dependent, demonstrating that such reactions occur in natural ferruginous water columns. Numerical modelling of ferruginous upwelling systems, informed by our results from Kabuno Bay, demonstrates that NO3- reduction to NH4+ could have enhanced biological production, fuelling sulfate reduction and the development of mid-water euxinia overlying ferruginous deep oceans. This NO3- reduction to NH4+ could also have partly offset a negative feedback on biological production that accompanies oxygenation of the surface ocean. Our results indicate that N loss in ferruginous upwelling systems may not have kept pace with global N fixation at marine phosphorous concentrations (0.04-0.13 μM) indicated by the rock record. We therefore suggest that global marine biological production under ferruginous ocean conditions in the Proterozoic eon may thus have been P not N limited.

  14. Uranium exploration target selection for proterozoic iron oxide/breccia complex type deposits in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Sinha, K.K.

    1997-01-01

    Multimetal iron oxide/breccia complex (IOBC) type deposits exemplified by Olympic Dam in Australia, fall under low grade, large tonnage deposits. A multidisciplinary integrated exploration programme consisting of airborne surveys, ground geological surveys, geophysical and geochemical investigations and exploratory drilling, supported adequately by the state of the art analytical facilities, data processing using various software and digital image processing has shown moderate success in the identification of target areas for this type of deposits in the Proterozoic terrains of India. Intracratonic, anorogenic, continental rift to continental margin environment have been identified in a very wide spectrum of rock associations. The genesis and evolution of such associations during the Middle Proterozoic period have been reviewed and applied for target selection in the (i) Son-Narmada rift valley zone; (ii) areas covered by Dongargarh Supergroup of rocks in Madhya Pradesh; (iii) areas exposing ferruginous breccia in the western part of the Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) around Lotapahar; (iv) Siang Group of rocks in Arunachal Pradesh; (v) Crystalline rocks of Garo Hills around Anek; and (vi) Chhotanagpur Gneissic complex in the Bahia-Ulatutoli tract of Ranchi Plateau. Of theses six areas, the Son-Narmada rift area appears to be the most promising area for IOBC type deposits. Considering occurrences of the uranium anomalies near Meraraich, Kundabhati, Naktu and Kudar and positive favourability criteria observed in a wide variety of rocks spatially related to the rifts and shears, certain sectors in Son-Narmada rift zone have been identified as promising for intense subsurface exploration. 20 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. Petrology and geochemistry of Late Proterozoic hornblende gabbros from southeast of Fariman, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Masoud Homam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hornblende-bearing gabbroic rocks are quite common in subduction-related magmatic suites and considered to represent magmatic differentiation process in arc magmas (Heliker, 1995; Hickey-Vargas et al., 1995; Mandal and Ray, 2012. The presence of hornblende as an important mineral phase in gabbroic rocks of subduction zone has been considered either as an early crystallizing mineral from water-bearing mafic magmas (Beard and Borgia 1989; Mandal and Ray, 2012 or as a product of reaction of early crystallized minerals (olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase and water-rich evolved melt/aqueous fluid (Costa et al., 2002; Mandal and Ray, 2012. The careful study of petrology and geochemistry of hornblende-bearing gabbroic rocks from Chahak area, of Neoproterozoic age, can provide important information about their petrogenesis. Because of the special characteristics of Chahak hornblende gabbros according to their age and their situation in the main structural units of Iran, their study can present critical keys for the knowledge of geological history of Iran specially central Iran zone. Material and Methods This study carried out in two parts including field and laboratory works. Sampling and structural studies were carried out during field work. Geological map for the study area was also prepared. 65 thin and polished thin sections for petrographical purpose were studied. Major oxides, rare earth elements and trace elements were analyzed for 4 samples (92P-1, 92P-3, B1and B6 from hornblende gabbros on the basis of 4AB1 method using ICP-MS of ACME Laboratory from Canada. In addition, major oxides of three hornblende gabbro samples (89P-62, 89P-59 and 89P-46 were used from Partovifar (Partovifar, 2012. Results and discussion Fariman metamorphic terrains, of Proterozoic age, consist of metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous (plutonic and volcanic rocks. Hornblende gabbros of the study area include plagioclase, hornblende, biotite pyroxene and

  16. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  17. Isotopic data from proterozoic sediment-hosted sulfide deposits of Brazil: Implications for their metallogenic evolution and for mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misi, Aroldo; Coelho, Carlos E.S.; Franca Rocha, Washington J.S.; Gomez, Adriana S.R.; Cunha, Iona A.; Iyer, Sundaram S.; Tassinari, Colombo C.G.; Kyle, J. Richard

    1998-01-01

    Geological, petrographic, fluid inclusions studies and isotopic data of seven Proterozoic sediment-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide deposits of Brazil, permit the estimation of the age of the hosting sequence and the mineralization, the nature of the sulfur and metal sources, the temperature range of sulfide formation and the environment of deposition of the mineral deposits. The studies suggest that they were formed during periods of extensional tectonics: Growth faults or reactivated basement faults were responsible for localized circulation of metal-bearing fluids within the sedimentary sequences. In most cases, sulfides were formed by the reduction of sedimentary sulfates. Linear structures are important controls for sulfide concentration in these Proterozoic basins. (author)

  18. Proterozoic intracontinental basin succession in the western margin of the São Francisco Craton: Constraints from detrital zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Ferreira, Marco Antonio Caçador; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Dias, Airton Natanael Coelho; Campos, José Eloi Guimarães

    2018-01-01

    The age and stratigraphic position of Paleoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic covers that occur along the western border of the São Francisco Craton (SFC) are still uncertain. Based on detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic survey, combined with U-Pb and Lu-Hf zircon dating, we present a new proposal for the stratigraphy and correlation with similar sequences, situated in other regions of the SFC, the Chapada Diamantina and Northern Espinhaço. Our study demonstrates that the so-called Traíras Formation (Araí Group) has a maximum depositional age of 1543 ± 31 Ma. The zircon distribution pattern shows a dominant Rhyacian source and minor contribution of Statherian, Calymmian, Neoarchean and Paleoarchean sources. The Rhyacian zircon grains have dominant positive εHf (t) signature, suggesting a large contribution from the juvenile Paleoproterozoic terranes, most probably from the Goiás Massif, located west of the study area. The Calymmian maximum depositional age, calculated for the upper Araí Group (Traíras Formation), leads to the conclusion that the Serra da Mesa Group (ca. 1.55 Ga maximum depositional age) and the Traíras Formation have coexisted in time, possibly forming a larger sag basin, although laterally heterogeneous. The data presented also allow a new geotectonic interpretation for the Goiás Massif, since it necessarily had to be connected to the São Francisco Craton during the Mesoproterozoic. This excludes the possibility that this massif was accreted to the São Francisco Craton in the Brasiliano Collage, as previously believed. The study also sheds light to the always debated tectonic relationship between the Serra da Mesa Granite (intrusive or basement) and Serra da Mesa Group (ca. 1.57 crystallization age and 1.55 Ga maximum depositional age, respectively). Furthermore, based on the new data, we present a stratigraphic revision for the actual Araí and Paranoá groups, proposing to raise the Traíras Formation to group status and its

  19. Understanding Magmatic Timescales and Magma Dynamics in Proterozoic Anorthosites: a Geochronological Investigation of the Kunene Complex (Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, A. M.; Corfu, F.; Bybee, G. M.; Lehmann, J.; Owen-Smith, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Kunene Anorthosite Complex, located in south west Angola, is one of the largest massif-type anorthosite intrusions on Earth, with an areal extent of at least 18 000 km2. Previous studies considered the Complex to consist of a series of coalesced plutons. However, the ages and relative emplacement sequence of these plutons are unknown. Understanding the relative timing of the pluton emplacement is crucial for understanding how these enigmatic magmas form and how they rise through the crust. Here we present new high precision U-Pb ID-TIMS ages (n=10) on zircons and baddeleyites for many of the coalesced plutons across the 300-km-long anorthositic complex. These new geochronological results reveal subtle variations in crystallization age between the coalesced plutons. There is no gradual age progression between plutons, but distinct groupings of ages (Fig.1). Age clusters of 1379.8 ± 2 Ma (n=5) occur north of the Red Granite NE-SW-striking intrusions, whereas in the south there is an older age grouping of 1390.4 ± 2.3 (n=3). Two additional ages of 1400.5 ± 1.3 in the centre and 1438.4 ± 1.1 Ma in the south east have been obtained. These results indicate that the Kunene anorthosites were emplaced over 60 Ma and may suggest long-lived magmatic systems and/or slowly ascending plutons. We also find a link between pluton composition and age. In general, leuconoritic domains are older than the leucotroctolitic domains. This may imply that the first pulses of magma received a greater degree of contamination, forcing the broadly basaltic magma to produce orthopyroxene as the main mafic phase. The later pulses receive less contamination as they ascend through the already partially melted crust, producing olivine as the mafic phase and deforming the older domains. This study reiterates the multiphase petrogenesis of Proterozoic anorthosites and sheds light on the assembly of crystal-rich magmas as they ascend through the crust.

  20. Origin of the Eumetazoa: testing ecological predictions of molecular clocks against the Proterozoic fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kevin J.; Butterfield, Nicholas J.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular clocks have the potential to shed light on the timing of early metazoan divergences, but differing algorithms and calibration points yield conspicuously discordant results. We argue here that competing molecular clock hypotheses should be testable in the fossil record, on the principle that fundamentally new grades of animal organization will have ecosystem-wide impacts. Using a set of seven nuclear-encoded protein sequences, we demonstrate the paraphyly of Porifera and calculate sponge/eumetazoan and cnidarian/bilaterian divergence times by using both distance [minimum evolution (ME)] and maximum likelihood (ML) molecular clocks; ME brackets the appearance of Eumetazoa between 634 and 604 Ma, whereas ML suggests it was between 867 and 748 Ma. Significantly, the ME, but not the ML, estimate is coincident with a major regime change in the Proterozoic acritarch record, including: (i) disappearance of low-diversity, evolutionarily static, pre-Ediacaran acanthomorphs; (ii) radiation of the high-diversity, short-lived Doushantuo-Pertatataka microbiota; and (iii) an order-of-magnitude increase in evolutionary turnover rate. We interpret this turnover as a consequence of the novel ecological challenges accompanying the evolution of the eumetazoan nervous system and gut. Thus, the more readily preserved microfossil record provides positive evidence for the absence of pre-Ediacaran eumetazoans and strongly supports the veracity, and therefore more general application, of the ME molecular clock.

  1. Isotopic geochemistry of a mid-Proterozoic evaporite basin: Balmat, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, J.F.; Rye, R.O.; De Lorraine, W.; Ohmoto, H.

    1990-01-01

    Lenses of Proterozoic meta-evaporitic anhydrite as much as 60 m thick occur in a 1150 to 1300 Ma Grenville Series marble sequence near Balmat, New York. ??34Sanhy values in the oldest lens average 8.2 permil; progressively younger lenses average 19.6, 27.2, 26.7, and 19.1 permil. The thickest and isotopically heaviest lens displays coincident upsection increases in ??34Sanhy (24.1-30.2 permil) and ??18Oanhy (19.8-22.5 permil) values. These increases and the overall 34S enrichment of the anhydrite indicate that anhydrite precipitation was concurrent with large-scale bacterial sulfate reduction in the depositional basin. The arid climate and high evaporation rates implied by evaporite deposition result in 18O enrichment of the basin waters and the carbonates precipitated from them. The evidence of arid climate and the variability and 34S-enrichment of the anhydrite imply that the Balmat environment was a closed or restricted basin in which evaporation and bacterial sulfate reduction combined to produce a 34S-enriched, sulfate-rich brine. -from Authors

  2. Terminal proterozoic mid-shelf Benthic microbial mats in the Centralian Superbasin and their environmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Graham A.; Calver, Clive R.; Gorjan, Paul; Summons, Roger E.; Hayes, John M.; Walter, Malcolm R.

    1999-05-01

    A combined sedimentological and biogeochemical study has been conducted on several Terminal Proterozoic mid-shelf microbial mat facies from the Centralian Super-basin. Isotopic and organic geochemical analysis of the bitumen and kerogen indicated that two sources of organic matter from 'planktonic' and 'benthic microbial-mat' populations contributed to the sediment. The 'planktonic' source provided a suite of n-alkanes with C 20, whereas, the 'benthic' source contributed an overlay of n-alkanes >C 20 with a strong even preference, together with mid-chain methyl alkanes. Kerogen and biomarkers derived from the microbial mat were found to be depleted in 13C relative to planktonic material. Pyrite in the micorbial mats was also found to be depleted in 34S compared to surrounding facies. The combination of these observations suggested that the mats may have been at least partly composed of sulfide oxidising bacteria. These organisms have specific environmental tolerances that set limits on palaeo-environment. Their requirement for oxygen indicates that the water column above the mid-shelf could not have been anoxic. Accordingly, from the results and age determinations reported here, it would appear that mid-shelf environments of the Centralian Superbasin of Australia were seeing significant levels of oxygen through the Ediacarian.

  3. Using SHRIMP Zircon Geochronology to Characterise the Evolution of the Proterozoic Mount Isa Inlier, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, N. L.; Southgate, P. N.; Gibson, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Proterozoic Mount Isa Inlier of northern Australia records an extensive record of basin evolution between 1800 Ma and 1575 Ma, and contains a number of world-class Pb-Zn-Ag, U and Iron Oxide Cu-Au deposits. Understanding the timing and nature of basin development is a critical component in understanding these mineral systems. The integration of U-Pb zircon SHIRMP geochronology with structural and facies analysis has allowed basin packages across this area to be divided into three superbasins; the Leichhardt, Calvert and Isa Superbasins. Detrital zircon geochronology of stratigraphic units within these basins has been used in conjunction with syn-sedimentary volcanics to constrain depositional ages, and to identify and characterise changes in provenance through time. Sedimentation between 1790 Ma and 1740 Ma associated with the Leichhardt Superbasin is characterised by fluvial to shallow marine sandstones deposited in half-grabens. Between 1690 Ma and 1670 Ma, deep-water turbidites in the eastern-most parts of the inlier were deposited during an interval of missing rock record on the platform to the west, and are coincident with the initiation of a break-up unconformity. Sedimentation between 1790 Ma and 1670 Ma is also associated with voluminous felsic and mafic magmatism, and mafic rocks emplaced during this time period record a change in geochemical signature from continental flood basalts to oceanic tholeiites. We interpret these changes to be consistent with an evolution in tectonic setting from intercontinental rifting to near passive margin development.

  4. Uranium in early proterozoic phosphate-rich metasedimentary rocks of east-central Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwiggen, P.L.; Morey, G.B.; Weiblen, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Exploration for unconformity-type uranium deposits in the late 1970s in east-central Minnesota led to the discovery of several uranium-bearing phosphorite occurrences in rocks of early Proterozoic age. In this report the authors use the term phosphorite for a rock or specimen that contains substantial sedimentary apatite (Altschuler et al., 1958). The deposits in Minnesota are especially interesting because of their high uranium content but low metamorphic grade. These occurrences characteristically contain 0.025 to 0.085 percent U and locally as much as 0.157 percent U (Ullmer, 1981), whereas typical primary marine phosphorites have uranium contents of 0.005 to 0.02 percent U (Altschuler et al., 1958). The presence of uranium in a marine phosphorite generally is explained by either the replacement of calcium in the apatite crystal structure or the adsorption of uranium in admixed organic matter and cryptocrystalline apatite. In east-central Minnesota the uranium is closely associated with the finely crystalline apatite, but the uranium has also been involved in several episodes of remobilization and redeposition. Thus, even though the phosphorite deposits are an interesting geologic phenomenon in themselves, they also are important as a possible source for epigenetic uranium deposits that may occur in the area.

  5. Vent Complexes above Dolerite Sills in Phanerozoic LIPs: Implications for Proterozoic LIPs and IOCG Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, R. E.; Bleeker, W.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Polozov, A. G.

    2009-05-01

    New insights into the origin of IOCG (iron oxide copper gold) deposits [e.g., 1, 2, 3] follow from recent studies of Phanerozoic Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Detailed seismic studies of the 62-55 Ma North Atlantic Igneous Province and complementary studies in the 183 Ma Karoo and 250 Ma Siberian LIPs reveal thousands of hydrothermal vent complexes (HVCs). Up to 5-10 km across at the paleosurface, these vents connect to underlying dolerite sills at paleodepths of up to 8 km [4, 5, 6, 7]. They originate from explosive release of gases generated when thick sills (>50 m) are emplaced into volatile-rich but low-permeability sedimentary strata. HVCs are phreatomagmatic in origin. Their architecture, economic potential for IOCG-type deposits, and effects on climate strongly depend on the type of host rocks (black shales at Karoo and evaporites at Siberian LIPs) and its fluid (brines) saturation at the time of emplacement. About 250 HVCs associated with the Siberian LIP are mineralized having magnetite in the matrix. Some are being mined for Fe (Korshunovskoe and Rudnogorskoe), but their economic potential for copper and gold mineralization is understudied. These observations from the Phanerozoic LIP record suggest that HVCs should also be an essential component of sill provinces associated with Proterozoic LIPs, with a potential for causing major climatic shifts and IOCG-type deposits, particularly if the host sediments include substantial evaporites. Two examples are discussed here. The 725 Ma Franklin LIP covers 1.1 Mkm2 in northern Canada [8]; in the Minto Inlier of Victoria Island, this event comprises volcanics, sills, and breccia pipes [9, 10]. The breccia pipes appear identical to HVCs and, furthermore, the presence of evaporites in the host sediments of the Shaler Supergroup suggests (based on the Siberian trap example) the potential for IOCG-type mineralization. Could 1.59 Ga sills, as exemplified by the exposed Western Channel Diabase sills on the eastern

  6. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  7. Examples that illustrate sedimentological aspects of the proterozoic placer model on the Kaap-Vaal Craton, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the fluvial-fan model of Proterozoic placers in South Africa, mid-fan and fanbase environments are illustrated by the Ventersdorp Contact Reef, proximal braided-belt environments by the B Reef, distal braided-belt environments by the Vaal Reef, and deltaiclike environments by sheets, ribbons, and pods at the extremities of the South and Basal Reefs. The nature of distribution of gold and uranium in these various environments has been evaluated and the knowledge successfully applied by the author to the valuation and practical mining of the reefs since 1965

  8. Three Proterozoic orogenic cycles in the Livingstone Mountains, Tanzania: Evidence from petrology and ion microprobe dating of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Christoph; Schenk, Volker; Schmitt, Axel; Kazimoto, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The Livingstone Mountains at Lake Nyasa in southern Tanzania are situated in an area where three orogenic belts seem to be overlapping: the Ubendian-Usagaran belts, the Irumide Belt and the East African Orogen, whose formations are linked to the assembly of the Proterozoic supercontinents of Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Granulite-facies migmatitic metapelites and two orthogneisses were studied petrologically and by ion microprobe dating of monazite and zircon to decipher their tectono-metamorphic history and to find out if and to which degree the rocks of the Livingstone Mountains were affected by the different orogenies. Zircon dating of orthogneiss yielded a magmatic age of ca. 2.2 Ga. Texturally controlled ion microprobe U-Pb dating of monazite inclusions in garnet of a Grt-Sil-Bt migmatite in combination with discordant zircon data point to sillimanite-garnet grade metamorphism at 1857±27 Ma during the Ubendian-Usagaran orogeny. Oscillatory zoned concordant zircon of another orthogneiss was dated at 997±8.6 Ma, whereas the age of monazite inclusions in garnet and matrix of a garnet-sillimanite-gneiss revealed an associated high-grade metamorphism at 1067±20 Ma during the Irumide orogeny. Low Th/U overgrowths on orthogneiss zircon and concordant matrix monazite in metapelite are dated at 653±9.1 Ma, which is in agreement with the known ages of Pan-African events in the East African Orogen and in the Ubendian Belt (655-550 Ma) (Möller et al., 2000; Boniface et al, 2012). Garnet is homogeneous in Fe and Mg, but cores are mantled by Ca-rich garnet which shows rim-ward depletion in Ca. Thermobarometry using compositions of garnet rims and matrix minerals yielded 770-820 °C and 7-8 kbar, which we interpret to represent conditions during the Neoproterozoic metamorphic event. The high-grossular mantle might reflect earlier conditions of kyanite-grade metamorphism tentatively correlated with high-pressure metamorphism during the Mesoproterozoic Irumide orogeny

  9. Analysis of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions in mid-Proterozoic sandstones (Roper Group, Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljeström, Sandra; Volk, Herbert; George, Simon C.; Lausmaa, Jukka; Sjövall, Peter; Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Hode, Tomas

    2013-12-01

    Hydrocarbons and organic biomarkers extracted from black shales and other carbonaceous sedimentary rocks are valuable sources of information on the biodiversity and environment of early Earth. However, many Precambrian hydrocarbons including biomarkers are suspected of being younger contamination. An alternative approach is to study biomarkers trapped in oil-bearing fluid inclusions by bulk crushing samples and subsequently analysing the extracted hydrocarbons with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, this method does not constrain the hydrocarbons to one particular oil inclusion, which means that if several different generations of oil inclusions are present in the sample, a mix of the content from these oil inclusions will be analysed. In addition, samples with few and/or small inclusions are often below the detection limit. Recently, we showed that it is possible to detect organic biomarkers in single oil-bearing fluid inclusions using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). In the present study, single fluid inclusion analysis has been performed on Proterozoic samples for the first time. Four individual oil-bearing fluid inclusions, found in 1430 Ma sandstone from the Roper Superbasin in Northern Australia, were analysed with ToF-SIMS. The ToF-SIMS spectra of the oil in the different inclusions are very similar to each other and are consistent with the presence of n-alkanes/branched alkanes, monocyclic alkanes, bicyclic alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and tetracyclic and pentacyclic hydrocarbons. These results are in agreement with those obtained from bulk crushing of inclusions trapped in the same samples. The capability to analyse the hydrocarbon and biomarker composition of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions is a major breakthrough, as it opens up a way of obtaining molecular compositional data on ancient oils without the ambiguity of the origin of these hydrocarbons. Additionally, this finding suggests that it will be possible

  10. Biogeochemical and micropaleontological study of black chert, Sete Lagoas Formation, Bambui Group (Late Proterozoic), Sao Gabriel (GO), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subacius, S.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The biogeochemical study of amorphous and structured organic matter (OM) in two samples of thinly laminated black cherts (SG-1 and SG-2) from Sete Lagoas Formation, State of Goias, Brazil, is presented. The spectra analysis of infra-red, electron paramagnetic resonance and isotope ratio of C-12 and C-13 shown that: the amorphous OM consists of a soluble fraction (SF) and a insoluble fraction (Kerogen), which only the latter is syngenetic; the allochthonous SF comes from several sources, mainly from Phanerozoic sediments and soil contamination; the SG-1 and SG-2 Kerogens have δ 13 C values (-27.2 per mille and - 29.2 per mille respectively), which suggest OM photosynthetized and submitted to a mild thermal hystory; although the preserved microbiota is dominated by allochthonous elements (colonial fragments) and planktonic forms, both Kerogens were derived for the most part from photo-autotrophic benthonic communities, probably responsible for the lamination in the original carbonate rock, both SG-1 and SG-2 Kerogens exhibits O/C and H/C ratios comparable to Proterozoic humic Kerogens (type IV); the preserved microflora represents a microbial community of the chert-algae facies typical of the Middle and upper Proterozoic; and the occurence of rare acritarchs (Kildinella spp.) in the microflora is biostratigraphically significant in that it suggests a Late Riphean or Vendian age (950-570 m.y.) for the Sete Lagoas Formation. (Author) [pt

  11. HYDROCARBON SOURCE ROCK EVALUATION OF MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC SOLOR CHURCH FORMATION, NORTH AMERICAN MID-CONTINENT RIFT SYSTEM, RICE COUNTY, MINNESOTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, J.R.; Morey, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrocarbon source rock evaluation of the Middle Proterozoic Solor Church Formation (Keweenawan Supergroup) as sampled in the Lonsdale 65-1 well, Rice County, shows that: the rocks are organic matter lean; the organic matter is thermally post-mature, probably near the transition between the wet gas phase of catagenesis and metagenesis; and the rocks have minimal potential for producing additional hydrocarbons. The observed thermal maturity of the organic matter requires significantly greater burial depths, a higher geothermal gradient, or both. It is likely, that thermal maturation of the organic matter in the Solor Church took place relatively early, and that any hydrocarbons generated during this early phase were probably lost prior to deposition of the overlying formation.

  12. A summary of Rb-Sr isotope studies in the Archean Hopedale Block and the adjacent proterozoic Makkovik subprovince, Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, N.K.; Hickman, M.H.; Marzano, M.S.; Ermanovics, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotope study of thirteen whole-rock suites of Archean and Proterozoic rocks from Hopedale block and Makkovik Subprovince shows that the crustal history began about 3115 Ma ago. We tentatively recognize younger crustal segments that formed 2920 Ma ago, from which Kanairktok intrusives were derived at 2832 +- 178 Ma. In Makkovik Subprovince the Island Harbour granites range in age from 1843 +- 90 to 1794 +- 71 Ma. These ages overlap with the 1847 +-87 Ma age for Kanairktok shear zone mylonites. The Island Harbour granodiorites from inland localities to the southwest are contaminated with Archean rocks in Makkovik Subprovince and their initial 87 Sr/ 86 ratios imply a crustal contribution to their source. In contrast, the Island Harbour granites of Striped Island were derived from a mantle source. The sills of Striped Island are 1635 +- 47 Ma old. An undeformed northeast trending Kikkertavak dolerite dyke from Hopedale block is 1206 +- 120 Ma

  13. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  14. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  15. The characteristics of soda metasomatite type uranium mineralization for proterozoic strata in the central-southern part of Kang-Dian earth's axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Farong

    1995-12-01

    The uranium mineralization for Proterozoic strata in the central-southern part of Kang-Dian earth's axis can be divided into four typy (sandstone, soda metasomatite, proterozoic epimetamorphics and quartzite). The soda metasomatite type is the dominant type of uranium mineralization and has the prospecting potential in the area. The characteristics of this type uranium mineralization and the problems of metallogenesis are discussed. Soda metasomatite type uranium mineralization is controlled by soda metasomatite and structure. Uranium exists mainly in the forms of minerals (pitchblende, uranate). Its cell parameter is high and oxygenated coefficient is low, belonging to moderate-low temperature hydrothermal origin. The metallogenetic materials originated from deep-seated crust and country rocks. The metallogenetic solution includes a great quantity of atmospheric water, besides hydrothermal solution from deep-seated crust. The metallogene underwent the two stages i.e. Jinnin and Chengjiang. (4 tabs., 3 figs.)

  16. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites: Chapter K in Mineral Deposit Models for Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V).

  17. The Proterozoic of NW Mexico revisited: U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopes of Sonoran rocks and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L. A.; González-León, C. M.; Ortega-Obregón, C.; Valencia-Moreno, M.; Rascón-Heimpel, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Several Proterozoic basement units crop out in the Sonora State of NW Mexico, and the same can be correlated with crustal provinces of southern Laurentia in the neighboring southwestern USA. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic determinations in more than 300 grains separated from igneous and metaigneous rocks from these units indicate that the crystalline basement in Sonora is made up of different components, which are from west to east: (1) The Caborca-Mojave province to the west, characterized by the so-called Bámori Complex, have U-Pb ages between 1696 and 1772 Ma, with moderately juvenile to slightly evolved ɛHf values, yielding T DM ages of ca. 2.1-2.4 Ga; (2) in the intermediate area, east of Hermosillo, the Palofierral and La Ramada orthogneiss units yield an age of 1640 and 1703 Ma, respectively, both having juvenile ɛHf with the Palofierral overlapping the depleted mantle curve at ca. 1.65 Ga; and (3) in the northeastern Sonora, samples from the southern extension of the Mazatzal province, represented by the Pinal Schist, yielded ages between 1674 and 1694 Ma, with moderately juvenile to juvenile ɛHf values and a T DM age of ca. 1.9 Ga. In addition, a suite of post-tectonic granites was also studied in Caborca (San Luis granite) as well as in northeastern Sonora (Cananea granite), both yielding ages of ca. 1.44 Ga with moderately juvenile ɛHf values ranging from -1 to +8 and T DM dates of ca. 1.8-1.9 Ga and 1.6-1.7 Ga, respectively. These two isotopically contrasting provinces may imply the existence of a Proterozoic paleo-suture. However, if the Palofierral gneiss, of which the Hf signature straddles the depleted mantle array, is taken as the source for the 1.44 Ga Cananea granite, then the location of such a suture zone should lay farther south than the proposed trace of the Mojave-Sonora megashear.

  18. A deposit model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide deposits related to Proterozoic massif anorthosite plutonic suites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive model for magmatic iron-titanium-oxide (Fe-Ti-oxide) deposits hosted by Proterozoic age massif-type anorthosite and related rock types presents their geological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geoenvironmental attributes. Although these Proterozoic rocks are found worldwide, the majority of known deposits are found within exposed rocks of the Grenville Province, stretching from southwestern United States through eastern Canada; its extension into Norway is termed the Rogaland Anorthosite Province. This type of Fe-Ti-oxide deposit dominated by ilmenite rarely contains more than 300 million tons of ore, with between 10- to 45-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), 32- to 45-percent iron oxide (FeO), and less than 0.2-percent vanadium (V). The origin of these typically discordant ore deposits remains as enigmatic as the magmatic evolution of their host rocks. The deposits clearly have a magmatic origin, hosted by an age-constrained unique suite of rocks that likely are the consequence of a particular combination of tectonic circumstances, rather than any a priori temporal control. Principal ore minerals are ilmenite and hemo-ilmenite (ilmenite with extensive hematite exsolution lamellae); occurrences of titanomagnetite, magnetite, and apatite that are related to this deposit type are currently of less economic importance. Ore-mineral paragenesis is somewhat obscured by complicated solid solution and oxidation behavior within the Fe-Ti-oxide system. Anorthosite suites hosting these deposits require an extensive history of voluminous plagioclase crystallization to develop plagioclase-melt diapirs with entrained Fe-Ti-rich melt rising from the base of the lithosphere to mid- and upper-crustal levels. Timing and style of oxide mineralization are related to magmatic and dynamic evolution of these diapiric systems and to development and movement of oxide cumulates and related melts. Active mines have developed large open pits with extensive waste-rock piles, but

  19. Proterozoic crustal evolution of the Eucla basement, Australia: Implications for destruction of oceanic crust during emergence of Nuna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, C. L.; Smithies, R. H.; Spaggiari, C. V.; Wingate, M. T. D.; Quentin de Gromard, R.; Clark, C.; Gardiner, N. J.; Belousova, E. A.

    2017-05-01

    The crystalline basement beneath the Cretaceous to Cenozoic Bight and Eucla Basins, in Western Australia has received comparatively little attention even though it lies on the eastern margin of one of the most mineral resource endowed regions on the planet. This basement is characterized by a complex geological evolution spanning c. 2 billion years, but paucity of outcrop and younger basin cover present a daunting challenge to understand the basement geology. In this work the composition of the unexposed Proterozoic crystalline basement to the Bight and Eucla Basins is investigated through zircon Hf isotopes and whole rock geochemistry from new drillcore samples. This region includes two geophysically defined basement entities: The Madura Province, containing: 1) c. 1478 Ma Sleeper Camp Formation, which has variable isotopic signatures including evolved values interpreted to reflect reworking of rare slivers of hyperextended Archean crust, 2) 1415-1389 Ma Haig Cave Supersuite, with mantle-like isotope values interpreted as melting of subduction-modified N-MORB source, and 3) 1181-1125 Ma Moodini Supersuite, with juvenile isotopic signatures interpreted to reflect mixed mafic lower-crustal and asthenospheric melts produced at the base of thinned crust. The Coompana Province, to the east of the Madura Province, has three major magmatic components: 1) c. 1610 Ma Toolgana Supersuite, with chemical and isotopic characteristics of primitive arc rock, 2) c. 1490 Ma Undawidgi Supersuite, with juvenile isotope values consistent with extensional processes involving asthenospheric input and 3) 1192-1140 Ma Moodini Supersuite, with strong isotopic similarity to Moodini Supersuite rocks in the Madura Province. This new isotopic and geochemical data shows that the Madura and Coompana regions together represent a huge tract of predominantly juvenile material. Magma sources recognised, include; 1) depleted mantle, producing MORB-like crust at c. 1950 Ma, but also contributing to

  20. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaboreau, St.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO 2 and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  1. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  2. Analog multivariate counting analyzers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitin, A V; Armstrong, T P

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing rates of occurrence of various features of a signal is of great importance in numerous types of physical measurements. Such signal features can be defined as certain discrete coincidence events, e.g. crossings of a signal with a given threshold, or occurrence of extrema of a certain amplitude. We describe measuring rates of such events by means of analog multivariate counting analyzers. Given a continuous scalar or multicomponent (vector) input signal, an analog counting analyzer outputs a continuous signal with the instantaneous magnitude equal to the rate of occurrence of certain coincidence events. The analog nature of the proposed analyzers allows us to reformulate many problems of the traditional counting measurements, and cast them in a form which is readily addressed by methods of differential calculus rather than by algebraic or logical means of digital signal processing. Analog counting analyzers can be easily implemented in discrete or integrated electronic circuits, do not suffer fro...

  3. Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic history of the peri-Gondwana Calabria-Peloritani Terrane inferred from a review of zircon chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornelli, Annamaria; Micheletti, Francesca; Piccarreta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses of zircon from ten samples of augen gneisses, eight mafic and intermediate metaigneous rocks and six metasediments from some tectonic domains along the Calabria-Peloritani Terrane (Southern Italy) contribute to knowledge of peri-Gondwanan evolution from Late-Proterozoic to Paleozoic times. All samples were equilibrated under amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism during the Variscan orogeny. The zircon grains of all considered samples preserve a Proterozoic memory suggestive of detrital, metamorphic and igneous origin. The available data fit a frame involving: (1) Neoproterozoic detrital input from cratonic areas of Gondwana; (2) Pan-African/Cadomian assemblage of blocks derived from East and West African Craton; (3) metamorphism and bimodal magmatism between 535 and 579 Ma, within an active margin setting; (4) rifting and opening of Ordovician basins fed by detrital input from the assembled Cadomian blocks. The Paleozoic basins evolved through sedimentation, metamorphism and magmatism during the Variscan orogeny involving Palaeozoic and pre-Paleozoic blocks. The Proterozoic zircon records decidedly decrease in the high grade metamorphic rocks affected by Variscan pervasive partial melting.

  4. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jackie

    1996-01-01

    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  5. Centrifugal analyzer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Bostick, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of the centrifuge fast analyzer (CFA) is reviewed. The development of a miniature CFA with computer data analysis is reported and applications for automated diagnostic chemical and hematological assays are discussed. A portable CFA system with microprocessor was adapted for field assays of air and water samples for environmental pollutants, including ammonia, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulfates, and silica. 83 references

  6. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  7. New approach to analyzing vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.B.; Carlson, R.L.; Riedeman, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has recently completed construction of the Fuel Cycle Plant (FCP) at Richland, Washington. At start-up the facility will fabricate driver fuel for the Fast Flux Test Facility in the Secure Automated Fabrication line. After construction completion, but before facility certification, the Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operation Office requested that a vulnerability analysis be performed which assumed multiple insiders as a threat to the security system. A unique method of analyzing facility vulnerabilities was developed at the Security Applications Center (SAC), which is managed by WHC for DOE. The method that was developed verifies a previous vulnerability assessment, as well as introducing a modeling technique which analyzes security alarms in relation to delaying factors and possible insider activities. With this information it is possible to assess the relative strength or weakness of various possible routes to and from a target within a facility

  8. Improved magnetic material analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triner, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Flux-controlled magnetic-core-loss tester has been developed that produces high-frequency core-loss data (within 2 percent) for any desired waveform excitation and allows magnetic characteristics of material to be measured under symmetrical and asymmetrical excitation conditions. It allows direct control of additional loss variable rather than just driving frequency as is case for all previous sinusoidal core-loss measurements.

  9. Analyzed Using Statistical Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltulu, O.

    2004-01-01

    Diffraction enhanced imaging (DEl) technique is a new x-ray imaging method derived from radiography. The method uses a monorheumetten x-ray beam and introduces an analyzer crystal between an object and a detector Narrow angular acceptance of the analyzer crystal generates an improved contrast over the evaluation radiography. While standart radiography can produce an 'absorption image', DEl produces 'apparent absorption' and 'apparent refraction' images with superior quality. Objects with similar absorption properties may not be distinguished with conventional techniques due to close absorption coefficients. This problem becomes more dominant when an object has scattering properties. A simple approach is introduced to utilize scattered radiation to obtain 'pure absorption' and 'pure refraction' images

  10. Charged particle analyzer PLAZMAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apathy, Istvan; Endroeczy, Gabor; Szemerey, Istvan; Szendroe, Sandor

    1985-01-01

    The scientific task of the charged particle analyzer PLAZMAG, a part of the VEGA space probe, and the physical background of the measurements are described. The sensor of the device face the Sun and the comet Halley measuring the energy and mass spectrum of ion and electron components of energies lower than 25 keV. The tasks of the individual electronic parts, the design aspects and the modes of operation in different phases of the flight are dealt with. (author)

  11. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  12. Plutonium solution analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  13. Ring Image Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  14. Plutonium solution analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  15. The proterozoic and earliest cambrian trace fossil record; patterns, problems and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sören

    2003-02-01

    The increase in trace fossil diversity across the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian boundary often is presented in terms of tabulations of ichnogenera. However, a clearer picture of the increase in diversity and complexity can be reached by combining trace fossils into broad groups defined both on morphology and interpretation. This also focuses attention on looking for similarites between Neoproterozoic and Cambrian trace fossils. Siliciclastic sediments of the Neoproterozoic preserve elongate tubular organisms and structures of probable algal origin, many of which are very similar to trace fossils. Such enigmatic structures include Palaeopascichnus and Yelovichnus, previously thought to be trace fossils in the form of tight meanders.A preliminary two or tripartite terminal Neoproterozoic trace fossil zonation can be be recognized. Possibly the earliest trace fossils are short unbranched forms, probably younger than about 560 Ma. Typical Neoproterozoic trace fossils are unbranched and essentially horizontal forms found associated with diverse assemblages of Ediacaran organisms. In sections younger than about 550 Ma a modest increase in trace fossil diversity occurs, including the appearance of rare three-dimensional burrow systems (treptichnids), and traces with a three-lobed lower surfaces.

  16. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-06-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified "off-the-shelf" classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a "hot cell" (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  17. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified ''off-the-shelf'' classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a ''hot cell'' (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable--making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  18. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheller, T.A.; Huestis, G.M.; Bolton, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified off-the-shelf classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives

  19. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  20. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  1. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  2. Proterozoic evolution of part of the Embu Complex, eastern São Paulo state, SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre da Costa, Rodrigo; Trouw, Rudolph Allard Johannes; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Geraldes, Mauro; Távora, Arthur; Nepomuceno, Felipe; de Araújo Junior, Edson Barros

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents detrital zircon ages obtained in rocks of the Embu Complex, southeastern São Paulo State, Brazil. The Embu Complex encompasses a Paleoproterozoic basement represented by migmatitic hornblende and biotite orthogneisses covered by (kyanite)-(sillimanite)-(garnet) bearing biotite-muscovite schists and paragneisses with decametric intercalations of quartzites and calcsilicate rocks. In the studied area this metasedimentary sequence is intruded by the porphyritic Serra do Quebra Cangalhagranite. Through field and microstructural studies, four ductile deformational phases wereidentified. Metamorphic events related to the Brasiliano Orogeny that affected the studied rocks were dominantly under medium temperature and pressure conditions, from greenschist to middle amphibolite facies. Detrital zircon crystals from a ∼10 m thick quartzite layer were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS resulting in a wide range of ages between 2100 and 600 Ma that fall mainly in four groups: the first group between 2.1 and 1.6 Ga, with apex at 1.7 Ga; two less expressive Mesoproterozoic groups with values between 1.6 and 1.2 Ga; and a fourth group with values between 1.2 and 0.6 Ga. Considering the geochronological data, the sedimentation of the basin began after 852 ± 40 Ma (the youngest igneous grain) and finished before ∼786 Ma (metamorphic rim). The age of the intrusive Serra do Quebra Cangalha granite (∼680 Ma) is consistent with this minimum age. The opening of the basin could be related to the break-up of Rodinia, which resulted in several small continents, among them the Paranapanema and São Francisco paleocontinents. Comparing these data with similar provenance data from the Apiaí terrane, itseems probable that the Embu Complex was physically connected with it during most of their evolution.

  3. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  4. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  5. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  6. The Proterozoic Ladoga rift (SE Baltic shield): Linking mantle dynamics to supercontinent cycle and regional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemieva, Irina; Shulgin, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism at the southern part of the Baltic Shield (the Lake Ladoga region) is conventionally ascribed to epicratonic rifting. The region hosts a series of mafic dykes and sills of Mesoproterozoic ages, including a ca. 1.53-1.46 Ga sheet-like gabbro-dolerite sills and the Salmi plateau-basalts from the Lake Ladoga region. Based on chiefly geochemical data, the region is conventionally interpreted as an intracratonic Ladoga rift (graben). We question the validity of this geodynamic interpretation by analyzing regional geophysical data (crustal structure, heat flow, Bouguer gravity anomalies, magnetic anomalies, and mantle Vs velocities). Our analysis of characteristics of continental rifts demonstrates that: 1. the topography of the region lacks a linear horst-graben structure typical of modern rifts, however this feature might have been lost by surface erosion; 2. the crust has neither shallow Moho, nor magmatic high-velocity underplated material, and thus is not typical of continental rifts; 3. weakly negative Bouguer gravity anomalies, especially by comparison with adjacent "background" anomalies suggest the presence of high-density material at shallow, near-Moho depths; however, the shape of the anomaly is rounded rather than linear, and may not attest to the paleorifting event; 4. seismic velocities in the upper mantle show a possible weak low-Pn anomaly near Lake Ladoga, and strong positive (+5+7%) Vs anomaly at 75-125 km depth to the NE of the lake, but not in the region of Mesoproterozoic mafic magmatism; 5. no thermal anomaly or lithosphere thickness anomaly is currently present in the lithosphere of the region, which instead is marked by extremely low heat flow; however, given the age of magmatism any thermal anomaly may have long ceased and thus its absence does not disprove rifting origin of magmatism; 6. the absence of linear magnetic anomalies which are preserved in other paleorifts provides strong evidence that this region has

  7. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  8. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  9. Discovery of a new chert-permineralized microbiota in the Proterozoic Buxa Formation of the Ranjit window, Sikkim, northeast India, and its astrobiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J William; Tewari, Vinod C; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B

    2008-08-01

    For the foreseeable future, the search for evidence of past life in rocks acquired from other planets will be constrained by the amount of sample available and by the fidelity of preservation of any fossils present. What amount of rock is needed to establish the existence of past life? To address this question, we studied a minute amount of rock collected from cherty dolomites of the Proterozoic Buxa Formation in the metamorphically altered tectonically active northeastern Himalaya. In particular, we investigated 2 small petrographic thin sections-one from each of 2 bedded chert horizons exposed in the Ranjit River stratigraphic section northwest of Rishi, Sikkim, India-that together comprise an area of approximately 5 cm(2) (about the size of a US postage stamp) and have a total rock weight of approximately 0.1 g. Optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy and imagery demonstrate that each of the thin sections contains a rich assemblage of 3-dimensionally permineralized organic-walled microfossils. This study, the first report of Proterozoic microfossils in units of the Ranjit tectonic window, demonstrates that firm evidence of early life can be adduced from even a minuscule amount of fossil-bearing ancient rock.

  10. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers

  11. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers.

  12. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  13. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  14. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  15. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  16. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  17. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  18. The Application of COMSOL Multiphysics Package on the Modelling of Complex 3-D Lithospheric Electrical Resistivity Structures - A Case Study from the Proterozoic Orogenic belt within the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Yin, Y.; Deng, M.; Guo, L.; Yan, J.

    2017-12-01

    At present, most magnetotelluric (MT) forward modelling and inversion codes are based on finite difference method. But its structured mesh gridding cannot be well adapted for the conditions with arbitrary topography or complex tectonic structures. By contrast, the finite element method is more accurate in calculating complex and irregular 3-D region and has lower requirement of function smoothness. However, the complexity of mesh gridding and limitation of computer capacity has been affecting its application. COMSOL Multiphysics is a cross-platform finite element analysis, solver and multiphysics full-coupling simulation software. It achieves highly accurate numerical simulations with high computational performance and outstanding multi-field bi-directional coupling analysis capability. In addition, its AC/DC and RF module can be used to easily calculate the electromagnetic responses of complex geological structures. Using the adaptive unstructured grid, the calculation is much faster. In order to improve the discretization technique of computing area, we use the combination of Matlab and COMSOL Multiphysics to establish a general procedure for calculating the MT responses for arbitrary resistivity models. The calculated responses include the surface electric and magnetic field components, impedance components, magnetic transfer functions and phase tensors. Then, the reliability of this procedure is certificated by 1-D, 2-D and 3-D and anisotropic forward modeling tests. Finally, we establish the 3-D lithospheric resistivity model for the Proterozoic Wutai-Hengshan Mts. within the North China Craton by fitting the real MT data collected there. The reliability of the model is also verified by induced vectors and phase tensors. Our model shows more details and better resolution, compared with the previously published 3-D model based on the finite difference method. In conclusion, COMSOL Multiphysics package is suitable for modeling the 3-D lithospheric resistivity

  19. Geology and Geochemistry of the Early Proterozoic Kortejärvi and Laivajoki Carbonatites, Central Fennoscandian Shield, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykänen, J.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides for the first time extensive petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data on the early Proterozoic Kortejärvi and Laivajoki carbonatites, northern Finland, which form metamorphosed and highly strained bodies 2 and 4 km long within a Svecokarelian shear zone in central Fennoscandian Shield. They are not exposed, but have been penetrated by a couple of deep drill holes. In terms of modal mineralogy, both intrusions contain calcite carbonatite and dolomite-calcite carbonatite as their main rock types, but Kortejärvi also contains dolomite carbonatite and calcite-dolomite carbonatite, some glimmerite and olivine-magnetite rock and Laivajärvi tremolite-calcite carbonatite, tremolite-dolomite carbonatite, serpentine-talc-dolomite rock and glimmerite. The main country rock is an amphibolite which is not fenitized. No alkaline rocks have been detected in these intrusions. Calcite is most common mineral in both occurrences. Other carbonate minerals include dolomite with minor ankerite and occassional siderite. In addition to low-Ti phlogopite, tetraferriphlogopite is also encountered. Fresh olivine is rare, and its alteration products include titaniferous clinohumite. The amphiboles are mainly calcic amphiboles, including actinolite, tremolite and edenite. The only sodic-calcic amphibole is accessory richterite. Other essential minerals are Ti-poor magnetite with ilmenite exsolutions, fluorapatite (3.95-4.89 wt. % F, monazite, and allanite-(Ce. Geochemically, the Kortejärvi rocks are mostly magnesiocarbonatites, whereas those of Laivajärvi, due to their higher magnetite content, are ferrocarbonatites. Of the trace elements, Nb is much lower (8-30 ppm in proper carbonatites than the average for carbonatites and U and Th (<0.9 ppm and<2.4 pm, respectively lower than average. Sr is typical, but not high (1830-3480 ppm, and Ba is rather low (27-348 ppm. The REEs are hosted by allanite and monazite and their concentrations in the

  20. Structural analysis of an outcropping granite (Proterozoic basement of Yémen): faults and fractures distributions and scaling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Garzic, Edouard; de L'Hamaide, Thibaut; Diraison, Marc; Géraud, Yves; de Urreiztieta, Marc; Hauville, Benoit; Champanhet, Jean-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Numerous deep fractured reservoirs in basement have risen in recent years for oil or geothermal production. Such reservoirs are often badly-known because of a lack of direct information. Indeed, structural models proposed are mostly based on 1D borehole data, and conventional geophysical methods like seismic profiles are not so good techniques to image basement structures. Therefore, understanding the effects of scale in the organization of fracture system is a key problem in modelling geometry of deep fractured reservoir. The aim of this study is to present a detailed structural analysis of an outcropping granite at different scales and to contribute to comprehension of scaling properties of faults systems. Multi-scale structural maps were produced by remote sensing techniques and field approaches in the granitic Proterozoic basement of Al-Mukalla (Yémen). This region, located at the Southern boundary of the Arabian Plate, has a Pan-African tectonic signature and then has undergone two phases of continental extension since Mesozoic times: Jurassic-Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene rifting (i.e. Gulf of Aden opening). In a first time, very high resolution satellite imagery (QUICKBIRD) was used to construct map of structural lineaments from regional scale to micro-block scale (~1 km x 1 km). In a second time, field observations and fractures measurements performed at outcrop scale allow us to confirm suitability of satellite picking. Finally, description of the various structures existing in Burum's granite and characterization of geometrical and morphological features of faults, fractured corridors and joints enable us to interpret structural lineaments with better accuracy. Major faults strike N090°E and N120°E, whereas secondary structures strike N000°E and N040°E and are interpreted as minor faults, fractured corridors or joints. Consequently, brittle deformation is mainly characterised by structural blocks with parallelogram shaped with fault segments

  1. Geochemical elements mobility during the history of a paleo-Proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kister, P.

    2003-10-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of migration and deposition of ore elements, it is essential to determine the timing, source, and destination of the geochemical element mass transfers and/or transportation on a scale encompassing the great sedimentary. The purpose of this study was to trace and to date the element migrations that occurred during the history of a Paleo-proterozoic clastic sedimentary basin, the Athabasca Basin, which hosts the world's largest and richest uranium deposits. As this geological environment was proved to be efficient to preserve high grade ore deposits for over more than one billion years, it provides an opportunity to study the mobility of some elements in a context that shows analogies with deep geological nuclear waste disposals. The natural analogies of interest include (i) uranium oxide and spent nuclear fuel; (ii) clay alteration halo and near field barrier, (iii) Athabasca sandstone cover and far-field barrier. Five research axis: (1) 3D modelling of the distribution of the main minerals and of some trace elements (U, Pb, Zr, Th, REE, Y, Rb, Sr) on a basin-wide scale and in the U mineralized zones, using the Gocad software. The models have been compared with detailed mineralogical studies performed on selected samples. (2) Pb-Pb and Rb-Sr systematics by TIMS (3) Mass balance calculation of the average Pb/U ratio at the scale of the deposit to evaluate whether the present day amount of radiogenic lead is sufficient to explain a U deposition in one or several episodes (geostatistical tools on Gocad) (4) Thermodynamic modelling of the mineralogical evolution of the Athabasca basin, considering the main mineral present in the sandstone (Phreeqc and Supcrt softwares) (5) U-Pb geochronology of uranium oxides using a 3 step approach: (i) optical and scanning electron microscopy; (ii) electron microprobe; (iii) ion microprobe (SIMS). The purpose was to study the long term stability of the uranium oxides and to characterise the

  2. Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Dharma Rao

    2012-01-01

    of garnet compositions in the domains where some melt was retained. The post-peak evolution is constrained by a succession of melt-present reactions that occur at p < 10 kbar, inferred from micro-structural relations among various minerals. After high-temperature decompression from the metamorphic peak, the p–T path followed a near isobaric cooling stage to T < 900 °C. The UHT rocks investigated in this study occur within a continental collision suture which witnessed prolonged subduction–accretion history prior to the final collision. We correlate the extreme metamorphism and the stabilization of UHT mineral assemblages to heat and volatile input from an upwelled asthenosphere during subduction–collision tectonics in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin.

  3. Proterozoic Diabase Dyke Swarms of Northern Ontario: Paleomagnetic Indicators of Broad-Scale Crustal Deformation of the Archean Superior Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, H. C.

    2004-05-01

    Several Proterozoic dyke swarms, all with precise U-Pb ages, (Matachewan, Senneterre, Biscotasing, Marathon and Fort Frances) occur over an area of the southern Superior Province covering more than 300,000 square kilometres. Cutting across this region is the Kapuskasing Zone, a 500 km-long fault zone along which dextral transpression at about 1.9 to 2.0 Ga has produced crustal uplift locally in excess of 20 km and lateral fault displacements of up to 70 km (Percival and West, 1994). The 2446-2473 Ma Matachewan swarm has been a subject for study throughout the last 40 years of Canadian paleomagnetism. However only in the last 20 years has the true size of the swarm been realised (Ernst and Halls, 1984; Halls et al., 1994), and the discovery made that regional variations in the direction of primary magnetization in the dykes are intimately related to the Kapuskasing Zone (KZ). The swarm is now known to span a single reversal of the Earth's magnetic field. The younger N polarity epoch, although barely recorded in the dying stages of the intrusive episode, is well preserved in dykes within uplifted crust inside the KZ. Here fine-grained magnetite, exsolved from dyke feldspars due to slow cooling of the swarm at depth, acquired a remanence of probable thermo-chemical origin prior to or during crustal uplift (Halls and Palmer, 1990; Halls et al., 1994; Halls and Zhang, 2003). The inference is that dykes intruded during the older R polarity epoch carry a near surface primary R magnetization but have been remagnetized to N at depth. Paleomagnetic data from that part of the swarm outside the KZ are therefore dominated by the older R polarity magnetization. They show that the western half of the shield has rotated counter-clockwise about 10 to 20 degrees relative to the eastern half across the KZ (Bates and Halls, 1991; Halls and Stott, 2003). This rotation is also seen in paleomagnetic data from the 2170 Ma Biscotasing swarm, which is now known to occur on both sides of the

  4. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  5. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  6. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  7. Multichannel analyzer development in CAMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, J.Z.; Zarandy, A.

    1988-01-01

    The data acquisition in TOKAMAK experiments some CAMAC modules have been developed. The modules are the following: 64 K analyzer memory, 32 K analyzer memory, 6-channel pulse peak analyzer memory which contains the 32 K analyzer memory and eight AD-converters

  8. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Ormary Barberi; Pesántez Palacios, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  9. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  10. Analyzing recurrent events when the history of previous episodes is unknown or not taken into account: proceed with caution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Navarro

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Common-baseline hazard models cannot be recommended when we analyse recurrent events in the presence of event dependence. It is important to have access to the history of prior-episodes per subject, it can permit to obtain better estimations of the effects of the exposures

  11. Proterozoic basement and Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High characterized by zircon U–Pb ages and heavy minerals from Danish onshore wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Mette; Friis, Henrik; Kokfelt, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    New data from the Proterozoic basement and scattered Palaeozoic sediments in the Ringkøbing–Fyn High including zircon U–Pb geochronometry, heavy mineral compositions and whole rock geochemistry is presented here to provide a frame of reference for detrital provenance studies. The Ringkøbing......–Fyn High is a WNW–ESE trending structural high including subcropping basement rocks, and the results indicate that it is a southerly extension of the Fennoscandian Shield. The zircon data show matching age distribution patterns in crystalline basement rocks obtained from two drill sites, the Glamsbjerg-1...... in the Arnum-1 well on the southern flank of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High has zircon ages (c. 1.54–1.53 Ga) that resemble those of gneiss in the Glamsbjerg High. The conglomeratic sandstone in the Ringe-1 well on the Glamsbjerg High has a dual age distribution as the matrix has late Palaeoproterozoic to early...

  12. Fluorite Mineralization Related to the Dolomitization:an Equilibrium Study of the Proterozoic Stratabound Carbonate Macaia-Ijaci Basin, Lavras,Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cecília Miano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stratabound fluorite occurring as thin films in the concomitantlyderived dolomitic portions of the calcitic limestone of the ProterozoicCarandaí Formation in the Macaia-Ijaci Basin was supposedly formedby metasomatic reactions between the carbonate and HF- and Mg2+-rich brines, during metamorphism. Thirteen electron microprobeanalyses from the carbonate in a single petrographic thin section, allowedthe determination of the temperature of the carbonate formation in therange 180o-230oC, using the Mg-calcite solvus geothermometer. Fivekey mineral reactions in the system Mg-Ca-C-H-O-F plotted in diagramsin terms of either, CO2- and HF-fugacities or chemical potentials ofCO2 and HF yielding fluorite + dolomite from calcite + Mg2+, areproposed. Apparently the fluorite formation is related withdolomitization. Additional reaction involving fluorite was calculatedand inserted in the phase diagram, according to the existence of calcite-fluorite veinlets bordered by dolomite selvages, at the Casa de Pedraquarry.

  13. Archean and proterozoic in the West-European Hercynian chain: isotopic geochemistry (Sr-Nd-Pb) and U-Pb geochronology on zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrot, C.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis reports the study of isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology on zircons in the immersed granulites of the Bay of Biscay: U-Pb geochronology on zircons, Nd isotopic geochemistry, Sr isotopic geochemistry, common Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and rare earth data on minerals, comparison with other European granulites, comparison with West-Africa, study of Archean and proterozoic in the Hercynian chain. The second part reports the study of the U-Pb geochronology on zircon in the Cadomian, and the third part addresses the Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of some Cadomian granitoid, and the crust contamination in different regions [fr

  14. Petrogenesis of the Canindé de São Francisco complex: A major Late Proterozoic gabbroic body in the Sergipe Foldbelt, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, E. P.; Tarney, J.

    The large Canindé de São Francisco gabbroic complex, with its associated volcanic units, has been widely interpreted as a Late Proterozoic island-arc sequence emplaced onto the margin of the São Francisco craton during the development of the Sergipe Foldbelt. Whole-rock major, trace, and rare earth element data and mineral chemistry data are presented here for the Canindé gabbroic complex and the associated Gentileza and Novo Gosto volcanics. These data show that both the gabbros and the volcanics have compositions that bear little resemblance to island-arc sequences. Instead, much of the complex has trace element characteristics that resemble those of continental flood basalts, such as the Paraná. It is more likely that the Canindé Complex has resulted from remobilization of the subcontinental lithosphere during some thermal event in the Late Proterozoic. The Sergipe Foldbelt, therefore, may not necessarily represent a zone of continental collision. Two distinct magma types are recognized in both the gabbro complex and the volcanic sequence. The dominant leucogabbros and the Gentileza basaltic volcanics are relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements and have multi-element patterns that are similar to those Paraná basalts. However, the Novo Gosto volcanics and the FeTi oxide gabbros are much more depleted in light rare earth and other incompatible trace elements, and have more refractory major element compositions. These rocks cannot be related to the rest of the complex by any conceivable scheme involving fractional crystallization. They have more likely resulted from melting of a more refractory mantle component in the subcontinental lithosphere, or they represent second-stage melting of mantle from which a basalt component had already been removed.

  15. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  16. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  17. Uranium Isotope Compositions of Mid-Proterozoic Organic-rich Mudrocks: Evidence for an Episode of Increased Ocean Oxygenation at ca. 1.36 Ga and Evaluation of the Effect of Post-Depositional Hydrothermal Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B.; Yang, S.; Lu, X.; Zhang, F.; Zheng, W.

    2016-12-01

    The U isotope system represents a relatively new paleoredox proxy that can help trace the evolution of global ocean redox chemistry, but has rarely been applied to the Mid-Proterozoic. We report U isotope data for marine black shales of the early Mesoproterozoic Velkerri Formation (Roper Group) and late Paleoproterozoic Wollogorang Formation (Tawallah Group) from the McArthur Basin, Northern Australia. An average authigenic δ238U of 0.13 ± 0.04‰ (1SD; relative to standard CRM145) was obtained for six euxinic shales from a 1 m interval that previously yielded a precise Re-Os depositional age of 1361 ± 21 Ma. After correcting for a U isotope fractionation of 0.60-0.85‰ between seawater and open-ocean euxinic sediments, we infer that coeval global seawater had a δ238U of -0.47‰ to -0.72‰, which is 0.1-0.3‰ lighter than modern seawater (-0.40 ± 0.03‰). A U isotope mass-balance model suggests that anoxic marine environments accounted for 25-50% of the global oceanic U sink at 1.36 Ga, which is 3-7 times greater than today. The model suggests that a significant proportion, potentially even a majority, of the seafloor was not covered by anoxic waters. Hence, we infer that a significant extent of the ocean floor was covered by O2-bearing waters at 1.36 Ga. The O2 concentrations of those waters were not necessarily high, and a large expanse of weakly to mildly oxygenated deep waters is consistent with the U isotope data. Uranium isotope data from a 1 m interval in the lower Velkerri Formation, deposited at 1417 ± 29 Ma based on Re-Os geochronology, yield a greater estimate for the extent of ocean anoxia. Hence, the upper Velkerri Formation may capture a transient episode of increased ocean oxygenation. Previous Re-Os isotope data from black shales of the ca. 1.73 Ga Paleoproterozoic Wollogorang Formation yielded an erroneously young date of 1359 ± 150 Ma because hydrothermal fluids percolated through the Tawallah Group rocks at ca. 1640 Ma. Higher δ238U

  18. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  19. Digital Multi Channel Analyzer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, E.; Marcus, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Beck, A.; Nir, J.; Sheinfeld, M.; Broide, A.; Tirosh, D.

    2002-01-01

    A cement analyzing system based on radiation spectroscopy had been developed [1], using novel digital approach for real-time, high-throughput and low-cost Multi Channel Analyzer. The performance of the developed system had a severe problem: the resulted spectrum suffered from lack of smoothness, it was very noisy and full of spikes and surges, therefore it was impossible to use this spectrum for analyzing the cement substance. This paper describes the work carried out to improve the system performance

  20. Multichannel analyzer type CMA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czermak, A.; Jablonski, J.; Ostrowicz, A.

    1978-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer CMA-3 is designed for two-parametric analysis with operator controlled logical windows. It is implemented in CAMAC standard. A single crate contains all required modules and is controlled by the PDP-11/10 minicomputer. Configuration of CMA-3 is shown. CMA-3 is the next version of the multichannel analyzer described in report No 958/E-8. (author)

  1. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  2. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, K.H.; Long, E.L. Jr.; Willey, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties. 4 claims, 3 figures

  3. Market study: Whole blood analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A market survey was conducted to develop findings relative to the commercialization potential and key market factors of the whole blood analyzer which is being developed in conjunction with NASA's Space Shuttle Medical System.

  4. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  5. Tectonothermal and palaeogeographic significance of orthopyroxene-plagioclase bi-phase corona around garnet in the Proterozoic anorthosite complex, Eastern Ghats Province, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasipuri, Pritam

    2014-05-01

    Development of structural elements and subsequent metamorphic reactions are evidences of tectono-thermal events that continuously change the mutual positions of the cratonic blocks in the Earth. In the Proterozoic era, the structural evolution of the crust is governed by the assembly and disintegration of two supercontinent: a) Columbia and b) Rodinia. The assembly and breakup of these two supercontinent is marked by the extremely high heat flow and emplacement of massif type anorthosite. Although, the palaeo-position of the continents in the northern hemisphere is well constrained to explain the anorthosite magmatism, even after five decades of research ambiguity still exists on the origin of anorthosite in the Gondwana supercontinent. Central to the controversy of Gondwana reconstruction is the position of proto-India in the Proterozoic time. In this contribution, the interrelationship between structural elements and the metamorphic reaction is discussed. At Bolangir, Eastern Ghats Province, massif type anorthosite is characterized by a margin parallel foliation defined by recrystallized biotite and magmatic orthopyroxene. The margin parallel foliation is parallel to the parallel alignment of magmatic plagioclase. At the margin of the pluton, 2-3 mm long garnet porphyroblasts are observed. The garnet porphyroblasts are mantled by bi-phase corona of orthopyroxene and plagioclase and overgrow the orthopyroxene- defined margin parallel foliation. In a core to rim traverse, the garnet shows a decrease in the Ca content. In the bi-phase corona, the plagioclase shows a strong zonation of anorthite component that gradually decrease away from the bi-phase corona. The metamorphic orthopyroxene don't show any compositional variation. Classical thermo barometry obtained from the compositions of the garnet-plagioclase-orthopyroxene indicates a decompression path from 750 °C, 10 Kbar to 650 °C, 6.5 kbar for the origin of bi-phase corona. Available radiometric ages and

  6. W-Au skarns in the Neo-Proterozoic Seridó Mobile Belt, Borborema Province in northeastern Brazil: an overview with emphasis on the Bonfim deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Neto, João Adauto; Legrand, Jean Michel; Volfinger, Marcel; Pascal, Marie-Lola; Sonnet, Philippe

    2008-02-01

    The Seridó Mobile Belt (SMB) is located in the Borborema Province in northeastern Brazil and consists of a gneiss basement (Archean to Paleo-Proterozoic), a metasedimentary sequence (marble, quartzites, and schists), and the Brasiliano igneous suite (both of Neo-Proterozoic age). In this region, skarns occur within marble and at the marble-schist contact in the metasedimentary sequence. Most of the skarn deposits have been discovered in the early 1940s, and since then, they have been exploited for tungsten and locally gold. Recently, the discovery of gold in the Bonfim tungsten skarn has resulted in a better understanding of the skarn mineralization in this region. The main characteristics of the SMB skarns are that they are dominantly oxidized tungsten skarns, with the exception of the Itajubatiba and Bonfim gold-bearing skarns, which are reduced based on pyrrhotite as the dominant sulfide, garnet with high almandine and spessartine component, and elevated gold contents. In the Bonfim deposit, pressure estimates indicate that the skarns formed at 10- to 15-km depth. The mineralized skarns present the prograde stage with almandine, diopside, anorthite, and actinolite-magnesio-hornblende, and titanite, apatite, allanite, zircon, and monazite as accessory minerals. The retrograde stage is characterized by alkali feldspar, clinozoisite-zoisite-sericite, calcite, and quartz. Scheelite occurs in four ore-shoots distributed within the marble and at the marble-schist contact. The main ore body is 5-120 cm wide and contains an average of 4.8-wt.% WO3, which occurs in the basal marble-schist contact. Fold hinges appear to control the location of high-grade scheelite. The late-stage gold mineralization contains bismite (Bi2O3), fluorine-bearing bismite, native bismuth, bismuthinite (Bi2S3), and joseite [Bi4(Te,S)3], and also chlorite, epidote, prehnite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite. This gold-bismuth-tellurium mineralization exhibits a typical late character and occurs as a

  7. Crustal structure of a Proterozoic craton boundary: east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, imaged with passive seismic and gravity anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, Christian; Brisbout, Lucy; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Murdie, Ruth

    2017-04-01

    We use passive seismic and gravity data to characterize the crustal structure and the crust-mantle boundary of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen in Western Australia, a Proterozoic orogen that reworked the southern and southeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton. The crustal thickness pattern retrieved from receiver functions shows a belt of substantially thickened crust - about 10 km thicker than the surrounding regions - that follows the trend of the orogen, but narrows to the southwest. Common conversion point profiles show a clear transition from a wide, symmetric Moho trough in the northeast to a one-sided, north-western Moho dip in the southwest, where the Moho appears to underthrust the craton towards its interior. The change from a Moho trough to an underthrust Moho appears to coincide with the inferred trace of the Ida Fault, a major terrane boundary within the Yilgarn Craton. Bulk crustal vp/vs ratios are mostly in the felsic to intermediate range, with clearly elevated values (≥1.8) at stations in the Fraser Zone granulite facies, dominantly mafic metamorphic rocks. Forward modelling of gravity anomaly data using the retrieved Moho geometry as a geometric constraint shows that a conspicuous, elongated gravity low on the northwestern side of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen is almost certainly caused by thickened Archean crust. To obtain a model that resembles the regional gravity pattern the following assumptions are necessary: high-density rocks occur in the upper crustal portion of the Fraser Zone, at depth inside the Moho trough and in parts of the eastern Nornalup Zone east of the Moho trough. Although our gravity models do not constrain at which crustal level these high-density rocks occur, active deep seismic surveys suggest that large extents of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen's lower crust include a Mesoproterozoic magmatic underplate known as the Gunnadorrah Seismic Province. The simplest interpretation of the imaged crustal structure is that

  8. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  9. Variation of properties of clayey minerals and associated phases about uranium deposits related to proterozoic discordances; Variation des proprietes des mineraux argileux et des phases associees autour des gisements d'uranium lies aux discordances Proterozoiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaufort, D.; Patrier, P.; Laverret, E.; Gaboreau, St.; Billault, V. [HYDRASA, Universite de Poitiers-CNRS, 86 - Poitiers (France); Quirt, D. [AREVA Resources Canada AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The authors propose explanations for the clayey alteration which surrounds uranium deposits related to proterozoic discordances as it is noticed in Canada (Athabasca) and Australia (Kombolgie). The observed mineral sequences are interpreted as the product of an increasing interaction between infiltrated diagenetic acid and oxidising solutions on the one hand, and platform rocks on the other hand, at temperatures between 150 and 200 C. These interpretations are based on crystallographic and crystallochemical investigations

  10. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  11. Compact analyzer: an interactive simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Colley, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Compact Analyzer is a computer system that combines dynamic simulation models with interactive and color graphics user interface functions to provide a cost-effective simulator for dynamic analysis and evaluation of power plant operation, with engineering and training applications. Most dynamic simulation packages such as RETRAN and TRAC are designed for a batch-mode operation. With advancements in computer technology and man/machine interface capabilities, it is possible to integrate such codes with interactive and graphic functions into advanced simulators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored development of plant analyzers with such characteristics. The Compact Analyzer is an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-sponsored project, which currently utilizes the EPRI modular modeling system (MMS) for process simulation, and uses an adaptable color graphic package for dynamic display of the simulation results

  12. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  13. Multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia D, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ordaz G, O. O.; Bravo M, I.

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has different applications, so it is a very significant and useful tool, which in turn can be dangerous for living beings if they are exposed to uncontrolled doses. However, due to its characteristics, it cannot be perceived by any of the senses of the human being, so that in order to know the presence of it, radiation detectors and additional devices are required to quantify and classify it. A multichannel analyzer is responsible for separating the different pulse heights that are generated in the detectors, in a certain number of channels; according to the number of bits of the analog to digital converter. The objective of the work was to design and implement a multichannel analyzer and its associated virtual instrument, for nuclear spectrometry. The components of the multichannel analyzer were created in VHDL hardware description language and packaged in the Xilinx Vivado design suite, making use of resources such as the ARM processing core that the System on Chip Zynq contains and the virtual instrument was developed on the LabView programming graphics platform. The first phase was to design the hardware architecture to be embedded in the FPGA and for the internal control of the multichannel analyzer the application was generated for the ARM processor in C language. For the second phase, the virtual instrument was developed for the management, control and visualization of the results. The data obtained as a result of the development of the system were observed graphically in a histogram showing the spectrum measured. The design of the multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA was tested with two different radiation detection systems (hyper-pure germanium and scintillation) which allowed determining that the spectra obtained are similar in comparison with the commercial multichannel analyzers. (Author)

  14. Analyzing Generation Y Workforce Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Analyzing Generation Y Workforce Motivation Ian N. Barford n Patrick T. Hester R Defense AT&L: Special Edition: March –April 2011 36 Report...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analyzing Generation Y Workforce Motivation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...between 1965 and 1979), and Generation Y (born between 1980 and 2000). 37 Defense AT&L: Special Edition: March –April 2011 Defense AT&L: Special

  15. Microfossils from cap dolomites of the Lower Vendian Churochnaya Formation in the Polyudov Range (North Urals): Paleoecological approach to interpretation of Late Proterozoic glaciations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Vorob'eva, N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Microfossils from silicified varieties of cap dolomites crowning the section of the tillite-bearing Lower Vendian (Ediacaran) Churochnaya Formation in the Polyudov Range (North Urals) are characterized. These microfossils are the first to be found from Vendian sections of the region and from all the terminal post-glacial sediments, one of the most significant global glaciation Marinoan of the African Glacial Era, when glaciers reached the equator. They are represented by remains of hormogonian and chrococcacean cyanobacteria as well as possible green filamentous algae. This microbiotic assemblage is of relatively low diversity, being composed of taxa with wide stratigraphic ranges characteristic of Proterozoic conservative microbiotas developed in shallow-water siliceous-carbonate facies. The lack of phytoplanktonic microfossils in this biota including Pertatataka-type acanthomorphic acritarchs or Ediacaran Complex Acanthomorph Palynoflora (ECAP) is also consistent with the conclusion on shallow-water deposition of the Churochnaya Formation. Moreover, most cyanobacteria representatives occurring in the latter are characteristic of shallow-water arid environments that confirm a theory of significant temperature increase during accumulation of the cap dolomites after termination of the above-mentioned glaciation. In addition to these microfossils, the cap dolomite member of the Churochnaya Formation contains filamentous and coccoidal pseudofossils formed under influence of post-sedimentary fluids. In their morphometric parameters, they resemble structures described from Archean sections as microfossil remains, which may be a key to interpreting their nature.

  16. Strata-bound copper-iron sulfide mineralization in a Proterozoic front arc setting at Boksputs, Northwest Cape, South Africa — a possible Besshi-type deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, G. J.; Pretorius, J. J.; Cilliers, F. H.

    1987-04-01

    A low-grade, copper-iron sulfide deposit is present at Boksputs in the Northwest Cape, South Africa. It occurs in the Proterozoic amphibolite belt, the Areachap Group, along the eastern margin of the Namaqua mobile belt. The mineralization, which is dominated by pyrite, chalcocopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite, occurs as disseminated ore and thin layers of massive-type ore in the lower massive amphibiolite and associated amphibole gneisses of the Kraalkop antiform and synform. Chemically, the host-rock amphibolite resembles low-K arc tholeiite and calc-alkaline volcanics, whereas the upper amphibolite is calc-alkaline. The sulfide mineralization and the host-rock composition is explained in terms of modern plate tectonic principles. It is concluded that the Boksputs mineralization is a syngenetic, strata-bound, copper-iron deposit which to some extend resembles Besshi-type deposits. It is associated with low-K arc tholeiite which is tectonically related to a front arc environment or a rifted arc system along the eastern margin of the Namaqua mobile belt.

  17. Raster Images of Geologic Maps of Middle Proterozoic Belt strata in parts of Benewah, Bonner, Kootenai and Shoshone Counties, Idaho and Lincoln, Mineral and Sanders Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleneus, David E.; Appelgate, Larry M.; Joseph, Nancy L.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic maps of the western part of the Belt Basin of western Montana and northern Idaho were converted into digital raster (TIFF image) format to facilitate their manipulation in geographic information systems. The 85-mile x 100-mile map area mostly contains rocks belonging to the lower and middle Belt Supergroup. The area is of interest as these Middle Proterozoic strata contain vein-type lead-zinc-silver deposits in the Coeur d?Alene Mining District in the St. Regis and Revett formations and strata-bound copper-silver deposits, such as the Troy mine, within the Revett Formation. The Prichard Formation is also prospective for strata-bound lead-zinc deposits because equivalent Belt strata in southern British Columbia, Canada host the Sullivan lead-zinc deposit. Map data converted to digital images include 13 geological maps at scales ranging from 1:48,000 to 1:12,000. Geologic map images produced from these maps by color scanning were registered to grid tick coverages in a Universal Transverse Mercator (North American Datum of 1927, zone 11) projection using ArcView Image Analysis. Geo-registering errors vary from 10 ft to 114 ft.

  18. Determination of rare-earths and other trace elements in neo proterozoic-neo paleozoic dykes from Ceara state, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Rafael Martins dos; Figueiredo, Ana M.G., E-mail: rafael.anjos@usp.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator Nuclear de Pesquisas. Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons; Cardoso, Gustavo Luan; Marques, Leila S., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2011-07-01

    Trace elements such as rare earths, U, Th, Ta, Ba and Hf can be very useful in petrogenetic studies of igneous and metamorphic rocks, giving information about the origin and evolution of magmas. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is an accurate and precise for trace element analysis in geological samples, and provides the information required for this kind of studies. In this study, rare earths and incompatible trace elements were determined by INAA in the geological reference materials GS-N and BE-N, to quality control, and for the investigation of acid dykes of neo proterozoic-neo paleozoic ages, which outcrop in the Medio Coreau and Ceara Central domains from the Borborema Province (Ceara State). The powdered samples (particle sizes less than 100 mesh), crushed by using a mechanical agate mortar grinder, were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated and preliminary results of dyke samples are presented. (author)

  19. The security analyzer: A security analyzer program written in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.D.; Densley, P.J.

    1986-09-01

    The Security Analyzer is a software tool capable of analyzing the effectiveness of a facility's security system. It is written in the Prolog logic programming computer language, using entity-relationship data modeling techniques. The program performs the following functions: (1) provides descriptive, locational and operational status information about intrusion detectors and assessment devices (i.e., ''sensors'' and ''cameras'') upon request; (2) provides for storage and retrieval of maintenance history information for various components of the security system (including intrusion detectors), and allows for changing that information as desired; (3) provides a ''search'' mode, wherein all paths are found from any specified physical location to another specified location which satisfy user chosen ''intruder detection'' probability and elapsed time criteria (i.e., the program finds the ''weakest paths'' from a security point of view). The first two of these functions can be provided fairly easily with a conventional database program; the third function could be provided using Fortran or some similar language, though with substantial difficulty. In the Security Analyzer program, all these functions are provided in a simple and straight-forward manner. This simplicity is possible because the program is written in the symbolic (as opposed to numeric) processing language Prolog, and because the knowledge base is structured according to entity-relationship modeling principles. Also, the use of Prolog and the entity-relationship modeling technique allows the capabilities of the Security analyzer program, both for knowledge base interrogation and for searching-type operations, to be easily expanded in ways that would be very difficult for a numeric and more algorithmically deterministic language such as Fortran to duplicate. 4 refs

  20. Historical Thinking: Analyzing Student and Teacher Ability to Analyze Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Cowgill II, Daniel Armond; Waring, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to partially replicate the Historical Problem Solving: A Study of the Cognitive Process Using Historical Evidence study conducted by Sam Wineburg in 1991. The Historical Problem Solving study conducted by Wineburg (1991) sought to compare the ability of historians and top level students, as they analyzed pictures and written documents centered on the Battle of Lexington Green. In this version of the study, rather than compare historians and students, we sought ...

  1. Pollution Analyzing and Monitoring Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972

    Compiled in this book is basic, technical information useful in a systems approach to pollution control. Descriptions and specifications are given of what is available in ready made, on-the-line commercial equipment for sampling, monitoring, measuring and continuously analyzing the multitudinous types of pollutants found in the air, water, soil,…

  2. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  3. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  4. The Convertible Arbitrage Strategy Analyzed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes convertible bond arbitrage on the Canadian market for the period 1998 to 2004.Convertible bond arbitrage is the combination of a long position in convertible bonds and a short position in the underlying stocks. Convertible arbitrage has been one of the most successful strategies

  5. Analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oramas Polo, I.; Osorio Deliz, J. F.; Diaz Garcia, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research work was carried out to develop an analyzer for gamma cameras diagnostic. It is composed of an electronic system that includes hardware and software capabilities, and operates from the acquisition of the 4 head position signals of a gamma camera detector. The result is the spectrum of the energy delivered by nuclear radiation coming from the camera detector head. This system includes analog processing of position signals from the camera, digitization and the subsequent processing of the energy signal in a multichannel analyzer, sending data to a computer via a standard USB port and processing of data in a personal computer to obtain the final histogram. The circuits are composed of an analog processing board and a universal kit with micro controller and programmable gate array. (Author)

  6. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  7. Portable Tandem Mass Spectrometer Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    FILE : MHCI TUNE TABLE 84 (SCANNING with PARENT) SCAN RANGE 10.9 TO 700.0 TUNE MASS 355.0 (AUTO) >LENS 1-3 -13. 88 0. 2: POFF - 1. 2 9: COFF - 4. 1 3...and 500 ng of caffeine in I uL of chloroform by GC/A?:,,MS using negative ions. Also analyzed were barbiturates, extracted from urine, in the 3-5 Mg

  8. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  9. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  10. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists—and probably the most crucial one—is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study. PMID:27242639

  11. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  12. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  13. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  14. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  15. Lower-crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, upper Michigan (USA): Evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartman, Robert E.; Kempton, Pamela D.; Paces, James B.; Downes, Hilary; Williams, Ian S.; Dobosi, Gábor; Futa, Kiyoto

    2013-01-01

    Jurassic kimberlites in the southern Superior Province in northern Michigan contain a variety of possible lower-crustal xenoliths, including mafic garnet granulites, rare garnet-free granulites, amphibolites and eclogites. Whole-rock major-element data for the granulites suggest affinities with tholeiitic basalts. P–T estimates for granulites indicate peak temperatures of 690–730°C and pressures of 9–12 kbar, consistent with seismic estimates of crustal thickness in the region. The granulites can be divided into two groups based on trace-element characteristics. Group 1 granulites have trace-element signatures similar to average Archean lower crust; they are light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched, with high La/Nb ratios and positive Pb anomalies. Most plot to the left of the geochron on a 206Pb/€204Pb vs 207Pb/€204Pb diagram, and there was probably widespread incorporation of Proterozoic to Archean components into the magmatic protoliths of these rocks. Although the age of the Group 1 granulites is not well constrained, their protoliths appear to be have been emplaced during the Mesoproterozoic and to be older than those for Group 2 granulites. Group 2 granulites are also LREE-enriched, but have strong positive Nb and Ta anomalies and low La/Nb ratios, suggesting intraplate magmatic affinities. They have trace-element characteristics similar to those of some Mid-Continent Rift (Keweenawan) basalts. They yield a Sm–Nd whole-rock errorchron age of 1046 ± 140 Ma, similar to that of Mid-Continent Rift plume magmatism. These granulites have unusually radiogenic Pb isotope compositions that plot above the 207Pb/€204Pb vs 206Pb/€204Pb growth curve and to the right of the 4·55 Ga geochron, and closely resemble the Pb isotope array defined by Mid-Continent Rift basalts. These Pb isotope data indicate that ancient continental lower crust is not uniformly depleted in U (and Th) relative to Pb. One granulite xenolith, S69-5, contains quartz, and has a

  16. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2001-03-01

    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  17. Historical Thinking: Analyzing Student and Teacher Ability to Analyze Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armond Cowgill II

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to partially replicate the Historical Problem Solving: A Study of the Cognitive Process Using Historical Evidence study conducted by Sam Wineburg in 1991. The Historical Problem Solving study conducted by Wineburg (1991 sought to compare the ability of historians and top level students, as they analyzed pictures and written documents centered on the Battle of Lexington Green. In this version of the study, rather than compare historians and students, we sought out to compare the analytical skills of teachers and students. The main findings relate to the fact that the participants lacked the ability to engage in the very complex activities associated with historical inquiry and the utilization of primary sources in learning about the past. This lack of ability should be used to improve teacher professional development programs and help them develop the skills needed to not only engage in historical evaluation themselves but to also develop skills that will allow them to instruct students to do the same.

  18. Regional assessments of the hydrocarbon generation potential of selected North American proterozoic rock sequences. Progress report, September 1989--April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, M.H.; Elmore, R.D.

    1990-04-01

    Our primary research objectives for the first year of this grant are nearing completion. This includes comprehensive sedimentologic/organic geochemical studies of two depositionally distinct, unmetamorphosed units, the Nonesuch Formation ({approximately}1.1 Ga lacustrine rift deposit) and the Dripping Spring Quartzite ({approximately}1.3 Ga marine shelf deposit). As discussed in this progress report, an attempt has been made to (1) identify source rocks by quantification and characterization of constituent organic matter, (2) recognize depositional/diagenetic/catagenetic factors that may have influenced source rock quality and (3) evaluate the possibility of previous or current hydrocarbon generation and migration. Organic petrology and geochemical analyses suggest important differences between kerogens in the Michigan (MI) and Wisconsin (WI) Nonesuch Formation study areas. When considered within a geographic/stratigraphic framework, the Nonesuch Formation in the MI study area exhibits superior source rock potential. It is suggested that sedimentary organic matter in the WI area was subject to more extensive microbial alteration during early diagenesis. It is also possible that thermal maturity levels were slightly to moderately higher in WI than MI. Petrologic evidence for migrated bitumens and the stable isotope composition of late vein carbonates suggest, furthermore, that oil generation and migration may have actually been more extensive in the WI study area.

  19. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  20. Proterozoic Carbonate Lithofacies Control the Distribution of Sulphides at the Gayna River Zn-Pb Camp, Mackenzie Mountains, NWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, E. C.

    2009-05-01

    Zn-Pb deposits at Gayna River, NWT are predominantly concentrated in the informal 'Grainstone formation', a dolostone of the early Neoproterozoic Little Dal Group (Mackenzie Mountains Supergroup). Previous work showed that the mineralisation (inferred 50 Mt combined from numerous zones; 5 percent combined Zn+Pb) is fracture-controlled and spatially associated with giant stromatolite reefs (500 m thick) of the underlying formation. The rheologically brittle, uncompactable and hydrologically tight reef masses are enclosed by coeval, compacted shale and deep-water limestone. A long and complex history of reef growth controlled by sea-level change resulted in a distinctive reef morphology that includes a sharp right-angle at all reef-top margins, where heterogeneous, off-reef limestone, shale and dolostone abut the rigid, lithologically homogeneous reefs. These zones of abrupt lateral facies change, between uncompactable reef and ductile, layered off-reef strata, represent the structurally weakest points in the system, where, during even subtle later tectonic events, stress would be preferentially accommodated. Brittle deformation of competent carbonate layers in this inflection zone in response to stress produced fracture haloes around reef-tops, which were then occluded by Zn-Pb sulphides. Abrupt competence contrasts appear to be necessary for the production of fractures that control the locations of sulphides at Gayna River. The dominant fractures in the Gayna River camp are those associated with reef- tops. The plan shape and location of buried reef-tops are probably the most critical controls on the distribution of hitherto undiscovered sulphide masses in the subsurface. Careful mapping of those depositional lithofacies that are characteristic of near-reef environments and of subtle, compaction-related dips in appropriate stratigraphic levels may provide vectors to as-yet unrecognised subsurface reef-margin zones favourable for Zn-Pb mineralisation. Structures and

  1. Calcium Isotope Systematics of Diagenetically Altered Carbonates: Example from the Proterozoic Carbonates of Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, J.; Jacobsen, S.; Frauenstein, F.; Veizer, J.

    2008-12-01

    We analyzed mass-dependent (δ44/40Ca) and radiogenic (ɛCa) calcium isotope variations of diagenetically altered carbonates collected from the Duitschland Formation (~2.45 Ga) of the Transvaal Supergroup in a vicinity of the younger Bushveld Igneous Complex (Frauenstein, 2005, PhD Thesis, Ruhr Univ. Bochum). Textural, trace element and isotope data measured on these samples provide convincing evidence for extensive post-depositional alteration and diagenetic resetting. Samples selected for the Ca isotope study have Mn/Sr ratios from 0.8 to 33, 87Sr/86Sr from 0.704 to 0.719 and their δ18O and δ18C scatter from -20 to -2.8‰ and from 9.7 to -1.1‰, respectively. The δ44/40Ca (NIST) of carbonates range from 0.3 to 1.3‰ and their ɛCa indicate no radiogenic 40Ca excesses larger than the analytical uncertainty of ~1.5 ɛ-unit, confirming that the δ44/40Ca variation is exclusively due to mass-dependent fractionation. There is a difference between δ44/40Ca of limestones and dolostones, the former range from ~0.3 to 1.2‰ and the latter cluster tightly around 1.1. Using Mn/Sr as an index for diagenetic alteration (Brand and Veizer, 1980, J. Sed. Petrol., 50, 1219-1236) the δ44/40Ca of limestones becomes progressively heavier with an increasing degree of alteration (δ44/40Ca vs. Mn/Sr, r = .84, p element data. Finally, we propose that in a suite of coeval marine limestones, samples with the lowest δ44/40Ca, Mn/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr should, in most cases, represent the least altered components.

  2. Radiation energy detector and analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation detector array and a method for measuring the spectral content of radiation. The radiation sensor or detector is an array or stack of thin solid-electrolyte batteries. The batteries, arranged in a stack, may be composed of independent battery cells or may be arranged so that adjacent cells share a common terminal surface. This common surface is possible since the polarity of the batteries with respect to an adjacent battery is unrestricted, allowing a reduction in component parts of the assembly and reducing the overall stack length. Additionally, a test jig or chamber for allowing rapid measurement of the voltage across each battery is disclosed. A multichannel recorder and display may be used to indicate the voltage gradient change across the cells, or a small computer may be used for rapidly converting these voltage readings to a graph of radiation intensity versus wavelength or energy. The behavior of the batteries when used as a radiation detector and analyzer are such that the voltage measurements can be made at leisure after the detector array has been exposed to the radiation, and it is not necessary to make rapid measurements as is now done

  3. Thomson parabola ion energy analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobble, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letzring, Samuel A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oertel, John A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mastrosimone, Dino [UNIV OF ROCHESTER

    2010-01-01

    A new, versatile Thomson parabola ion energy (TPIE) analyzer has been designed and constructed for use at the OMEGA-EP facility. Multi-MeV ions from EP targets are transmitted through a W pinhole into a (5- or 8-kG) magnetic field and subsequently through a parallel electric field of up to 30 kV/cm. The ion drift region may have a user-selected length of 10, 50, or 80 cm. With the highest fields, 500-Me V C{sup 6+} and C{sup 5+} may be resolved. TPIE is TIM-mounted at OMEGA-EP and is qualified in all existing TIMs. The instrument runs on pressure-interlocked 15-VDC power available in EP TIM carts. It may be inserted to within several inches of the target to attain sufficient flux for a measurement. For additional flux control, the user may select a square-aperture W pinhole of 0.004-inch or 0.010-inch. The detector consists of CR-39 backed by an image plate. The fully relativistic design code and design features are discussed. Ion spectral results from first use at OMEGA-EP are expected.

  4. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  5. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  6. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  7. Metamorphic P-T evolution and U-Th-total Pb monazite dating of metapelites from the Nellore schist belt, Southeastern India: Implications for the Proterozoic tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrushikesh, Hari; Prabhakar, Naraga

    2017-04-01

    . Whereas the populations acquired from monazite rims yield post-peak metamorphic age at 1.45-1.35 Ga, which largely coincides with the wide-spread felsic magmatism in and around the NSB. The records of Neoproterozoic (0.80 Ga) event in the Vinjamuru domain is reported for the first time in this study, and arguably interpreted to be an overprint of a significant tectonothermal event that affected NSB during Rodinia breakup. Further, we suggest comparable deformation-metamorphism histories within the various domains associated with the NSB and the Rayner complex (East Antarctica) during Proterozoic accretionary process.

  8. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  9. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  10. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  11. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  12. Tectonics of the Kola collision suture and adjacent Archaean and Early Proterozoic terrains in the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Asger; Marker, Mogens

    1986-06-01

    As preparation for the deep-seismic and other geophysical experiments along the Polar Profile, which transects the Granulite belt and the Kola collision suture, structural field work has been performed in northernmost Finland and Norway, and published geological information including data from the neighbouring Soviet territory of the Kola Peninsula, have been compiled and reinterpreted. Based on these studies and a classification according to crustal and structural ages, the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield is divided into six major tectonic units. These units are separated and outlined by important low-angle, ductile shear or thrust zones of Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic age. The lateral extension of these units into Soviet territory and their involvement in large-scale crustal deformation structures, are described. Using the "view down the plunge" method, a generalised tectonic cross-section that predicts the crustal structures along the Polar Profile is compiled, and the structures around the Kola deep drill-hole are reinterpreted. The Kola suture belt, through parts of which the Kola deep bore-hole has been drilled, is considered to represent a ca. 1900 Ma old arc-continent and continent-continent collision suture. It divides the northeastern Shield region into two major crustal compartments: a Northern compartment (comprising the Murmansk and Sörvaranger units) and a Southern compartment (including the Inari unit, the Granulite belt and the Tanaelv belt, as well as the more southernly situated South Lapland-Karelia "craton" of the Karelian province of the Svecokarelian fold belt). The Kola suture belt is outlined by a 2-40 km wide and ca. 500 km long crustal belt composed of (1) Early Proterozoic (ca. 2400-2000 Ma old) metavolcanic and metasedimentary sequences which originally formed part of the attenuated margin of the Northern Archaean compartment, and (2) the remains of a ca. 2000-1900 Ma old, predominantly andesitic island-arc terrain. This

  13. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  14. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  15. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  16. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  17. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  18. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  19. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  20. Analyzing dialect variation in historical speech corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Margaret E L; Olsen, Rachel M

    2017-07-01

    The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race. Multiple tokens of common words were annotated (N = 6085), and formant values of their stressed vowels were extracted. The effects of shifting on relative vowel placement were evaluated via Pillai scores, and vowel dynamics were estimated via functional data analysis and modeled with linear mixed-effects regression. Results indicate that European American speakers show features of the Southern Vowel Shift, though certain speakers shift in more ways than others, and African American speakers' productions are consistent with the African American Vowel Shift. Wide variation is apparent, even within this small geographic region, contributing evidence of the complexity of Southern speech.

  1. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  2. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  3. Re-Os ages for Archean molybdenite and pyrite, Kuittila-Kivisuo, Finland and Proterozoic molybdenite, Kabeliai, Lithuania: Testing the chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H.J.; Sundblad, K.; Markey, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Motuza, G.

    1998-01-01

    that the Re-Os isotopic system in pyrite has been reset on the millimeter scale and that the 21 ppt 187Os intercept reflects the in situ decay of 187Re during the ~160 to 170 m.y. interval from ~2778 Ma (time of molybdenite ± pyrite deposition) to ~2607 Ma (time of pyrite resetting). When the Re-Os data for molybdenites from the nearby Kivisuo prospect are plotted together with the Kuittila molybdenite and pyrite data, a well-constrained five-point isochron with an age of 2780 ± 8 Ma and a 187Os intercept (-2.4 ± 3.8 ppt) of essentially zero results (MSWD = 1.5). We suggest that the pyrite isochron age records a regional metamorphic and/or hydrothermal event, possibly the time of Au mineralization. A proposed Re-Os age of ~2607 Ma for Au mineralization is in good agreement with radiometric ages by other methods that address the timing of Archean Au mineralization in deposits worldwide (so-called 'late Au model'). Molybdenite, in contrast, provides a robust Re-Os chronometer, retaining its original formation age of ~2780 Ma, despite subsequent metamorphic disturbances in Archean and Proterozoic time.

  4. Toward a new tectonic model for the Late Proterozoic Araçuaí (SE Brazil)-West Congolian (SW Africa) Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-Soares, A. C.; Noce, C. M.; Vidal, Ph; Monteiro, R. L. B. P.; Leonardos, O. H.

    1992-08-01

    The Araçuaí Belt is a Late Proterozoic (Brasiliano Cycle) geotectonic unit which was developed along the southeastern margin of the São Francisco Craton (SE Brazil) and was formerly considered as being an ensialic orogen. It is correlated with the Pan-African West Congolian Belt (SW Africa) in many reports. In the western domain of the belt, the Macaúbas Group—the most important supracrustal sequence related to the evolution of the Araçuaí Belt —comprises the Terra Branca and Carbonita Formations, which consist of littoral glacial sediments to shelf turbidites. These formations grade upward and eastward to the Salinas Formation, consisting of distal turbidites related to submarine fans, pelagic sediments, and a rock association (the Ribeirão da Folha Facies) typical of an ocean-floor environment. Banded iron formations, metacherts, diopsidites, massive sulfides, graphite schists, hyperaluminous schists, and ortho-amphibolites, intercalated with quartz-mica schists and impure quartzites, characterize the most distinctive and restricted volcano-sedimentary facies yet found within the Salinas Formation. Ultramafic slabs were tectonically emplaced within the Ribeirão da Folha Facies. Eight whole rock samples of meta-ultramafic rocks and ortho-amphibolites yielded a SmNd isochronic age of 793 ± 90 Ma ( ɛNd(T) = +4.1 ± 0.6. MSWD = 1.76 ). The structures of the northern Araçuaí Belt are marked by a doen-dip stretching lineation (western domain) related to frontal thrusts which controlled tectonic transport from east to west; stretching lineation rakes decrease in the eastern tectonic domain, indicating dominant oblique to transcurrent motion; the northern arch of the belt is characterized by major high-dip transcurrent shear zones. Our tectonic model starts with marked fracturing, followed by rifting that took place in the São Francisco-Congo Craton around 1000 ± 100 Ma (ages of basic intrusions and alkaline anorogenic granites). A sinistral transfer

  5. Logic of Accounting: The Case of Reporting Previous Options in Norwegian Activation Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Janne

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the enactment of client resistance in Norwegian vocational rehabilitation encounters. More specific, a practice here called "reporting previous options" is analyzed by using the resources of ethnomethodological conversation analysis (CA) in five instances as doing some sort of accounting. In response to the…

  6. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  7. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  8. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  9. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  10. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  11. Paleomagnetism of the Upper Proterozoic and Devonian rocks from the Kłodzko Metamorphic Complex in the West Sudetes (SW Poland): tectonic implications for the Variscan belt of Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kądziałko-Hofmokl, Magdalena; Kruczyk, Jadwiga; Mazur, Stanisław; Siemiątkowski, Jacek

    2003-12-01

    The Kłodzko Metamorphic Complex (KMC) consists of Upper Proterozoic metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks forming a stack pile thrusted over the Givetian and overlain by Frasnian-Fammenian sediments. Magnetomineralogical experiments show that the magnetic minerals are secondary. The paleomagnetic experiments identified three components of the Natural Remanent Magnetization; labeled A1, A2 and M. The mean pole positions calculated in situ correspond with the Baltica Upper Devonian (A1: PlatS=-18°, PlongE=317°), Permo-Carboniferous (A2: PlatS=-39°, PlongE=2°) and Triassic-Jurassic (M: PlatS=-60°C, PlongE=308°) segments of the Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP) for Baltica. This indicates that the region studied was situated close to the Baltica plate at least since the Upper Devonian and was not folded after this period.

  12. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  13. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Academic Researcher Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huu Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.

  15. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  16. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  17. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O

    2014-01-01

    : Platelet inhibition declined significantly during the 24-hour dosing interval in aspirin-treated patients with previous definite ST or stable coronary artery disease and in healthy individuals. Increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin were observed in patients with previous definite ST....... through 24 h in patients with previous definite ST. Furthermore, we explored whether increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin are associated with a particularly rapid recovery of platelet function. METHODS: This case-control study included 50 patients with previous definite ST matched...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity, platelet...

  18. Gold and uranium metallogenesis in the framework of Neo-proterozoic crust growth and differentiation: example of the Mayo-Kebbi Massif (Chad) in the Central Africa Orogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbaguedje, Diondoh

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Kebbi massif located in southwestern Chad between the Congo craton in the South, the West African craton in the west and the Sahara meta-craton to the east exposes a segment of Neo-proterozoic juvenile crust accreted in the Central African orogenic belt during the Pan African orogeny. It consists of two greenstone belts (Zalbi and Goueygoudoum) separated by the May Kebbi calc-alkaline batholith complexes and intruded by calc-alkaline high-K granitic plutons. The whole is covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary formations. The greenstone belts contain sulphide zones hosted mainly by meta-plutonic rocks (granodiorites) and meta-basalts and meta-volcaniclastics. The mineralization comprises pyrite, pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, pentlandite silver, pentlandite cobaltiferous, sphalerite, cobaltite. These sulphides are disseminated, aggregated in form of layers or are filling veins and cracks. The greenstones also contain quartz veins with calcite and chlorite comprising a mineralization made of pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena and gold. Gold is present both as native crystals and as electrum. The high-K calc-alkaline Zabili granitic pluton hosts uranium mineralization related to a superposition of: (1) ductile deformation and metasomatic alteration implying the interaction between magmatic minerals with a Na-rich fluid, of potential magmatic origin, coeval to the main deposition of uranium oxides, followed by (2) brittle deformation and deposition of secondary hydrated uranium silicates involving a Na-Ca-rich fluid. We propose that these uranium mineralizations represent the extreme expression of crustal differentiation as a result of Pan-African reworking of a Neo-proterozoic juvenile crustal segment. (author) [fr

  19. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  20. Smile Analyzer: A Software Package for Analyzing the Characteristics of the Speech and Smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Rashed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the factors related to lip-tooth relationships in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is of prime importance. Manual quantitative analysis of facial parameters on photographs during smile and speech is a difficult and time-consuming job. Since there is no comprehensive and user-friendly software package, we developed a software program called "Smile Analyzer" in the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry for measuring the parameters related to lip-tooth relationships and other facial landmarks on the photographs taken during various facial expressions. The software was designed using visual basic. NET and the ADO. NET was used for developing its Microsoft Access database. The program runs on Microsoft Windows. It is capable of analyzing many parameters or variables in many patients' photographs, although 19 more common variables are previously defined as a default list of variables. When all variables are measured or calculated, a report can be generated and saved in either PDF or MS Excel format. Data are readily transferable to statistical software like SPSS for Windows.  

  1. Smile Analyzer: A Software Package for Analyzing the Characteristics of the Speech and Smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the factors related to lip-tooth relationships in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is of prime importance. Manual quantitative analysis of facial parameters on photographs during smile and speech is a difficult and time-consuming job. Since there is no comprehensive and user-friendly software package, we developed a software program called "Smile Analyzer" in the Department of Orthodontics of Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry for measuring the parameters related to lip-tooth relationships and other facial landmarks on the photographs taken during various facial expressions. The software was designed using visual basic. NET and the ADO. NET was used for developing its Microsoft Access database. The program runs on Microsoft Windows. It is capable of analyzing many parameters or variables in many patients' photographs, although 19 more common variables are previously defined as a default list of variables. When all variables are measured or calculated, a report can be generated and saved in either PDF or MS Excel format. Data are readily transferable to statistical software like SPSS for Windows.

  2. Effect of previous abdominal surgery on outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Asai, Keiko; Kayano, Hajime; Masubuchi, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-03-01

    The impact of previous abdominal surgeries on the need for conversion to open surgery and on short-term outcomes during/after laparoscopic colectomy was retrospectively investigated. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from December 1996 through December 2009. This study was conducted at Osaka Medical College Hospital. A total of 1701 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic resection of the colon and rectum were classified as not having previous abdominal surgery (n = 1121) or as having previous abdominal surgery (n = 580). Short-term outcomes were recorded, and risk factors for conversion to open surgery were analyzed. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, number of lymph nodes removed, or conversion rate between the groups. The rate of inadvertent enterotomy was significantly higher in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (0.9% versus 0.1%; p = 0.03), and the postoperative recovery time was significantly longer in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group. Ileus was more frequent in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (3.8% versus 2.1%; p = 0.04). Significant risk factors for conversion to open surgery were T stage ≥3 (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.89-3.75), median incision (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.23-9.41), upper median incision (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.29-5.42), lower median incision (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.12), and transverse colectomy (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.41). The incidence of successfully completed laparoscopic colectomy after previous abdominal surgery remains high, and the short-term outcomes are acceptable.

  3. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  4. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  5. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  6. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  7. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  8. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  9. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  10. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  11. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  12. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  13. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  14. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  15. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  16. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  18. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  19. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  20. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  1. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  2. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  3. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  4. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  5. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  6. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  7. Visual and anatomical outcomes of macular epiretinal membrane peeling after previous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Christina Y; Gregori, Ninel Z; Moysidis, Stavros N; Shi, Wei; Smiddy, William E; Flynn, Harry W

    2015-01-01

    To report outcomes and prognostic factors after epiretinal membrane peeling in patients with previous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. A consecutive case series. Best-corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography characteristics were analyzed before and after epiretinal membrane surgery. Fifty-three eyes were analyzed. Best-corrected visual acuity improved by a mean of 10 letters at 1 month (N = 45; P = 0.001), 15 at 3 months (N = 42; P detachment repair resulted in significant improvements in visual acuity and optical coherence tomography thickness, even in eyes with previous macula-involving rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Better preoperative visual acuity and intact outer retinal layers by optical coherence tomography were the main prognostic factors for visual outcomes.

  8. Using expert systems to analyze ATE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Jim

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of automatic test equipment (ATE) is resulting in the generation of large amounts of component data. Some of this component data is not accurate due to the presence of noise. Analyzing this data requires the use of new techniques. This paper describes the process of developing an expert system to analyze ATE data and provides an example rule in the CLIPS language for analyzing trip thresholds for high gain/high speed comparators.

  9. Electrical spectrum & network analyzers a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helfrick, Albert D

    1991-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals and the latest techniques of electrical spectrum analysis. It focuses on instruments and techniques used on spectrum and network analysis, rather than theory. The book covers the use of spectrum analyzers, tracking generators, and network analyzers. Filled with practical examples, the book presents techniques that are widely used in signal processing and communications applications, yet are difficult to find in most literature.Key Features* Presents numerous practical examples, including actual spectrum analyzer circuits* Instruction on how to us

  10. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  11. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  12. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  13. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  14. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  15. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  16. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  17. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  18. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  19. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  20. Development of Process for Analyzing Anthocyanin Contents in Bilberries

    OpenAIRE

    Lieskoski, Sami

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was conducted as a part of the Industry Nordic project, which aims at increasing the use of non wood forest products (NWFP) and especially developing the Nordic berry business. The company Marja Bothnia Berries Oy Ltd. obtained a new UV Vis spectrophotometer for analysis of anthocyanin contents in the bilberries it sells, and wished to have a method developed for this. A method for analyzing anthocyanin contents was developed based on previous literature and on methods used by the...

  1. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Relationship between the public's belief in recovery, level of mental illness stigma, and previous contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    Disbelief exits that individuals who have a mental health condition are able to recover and fully function in life. This study analyzed 1,437 adults from the 2006 General Social Survey. Structural equation modeling (1) examined the relationship between respondents' level of prejudicial attitudes and social distance (i.e., stigma) toward individuals who have a mental health condition and their belief in the potential of recovery (2) tested whether previous contact with an individual who received treatment was a mediator. Findings indicated that the belief in recovery led to lower levels of social distance. Prejudicial attitudes were found to be a predictor of one's level of social distance. Previous contact was not a mediator however; males, minorities and those with less education were less likely to have had previous contact. Results indicated a need to emphasize the probability of recovering from a mental health condition when developing target-specific stigma reducing strategies.

  3. Analyzing metabolomics-based challenge test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Jacobs, D.M.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Wopereis, S.; van Ommen, B.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge tests are used to assess the resilience of human beings to perturbations by analyzing responses to detect functional abnormalities. Well known examples are allergy tests and glucose tolerance tests. Increasingly, metabolomics analysis of blood or serum samples is used to analyze the

  4. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  5. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  6. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  7. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  9. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A cascading failure model for analyzing railway accident causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Li, Ke-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new cascading failure model is proposed for quantitatively analyzing the railway accident causation. In the model, the loads of nodes are redistributed according to the strength of the causal relationships between the nodes. By analyzing the actual situation of the existing prevention measures, a critical threshold of the load parameter in the model is obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed cascading model, simulation experiments of a train collision accident are performed. The results show that the cascading failure model can describe the cascading process of the railway accident more accurately than the previous models, and can quantitatively analyze the sensitivities and the influence of the causes. In conclusion, this model can assist us to reveal the latent rules of accident causation to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents.

  11. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  12. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  13. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  14. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  15. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Time-delay analyzer with continuous discretization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayatyan, G.L.; Darbinyan, K.T.; Mkrtchyan, K.K.; Stepanyan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    A time-delay analyzer is described which when triggered by a start pulse of adjustable duration performs continuous discretization of the analyzed signal within nearly 22 ns time intervals, the recording in a memory unit with following slow read-out of the information to the computer and its processing. The time-delay analyzer consists of four CAMAC-VECTOR systems of unit width. With its help one can separate comparatively short, small-amplitude rare signals against the background of quasistationary noise processes. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  19. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed program through Phase III is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation. It will be...

  20. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  1. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  2. Analyzing the economic impacts of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of the study is to explore methods, approaches and : analytical software tools for analyzing economic activity that results from largescale : transportation investments in Connecticut. The primary conclusion is that the : transportation...

  3. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  4. Guide to analyzing investment options using TWIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R Blinn; Dietmar W. Rose; Monique L. Belli

    1988-01-01

    Describes methods for analyzing economic return of simulated stand management alternatives in TWIGS. Defines and discusses net present value, equivalent annual income, soil expectation value, and real vs. nominal analyses. Discusses risk and sensitivity analysis when comparing alternatives.

  5. Ultrasensitive Atmospheric Analyzer for Miniature UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for quantification of water vapor...

  6. Analyzing Protein Dynamics Using Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Eryol, Atahan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates dimensionality reduction for analyzing the dynamics ofprotein simulations, particularly disordered proteins which do not fold into a xedshape but are thought to perform their functions through their movements. Ratherthan analyze the movement of the proteins in 3D space, we use dimensionalityreduction to project the molecular structure of the proteins into a target space inwhich each structure is represented as a point. All that is needed to do this arethe pairwise dis...

  7. Digital dynamic amplitude-frequency spectra analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinnikov, V.A.; )

    2006-01-01

    The spectra analyzer is intended for the dynamic spectral analysis of signals physical installations and noise filtering. The recurrence Fourier transformation algorithm is used in the digital dynamic analyzer. It is realized on the basis of the fast logic FPGA matrix and the special signal ADSP microprocessor. The discretization frequency is 2 kHz-10 MHz. The number of calculated spectral coefficients is not less 512. The functional fast-action is 20 ns [ru

  8. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  9. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  10. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  11. Subduction of Proterozoic to Late Triassic continental basement in the Guatemala suture zone: A petrological and geochronological study of high-pressure metagranitoids from the Chuacús complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Roberto; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando; Ortíz-Joya, Guillermo A.

    2018-05-01

    Many continental subduction complexes contain abundant granitic rocks coexisting with minor volumes of eclogite-facies rocks. Characterization of granitic protoliths is crucial to decipher the origin of subducted continental crust, whereas knowledge of its metamorphic evolution is required to constrain the mechanisms of burial and exhumation. In this work we present geochronological and petrological evidence that demonstrate the occurrence of a subducted Proterozoic to Late Triassic granitic basement in the Chuacús complex of central Guatemala. Metagranitoids exposed in this area are interlayered with eclogite and other high-pressure rocks, and their structure is considerably variable due to strain partitioning during deformation. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry U-Pb zircon data from two ferroan metagranites yield protolith crystallization ages of ca. 1.1 Ga and their trace-element abundances suggest an origin related to intraplate magmatism, while a high-silica, peraluminous metagranite is dated at 1.0 Ga and was probably originated by partial melting of a high-grade continental crust. On the other hand, two megacrystic to augen metagranitoids yield protolith crystallization ages of ca. 224 Ma, which are identical within errors to the protolith age of hosted eclogitic metabasites. Their high incompatible trace element abundances together with the observed spatial-temporal relationships with mafic protoliths suggest that Late Triassic bimodal magmatism in the Chuacús complex was probably originated in a within-plate setting. Regardless of their age or structure, the studied metagranites preserve evidences for high-pressure metamorphic equilibration, such as the occurrence of Ca-rich garnet (XCa up to 0.52) in association with phengite (Si contents of up to 3.4 pfu) and rutile. The integration of Zr-in-rutile thermometry and phengite barometry allows the peak metamorphic conditions to be constrained at 640-680 °C and 13 kbar. This

  12. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  13. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  15. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  16. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  17. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  18. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  19. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  20. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  1. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  2. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  3. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  4. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  5. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  6. A Novel Architecture For Multichannel Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, E.; Elhanani, I.; Nir, J.; Ellenbogen, M.; Kadmon, Y.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    A novel digital approach to real-time, high-throughput, low-cost Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) for radiation spectroscopy is being presented. The MCA input is a shaped nuclear pulse sampled at a high rate, using an Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) chip. The digital samples are analyzed by a state-of-the-art Field Programmable Gate Away (FPGA). A customized algorithm is utilized to estimate the peak of the pulse, to reject pile-up and to eliminate processing dead time. The valid pulses estimated peaks are transferred to a micro controller system that creates the histogram and controls the Human Machine Interface (HMI)

  7. Advances on CT analyzing urolithiasis constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qiang; Ma Zhijun

    2009-01-01

    Urolithiasis is common and frequently-occurring diseases of urology. The treatment of lithiasis is not only relevant with the size, location, brittle and infection of calculi, but also affected by urolithiasis constituents. Knowing the urolithiasis constituents in advance is no doubt to guide treatment. But so far an reliable inspection method was not found to analyze accurately urolithiasis constituents in vivo. CT judge precisely the size, location of calculi and analyze roughly the urolithiasis constituents in vivo, especially the appear of dual soure CT, which provide a new method for studying urolithiasis constituents. It may be helpful to find the cause, prevention and therapy of calculi. (authors)

  8. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  9. Electrical aerosol analyzer: calibration and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pui, D.Y.H.; Liu, B.Y.H.

    1976-01-01

    The Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) was calibrated by means of monodisperse aerosols generated by two independent techniques. In the 0.02 to 1 ..mu..m diameter range, the aerosol was generated by electrostatic classification. In the range between 0.007 and 0.03 ..mu..m, the aerosols were generated by the photo-oxidation of SO/sub 2/ in a smog chamber. Calibration data are presented showing the performance of the EAA as an aerosol detector and as a size distribution analyzer.

  10. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.; Lekach, S.V.; Stritar, A.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced technology for high-speed interactive nuclear power plant simulations is of great value for timely resolution of safety issues, for plant monitoring, and for computer-aided emergency responses to an accident. Presented is the methodology employed at BNL to develop a BWR plant analyzer capable of simulating severe plant transients at much faster than real-time process speeds. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is given for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computers to achieve the very high simulation speeds. Typical results are shown to demonstrate the modeling fidelity of the BWR plant analyzer

  11. Geochemistry, geochronology and structural geology of the Birimian formations of the Katiola-Marabadiassa region (north-center of Ivory Coast). Magmatic evolution and geodynamical context of palaeo-Proterozoic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumbia, S.

    1997-01-01

    Birimian (palaeo-Proterozoic) formations from western Africa are known from being of juvenile origin and dated of 2.1 Ga. However, few studies have been carried out so far on the nature, petrogenesis, and tectonic-metamorphic evolution of these formations, and the geodynamical evolution of the Birimian crust remains an open question. The Katiola-Marabadiassa region offers a clear litho-stratigraphy where the main units and their structural relationships can be recognized (green rocks, andesites, granitoids, sediments). Two generations of granitoids separated by the opening of a sedimentary basin are identified thanks to the petrographic, geochemical, geochronological and structural data. The first, of Archean type, is dated at 2123-2108 Ma and cuts the green rock belts in a diapiric way. The second, dated at about 2097 Ma comprises leucogranite batholites which cut the discordant overlying sedimentary formations. Thus, 3 volcanism phases can be recognized: a T-MORB type tholeiitic volcanism (the green rock belts), a rhyodacitic calc-alkaline volcanism with granitoid plutons, and an andesitic volcanism interstratified with the basin sediments. The general metamorphism is of green-schist facies. An intermediate model between the archaic Archean processes and the modern collision processes is proposed for the formation of the Birimian crust. (J.S.)

  12. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  13. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  14. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  15. Environmental applications of the centrifugal fast analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, G.; Strain, J.E.; Bowling, J.L.

    1975-12-01

    The centrifugal fast analyzer (GeMSAEC Fast Analyzer) was applied to the analysis of pollutants in air and water. Since data acquisition and processing are computer controlled, considerable effort went into devising appropriate software. A modified version of the standard FOCAL interpreter was developed which includes special machine language functions for data timing, acquisition, and storage, and also permits chaining together of programs stored on a disk. Programs were written and experimental procedures developed to implement spectrophotometric, turbidimetric, kinetic (including initial-rate, fixed-time, and variable-time techniques), and chemiluminescence methods of analysis. Analytical methods were developed for the following elements and compounds: SO 2 , O 3 , Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se(IV), Zn, Cl - , I - , NO 2 - , PO 4 -3 , S -2 , and SO 4 -2 . In many cases, standard methods could be adapted to the centrifugal analyzer, in others new methods were employed. In general, analyses performed with the centrifugal fast analyzer were faster, more precise, and more accurate than with conventional instrumentation

  16. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  17. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  18. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime

  19. Images & Issues: How to Analyze Election Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Hugh

    Although it is impossible to know in advance the credibility of political messages, such persuasive discourse can be analyzed in a non-partisan, common sense way using predictable patterns in content and form. The content of a candidate's message can be summarized as "I am competent and trustworthy; from me, you'll get 'more good' and 'less…

  20. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...... has much to offer in analyzing the policy process....

  2. Consideration Regarding Diagnosis Analyze of Corporate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ciopi OPREA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis management aims to identify critical situations and positive aspectsof corporate management. An effective diagnosis made by a team with thestatus of independence from the organization’s management is for managers auseful feedback necessary to improve performance. The work presented focuseson the methodology to achieve effective diagnosis, considering multitudecriteria and variables to be analyzed.

  3. Analyzing and Interpreting Research in Health Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While qualitative research is used when little or nothing is known about the subject, quantitative research is required when there are quantifiable variables to be measured. By implication, health education research is based on phenomenological, ethnographical and/or grounded theoretical approaches that are analyzable ...

  4. Analyzing Languages for Specific Purposes Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, technological advancement and increased multidisciplinarity has expanded the range of data regarded as within the scope of languages for specific purposes (LSP) research and the means by which they can be analyzed. As a result, the analytical work of LSP researchers has developed from a narrow focus on specialist terminology…

  5. Automatic radioxenon analyzer for CTBT monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.W.; Abel, K.H.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, with support from US DOE's NN-20 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R ampersand D program, PNNL has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic analyzer for collecting and measuring the four Xe radionuclides, 131m Xe(11.9 d), 133m Xe(2.19 d), 133 Xe (5.24 d), and 135 Xe(9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a CTBT. Activity ratios permit discriminating radioxenon from nuclear detonation and that from nuclear reactor operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, or medical isotope production and usage. In the analyzer, Xe is continuously and automatically separated from the atmosphere at flow rates of about 7 m 3 /h on sorption bed. Aliquots collected for 6-12 h are automatically analyzed by electron-photon coincidence spectrometry to produce sensitivities in the range of 20-100 μBq/m 3 of air, about 100-fold better than with reported laboratory-based procedures for short time collection intervals. Spectral data are automatically analyzed and the calculated radioxenon concentrations and raw gamma- ray spectra automatically transmitted to data centers

  6. Performance optimization of spectroscopic process analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, Hans F. M.; Kok, Wim Th; de Noord, Onno E.; Smilde, Age K.

    2004-01-01

    To increase the power and the robustness of spectroscopic process analyzers, methods are needed that suppress the spectral variation that is not related to the property of interest in the process stream. An approach for the selection of a suitable method is presented. The approach uses the net

  7. Effect of Previous Gastrectomy on the Performance of Postoperative Colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeongmin; Kim, Tae Han; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Im, Jong Pil; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Kim, Joo Sung; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a prior gastrectomy on the difficulty of subsequent colonoscopy, and to identify the surgical factors related to difficult colonoscopies. Materials and Methods Patients with a prior gastrectomy who had undergone a colonoscopy between 2011 and 2014 (n=482) were matched (1:6) to patients with no history of gastrectomy (n=2,892). Cecal insertion time, intubation failure, and bowel clearance score were compared between the gastrectomy and control groups, as was a newly generated comprehensive parameter for a difficult/incomplete colonoscopy (cecal intubation failure, cecal insertion time >12.9 minutes, or very poor bowel preparation scale). Surgical factors including surgical approach, extent of gastrectomy, extent of lymph node dissection, and reconstruction type, were analyzed to identify risk factors for colonoscopy performance. Results A history of gastrectomy was associated with prolonged cecal insertion time (8.7±6.4 vs. 9.7±6.5 minutes; P=0.002), an increased intubation failure rate (0.1% vs. 1.9%; P<0.001), and a poor bowel preparation rate (24.7 vs. 29.0; P=0.047). Age and total gastrectomy (vs. partial gastrectomy) were found to be independent risk factors for increased insertion time, which slowly increased throughout the postoperative duration (0.35 min/yr). Total gastrectomy was the only independent risk factor for the comprehensive parameter of difficult/incomplete colonoscopy. Conclusions History of gastrectomy is related to difficult/incomplete colonoscopy performance, especially in cases of total gastrectomy. In any case, it may be that a pre-operative colonoscopy is desirable in selected patients scheduled for gastrectomy; however, it should be performed by an expert endoscopist each time. PMID:27752394

  8. Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous exerted on the victim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Yepes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile. All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H (n=11, homicides with previous violence (VH (n=9 and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B (n=26. The aim of the study was to analyze the possible existence of three different kinds of profiles and more specifically if it’s possible to obtain an independent profile for domestic homicides with previous episodes of violence against their wives. The results neither confirm the hypothesis as whole nor for the violent homicides. However, differences between groups were obtained in the admission and description of the facts, in the risk of future violence, in some sociodemographical characteristics (i.e., level of education, social status, in the couple relationship, in the dissatisfaction concerning the unachieved ideal woman, in the use of extreme physical force during the aggression, the time of the first aggression, the use of verbal threats during the aggression, explanation of the events to the family and the period of time between the beginning of the romantic relationship and the manifestation of violence. The implications of the results for the theoretical frameworks proposed and future research are discussed.

  9. Validation of the Online version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire for schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel ENGEL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the validity of the web-based version of the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online for schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of elementary school. Methods Participants were 312 schoolchildren aged 7 to 12 years of a public school from the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Validity was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, as well as by agreement rates (match, omission, and intrusion rates of food items reported by children on the Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online, using direct observation of foods/beverages eaten during school meals (mid-morning snack or afternoon snack on the previous day as the reference. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of participants’ characteristics on omission and intrusion rates. Results The results showed adequate sensitivity (67.7% and specificity (95.2%. There were low omission and intrusion rates of 22.8% and 29.5%, respectively when all food items were analyzed. Pizza/hamburger showed the highest omission rate, whereas milk and milk products showed the highest intrusion rate. The participants who attended school in the afternoon shift presented a higher probability of intrusion compared to their peers who attended school in the morning. Conclusion The Previous Day Food Questionnaire Online possessed satisfactory validity for the assessment of food intake at the group level in schoolchildren from the 2nd to 5th grades of public school.

  10. ITK and ANALYZE: a synergistic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-05-01

    The Insight Toolkit (ITK) is a C++ open-source software toolkit developed under sponsorship of the National Library of Medicine. It provides advanced algorithms for performing image registration and segmentation, but does not provide support for visualization and analysis, nor does it offer any graphical user interface (GUI). The purpose of this integration project is to make ITK readily accessible to end-users with little or no programming skills, and provide interactive processing, visualization and measurement capabilities. This is achieved through the integration of ITK with ANALYZE, a multi-dimension image visualization/analysis application installed in over 300 institutions around the world, with a user-base in excess of 4000. This integration is carried out at both the software foundation and GUI levels. The foundation technology upon which ANALYZE is built is a comprehensive C-function library called AVW. A new set of AVW-ITK functions have been developed and integrated into the AVW library, and four new ITK modules have been added to the ANALYZE interface. Since ITK is a software developer"s toolkit, the only way to access its intrinsic power is to write programs that incorporate it. Integrating ITK with ANALYZE opens the ITK algorithms to end-users who otherwise might never be able to take advantage of the toolkit"s advanced functionality. In addition, this integration provides end-to-end interactive problem solving capabilities which allow all users, including programmers, an integrated system to readily display and quantitatively evaluate the results from the segmentation and registration routines in ITK, regardless of the type or format of input images, which are comprehensively supported in ANALYZE.

  11. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  12. Textbooks in the EFL classroom: Defining, assessing and analyzing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Bojanić Biljana B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to define textbooks, analyze their advantages and disadvantages and to explicate the process of textbook selection and reasons for analyzing textbooks. The paper describes two reasons for performing a textbook analysis: evaluating for potential and evaluating for suitability, and further states various processes of textbook content analysis including the analysis of the stated aims and objectives, learner needs, their abilities and preferences, as well as the establishment of criteria in relation to previously set objectives. The paper concludes by stating that the task that teachers are faced with when selecting and evaluating textbooks is not that is an easy one, but it is crucial. With the assistance of clear guidelines and detailed criteria, they should be able to make an informed decision and choose a textbook that is most suitable for the requirements of their specific classroom context.

  13. Analyzing Microblog Feeds to Trade Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Joseph; Anderson, Nick; Asbill, Connor; Mehr, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this project is to leverage microblogging data about the stock market to predict price trends and execute trades based on these predictions. Predicting the price trends of stocks with microblogging data involves a complex opinion aggregation model. For this, we built upon previous research, specifically a paper called "CrowdIQ" submitted by a team consisting of some Virginia Tech faculty. This paper details a complicated method of aggregating an accurate opinion by modeling judge ...

  14. Evaluation of performance of veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Methodology for analyzing risk at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hosik; Lee, Nayoung; Ham, Taekyu; Seo, Janghoon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for evaluating the risk at nuclear facilities was developed. • Five measures reflecting all factors that should be concerned to assess risk were developed. • The attributes on NMAC and nuclear security culture are included as attributes for analyzing. • The newly developed methodology can be used to evaluate risk of both existing facility and future nuclear system. - Abstract: A methodology for evaluating risks at nuclear facilities is developed in this work. A series of measures is drawn from the analysis of factors that determine risks. Five measures are created to evaluate risks at nuclear facilities. These include the legal and institutional framework, material control, physical protection system effectiveness, human resources, and consequences. Evaluation attributes are developed for each measure and specific values are given in order to calculate the risk value quantitatively. Questionnaires are drawn up on whether or not a state has properly established a legal and regulatory framework (based on international standards). These questionnaires can be a useful measure for comparing the status of the physical protection regime between two countries. Analyzing an insider threat is not an easy task and no methodology has been developed for this purpose. In this study, attributes that could quantitatively evaluate an insider threat, in the case of an unauthorized removal of nuclear materials, are developed by adopting the Nuclear Material Accounting & Control (NMAC) system. The effectiveness of a physical protection system, P(E), could be analyzed by calculating the probability of interruption, P(I), and the probability of neutralization, P(N). In this study, the Tool for Evaluating Security System (TESS) code developed by KINAC is used to calculate P(I) and P(N). Consequence is an important measure used to analyze risks at nuclear facilities. This measure comprises radiological, economic, and social damage. Social and

  16. Modeling extreme ultraviolet suppression of electrostatic analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to analyzing energy-per-charge ratios of incident ions, electrostatic analyzers (ESAs) for spaceborne time-of-flight mass spectrometers must also protect detectors from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from the Sun. The required suppression rate often exceeds 1:10 7 and is generally established in tests upon instrument design and integration. This paper describes a novel technique to model the EUV suppression of ESAs using photon ray tracing integrated into SIMION, the most commonly used ion optics design software for such instruments. The paper compares simulation results with measurements taken from the ESA of the Mass instrument flying onboard the Wind spacecraft. This novel technique enables an active inclusion of EUV suppression requirements in the ESA design process. Furthermore, the simulation results also motivate design rules for such instruments.

  17. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  18. Analyzing Technique of Power Systems Under Deregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Hajime; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ishigame, Atsushi

    Deregulation of the electric utilities has been progressing. Even under the deregulation, the reliability should be the most important problem of power systems. However, according to the deregulation, operation and scheduling of power systems are changing and new techniques to analyze power systems are introducing. To evaluate reliability of power systems, adequacy and security are well employed recently. This paper presents the new analyzing technique which will be realized in near future from the viewpoint of adequacy and security. First, simulation tool to evaluate adequacy is described. As an example of this tool, MARS and other methods are mentioned. Next, to evaluate the security, security constrained unit commitment (SCUC) and security constrained optimal power flow (SCOPF) are mentioned. Finally, some topics concerning ancillary service are described.

  19. Development of a nuclear plant analyzer (NPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vlaminck, M.; Mampaey, L.; Vanhoenacker, L.; Bastenaire, F.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Plant Analyzer has been developed by TRACTABEL. Three distinct functional units make up the Nuclear Plant Analyser, a model builder, a run time unit and an analysis unit. The model builder is intended to build simulation models which describe on the one hand the geometric structure and initial conditions of a given plant and on the other hand command control logics and reactor protection systems. The run time unit carries out dialog between the user and the thermal-hydraulic code. The analysis unit is aimed at deep analyzing of the transient results. The model builder is being tested in the framework of the International Standard Problem ISP-26, which is the simulation of a LOCA on the Japanese ROSA facility

  20. Computer-based radionuclide analyzer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Kengo; Ishizuka, Akira; Kobayashi, Akira; Ohhashi, Hideaki; Tsuruoka, Kimitoshi.

    1978-01-01

    The radionuclide analysis in nuclear power plants, practiced for the purpose of monitoring the quality of the primary loop water, the confirmation of the performance of reactor cleanup system and monitoring the radioactive waste effluent, is an important job. Important as it is, it requires considerable labor of experts, because the samples to be analyzed are multifarious and very large in number, and in addition, this job depends much on manual work. With a view of saving the labor, simplifying and standardizing the work, reducing radiation exposure, and automatizing the work of analysis, the computerized analyzer system has been worked out. The results of its performance test at the operating power plant have proved that the development has fairly accomplished the objects and that the system is well useful. The developmental work was carried out by the cooperation between The Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Toshiba in about 4 years from 1974 to this year. (auth.)

  1. Analyzing the Existing Undergraduate Engineering Leadership Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed M. Almalki; Luis Rabelo; Charles Davis; Hammad Usmani; Debra Hollister; Alfonso Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Studying and analyzing the undergraduate engineering students' leadership skills to discover their potential leadership strengths and weaknesses. This study will unveil potential ways to enhance the ways we teach engineering leadership. The research has great insights that might assist engineering programs to improve curricula for the purpose of better engineering preparation to meet industry's demands. Methodology and Findings: 441 undergraduate engineering students have been s...

  2. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  3. Analyzing Architecture of Mithraism Rock Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Zohre AliJabbari

    2017-01-01

    This analyzes the architecture of rock temples of West and Northwest of Iran, as well as factors influencing their formation. The creation of rock architecture in this area of Iran is influenced by the religious, geographical and political atmosphere of their time. Most of these structures are formed by dominated empires in the first millennium BC. And in some works we are observing their continuity in later periods and change in their functions. One of the reasons that have attracted man to ...

  4. General methods for analyzing bounded proportion data

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Abu

    2017-01-01

    This thesis introduces two general classes of models for analyzing proportion response variable when the response variable Y can take values between zero and one, inclusive of zero and/or one. The models are inflated GAMLSS model and generalized Tobit GAMLSS model. The inflated GAMLSS model extends the flexibility of beta inflated models by allowing the distribution on (0,1) of the continuous component of the dependent variable to come from any explicit or transformed (i.e. logit or truncated...

  5. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Germán COMINA; Martin NISSFOLK; José Luís SOLÍS

    2010-01-01

    A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water qualit...

  6. Moving Block Bootstrap for Analyzing Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunsu

    In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time. I focus on a case where the number of replications over time is large relative to the number of subjects in the study. I investigate the use of moving block bootstrap methods for analyzing such data. Asymptotic properties of the bootstrap methods in this setting are derived. The effectiveness of these resampling methods is also demonstrated through a simulation study.

  7. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Gonser; A. Held

    2013-01-01

    New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable...

  8. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Gonser; A. Held

    2013-01-01

    New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable of ana...

  9. A seal analyzer for testing container integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.; Jenkins, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of laboratory and production seal analyzer that offers a rapid, nondestructive method of assuring the seal integrity of virtually any type of single or double sealed container. The system can test a broad range of metal cans, drums and trays, membrane-lidded vessels, flexible pouches, aerosol containers, and glass or metal containers with twist-top lids that are used in the chemical/pesticide (hazardous materials/waste), beverage, food, medical and pharmaceutical industries

  10. Information decomposition method to analyze symbolical sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkov, E.V.; Korotkova, M.A.; Kudryashov, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The information decomposition (ID) method to analyze symbolical sequences is presented. This method allows us to reveal a latent periodicity of any symbolical sequence. The ID method is shown to have advantages in comparison with application of the Fourier transformation, the wavelet transform and the dynamic programming method to look for latent periodicity. Examples of the latent periods for poetic texts, DNA sequences and amino acids are presented. Possible origin of a latent periodicity for different symbolical sequences is discussed

  11. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore

    2004-03-16

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector.

  12. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector

  13. A Raman-Based Portable Fuel Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Fuel is the single most import supply during war. Consider that the US Military is employing over 25,000 vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most fuel is obtained locally, and must be characterized to ensure proper operation of these vehicles. Fuel properties are currently determined using a deployed chemical laboratory. Unfortunately, each sample requires in excess of 6 hours to characterize. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a portable fuel analyzer capable of determine 7 fuel properties that allow determining fuel usage. The analyzer uses Raman spectroscopy to measure the fuel samples without preparation in 2 minutes. The challenge, however, is that as distilled fractions of crude oil, all fuels are composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon components that boil at similar temperatures, and performance properties can not be simply correlated to a single component, and certainly not to specific Raman peaks. To meet this challenge, we measured over 800 diesel and jet fuels from around the world and used chemometrics to correlate the Raman spectra to fuel properties. Critical to the success of this approach is laser excitation at 1064 nm to avoid fluorescence interference (many fuels fluoresce) and a rugged interferometer that provides 0.1 cm-1 wavenumber (x-axis) accuracy to guarantee accurate correlations. Here we describe the portable fuel analyzer, the chemometric models, and the successful determination of these 7 fuel properties for over 100 unknown samples provided by the US Marine Corps, US Navy, and US Army.

  14. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  15. Visual analyzer as anticipatory system (functional organization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirvelis, Dobilas

    2000-05-01

    Hypothetical functional organization of the visual analyzer is presented. The interpretation of visual perception, anatomic and morphological structure of visual systems of animals, neuro-physiological, psychological and psycho-physiological data in the light of a number of the theoretical solutions of image recognition and visual processes simulation enable active information processing. The activities in special areas of cortex are as follows: focused attention, prediction with analysis of visual scenes and synthesis, predictive mental images. In the projection zone of visual cortex Area Streata or V1 a "sensory" screen (SS) and "reconstruction" screen (RS) are supposed to exist. The functional structure of visual analyzer consist of: analysis of visual scenes projected onto SS; "tracing" of images; preliminary recognition; reversive image reconstruction onto RS; comparison of images projected onto SS with images reconstructed onto RS; and "correction" of preliminary recognition. Special attention is paid to the quasiholographical principles of the neuronal organization within the brain, of the image "tracing," and of reverse image reconstruction. Tachistoscopic experiments revealed that the duration of one such hypothesis-testing cycle of the human visual analyzers is about 8-10 milliseconds.

  16. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  17. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  18. IR analyzer spots heavy water leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    A correlation spectrometer developed by Barringer Research Ltd. (in collaboration with Atomic Energy of Canada and Ontario Hydro) is used to measure HDO concentrations in DTO in the final (distillation) stage of heavy-water production. A unit has been installed at Bruce Heavy Water Plant. Previously, such spectrometers had been installed to detect heavy-water leaks in CANDU reactors. The principle on which the instrument works is explained, with illustrations. It works by comparing the absorption at 2.9 μm, due to HDO, with that at 2.6 μm, due to both HDO and D 2 O. (N.D.H.)

  19. Analyzing Trust Perceptions in System Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Rose, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    mount, trust relations become strained, leading to a circle of suspicion and disbelief which is both destructive and hard to break out of. This case study analyses trust relations during a problematic period of time in the implementation of the Faroese integrated healthcare information system, using...... a framework based on Giddens´ theory of modernity. The framework theorizes dynamic elements of the evolution of trust, not previously investigated in this context. The data collection involves 4 actors interviewed twice in 2006 and 2007; and the data analysis strategy is content analysis using Nvivo software...

  20. Analyzing Trust Perceptions in System Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Rose, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    a framework based on Giddens´ theory of modernity. The framework theorizes dynamic elements of the evolution of trust, not previously investigated in this context. The data collection involves 4 actors interviewed twice in 2006 and 2007; and the data analysis strategy is content analysis using Nvivo software......' perceptions of trust relations influence future actions, and in this way have both negative and positive consequences. We also conclude that Giddens' theories of trust provide a promising insight into the dynamic aspects of trust relations in implementation projects, which go further than trust theories...

  1. IRISpy: Analyzing IRIS Data in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Baruah, Ankit; Timothy, Shelbe; Pereira, Tiago; De Pontieu, Bart

    2017-08-01

    IRISpy is a new community-developed open-source software library for analysing IRIS level 2 data. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language. A wide array of scientific computing software packages have already been developed in Python, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib), to solar-physics-specific data analysis (SunPy). IRISpy is currently under development as a SunPy-affiliated package which means it depends on the SunPy library, follows similar standards and conventions, and is developed with the support of of the SunPy development team. IRISpy’s has two primary data objects, one for analyzing slit-jaw imager data and another for analyzing spectrograph data. Both objects contain basic slicing, indexing, plotting, and animating functionality to allow users to easily inspect, reduce and analyze the data. As part of this functionality the objects can output SunPy Maps, TimeSeries, Spectra, etc. of relevant data slices for easier inspection and analysis. Work is also ongoing to provide additional data analysis functionality including derivation of systematic measurement errors (e.g. readout noise), exposure time correction, residual wavelength calibration, radiometric calibration, and fine scale pointing corrections. IRISpy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate IRISpy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing IRISpy.

  2. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  3. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonser, S. G.; Held, A.

    2013-09-01

    New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size-separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and subsequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report on technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of defined masses of camphene (C10H16) to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  4. A computer program for analyzing channel geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, R.S.; Schaffranek, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Channel Geometry Analysis Program (CGAP) provides the capability to process, analyze, and format cross-sectional data for input to flow/transport simulation models or other computational programs. CGAP allows for a variety of cross-sectional data input formats through use of variable format specification. The program accepts data from various computer media and provides for modification of machine-stored parameter values. CGAP has been devised to provide a rapid and efficient means of computing and analyzing the physical properties of an open-channel reach defined by a sequence of cross sections. CGAP 's 16 options provide a wide range of methods by which to analyze and depict a channel reach and its individual cross-sectional properties. The primary function of the program is to compute the area, width, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius of cross sections at successive increments of water surface elevation (stage) from data that consist of coordinate pairs of cross-channel distances and land surface or channel bottom elevations. Longitudinal rates-of-change of cross-sectional properties are also computed, as are the mean properties of a channel reach. Output products include tabular lists of cross-sectional area, channel width, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, average depth, and cross-sectional symmetry computed as functions of stage; plots of cross sections; plots of cross-sectional area and (or) channel width as functions of stage; tabular lists of cross-sectional area and channel width computed as functions of stage for subdivisions of a cross section; plots of cross sections in isometric projection; and plots of cross-sectional area at a fixed stage as a function of longitudinal distance along an open-channel reach. A Command Procedure Language program and Job Control Language procedure exist to facilitate program execution on the U.S. Geological Survey Prime and Amdahl computer systems respectively. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Plant analyzing method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yukio; Kageyama, Takao; Kanemoto, Shigeru.

    1995-01-01

    When an abnormal transient phenomenon should occur in a large-scaled plant, for example, a nuclear power plant, a process signal as a starting point of the transient change and a propagating path thereof are estimated to determine candidates of causes. Namely, when an abnormal transient phenomenon should occur in a nuclear power plant or the like, increase or decrease of process signals and like other ordinary phenomena observed for operation or monitoring are extracted. Then, physical causal relation between previously prepared signals is compared with the extracted signals. With such procedures, process signals as the starting point of the transient point and the propagating path of the transient change are estimated to aid of determination of candidates for the causes. The comparison of physical causal relation between the previously prepared signals is defined, for example, as values of maximum amplitude and standard deviation of each process signal as physical properties in a normal state. A threshold is defined as a value several times the values described above, and if the value exceeds the threshold value, it is determined as 'increase', if the value does not exceed the threshold value, it is determined as 'reduction', and if the value is within a range of both of them, it is determined as 'constant'. (I.S.)

  6. Analyzing Argumentation In Rich, Natural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Reznitskaya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of research on the development of argument- ation in elementary school children. It presents a theoretical framework detailing psychological mechanisms responsible for the acquisition and transfer of argumentative discourse and demonstrates several applications of the framework, described in sufficient detail to guide future empirical investigations of oral, written, individual, or group argumentation performance. Software programs capable of facilitating data analysis are identified and their uses illustrated. The analytic schemes can be used to analyze large amounts of verbal data with reasonable precision and efficiency. The conclusion addresses more generally the challenges for and possibilities of empirical study of the development of argumentation.

  7. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  8. Grid and Data Analyzing and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh SHOKRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the importance of secure structures in the process of analyzing and distributing information with aid of Grid-based technologies. The advent of distributed network has provided many practical opportunities for detecting and recording the time of events, and made efforts to identify the events and solve problems of storing information such as being up-to-date and documented. In this regard, the data distribution systems in a network environment should be accurate. As a consequence, a series of continuous and updated data must be at hand. In this case, Grid is the best answer to use data and resource of organizations by common processing.

  9. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán COMINA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water quality, but also a main concern for public health, affecting especially people living in high-burden, resource-limiting settings.

  10. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  11. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  12. Effect of previous exposure to hbv on liver histology and treatment response in chc patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the influence of previous exposure to HBV on liver histology and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Rawalian Liver Clinic, Department of Medicine, Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: Medical records of CHC patients attending the Rawalian Liver Clinic were retrospectively analyzed. Virological and treatment responses along with histological changes were compared between cases (anti-HBc positive) and controls (anti-HBc negative). Significance was determined through chi-square test at p < 0.05. Results: Among the 592 CHC patients, 254 (42.9%) had serological evidence of a positive anti-HBc (cases) and 338 (57.1%), patients had negative anti-HBc (controls). No significant difference was found between ETR, SVR and treatment responses (n=220) between the two groups. Out of 65 patients whose liver biopsy data was available, cases were more likely to respond in the absence of fibrosis (63.2%, (n=24) vs. 36.8%, (n=14), p=0.001). The controls responded more in the presence of fibrosis (100% (n=9) vs. 0, p=0.001). There was no significant effect of anti-HBc positivity on grades of inflammation and consequent treatment response (p=0.14). Conclusion: There are a significant number of CHC patients with markers of previous HBV infection in Pakistani population. Previous HBV (anti-HBc positive) does not seem to have an adverse effect on liver histology and treatment responses in HBV infection. (author)

  13. Dietary self-efficacy predicts AHEI diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferranti, Erin Poe; Narayan, K M Venkat; Reilly, Carolyn M; Foster, Jennifer; McCullough, Marjorie; Ziegler, Thomas R; Guo, Ying; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of intrapersonal influences of diet quality as defined by the Health Belief Model constructs in women with recent histories of gestational diabetes. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to analyze relationships between diet quality and intrapersonal variables, including perceptions of threat of type 2 diabetes mellitus development, benefits and barriers of healthy eating, and dietary self-efficacy, in a convenience sample of 75 community-dwelling women (55% minority; mean age, 35.5 years; SD, 5.5 years) with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Diet quality was defined by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI). Multiple regression was used to identify predictors of AHEI diet quality. Women had moderate AHEI diet quality (mean score, 47.6; SD, 14.3). Only higher levels of education and self-efficacy significantly predicted better AHEI diet quality, controlling for other contributing variables. There is a significant opportunity to improve diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus. Improving self-efficacy may be an important component to include in nutrition interventions. In addition to identifying other important individual components, future studies of diet quality in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus are needed to investigate the scope of influence beyond the individual to potential family, social, and environmental factors. © 2014 The Author(s).

  14. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed M; El-Rasas, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor's organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  15. Plutonium solution analyzer. Revised February 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%--0.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40--240 g/l: and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4--4.0 g/y. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 ml of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 ml per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded)

  16. Mango: combining and analyzing heterogeneous biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer; Cho, Hyejin; Chou, Hui-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous biological data such as sequence matches, gene expression correlations, protein-protein interactions, and biochemical pathways can be merged and analyzed via graphs, or networks. Existing software for network analysis has limited scalability to large data sets or is only accessible to software developers as libraries. In addition, the polymorphic nature of the data sets requires a more standardized method for integration and exploration. Mango facilitates large network analyses with its Graph Exploration Language, automatic graph attribute handling, and real-time 3-dimensional visualization. On a personal computer Mango can load, merge, and analyze networks with millions of links and can connect to online databases to fetch and merge biological pathways. Mango is written in C++ and runs on Mac OS, Windows, and Linux. The stand-alone distributions, including the Graph Exploration Language integrated development environment, are freely available for download from http://www.complex.iastate.edu/download/Mango. The Mango User Guide listing all features can be found at http://www.gitbook.com/book/j23414/mango-user-guide.

  17. Analyzing block placement errors in SADP patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Okada, Soichiro; Shimura, Satoru; Nafus, Kathleen; Fonseca, Carlos; Demand, Marc; Biesemans, Serge; Versluijs, Janko; Ercken, Monique; Foubert, Philippe; Miyazaki, Shinobu

    2016-03-01

    We discuss edge placement errors (EPE) for multi-patterning of Mx critical layers using ArF lithography. Specific focus is placed on the block formation part of the process. While plenty of literature characterization data exist on spacer formation, only limited published data is available on block processes. We analyze the accuracy of placing blocks relative to narrow spacers. Many publications calculate EPE assuming Gaussian distributions for key process variations contributing to EPE. For practical reasons, each contributor is measured on dedicated test structures. In this work, we complement such analysis and directly measure the EPE in product. We perform high density sampling of blocks using CDSEM images and analyze all feature edges of interest. We find that block placement errors can be very different depending on their local design context. Specifically we report on 2 block populations (further called block A and B) which have a 4x different standard deviation. We attribute this to differences in local topography (spacer shape) and interaction with the plasma-etch process design. Block A (on top of the `core space' S1) has excellent EPE uniformity of ~1 nm while block B (on top of `gap space' S2) has degraded EPE control of ~4 nm. Finally, we suggest that the SOC etch process is at the origin on positioning blocks accurately on slim spacers, helping the manufacturability of spacer-based patterning techniques, and helping its extension toward the 5nm node.

  18. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.

  20. CALIBRATION OF ONLINE ANALYZERS USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajive Ganguli; Daniel E. Walsh; Shaohai Yu

    2003-12-05

    Neural networks were used to calibrate an online ash analyzer at the Usibelli Coal Mine, Healy, Alaska, by relating the Americium and Cesium counts to the ash content. A total of 104 samples were collected from the mine, with 47 being from screened coal, and the rest being from unscreened coal. Each sample corresponded to 20 seconds of coal on the running conveyor belt. Neural network modeling used the quick stop training procedure. Therefore, the samples were split into training, calibration and prediction subsets. Special techniques, using genetic algorithms, were developed to representatively split the sample into the three subsets. Two separate approaches were tried. In one approach, the screened and unscreened coal was modeled separately. In another, a single model was developed for the entire dataset. No advantage was seen from modeling the two subsets separately. The neural network method performed very well on average but not individually, i.e. though each prediction was unreliable, the average of a few predictions was close to the true average. Thus, the method demonstrated that the analyzers were accurate at 2-3 minutes intervals (average of 6-9 samples), but not at 20 seconds (each prediction).

  1. Analyzing Virtual Physics Simulations with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Tom

    2017-12-01

    In the physics teaching community, Tracker is well known as a user-friendly open source video analysis software, authored by Douglas Brown. With this tool, the user can trace markers indicated on a video or on stroboscopic photos and perform kinematic analyses. Tracker also includes a data modeling tool that allows one to fit some theoretical equations of motion onto experimentally obtained data. In the field of particle mechanics, Tracker has been effectively used for learning and teaching about projectile motion, "toss up" and free-fall vertical motion, and to explain the principle of mechanical energy conservation. Also, Tracker has been successfully used in rigid body mechanics to interpret the results of experiments with rolling/slipping cylinders and moving rods. In this work, I propose an original method in which Tracker is used to analyze virtual computer simulations created with a physics-based motion solver, instead of analyzing video recording or stroboscopic photos. This could be an interesting approach to study kinematics and dynamics problems in physics education, in particular when there is no or limited access to physical labs. I demonstrate the working method with a typical (but quite challenging) problem in classical mechanics: a slipping/rolling cylinder on a rough surface.

  2. Calibration of the portable wear metal analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael J.

    1987-12-01

    The Portable Wear Metal Analyzer (PWMA), a graphite furnace atomic absorption (AA) spectrometer, developed under a contract for this laboratory, was evaluated using powdered metal particles suspended in oil. The PWMA is a microprocessor controlled automatic sequential multielement AA spectrometer designed to support the deployed aircraft requirement for spectrometric oil analysis. The PWMA will analyze for nine elements (Ni, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ag, Mg, Si, Ti, Al) at a rate of 4 min per sample. The graphite tube and modified sample introduction system increase the detection of particles in oil when compared to the currently used techniques of flame AA or spark atomic emission (AE) spectroscopy. The PWMA shows good-to-excellent response for particles in sizes of 0 to 5 and 5 to 10 micrometers and fair response to particles of 10 to 20 and 20 to 30 micrometers. All trends in statistical variations are easily explained by system considerations. Correction factors to the calibration curves are necessary to correlate the analytical capability of the PWMA to the performance of existing spectrometric oil analysis (SOA) instruments.

  3. Solar Probe ANalyzer for Ions - Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, R.; Larson, D. E.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Parker Solar Probe (PSP) mission is a heliospheric satellite that will orbit the Sun closer than any prior mission to date with a perihelion of 35 solar radii (RS) and an aphelion of 10 RS. PSP includes the Solar Wind Electrons Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) instrument suite, which in turn consists of four instruments: the Solar Probe Cup (SPC) and three Solar Probe ANalyzers (SPAN) for ions and electrons. Together, this suite will take local measurements of particles and electromagnetic fields within the Sun's corona. SPAN-Ai has completed flight calibration and spacecraft integration and is set to be launched in July of 2018. The main mode of operation consists of an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) at its aperture followed by a Time-of-Flight section to measure the energy and mass per charge (m/q) of the ambient ions. SPAN-Ai's main objective is to measure solar wind ions within an energy range of 5 eV - 20 keV, a mass/q between 1-60 [amu/q] and a field of view of 2400x1200. Here we will show flight calibration results and performance.

  4. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  5. Analyzing surface coatings in situ: High-temperature surface film analyzer developed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have devised a new instrument that can analyze surface coatings under operating conditions. The High-Temperature Surface Film Analyzer is the first such instrument to analyze the molecular composition and structure of surface coatings on metals and solids under conditions of high temperature and pressure in liquid environments. Corrosion layers, oxide coatings, polymers or paint films, or adsorbed molecules are examples of conditions that can be analyzed using this instrument. Film thicknesses may vary from a few molecular layers to several microns or thicker. The instrument was originally developed to study metal corrosion in aqueous solutions similar to the cooling water systems of light-water nuclear reactors. The instrument may have use for the nuclear power industry where coolant pipes degrade due to stress corrosion cracking, which often leads to plant shutdown. Key determinants in the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking are the properties and composition of corrosion scales that form inside pipes. The High-Temperature Surface Analyzer can analyze these coatings under laboratory conditions that simulate the same hostile environment of high temperature, pressure, and solution that exist during plant operations. The ability to analyze these scales in hostile liquid environments is unique to the instrument. Other applications include analyzing paint composition, corrosion of materials in geothermal power systems, integrity of canisters for radioactive waste storage, corrosion inhibitor films on piping and drilling systems, and surface scales on condenser tubes in industrial hot water heat exchangers. The device is not patented

  6. Different Pathways to Juvenile Delinquency: Characteristics of Early and Late Starters in a Sample of Previously Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alltucker, Kevin W.; Bullis, Michael; Close, Daniel; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We examined the differences between early and late start juvenile delinquents in a sample of 531 previously incarcerated youth in Oregon's juvenile justice system. Data were analyzed with logistic regression to predict early start delinquency based on four explanatory variables: foster care experience, family criminality, special education…

  7. Analyzing and forecasting the European social climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.

  8. Analyzer of neutron flux in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Carrillo M, R.A.; Balderas, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    With base in the study of the real signals of neutron flux of instability events occurred in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant where the nucleus oscillation phenomena of the reactor are in the 0 to 2.5 Hz range, it has been seen the possibility about the development a surveillance and diagnostic equipment capable to analyze in real time the behavior of nucleus in this frequencies range. An important method for surveillance the stability of the reactor nucleus is the use of the Power spectral density which allows to determine the frequencies and amplitudes contained in the signals. It is used an instrument carried out by LabVIEW graphic programming with a data acquisition card of 16 channels which works at Windows 95/98 environment. (Author)

  9. Analyzing the Control Structure of PEPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    expressed in PEPA. The analysis technique we adopted is Data Flow Analysis. We begin the analysis by defining an appropriate transfer function, then with the classical worklist algorithm we construct a finite automaton that captures all possible interactions among processes. By annotating labels and layers...... to PEPA programs, the approximating result is very precise. Based on the analysis, we also develop algorithms for validating the deadlock property of PEPA programs. The techniques have been implemented in a tool which is able to analyze processes with a control structure that more than one thousand states.......The Performance Evaluation Process Algebra, PEPA, is introduced by Jane Hillston as a stochastic process algebra for modelling distributed systems and especially suitable for performance evaluation. We present a static analysis that very precisely approximates the control structure of processes...

  10. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  11. Nuclear Plant Analyzer: Installation manual. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, D.M.; Wagner, K.L.; Grush, W.H.; Jones, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the installation instructions for the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) System. The NPA System consists of the Computer Visual System (CVS) program, the NPA libraries, the associated utility programs. The NPA was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of these analysis codes. The NPA also provides the user with a convenient means of interactively controlling the host program through user-defined pop-up menus. The NPA was designed to serve primarily as an analysis tool. After a brief introduction to the Computer Visual System and the NPA, an analyst can quickly create a simple picture or set of pictures to aide in the study of a particular phenomenon. These pictures can range from simple collections of square boxes and straight lines to complex representations of emergency response information displays

  12. Using wavelet features for analyzing gamma lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medhat, M.E.; Abdel-hafiez, A.; Hassan, M.F.; Ali, M.A.; Uzhinskii, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Data processing methods for analyzing gamma ray spectra with symmetric bell-shaped peaks form are considered. In many cases the peak form is symmetrical bell shaped in particular a Gaussian case is the most often used due to many physical reasons. The problem is how to evaluate parameters of such peaks, i.e. their positions, amplitudes and also their half-widths, that is for a single peak and overlapped peaks. Through wavelet features by using Marr wavelet (Mexican Hat) as a correlation method, it could be to estimate the optimal wavelet parameters and to locate peaks in the spectrum. The performance of the proposed method and others shows a better quality of wavelet transform method

  13. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up

  14. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  15. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  16. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...... of software ecosystems. We use these contributions to design a software ecosystem in the telemedicine services of Denmark with (i) a common platform that supports and promotes development from different actors, (ii) high software interaction, (iii) strong social network of actors, (iv) robust business....... This thesis documents the groundwork towards addressing the challenges faced by telemedical technologies today and establishing telemedicine as a means of patient diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, it serves as an empirical example of designing a software ecosystem....

  17. Analyzing Strategic Business Rules through Simulation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta, Elena; Ruiz, Mercedes; Toro, Miguel

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) holds promise for business agility since it allows business process to change to meet new customer demands or market needs without causing a cascade effect of changes in the underlying IT systems. Business rules are the instrument chosen to help business and IT to collaborate. In this paper, we propose the utilization of simulation models to model and simulate strategic business rules that are then disaggregated at different levels of an SOA architecture. Our proposal is aimed to help find a good configuration for strategic business objectives and IT parameters. The paper includes a case study where a simulation model is built to help business decision-making in a context where finding a good configuration for different business parameters and performance is too complex to analyze by trial and error.

  18. Method and apparatus for analyzing ionizable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, B.J.; Hall, R.C.; Thiede, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing a solution of ionizable compounds in a liquid. The solution is irradiated with electromagnetic radiation to ionize the compounds and the electrical conductivity of the solution is measured. The radiation may be X-rays, ultra-violet, infra-red or microwaves. The solution may be split into two streams, only one of which is irradiated, the other being used as a reference by comparing conductivities of the two streams. The liquid must be nonionizable and is preferably a polar solvent. The invention provides an analysis technique useful in liquid chromatography and in gas chromatography after dissolving the eluted gases in a suitable solvent. Electrical conductivity measurements performed on the irradiated eluent provide a quantitative indication of the ionizable materials existing within the eluent stream and a qualitative indication of the purity of the eluent stream. (author)

  19. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    as the software development and distribution by a set of actors dependent on each other and the ecosystem. We commence on the hypothesis that the establishment of a software ecosystem on the telemedicine services of Denmark would address these issues and investigate how a software ecosystem can foster...... the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...... of software ecosystems. We use these contributions to design a software ecosystem in the telemedicine services of Denmark with (i) a common platform that supports and promotes development from different actors, (ii) high software interaction, (iii) strong social network of actors, (iv) robust business...

  20. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn [Oak Ridge, TN; Chen, Da-Ren [Creve Coeur, MO

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  1. Analyzing use cases for knowledge acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Robert L.; Webster, Robert B.

    2000-03-01

    The analysis of use cases describing construction of simulation configuration files in a data/information management system can lead to the acquisition of new information and knowledge. In this application, a user creates a use case with an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) description representing a configuration file for simulation of a physical system. INtelligent agents analyze separate versions of the XML descriptions of a user and additionally, make comparisons of the descriptions with examples form a library of use cases. The agents can then make recommendations to a user on how to proceed or if tutoring is necessary. In a proof-of-concept test, new information is acquired and a user learns from the agent-facilitated tutoring.

  2. Spectroscopic methods to analyze drug metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jong-Jae; Park, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Won-Je; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Son, Woo Sung

    2018-03-09

    Drug metabolites have been monitored with various types of newly developed techniques and/or combination of common analytical methods, which could provide a great deal of information on metabolite profiling. Because it is not easy to analyze whole drug metabolites qualitatively and quantitatively, a single solution of analytical techniques is combined in a multilateral manner to cover the widest range of drug metabolites. Mass-based spectroscopic analysis of drug metabolites has been expanded with the help of other parameter-based methods. The current development of metabolism studies through contemporary pharmaceutical research are reviewed with an overview on conventionally used spectroscopic methods. Several technical approaches for conducting drug metabolic profiling through spectroscopic methods are discussed in depth.

  3. Analyzing petabytes of data with Hadoop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The open source Apache Hadoop project provides a powerful suite of tools for storing and analyzing petabytes of data using commodity hardware. After several years of production use inside of web companies like Yahoo! and Facebook and nearly a year of commercial support and development by Cloudera, the technology is spreading rapidly through other disciplines, from financial services and government to life sciences and high energy physics. The talk will motivate the design of Hadoop and discuss some key implementation details in depth. It will also cover the major subprojects in the Hadoop ecosystem, go over some example applications, highlight best practices for deploying Hadoop in your environment, discuss plans for the future of the technology, and provide pointers to the many resources available for learning more. In addition to providing more information about the Hadoop platform, a major goal of this talk is to begin a dialogue with the ATLAS research team on how the tools commonly used in t...

  4. Orthopedic surgical analyzer for percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Gye Rae; Choi, Hyung Guen; Lim, Do H.; Lee, Sung J.

    2001-05-01

    Since the spine is one of the most complex joint structures in the human body, its surgical treatment requires careful planning and high degree of precision to avoid any unwanted neurological compromises. In addition, comprehensive biomechanical analysis can be very helpful because the spine is subject to a variety of load. In case for the osteoporotic spine in which the structural integrity has been compromised, it brings out the double challenges for a surgeon both clinically and biomechanically. Thus, we have been developing an integrated medical image system that is capable of doing the both. This system is called orthopedic surgical analyzer and it combines the clinical results from image-guided examination and the biomechanical data from finite element analysis. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, this system was applied to percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure that has been recently introduced for the treatment of compression fracture of the osteoporotic vertebrae. It involves puncturing vertebrae and filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Recent studies have shown that the procedure could provide structural reinforcement for the osteoporotic vertebrae while being minimally invasive and safe with immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to excessive PMMA volume injection have been reported as one of complications. It is believed that control of PMMA volume is one of the most critical factors that can reduce the incidence of complications. Since the degree of the osteoporosis can influence the porosity of the cancellous bone in the vertebral body, the injection volume can be different from patient to patient. In this study, the optimal volume of PMMA injection for vertebroplasty was predicted based on the image analysis of a given patient. In addition, biomechanical effects due to the changes in PMMA volume and bone mineral density (BMD) level were investigated by constructing clinically

  5. Identification of Zones and Areal Extent of Weathered Crystalline Basement in the Archean-Lower Proterozoic Crust of the South Tatar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Amelchenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of geophysical surveys and deep drilling the depth to the crystalline basement and its weathered upper layer at the eastern flank of the South Tartar Arch varies from 1650 to 2500 m. Against the ongoing depletion of hydrocarbon reserves in the Paleozoic reservoirs of the region the basement becomes a promising exploration target. However the study of its architecture, composition and areal extent is largely hindered by so far very limited coring in this interval. In previous research correlation of core data and wireline logs was used for petrophysical characterization and identification of zones in a vertical profile of the upper weathered layer of the basement in the deep parametric test wells 50 Novournyak and 2000 Tyimazy with most complete core recovery. These characterization criteria have been utilized for analysis of 750 deep wells drilled in Bashkortostan within the South Tatar Arch which is bounded in the south by the Serafimovsko-Baltaevskiy Graben. In 340 wells based on wireline and production logs the upper weathered layer of the basement revealed certain distinct features of vertical zonation. The analysis resulted in thickness maps for Zone B and combined thickness maps for Zones B + C where the weathered basement is characterized by two morphological types – linear-areal and linear-fractured. The findings support the initial assumption that the obtained petrophysical characteristics may be applied to identify the weathered crystalline basement in wells with no core.

  6. Does previous open renal surgery or percutaneous nephrolithotomy affect the outcomes and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Sarılar, Omer; Toptas, Mehmet; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser; Binbay, Murat

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PNL in patients with a history of open renal surgery or PNL by comparing with primary patients and to compare impact of previous open renal surgery and PNL on the success and complications of subsequent PNL. Charts of patients, who underwent PNL at our institute, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into three groups according to history of renal stone surgery. Patients without history of renal surgery were enrolled into Group 1. Other patients with previous PNL and previous open surgery were categorized as Group 2 and Group 3. Preoperative characteristic, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complication rates were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was accepted as completing clearance of stone and residual fragment smaller than 4 mm. Eventually, 2070 patients were enrolled into the study. Open renal surgery and PNL had been done in 410 (Group 2) and 131 (Group 3) patients, retrospectively. The mean operation time was longer (71.3 ± 33.5 min) in Group 2 and the mean fluoroscopy time was longer (8.6 ± 5.0) in Group 3 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Highest stone clearance was achieved in primary PNL patients (81.62%) compared to the other groups (77.10% in Group 2 and 75.61% in Group 3). Stone-free rate was not significantly different between Group 2 and Group 3. Fever, pulmonary complications, and blood transfusion requirement were not statically different between groups but angioembolization was significantly higher in Group 2. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with renal stones regardless history of previous PNL or open renal surgery. However, history of open renal surgery but not PNL significantly reduced PNL success.

  7. Retrospective analysis on malignant calcification previously misdiagnosed as benign on screening mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Su Min [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Chung Ang University Hospital, Seoul(Korea, Republic of); Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young; Choi, Woo Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the morphology and distribution of calcifications initially interpreted as benign or probably benign, but proven to be malignant by subsequent stereotactic biopsy, and to identify the reason for misinterpretation or underestimation at the initial diagnosis. Out of 567 women who underwent stereotactic biopsy for calcifications at our hospital between January 2012 and December 2014, 167 women were diagnosed with malignancy. Forty-six of these 167 women had previous mammography assessed as benign or probably benign which was changed to suspicious malignancy on follow-up mammography. Of these 46 women, three women with biopsy-proven benign calcifications at the site of subsequent cancer were excluded, and 43 patients were finally included. The calcifications (morphology, distribution, extent, associated findings) in the previous and follow-up mammography examinations were analyzed according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon and assessment category. We classified the patients into two groups: 1) group A patients who were still retrospectively re-categorized as less than or equal to BI-RADS 3 and 2) group B patients who were re-categorized as equal to or higher than BI-RADS 4a and whose results should have prompted previous diagnostic assessment. In the follow-up mammography examinations, change in calcification morphology (n = 27, 63%) was the most frequent cause of assessment change. The most frequent previous mammographic findings of malignant calcification were amorphous morphology (n = 26, 60%) and grouped distribution (n = 36, 84%). The most frequent calcification findings at reassessment were amorphous morphology (n = 4, 9%), fine pleomorphic calcification (n = 30, 70%), grouped distribution (n = 23, 53%), and segmental calcification (n = 12, 28%). There were 33 (77%) patients in group A, and 10 patients (23%) in group B. Amorphous morphology and grouped distribution were the most frequent

  8. Proterozoic to Mesozoic evolution of North-West Africa and Peri-Gondwana microplates: Detrital zircon ages from Morocco and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Davies, Joshua H. F. L.; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Merle, Renaud; Dal Corso, Jacopo; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fioretti, Anna Maria; Bellieni, Giuliano; Medina, Fida; Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; McHone, Greg; Font, Eric; Bensalah, Mohamed Khalil

    2017-05-01

    The complex history of assemblage and disruption of continental plates surrounding the Atlantic Ocean is in part recorded by the distribution of detrital zircon ages entrained in continental sedimentary strata from Morocco (Central High Atlas and Argana basins) and Canada (Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick). Here we investigate detrital zircon from the latest Triassic (ca. 202 Ma) sedimentary strata directly underlying lava flows of the Central Atlantic magmatic province or interlayered within them. SHRIMP (Sensitive High-Resolution Ion MicroProbe) and LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) U-Pb ages for zircon range from Paleozoic to Archean with a dominant Neoproterozoic peak, and significant amounts of ca. 2 Ga zircon. These ages suggest a prevailing West African (Gondwanan) provenance at all sampling sites. Notably, the Paleoproterozoic zircon population is particularly abundant in central Morocco, north of the High Atlas chain, suggesting the presence of Eburnean-aged rocks in this part of the country, which is consistent with recent geochronologic data from outcropping rocks. Minor amounts of late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic zircon ages (ca. 1.1-0.9 Ga) in Moroccan samples are more difficult to interpret. A provenance from Avalonia or Amazonia, as proposed by previous studies is not supported by the age distributions observed here. An involvement of more distal source regions, possibly located in north-eastern Africa (Arabian Nubian Shield) would instead be possible. Paleozoic zircon ages are abundant in the Canadian sample, pointing to a significant contribution from Hercynian aged source rocks. Such a signal is nearly absent in the Moroccan samples, suggesting that zircon-bearing Hercynian granitic rocks of the Moroccan Meseta block were not yet outcropping at ca. 200 Ma. The only Moroccan samples that yield Paleozoic zircon ages are those interlayered within the CAMP lavas, suggesting an increased dismantling

  9. Analyzing Evolutionary Optimization in Noisy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chao; Yu, Yang; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Many optimization tasks must be handled in noisy environments, where the exact evaluation of a solution cannot be obtained, only a noisy one. For optimization of noisy tasks, evolutionary algorithms (EAs), a type of stochastic metaheuristic search algorithm, have been widely and successfully applied. Previous work mainly focuses on the empirical study and design of EAs for optimization under noisy conditions, while the theoretical understandings are largely insufficient. In this study, we first investigate how noisy fitness can affect the running time of EAs. Two kinds of noise-helpful problems are identified, on which the EAs will run faster with the presence of noise, and thus the noise should not be handled. Second, on a representative noise-harmful problem in which the noise has a strong negative effect, we examine two commonly employed mechanisms dealing with noise in EAs: reevaluation and threshold selection. The analysis discloses that using these two strategies simultaneously is effective for the one-bit noise but ineffective for the asymmetric one-bit noise. Smooth threshold selection is then proposed, which can be proved to be an effective strategy to further improve the noise tolerance ability in the problem. We then complement the theoretical analysis by experiments on both synthetic problems as well as two combinatorial problems, the minimum spanning tree and the maximum matching. The experimental results agree with the theoretical findings and also show that the proposed smooth threshold selection can deal with the noise better.

  10. Analyzing large datasets with bootstrap penalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kuangnan; Ma, Shuangge

    2017-03-01

    Data with a large p (number of covariates) and/or a large n (sample size) are now commonly encountered. For many problems, regularization especially penalization is adopted for estimation and variable selection. The straightforward application of penalization to large datasets demands a "big computer" with high computational power. To improve computational feasibility, we develop bootstrap penalization, which dissects a big penalized estimation into a set of small ones, which can be executed in a highly parallel manner and each only demands a "small computer". The proposed approach takes different strategies for data with different characteristics. For data with a large p but a small to moderate n, covariates are first clustered into relatively homogeneous blocks. The proposed approach consists of two sequential steps. In each step and for each bootstrap sample, we select blocks of covariates and run penalization. The results from multiple bootstrap samples are pooled to generate the final estimate. For data with a large n but a small to moderate p, we bootstrap a small number of subjects, apply penalized estimation, and then conduct a weighted average over multiple bootstrap samples. For data with a large p and a large n, the natural marriage of the previous two methods is applied. Numerical studies, including simulations and data analysis, show that the proposed approach has computational and numerical advantages over the straightforward application of penalization. An R package has been developed to implement the proposed methods. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  12. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  13. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  14. Resolution of VISION, a crystal-analyzer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, Philip A.; Daemen, Luke L.; Larese, John Z.

    2009-01-01

    We present both analytic and Monte Carlo calculations of the resolution of VISION, which is a crystal-analyzer spectrometer based on the TOSCA design. The analyzer crystal in VISION is configured to focus in time, radial, and transverse directions ('triple focused'). Previously published analytical results have two serious flaws in the handling of the statistics, which gave misleading results. First, Gaussian distributions were assumed for all resolution components, so that full-width-half-maximum could be used. Not only is this a very poor approximation for most terms, it is also completely unnecessary because standard deviations can be combined in quadrature for any shape distribution (except Lorentzian). The second flaw was the choice of variables that are not independent, so that significant correlations were ignored. An example of the effect of including correlations is that the mosaic spread of the analyzer crystals does not contribute to the resolution in first order. Monte Carlo simulation is not limited to first order, and we find a mild optimum value for mosaic spread. A complete set of six independent variables is: neutron emission time, incident flight-path variation (due to moderator tilt), sample thickness, mean path in the analyzer (due to multiple reflections), sample-to-detector radial distance, and detector thickness. We treat separately the resolution contributions from histogramming and rebinning during data acquisition and reduction, and describe a scheme for VISION that minimizes the effect on resolution. We compare the contributions of the six variables to the total resolution, both analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of a complete VISION model using the Neutron Instrument Simulation Package (NISP).

  15. A framework to analyze emissions implications of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future year emissions depend highly on the evolution of the economy, technology and current and future regulatory drivers. A scenario framework was adopted to analyze various technology development pathways and societal change while considering existing regulations and future uncertainty in regulations and evaluate resulting emissions growth patterns. The framework integrates EPA’s energy systems model with an economic Input-Output (I/O) Life Cycle Assessment model. The EPAUS9r MARKAL database is assembled from a set of technologies to represent the U.S. energy system within MARKAL bottom-up technology rich energy modeling framework. The general state of the economy and consequent demands for goods and services from these sectors are taken exogenously in MARKAL. It is important to characterize exogenous inputs about the economy to appropriately represent the industrial sector outlook for each of the scenarios and case studies evaluated. An economic input-output (I/O) model of the US economy is constructed to link up with MARKAL. The I/O model enables user to change input requirements (e.g. energy intensity) for different sectors or the share of consumer income expended on a given good. This gives end-users a mechanism for modeling change in the two dimensions of technological progress and consumer preferences that define the future scenarios. The framework will then be extended to include environmental I/O framework to track life cycle emissions associated

  16. Analyzing Music Services Positioning Through Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cuadrado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have produced new ways of distributing and consuming music, mainly by youth, in relation to both goods and services. In the case of goods, there has been a dramatic shift from traditional ways of buying and listening to music to new digital platforms. There has also been an evolution in relation to music services. In this sense, live music concerts have been losing their audiences over the past few years, as have music radio stations, in favor of streaming platforms. Curious about this phenomenon, we conducted an exploratory research in order to analyze how all these services, both traditional and new ones were perceived. Specifically, we aimed to study youth´s assessment of the three most relevant music service categories: music radio stations, digital streaming platforms, and pop-rock music festivals. To do so, we used the projective technique of image association to gather information. The population of the study consisted of individuals between 18 and 25 years of age. Our results, after using content analysis, were poor due to spontaneous recall. Therefore, we duplicated the study, but in a more focus-oriented way. Information gathered this time allowed us not only to better know how all these organizations are positioned but also to obtain a list of descriptors to be used in a subsequent descriptive research study.

  17. PSAIA – Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahoviček Kristian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSAIA (Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer was developed to compute geometric parameters for large sets of protein structures in order to predict and investigate protein-protein interaction sites. Results In addition to most relevant established algorithms, PSAIA offers a new method PIADA (Protein Interaction Atom Distance Algorithm for the determination of residue interaction pairs. We found that PIADA produced more satisfactory results than comparable algorithms implemented in PSAIA. Particular advantages of PSAIA include its capacity to combine different methods to detect the locations and types of interactions between residues and its ability, without any further automation steps, to handle large numbers of protein structures and complexes. Generally, the integration of a variety of methods enables PSAIA to offer easier automation of analysis and greater reliability of results. PSAIA can be used either via a graphical user interface or from the command-line. Results are generated in either tabular or XML format. Conclusion In a straightforward fashion and for large sets of protein structures, PSAIA enables the calculation of protein geometric parameters and the determination of location and type for protein-protein interaction sites. XML formatted output enables easy conversion of results to various formats suitable for statistic analysis. Results from smaller data sets demonstrated the influence of geometry on protein interaction sites. Comprehensive analysis of properties of large data sets lead to new information useful in the prediction of protein-protein interaction sites.

  18. Analyzing Architecture of Mithraism Rock Temples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre AliJabbari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This analyzes the architecture of rock temples of West and Northwest of Iran, as well as factors influencing their formation. The creation of rock architecture in this area of Iran is influenced by the religious, geographical and political atmosphere of their time. Most of these structures are formed by dominated empires in the first millennium BC. And in some works we are observing their continuity in later periods and change in their functions. One of the reasons that have attracted man to mountain and rock in different schools was the religious structure of community. According to the sanctity of mountains and rocks in the ancient religions, especially in Mithraism, valuable temples and places of worship have emerged in the mountains. Their obvious characteristic is circular dome-shaped spaces; simplicity, arrangement of spaces and the way of creating light that correspond with the tradition of Mithraism in Iran. Mehr Temple in Maragheh, Dashkasan in Zanjan, and Qadamgah Temple in Azarshahr are the rock temples in northwest of Iran that signs and symbols on them indicate the performance of Mithraism duties in these temples. In the West of Iran, Cogan cave in Lorestan, considering the characteristics of Mithraism temples, in a period had function as a temple for the worship of Mithra. This research investigates architectural futures of these temples.

  19. Analyzing the Existing Undergraduate Engineering Leadership Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed M. Almalki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Studying and analyzing the undergraduate engineering students' leadership skills to discover their potential leadership strengths and weaknesses. This study will unveil potential ways to enhance the ways we teach engineering leadership. The research has great insights that might assist engineering programs to improve curricula for the purpose of better engineering preparation to meet industry's demands. Methodology and Findings: 441 undergraduate engineering students have been surveyed in two undergraduate engineering programs to discover their leadership skills. The results in both programs were revealing that undergraduate engineering students are lacking behind in the visionary leadership skills compared to directing, including and cultivating leadership styles. Recommendation: A practical framework has been proposed to enhance the lacking leadership skills by utilizing the Matrix of Change (MOC, and the Balanced Scorecard BSC to capture the best leadership scenarios to design virtual simulation environment as per the lacking leadership skills which is the visionary leadership skills in this case. After that, the virtual simulation will be used to provide an experiential learning by replacing human beings with avatars that can be managed or dramatized by real people to enable the creation of live, practical, measurable, and customizable leadership development programs.

  20. Analyzing human errors in flight mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Kristin J.; Welz, Linda L.; Barnes, G. Michael; Sherif, Josef

    1993-01-01

    A long-term program is in progress at JPL to reduce cost and risk of flight mission operations through a defect prevention/error management program. The main thrust of this program is to create an environment in which the performance of the total system, both the human operator and the computer system, is optimized. To this end, 1580 Incident Surprise Anomaly reports (ISA's) from 1977-1991 were analyzed from the Voyager and Magellan projects. A Pareto analysis revealed that 38 percent of the errors were classified as human errors. A preliminary cluster analysis based on the Magellan human errors (204 ISA's) is presented here. The resulting clusters described the underlying relationships among the ISA's. Initial models of human error in flight mission operations are presented. Next, the Voyager ISA's will be scored and included in the analysis. Eventually, these relationships will be used to derive a theoretically motivated and empirically validated model of human error in flight mission operations. Ultimately, this analysis will be used to make continuous process improvements continuous process improvements to end-user applications and training requirements. This Total Quality Management approach will enable the management and prevention of errors in the future.

  1. Complete denture analyzed by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2008-02-01

    The complete dentures are currently made using different technologies. In order to avoid deficiencies of the prostheses made using the classical technique, several alternative systems and procedures were imagined, directly related to the material used and also to the manufacturing technology. Thus, at the present time, there are several injecting systems and technologies on the market, that use chemoplastic materials, which are heat cured (90-100°C), in dry or wet environment, or cold cured (below 60°C). There are also technologies that plasticize a hard cured material by thermoplastic processing (without any chemical changes) and then inject it into a mold. The purpose of this study was to analyze the existence of possible defects in several dental prostheses using a non invasive method, before their insertion in the mouth. Different dental prostheses, fabricated from various materials were investigated using en-face optical coherence tomography. In order to discover the defects, the scanning was made in three planes, obtaining images at different depths, from 0,01 μm to 2 mm. In several of the investigated prostheses we found defects which may cause their fracture. These defects are totally included in the prostheses material and can not be vizualised with other imagistic methods. In conclusion, en-face OCT is an important investigative tool for the dental practice.

  2. Update on the USNRC's nuclear plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state-of-the-art nuclear reactor simulation capability. This computer software package integrates high fidelity nuclear reactor simulation codes such as the TRAC and RELAPS series of codes with color graphics display techniques and advanced workstation hardware. An overview of this program was given at the 1984 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC), with selected topics discussed at the 1985 and 1986 SCSCs. This paper addresses these activities and related experiences. First, The Class VI computer implementation is discussed. The trade-offs between gaining significantly greater computational speed and central memory, with the loss of performance due to many more simultaneous users is shown. Second, the goal of the super-minicomputer implementation is to produce a very cost-effective system that utilizes advanced (multi-dimensional, two-phase coolant) simulation capabilities at real wall-clock simulation times. Benchmarking of the initial super-minicomputer implementation is discussed. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility is addressed for implementing the super-minicomputer version of the NPA with the RELAPS simulation code onto the Black Fox full scope nuclear power plant simulator

  3. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Anomalies through Interactive Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.

  4. NRC plant-analyzer development at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an LWR engineering plant analyzer capable of performing realistic and accurate simulations of plant transients and Small-Break Loss of Coolant Accidents at real-time and faster than real-time computing speeds and at low costs for preparing, executing and evaluating such simulations. The program is directed toward facilitating reactor safety analyses, on-line plant monitoring, on-line accident diagnosis and mitigation and toward improving reactor operator training. The AD10 of Applied Dynamics International, Ann Arbor, MI, a special-purpose peripheral processor for high-speed systems simulation, is programmed through a PDP-11/34 minicomputer and carries out digital simulations with analog hardware in the input/output loop (up to 256 channels). Analog signals from a control panel are being used now to activate or to disable valves and to trip pump drive motors or regulators without interrupting the simulation. An IBM personal computer with multicolor graphics capabilities and a CRT monitor are used to produce on-line labelled diagrams of selected plant parameters as functions of time

  5. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  6. Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Attenuation properties of the normal modes in an overmoded waveguide coated with a lossy material were analyzed. It is found that the low-order modes, can be significantly attenuated even with a thin layer of coating if the coating material is not too lossy. A thinner layer of coating is required for large attenuation of the low-order modes if the coating material is magnetic rather than dielectric. The Radar Cross Section (RCS) from an uncoated circular guide terminated by a perfect electric conductor was calculated and compared with available experimental data. It is confirmed that the interior irradiation contributes to the RCS. The equivalent-current method based on the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) was chosen for the calculation of the contribution from the rim diffraction. The RCS reduction from a coated circular guide terminated by a PEC are planned schemes for the experiments are included. The waveguide coated with a lossy magnetic material is suggested as a substitute for the corrugated waveguide.

  7. Analyzing the Pension System of the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Pudovkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article under the title "ANALYSIS OF THE PENSION SYSTEM OF THE USSR" deals with numerous aspects of development of the pension system of the former USSR. Since the improvement of the Russian pension system is presently high on the agenda, the author believes that analyzing the own historical experience in the first line is essential in order to create a sound and efficient pension system in Russia. The study presented in the article aims to execute an in-depth analysis of legislature on the soviet pension system with the view to recreate the architecture of the pension system of the USSR. In addition, the study also reflects on the official statistics for the said period to make a qualified and fundamental conclusion on the efficiency of the soviet pension system. The evolution of the pension system, based on statistical data evidently proves the efficiently of the soviet pension system. It is highly recommended that the positive aspects of the soviet pension system are taken into consideration when reforming the actual pension system of Russian Federation.

  8. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. The NPA integrates the NRC's computerized reactor behavior simulation codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-BWR, both of which are well-developed computer graphics programs, and large repositories of reactor design and experimental data. Utilizing the complex reactor behavior codes as well as the experiment data repositories enables simulation applications of the NPA that are generally not possible with more simplistic, less mechanistic reactor behavior codes. These latter codes are used in training simulators or with other NPA-type software packages and are limited to displaying calculated data only. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  9. Practical Limitations of Aerosol Separation by a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Radney, James G.; Zangmeister, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    A cavity ring-down spectrometer and condensation particle counter were used to investigate the limitations in the separation of singly and multiply charged aerosol particles by a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). The impact of particle polydispersity and morphology was investigated using three materials: nearly-monodisperse polystyrene latex nanospheres (PSL); polydisperse, nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate (AS) and polydisperse lacey fracta...

  10. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  11. "My math and me": Nursing students' previous experiences in learning mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røykenes, Kari

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  13. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  14. Nuclear plant analyzer program for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shier, W.; Kennett, R.

    1993-01-01

    An interactive nuclear plant analyzer(NPA) has been developed for use by the Bulgarian technical community in the training of plant personnel, the development and verification of plant operating procedures, and in the analysis of various anticipated operational occurrences and accident scenarios. The current NPA includes models for a VVER-440 Model 230 and a VVER-1000 Model 320 and is operational on an IBM RISC6000 workstation. The RELAP5/MOD2 computer code has been used for the calculation of the reactor responses to the interactive commands initiated by the NPA operator. The interactive capabilities of the NPA have been developed to provide considerable flexibility in the plant actions that can be initiated by the operator. The current capabilities for both the VVER-440 and VVER-1000 models include: (1) scram initiation; (2) reactor coolant pump trip; (3) high pressure safety injection system initiation; (4) low pressure safety injection system initiation; (5) pressurizer safety valve opening; (6) steam generator relief/safety valve opening; (7) feedwater system initiation and trip; (8) turbine trip; and (9) emergency feedwater initiation. The NPA has the capability to display the results of the simulations in various forms that are determined by the model developer. Results displayed on the reactor mask are shown through the user defined, digital display of various plant parameters and through color changes that reflect changes in primary system fluid temperatures, fuel and clad temperatures, and the temperature of other metal structures. In addition, changes in the status of various components and systems can be initiated and/or displayed both numerically and graphically on the mask. This paper provides a description of the structure of the NPA, a discussion of the simulation models used for the VVER-440 and the VVER-1000, and an overview of the NPA capabilities. Typical results obtained using both simulation models will be discussed

  15. Update on the USNRC's Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state-of-the-art nuclear reactor simulation capability. This computer software package integrates high fidelity nuclear reactor simulation codes such as the TRAC and RELAP5 series of codes with color graphics display techniques and advanced workstation hardware. An overview of this program was given at the 1984 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC), with selected topics discussed at the 1985 and 1986 SCSCs. Since the 1984 presentation, major redirections of this NRC program have been taken. The original NPA system was developed for operation on a Control Data Corporation CYBER 176 computer, technology that is some 10 to 15 years old. The NPA system has recently been implemented on Class VI computers to gain increased computational capabilities, and is now being implemented on super-minicomputers for use by the scientific community and possibly by the commercial nuclear power plant simulator community. This paper addresses these activities and related experiences. First, the Class VI computer implementation is discussed. The trade-offs between gaining significantly greater computational speed and central memory, with the loss of performance due to many more simultaneous users is shown. Second, the goal of the super-minicomputer implementation is to produce a very cost-effective system that utilizes advanced (multi-dimensional, two-phase coolant) simulation capabilities at real wall-clock simulation times. Benchmarking of the initial super-minicomputer implementation is discussed. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility is addressed for implementing the super-minicomputer version of the NPA with the RELAP5 simulation code onto the Black Fox full scope nuclear power plant simulator

  16. PLC backplane analyzer for field forensics and intrusion detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, John; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Berg, Michael; Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Urrea, Jorge Mario; King, Michael Aaron; Clements, Abraham Anthony; Trent, Jason; Depoy, Jennifer M; Jacob, Joshua

    2015-05-12

    The various technologies presented herein relate to the determination of unexpected and/or malicious activity occurring between components communicatively coupled across a backplane. Control data, etc., can be intercepted at a backplane where the backplane facilitates communication between a controller and at least one device in an automation process. During interception of the control data, etc., a copy of the control data can be made, e.g., the original control data can be replicated to generate a copy of the original control data. The original control data can continue on to its destination, while the control data copy can be forwarded to an analyzer system to determine whether the control data contains a data anomaly. The content of the copy of the control data can be compared with a previously captured baseline data content, where the baseline data can be captured for a same operational state as the subsequently captured control data.

  17. Nuclear plant simulation using the Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.; Laats, E.T.; Wagner, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), a state-of-the-art computerized safety analysis and engineering tool, was employed to simulate nuclear plant response to an abnormal transient during a training exercise at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in Washington, DC. Information relative to plant status was taken from a computer animated color graphics display depicting the course of the transient and was transmitted to the NRC Operations Center in a manner identical to that employed during an actual event. Recommendations from the Operations Center were implemented during on-line, interactive execution of the RELAP5 reactor systems code through the NPA allowing a degree of flexibility in training exercises not realized previously. When the debriefing was conducted, the RELAP5 calculations were replayed by way of the color graphics display, adding a new dimension to the debriefing and greatly enhancing the critique of the exercise

  18. Pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with previous history of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Rezaie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with a history of previous gestational diabetes and its related recurrence risk factors. This study was conducted on 180 pregnant women with history of gestational diabetes in previous pregnancy that referred to Besat hospital, Sanandaj, Iran. They were divided into two groups (recurrence of gestational diabetes group and non-recurrence of gestational diabetes group .The data were recorded in the check list and analyzed using SPSS software Ver.18. To analyze quantitative variables such as mother`s age, mother`s BMI, interval between pregnancies, Apgar score and neonatal hypoglycemia independent t-tests was used and to compare qualitative variables between the two groups chi square test was used. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of mother`s age (P = 0.22. In terms of mother’s BMI and interval between pregnancies there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05. In terms of mode of delivery, after excluding 61 mothers who were replicate Cesarean section the percentage of Caesarean section in recurrence of gestational diabetes group was 15.4%4 and in non- recurrence of gestational diabetes group it was2.4% which difference was statistically significant (P <0.05. In terms of incidence of macrosomia (P <0.001 and neonatal hypoglycemia (p <0.05 there were statistically significant differences between two groups. The recurrence rate of diabetes was 66.6%.Regarding the results of this study in order to prevent maternal and fetal complications, monitoring and giving extra care to mothers with diabetes is recommended.

  19. analyzers in overweight/obese renal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kusztal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is an affordable, non-invasive and fast alternative method to assess body composition. The purpose of this study was to compare two different tetrapolar BIA devices for estimating body fluid volumes and body cell mass (BCM in a clinical setting among patients with kidney failure.All double measurements were performed by multi-frequency (MF and single-frequency (SF BIA analyzers: a Body Composition Monitor (Fresenius Medical Care, Germany and BIA-101 (Akern, Italy, respectively. All procedures were conducted according to the manufacturers’ instructions (dedicated electrodes, measurement sites, positions, etc. Total body water (TBW, extracellular water (ECW, intracellular water (ICW and BCM were compared. The study included 39 chronic kidney disease patients (stage III-V with a mean age of 45.8 ± 8 years (21 men and 18 women who had a wide range of BMI [17-34 kg/m2 (mean 26.6 ±5].A comparison of results from patients with BMI <25 vs ≥25 revealed a significant discrepancy in measurements between the two BIA devices. Namely, in the group with BMI <25 (n=16 acceptable correlations were obtained in TBW (r 0.99; p<0.01, ICW (0.92; p<0.01, BCM (0.68; p<0.01, and ECW (0.96 p<0.05, but those with BMI ≥25 (n=23 showed a discrepancy (lower correlations in TBW (r 0.82; p<0.05, ICW (0.78; p<0.05, BCM (0.52; p<0.05, and ECW (0.76; p<0.01.Since estimates of TBW, ICW and BCM by the present BIA devices do not differ in patients with BMI <25, they might be interchangeable. This does not hold true for overweight/obese renal patients.

  20. The Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory Data Quality Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A. T.; Hagerty, M.; Holland, J.; Gee, L. S.; Wilson, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) has several efforts underway to improve data quality at its stations. The Data Quality Analyzer (DQA) is one such development. The DQA is designed to characterize station data quality in a quantitative and automated manner. Station quality is based on the evaluation of various metrics, such as timing quality, noise levels, sensor coherence, and so on. These metrics are aggregated into a measurable grade for each station. The DQA consists of a website, a metric calculator (Seedscan), and a PostgreSQL database. The website allows the user to make requests for various time periods, review specific networks and stations, adjust weighting of the station's grade, and plot metrics as a function of time. The website dynamically loads all station data from a PostgreSQL database. The database is central to the application; it acts as a hub where metric values and limited station descriptions are stored. Data is stored at the level of one sensor's channel per day. The database is populated by Seedscan. Seedscan reads and processes miniSEED data, to generate metric values. Seedscan, written in Java, compares hashes of metadata and data to detect changes and perform subsequent recalculations. This ensures that the metric values are up to date and accurate. Seedscan can be run in a scheduled task or on demand by way of a config file. It will compute metrics specified in its configuration file. While many metrics are currently in development, some are completed and being actively used. These include: availability, timing quality, gap count, deviation from the New Low Noise Model, deviation from a station's noise baseline, inter-sensor coherence, and data-synthetic fits. In all, 20 metrics are planned, but any number could be added. ASL is actively using the DQA on a daily basis for station diagnostics and evaluation. As Seedscan is scheduled to run every night, data quality analysts are able to then use the

  1. Technology for collecting and analyzing relational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    summarize the information there is a mechanism of data grouping, which provides general data of the number of entries, maximum, minimum, average values for different groups of records.Results. This technology has been tested in the monitoring requirements of the services of additional professional education and the definition of the educational needs of teachers and executives of educational organizations of the Irkutsk region. The survey has involved 2,780 respondents in 36 municipalities. Creating the data model took several hours. The survey was conducted during the month.Conclusion. The proposed technology allows a short time to collect the information in relational form, and then analyze it without the need for programming with flexible assignment of the operating logic for form.

  2. Analyzing the attributes of Indiana's STEM schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltz, Jeremy

    "Primary and secondary schools do not seem able to produce enough students with the interest, motivation, knowledge, and skills they will need to compete and prosper in the emerging world" (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2007a, p. 94). This quote indicated that there are changing expectations for today's students which have ultimately led to new models of education, such as charters, online and blended programs, career and technical centers, and for the purposes of this research, STEM schools. STEM education as defined in this study is a non-traditional model of teaching and learning intended to "equip them [students] with critical thinking, problem solving, creative and collaborative skills, and ultimately establishes connections between the school, work place, community and the global economy" (Science Foundation Arizona, 2014, p. 1). Focusing on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is believed by many educational stakeholders to be the solution for the deficits many students hold as they move on to college and careers. The National Governors Association (NGA; 2011) believes that building STEM skills in the nation's students will lead to the ability to compete globally with a new workforce that has the capacity to innovate and will in turn spur economic growth. In order to accomplish the STEM model of education, a group of educators and business leaders from Indiana developed a comprehensive plan for STEM education as an option for schools to use in order to close this gap. This plan has been promoted by the Indiana Department of Education (IDOE, 2014a) with the goal of increasing STEM schools throughout Indiana. To determine what Indiana's elementary STEM schools are doing, this study analyzed two of the elementary schools that were certified STEM by the IDOE. This qualitative case study described the findings and themes from two elementary STEM schools. Specifically, the research looked at the vital components to accomplish STEM

  3. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a cloud-enabled web-service system that empowers physics-based, multi-variable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. We have developed a methodology to transform an existing science application code into a web service using a Python wrapper interface and Python web service frameworks. The web-service system, called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), currently supports (1) all the observational datasets from Obs4MIPs and a few ocean datasets from NOAA and Argo, which can serve as observation-based reference data for model evaluation, (2) many of CMIP5 model outputs covering a broad range of atmosphere, ocean, and land variables from the CMIP5 specific historical runs and AMIP runs, and (3) ECMWF reanalysis outputs for several environmental variables in order to supplement observational datasets. Analysis capabilities currently supported by CMDA are (1) the calculation of annual and seasonal means of physical variables, (2) the calculation of time evolution of the means in any specified geographical region, (3) the calculation of correlation between two variables, (4) the calculation of difference between two variables, and (5) the conditional sampling of one physical variable with respect to another variable. A web user interface is chosen for CMDA because it not only lowers the learning curve and removes the adoption barrier of the tool but also enables instantaneous use, avoiding the hassle of local software installation and environment incompatibility. CMDA will be used as an educational tool for the summer school organized by JPL's Center for Climate Science in 2014. In order to support 30+ simultaneous users during the school, we have deployed CMDA to the Amazon cloud environment. The cloud-enabled CMDA will provide each student with a virtual machine while the user interaction with the system will remain the same

  4. Association between previous spontaneous abortion and pre-eclampsia during a subsequent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Vesali, Samira; Pirjani, Reihaneh; Samani, Reza O

    2017-01-01

    To determine the impact of a history of spontaneous abortion on pre-eclampsia during a subsequent pregnancy. A cross-sectional study enrolled pregnant women admitted to obstetrics and gynecology wards at 103 hospitals in Tehran, Iran for delivery between July 6 and July 21, 2015. Consenting participants were interviewed by midwives; data were collected using a five-part questionnaire and patients' medical records were retrieved. Patient data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression to identify variables associated with increased odds of pre-eclampsia. In total, 5170 patients were interviewed and 252 had experienced pre-eclampsia. The number of previous spontaneous abortions was found to be associated with pre-eclampsia, and a higher number of previous spontaneous abortions was associated with increased odds of patients having experienced pre-eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.59; P=0.025). A history of spontaneous abortion was associated with increased odds of pre-eclampsia during a subsequent pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  5. The relationship between the failure to eradicate Helicobacter pylori and previous antibiotics use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Gyo; Park, Rae Woong; Shin, Sung Jae; Yoon, Dukyong; Kang, Joon Koo; Hwang, Jae Chul; Kim, Soon Sun; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Kee Myung

    2016-04-01

    The previous use of antibiotics is known to correlate positively with antibiotic resistance; whether this is also the case in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection is unclear. To investigate the relationship between the previous use of antibiotics and the failure of eradication therapy in H. pylori infection. The relationship between the clinical parameters and the failure of H. pylori eradication was analyzed in patients administered standard triple therapy and then assessed for the eradication of H. pylori based on a C13-urea breath test. In a multivariate analysis, failure rates increased significantly in patients with a history of clarithromycin (odds ratio [OR], 4.445) or other macrolides (OR, 2.407) use, who were female (OR, 1.339), or who were older than 60 years of age (OR, 1.326). The eradication failure rate in patients with a history of macrolides use for >2 weeks was significantly higher than if the duration of use was history of macrolides is a useful predictor of the likelihood of standard triple therapy failure in H. pylori eradication. The alternatives such as a bismuth-based quadruple or a levofloxacin-containing therapy should be considered in patients treated with macrolides for >2 weeks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The Effects of the Previous Outcome on Probabilistic Choice in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew T.; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of previous outcomes on subsequent choices in a probabilistic-choice task. Twenty-four rats were trained to choose between a certain outcome (1 or 3 pellets) versus an uncertain outcome (3 or 9 pellets), delivered with a probability of .1, .33, .67, and .9 in different phases. Uncertain outcome choices increased with the probability of uncertain food. Additionally, uncertain choices increased with the probability of uncertain food following both certain-choice outcomes and unrewarded uncertain choices. However, following uncertain-choice food outcomes, there was a tendency to choose the uncertain outcome in all cases, indicating that the rats continued to “gamble” after successful uncertain choices, regardless of the overall probability or magnitude of food. A subsequent manipulation, in which the probability of uncertain food varied within each session as a function of the previous uncertain outcome, examined how the previous outcome and probability of uncertain food affected choice in a dynamic environment. Uncertain-choice behavior increased with the probability of uncertain food. The rats exhibited increased sensitivity to probability changes and a greater degree of win–stay/lose–shift behavior than in the static phase. Simulations of two sequential choice models were performed to explore the possible mechanisms of reward value computations. The simulation results supported an exponentially decaying value function that updated as a function of trial (rather than time). These results emphasize the importance of analyzing global and local factors in choice behavior and suggest avenues for the future development of sequential-choice models. PMID:23205915

  7. Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals previously uncharacterized machinery for lactate utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Collart, Frank R.; Scott, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2009-02-24

    The ability to utilize lactate as a sole source of carbon and energy is one of the key metabolic signatures of Shewanellae, a diverse group of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria commonly found in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, homology searches failed to recognize orthologs of previously described bacterial D- or L-lactate oxidizing enzymes (Escherichia coli genes dld and lldD) in any of the 13 analyzed genomes of Shewanella spp. Using comparative genomic techniques, we identified a conserved chromosomal gene cluster in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (locus tag: SO1522-SO1518) containing lactate permease and candidate genes for both D- and L-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The predicted D-LDH gene (dldD, SO1521) is a distant homolog of FAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from yeast, whereas the predicted L-LDH is encoded by three genes with previously unknown functions (lldEGF, SO1520-19-18). Through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we experimentally confirmed the predicted physiological role of these novel genes in S. oneidensis MR-1 and carried out successful functional validation studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We conclusively showed that dldD and lldEFG encode fully functional D-and L-LDH enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of the respective lactate stereoisomers to pyruvate. Notably, the S. oneidensis MR-1 LldEFG enzyme is the first described example of a multi-subunit lactate oxidase. Comparative analysis of >400 bacterial species revealed the presence of LldEFG and Dld in a broad range of diverse species accentuating the potential importance of these previously unknown proteins in microbial metabolism.

  8. Modified Latarjet Procedure Without Capsulolabral Repair for the Treatment of Failed Previous Operative Stabilizations in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Bertona, Agustin; Tanoira, Ignacio; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L

    2018-02-03

    To analyze time to return to sport, functional outcomes, and recurrences of the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair in athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after a failed previous operative stabilization. We included athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a previous failed operative stabilization treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Return to sports, range of motion, the Rowe score, a visual analog scale for pain in sport activity, and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System were used to assess functional outcomes. Recurrences were also evaluated. The postoperative bone block position and consolidation were assessed with computed tomography. Between June 2008 and June 2015, 68 athletes were treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent shoulder instability after a previous failed stabilization surgery. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range, 24-108 months), and the mean age at the time of operation was 26.8 years (range, 17-35 years). All the patients returned to sports, and 95% returned to the same sport they practiced before the surgery, all to the same level. No significant difference in shoulder range of motion was found between preoperative and postoperative results. The Rowe score, visual analog scale, and Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System showed statistical improvement after operation (P Latarjet without capsulolabral repair produced excellent functional outcomes with most athletes returning to sport at the same level they had before the surgery without recurrences. Level IV, therapeutic, case series study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor of Subsequent Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997. The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56, respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76. In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02. Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12, but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00. Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins. Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.

  10. Analyzing and Predicting Micro-Location Patterns of Software Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kinne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of non-geographic aggregation on statistical inference are well studied in economics, research on the effects of geographic aggregation on regression analysis is rather scarce. This knowledge gap, together with the use of aggregated spatial units in previous firm location studies, results in a lack of understanding of firm location determinants at the microgeographic level. Suitable data for microgeographic location analysis has become available only recently through the emergence of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, especially the OpenStreetMap (OSM project, and the increasing availability of official (open geodata. In this paper, we use a comprehensive dataset of three million street-level geocoded firm observations to explore the location pattern of software firms in an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA. Based on the ESDA results, we develop a software firm location prediction model using Poisson regression and OSM data. Our findings offer novel insights into the mode of operation of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem (MAUP in the context of a microgeographic location analysis: We find that non-aggregated data can be used to detect information on location determinants, which are superimposed when aggregated spatial units are analyzed, and that some findings of previous firm location studies are not robust at the microgeographic level. However, we also conclude that the lack of high-resolution geodata on socio-economic population characteristics causes systematic prediction errors, especially in cities with diverse and segregated populations.

  11. Hardware Design Improvements to the Major Constituent Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Scott; Schwietert, Daniel; Anaya, Marcial; DeWolf, Shannon; Merrill, Dave; Gardner, Ben D.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Belcher, Paul; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to monitor the major constituents of the ISS's internal atmosphere. This mass spectrometer based system is an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and is a primary tool for the management of ISS atmosphere composition. As a part of NASA Change Request CR10773A, several alterations to the hardware have been made to accommodate improved MCA logistics. First, the ORU 08 verification gas assembly has been modified to allow the verification gas cylinder to be installed on orbit. The verification gas is an essential MCA consumable that requires periodic replenishment. Designing the cylinder for subassembly transport reduces the size and weight of the maintained item for launch. The redesign of the ORU 08 assembly includes a redesigned housing, cylinder mounting apparatus, and pneumatic connection. The second hardware change is a redesigned wiring harness for the ORU 02 analyzer. The ORU 02 electrical connector interface was damaged in a previous on-orbit installation, and this necessitated the development of a temporary fix while a more permanent solution was developed. The new wiring harness design includes flexible cable as well as indexing fasteners and guide-pins, and provides better accessibility during the on-orbit maintenance operation. This presentation will describe the hardware improvements being implemented for MCA as well as the expected improvement to logistics and maintenance.

  12. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  13. Pregnancy, Delivery, and Neonatal Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer in Patient with Previous Cesarean Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Background What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. Material/Methods The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients’ desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. Results The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. Conclusions Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section. PMID:27636504

  14. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  15. Noise and analyzer-crystal angular position analysis for analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The analyzer-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the angular intensity profile of the x-ray beam passed through the object at different angular positions of the analyzer crystal. The noise in the estimated ABI parametric images depends upon imaging conditions like the source intensity (flux), measurements angular positions, object properties, and the estimation method. In this paper, we use the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) to quantify the noise properties in parametric images and to investigate the effect of source intensity, different analyzer-crystal angular positions and object properties on this bound, assuming a fixed radiation dose delivered to an object. The CRLB is the minimum bound for the variance of an unbiased estimator and defines the best noise performance that one can obtain regardless of which estimation method is used to estimate ABI parametric images. The main result of this paper is that the variance (hence the noise) in parametric images is directly proportional to the source intensity and only a limited number of analyzer-crystal angular measurements (eleven for uniform and three for optimal non-uniform) are required to get the best parametric images. The following angular measurements only spread the total dose to the measurements without improving or worsening CRLB, but the added measurements may improve parametric images by reducing estimation bias. Next, using CRLB we evaluate the multiple-image radiography, diffraction enhanced imaging and scatter diffraction enhanced imaging estimation techniques

  16. The role of health literacy and communication habits on previous colorectal cancer screening among low-income and uninsured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojinnaka, Chinedum O; Bolin, Jane N; McClellan, David A; Helduser, Janet W; Nash, Philip; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-01-01

    To determine the association between health literacy, communication habits and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among low-income patients. Survey responses of patients who received financial assistance for colonoscopy between 2011 and 2014 at a family medicine residency clinic were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression (n = 456). There were two dependent variables: (1) previous CRC screening and (2) CRC screening adherence. Our independent variables of interest were health literacy and communication habits. Over two-thirds (67.13%) of respondents had not been previously screened for CRC. Multivariate analysis showed a decreased likelihood of previous CRC screening among those who had marginal (OR = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.29-0.92) or inadequate health literacy (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.27-0.87) compared to those with adequate health literacy. Controlling for health literacy, the significant association between educational attainment and previous CRC screening was eliminated. Thus, health literacy mediated the relationship between educational attainment and previous CRC screening. There was no significant association between communication habits and previous CRC screening. There was no significant association between screening guideline adherence, and health literacy or communication. Limited health literacy is a potential barrier to CRC screening. Suboptimal CRC screening rates reported among those with lower educational attainment may be mediated by limited health literacy.

  17. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  18. Provenance, tectonics and palaeoclimate of Proterozoic Chandarpur ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The clay-silt matrix decreases, sorting of sand grains improves, frequency of rounded grains increases, monocrystalline quartz content increases with concomitant decrease in polycrystalline quartz, feldspar and rock fragments. The trend of variations in different mineralogical and textural attributes, however, exhibits ...

  19. Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Yellappa

    2018-03-06

    -type granites; Neoproterozoic .... morphosed carbonates, iron formations and pelites, all suggesting an ..... Table 2. Average concentrations of whole rock geochemistry of different granite plutons of the present study. Location.

  20. Bauxite formation on Proterozoic bedrock of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsels, Dewany A.; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    Lateritic bauxite deposits in Suriname rest on a variety of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary parent rocks. Remnants of multiple planation surfaces with duricrusts that mark the tropical landscape are associated with recurrent episodes of bauxite formation since Late Cretaceous times.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Yellappa

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... rocks occur near the transition zone around Krish- nagiri in the northern part of Tamil Nadu ... Archean and Neoproterozoic high-grade metamor- phic and magmatic rocks. The important ... Western Dharwar Craton, EDC: Eastern Dharwar Craton, Tz: Transition Zone. Location of the granite plutons are also.

  2. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dep o sits o f sto rm-influenced tida l fl a t sy stem. , w herea s the upp er sa ndsto ne-do m in a ted pa rt co n ta ins bra idpla in a nd eo lia n strata. (S in gh. 1980;. Ch ak rab o rty. 2001;. Bose et al. 1999;. Ch ak rab o rty a n d. Ch ak rab o rty. 2001). Sirbu. Sha le. Th is formation b egin s w ith o olitic an d stromatolitic limesto n.

  3. Provenance, tectonics and palaeoclimate of Proterozoic Chandarpur ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    climatic condition. The provenance analysis revealed that the Chandarpur clastics were derived from granites and granite–gneisses of a continental block tectonic provenance. Petrographic stud- ies further indicate that high grade metamorphic rocks did not make any perceptible contribution to the Chandarpur system.

  4. Proterozoic intracontinental basin: The Vindhyan example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cally stacked in similar fashion in individual sectors, but their stratigraphic and sedimentologic attributes vary from one sector to the other. ... ments have been ascribed as products of epeiric seas. These epeiric seas were much wider .... is mildly curved with an overall ENE–WSW trend. In the Rajasthan sector near the Great ...

  5. Provenance, tectonics and palaeoclimate of Proterozoic Chandarpur ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . 1975 Re-evaluation of the use of undulatory extinction and polycrysrtallinity in detrital quartz for provenance interpretation; J. Sedim. Petrol. 45 873–882. Berner R A 1969 Goethite stability and the origin of red beds; Geochim. Et Cosm. Acta.

  6. A recent increase in AIDS at Lyon University Hospitals: patient characteristics and comparisons with previous years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratin, D; Marceillac, E; Trepo, C; Cotte, L; Peyramond, D; Chidiac, C; Touraine, J L; Livrozet, J M; Fabry, J; Vanhems, P

    2006-01-01

    A 36% increase in the incidence of AIDS was observed in 2002/2003 compared with 2000/2001 at Lyon University Hospitals. We compared the characteristics of these patients with the characteristics of those diagnosed previously with AIDS. Data for all patients with AIDS diagnosed at Lyon University Hospitals were analyzed. The data were collected prospectively. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis. The variables independently associated with an AIDS diagnosis in 2002/2003 compared with the 1985-1989 period were: homosexual exposure [odds ratio (OR) 0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.8]; heterosexual exposure in an endemic area (OR 22.5; 95% CI 6.8-74.8), compared with other exposure to HIV; lymphoma as initial AIDS event (OR 10.3; 95% CI 2.7-39.1) compared with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; and age at first AIDS event aged 34-38 years (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.0-6.4), aged 39-46 years (OR 5.1; 95% CI 2.2-11.8), and aged 47-84 years (OR 10.6; 95% CI 4.5-25.1) compared with aged <30 years. The variables independently associated with an AIDS diagnosis in 2002/2003 compared with the 1997/2001 period were age at first AIDS event aged 34-38 years (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9) compared with aged <30 years. Recently diagnosed AIDS patients differed from those diagnosed previously, showing an epidemic switch in different populations. The characteristics of the AIDS population in 2002/2003 might reflect public health messages disseminated around 10 years ago or more for the prevention of HIV transmission. Anticipation of populations affected by the AIDS epidemic is difficult.

  7. The effects of previous open renal stone surgery types on PNL outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Sarilar, Omer; Erbin, Akif; Yanaral, Fatih; Sahan, Murat; Binbay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to demonstrate the effect of insicion of renal parenchyma during open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcomes. Patients with history of ORSS who underwent PNL operation between June 2005 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their type of previous ORSS. Patients who had a history of ORSS with parenchymal insicion, such as radial nephrotomies, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, lower pole resection, and partial nephrectomy, were included in Group 1. Other patients with a history of open pyelolithotomy were enrolled in Group 2. Preoperative characteristics, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complications were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was defined as complete clearance of stone(s) or presence of residual fragments smaller than 4 mm. The retrospective nature of our study, different experience level of surgeons, and lack of the evaluation of anesthetic agents and cost of procedures were limitations of our study. 123 and 111 patients were enrolled in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. In Group 1, the mean operative time was statistically longer than in Group 2 (p=0.013). Stone-free status was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p=0.027). Complication rates were similar between groups. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was the most common complication in both groups (10.5% vs. 9.9%). Our study demonstrated that a history of previous ORSS with parenchymal insicion significantly reduces the success rates of PNL procedure.

  8. [Cardiac markers in different degrees of chronic kidney disease: influence of inflammation and previous heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Borja; Goicoechea, Marian; García de Vinuesa, Soledad; Verde, Eduardo; Verdalles, Ursula; Yuste, Claudia; Reque, Javier; Luño, José

    2012-06-30

    Troponin T (TnT), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its precursor (NT-proBNP) are useful markers of acute coronary events and heart failure. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of chronic renal failure, inflammation and heart disease in these biomarkers. In 266 patients with different stages of chronic renal diseases, the following parameters were measured: cardiac markers (TnT, BNP and NT-proBNP), renal function, inflammatory markers (hsCRP, fibrinogen, albumin, uric acid and white blood cells). We recorded the cardiovascular history. Ventricular dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed by echocardiography. A significant correlation between cardiac markers and inflammatory parameters such as fibrinogen, hsCRP and albumin was found. Age (OR 1.05, P = .021), serum albumin (OR: 0.06, P=.006), ischemic heart disease (OR: 8.17, P=.0092) and renal failure (OR: 1.67, P=.05) were predictors of higher BNP levels. Age (OR 1.05, P=.0097), serum albumin (OR: 0.12, P=.001), ischemic heart disease (OR: 3.43, P=.034), renal failure (OR: 1, 65, P=.036) and heart failure (OR: 4.33, P=.0312) were predictors of elevated NT-proBNP. Previous ischemic heart disease alone increased TnT levels (OR: 6.51, P=.0012). Age, previous cardiac disease and inflammation increase cardiac marker levels in patients with different stages of renal disease, but the degree of renal failure is an important factor influencing NT-proBNP levels. However, ischemic heart disease alone increases the levels of TnT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one's daily life? Pro-Saude Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal de; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling) at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001) of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study), asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6), regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  11. Wavefront-guided enhancements using the wavelight excimer laser in symptomatic eyes previously treated with LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, A John; Pe, Lawrence H

    2006-04-01

    To describe our clinical experience in wavefront-guided LASIK enhancements using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO system (WaveLight Technologie AG, Erlangen, Germany) for symptomatic eyes previously treated with standard LASIK. Twenty-six eyes of 20 patients with residual myopia, hyperopia, or mixed astigmatism and/or night vision symptoms after primary standard LASIK were considered for wavefront-guided customized retreatment using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE 200 Hz excimer laser system (model 106). Preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), uncorrected visual acuity, topography with the ALLEGRETTO Topolyzer, wavefront analysis using the ALLEGRETTO WAVE Tscherning Analyzer, and contrast sensitivity were compared to postoperative (enhancement) measurements. Twenty-two of the original 26 eyes underwent wavefront-guided enhancement, 4 were excluded because they did not meet wavefront-guided treatment inclusion guidelines of this study. Mean follow-up was 8 months (range: 6 to 13 months, standard deviation [SD] 2). All patients were within +/- 0.50 diopters (manifest refraction) of intended postoperative refraction. The mean preoperative BSCVA improved from 20/25 (SD +/- 0.12) to 20/18 (SD +/- 0.1) postoperatively. All patients gained at least one line of BSCVA, and a maximum of three lines. There was no loss of BSCVA in any patient. The total amount of high order aberrations (RMSH) decreased from an average of 1.04 (SD +/- 0.22) to 0.46 (SD +/- 0.14) microm. Patients also had a mean improvement in low contrast sensitivity of 59%. Based on this small series, customized wavefront-guided enhancements using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO system in patients who underwent previous LASIK appear to be safe and effective in correcting residual refractive error, reducing high order aberrations, and improving visual symptoms when reliable and reproducible measurements are achieved.

  12. The influence of general anesthesia on the brain in aged patients with previous ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubo, Yasuaki; Kayama, Takamasa; Kondo, Rei; Oki, Masato; Takaoka, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    Whenever we discuss the overall results of surgical treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms, especially in aged patients, we tend to consider advanced age or general anesthesia as causes for unfavorable results. There are no reports concerning ischemic stroke events following general anesthesia in aged patients with a prior history of cerebrovascular disease. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of general anesthesia on the brats in aged patients with a previous history of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The subjects were 30 consecutive patients over 70 years of age with previous ischemic cerebrovascular disease who underwent various surgeries except brain and cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were 70 to 85 years old, with a mean age of 76. Twenty-three were men and 7 were women. Surgical procedures were 12 gastrointestinal, 6 orthopedic and 4 urogenital and others. The type of cerebrovascular disease evaluated by neuroradiologist and anesthesiologist based on MR imaging was devided as follows: 16 patients had minor stroke, 7 had transient ischemic attack/reversible ischemic neurological deficit (TIA/RIND) and 7 had asymptomatic cerebral infarction. MR angiography was also assessed to evaluate the main artery in the brain. Blood pressure and arterial blood gas (PaCO 2 ) during general anesthesia were analyzed, and the rate of systemic and neurological complications following general anesthesia were evaluated. MR angiography revealed no occlusion or severe stenosis of the main artery in the brain of any of the patients. The minimum systolic blood pressure showed less than 100 mmHg transiently for 5-20 minutes in 28 of 30 patients during general anesthesia. The minimum value was 65 mmHg maintained for 5 minutes. The minimum PaCO 2 during general anesthesia was as follows: 1 case 36 mmHg. There were no neurological complications following general anesthesia in this study. One of 30 patients (3.3%) had suffered from pneumonia

  13. Practical Limitations of Aerosol Separation by a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radney, James G; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    A cavity ring-down spectrometer and condensation particle counter were used to investigate the limitations in the separation of singly and multiply charged aerosol particles by a tandem differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM). The impact of particle polydispersity and morphology was investigated using three materials: nearly-monodisperse polystyrene latex nanospheres (PSL); polydisperse, nearly-spherical ammonium sulfate (AS) and polydisperse lacey fractal soot agglomerates. PSL and AS particles were easily resolved as a function of charge. For fresh soot, the presence of multiply charged particles severely affects the isolation of the singly charged particles. In cases where the DMA-APM was unable to fully resolve the singly charged particles of interest, the peak mass deviated by up to 13 % leading to errors in the mass specific extinction cross section of over 100 %. For measurements of non-spherical particles, non-symmetrical distributions of concentration as a function of mass were a sign of the presence of multiply charged particles. Under these conditions, the effects of multiply charged particles can be reduced by using a second charge neutralizer after the DMA and prior to the APM. Dilution of the aerosol stream serves to decrease the total number concentration of particles and does not remove the contributions of multiply charged particles.

  14. Evaluation of PAWP and PLC? Expression in Infertile Men with Previous ICSI Fertilization Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Nahid; Nazarian, Hamid; Nazari, Leila; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Piryaei, Abbas; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Sadjadpour, Seyedeh Susan

    2018-02-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postacrosomal sheet WW domain binding protein (PAWP) and phospholipase C ? (PLC?) protein expression in patients with fertilization failure. Semen samples were collected from 15 fertile men (control group) and 15 patients with previous fertilization failure following ICSI (FF group) and were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The mean percentages of PAWP and PLC? positive sperm and the total level of PAWP and PLC? proteins were assessed using immunofluorescence staining. A significantly lower level and lower percentage of PAWP positive sperm in patients with fertilization failure was found compared to the control group (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). The mean percentage ofPLC? positive sperm and level of PLC? protein were significantly lower in FF group compared to the control group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.04, respectively). Significant positive correlations was observed between PAWP and PLC? positive sperms (r = 0.4, P = 0.008) and also total level of expression of PLC? and PAWP proteins (r = 0.4, P = 0.02) in all participants in the study. This is the first study that evaluates two main candidates for sperm-borne oocyte activating factors (SOAFs) simultaneously in patients with fertilization failure. Considering lower expression of PAWP and PLC? proteins in such patients, it seems like both factors might have the potential to be considered as SOAFs and diagnostic markers for the oocyte activation ability.

  15. Effects of sodium benzoate on storage stability of previously improved beverage from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Abiodun A; Aworh, Ogugua C

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate on the quality attributes of improved tamarind beverage during storage was investigated. Tamarind beverages were produced according to a previously reported improved method, with or without chemical preservatives (100 mg/100 mL sodium benzoate). Tamarind beverage produced according to traditional processing method served as the control. The tamarind beverages were stored for 4 months at room (29 ± 2°C) and refrigerated (4-10°C) temperatures. Samples were analyzed, at regular intervals, for chemical, sensory, and microbiological qualities. Appearance of coliforms or overall acceptability score of 5.9 was used as deterioration index. The control beverages deteriorated by 2nd and 10th days at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Improved tamarind beverage produced without the inclusion of sodium benzoate was stable for 3 and 5 weeks at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Sodium benzoate extended the shelf life of the improved tamarind beverage to 6 and 13 weeks, respectively, at room and refrigerated temperatures.

  16. Klassevirus 1, a previously undescribed member of the family Picornaviridae, is globally widespread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipas James M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 2 million deaths a year. While many infectious causes of diarrhea have been established, approximately 40% of all diarrhea cases are of unknown etiology. In an effort to identify novel viruses that may be causal agents of diarrhea, we used high throughput mass sequencing to analyze stool samples collected from patients with acute diarrhea. Results Sequences with limited similarity to known picornaviruses were detected in a stool sample collected in Australia from a child with acute diarrhea. Using a combination of mass sequencing, RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE, a 6383 bp fragment of the viral genome was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus was highly divergent from, but most closely related to, members of the genus Kobuvirus. We have tentatively named this novel virus klassevirus 1. We also detected klassevirus 1 by RT-PCR in a diarrhea specimen collected from a patient in St. Louis, United States as well as in untreated sewage collected in Barcelona, Spain. Conclusion Klassevirus 1 is a previously undescribed picornavirus that is globally widespread and present on at least three continents. Further investigations to determine whether klassevirus 1 is a human pathogen are needed.

  17. Is blood glucose predictable from previous values? A solicitation for data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, T; Gough, D A

    1999-03-01

    An important question about blood glucose control in diabetes is, Can present and future blood glucose values be predicted from recent blood glucose history? If this is possible, new continuous blood glucose monitoring technologies under development may lead to qualitatively better therapeutic capabilities. Not only could continuous monitoring technologies alert a user when a hypoglycemic episode or other blood glucose excursion is underway, but measurements may also provide sufficient information to predict near-future blood glucose values. A predictive capability based only on recent blood glucose history would be advantageous because there would be no need to involve models of glucose and insulin distribution, with their inherent requirement for detailed accounting of vascular glucose loads and insulin availability. Published data analyzed here indicate that blood glucose dynamics are not random, and that blood glucose values can be predicted, at least for the near future, from frequently sampled previous values. Data useful in further exploring this concept are limited, however, and an appeal is made for collection of more.

  18. Does previous presentation of verbal fluency tasks affect verb fluency performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Costa Beber

    Full Text Available Background : Performance on the verb fluency (VF task may be influenced by administration procedures and demographic factors of each population. Objective : The aim of this study was to verify whether the previous administration of semantic and phonemic verbal fluency tasks can influence performance on VF; and to analyze the correlation of VF performance with education, age and type of errors in Brazilian healthy elderly. Methods : Sixty-two participants were subdivided into experimental (semantic and the phonemic fluency tasks were administered before the VF and control groups (VF only. The total score and the types of errors on the VF task were determined. Additional information was computed for the correlational analysis. Results : VF performance did not differ statistically between experimental and control groups, but correlated positively with education and negatively with intrusions. Conclusion : The lack of influence of other verbal fluency tasks on performance of the VF task in elderly individuals allows the use of this order of administration. A strong influence of educational level on VF task performance reinforces the need for further studies in different populations.

  19. Analyzing mass perceptions of nuclear politics: Puzzling over trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Pratt, D.A.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The juxtaposition of public values, trust, and beliefs is at the core of policy-making in democratic political systems, and an accurate understanding of nuclear politics requires that researchers untangle and carefully think about the web of psychological and social influences that shape citizens' preferences. In this paper, we offer some tentative answers about several pieces of the trust open-quotes puzzleclose quotes. First, we reconsider what is meant by open-quotes trustclose quotes and how it is to be measured. We then use telephone survey data to explore the relationship between trust and citizens' nuclear policy preferences. The data lend support to the conclusion that trust is more mutable than previous research has shown, and besides the traditional measure of competence includes aspects of believability and fiduciary competence. The data further indicate that it is a mistake to think in terms of a single open-quotes publicclose quotes when exploring the link between trust and nuclear policies. A number of dissimilar open-quotes publicsclose quotes based on shared open-quotes worldviewsclose quotes or political cultures are apparent in the data analyzed here. These open-quotes publicsclose quotes appear to think about trust differently from one another and rely on different dimensions of trust when determining nuclear policy preferences. Policy-makers must recognize the different open-quotes publicsclose quotes coexisting within the U.S. nuclear policy arena, and the relative import that these publics place on different dimensions of trust

  20. Analyzing the Transparency Traditional Variables Within the Spanish Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio NAVARRO HERAS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the variables traditionally used to explain transparency in the empirical literature within the sphere of Spanish municipalities. The analysis has focused on 144 city councils with more than 50,000 inhabitants, covering 53% of the population of Spain. It consists fi rstly of an analysis of their web pages in order to explain the levels of transparency through the use of the legal conditions that currently exist in Spain and the authors own transparency index, and secondly of the verifi cation of an explicative hypothesis for each of the variables. Our fi ndings allow us to state that there are two explicative variables for municipal transparency, which are present in the majority of works previously consulted: ‘size of population’, and ‘volume of investment’. In addition to the aforementioned variables, the research has also shown that the variable ‘level of education’ of the municipality’s inhabitants is an explicative variable as regards the level of transparency, such that higher levels of education correspond to a greater degree of transparency.