WorldWideScience

Sample records for previously acquired languages

  1. Aphasia, an acquired language disorder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-11

    Oct 11, 2009 ... Affecting an estimated one in every 272 South Africans, or 0.37% of the population, aphasia is a neurological condition described as “any disturbance in the comprehension or expression of language caused by a brain lesion”. Despite extensive debate throughout the history of neuropsychology there is no ...

  2. Communicative Language Teaching enable students to acquire communicative competence

    OpenAIRE

    J.R.Nirmala; E.sugantha Ezhil Mary

    2011-01-01

    English is the language of international affairs, cultures and economic systems. It is a language of wider communication. The main aim of the learners is to acquire the target language but it can be acquired easily only if the language is made use of in our daily affairs. In order to achieve that target communicative language teaching, it focuses on the language competency of the target language .Knowledge of the structure of the language is equally important in order to learn the language.

  3. Language Aptitude: Desirable Trait or Acquirable Attribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, David

    2017-01-01

    The traditional definition of language aptitude sees it as "an individual's initial state of readiness and capacity for learning a foreign language, and probable facility in doing so given the presence of motivation and opportunity" (Carroll, 1981, p. 86). This conception portrays language aptitude as a trait, in the sense of exhibiting…

  4. Language aptitude: Desirable trait or acquirable attribute?

    OpenAIRE

    David Singleton

    2017-01-01

    The traditional definition of language aptitude sees it as “an individual’s initial state of readiness and capacity for learning a foreign language, and probable facility in doing so given the presence of motivation and opportunity” (Carroll, 1981, p. 86). This conception portrays language aptitude as a trait, in the sense of exhibiting stability over long periods of time and being immune to training. The trait view of language aptitude tends towards the notion that it is innate, and indeed l...

  5. Language aptitude: Desirable trait or acquirable attribute?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Singleton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional definition of language aptitude sees it as “an individual’s initial state of readiness and capacity for learning a foreign language, and probable facility in doing so given the presence of motivation and opportunity” (Carroll, 1981, p. 86. This conception portrays language aptitude as a trait, in the sense of exhibiting stability over long periods of time and being immune to training. The trait view of language aptitude tends towards the notion that it is innate, and indeed language aptitude has often been associated with the popular notion of a “gift for languages” (cf. Rosenthal, 1996, p. 59. The view of language aptitude as an innate trait has, however, long been questioned (see e.g., Neufeld, 1978. Recently, this questioning has intensified (see Singleton, 2014, especially since the development of a widespread consensus that working memory needs to be recognized as an important component of language aptitude (see Wen, 2016. Working memory was also once thought of as a trait, but is now recognized as susceptible to the influence of experience and instruction (see e.g., Williams, 2012. The present paper will track the trajectory of the above theoretical discussion and will explore the implications of the stage it has now reached.

  6. When words fail us: insights into language processing from developmental and acquired disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-01-01

    Acquired disorders of language represent loss of previously acquired skills, usually with relatively specific impairments. In children with developmental disorders of language, we may also see selective impairment in some skills; but in this case, the acquisition of language or literacy is affected from the outset. Because systems for processing spoken and written language change as they develop, we should beware of drawing too close a parallel between developmental and acquired disorders. Nevertheless, comparisons between the two may yield new insights. A key feature of connectionist models simulating acquired disorders is the interaction of components of language processing with each other and with other cognitive domains. This kind of model might help make sense of patterns of comorbidity in developmental disorders. Meanwhile, the study of developmental disorders emphasizes learning and change in underlying representations, allowing us to study how heterogeneity in cognitive profile may relate not just to neurobiology but also to experience. Children with persistent language difficulties pose challenges both to our efforts at intervention and to theories of learning of written and spoken language. Future attention to learning in individuals with developmental and acquired disorders could be of both theoretical and applied value.

  7. Acquiring Second Language Vocabulary through Reading: A Replication of the Clockwork Orange Study Using Second Language Acquirers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Adult second language acquirers were asked to read the first two chapters of "A Clockwork Orange," a novel containing a number of slang words of Russian origin. Subsequent testing revealed modest but significant incidental acquisition of nadsat words. (Author/VWL)

  8. Telerehabilitation, Virtual Therapists, and Acquired Neurologic Speech and Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R.; van Vuuren, Sarel

    2013-01-01

    Telerehabilitation (telererehab) offers cost effective services that potentially can improve access to care for those with acquired neurologic communication disorders. However, regulatory issues including licensure, reimbursement, and threats to privacy and confidentiality hinder the routine implementation of telerehab services into the clinical setting. Despite these barriers, rapid technological advances and a growing body of research regarding the use of telerehab applications support its use. This article reviews the evidence related to acquired neurologic speech and language disorders in adults, focusing on studies that have been published since 2000. Research studies have used telerehab systems to assess and treat disorders including dysarthria, apraxia of speech, aphasia, and mild Alzheimer’s disease. They show that telerehab is a valid and reliable vehicle for delivering speech and language services. The studies represent a progression of technological advances in computing, Internet, and mobile technologies. They range on a continuum from working synchronously (in real-time) with a speech-language pathologist to working asynchronously (offline) with a stand-in virtual therapist. One such system that uses a virtual therapist for the treatment of aphasia, the Web-ORLA™ (Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL) system, is described in detail. Future directions for the advancement of telerehab for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22851346

  9. Predictors of Successful Learning in Multilingual Older Adults Acquiring a Majority Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike K. Blumenfeld

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding language learning in later life can elucidate how linguistic experiences and age-specific cognitive skills can be leveraged for language acquisition, providing insight into how lifelong experiences configure our learning capacity. In this study, we examined to what extent acquisition and maintenance of a non-native language (English is scaffolded by cognitive skills and previous linguistic experiences in older adults; and to what extent these cognitive/linguistic factors predict older learners’ success in acquiring novel functional language. We recruited 53 participants who were native speakers of Mandarin, Spanish, Tagalog, and Somali, had continued to learn English as adults, and were currently exposed to majority-English contexts. To identify contributors to participants’ English skills, we administered a language history and self-reported proficiency interview, brief cognitive testing, and verbal fluency tasks in L1 and English. We found that digit span and orientation measures were cognitive predictors of English proficiency, while similarity of known languages to English, L1 skills, and English language exposure were linguistic predictors of English skills. To examine participants’ ability to maintain language knowledge and to learn new functional English, we also conducted a preliminary longitudinal service-based study in a subset of 19 participants using our Specific-Purpose English Communication System for Seniors (SPECSS curriculum. In this subset of SPECSS learners, we identified digit span and orientation, but not age, as cognitive predictors of short-term language maintenance. Further, better novel English learning as a result of our curriculum was observed in learners whose other known languages were less similar to English. Findings inform best practices in developing language curricula for older adults, and help generate new hypotheses on preparedness for language learning across the adult lifespan with a

  10. Science As A Second Language: Acquiring Fluency through Science Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, R.; EcoVoices Expedition Team

    2013-05-01

    Science Enterprises are problems that students genuinely want to solve, questions that students genuinely want to answer, that naturally entail reading, writing, investigation, and discussion. Engaging students in personally-relevant science enterprises provides both a diagnostic opportunity and a context for providing students the comprehensible input they need. We can differentiate instruction by creating science enterprise zones that are set up for the incremental increase in challenge for the students. Comprehensible input makes reachable, those just-out-of-reach concepts in the mix of the familiar and the new. EcoVoices takes students on field research expeditions within an urban natural area, the San Gabriel River Discovery Center. This project engages students in science enterprises focused on understanding ecosystems, ecosystem services, and the dynamics of climate change. A sister program, EcoVoces, has been launched in Mexico, in collaboration with the Universidad Loyola del Pacífico. 1) The ED3U Science Inquiry Model, a learning cycle model that accounts for conceptual change: Explore { Diagnose, Design, Discuss } Use. 2) The ¿NQUIRY Wheel, a compass of scientific inquiry strategies; 3) Inquiry Science Expeditions, a way of laying out a science learning environment, emulating a field and lab research collaboratory; 4) The Science Educative Experience Scale, a diagnostic measure of the quality of the science learning experience; and 5) Mimedia de la Ciencia, participatory enactment of science concepts using techniques of mime and improvisational theater. BACKGROUND: Science has become a vehicle for teaching reading, writing, and other communication skills, across the curriculum. This new emphasis creates renewed motivation for Scientists and Science Educators to work collaboratively to explore the common ground between acquiring science understanding and language acquisition theory. Language Acquisition is an informal process that occurs in the midst of

  11. TIPS Placement in Swine, Guided by Electromagnetic Real-Time Needle Tip Localization Displayed on Previously Acquired 3-D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Stephen B.; Magee, Carolyn; Acker, David E.; Venbrux, Anthony C.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of guiding a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure with an electromagnetic real-time needle tip position sensor coupled to previously acquired 3-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: An electromagnetic position sensor was placed at the tip of a Colapinto needle. The real-time position and orientation of the needle tip was then displayed on previously acquired 3-D CT images which were registered with the five swine. Portal vein puncture was then attempted in all animals. Results: The computer calculated accuracy of the position sensor was on average 3 mm. Four of five portal vein punctures were successful. In the successes, only one or two attempts were necessary and success was achieved in minutes. Conclusion: A real-time position sensor attached to the tip of a Colapinto needle and coupled to previously acquired 3-D CT images may potentially aid in entering the portal vein during the TIPS procedure

  12. Language and alexithymia: Evidence for the role of the inferior frontal gyrus in acquired alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Hannah; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Brewer, Rebecca; Catmur, Caroline; Gordon, Barry; Krueger, Frank; Chau, Aileen; Bird, Geoffrey; Grafman, Jordan

    2018-03-01

    The clinical relevance of alexithymia, a condition associated with difficulties identifying and describing one's own emotion, is becoming ever more apparent. Increased rates of alexithymia are observed in multiple psychiatric conditions, and also in neurological conditions resulting from both organic and traumatic brain injury. The presence of alexithymia in these conditions predicts poorer regulation of one's emotions, decreased treatment response, and increased burden on carers. While clinically important, the aetiology of alexithymia is still a matter of debate, with several authors arguing for multiple 'routes' to impaired understanding of one's own emotions, which may or may not result in distinct subtypes of alexithymia. While previous studies support the role of impaired interoception (perceiving bodily states) in the development of alexithymia, the current study assessed whether acquired language impairment following traumatic brain injury, and damage to language regions, may also be associated with an increased risk of alexithymia. Within a sample of 129 participants with penetrating brain injury and 33 healthy controls, neuropsychological testing revealed that deficits in a non-emotional language task, object naming, were associated with alexithymia, specifically with difficulty identifying one's own emotions. Both region-of-interest and whole-brain lesion analyses revealed that damage to language regions in the inferior frontal gyrus was associated with the presence of both this language impairment and alexithymia. These results are consistent with a framework for acquired alexithymia that incorporates both interoceptive and language processes, and support the idea that brain injury may result in alexithymia via impairment in any one of a number of more basic processes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Psychogenic stuttering and other acquired nonorganic speech and language abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Laurence M; Spector, Jack; Youngjohn, James R

    2012-08-01

    Three cases are presented of peculiar speech and language abnormalities that were evaluated in the context of personal injury lawsuit or workers compensation claims of brain dysfunction after mild traumatic brain injuries. Neuropsychological measures of effort and motivation showed evidence of suboptimal motivation or outright malingering. The speech and language abnormalities of these cases probably were not consistent with neurogenic features of dysfluent speech including stuttering or aphasia. We propose that severe dysfluency or language abnormalities persisting after a single, uncomplicated, mild traumatic brain injury are unusual and should elicit suspicion of a psychogenic origin.

  14. AGRAMMATISM AS A ISOLATION FORM OF THE ACQUIRED LANGUAGE DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mile VUKOVIKJ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old right-handed women with suddenly disorder of verbal communication, accompanied by depression and impairment of memory has been presented. The results of language function examination have shown agrammatism, nonfluent and dysprosodic speech. Besides, the patient had memory and problem solving deficits.

  15. Acquiring English as a second language via print: the task for deaf children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeister, Robert J; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L

    2014-08-01

    Only a minority of profoundly deaf children read at age-level. We contend this reflects cognitive and linguistic impediments from lack of exposure to a natural language in early childhood, as well as the inherent difficulty of learning English only through the written modality. Yet some deaf children do acquire English via print. The current paper describes a theoretical model of how children could, in principle, acquire a language via reading and writing. The model describes stages of learning which represent successive, conceptual insights necessary for second/foreign language learning via print. Our model highlights the logical difficulties present when one cannot practice a language outside of reading/writing, such as the necessity of translating to a first language, the need for explicit instruction, and difficulty that many deaf children experience in understanding figurative language. Our model explains why learning to read is often a protracted process for deaf children and why many fail to make progress after some initial success. Because language acquisition is thought to require social interaction, with meaning cued by extralinguistic context, the ability of some deaf individuals to acquire language through print represents an overlooked human achievement worthy of greater attention by cognitive scientists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Community-acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa-pneumonia in a previously healthy man occupationally exposed to metalworking fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is well known and frequently found in hospitals and nursing care facilities, many cases are also reported outside these boundaries. In general, this pathogen infects debilitated patients either by comorbidities or by any form of immunodeficiency. In cases of respiratory infection, tobacco abuse seems to play an important role as a risk factor. In previously healthy patients, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP with P. aeruginosa as the etiological agent is extremely rare, and unlike the cases involving immunocompromised or hospitalized patients, the outcome is severe, and is fatal in up to 61.1% of cases. Aerosolized contaminated water or solutions are closely linked to the development of respiratory tract infection. In this setting, metalworking fluids used in factories may be implicated in CAP involving previously healthy people. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man who worked in a metalworking factory and presented a right upper lobar pneumonia with a rapid fatal outcome. P. aeruginosa was cultured from blood and tracheal aspirates. The autopsy findings confirmed a hemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia with bacteria-invading vasculitis and thrombosis. A culture of the metalworking fluid of the factory was also positive for P. aeruginosa. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that both strains (blood culture and metalworking fluid were genetically indistinguishable. The authors highlight the occupational risk for the development of this P. aeruginosa-infection in healthy people.

  17. The Onset and Mastery of Spatial Language in Children Acquiring British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gary; Herman, Rosalind; Barriere, Isabelle; Woll, Bencie

    2008-01-01

    In the course of language development children must solve arbitrary form-to-meaning mappings, in which semantic components are encoded onto linguistic labels. Because sign languages describe motion and location of entities through iconic movements and placement of the hands in space, child signers may find spatial semantics-to-language mapping…

  18. Children creating language: how Nicaraguan sign language acquired a spatial grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghas, A; Coppola, M

    2001-07-01

    It has long been postulated that language is not purely learned, but arises from an interaction between environmental exposure and innate abilities. The innate component becomes more evident in rare situations in which the environment is markedly impoverished. The present study investigated the language production of a generation of deaf Nicaraguans who had not been exposed to a developed language. We examined the changing use of early linguistic structures (specifically, spatial modulations) in a sign language that has emerged since the Nicaraguan group first came together: In tinder two decades, sequential cohorts of learners systematized the grammar of this new sign language. We examined whether the systematicity being added to the language stems from children or adults: our results indicate that such changes originate in children aged 10 and younger Thus, sequential cohorts of interacting young children collectively: possess the capacity not only to learn, but also to create, language.

  19. Speech perception and reading: two parallel modes of understanding language and implications for acquiring literacy naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Dominic W

    2012-01-01

    I review 2 seminal research reports published in this journal during its second decade more than a century ago. Given psychology's subdisciplines, they would not normally be reviewed together because one involves reading and the other speech perception. The small amount of interaction between these domains might have limited research and theoretical progress. In fact, the 2 early research reports revealed common processes involved in these 2 forms of language processing. Their illustration of the role of Wundt's apperceptive process in reading and speech perception anticipated descriptions of contemporary theories of pattern recognition, such as the fuzzy logical model of perception. Based on the commonalities between reading and listening, one can question why they have been viewed so differently. It is commonly believed that learning to read requires formal instruction and schooling, whereas spoken language is acquired from birth onward through natural interactions with people who talk. Most researchers and educators believe that spoken language is acquired naturally from birth onward and even prenatally. Learning to read, on the other hand, is not possible until the child has acquired spoken language, reaches school age, and receives formal instruction. If an appropriate form of written text is made available early in a child's life, however, the current hypothesis is that reading will also be learned inductively and emerge naturally, with no significant negative consequences. If this proposal is true, it should soon be possible to create an interactive system, Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, to allow children to acquire literacy naturally.

  20. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  1. Evolution of language assessment in patients with acquired neurological disorders in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe the evolution of language assessments in patients with acquired neurological diseases over a period of around 45 years from 1970, when interdisciplinarity in Neuropsychology first began in Brazil, to the present day. The first twenty years of data was based on memories of Speech Pathology University Professors who were in charge of teaching aphasia. We then show the contributions of Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology, as well as Psycholinguistic and Psychometric criteria, to language evaluation. Finally, the current panorama of adaptations and creations of validated and standardized instruments is given, based on a search of the databases Pubmed, Scopus and Lilacs. Our closing remarks highlight the diversity in evaluation approaches and the recent tendency of language evaluations linked to new technologies such as brain imaging and computational analysis.

  2. Evolution of language assessment in patients with acquired neurological disorders in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; Baradel, Roberta Roque; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Pereira, Natalie; Carthery-Goulart, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to describe the evolution of language assessments in patients with acquired neurological diseases over a period of around 45 years from 1970, when interdisciplinarity in Neuropsychology first began in Brazil, to the present day. The first twenty years of data was based on memories of Speech Pathology University Professors who were in charge of teaching aphasia. We then show the contributions of Linguistics, Cognitive Psychology, as well as Psycholinguistic and Psychometric criteria, to language evaluation. Finally, the current panorama of adaptations and creations of validated and standardized instruments is given, based on a search of the databases Pubmed, Scopus and Lilacs. Our closing remarks highlight the diversity in evaluation approaches and the recent tendency of language evaluations linked to new technologies such as brain imaging and computational analysis.

  3. Speech and language therapists' views about AAC system acceptance by people with acquired communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampoulou, Eliada

    2018-04-18

    Some adults with acquired communication disorders are faced with an inability to communicate coherently through verbal speech with their communication partners. Despite the fact that a variety of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) aided systems is available to assist them in communicating, not all adults accept them. In Cyprus, there is scant research focusing on the factors that are linked to AAC system acceptance and abandonment. To address this gap, this research involves exploring the experiences of six speech and language therapists supporting adults with acquired communication disorders, who could benefit from the use of AAC systems. The main research question is: What are the factors that influence AAC system acceptance or abandonment? The method used for data collection, was semi-structured interviews and the transcripts were analyzed thematically. The findings show that a number of factors influence the acceptance of AAC systems. These include the time since onset and acceptance of disability, the person's attitude towards communication facilitators, and the perceptions about AAC systems. These findings indicate that the process of accepting an AAC system is multi-layered and these layers are interrelated. More research is warranted focusing directly on the experiences of people with acquired communication disorders and their communication partners. Implications for Rehabilitation The different myths about AAC systems need to be challenged such that awareness about their usefulness is raised. AAC specialists need to find ways to spread the message that AAC systems can actually support language, speech and communication through different dissemination avenues, such as articles in newspapers and talks through the media.

  4. Acquiring variation in an artificial language: Children and adults are sensitive to socially conditioned linguistic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Anna; Smith, Kenny; Brown, Helen; Wonnacott, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    Languages exhibit sociolinguistic variation, such that adult native speakers condition the usage of linguistic variants on social context, gender, and ethnicity, among other cues. While the existence of this kind of socially conditioned variation is well-established, less is known about how it is acquired. Studies of naturalistic language use by children provide various examples where children's production of sociolinguistic variants appears to be conditioned on similar factors to adults' production, but it is difficult to determine whether this reflects knowledge of sociolinguistic conditioning or systematic differences in the input to children from different social groups. Furthermore, artificial language learning experiments have shown that children have a tendency to eliminate variation, a process which could potentially work against their acquisition of sociolinguistic variation. The current study used a semi-artificial language learning paradigm to investigate learning of the sociolinguistic cue of speaker identity in 6-year-olds and adults. Participants were trained and tested on an artificial language where nouns were obligatorily followed by one of two meaningless particles and were produced by one of two speakers (one male, one female). Particle usage was conditioned deterministically on speaker identity (Experiment 1), probabilistically (Experiment 2), or not at all (Experiment 3). Participants were given tests of production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2, both children and adults successfully acquired the speaker identity cue, although the effect was stronger for adults and in Experiment 1. In addition, in all three experiments, there was evidence of regularization in participants' productions, although the type of regularization differed with age: children showed regularization by boosting the frequency of one particle at the expense of the other, while adults regularized by conditioning particle usage on lexical items. Overall, results

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL FACTORS OF STUDENT SELF-STUDY ORGANIZATION ON ACQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Zadorozhna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and pedagogical prerequisites of student self-study organization on acquiring foreign language communicative competence have been defined and characterized. It has been proved that self-study effectiveness depends on self-regulation and motivation. The latter is amplified by creating a situation of development, modelling personally meaningful learning context aimed at creating a real product; collaborative learning, incorporating modern technologies, using problematic tasks, regular feedback, professionally-oriented learning. On the basis of scientific literature analysis it has been concluded that self-regulation of future foreign language teachers has the following structure: defining objectives, modelling meaningful conditions, action programming, results evaluation, program correction. Ways of developing self-control, self-evaluation and self-correction have been analyzed in the article. Pedagogical preconditions of effective self-study are the following: student knowledge of efficient methods and procedures of foreign language learning; selection of procedures and strategies adequate to the defined goals; an appropriate level of student information culture; ability to manage time and control results; timely correction on the basis of current control and self-control.

  6. Categorical phonotactic knowledge filters second language input, but probabilistic phonotactic knowledge can still be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Tomas O; Kager, René W J

    2015-09-01

    Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabilistic phonotactics is potentially blocked for L2 acquisition. The facilitatory effects of L2 probabilistic phonotactics and categorical filtering effects of L1 phonotactics were compared and contrasted in a series of cross-modal priming experiments. Dutch native listeners and L1 Spanish and Japanese learners of Dutch had to perform a lexical decision task on Dutch words that started with /sC/ clusters that were of different degrees of probabilistic wellformedness in Dutch but illegal in Spanish and Japanese. Versions of target words with Spanish illegality resolving epenthesis in the clusters primed the Spanish group, showing an L1 filter; a similar effect was not found for the Japanese group. In addition, words with wellformed /sC/ clusters were recognised faster, showing a positive effect on processing of probabilistic wellformedness. However, Spanish learners with higher proficiency were facilitated to a greater extent by wellformed but epenthesised clusters, showing that although probabilistic learning occurs in spite of the L1 filter, the acquired probabilistic knowledge is still affected by L1 categorical knowledge. Categorical phonotactic and probabilistic knowledge are of a different nature and interact in acquisition.

  7. Acquired Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography: An Analysis of Acquired Disorders of Reading in the Slovak Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Hricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first reports of phonological, surface and deep dyslexia come from orthographies containing quasi-regular mappings between orthography and phonology including English and French. Slovakian is a language with a relatively transparent orthography and hence a mostly regular script. The aim of this study was to investigate impaired oral reading in Slovakian. A novel diagnostic procedure was devised to determine whether disorders of Slovakian reading resemble characteristics in other languages. Slovakian speaking aphasics showed symptoms similar to phonological dyslexia and deep dyslexia in English and French, but there was no evidence of surface dyslexia. The findings are discussed in terms of the orthographic depth hypothesis.

  8. SYSTEM OF EXERCISES FOR ACQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE MEDIA COMPETENCE BY FUTURE JOURNALISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Палієнко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article propounds a communicative and cognitive methodological framework of developing an foreign language media competence of the students majoring in journalism. The media competence as an integrative quality is defined and its main constituents are characterized. The definition of a media text as a specialized speech meadi product is specificated. The role of practical operations in acquiring media competence are inicated. They are revealed while accomplishing cognitive and communicative tasks posed in relevant exercises. The appropriate requirements to these exercises are examined and its correlates are exposed.  Exercises included in the system are explored, justified and illustrated with examples. It is established that the designed system of exercises comprises cognitive and communicative exercises of receptive, reproductive and productive character. Congruous mental operations implemented in such exercises and relevant principles of processing media information are specified.

  9. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

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    Cruz Manuel Márquez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik’s Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students’ acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in different practices has made students understand, at a basic level, the functioning of this language.

  10. Relationship between the change of language symptoms and the change of regional cerebral blood flow in the recovery process of two children with acquired aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Junko; Uno, Akira; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Yoshiya; Hamano, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the change of language symptoms and the change of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the recovery process of two children with acquired aphasia caused by infarctions from Moyamoya disease with an onset age of 8years. We compared the results for the Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA) with rCBF changes in 7 language regions in the left hemisphere and their homologous regions in the right hemisphere at 4 time points from 3weeks for up to 5years after the onset of aphasia, while controlling for the effect of age. In both cases, strong correlations were seen within a hemisphere between adjacent regions or regions that are connected by neuronal fibers, and between some language regions in the left hemisphere and their homologous regions in the right hemisphere. Conversely, there were differences between the two cases in the time course of rCBF changes during their recovery process. Consistent with previous studies, the current study suggested that both hemispheres were involved in the long-term recovery of language symptoms in children with acquired aphasia. We suggest that the differences between both cases during their recovery process might be influenced by the brain states before aphasia, by which hemisphere was affected, and by the timing of the surgical revascularization procedure. However, the changes were observed in the data obtained for rCBF with strong correlations with the changes in language performance, so it is possible that rCBF could be used as a biomarker for language symptom changes. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish : Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition

  12. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  13. Purulent pericarditis secondary to community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in previously healthy children. A sign of the times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutmer, Jeffrey E; Yates, Andrew R; Bannerman, Tammy L; Marcon, Mario J; Karsies, Todd J

    2013-06-01

    Purulent pericarditis secondary to community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a potentially lethal infection that has yet to be described in the pediatric population. Only four cases of purulent pericarditis secondary to CA-MRSA have been described in the English literature, all of whom were adults. We report on the first two pediatric cases of purulent pericarditis secondary to CA-MRSA to increase awareness of this potentially fatal condition. Clinical data were obtained from an 8-year-old male patient and a 7-month-old female patient, both previously healthy, who presented to our hospital for treatment of severe shock and multiorgan failure. Literature review was performed using MEDLINE and Cochrane databases. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to confirm the organism type. Our previously healthy patients presented with refractory shock and were found to have purulent pericarditis with tamponade secondary to CA-MRSA. Both patients required emergent pericardiocentesis and surgical pericardial debridement. Isolates from both patients were found to be MRSA USA type 300, a common type of CA-MRSA that has become the most frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections in the United States. Purulent pericarditis survival hinges upon early empiric antibiotic therapy targeting resistant Staphylococcus, rapid diagnostic efforts, and expeditious pericardial drainage when diagnosed. An aggressive multidisciplinary approach provided for complete recovery in both cases, and both children were discharged with normal cardiac function. These two cases emphasize the need for consideration of CA-MRSA presenting with purulent pericarditis as an etiology for refractory shock.

  14. Acquiring Literacy in a Second Language: The Effect of Book-Based Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elley, Warwick B.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines empirical studies of the effects of "book floods" on elementary school students' acquisition of a second language, indicating that exposure to an extensive range of high-interest illustrated story books encourages children to read and learn the target language more quickly, as well as develop positive attitudes toward books. (38…

  15. PECULIAIRITY OF ACQUIRING LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS OF THE FORESTRY ENGINEERING FIELD OF STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Hrydzhuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of linguistic identity has been revealed and its components have been described. Pedagogical conditions and the strategy for the development of language and communication competence of students of the Forestry Engineering Field of Study have been specified. The targets of these strategies such as learner oriented learning, cognitive and communicative methods of teaching the language in higher school, competency, cultural aspects, content and technology of training students, modern technology for language learning in different educational institutions, and also the ways of communicative competence have been defined. The leading approaches for the implementation of cognitive training methods of language such as socio-cultural, communicative and active, functional and stylistic, competence, personality- and professionally oriented have been described.

  16. DIVERSITY, EXCLUSION AND RISK, AS SECOND-LANGUAGE LEARNERS OF IMMIGRANT PARENTS ACQUIRE FIRST-TIME LITERACY IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Snelgar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that acquisition of literacy skills and the ultimate realisation of literacy, which involves comprehension of the written text, require more than the ability to decode individual words. This study provides a synopsis of current research on the topics of globalisation, the resultant cultural incompatibility in the classroom, emergent literacy, vocabulary development, reading, and reading comprehension. As such, it offers a discussion of a comparative study of limited English-proficient (LEP/English language learners (ELLs acquiring first-time literacy, with the attendant vocabulary deficits and lack of age-appropriate decoding skills. Quantitative and qualitative approaches were combined to examine the differences between reading skills, comprehension, and vocabulary when a learner born of foreign parents acquires first-time literacy in a language other than his or her home language. Statistical techniques were used to analyse and interpret the research results. Analysis of the study results isolates and specifies an at-risk educational minority through the identification of a hidden comprehension deficit (HCD.

  17. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...

  18. Acquiring a Variable Structure: An Interlanguage Analysis of Second Language Mood Use in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmestad, Aarnes

    2012-01-01

    This investigation connects issues in second language (L2) acquisition to topics in quantitative sociolinguistics by exploring the relationship between native-speaker (NS) and L2 variation. It is the first large-scale analysis of L2 mood use (the subjunctive-indicative contrast) in Spanish. It applies variationist findings on the range of…

  19. Acquiring Word Class Distinctions in American Sign Language: Evidence from Handshape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentari, Diane; Coppola, Marie; Jung, Ashley; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Handshape works differently in nouns versus a class of verbs in American Sign Language (ASL) and thus can serve as a cue to distinguish between these two word classes. Handshapes representing characteristics of the object itself ("object" handshapes) and handshapes representing how the object is handled ("handling" handshapes)…

  20. "… Trial and error …": Speech-language pathologists' perspectives of working with Indigenous Australian adults with acquired communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Frances Clare; Brown, Louise; Siyambalapitiya, Samantha; Plant, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    This study explored speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perspectives about factors that influence clinical management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with acquired communication disorders (e.g. aphasia, motor speech disorders). Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, seven SLPs working in North Queensland, Australia with experience working with this population participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify categories and overarching themes within the data. Four categories, in relation to barriers and facilitators, were identified from participants' responses: (1) The Practice Context; (2) Working Together; (3) Client Factors; and (4) Speech-Language Pathologist Factors. Three overarching themes were also found to influence effective speech pathology services: (1) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Practices; (2) Information and Communication; and (3) Time. This study identified many complex and inter-related factors which influenced SLPs' effective clinical management of this caseload. The findings suggest that SLPs should employ a flexible, holistic and collaborative approach in order to facilitate effective clinical management with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with acquired communication disorders.

  1. A Neuropsychological Perspective on Abstract Word Representation: From Theory to Treatment of Acquired Language Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, Richard J; Zuckerman, Bonnie; Reilly, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    Natural languages are rife with words that describe feelings, introspective states, and social constructs (e.g., liberty, persuasion) that cannot be directly observed through the senses. Effective communication demands linguistic competence with such abstract words. In clinical neurological settings, abstract words are especially vulnerable to the effects of stroke and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. A parallel literature in cognitive neuroscience suggests that abstract and concrete words are at least partially neuroanatomically dissociable. Much remains to be learned about the nature of lexical-semantic deficits of abstract words and how best to promote their recovery. Here, we review contemporary theoretical approaches to abstract-concrete word representation with an aim toward contextualizing patient-based dissociations for abstract words. We then describe a burgeoning treatment approach for targeting abstract words and suggest a number of potential strategies for future interventions. We argue that a deeper understanding of is essential for informing language rehabilitation.

  2. Speech and language therapy intervention with a group of persistent and prolific young offenders in a non-custodial setting with previously undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Juliette; Bryan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children with behaviour and school problems (related to both academic achievement and social participation) are recognized as having undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties. Both speech, language and communication difficulties and school failure are risk factors for offending. To investigate the prevalence of speech, language and communication difficulties in a group of persistent and prolific young offenders sentenced to the Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programme (ISSP), and to provide a preliminary evaluation of the impact of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention. Seventy-two entrants to ISSP over 12 months were screened by the speech and language therapist. Those showing difficulties then had a detailed language assessment followed by intervention delivered jointly by the speech and language therapist and the youth offending team staff. Reassessment occurred at programme completion. A total of 65% of those screened had profiles indicating that they had language difficulties and might benefit from speech and language therapy intervention. As a cohort, their language skills were lower than those of the general population, and 20% scored at the 'severely delayed' level on standardized assessment. This is the first study of speech and language therapy within community services for young offenders, and is the first to demonstrate language improvement detectable on standardized language tests. However, further research is needed to determine the precise role of speech and language therapy within the intervention programme. Children and young people with behavioural or school difficulties coming into contact with criminal justice, mental health, psychiatric, and social care services need to be systematically assessed for undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties. Appropriate interventions can then enable the young person to engage with verbally mediated interventions. © 2011 Royal College

  3. Acquiring Foreign Language Vocabulary Through Meaningful Linguistic Context: Where is the Limit to Vocabulary Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Bernardo; Harris, Richard Jackson

    2017-04-01

    The present studies examined the effects of varying degrees of unfamiliar vocabulary within written discourse on individuals' abilities to use linguistic context for the purposes of translation and comprehension (i.e., lexical inferencing). Prose varied in the number of foreign words introduced into each sentence (e.g., 0 through 7 content words per sentence). Furthermore, Krashen's Input Hypothesis and the Evaluation component of the Involvement Load Hypothesis were tested to determine the degree at which non-comprehensible input hinders the ability of a learner to successfully use linguistic context for translation and comprehension. Results indicated that, as the number of foreign words per sentence, i.e., non-comprehensible input, increased the ability to successfully translate foreign words and create situational models for comprehension begins to decrease especially beyond five unfamiliar words per sentence. This result suggests that there is an optimal level of effectiveness in the use of a linguistic context strategy for learning foreign language vocabulary, but also that there is a limit to the strategy's effectiveness. Implications and applications to the field of foreign language learning are discussed.

  4. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring surface protein family from B. burgdorferi, has been solved, providing insights into the strategies of complement evasion by this zoonotic bacterium and suggesting a common architecture for other members of this protein family. Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts

  5. Asynchronous telemedicine applications in rehabilitation of acquired speech-language disorders in neurologic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beijer L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lilian Beijer,1 Toni Rietveld2 1Sint Maartenskliniek, 2Centre of Language Studies, Radboud University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Abstract: In this time of an aging population in the Western world and a concomitant need for cost reduction, there is an obvious need for innovative health care delivery. One of the consequences is that a growing number of telemedicine applications are emerging in different health care domains. Also in the area of speech-language (SL disorders, particularly neurogenic disorders, telemedicine is rapidly gaining interest. In this paper, we place applications for neurogenic SL disorders in a telemedicine taxonomy in order to establish common features along the dimensions of functionality, application, and technology, and their components. Thus, we aim at identifying common features in a wide variety of telemedicine applications and to establish common interests of stakeholders in health care for classified groups of telemedicine applications. This may facilitate decision-making with regard to expansion of innovative products, and give directions to measures needed for upscaling and structural embedding of feasible and effective SL telemedicine applications in health care. Common interests of stakeholders in health care, established using telemedicine taxonomy, is a key factor in decision-making with regard to which telemedicine applications should be given priority for genuine utilization. Priorities of health care institutions, patients, and reimbursement companies are also leading for researchers aiming at solid scientific evidence for the beneficial effects of target applications. That is, although research results tend to indicate the potential of telemedicine in the area of SL pathology, the alleged benefits of most applications have not been confirmed according to the accepted standards for clinical outcome testing as yet. Methodologic obstacles and the lack of adequate speech materials and suitable

  6. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish: Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    OpenAIRE

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  7. Case against Diagnosing Developmental Language Disorder by Default: A Single Case Study of Acquired Aphasia Associated with Convulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinac, Julie V.; Harper, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inform the diagnostic knowledge base for professionals working in the field of language disorders when classic symptoms, characteristics and sequences are not found. The information reveals the risk of diagnosis with a developmental language disorder (DLD) by default when no underlying cause can be readily identified.…

  8. Qualitative Study of the Therapeutic Relationship in Speech and Language Therapy: Perspectives of Adults with Acquired Communication and Swallowing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Considerations of the negotiated therapeutic relationship in speech and language therapy are somewhat scarce, with specific therapeutic factors generally framed from psycholinguistic, behavioural, or neurological perspectives. Aims: To explore the therapeutic relationship in speech and language therapy, focusing on the personal…

  9. Making sense of syntax – Innate or acquired? Contrasting universal grammar with other approaches to language acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kliesch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of a Universal Grammar argue that humans are born with a dedicated language system that shapes and restricts the number of grammars found in human languages (Chomsky, 2005. It is essentially innate and has a genetic manifestation. Such an innate system is necessary because human grammars are too complex to be passed on through social interactions and probabilistic learning alone. However, this view is contested by a combination of emergentist approaches and a number of studies suggest that many of the core assumptions of Universal Grammar are either unnecessary or do not hold. Furthermore, this review will explore theoretical criticism of the Universal Grammar research programme.

  10. Acquiring Interactional Competence in a Study Abroad Context: Japanese Language Learners' Use of the Interactional Particle "ne"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the development of interactional competence (Hall, 1993, 1995) by English-speaking learners of Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) in a study abroad setting, as indexed by their use of the interactionally significant particle "ne." The analysis is based on a comparison of (a) 6 sets of conversations between JFL learners and…

  11. BECLA, a new assessment battery for acquired deficits of language: Normative data from Quebec-French healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoir, Joël; Gauthier, Caroline; Jean, Catherine; Potvin, Olivier

    2016-02-15

    Compared to English, for which there exist numerous tests and batteries for the assessment of acquired deficits of language, the tools available to assess French-speaking individuals are much more limited. The Batterie d'Évaluation Cognitive du Langage (BECLA) was purposely developed to fulfill the need for French assessment tools based on theoretical models of cognitive psychology. It comprises 19 tasks, designed to assess each of the components and routes involved in single word processing in order to identify the functional locus/loci of impairment. In this article, we describe the BECLA and we present normative data for individuals 18-94 years of age (N=248). The sample was stratified by age, gender, and years of education, according to the Institut de la statistique du Québec, in order to be representative of the French-Quebec population. Percentile scores were provided for each BECLA task in order to show the relative rank of each raw score according to significant correlates. The BECLA is a new clinical, theoretically based assessment battery, useful for identifying and characterizing acquired deficits of language in younger and older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Acquired amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Camilla N; Golden, Hannah L; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the cognitive neuroscience of music suggest that a further review of the topic of amusia is timely. In this chapter, we first consider previous taxonomies of amusia and propose a fresh framework for understanding the amusias, essentially as disorders of cognitive information processing. We critically review current cognitive and neuroanatomic findings in the published literature on amusia. We assess the extent to which the clinical and neuropsychologic evidence in amusia can be reconciled; both with the information-processing framework we propose, and with the picture of the brain organization of music and language processing emerging from cognitive neuroscience and functional neuroimaging studies. The balance of evidence suggests that the amusias can be understood as disorders of musical object cognition targeting separable levels of an information-processing hierarchy and underpinned by specific brain network dysfunction. The neuroanatomic associations of the amusias show substantial overlap with brain networks that process speech; however, this convergence leaves scope for separable brain mechanisms based on altered connectivity and dynamics across culprit networks. The study of the amusias contributes to an increasingly complex picture of the musical brain that transcends any simple dichotomy between music and speech or other complex sounds. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of Julia Donaldson’s storybooks as an incentive to actively acquire foreign language in the 1st grade of primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Stošič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Learning foreign languages in early childhood is very specific, therefore, teaching must take place according to certain principles. The acquisition of a foreign language should happen through games and movement activities. Moreover, the purpose of learning and teaching a foreign language in the first grade is also to encourage a positive attitude towards other languages. Storybooks are classified as basic teaching means or materials and storytelling is a traditional, tested (from folk litera...

  14. Language and Cognition Interaction Neural Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available How language and cognition interact in thinking? Is language just used for communication of completed thoughts, or is it fundamental for thinking? Existing approaches have not led to a computational theory. We develop a hypothesis that language and cognition are two separate but closely interacting mechanisms. Language accumulates cultural wisdom; cognition develops mental representations modeling surrounding world and adapts cultural knowledge to concrete circumstances of life. Language is acquired from surrounding language “ready-made” and therefore can be acquired early in life. This early acquisition of language in childhood encompasses the entire hierarchy from sounds to words, to phrases, and to highest concepts existing in culture. Cognition is developed from experience. Yet cognition cannot be acquired from experience alone; language is a necessary intermediary, a “teacher.” A mathematical model is developed; it overcomes previous difficulties and leads to a computational theory. This model is consistent with Arbib's “language prewired brain” built on top of mirror neuron system. It models recent neuroimaging data about cognition, remaining unnoticed by other theories. A number of properties of language and cognition are explained, which previously seemed mysterious, including influence of language grammar on cultural evolution, which may explain specifics of English and Arabic cultures.

  15. Language and cognition interaction neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    How language and cognition interact in thinking? Is language just used for communication of completed thoughts, or is it fundamental for thinking? Existing approaches have not led to a computational theory. We develop a hypothesis that language and cognition are two separate but closely interacting mechanisms. Language accumulates cultural wisdom; cognition develops mental representations modeling surrounding world and adapts cultural knowledge to concrete circumstances of life. Language is acquired from surrounding language "ready-made" and therefore can be acquired early in life. This early acquisition of language in childhood encompasses the entire hierarchy from sounds to words, to phrases, and to highest concepts existing in culture. Cognition is developed from experience. Yet cognition cannot be acquired from experience alone; language is a necessary intermediary, a "teacher." A mathematical model is developed; it overcomes previous difficulties and leads to a computational theory. This model is consistent with Arbib's "language prewired brain" built on top of mirror neuron system. It models recent neuroimaging data about cognition, remaining unnoticed by other theories. A number of properties of language and cognition are explained, which previously seemed mysterious, including influence of language grammar on cultural evolution, which may explain specifics of English and Arabic cultures.

  16. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...

  17. Language Acquisition and Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William; Hattori, Ryoko

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational transmission, the ultimate goal of language revitalization efforts, can only be achieved by (re)establishing the conditions under which an imperiled language can be acquired by the community's children. This paper presents a tutorial survey of several key points relating to language acquisition and maintenance in children,…

  18. HAPPEN CAN'T HEAR: An Analysis of Code-Blends in Hearing, Native Signers of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Hearing native signers often learn sign language as their first language and acquire features that are characteristic of sign languages but are not present in equivalent ways in English (e.g., grammatical facial expressions and the structured use of space for setting up tokens and surrogates). Previous research has indicated that bimodal…

  19. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  20. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  1. Content and Language Integrated Learning and the inclusion of immigrant minority language students: A research review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses the inclusion of immigrant minority language students in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) bilingual education programmes. It reviews results of research on (1) the reasons, beliefs and attitudes underlying immigrant minority language parents' and students' choice for CLIL programmes; (2) these students' proficiency in the languages of instruction and their academic achievement; and (3) the effects of first language typology on their second and third language proficiency. The author explores conditions and reasons for the effectiveness of CLIL pedagogy, as well as the comparative suitability of CLIL programmes for immigrant minority language students. The review shows that CLIL programmes provide a means to acquire important linguistic, economic and symbolic capital in order to effect upward social mobility. Findings demonstrate that immigrant minority language students enrolled in CLIL programmes are able to develop equal or superior levels of proficiency in both languages of instruction compared to majority language students; with previous development of first language literacy positively impacting academic language development. CLIL programmes are found to offer immigrant minority language students educational opportunities and effective pedagogical support which existing mainstream monolingual and minority bilingual education programmes may not always be able to provide. In light of these findings, the author discusses shortcomings in current educational policy. The article concludes with recommendations for further research.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  3. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  4. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  5. Brain correlates of constituent structure in sign language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Antonio; Limousin, Fanny; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pallier, Christophe

    2017-11-21

    During sentence processing, areas of the left superior temporal sulcus, inferior frontal gyrus and left basal ganglia exhibit a systematic increase in brain activity as a function of constituent size, suggesting their involvement in the computation of syntactic and semantic structures. Here, we asked whether these areas play a universal role in language and therefore contribute to the processing of non-spoken sign language. Congenitally deaf adults who acquired French sign language as a first language and written French as a second language were scanned while watching sequences of signs in which the size of syntactic constituents was manipulated. An effect of constituent size was found in the basal ganglia, including the head of the caudate and the putamen. A smaller effect was also detected in temporal and frontal regions previously shown to be sensitive to constituent size in written language in hearing French subjects (Pallier et al., 2011). When the deaf participants read sentences versus word lists, the same network of language areas was observed. While reading and sign language processing yielded identical effects of linguistic structure in the basal ganglia, the effect of structure was stronger in all cortical language areas for written language relative to sign language. Furthermore, cortical activity was partially modulated by age of acquisition and reading proficiency. Our results stress the important role of the basal ganglia, within the language network, in the representation of the constituent structure of language, regardless of the input modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Language Attitudes, Language Learning Experiences and Individual Strategies What Does School Offer and What Does It Lack?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tódor Erika-Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Language learners’ attitudes towards the language and its speakers greatly influence the language learning process and the learning outcomes. Previous research and studies on attitudes and motivation in language learning (Csizér 2007, Dörnyei 2009 show that attitudes and motivation are strongly intertwined. Positive attitude towards the language and its speakers can lead to increased motivation, which then results in better learning achievement and a positive attitude towards learning the language. The aim of the present study was to get a better insight into what regards the language attitudes of students attending Hungarian minority schools in Romania. The interest of the study lies in students’ attitudes towards the different languages, the factors/criteria along which they express their language attitudes, students’ learning experiences and strategies that they consider efficient and useful in order to acquire a language. Results suggest that students’ attitudes are determined by their own experiences of language use, and in this sense we can differentiate between a language for identification – built upon specific emotional, affective, and cognitive factors – and language for communication.

  7. The Emergence of Hybrid Grammars: language contact and change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboh, E.O.

    2015-01-01

    Children are extremely gifted in acquiring their native languages, but languages nevertheless change over time. Why does this paradox exist? In this study of creole languages, Enoch Aboh addresses this question, arguing that language acquisition requires contact between different linguistic

  8. Second Language Acquisition Enhances Communicative Competence

    OpenAIRE

    E.Sugantha Ezhil Mary; J.R.Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    English is the language of international affairs, cultures and economic systems. It is a language of wider communication. The main aim of the learners is to acquire the target language but it can be acquired easily only if the language is made use of in our daily affairs. In order to achieve that target language acquisition of the new language is very important, it focuses on the language competency of the target language .Knowledge of the structure of the language is equally important in ord...

  9. Schizophrenia and second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Fine, Jonathan; Gorjaltsan, Igor; Chen, Osnat; Walters, Joel

    2005-05-01

    Language acquisition involves brain processes that can be affected by lesions or dysfunctions in several brain systems and second language acquisition may depend on different brain substrates than first language acquisition in childhood. A total of 16 Russian immigrants to Israel, 8 diagnosed schizophrenics and 8 healthy immigrants, were compared. The primary data for this study were collected via sociolinguistic interviews. The two groups use language and learn language in very much the same way. Only exophoric reference and blocking revealed meaningful differences between the schizophrenics and healthy counterparts. This does not mean of course that schizophrenia does not induce language abnormalities. Our study focuses on those aspects of language that are typically difficult to acquire in second language acquisition. Despite the cognitive compromises in schizophrenia and the manifest atypicalities in language of speakers with schizophrenia, the process of acquiring a second language seems relatively unaffected by schizophrenia.

  10. Language Disorders in Multilingual and Multicultural Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Goral, Mira; Conner, Peggy S.

    2013-01-01

    We review the characteristics of developmental language disorders (primary language impairment, reading disorders, autism, Down syndrome) and acquired language disorders (aphasia, dementia, traumatic brain injury) among multilingual and multicultural individuals. We highlight the unique assessment and treatment considerations pertinent to this population, including, for example, concerns of language choice and availability of measures and of normative data in multiple languages. A summary of ...

  11. Bootstrapping language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Omri; Kwiatkowski, Tom; Smith, Nathaniel J; Goldwater, Sharon; Steedman, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The semantic bootstrapping hypothesis proposes that children acquire their native language through exposure to sentences of the language paired with structured representations of their meaning, whose component substructures can be associated with words and syntactic structures used to express these concepts. The child's task is then to learn a language-specific grammar and lexicon based on (probably contextually ambiguous, possibly somewhat noisy) pairs of sentences and their meaning representations (logical forms). Starting from these assumptions, we develop a Bayesian probabilistic account of semantically bootstrapped first-language acquisition in the child, based on techniques from computational parsing and interpretation of unrestricted text. Our learner jointly models (a) word learning: the mapping between components of the given sentential meaning and lexical words (or phrases) of the language, and (b) syntax learning: the projection of lexical elements onto sentences by universal construction-free syntactic rules. Using an incremental learning algorithm, we apply the model to a dataset of real syntactically complex child-directed utterances and (pseudo) logical forms, the latter including contextually plausible but irrelevant distractors. Taking the Eve section of the CHILDES corpus as input, the model simulates several well-documented phenomena from the developmental literature. In particular, the model exhibits syntactic bootstrapping effects (in which previously learned constructions facilitate the learning of novel words), sudden jumps in learning without explicit parameter setting, acceleration of word-learning (the "vocabulary spurt"), an initial bias favoring the learning of nouns over verbs, and one-shot learning of words and their meanings. The learner thus demonstrates how statistical learning over structured representations can provide a unified account for these seemingly disparate phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Borrowing and Loan Words: The Lemmatizing of Newly Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    or foreign acquisition. English, for instance, is spoken in many countries on all five continents and is, therefore, able to acquire vocabulary from many lan- guages worldwide. This is coupled with the readiness and the ability of the language to acquire new terminology through borrowing, instead of following the puristic ...

  13. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  14. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for PKD Race, Ethnicity, & Kidney Disease Renal Artery Stenosis Renal Tubular Acidosis Simple Kidney Cysts ... kidneys to develop multiple cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease occurs in children and adults who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) — ...

  15. Acquired Neurologic Mutism

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1997-01-01

    The behavioral features of four children with acquired neurologic mutism are reported from the Department of Neurology, University Hospital Rotterdam-Dijkzigt, Rotterdam; and Department of Medical Psychology, Ziekenhuis Walcheren, Vlissingen, The Netherlands.

  16. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  17. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  18. Barriers to acquiring English reading and writing skills by Zulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on an investigation into the barriers that hinder Zulu-speaking. English second language (L2) learners in the Foundation Phase from acquiring reading and writing skills. These barriers are categorised as contextual, language, school and intrinsic learner factors. A questionnaire based on these categories ...

  19. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  20. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  1. Listening in the Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2015-01-01

    The process of acquiring language is often depicted as a tiered process of oral development: listening and speaking; and, literacy development: reading, and writing. As infants we first learn language by listening, then speaking. That is, regardless of culture, or dialect we are first immersed in language in this oral context. It is only after one…

  2. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  3. Acquired Duodenal Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Chien

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic intramural hematoma of the duodenum is a rare cause of acquired duodenal obstruction in children, and a high degree of suspicion is therefore required to make an early and accurate diagnosis. We report a 6-year-old boy whose epigastrium was impacted by the handlebar of his bicycle during a traffic accident. The boy then experienced epigastralgia. Six days later, progressive bilious vomiting suggestive of gastrointestinal obstruction was noted. Imaging studies revealed a large hematoma extending from the fourth portion of the duodenum to the jejunum. Conservative methods of treatment failed to manage his condition. He underwent laparoscopic surgery to evacuate the hematoma. We also report a case of duodenal obstruction in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl who presented for the first time with acute symptoms of proximal intestinal obstruction. Contrast examinations showed apparent barium retention over the stomach and proximal duodenum. She underwent surgery due to persistent obstruction, and a mushroom-like foreign body was detected embedded in the orifice of the windsock duodenal web. After duodenoduodenostomy and removal of the bezoar, she had a smooth recovery and tolerated feeding well. We conclude that blunt abdominal trauma and incomplete duodenal obstruction, such as that caused by duodenal web, should be considered as possible causes of acquired proximal gastrointestinal obstruction in previously healthy children, despite their rarity.

  4. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  5. "Ready to Acquire"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yetton, Philip; Henningsson, Stefan; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of Danisco (a global food ingredients company) as it followed a growth-by-acquisition business strategy, focusing on how a new CIO built the IT resources to ensure the IT organization was "ready to acquire." We illustrate how these IT capabilities expedited...

  6. Age of language acquisition and cortical language organization in multilingual patients undergoing awake brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Coello, Alejandro; Havas, Viktória; Juncadella, Montserrat; Sierpowska, Joanna; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Gabarrós, Andreu

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Most knowledge regarding the anatomical organization of multilingualism is based on aphasiology and functional imaging studies. However, the results have still to be validated by the gold standard approach, namely electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) during awake neurosurgical procedures. In this ESM study the authors describe language representation in a highly specific group of 13 multilingual individuals, focusing on how age of acquisition may influence the cortical organization of language. METHODS Thirteen patients who had a high degree of proficiency in multiple languages and were harboring lesions within the dominant, left hemisphere underwent ESM while being operated on under awake conditions. Demographic and language data were recorded in relation to age of language acquisition (for native languages and early- and late-acquired languages), neuropsychological pre- and postoperative language testing, the number and location of language sites, and overlapping distribution in terms of language acquisition time. Lesion growth patterns and histopathological characteristics, location, and size were also recorded. The distribution of language sites was analyzed with respect to age of acquisition and overlap. RESULTS The functional language-related sites were distributed in the frontal (55%), temporal (29%), and parietal lobes (16%). The total number of native language sites was 47. Early-acquired languages (including native languages) were represented in 97 sites (55 overlapped) and late-acquired languages in 70 sites (45 overlapped). The overlapping distribution was 20% for early-early, 71% for early-late, and 9% for late-late. The average lesion size (maximum diameter) was 3.3 cm. There were 5 fast-growing and 7 slow-growing lesions. CONCLUSIONS Cortical language distribution in multilingual patients is not homogeneous, and it is influenced by age of acquisition. Early-acquired languages have a greater cortical representation than languages acquired

  7. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  8. On Teaching Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    How to acquire a second language is a question of obvious importance to teachers and language learners, and how to teach a second language has also become a matter of concern to the linguists' interest in the nature of primary linguistic data. Starting with the development stages of second language acquisition and Stephen Krashen's theory, this…

  9. Endogenous sources of variation in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chung-Hye; Musolino, Julien; Lidz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    A fundamental question in the study of human language acquisition centers around apportioning explanatory force between the experience of the learner and the core knowledge that allows learners to represent that experience. We provide a previously unidentified kind of data identifying children's contribution to language acquisition. We identify one aspect of grammar that varies unpredictably across a population of speakers of what is ostensibly a single language. We further demonstrate that the grammatical knowledge of parents and their children is independent. The combination of unpredictable variation and parent-child independence suggests that the relevant structural feature is supplied by each learner independent of experience with the language. This structural feature is abstract because it controls variation in more than one construction. The particular case we examine is the position of the verb in the clause structure of Korean. Because Korean is a head-final language, evidence for the syntactic position of the verb is both rare and indirect. We show that (i) Korean speakers exhibit substantial variability regarding this aspect of the grammar, (ii) this variability is attested between speakers but not within a speaker, (iii) this variability controls interpretation in two surface constructions, and (iv) it is independent in parents and children. According to our findings, when the exposure language is compatible with multiple grammars, learners acquire a single systematic grammar. Our observation that children and their parents vary independently suggests that the choice of grammar is driven in part by a process operating internal to individual learners.

  10. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  11. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is the most common manifestation of a syndrome, consisting of increased bone metabolism, mostly new bone formation and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue, which we have characterised as the acquired hyperostosis syndrome. In part I we discuss the terminology, radiological appearances, scintigraphy, clinical and laboratory findings, bacteriology, histology, nosology, complications, treatment and differential diagnosis of SCCH. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is regarded as a phaenotype of SCCH, depending on the age. CRMO occurs in children, adolescents and young adults, SCCH predominantly in middleaged and elderly adults. (orig.) [de

  12. Technology-Based Rehabilitation to Improve Communication after Acquired Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A. Des Roches

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of technology has allowed for several advances in aphasia rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury. Thirty-one previous studies that provide technology-based language or language and cognitive rehabilitation are examined in terms of the domains addressed, the types of treatments that were provided, details about the methods and the results, including which types of outcomes are reported. From this, we address questions about how different aspects of the delivery of treatment can influence rehabilitation outcomes, such as whether the treatment was standardized or tailored, whether the participants were prescribed homework or not, and whether intensity was varied. Results differed by these aspects of treatment delivery but ultimately the studies demonstrated consistent improvement on various outcome measures. With these aspects of technology-based treatment in mind, the ultimate goal of personalized rehabilitation is discussed.

  13. Technology-Based Rehabilitation to Improve Communication after Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, Carrie A; Kiran, Swathi

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of technology has allowed for several advances in aphasia rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury. Thirty-one previous studies that provide technology-based language or language and cognitive rehabilitation are examined in terms of the domains addressed, the types of treatments that were provided, details about the methods and the results, including which types of outcomes are reported. From this, we address questions about how different aspects of the delivery of treatment can influence rehabilitation outcomes, such as whether the treatment was standardized or tailored, whether the participants were prescribed homework or not, and whether intensity was varied. Results differed by these aspects of treatment delivery but ultimately the studies demonstrated consistent improvement on various outcome measures. With these aspects of technology-based treatment in mind, the ultimate goal of personalized rehabilitation is discussed.

  14. The evaluation of disphagic syndrome, in patients with previously acquired brain damages

    OpenAIRE

    BARTULI, F. N.; LUCIANI, F.; MARINO, S.; BRAMANTI, E.; CECCHETTI, F.; ARCURI, C.

    2010-01-01

    Recently clinical studies have proved without doubts that in patients affect by neurological diseases, like stroke, parkinsonism syndromes and others neurodegenerative pathologies, there is a very elevated incidence of swallowing disorders even severe. The disease can show up in a full blown way, with clinical evident signs like suffocation or frequent and sudden cough, at the moment in which the patient tries to feed or to drink; or it can appear in a less clear way, through an unable protec...

  15. The evaluation of disphagic syndrome, in patients with previously acquired brain damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartuli, F N; Luciani, F; Marino, S; Bramanti, E; Cecchetti, F; Arcuri, C

    2010-04-01

    Recently clinical studies have proved without doubts that in patients affect by neurological diseases, like stroke, parkinsonism syndromes and others neurodegenerative pathologies, there is a very elevated incidence of swallowing disorders even severe. The disease can show up in a full blown way, with clinical evident signs like suffocation or frequent and sudden cough, at the moment in which the patient tries to feed or to drink; or it can appear in a less clear way, through an unable protection of the low airway and with possible pathologies ab ingestis. The first signals are represented by frequent resulting of cough reflex at nutrition or hydratation. Important is to assess the validity of this reflection, monitoring the amount of food reflux in the mouth after swallowing, which then could be perceived like foreign body and be aspired. The main diagnostic tests are the pHmetry in 24h, ultrasound, esophagography, videofluoroscopy, endoscopic examination and scintigraphy. Through the FEES (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing) we can then identify the time of swallowing deficit. Early diagnosis of Dysphagia Syndrome is important to improve living condition and survival of patients.

  16. 12 CFR 225.140 - Disposition of property acquired in satisfaction of debts previously contracted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relation to the overall financial position of the company, and the company has made good faith efforts to... (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.140 Disposition of...

  17. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms-and assess the impact of this integration action in the period that immediately follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors......’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if the focal acquired inventor has high relative innovation ability but is weakened for acquired inventors with high ingroup collaborative strength. We construct a sample...

  18. Learning-By-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization—i.e., the creation of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms—and assess its impact on knowledge transfer in the period that follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self......-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors’ use of the prior stock of technological knowledge of the acquiring firm after the acquisition. Furthermore, this effect is enhanced if acquired inventors have higher innovation ability relative to their acquiring peers...

  19. ACQUIRING NEW PHRASAL VERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Supriono

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of English demands natural settings in which learners engage with linguistic resources and attempt trial and errors method to express their ideas. These natural settings, for some, traditionally still require the presence of native speakerteachers (NST. However as the growing numbers of non-native speaker teachers (NNST of English in the developing countries makes way to the need for more occupation, the presence of NST on the contrary is lacking in relevance. However, can the NNST fulfill the necessitated language skills as if the classes were to be managed by NST? How much does the competence of NNST level NST‘s? Or, should we see the realm from the other end of the continuum?—thatwhatever norms and levels of competence our students should have should as well be determined by the availability of the resources at hand and the need for English as means of global communication? This paper questions the conventional paradigm in seeing the needs for learners‘ competence in English skills and challenges new generation of English teachers to be creative and realistic in meeting the needs of language acquisition and/or learning of EFLthrough the teaching and acquisition of phrasal verbs.

  20. Language and Recursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Francis

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines whether the recursive structure imbedded in some exercises used in the Non Verbal Communication Device (NVCD) approach is actually the factor that enables this approach to favor language acquisition and reacquisition in the case of children with cerebral lesions. For that a definition of the principle of recursion as it is used by logicians is presented. The two opposing approaches to the problem of language development are explained. For many authors such as Chomsky [1] the faculty of language is innate. This is known as the Standard Theory; the other researchers in this field, e.g. Bates and Elman [2], claim that language is entirely constructed by the young child: they thus speak of Language Acquisition. It is also shown that in both cases, a version of the principle of recursion is relevant for human language. The NVCD approach is defined and the results obtained in the domain of language while using this approach are presented: young subjects using this approach acquire a richer language structure or re-acquire such a structure in the case of cerebral lesions. Finally it is shown that exercises used in this framework imply the manipulation of recursive structures leading to regular grammars. It is thus hypothesized that language development could be favored using recursive structures with the young child. It could also be the case that the NVCD like exercises used with children lead to the elaboration of a regular language, as defined by Chomsky [3], which could be sufficient for language development but would not require full recursion. This double claim could reconcile Chomsky's approach with psychological observations made by adherents of the Language Acquisition approach, if it is confirmed by researches combining the use of NVCDs, psychometric methods and the use of Neural Networks. This paper thus suggests that a research group oriented towards this problematic should be organized.

  1. Second Language Syntax Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the acquisition of syntactic properties in a second language. To understand how syntactic properties are acquired, a theoretical approach of Universal Grammar is presented, with an emphasis on the application of the Universal Grammar approach to second language acquisition. Acquisition of the following syntactic properties is being described: acquisition of morphemes, acquisition of negation and verb movement, acquisition of word order, acquisition of questions and acquisi...

  2. Insights into Second Language Acquisition Theory and Different Approaches to Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to review second language acquisition theory and some of the methods practiced in language classes. The review substantiates that comprehensible input as the crucial determining factor for language acquisition and consciously learned linguistic knowledge can be used only to edit the output of the acquired language sometimes…

  3. Sign Language and Language Acquisition in Man and Ape. New Dimensions in Comparative Pedolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred C. C., Ed.

    A collection of research materials on sign language and primatology is presented here. The essays attempt to show that: sign language is a legitimate language that can be learned not only by humans but by nonhuman primates as well, and nonhuman primates have the capability to acquire a human language using a different mode. The following…

  4. Synesthetic colors for Japanese late acquired graphemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language (phonetic characters called Hiragana and Katakana, and Arabic digits), are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters depend on meaning and phonological information. Some results suggested that colors are generalized from Hiragana characters and Arabic digits to Kanji characters via phonology and meaning, respectively. Little influence of orthographic information was observed. The findings and approach of this study contributes to a clarification of the mechanism underlying grapheme-color synesthesia, especially in terms of its relationship to normal language processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. SAFEGUARDING THE IGBO LANGUAGE THROUGH TEACHING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    children, wherever they live, acquire/learn Igbo to save the language from endangerment and possible extinction. Introduction ... Ogirisi: a new journal of African studies vol. 13 2017. 168. A language dies when its .... ranch-based family children acquired native proficiency in Spanish. This was made possible by “the parents' ...

  6. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassiere, H A; Niederman, M S

    1998-11-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially the elderly, which is a patient population that continues to grow. Recently the spectrum and clinical picture of pneumonia has been changing as a reflection of this aging population; this requires a reassessment of and a new approach to the patient with pneumonia. Currently, pneumonia patients are classified as having either community-acquired or hospital-acquired infection rather than typical versus atypical. Patients who have CAP are categorized by age, presence of a coexisting medical illness, and the severity of the pneumonia. The rationale behind categorizing patients is to stratify them in terms of mortality risk to help determine the location of therapy (e.g., outpatient, inpatient, intensive care unit) and focus the choice of initial antimicrobial therapy. Once the decision to hospitalize a patient with pneumonia is made, the next step is to decide on an appropriate diagnostic evaluation and antibiotic therapy. Both decisions have evolved over the last several years since the publication of the American Thoracic Society's CAP guidelines. The current approach to the diagnostic work-up of pneumonia stresses a limited role of diagnostic tests and procedures. The antimicrobial regimen has now evolved into one that is empiric in nature and based on the age of the patient, the presence of coexisting medical disease, and the overall severity of the pneumonia. This process is a dynamic once because bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics can further complicate the course of pneumonia therapy, but the impact of resistance on outcome is less clear. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin is a prime example of this growing problem, and adjustment to pneumonia therapy may be required. A difficult but not uncommon problem in pneumonia patients is slow recovery and delayed resolution of radiographic infiltrates. Factors that impact

  7. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  9. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  10. Implications for English Language T

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... will be able to communicate in diverse communicative situations of daily living. Introduction. Applied Linguists and language teachers generally agree that communication is the goal of language teaching. Here in Nigeria, the main aim of teaching. English is to help students acquire relevant communication ...

  11. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  12. Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia and Its Recovery after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Ripollés, Pablo; Leo, Vera; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo

    2016-08-24

    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and language tests. VLSM analyses indicated that amusia was associated with a lesion area comprising the superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, insula, and striatum in the right hemisphere, clearly different from the lesion pattern associated with aphasia. Parametric analyses of MBEA Pitch and Rhythm scores showed extensive lesion overlap in the right striatum, as well as in the right Heschl's gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. Lesions associated with Rhythm scores extended more superiorly and posterolaterally. VBM analysis of volume changes from the acute to the 6 month stage showed a clear decrease in gray matter volume in the right superior and middle temporal gyri in nonrecovered amusic patients compared with nonamusic patients. This increased atrophy was more evident in anterior temporal areas in rhythm amusia and in posterior temporal and temporoparietal areas in pitch amusia. Overall, the results implicate right temporal and subcortical regions as the crucial neural substrate for acquired amusia and highlight the importance of different temporal lobe regions for the recovery of amusia after stroke. Lesion studies are essential in uncovering the brain regions causally linked to a given behavior or skill. For music perception ability, previous lesion studies of amusia have been methodologically limited in both spatial accuracy and time domain as well as by small sample sizes, providing

  13. Exploring the Effects of First- and Second-Language Proficiency on Summarizing in French as a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Giselle Corbeil

    2000-01-01

    Abstract University students studying a second language are often required to summarize information they read or hear in that language. These learners bring with them a number of first-language summarization skills which may have an effect on how they acquire second-language summarization skills. What macrorules of summarization are actually affected by either first-language or second-language proficiency? According to the results of this study, both first-language summarizing skills and ...

  14. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  15. Distributed Language and Dialogism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Sune Vork

    2015-01-01

    addresses Linell’s critique of Distributed Language as rooted in biosemiotics and in theories of organism-environment systems. It is argued that Linell’s sense-based approach entails an individualist view of how conspecific Others acquire their status as prominent parts of the sense-maker’s environment......This article takes a starting point in Per Linell’s (2013) review article on the book Distributed Language (Cowley, 2011a) and other contributions to the field of ‘Distributed Language’, including Cowley et al. (2010) and Hodges et al. (2012). The Distributed Language approach is a naturalistic...... and anti-representational approach to language that builds on recent developments in the cognitive sciences. With a starting point in Linell’s discussion of the approach, the article aims to clarify four aspects of a distributed view of language vis-à-vis the tradition of Dialogism, as presented by Linell...

  16. Competence and Performance in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to plan for the professional development of English language teachers, we need to have a comprehensive understanding of what competence and expertise in language teaching consists of. What essential skills, knowledge, values, attitudes and goals do language teachers need, and how can these be acquired? This paper seeks to explore these…

  17. Unit 1003: The Language of Exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This language unit for grade 10 builds on a definition of the expository use of language developed in the two previous 10th-grade units. In a brief overview of report language, the referential language of Thomas Huxley is compared with the expressive language of Edgar Allan Poe. The writings of S. I. Hayakawa, Hans Guth, and others are examined…

  18. Language Revitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2003-01-01

    Surveys developments in language revitalization and language death. Focusing on indigenous languages, discusses the role and nature of appropriate linguistic documentation, possibilities for bilingual education, and methods of promoting oral fluency and intergenerational transmission in affected languages. (Author/VWL)

  19. The case of Geely acquiring Volvo Car : A study on low brand equity acquiring high brand equity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Xiaoshu; Shi, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has studied high brand equity acquiring high brand equity or high brand equity acquiring low brand equity. However, very little research has been conducted to understand how that low brand equity acquiring high brand equity changes the low brand equity especially in China. This paper is on the case of Geely Group acquiring Volvo Car which was a typical acquisition of a high brand equity company by a low brand equity company. The aim of the paper is to verify whether thi...

  20. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  1. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.

  2. The Emotional Impact of Being Myself: Emotions and Foreign-Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaz, Lela; Costa, Albert; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2016-01-01

    Native languages are acquired in emotionally rich contexts, whereas foreign languages are typically acquired in emotionally neutral academic environments. As a consequence of this difference, it has been suggested that bilinguals' emotional reactivity in foreign-language contexts is reduced as compared with native language contexts. In the current…

  3. Second-language listening anxiety before and after a 1-yr. intervention in extensive listening compared with standard foreign language instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have shown that language anxiety is correlated negatively with language competence. This study tests the hypothesis that second language learners' listening anxiety might be reduced when listening skills improve. Building on previous research showing that extensive reading is as effective and efficient as formal instruction in acquiring English as a foreign language and is even more effective with longer treatment duration, changes in listening anxiety were explored under two different instructional approaches-extensive listening and formal instruction-over a 1-yr. period in a sample of 92 Chinese college students. Listening anxiety and listening comprehension tests were administered to the participants before and after the experiment. Analysis showed that the Extensive Listening group improved more compared to the Formal Instruction group in listening competence, but their mean anxiety score also rose significantly. Factors contributing to the unexpected outcome indicate that the increase in anxiety should be considered facilitative to learning.

  4. [Prosody, speech input and language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungheim, M; Miller, S; Kühn, D; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In order to acquire language, children require speech input. The prosody of the speech input plays an important role. In most cultures adults modify their code when communicating with children. Compared to normal speech this code differs especially with regard to prosody. For this review a selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was performed. Prosodic characteristics are a key feature of spoken language. By analysing prosodic features, children gain knowledge about underlying grammatical structures. Child-directed speech (CDS) is modified in a way that meaningful sequences are highlighted acoustically so that important information can be extracted from the continuous speech flow more easily. CDS is said to enhance the representation of linguistic signs. Taking into consideration what has previously been described in the literature regarding the perception of suprasegmentals, CDS seems to be able to support language acquisition due to the correspondence of prosodic and syntactic units. However, no findings have been reported, stating that the linguistically reduced CDS could hinder first language acquisition.

  5. Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults. Behavioural measures indicated successful lexical (word stem) and morphological (gender suffix) learning. A day after the learning phase, event-related brain potentials registered during a recognition memory task revealed enhanced N400 and P600 components for stem and suffix violations, respectively. An additional effect observed with combined suffix and stem violations was an enhancement of an early N2 component, most probably related to conflict-detection processes. Successful morphological learning was also evident in the ERP responses to the subsequent rule-generalization task with new stems, where violation of the morphological rule was associated with an early (250-400ms) and late positivity (750-900ms). Overall, these findings tend to converge with lexical and morphosyntactic violation effects observed in L1 processing, suggesting that even after a short exposure, adult language learners can acquire both novel words and novel morphological rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  7. Acquiring, Teaching, and Testing Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarg, Mats

    1997-01-01

    Argues that treatment of foreign language vocabulary will vary predictably according to whether the instructional activity is based on a structural or a lexical/collocational view of language. Notes that in a structural approach, vocabulary learning is primarily a frequency- and input-based individual endeavor, while the lexical approach is more…

  8. Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    and conceptualizations of language and literacy in research on (second) language acquisition. When examining children’s first language acquisition, spoken language has been the primary concern in scholarship: a child acquires oral language first and written language follows later, i.e. language precedes literacy....... On the other hand, many second or foreign language learners learn mostly through written language or learn spoken and written language at the same time. Thus the connections between spoken and written (and visual) modalities, i.e. between language and literacy, are complex in research on language acquisition......Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA In this colloquium, we aim to problematize the concepts of language and literacy in the field that is termed “second language” research and seek ways to critically connect the terms. When considering current day language use for example...

  9. Aphasia, an acquired language disor | Schoeman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 52, No 4 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  10. Beyond a Clockwork Orange: Acquiring Second Language Vocabulary Through Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Marlise; Cobb, Tom; Meara, Paul

    1998-01-01

    This replication study demonstrated that Jordanian college students studying English recognized the meanings of new words and built associations between them after comprehension-focused extensive reading. Controlled book-length reading generated more incidental word learning and a higher pickup rate than shorter tasks. Word frequency did not make…

  11. The neural basis for primary and acquired language skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagoort, P.; Segers, E.; Broek, P. van den

    2017-01-01

    Reading is a cultural invention that needs to recruit cortical infrastructure that was not designed for it (cultural recycling of cortical maps). In the case of reading both visual cortex and networks for speech processing are recruited. Here I discuss current views on the neurobiological

  12. Aphasia, an acquired language disor | Schoeman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The original localisationist model attempts to classify aphasia in terms of major characteristics, and then to link these to areas of the brain in which the damage has been caused. These initial two categories, namely fluent and non-fluent aphasia, encompass eight different subtypes of aphasia. Aphasia occurs mostly in those ...

  13. Language, thought, and real nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, David; Inagaki, Shunji; Li, Peggy

    2009-06-01

    We test the claim that acquiring a mass-count language, like English, causes speakers to think differently about entities in the world, relative to speakers of classifier languages like Japanese. We use three tasks to assess this claim: object-substance rating, quantity judgment, and word extension. Using the first two tasks, we present evidence that learning mass-count syntax has little effect on the interpretation of familiar nouns between Japanese and English, and that speakers of these languages do not divide up referents differently along an individuation continuum, as claimed in some previous reports [Gentner, D., & Boroditsky, L. (2001). Individuation, relativity, and early word learning. In M. Bowerman, & S. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development (pp. 215-256). Cambridge University Press]. Instead, we argue that previous cross-linguistic differences [Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200] are attributable to "lexical statistics" [Gleitman, L., & Papafragou, A. (2005). Language and thought. In K. Holyoak, & R. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 633-661). Cambridge University Press]. Speakers of English are more likely to think that a novel ambiguous expression like "the blicket" refers to a kind of object (relative to speakers of Japanese) because speakers of English are likely to assume that "blicket" is a count noun rather than a mass noun, based on the relative frequency of each kind of word in English. This is confirmed by testing Mandarin-English bilinguals with a word extension task. We find that bilinguals tested in English with mass-count ambiguous syntax extend novel words like English monolinguals (and assume that a word like "blicket" refers to a kind of object). In contrast, bilinguals tested in Mandarin are significantly more likely to extend novel words by material. Thus, online

  14. Assessing Plural Morphology in Children Acquiring /S/-Leniting Dialects of Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the production of plural morphology in children acquiring a dialect of Spanish with syllable-final /s/ lenition with the goal of comparing how plural marker omissions in the speech of these children compare with plural marker omissions in children with language impairment acquiring other varieties of Spanish. Method: Three…

  15. Asymmetry in Dual Language Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Amrein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity for dual-language programs to deliver specific benefits to students with different primary and secondary language skills continues to be debated. Individuals favoring dual language assert that as it relies upon a reciprocal approach, dual language students acquire dual language proficiency without the need for teachers to translate from one language to another. By utilizing and conserving the language skills that students bring, dual language students also gain cross-cultural understandings and an expanded opportunity to realize academic success in the future. Research that explores whether these programs meet the needs of monolingual and bilingual students is limited. The intent of this study is not to criticize dual language practice. Instead, it is to describe a newly implemented dual language immersion program that exists and operates in Phoenix, Arizona. In particular, this study examines the practices of dual language teachers at Leigh Elementary School and the challenges encountered as school personnel worked to provide students with different primary and secondary language skills increased opportunities to learn.

  16. Active citizenship and acquired neurological communication difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Bennett, Amanda; Cairney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    People with communication impairments may face barriers to civic participation, with resulting marginalisation of individuals who wish to be actively involved. The investigation aimed to explore the experience of civically engaged adults with acquired neurological communication difficulties. Six people with acquired neurological communication difficulties were interviewed. Discussion included the definition of active citizenship, their civic involvement, motivations, related barriers and facilitators. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, with data categorised, coded and examined for recurring themes. All participants were active in disability-related organisations and four undertook wider civic roles. Motivations included activity being out with the home and wanting to effect change for themselves and the populations they represented. Disability group meetings were more positive experiences than broader community activities, which were associated with fatigue and frustration, commonly resulting from communication difficulties and unmet support needs. All participants identified a need for professional and public educational about disability and communication and made recommendations on content, methods and priority groups. For these participants civic engagement had positive and negative dimensions. Speech and language therapists should promote reduction of the barriers that impede the active citizenship rights of people with communication support needs. Civic participation may be a relevant measure of outcome in communication impaired populations.

  17. The Effect of Music on Acquiring Vocabulary with Technically Gifted Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Ulrike

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated the role of music in acquiring foreign language vocabulary using suggestopedia techniques with 40 technically gifted students. The study found that the effectiveness of different types of music depended on student characteristics including gender, musical ability, foreign language learning ability, and feeling states. (DB)

  18. Psycholinguistics: a cross-language perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, E; Devescovi, A; Wulfeck, B

    2001-01-01

    Cross-linguistic studies are essential to the identification of universal processes in language development, language use, and language breakdown. Comparative studies in all three areas are reviewed, demonstrating powerful differences across languages in the order in which specific structures are acquired by children, the sparing and impairment of those structures in aphasic patients, and the structures that normal adults rely upon most heavily in real-time word and sentence processing. It is proposed that these differences reflect a cost-benefit trade-off among universal mechanisms for learning and processing (perception, attention, motor planning, memory) that are critical for language, but are not unique to language.

  19. CORRECTING ERRORS: THE RELATIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF ERROR FEEDBACK IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Jayathilake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Error correction in ESL (English as a Second Language classes has been a focal phenomenon in SLA (Second Language Acquisition research due to some controversial research results and diverse feedback practices. This paper presents a study which explored the relative efficacy of three forms of error correction employed in ESL writing classes: focusing on the acquisition of one grammar element both for immediate and delayed language contexts, and collecting data from university undergraduates, this study employed an experimental research design with a pretest-treatment-posttests structure. The research revealed that the degree of success in acquiring L2 (Second Language grammar through error correction differs according to the form of the correction and to learning contexts. While the findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature, this paper concludes creating a cline of error correction forms to be promoted in Sri Lankan L2 writing contexts, particularly in ESL contexts in Universities.

  20. Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Marie; Comio, Emilie; Gay, Valerie; Baroudi, Noureddine; Meyer, Pascal; Chuniaud-Louche, Christine; Hacini, Maya; Pica, Gian Matteo

    2016-05-07

    Myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A is a rare association. To the best of our knowledge only one case of myelofibrosis and acquired hemophilia A has been previously described. A 66-year-old Caucasian man diagnosed with myelofibrosis evolving in acute myeloid leukemia was referred to us for postoperative bleeding. Hemostatic studies showed prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased factor VIII coagulation, and a high factor VIII inhibitor titer; these findings led to a diagnosis of acquired hemophilia A for which he was treated with methylprednisolone and recombinant activated factor VII on admission. Due to a lack of response he was subsequently treated with rituximab combined with activated prothrombin complex concentrates. Furthermore, he received azacytidine to treat the underlying hematological malignancies. Immunosuppressive rituximab therapy resolved acquired hemophilia A with marked efficacy. Rapid and accurate diagnosis, effective hemostatic therapy, and timely treatment for underlying disease are important in the management of acquired hemophilia A secondary to hematological malignancy.

  1. Language Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt-Rutter, John

    1988-01-01

    Australia has a language paradox: great richness and great poverty of language resources. Despite its many cultures and immigrant groups, Australia emphasizes English-language assimilation and thereby endangers its chances for durable multilingualism. (MSE)

  2. Young English language learners making thinking and language visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K Salmon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide teachers with a resource to assist them in understanding the inner workings of young English Language Learners (ELLs and how they externalize their thoughts in either their first or second language. This article not only analyzes how teachers can help children acquire a second language without sacrificing their first language and motivation, but also focuses on language processing in bilingual children through providing an understanding of both the interplay between language and cognition and the role of the environment. Results from an action research project implementing Harvard Project Zero’s Visible Thinking ideas serve as evidence to discuss the benefits of creating a culture of thinking in the classroom to promote additive bilingualism in young children.

  3. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  4. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  5. Logic and declarative language

    CERN Document Server

    Downward, M

    2004-01-01

    Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.

  6. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  7. Speech therapy for children with dysarthria acquired before three years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Lindsay; Parker, Naomi K; Kelly, Helen; Miller, Nick

    2016-07-18

    Children with motor impairments often have the motor speech disorder dysarthria, a condition which effects the tone, strength and co-ordination of any or all of the muscles used for speech. Resulting speech difficulties can range from mild, with slightly slurred articulation and breathy voice, to profound, with an inability to produce any recognisable words. Children with dysarthria are often prescribed communication aids to supplement their natural forms of communication. However, there is variation in practice regarding the provision of therapy focusing on voice and speech production. Descriptive studies have suggested that therapy may improve speech, but its effectiveness has not been evaluated. To assess whether any speech and language therapy intervention aimed at improving the speech of children with dysarthria is more effective in increasing children's speech intelligibility or communicative participation than no intervention at all , and to compare the efficacy of individual types of speech language therapy in improving the speech intelligibility or communicative participation of children with dysarthria. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015 , Issue 7 ), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL , LLBA, ERIC, PsychInfo, Web of Science, Scopus, UK National Research Register and Dissertation Abstracts up to July 2015, handsearched relevant journals published between 1980 and July 2015, and searched proceedings of relevant conferences between 1996 to 2015. We placed no restrictions on the language or setting of the studies. A previous version of this review considered studies published up to April 2009. In this update we searched for studies published from April 2009 to July 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials and studies using quasi-experimental designs in which children were allocated to groups using non-random methods. One author (LP) conducted searches of all databases, journals and conference reports. All searches

  8. Language Endangerment and Language Revival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlhausler, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reviews and discusses the following books: "Language Death," by David Crystal; "The Green Book of Language Revitalization in Practice," by Leanne Hinton; and "Vanishing Voices of the World's Languages," by David Nettle. (Author/VWL)

  9. Post-stroke language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanović, Osman; Mrkonjić, Zamir; Zukić, Sanela; Vidović, Mirjana; Imamović, Kata

    2011-03-01

    type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes the patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called word blindness, text blindness or visual aphasia. Alexia refers to an acquired inability to read due to brain damage and must be distinguished from dyslexia, a developmental abnormality in which the individual is unable to learn to read, and from illiteracy, which reflects a poor educational background. Most aphasics are also alexic, but alexia may occur in the absence of aphasia and may occasionally be the sole disability resulting from specific brain lesions. There are different classifications of alexias. Traditionally, alexias are divided into three categories: pure alexia with agraphia, pure alexia without agraphia, and alexia associated with aphasia ('aphasic alexia'). Agraphia is defined as disruption of previously intact writing skills by brain damage. Writing involves several elements: language processing, spelling, visual perception, visuospatial orientation for graphic symbols, motor planning, and motor control of writing. A disturbance of any of these processes can impair writing. Agraphia may occur by itself or in association with aphasias, alexia, agnosia and apraxia. Agraphia can also result from 'peripheral' involvement of the motor act of writing. Like alexia, agraphia must be distinguished from illiteracy, where writing skills were never developed. Acalculia is a clinical syndrome of acquired deficits in mathematical calculation, either mentally or with paper and pencil. These language disturbances can be classified differently, but there are three principal types of acalculia: acalculia associated with language disturbances, including number paraphasia, number agraphia, or number alexia; acalculia secondary to visuospatial dysfunction with malalignment of numbers and columns, and primary anarithmetria entailing disruption of the computation process.

  10. The grammaticalization of gestures in sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, E.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Müller, C.; Cienki, A.; Fricke, E.; Ladewig, S.H.; McNeill, D.; Bressem, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on grammaticalization in sign languages have shown that, for the most part, the grammaticalization paths identified in sign languages parallel those previously described for spoken languages. Hence, the general principles of grammaticalization do not depend on the modality of language

  11. The Acquirement of Technical Nursing Skills by New Graduates : The Process of Acquirement of Skills Considering Graduates' Voluntarity

    OpenAIRE

    稲垣, 美紀; 土居, 洋子; 西上, あゆみ; Inagaki, Miki; Doi, Yoko; Nishigami, Ayumi

    2003-01-01

    The first research have performed the technical nursing skills (29 skills) by new graduates (30 students) . The purpose of this study was to continue to clarify the acquirement of technical nursing skills, which new graduates learned in clinical nursing skills seminars add to the previous 29 skills, their attitude toward seminars and practical trainings, how their attitude effected the acquirement of technical nursing skills and the new graduates' demands of the seminar and practical training...

  12. Rehabilitation of discourse impairments after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindri, Gigiane; Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso; Casarin, Fabíola Schwengber; Branco, Laura Damiani; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2014-01-01

    Language impairments in patients with acquired brain injury can have a negative impact on social life as well as on other cognitive domains. Discourse impairments are among the most commonly reported communication deficits among patients with acquired brain damage. Despite advances in the development of diagnostic tools for detecting such impairments, few studies have investigated interventions to rehabilitate patients presenting with these conditions. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the methods used in the rehabilitation of discourse following acquired brain injury. The PubMed database was searched for articles using the following keywords: "rehabilitation", "neurological injury", "communication" and "discursive abilities". A total of 162 abstracts were found, but only seven of these met criteria for inclusion in the review. Four studies involved samples of individuals with aphasia whereas three studies recruited samples of individuals with traumatic brain injury. All but one article found that patient performance improved following participation in a discourse rehabilitation program.

  13. THE TEACHING OF FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE SKILLS IN A SECOND LANGUAGE TO A CHILD WITH AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Chong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the rate of self-initiated communication acquisition, in a second language, of a child with autism. The language treatment objective was to teach functional communication skills in English through the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS. The findings of this study show that it is possible for a child with autism to acquire functional communication skills in his second language even though he did not possess such communication skills in his first language.

  14. Adapting the Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test into American sign language

    OpenAIRE

    Enns, C. J.; Herman, R.

    2011-01-01

    Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed language skills. Although researchers have developed some checklists and experimental tests related to American Sign Language (ASL) assessment, at this t...

  15. The Teaching of Functional Language Skills in a Second Language to a Child with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Renee

    2006-01-01

    This article examined the rate of self-initiated communication acquisition, in a second language, of a child with autism. The language treatment objective was to teach functional communication skills in English through the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). The findings of this study show that it is possible for a child with autism to acquire functional communication skills in his second language even though he did not possess such communication skills in his first language.

  16. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment and languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eScorolli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept. To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC. This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA, participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  17. Abstract and concrete sentences, embodiment, and languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorolli, Claudia; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Roberto; Riggio, Lucia; Borghi, Anna Maria

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges of embodied theories is accounting for meanings of abstract words. The most common explanation is that abstract words, like concrete ones, are grounded in perception and action systems. According to other explanations, abstract words, differently from concrete ones, would activate situations and introspection; alternatively, they would be represented through metaphoric mapping. However, evidence provided so far pertains to specific domains. To be able to account for abstract words in their variety we argue it is necessary to take into account not only the fact that language is grounded in the sensorimotor system, but also that language represents a linguistic-social experience. To study abstractness as a continuum we combined a concrete (C) verb with both a concrete and an abstract (A) noun; and an abstract verb with the same nouns previously used (grasp vs. describe a flower vs. a concept). To disambiguate between the semantic meaning and the grammatical class of the words, we focused on two syntactically different languages: German and Italian. Compatible combinations (CC, AA) were processed faster than mixed ones (CA, AC). This is in line with the idea that abstract and concrete words are processed preferentially in parallel systems - abstract in the language system and concrete more in the motor system, thus costs of processing within one system are the lowest. This parallel processing takes place most probably within different anatomically predefined routes. With mixed combinations, when the concrete word preceded the abstract one (CA), participants were faster, regardless of the grammatical class and the spoken language. This is probably due to the peculiar mode of acquisition of abstract words, as they are acquired more linguistically than perceptually. Results confirm embodied theories which assign a crucial role to both perception-action and linguistic experience for abstract words.

  18. Acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah C

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula is rare. The most common causes are tuberculosis and malignancy. Here we report a patient who had come with dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia with paratracheal lymphnodes on X-ray chest and was diagnosed to have a tracheo-bronchial fistula on barium studies. Transtumoral intubation by pull-through method was carried out.

  19. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    twin pairs. Furthermore, the presence of mosaic structural variants was explored. We identified four mosaic acquired uniparental disomy events on chromosome 4q and 14q in the follow-up samples from four individuals, and our study thereby supports the increasing prevalence of somatic mosaic variants...

  20. Language Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Lana; Maylath, J. Bruce; Adams, Anthony; Couzijn, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Language Awareness: A History and Implementations offers teachers of mother tongue and foreign languages a view of the beginnings and the ramifications of the language-teaching movement called Language Awareness. The philosophy held in common among the teachers in this international movement is

  1. Dynamical Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin

    The following sections are included: * Definition of Dynamical Languages * Distinct Excluded Blocks * Definition and Properties * L and L″ in Chomsky Hierarchy * A Natural Equivalence Relation * Symbolic Flows * Symbolic Flows and Dynamical Languages * Subshifts of Finite Type * Sofic Systems * Graphs and Dynamical Languages * Graphs and Shannon-Graphs * Transitive Languages * Topological Entropy

  2. Understanding the Role of Academic Language on Conceptual Understanding in an Introductory Materials Science and Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jacquelyn

    Students may use the technical engineering terms without knowing what these words mean. This creates a language barrier in engineering that influences student learning. Previous research has been conducted to characterize the difference between colloquial and scientific language. Since this research had not yet been applied explicitly to engineering, conclusions from the area of science education were used instead. Various researchers outlined strategies for helping students acquire scientific language. However, few examined and quantified the relationship it had on student learning. A systemic functional linguistics framework was adopted for this dissertation which is a framework that has not previously been used in engineering education research. This study investigated how engineering language proficiency influenced conceptual understanding of introductory materials science and engineering concepts. To answer the research questions about engineering language proficiency, a convenience sample of forty-one undergraduate students in an introductory materials science and engineering course was used. All data collected was integrated with the course. Measures included the Materials Concept Inventory, a written engineering design task, and group observations. Both systemic functional linguistics and mental models frameworks were utilized to interpret data and guide analysis. A series of regression analyses were conducted to determine if engineering language proficiency predicts group engineering term use, if conceptual understanding predicts group engineering term use, and if conceptual understanding predicts engineering language proficiency. Engineering academic language proficiency was found to be strongly linked to conceptual understanding in the context of introductory materials engineering courses. As the semester progressed, this relationship became even stronger. The more engineering concepts students are expected to learn, the more important it is that they

  3. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  4. Impaired Reasoning and Problem-Solving in Individuals with Language Impairment due to Aphasia or Language Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana eBaldo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The precise nature of the relationship between language and thought is an intriguing and challenging area of inquiry for scientists across many disciplines. In the realm of neuropsychology, research has investigated the inter-dependence of language and thought by testing individuals with compromised language abilities and observing whether performance in other cognitive domains is diminished. One group of such individuals is patients with aphasia who have an impairment in speech and language arising from a brain injury, such as a stroke. Our previous research has shown that the degree of language impairment in these individuals is strongly associated with the degree of impairment on complex reasoning tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST and Raven’s Matrices. In the current study, we present new data from a large group of individuals with aphasia that show a dissociation in performance between putatively non-verbal tasks on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS that require differing degrees of reasoning (Picture Completion vs. Picture Arrangement tasks. We also present an update and replication of our previous findings with the WCST showing that individuals with the most profound core language deficits (i.e., impaired comprehension and disordered language output are particularly impaired on problem-solving tasks. In the second part of the paper, we present findings from a neurologically-intact individual known as Chelsea who was not exposed to language due to an unaddressed hearing loss that was present since birth. At the age of 32, she was fitted with hearing aids and exposed to spoken and signed language for the first time, but she was only able to acquire a limited language capacity. Chelsea was tested on a series of standardized neuropsychological measures, including reasoning and problem-solving tasks. She was able to perform well on a number of visuospatial tasks but was disproportionately impaired on tasks that

  5. Language and the newborn brain: Does prenatal language experience shape the neonate neural response to speech?

    OpenAIRE

    Lillian eMay; Krista eByers-Heinlein; Judit eGervain; Janet F Werker

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that by the time of birth, the neonate brain responds specially to the native language when compared to acoustically similar non-language stimuli. In the current study, we use Near Infrared Spectroscopy to ask how prenatal language experience might shape the brain response to language in newborn infants. To do so, we examine the neural response of neonates when listening to familiar versus unfamiliar language, as well as to non-linguistic backwards language. Twenty...

  6. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological 'complexity' and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological 'complexification'), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  7. Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-09-01

    Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic backgrounds of their L1. For Chinese learners, a L1 of the Chinese language (Hanji) and a L2 of the Japanese Kana differed orthographically, whereas for Korean learners, a L1 of Korean Hangul and a L2 of Japanese Kana were similar. Results Our analysis revealed that, although proficiency and the age of acquisition did not differ between the two groups, Chinese learners showed greater activation of the left middle frontal gyrus than Korean learners during L2 word reading. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that strongly supported the hypothesis that cross-linguistic variations in orthography between L1 and L2 induce differential brain activation during L2 word reading, which has been proposed previously.

  8. Developing Communicative Competence in University Language Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šajgalíková, Helena; Breeze, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with university language teaching in the perspective of its shift from linguistic competence towards communicative competence, and presents some aspects of the underlying process. It analyses the findings from a survey conducted within the Leonardo project "Transparency in the Acquired Language Competences" (TALC;…

  9. Hypermedia and Vocabulary Acquisition for Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia as a delivery tool for enhancing vocabulary in second-language classrooms. The mixed method design focused on specific techniques to help students acquire Spanish vocabulary and communication skills. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of second language theories…

  10. Higher Education Institutions without Foreign Language Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepon, Slavica

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to fill a research gap in the literature where there is no research in the available literature on the general foreign language/foreign-language-for-specific-purposes discontinuity at the secondary/tertiary interface. The article reports on the findings of a study that aimed to acquire the opinions of the teachers of foreign…

  11. Bilingual Language Proficiency : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, Joana

    2011-01-01

    his book investigates the role native language plays in the process of acquiring a second language within a bilingual educational model. The research presented is based on a 2 year longitudinal study of students in a bilingual school. Particular attention is paid to the development of academic

  12. Music therapy for acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Magee, Wendy L; Dileo, Cheryl; Wheeler, Barbara L; McGilloway, Emer

    2010-07-07

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, sensory processing and emotional disturbances. This may severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music therapy has been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions and sensory perceptions. A systematic review is needed to gauge the efficacy of music therapy as a rehabilitation intervention for people with ABI. To examine the effects of music therapy with standard care versus standard care alone or standard care combined with other therapies on gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, social skills, pain, behavioral outcomes, activities of daily living and adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (February 2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2009), MEDLINE (July 2009), EMBASE (August 2009), CINAHL (March 2010), PsycINFO (July 2009), LILACS (August 2009), AMED (August 2009) and Science Citation Index (August 2009). We handsearched music therapy journals and conference proceedings, searched dissertation and specialist music databases, trials and research registers, reference lists, and contacted experts and music therapy associations. There was no language restriction. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared music therapy interventions and standard care with standard care alone or combined with other therapies for people older than 16 years of age who had acquired brain damage of a non-degenerative nature and were participating in treatment programs offered in hospital, outpatient or community settings. Two review authors independently assessed methodological quality and extracted data. We present results using mean differences (using post-test scores) as all outcomes were measured with the same scale. We included seven studies (184 participants). The results suggest that rhythmic

  13. Onset age of L2 acquisition influences language network in early and late Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojin; Tu, Liu; Wang, Junjing; Jiang, Bo; Gao, Wei; Pan, Ximin; Li, Meng; Zhong, Miao; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Niu, Meiqi; Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Xiaoxi; Liu, Chang; Lu, Zhi; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-11-01

    Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state. In this study, we acquired resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from 10 Cantonese (L1)-Mandarin (L2) early bilinguals (acquired L2: 3years old) and 11 late bilinguals (acquired L2: 6years old), and analyzed their topological properties of language networks after controlling the language daily exposure and usage as well as PL in L1 and L2. We found that early bilinguals had significantly a higher clustering coefficient, global and local efficiency, but significantly lower characteristic path length compared to late bilinguals. Modular analysis indicated that compared to late bilinguals, early bilinguals showed significantly stronger intra-modular functional connectivity in the semantic and phonetic modules, stronger inter-modular functional connectivity between the semantic and phonetic modules as well as between the phonetic and syntactic modules. Differences in global and local parameters may reflect different patterns of neuro-plasticity respectively for early and late bilinguals. These results suggested that different L2 experience influences topological properties of language network, even if late bilinguals achieve high PL-L2. Our findings may provide a new perspective of neural mechanisms related to early and late bilinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  15. Universal acquired melanosis (Carbon baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.

  16. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  18. Can non-interactive language input benefit young second-language learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Terry Kit-Fong; Chan, Winnie Wailan; Cheng, Liao; Siegel, Linda S; Tso, Ricky Van Yip

    2015-03-01

    To fully acquire a language, especially its phonology, children need linguistic input from native speakers early on. When interaction with native speakers is not always possible - e.g. for children learning a second language that is not the societal language - audios are commonly used as an affordable substitute. But does such non-interactive input work? Two experiments evaluated the usefulness of audio storybooks in acquiring a more native-like second-language accent. Young children, first- and second-graders in Hong Kong whose native language was Cantonese Chinese, were given take-home listening assignments in a second language, either English or Putonghua Chinese. Accent ratings of the children's story reading revealed measurable benefits of non-interactive input from native speakers. The benefits were far more robust for Putonghua than English. Implications for second-language accent acquisition are discussed.

  19. Academic Language in Preschool: Research and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Developing and scaffolding academic language is an important job of preschool teachers. This Teaching Tip provides five strategies that extend the topic of academic language by integrating previous research and field-based data into classroom practice.

  20. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  1. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  2. Implicit memory in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Margulis, Elizabeth H; Wong, Patrick C M

    2011-01-01

    Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system.

  3. The irreversibility of sensitive period effects in language development: evidence from second language acquisition in international adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunnar; Bylund, Emanuel

    2016-05-01

    The question of a sensitive period in language acquisition has been subject to extensive research and debate for more than half a century. While it has been well established that the ability to learn new languages declines in early years, the extent to which this outcome depends on biological maturation in contrast to previously acquired knowledge remains disputed. In the present study, we addressed this question by examining phonetic discriminatory abilities in early second language (L2) speakers of Swedish, who had either maintained their first language (L1) (immigrants) or had lost it (international adoptees), using native speaker controls. Through this design, we sought to disentangle the effects of the maturational state of the learner on L2 development from the effects of L1 interference: if additional language development is indeed constrained by an interfering L1, then adoptees should outperform immigrant speakers. The results of an auditory lexical decision task, in which fine vowel distinctions in Swedish had been modified, showed, however, no difference between the L2 groups. Instead, both L2 groups scored significantly lower than the native speaker group. The three groups did not differ in their ability to discriminate non-modified words. These findings demonstrate that L1 loss is not a crucial condition for successfully acquiring an L2, which in turn is taken as support for a maturational constraints view on L2 acquisition. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/1J9X50aePeU. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Who Studies Which Language and Why? : A Cross-Language Survey of First-Year College-Level Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Howard

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on surveys of first-year language learners studying 19 different languages at two large East Coast Universities. The survey included questions about why students decided to study these languages, including career plans, study abroad, interest in liter-ature and culture, desire to communicate with speakers of the lan-guage, desire to speak with family members, building on previous language skills, and love of languages in general. Results were broken down by language and by language types, such as whether the lan-guages were commonly taught in the United States, how the lan-guages are politicized in the current historical context, and how the languages intersect with historical and geographic trends in immigra-tion and immigration policy. This article examines in particular the presence of heritage language learners in these language classrooms, the varying reasons that students choose to study these languages, and students’ prior attainment and exposure to the language. The pa-per discusses the political, historical, and social contexts of language study in the United States and the associated implications for effec-tive language recruitment and effective language program design.

  5. Rhythm in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Mehler, Jacques; Nespor, Marina

    2017-10-01

    Spoken language is governed by rhythm. Linguistic rhythm is hierarchical and the rhythmic hierarchy partially mimics the prosodic as well as the morpho-syntactic hierarchy of spoken language. It can thus provide learners with cues about the structure of the language they are acquiring. We identify three universal levels of linguistic rhythm - the segmental level, the level of the metrical feet and the phonological phrase level - and discuss why primary lexical stress is not rhythmic. We survey experimental evidence on rhythm perception in young infants and native speakers of various languages to determine the properties of linguistic rhythm that are present at birth, those that mature during the first year of life and those that are shaped by the linguistic environment of language learners. We conclude with a discussion of the major gaps in current knowledge on linguistic rhythm and highlight areas of interest for future research that are most likely to yield significant insights into the nature, the perception, and the usefulness of linguistic rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Language Learning by Dint of Social Cognitive Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Bincy; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2015-01-01

    Language is of vital importance to human beings. It is a means of communication and it has specific cognitive links. Advanced social cognition is necessary for children to acquire language, and sophisticated mind-reading abilities to assume word meanings and communicate pragmatically. Language can be defined as a bi-directional system that permits…

  7. Dual-Language Learners: Strategies for Teaching English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passe, Angèle Sancho

    2013-01-01

    Support dual-language learners as they develop the skills necessary for school readiness and success For dual-language learners--children who are learning both English and a home language--the first eight years are crucial for building strong foundations for academic success. During this time, children acquire the early literacy skills needed to…

  8. In the Bullring with a Foreign Language--Ole!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Ron

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid onset of globalization and increasing demand from business, government, and schools for fluency in another language, the author decided to learn Spanish. Driven by a desire to acquire functional language abilities in Spanish, he has embarked on this "better late than never" opportunity to learn the language, and in this…

  9. Intercultural Language Educators for an Intercultural World: Action upon Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Sávio

    2017-01-01

    Bearing in mind that learning a new language is much more than acquiring a new code, but a new way of being in the world, the aim of the article is to briefly raise and discuss relevant issues relating to language teacher education in these contemporary times, especially in the area of English Language Teaching (ELT). Emphasis is placed on the…

  10. Communication Strategies in English as a Second Language (ESL) Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Lidya Ayuni

    2013-01-01

    Communication is important for people around the world. People try to communicate to other people around the globe using language. In understanding the differences of some languages around the world, people need to learn the language of other people they try to communicate with, for example Indonesian people learn to acquire English. In the…

  11. The "Fundamental Pedogagical Principle" in Second Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen D.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental principle of second language acquisition is stated and applied to language teaching. The principle states that learners acquire a second language when they receive comprehensible input in situations where their affective filters are sufficiently low. The theoretical background of this principle consists of five hypotheses: the…

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES How do doctors learn the spoken language of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-01

    Jul 1, 2009 ... correct language that has been acquired through listening. The Brewsters17 suggest an 'immersion experience' by living with speakers of the language. Ellis included several of their tools, such as loop tapes, as being useful in a consultation when learning a language.15 Others disagree with a purely.

  13. More than Numbers: Teaching ELLs Mathematical Language in Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistla, Michelle; Feng, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Teaching English Language Learners (ELL) academics while they are acquiring English language skills is a challenge for teachers. This action research examines the use of Response To Intervention (RTI) in teaching ELLs mathematical language and its effect on students' math achievement in primary grades. It shows that when mathematical language…

  14. Testing the language of German cerebral palsy patients with right hemispheric language organization after early left hemispheric damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right hemispheric reorganized language (RL) is not associated with obvious language deficits. In this pilot study we compared a group of German-speaking patients with left hemispheric brain damage and RL with a group of matched healthy controls. The novel combination of reliable language lateralization as assessed by neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and specific linguistic tasks revealed significant differences between patients with RL and healthy controls in both language comprehension and production. Our results provide evidence for the hypothesis that RL is significantly different from normal left hemispheric language. This knowledge can be used to improve counselling of parents and to develop specific therapeutic approaches.

  15. How language production shapes language form and comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryellen C MacDonald

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Language production processes can provide insight into how language comprehension works and language typology—why languages tend to have certain characteristics more often than others. Drawing on work in memory retrieval, motor planning, and serial order in action planning, the Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC account links work in the fields of language production, typology, and comprehension: 1 faced with substantial computational burdens of planning and producing utterances, language producers implicitly follow three biases in utterance planning that promote word order choices that reduce these burdens, thereby improving production fluency. 2 These choices, repeated over many utterances and individuals, shape the distributions of utterance forms in language. The claim that language form stems in large degree from producers’ attempts to mitigate utterance planning difficulty is contrasted with alternative accounts in which form is driven by language use more broadly, language acquisition processes, or producers’ attempts to create language forms that are easily understood by comprehenders. 3 Language perceivers implicitly learn the statistical regularities in their linguistic input, and they use this prior experience to guide comprehension of subsequent language. In particular, they learn to predict the sequential structure of linguistic signals, based on the statistics of previously-encountered input. Thus key aspects of comprehension behavior are tied to lexico-syntactic statistics in the language, which in turn derive from utterance planning biases promoting production of comparatively easy utterance forms over more difficult ones. This approach contrasts with classic theories in which comprehension behaviors are attributed to innate design features of the language comprehension system and associated working memory. The PDC instead links basic features of comprehension to a different source: production processes that shape

  16. Complement's participation in acquired immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton

    2002-01-01

    in which antigen is seen, be it alone or in association with natural or induced antibodies and/or C3-complement fragments. The aim of this review is to describe the present status of our understanding of complement's participation in acquired immunity and the regulation of autoimmune responses........ It is now clear that complement serves as a regulator of several B cell functions, including specific antibody production, antigen uptake, processing and presentation, and shaping of the B cell repertoire. Of key importance, in this respect, is the role played by the B cell-signaling triad consisting...

  17. Complementary Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2009-01-01

    by an alternative concept that more adequately describes the realities of what adherents of ‘parallel languages' can hope for. The new concept I have dubbed ‘complementary languages' (komplementær­sproglighed). I will explain this concept in the following and contrast it both with ‘parallel languages...

  18. [First language acquisition research and theories of language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Jungheim, M; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In principle, a child can seemingly easily acquire any given language. First language acquisition follows a certain pattern which to some extent is found to be language independent. Since time immemorial, it has been of interest why children are able to acquire language so easily. Different disciplinary and methodological orientations addressing this question can be identified. A selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was carried out and relevant monographies were considered. Different, partially overlapping phases can be distinguished in language acquisition research: whereas in ancient times, deprivation experiments were carried out to discover the "original human language", the era of diary studies began in the mid-19th century. From the mid-1920s onwards, behaviouristic paradigms dominated this field of research; interests were focussed on the determination of normal, average language acquisition. The subsequent linguistic period was strongly influenced by the nativist view of Chomsky and the constructivist concepts of Piaget. Speech comprehension, the role of speech input and the relevance of genetic disposition became the centre of attention. The interactionist concept led to a revival of the convergence theory according to Stern. Each of these four major theories--behaviourism, cognitivism, interactionism and nativism--have given valuable and unique impulses, but no single theory is universally accepted to provide an explanation of all aspects of language acquisition. Moreover, it can be critically questioned whether clinicians consciously refer to one of these theories in daily routine work and whether therapies are then based on this concept. It remains to be seen whether or not new theories of grammar, such as the so-called construction grammar (CxG), will eventually change the general concept of language acquisition.

  19. Syntactic Language Extension via an Algebra of Languages and Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus

    2010-01-01

    in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously de ned languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds of extensions....

  20. Tip-of-the-tongue in a second language: the effects of brief first-language exposure and long-term use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, Hamutal; Degani, Tamar

    2015-04-01

    Bilinguals have more tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) incidents than monolinguals. Whereas previous research has focused on differences in the long term language experience between these groups, the present study examined the hypothesis that both long-term and transient context factors modulate TOT rates. Russian-Hebrew bilinguals who acquired Hebrew either early (11years) were compared to native Hebrew speakers on a picture naming task in Hebrew, before and after viewing a short movie in Russian. Both the short-term context (before-after the movie) and long-term language experience modulated TOT rates: Late bilinguals exhibited significantly higher TOT rates than early bilinguals who did not significantly differ from native Hebrew speakers. Critically, following the Russian movie, bilinguals in both groups differed from the native speakers of the target language. Thus, exposure to the non-target language exerted a global, non-item-specific, cross-language interference effect. The findings highlight the dynamic nature of the bilingual system in which both short and long-term language experience operate to influence bilingual performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Caregivers' suffix frequencies and suffix acquisition by language impaired, late talking, and typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2012-11-01

    Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.

  2. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Demographic and clinical data in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoebl, P.; Marco, P.; Baudo, F.; Collins, P.; Huth-Kühne, A.; Nemes, L.; Pellegrini, F.; Tengborn, L.; Lévesque, H.; Aspoeck, Gerold; Heistinger, Max; Knöbl, Paul; Makipernaa, Anne; André, Hélène; Aouba, Achille; Bellucci, Sylvia; Beurrier, Philippe; Borg, Jeanne Yvonne; Darnige, Luc; Devignes, Jean; d'Oiron, Roseline; Gautier, Philippe; Gay, Valérie; Girault, Stéphane; Gruel, Yves; Guerin, Viviane; Hézard, Nathalie; Khellaf, Mehdi; Koenig, Martial; Lévesque, Hervé; Lifermann, François; Marlu, Raphael; Peynet, Jocelyne; Quéméneur, Thomas; Rothschild, Chantal; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Sigaud, Marianne; Trouillier, Sébastien; Voisin, Sophie; Giebl, Andreas; Holstein, Katharina; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Loreth, Ralph M.; Steigerwald, Udo; Tiede, Andreas; Theodossiades, George; Nemes, László; Radvanyi, Gaspar; Schlammadinger, Agota; Barillari, Giovanni; Pasca, Samantha; Baudo, Francesco; Caimi, Teresa; Contino, Laura; Di Minno, Giovanni; Cerbone, Anna Maria; Di Minno, Dario; D'incà, Marco; Falanga, Anna; Maggioni, Anna; Lerede, Teresa; Franchini, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; de Paoli, Lorenzo; Gamba, Gabriella; Ghirardi, Raffaele; Girotto, Mauro; Tasca, Delios; Grandone, Elvira; Tiscia, Giovanni; Imberti, Davide; Iorio, Alfonso; Landolfi, Raffaele; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Novarese, Linda; Mariani, Guglielmo; Lapecorella, Mario; Marietta, Marco; Pedrazzi, Paola; Mazzucconi, Maria Gabriella; Santoro, Cristina; Morfini, Massimo; Linari, Silvia; Moratelli, Stefano; Paolini, Rossella; Piseddu, Gavino; Poggio, Renzo; Pogliani, Enrico; Carpenedo, Monica; Remiddi, Chiara; Santagostino, Elena; Santoro, Rita; Papaleo, Giuseppina; Schinco, Piercarla; Borchiellini, Alessandra; Scortechini, Anna Rita; Siragusa, Sergio; Sottilotta, Gianluca; Squizzato, Alessandro; Sartori, Roberto; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Tagliaferri, Anna Rita; Di Perna, Caterina; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Testa, Sophie; Paoletti, Oriana; Toschi, Vincenzo; Zanon, Ezio; Brandolini, Barbara; Hamulyák, Karly; Kamphuisen, Pieter; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta; Leebeek, Frank W. G.; Marten, Nijziel; Novakova, Irena; Schutgens, Roger; van der Linden, P. W. G.; van Esser, Joost; van der Meer, J.; Ypma, Paula; Campos, Manuel; Aguilar, Carlos; Altisent, Carmen; Bermejo, Nuria; del Campo, Raquel; Ferreiro Argüelles, María; González Boullosa, Rosario; Gutiérrez Pimentel, María José; Jiménez-Yuste, Victor; Jose-Felix, Lucia; Pascual, Marco; Mingot, Maria Eva; Perez Garrido, Rosario; Perez Gonzale, Noelia z; Prieto Garcia, Manuel; Rodriguez-Huerta, Ana María; Sedano, Carmen; Tolosa Munoz, Alexandra; Baghaei, Fariba; Tengborn, Lilian; Boehlen, Françoise; Korte, Wolfgang; Chowdary, Pratima; Collins, Peter; Evans, Gillian; Pavord, Suzanne; Rangarajan, Savita; Wilde, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII and characterized by spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with no previous family or personal history of bleeding. Although data on several AHA cohorts have been collected,

  4. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  5. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Online continuing interprofessional education on hospital-acquired infections for Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Medina-Presentado

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Implementation of this educational program showed the feasibility of a continent-wide interprofessional massive course on hospital acquired-infections in Latin America, in the two main languages spoken in the region. Next steps included a new edition of this course and a “New Challenges” course on hospital-acquired infections, which were successfully implemented in the second semester of 2015 by the same institutions.

  7. Teaching in Two Tongues: Rethinking the Role of Language(s) in Teacher Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Shailaja; Viswanatha, Vanamala; Sahi, Jane

    2014-01-01

    This article is a sharing of emergent ideas about the potential role of languages in teacher education (TE) programmes in multilingual contexts in India. Languages play a critical role in TE programmes where they shape both the learning as well as the future teaching of prospective teachers. This role acquires particular significance in…

  8. Adapting the "Assessing British Sign Language Development: Receptive Skills Test" into American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Charlotte J.; Herman, Rosalind C.

    2011-01-01

    Signed languages continue to be a key element of deaf education programs that incorporate a bilingual approach to teaching and learning. In order to monitor the success of bilingual deaf education programs, and in particular to monitor the progress of children acquiring signed language, it is essential to develop an assessment tool of signed…

  9. Child first language and adult second language are both tied to general-purpose learning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Phillip; Lum, Jarrad A G; Ullman, Michael T

    2018-02-13

    Do the mechanisms underlying language in fact serve general-purpose functions that preexist this uniquely human capacity? To address this contentious and empirically challenging issue, we systematically tested the predictions of a well-studied neurocognitive theory of language motivated by evolutionary principles. Multiple metaanalyses were performed to examine predicted links between language and two general-purpose learning systems, declarative and procedural memory. The results tied lexical abilities to learning only in declarative memory, while grammar was linked to learning in both systems in both child first language and adult second language, in specific ways. In second language learners, grammar was associated with only declarative memory at lower language experience, but with only procedural memory at higher experience. The findings yielded large effect sizes and held consistently across languages, language families, linguistic structures, and tasks, underscoring their reliability and validity. The results, which met the predicted pattern, provide comprehensive evidence that language is tied to general-purpose systems both in children acquiring their native language and adults learning an additional language. Crucially, if language learning relies on these systems, then our extensive knowledge of the systems from animal and human studies may also apply to this domain, leading to predictions that might be unwarranted in the more circumscribed study of language. Thus, by demonstrating a role for these systems in language, the findings simultaneously lay a foundation for potentially important advances in the study of this critical domain.

  10. Linguistic perception and second language acquisition : Explaining the attainment of optimal phonological categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escudero Neyra, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    In Linguistic Perception and Second Language Acquisition, Paola Escudero provides a detailed description, explanation, and prediction of how optimal second language (L2) sound perception is acquired, and presents three empirical studies to test the model's theoretical principles. The author

  11. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  12. Acquired Functional Asplenia in Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard W.; McDaniel, Willie R.; Armstrong, Earl M.; Young, Roscoe C.; Higginbotham-Ford, Edith A.

    1985-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a recently identified cause of functional asplenia that can be diagnosed by radionuclide imaging. A 31-year-old woman with a five-year history of histologically compatible sarcoidosis was found to have nonvisualization of the spleen on technetium 99m sulfur colloid (radiopharmaceutical) liver-spleen scan. This scintigraphic finding was accompanied by poikilocytosis and Howell-Jolly bodies in the peripheral blood smear. A subsequent gallium 67 citrate scan reflected an abnormal increase in concentration of activity in the spleen, suggesting an active inflammatory process. Based upon this constellation of findings, it was concluded that acquired functional asplenia is the result of reticuloendothelial cell replacement via infiltration of the spleen by epithelioid cell granulomas of active sarcoidosis. This case also illustrates the reversibility of functional asplenia of sarcoidosis following adrenocorticosteroid therapy. Functional asplenia in sarcoidosis is now found to have a recognizable radionuclide imaging pattern. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:3908697

  13. And the Winner is - Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    New entrants to a market tend to be superior to incumbents in originating radical innovations. We provide a new explanation for this phenomenon, based on markets for technology. It applies in industries where successful entrepreneurial firms, or their technologies, are acquired by incumbents...... that then commercialize the innovation. To this end we analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability...... the incumbent performs the least radical project. Entrants pick pairwise different projects; the bigger the number of entrants, the more radical the most radical project. Generally, entrants tend to choose more radical R&D approaches and generate the highest value innovation in case of success. We illustrate...

  14. Moral Judgement and Foreign Language Effect: When the Foreign Language Becomes the Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavar, Franziska; Tytus, Agnieszka Ewa

    2018-01-01

    While making a decision facing a moral conflict, does your answer vary depending on whether you use your first language or later learned second language? A previous study conducted by Costa, Albert, Alice Foucart, Sayuri Hayakawa, Melina Aparici, Jose Apesteguia, Joy Heafner, Boaz Keysar, and Mariano Sigman [2014. "Your Morals Depend on…

  15. Breaking Magic: Foreign Language Suppresses Superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristidis, Constantinos; Geipel, Janet; Surian, Luca

    2017-08-24

    In three studies we found that reading information in a foreign language can suppress common superstitious beliefs. Participants read scenarios either in their native or a foreign language. In each scenario, participants were asked to imagine performing an action (e.g., submitting a job application) under a superstitious circumstance (e.g., broken mirror; four-leaf clover) and to rate how they would feel. Overall, foreign language prompted less negative feelings towards bad-luck scenarios, less positive feelings towards good-luck scenarios, while it exerted no influence on non-superstitious, control scenarios. We attribute these findings to language-dependent memory. Superstitious beliefs are typically acquired and used in contexts involving the native language. As a result, the native language evokes them more forcefully than a foreign language.

  16. Language acquisition from a biolinguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Koring, Loes; Thornton, Rosalind

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the biolinguistic approach to language acquisition. We contrast the biolinguistic approach with a usage-based approach. We argue that the biolinguistic approach is superior because it provides more accurate and more extensive generalizations about the properties of human languages, as well as a better account of how children acquire human languages. To distinguish between these accounts, we focus on how child and adult language differ both in sentence production and in sentence understanding. We argue that the observed differences resist explanation using the cognitive mechanisms that are invoked by the usage-based approach. In contrast, the biolinguistic approach explains the qualitative parametric differences between child and adult language. Explaining how child and adult language differ and demonstrating that children perceive unity despite apparent diversity are two of the hallmarks of the biolinguistic approach to language acquisition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  18. The production of nominal and verbal inflection in an agglutinative language: evidence from Hungarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Turi, Zsolt; Lukacs, Agnes; Peckham, Don; Szanka, Szilvia; Gazso, Dorottya; Lovassy, Noemi; Ullman, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The contrast between regular and irregular inflectional morphology has been useful in investigating the functional and neural architecture of language. However, most studies have examined the regular/irregular distinction in non-agglutinative Indo-European languages (primarily English) with relatively simple morphology. Additionally, the majority of research has focused on verbal rather than nominal inflectional morphology. The present study attempts to address these gaps by introducing both plural and past tense production tasks in Hungarian, an agglutinative non-Indo-European language with complex morphology. Here we report results on these tasks from healthy Hungarian native-speaking adults, in whom we examine regular and irregular nominal and verbal inflection in a within-subjects design. Regular and irregular nouns and verbs were stem on frequency, word length, and phonological structure, and both accuracy and response times were acquired. The results revealed that the regular/irregular contrast yields similar patterns in Hungarian, for both nominal and verbal inflection, as in previous studies of non-agglutinative Indo-European languages: the production of irregular inflected forms was both less accurate and slower than of regular forms, both for plural and past-tense inflection. The results replicate and extend previous findings to an agglutinative language with complex morphology. Together with previous studies, the evidence suggests that the regular/irregular distinction yields a basic behavioral pattern that holds across language families and linguistic typologies. Finally, the study sets the stage for further research examining the neurocognitive substrates of regular and irregular morphology in an agglutinative non-Indo-European language.

  19. Language deficits and genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopnik, M

    1997-04-01

    Although most children acquire language effortlessly, there are some children who find learning language a difficult and arduous task. This group of subjects resembles a natural experiment and has the potential to provide us with insights into the nature of the biological basis of language. The data show that this disorder is associated with certain genetic factors that can lead to neurological abnormalities. Our studies of the linguistic details of language impairment in English, French, Greek and Japanese have led us to conclude that affected individuals cannot construct normal representations for complex words nor can they construct the rules which should operate on these representations. These data are inconsistent with any explanation in terms of auditory or articulatory processing. Therefore, we must conclude that a genetic disorder can impair the ability to build a normal grammar.

  20. Using Short Texts to Teach English as Second Language: An Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembo, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The teacher of English Language is often hard pressed to find interesting and authentic ways to present language to target second language speakers. While language can be taught and learned, part of it must be acquired and short texts provide powerful tools for doing so and reinforcing what has been taught/learned. This paper starts from research,…

  1. A New Approach to Programming Language Education for Beginners with Top-Down Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Saito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two basic approaches in learning new programming language: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach. It has been said that if a learner has already acquired one language, the top-down approach is more efficient to learn another while, for a person who has absolutely no knowledge of any programming languages; the bottom-up approach is preferable. The major problem of the bottom-up approach is that it requires longer period to acquire the language. For quicker learning, this paper applies a top-down approach for a beginners who has not yet acquired any programming languages.

  2. Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

  3. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  4. A formative approach to cultural content learning in intercultural foreign language teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijević Maja M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the effectiveness of the formative approach in the adoption of cultural content as part of intercultural foreign language teaching. In contrast to the informative, the formative approach is based on a constructivist approach to foreign language acquisition; in other words, it is a process of tertiary socialization through the construction of an intercultural identity, by means of experiential acquisition, interaction and cognitive conflict with previously adopted patterns. Byram's (1997 propositions about the importance of acquiring intercultural competence in foreign language teaching represent a complete shift towards a formative approach since they formulate general educational goals according to which it is impossible to have an insight into the language reality of a different culture unless an individual is aware of their own and the relative nature of both, which is vital to the development of critical intercultural awareness. Thus the focus of teaching shifts to the integration of the target and the source cultures through participatory tasks and constructive analysis, and to the construction of the learner's identity as intercultural speaker with a range of affective, cognitive and behavioral competences enabling successful contact with difference. The formative approach enables the foreign language teacher, whose role has also been redefined, to use appropriate materials in order to develop critical thinking and intercultural competence in students through their active involvement in the process of target language acquisition.

  5. Language knowledge and event knowledge in language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Jon A; Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines how semantic knowledge is used in language comprehension and in making judgments about events in the world. We contrast knowledge gleaned from prior language experience ("language knowledge") and knowledge coming from prior experience with the world ("world knowledge"). In two corpus analyses, we show that previous research linking verb aspect and event representations have confounded language and world knowledge. Then, using carefully chosen stimuli that remove this confound, we performed four experiments that manipulated the degree to which language knowledge or world knowledge should be salient and relevant to performing a task, finding in each case that participants use the type of knowledge most appropriate to the task. These results provide evidence for a highly context-sensitive and interactionist perspective on how semantic knowledge is represented and used during language processing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Market Language, Moral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goold, Susan Dorr

    2018-01-01

    Those who advocate higher out-of-pocket spending, especially high deductibles, to keep health care costs better controlled without losing quality use market language to talk about how people should think about health care. Consumers-that is, patients-should hunt for bargains. Clip coupons. Shop around. Patients need to have more "skin in the game." Consumer-patients will then choose more carefully and prudently and use less unnecessary health care. Unfailingly, "skin" refers to having money at stake. Usually, those arguing for high deductibles express dismay or frustration that patients do not face the full ("true") cost of the health services they receive. Unfortunately, a lack of price transparency, the need to unbundle bundled groups of services to discover total price, and the challenge of validly and reliably measuring and disclosing quality make shopping for health care a challenge for even the savviest patient. Urgency, fear, and sickness that impairs peak cognitive function and other aspects of emotionally laden decision-making, even when "shared" with a physician, add obstacles to coupon clipping and tire kicking. Who has more at stake in health decisions than patients? Whose flesh is literally, not just figuratively, at risk? © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  7. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60.83 months, 50.2% female) participated in this study. Results indicated that bifactor models that consisted of language-independent as well as language-specific early literacy factors provided the best fits to the data for children's phonological awareness and print knowledge skills. Correlated factors models that only included skills specific to Spanish and English provided the best fits to the data for children's oral language skills. Children's language-independent early literacy skills were significantly related across constructs and to language-specific aspects of early literacy. Language-specific aspects of early literacy skills were significantly related within but not across languages. These findings suggest that language-minority preschoolers have a common underlying proficiency for code-related skills but not language-related skills that may allow them to transfer knowledge across languages.

  8. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  9. Specialized languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    -disciplinarily, because they work with both derivative and contributory approaches. Derivative, because specialized language retrieves its philosophy of science as well as methods from both the natural sciences, social sciences and humanistic sciences. Contributory because language results support the communication...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...

  10. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  11. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on grey matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Anelis eKaiser; Sara Leila eEppenberger; Renata eSmieskova; Stefan eBorgwardt; Esther eKuenzli; Erstn-Wilhelm eRadue; Cordula eNitsch; Kerstin eBendfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simul...

  12. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  13. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costerus, Joost M; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Bijlsma, Merijn W; van de Beek, Diederik

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and is associated with a high disease burden. We reviewed recent progress in the management of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis. The worldwide burden of disease of bacterial meningitis remains high, despite the decreasing incidence following introduction of routine vaccination campaigns. Delay in diagnosis and treatment remain major concerns in the management of acute bacterial meningitis. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases guidelines strive for a door-to-antibiotic-time less than 1 h. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool to identify the causative organism. Point-of-care tests using fast multiplex PCR have been developed, but additional value has not been proven. Although anecdotal observations advocate pressure-based management, a randomized controlled trial will need to be performed first to determine efficacy and safety of such an aggressive treatment approach. Adjunctive dexamethasone remains the only adjunctive therapy with proven efficacy. The incidence of bacterial meningitis has been decreasing after the implementation of effective vaccines. Treatment should be administered as soon as possible and time to treatment should not exceed 1 h.

  14. 12 CFR 617.7610 - What should the System institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? 617.7610 Section 617.7610 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... institution do when it decides to sell acquired agricultural real estate? (a) Notify the previous owner, (1) Within 15 days of the System institution's decision to sell acquired agricultural real estate, it must...

  15. The riddle of Tasmanian languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowern, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Recent work which combines methods from linguistics and evolutionary biology has been fruitful in discovering the history of major language families because of similarities in evolutionary processes. Such work opens up new possibilities for language research on previously unsolvable problems, especially in areas where information from other sources may be lacking. I use phylogenetic methods to investigate Tasmanian languages. Existing materials are so fragmentary that scholars have been unable to discover how many languages are represented in the sources. Using a clustering algorithm which identifies admixture, source materials representing more than one language are identified. Using the Neighbor-Net algorithm, 12 languages are identified in five clusters. Bayesian phylogenetic methods reveal that the families are not demonstrably related; an important result, given the importance of Tasmanian Aborigines for information about how societies have responded to population collapse in prehistory. This work provides insight into the societies of prehistoric Tasmania and illustrates a new utility of phylogenetics in reconstructing linguistic history. PMID:23015621

  16. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  17. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If...

  18. Electrophysiological Evidence for Endogenous Control of Attention in Switching between Languages in Overt Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Kim M. W.; Roelofs, Ardi; Chwilla, Dorothee J.

    2010-01-01

    Language switching in bilingual speakers requires attentional control to select the appropriate language, for example, in picture naming. Previous language-switch studies used the color of pictures to indicate the required language thereby confounding endogenous and exogenous control. To investigate endogenous language control, our language cues…

  19. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated.

  20. When Unbiased Probabilistic Learning Is Not Enough: Acquiring a Parametric System of Metrical Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric systems have been proposed as models of how humans represent knowledge about language, motivated in part as a way to explain children's rapid acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Given this, it seems reasonable to examine if children with knowledge of parameters could in fact acquire the adult system from the data available to them.…

  1. Early Word Segmentation in Infants Acquiring Parisian French: Task-Dependent and Dialect-Specific Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzi, Thierry; Mersad, Karima; Sundara, Megha; Iakimova, Galina; Polka, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Six experiments explored Parisian French-learning infants' ability to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech. The first goal was to assess whether bisyllabic word segmentation emerges later in infants acquiring European French compared to other languages. The second goal was to determine whether infants learning different dialects of the same…

  2. Non-Speech Oro-Motor Exercise Use in Acquired Dysarthria Management: Regimes and Rationales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Muir, Margaret; Allen, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-speech oro-motor exercises (NSOMExs) are described in speech and language therapy manuals and are thought to be much used in acquired dysarthria intervention, though there is no robust evidence of an influence on speech outcome. Opinions differ as to whether, and for which dysarthria presentations, NSOMExs are appropriate. Aims:…

  3. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  4. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  5. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  6. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  7. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  8. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  9. Learning bias, cultural evolution of language, and the biological evolution of the language faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenny

    2011-04-01

    The biases of individual language learners act to determine the learnability and cultural stability of languages: learners come to the language learning task with biases which make certain linguistic systems easier to acquire than others. These biases are repeatedly applied during the process of language transmission, and consequently should effect the types of languages we see in human populations. Understanding the cultural evolutionary consequences of particular learning biases is therefore central to understanding the link between language learning in individuals and language universals, common structural properties shared by all the world’s languages. This paper reviews a range of models and experimental studies which show that weak biases in individual learners can have strong effects on the structure of socially learned systems such as language, suggesting that strong universal tendencies in language structure do not require us to postulate strong underlying biases or constraints on language learning. Furthermore, understanding the relationship between learner biases and language design has implications for theories of the evolution of those learning biases: models of gene-culture coevolution suggest that, in situations where a cultural dynamic mediates between properties of individual learners and properties of language in this way, biological evolution is unlikely to lead to the emergence of strong constraints on learning.

  10. Learning across languages: bilingual experience supports dual language statistical word segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antovich, Dylan M; Graf Estes, Katharine

    2018-03-01

    Bilingual acquisition presents learning challenges beyond those found in monolingual environments, including the need to segment speech in two languages. Infants may use statistical cues, such as syllable-level transitional probabilities, to segment words from fluent speech. In the present study we assessed monolingual and bilingual 14-month-olds' abilities to segment two artificial languages using transitional probability cues. In Experiment 1, monolingual infants successfully segmented the speech streams when the languages were presented individually. However, monolinguals did not segment the same language stimuli when they were presented together in interleaved segments, mimicking the language switches inherent to bilingual speech. To assess the effect of real-world bilingual experience on dual language speech segmentation, Experiment 2 tested infants with regular exposure to two languages using the same interleaved language stimuli as Experiment 1. The bilingual infants in Experiment 2 successfully segmented the languages, indicating that early exposure to two languages supports infants' abilities to segment dual language speech using transitional probability cues. These findings support the notion that early bilingual exposure prepares infants to navigate challenging aspects of dual language environments as they begin to acquire two languages. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Biomarkers in Community-Acquired Pneumonia Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voskresenska Natalja

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on pneumonia (P patients with features of oxidative stress (OS. Identifying features of OS in patients with P is of interest not only for diagnosis, but also for monitoring of treatment efficiency. We recruited 73 patients with community-acquired P (CAP, previously healthy adults, both males and females with mean age of 68.0 ± 15.2, hospitalised, and 61 healthy control patients matched for age. For quantitative evaluation of lipid peroxidation in CAP patients, the levels of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products like malondialdehyde (MDA and 4- hydroxynon-2-enal (HNE were quantified. Furthermore, concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH and several antioxidant enzymes and selenium in plasma were determined. In CAP patients, decreased levels of GSH and plasma selenium were observed. Plasma levels of MDA, and HNE did significantly differ between patient and control groups. We also noted reduced activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutation peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Low antioxidant enzymes activity was associated with a more severe CAP pattern. Both GSH and antioxidant enzymes may serve as markers for inflammation-related OS in CAP patients, and measurement of these biomarkers may be a valid indentifier for its management.

  12. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  13. Designing for language learning in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    contacts and experiences can be enhanced and brought back into the classroom to study and learn from them. How can the ‘wild’ language be practically supported to become the ‘food chain’ of language acquisition? The paper will present an example of language encounters ‘in the wild’ and analyze the sense......When adult newcomers arrive in a new society, the new language encroaches immediately into their everyday lives. As a minimum, newcomers are overhearers of and eavesdroppers to encounters in public life, education, at workplaces, or in the media and they meet texts wherever they go. In daily life......, there are ample daily opportunities for engaging with the language of the society. It has a paramount presence in the daily life of newcomers even before they have acquired the nuts and bolts for using it actively. Language encounters ‘in the wild’ happen in a sometimes chaotic, sometimes repetitive environment...

  14. An unusual cause of community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie Mittal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of fatal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP due to Acinetobacter baumannii, which is rarely reported in the northeastern United States. Previously reported cases originate from tropical and subtropical climates, and infection tends to have an aggressive course with a poor outcome. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial; however, the associated systemic inflammatory response may overwhelm host defenses, especially in patients with certain co-morbidities.

  15. Rehabilitation of discourse impairments after acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gigiane Gindri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Language impairments in patients with acquired brain injury can have a negative impact on social life as well as on other cognitive domains. Discourse impairments are among the most commonly reported communication deficits among patients with acquired brain damage. Despite advances in the development of diagnostic tools for detecting such impairments, few studies have investigated interventions to rehabilitate patients presenting with these conditions. Objective: The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of the methods used in the rehabilitation of discourse following acquired brain injury. Methods: The PubMed database was searched for articles using the following keywords: "rehabilitation", "neurological injury", "communication" and "discursive abilities". Results: A total of 162 abstracts were found, but only seven of these met criteria for inclusion in the review. Four studies involved samples of individuals with aphasia whereas three studies recruited samples of individuals with traumatic brain injury. Conclusion: All but one article found that patient performance improved following participation in a discourse rehabilitation program.

  16. Second language learners’ divergence from target language pragmatic norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Gomez-Laich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatic competence is an indispensable aspect of language ability in order for second and foreign language (L2/FL learners to understand and be understood in their interactions with both native and nonnative speakers of the target language. Without a proper understanding of the pragmatic rules in the target language, learners may run the risk of coming across as insensitive and rude. Several researchers (Bardovi-Harlig, 2001; Kasper & Rose, 2002 suggest that L2 pragmatics not only can be taught in the L2/FL classroom, but, more importantly, that explicit approaches that involve direct explanation of target pragmatic features are beneficial for learning pragmatics. Just as native speakers of a language acquire a “set of dispositions to act in certain ways, which generates cognitive and bodily practices in the individual” (Watts, 2003, p. 149, instructors can help learners to become aware of the pragmatic features that characterize the target language. Although the importance of explicit teaching of pragmatics is well recognized in the literature, learning norms and rules of pragmatics largely depends on learners’ subjectivity. Learners’ convergence or divergence from the L2 pragmatic norms, both consciously and out of awareness, sometimes depends on whether these norms fit their image of self and their L1 cultural identity. Since identity-related conflict can have significant consequences for the acquisition of second language pragmatics, failing to consider the centrality of learners’ identities will produce an inadequate understanding of SLA. This paper synthesizes studies that document the reasons why learners opt to remain foreign by resisting certain L2 practic-es. The following synthesis question was proposed: Why do language learners resist the pragmatic norms of the target language?

  17. The effect of bilingual exposure versus language impairment on nonword repetition and sentence imitation scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordardottir, Elin; Brandeker, Myrto

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition (NWR) and sentence imitation (SI) are increasingly used as diagnostic tools for the identification of Primary Language Impairment (PLI). They may be particularly promising diagnostic tools for bilingual children if performance on them is not highly affected by bilingual exposure. Two studies were conducted which examined (1) the effect of amount of bilingual exposure on performance on French and English nonword repetition and sentence imitation in 5-year-old French-English bilingual children and (2) the diagnostic accuracy of the French versions of these measures and of receptive vocabulary in 5-year-old monolingual French-speakers and bilingual speakers with and without PLI, carefully matched on language exposure. Study 1 included 84 5-year-olds acquiring French and English simultaneously, differing in their amount of exposure to the two languages but equated on age, nonverbal cognition and socio-economic status. Children were administered French and English tests of NWR and SI. In Study 2, monolingual and bilingual children with and without PLI (four groups, n=14 per group) were assessed for NWR, SI, and receptive vocabulary in French to determine diagnostic accuracy. Study 1: Both processing measures, but in particular NWR, were less affected by previous exposure than vocabulary measures. Bilingual children with varying levels of exposure were unaffected by the length of nonwords. Study 2: In contrast to receptive vocabulary, NWR and SI correctly distinguished children with PLI from children with typical development (TD) regardless of bilingualism. Sensitivity levels were acceptable, but specificity was lower. Bilingual children perform differently than children with PLI on NWR and SI. In contrast to children with PLI, bilingual children with a large range of previous exposure levels achieve high NWR scores and are unaffected by the length of the nonwords. Readers will recognize the effect of language input on the rate of language development

  18. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  19. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  20. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulverm?ller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neu...

  1. A matter of complexity: Subordination in sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Herrmann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural languages exist in two different modalities - the visual-gestural modality of sign languages and the auditory-oral modality of spoken languages - it is obvious that all fields of research in modern linguistics will benefit from research on sign languages. Although previous studies have

  2. Integrating Culture into Language Teaching and Learning: Learner Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thuy

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of learner outcomes in learning culture as part of their language learning. First, some brief discussion on the role of culture in language teaching and learning, as well as on culture contents in language lessons is presented. Based on a detailed review of previous literature related to culture in language teaching…

  3. Profiling Pragmatic Ability of Foreign Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Kusevska, Marija; Ivanovska, Biljana; Daskalovska, Nina; Mitkovska, Liljana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the components that foreign language learners need to acquire in order to develop their pragmatic ability. This paper presents a description of phase one of an ongoing research project at Goce Delcev University-Stip, Republic of Macedonia, on developing pragmatic ability of foreign language learners. We first define pragmatic ability; then we discuss data collection instruments and procedures; finally we give outlook of further research. K...

  4. Implicit Memory in Music and Language

    OpenAIRE

    Marc eEttlinger; Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis; Patrick C. M. Wong; Patrick C. M. Wong

    2011-01-01

    Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an imp...

  5. Scaffolded instruction: promoting biliteracy for second language learners with language/learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorri M. Johnson-Perrodin

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available For culturally and linguistically diverse learners, scaffolded instruction is important for not only content learning but for second language learning. In this case study of two bilingual education teachers and their third grade students, we expand the traditional concept of scaffolded instruction (e.g., experts, tools, routines to include Krashen's notion of comprehensible input (1982 as a scaffold for acquiring a second language yielding an effective transfer of first language (L1 academic language development to second language (L2 academic language development. A variety of scaffolds were used as multiple support systems that facilitated the biliteracy learning process for the students. Peer interactions, expert/ novice groupings, and literacy tools and routines were some of the scaffolds used to facilitate biliteracy instruction. Key to transfer from L1 to L2 was the teaching the tools and routines in the students' L1 prior to biliteracy instruction. Considerations for students with language/learning disabilities (LLD were included in this case study. Results suggest that by scaffolding for L2 development using previously acquired knowledge from first language (L1 instruction, students including those with LLD efficiently transferred cognitive academic skills from L1 to L2. Educational implications are discussed. Para alumnos cultural y linguisticamente diversos, la instrucción basada en el andamiaje es importante no unicamente para el contenido del aprendizaje sino para el aprendizaje de un segundo idioma. En este estudio de caso de dos profesores bilingües y sus alumnos de tercer curso, ampliamos el tradicional concepto de instrucción mediante andamiaje (e.g.,expertos, herramientas, rutinas incluyendo la noción de Krashen de entrada comprensiba (1982 como un apoyo para adquirir un segundo lenguaje produciendo un transfer efectivo del primer idioma desarrollado academicamente (L1 al segundo (L2. Una gran variedad de andamiajes fueron

  6. Aging in language dynamics.

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    Animesh Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Human languages evolve continuously, and a puzzling problem is how to reconcile the apparent robustness of most of the deep linguistic structures we use with the evidence that they undergo possibly slow, yet ceaseless, changes. Is the state in which we observe languages today closer to what would be a dynamical attractor with statistically stationary properties or rather closer to a non-steady state slowly evolving in time? Here we address this question in the framework of the emergence of shared linguistic categories in a population of individuals interacting through language games. The observed emerging asymptotic categorization, which has been previously tested--with success--against experimental data from human languages, corresponds to a metastable state where global shifts are always possible but progressively more unlikely and the response properties depend on the age of the system. This aging mechanism exhibits striking quantitative analogies to what is observed in the statistical mechanics of glassy systems. We argue that this can be a general scenario in language dynamics where shared linguistic conventions would not emerge as attractors, but rather as metastable states.

  7. Using the Hands to Represent Objects in Space: Gesture as a Substrate for Signed Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikki Janke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing issue of interest in second language research concerns what transfers from a speaker's first language to their second. For learners of a sign language, gesture is a potential substrate for transfer. Our study provides a novel test of gestural production by eliciting silent gesture from novices in a controlled environment. We focus on spatial relationships, which in sign languages are represented in a very iconic way using the hands, and which one might therefore predict to be easy for adult learners to acquire. However, a previous study by Marshall and Morgan (2015 revealed that this was only partly the case: in a task that required them to express the relative locations of objects, hearing adult learners of British Sign Language (BSL could represent objects' locations and orientations correctly, but had difficulty selecting the correct handshapes to represent the objects themselves. If hearing adults are indeed drawing upon their gestural resources when learning sign languages, then their difficulties may have stemmed from their having in manual gesture only a limited repertoire of handshapes to draw upon, or, alternatively, from having too broad a repertoire. If the first hypothesis is correct, the challenge for learners is to extend their handshape repertoire, but if the second is correct, the challenge is instead to narrow down to the handshapes appropriate for that particular sign language. 30 sign-naïve hearing adults were tested on Marshall and Morgan's task. All used some handshapes that were different from those used by native BSL signers and learners, and the set of handshapes used by the group as a whole was larger than that employed by native signers and learners. Our findings suggest that a key challenge when learning to express locative relations might be reducing from a very large set of gestural resources, rather than supplementing a restricted one, in order to converge on the conventionalized classifier system that

  8. Using the Hands to Represent Objects in Space: Gesture as a Substrate for Signed Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Marshall, Chloë R

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing issue of interest in second language research concerns what transfers from a speaker's first language to their second. For learners of a sign language, gesture is a potential substrate for transfer. Our study provides a novel test of gestural production by eliciting silent gesture from novices in a controlled environment. We focus on spatial relationships, which in sign languages are represented in a very iconic way using the hands, and which one might therefore predict to be easy for adult learners to acquire. However, a previous study by Marshall and Morgan (2015) revealed that this was only partly the case: in a task that required them to express the relative locations of objects, hearing adult learners of British Sign Language (BSL) could represent objects' locations and orientations correctly, but had difficulty selecting the correct handshapes to represent the objects themselves. If hearing adults are indeed drawing upon their gestural resources when learning sign languages, then their difficulties may have stemmed from their having in manual gesture only a limited repertoire of handshapes to draw upon, or, alternatively, from having too broad a repertoire. If the first hypothesis is correct, the challenge for learners is to extend their handshape repertoire, but if the second is correct, the challenge is instead to narrow down to the handshapes appropriate for that particular sign language. 30 sign-naïve hearing adults were tested on Marshall and Morgan's task. All used some handshapes that were different from those used by native BSL signers and learners, and the set of handshapes used by the group as a whole was larger than that employed by native signers and learners. Our findings suggest that a key challenge when learning to express locative relations might be reducing from a very large set of gestural resources, rather than supplementing a restricted one, in order to converge on the conventionalized classifier system that forms part of the

  9. A brief discussion on the biological factors in the acquisition of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronivaldo Braz da Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of how language is acquired and the role the brain plays in the language acquisition process are crucial because the development of language is one of the most important factcrs in human development. The analysis of language development is intrinsically connected with one's awareness of how human beings or human brains perceive, learn, control, and coordinate elaborate behaviour. The study of language development, therefore, involves research on motor, perceptual, and cognitive development. This paper reviews the three major theories of language acquisition, namely, behaviouristic, psycholinguistic, and interactionistic and examines the biological component of language acquisition and the brain's role in the language development process.

  10. Does Equal Access Mean Treat the Same? From Theory to Practice in the Classroom of English as an Additional Language Learner in Ireland--Towards a Transformative Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Niamh

    2014-01-01

    While a substantial body of research exists on First- and Second-Language Acquisition (SLA), research on the language acquisition process that a language minority student goes through when they are acquiring a second language has been largely unexplored. Pedagogical practices that espouse language learning theories facilitate both the language…

  11. A Phenomenological Study: The Impacts of Developing Phonetic Awareness through Technological Resources on English Language Learners' (ELL) Communicative Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Merchán, Paolo; Torres-Jara, Gabriela; Andrade-Dominguez, Francisco; Ortiz-Zurita, Ma. José; Alvarez-Muñoz, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Throughout our experience within the English Language Teaching (ELT) field and while acquiring a second language in English a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) settings, we have noticed that one of the main perceived challenges for English Language Learners (ELLs) is to effectively communicate. Most of the time, this…

  12. Language preference in monolingual and bilingual infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valji, Ayasha; Polka, Linda

    2004-05-01

    Previous research shows that infants being raised in single-language families have some basic language discrimination abilities at birth, that these skills improve over the first 6 months of life, and that infants are attending to the rhythmic properties of language to perform these skills. Research has also revealed that newborns and older babies from monolingual families prefer listening to their native language over an unfamiliar language. Data on language discrimination and preference in bilingual infants is very limited but is necessary to determine if the patterns and rate of bilingual language development parallel those of monolingual development, or if exposure to more than one language modifies developmental patterns. The present study addresses this issue by comparing language preference in monolingual English, monolingual French, and bilingual English-French infants between 3 and 10 months of age. Infant preference to listen to passages in three rhythmically different languages (English, French, Japanese) was assessed using a visual fixation procedure. Passages were produced by three female native speakers of each language. Findings will show how native language preference is affected by age and language experience in infants who experience monolingual and bilingual language exposure.

  13. Exome Sequencing in an Admixed Isolated Population Indicates NFXL1 Variants Confer a Risk for Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villanueva, P.; Nudel, R.; Hoischen, A.; Fernandez, M.A.; Simpson, N.H.; Gilissen, C.; Reader, R.H.; Jara, L.; Echeverry, M.M.; Francks, C.; Baird, G.; Conti-Ramsden, G.; O'Hare, A.; Bolton, P.F.; Hennessy, E.R.; Palomino, H.; Carvajal-Carmona, L.; Veltman, J.A.; Cazier, J.B.; Barbieri, Z. De; Fisher, S.E.; Newbury, D.F.

    2015-01-01

    Children affected by Specific Language Impairment (SLI) fail to acquire age appropriate language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. SLI is highly heritable, but the understanding of underlying genetic mechanisms has proved challenging. In this study, we use molecular genetic

  14. Clinical evaluation of conversational speech fluency in the acute phase of acquired childhood aphasia: does a fluency/nonfluency dichotomy exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, H R; Paquier, P F; Creten, W L; van Borsel, J; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E

    2001-05-01

    Traditional neurologic tenets claim that the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia is nonfluent irrespective of lesion location. In the past 20 years, however, several case studies have shown that fluent aphasic patterns can be observed in children with acquired childhood aphasia. But the question remains open as to whether the pattern of their speech characteristics is similar to the one described in adult aphasics as studies addressing spontaneous speech fluency characteristics in larger series of children with acquired childhood aphasia are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an analysis of spontaneous speech fluency as has previously been performed in adult aphasics by other investigators would also yield two distinct groups of aphasic children and, if so, whether the distribution of the different speech characteristics in both groups would reflect the rank order found in adults, that is, whether nonfluent verbal output characteristics would predominate in one group and fluent features in the other. Audiotaped and videotaped recordings of 24 cooperative children with acute acquired childhood aphasia unselected for age, gender, etiology, and aphasia severity ratings were analyzed according to 10 different speech characteristics. A cluster analysis (two-means clustering) was performed to seek the existence of two distinct groups of aphasic children. Results were confirmed, and exact P values were computed with Mann-Whitney U-tests. A two-means clustering created two distinct classes. Mann-Whitney U-tests ranked the speech characteristics according to their discriminating power between clusters. Comparing this rank order with the one previously found in adults revealed a high correlation (Spearman's rank correlation: r = .915, P uniformity of the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia are obsolete. Our findings corroborate data issued from several case reports of fluent acquired childhood aphasia and from the few studies

  15. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  16. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination of the mu...

  17. First Language Proficiency as a Facilitator in Foreign/ Second Language Acquisition: A Case Study in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Marajan Awad Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available English is taught as a foreign language in the Arab world even though practical concerns call for greater emphasis on the language. In all personal interactions too Arabic is the preferred language. Thus the environment for English is really very limited as by the time the learners are exposed to the language they are well entrenched in Arabic. While this may be a handicap in some EFL situations (for example where adults are concerned, in the Arab context this can prove a big boon. This is because young language learners who are proficient in their first language can apply the learning techniques while acquiring the second language. This paper targets the teaching fraternity in the Arab world to help them understand how first language proficiency can aid second/foreign language acquisition.

  18. Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ellyn A.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. Aims We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically “more complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically “less complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the “less complex” material. Methods & Procedures We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a “more complex” onset and a “less complex” onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the “more complex” condition and two in the “less complex” condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. Outcomes & Results As predicted, participants trained in the “more complex” condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, “simple” onset, but not vice versa. Conclusions These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve

  19. Assessment and Treatment of Cognition and Communication Skills in Adults With Acquired Brain Injury via Telepractice: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jaumeiko J; Frymark, Tobi; Franceschini, Nicole M; Theodoros, Deborah G

    2015-05-01

    This is a systematic review of assessment and treatment of cognitive and communicative abilities of individuals with acquired brain injury via telepractice versus in person. The a priori clinical questions were informed by previous research that highlights the importance of considering any functional implications of outcomes, determining disorder- and setting-specific concerns, and measuring the potential impact of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data on interpretation of findings. A literature search of multiple databases (e.g., PubMed) was conducted using key words and study inclusion criteria associated with the clinical questions. Ten group studies were accepted that addressed assessment of motor speech, language, and cognitive impairments; assessment of motor speech and language activity limitations/participation restrictions; and treatment of cognitive impairments and activity limitations/participation restrictions. In most cases, equivalence of outcomes was noted across service delivery methods. Limited findings, lack of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data, and heterogeneity of assessments and interventions precluded robust evaluation of clinical implications for telepractice equivalence and the broader area of telepractice efficacy. Future research is needed that will build upon current knowledge through replication. In addition, further evaluation at the impairment and activity limitation/participation restriction levels is needed.

  20. Management of Acquired Atresia of the External Auditory Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Münir Demir; Yılmaz, Taner; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Kuşçu, Oğuz; Sözen, Tevfik; Jafarov, Shamkal

    2015-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate surgical techniques and their relationship to postoperative success rate and hearing outcomes in acquired atresia of the external auditory canal. In this article, 24 patients with acquired atresia of the external auditory canal were retrospectively evaluated regarding their canal status, hearing, and postoperative success. Acquired stenosis occurs more commonly in males with a male: female ratio of 2-3:1; it seems to be a disorder affecting young adults. Previous ear surgery (13 patients, 54.2%) and external ear trauma (11 patients, 45.8%) were the main etiological factors of acquired ear canal stenosis. Mastoidectomy (12/13) and traffic accidents (8/11) comprise the majority of these etiological factors. Endaural incision is performed in 79.2% and postauricular incision for 20.8% of cases during the operation. As types of surgical approach, transcanal (70.8%), transmastoid (20.8%), and combined (8.4%) approaches are chosen. The atretic plate is generally located at the bony-cartilaginous junction (37.5%) and in the cartilaginous canal (33.3%); the bony canal is involved in a few cases only. Preserved healthy canal skin, split- or full-thickness skin grafts, or pre- or postauricular skin flaps are used to line the ear canal, but preserved healthy canal skin is preferred. The results of surgery are generally satisfactory, and complications are few if surgical principles are followed.

  1. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  2. Language of Politics or Politics of Language? Toward an Integrated Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kawano, Noriyuki; Matsuo, Masatsugu

    2000-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt at the clarification of the relationship between language and politics. Previous studies involving both language and politics can be apparently divided into two major research fields: “language of politics" and “politics of language." However, a close examination of the differences between them will show that, in addition to the important and useful differences, these two fields have one critical underlying property in common, that is, they both involve a selec...

  3. Language choice in bimodal bilingual development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eLillo-Martin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual children develop sensitivity to the language used by their interlocutors at an early age, reflected in differential use of each language by the child depending on their interlocutor. Factors such as discourse context and relative language dominance in the community may mediate the degree of language differentiation in preschool age children.Bimodal bilingual children, acquiring both a sign language and a spoken language, have an even more complex situation. Their Deaf parents vary considerably in access to the spoken language. Furthermore, in addition to code-mixing and code-switching, they use code-blending – expressions in both speech and sign simultaneously – an option uniquely available to bimodal bilinguals. Code-blending is analogous to code-switching sociolinguistically, but is also a way to communicate without suppressing one language. For adult bimodal bilinguals, complete suppression of the non-selected language is cognitively demanding. We expect that bimodal bilingual children also find suppression difficult, and use blending rather than suppression in some contexts. We also expect relative community language dominance to be a factor in children’s language choices.This study analyzes longitudinal spontaneous production data from four bimodal bilingual children and their Deaf and hearing interlocutors. Even at the earliest observations, the children produced more signed utterances with Deaf interlocutors and more speech with hearing interlocutors. However, while three of the four children produced >75% speech alone in speech target sessions, they produced <25% sign alone in sign target sessions. All four produced bimodal utterances in both, but more frequently in the sign sessions, potentially because they find suppression of the dominant language more difficult.Our results indicate that these children are sensitive to the language used by their interlocutors, while showing considerable influence from the dominant

  4. Exchange students' motivations and language learning success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    One point investigated in our research project on the linguistic experiences of exchange students in Denmark and Sweden is the reasons students have for coming on exchange. Traditionally, an important goal of student exchange was to acquire improved language skills usually in the language spoken...... in the host country. To what extent is this true when students plan to study in English in a non-English speaking country? Do they hope and expect to improve their English skills, their knowledge of the local language, both, or neither? to what extent are these expectations fulfilled? Results form the project...

  5. Programming language concepts for software developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This note describes and motivates our current plans for an undergraduate course on programming language concepts for software development students. We describe the competences we expect students to acquire as well as the topics covered by the course. We plan to use C# and Scheme as instruction...... languages, and will study the implementation of Java and C# with their underlying platforms, the Java Virtual Machine and .NET Common Language Runtime. We emphasize implementation exercises and experiments. This comes at the expense of classical compiler course subjects such as register allocation...

  6. Language and Spatial Reorientation: Evidence from Severe Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Judith; Blades, Mark; Siegal, Michael; Varley, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Investigating spatial cognition in individuals with acquired language impairments can inform our understanding of how components of language are involved in spatial representation. Using the reorientation paradigm of Hermer-Vazquez, Spelke, and Katsnelson (1999), we examined spatial cue integration (landmark-geometry conjunctions) in individuals…

  7. A Review of Integrating Mobile Phones for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmi, Ramiza; Albion, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) is gradually being introduced in language classrooms. All forms of mobile technology represent portability with smarter features. Studies have proven the concomitant role of technology beneficial for language learning. Various features in the technology have been exploited and researched for acquiring and learning…

  8. Effect of Phonetic Association on Learning Vocabulary in Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    Word is one of the most important components of a natural language. Speech is meaningful because of the meanings of words. Vocabulary acquired in one's mother tongue is learned consciously in a foreign language in non-native settings. Learning vocabulary in a system based on grammar is generally neglected or learned in conventional ways. This…

  9. Revisiting First Language Acquisition through Empirical and Rational Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahriri, Abdorreza

    2012-01-01

    Acquisition in general and first language acquisition in particular is a very complex and a multifaceted phenomenon. The way that children acquire a language in a very limited period is astonishing. Various approaches have been proposed so far to account for this extraordinary phenomenon. These approaches are indeed based on various philosophical…

  10. Language policy and literacy among deaf people in Lesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as yet, failed to change the trend whereby deaf learners remain the most discriminated against. The article further argues that denying deaf learners an opportunity to acquire literacy through the Lesotho Sign Language, which is their primary language, contributes to the unsatisfactory state of deaf education in Lesotho.

  11. Second language acquisition and the national curriculum | Dampier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a critique of the way in which additional language teaching in the foundation phase has traditionally been conceptualised in South African education. I argue that the curriculum has no clearly defined theory of how language is acquired and that it relies on a concept (viz. additive bilingualism) that never ...

  12. The effectiveness of comprehensive corrective feedback in second language writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beuningen, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Corrective feedback (CF) or error correction is a widely used method of targeting linguistic problems in second language (L2) learners’ writing. The role of CF in the process of acquiring an L2, however, is an issue of considerable controversy in the field of second language acquisition (SLA).

  13. Developing a Useful and Integrative STEM Disciplinary Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Robert M.; Barroso, Luciana R.; Nite, Sandra; Rice, Devyn; Lincoln, Yvonna; Young, Jamaal; Young, Jemimah

    2018-01-01

    STEM disciplinary language is a necessary component for STEM success. It can be developed through experiences and attention to the development of STEM activities that are rich in language and can be acquired through practical experiences and systematic practice. Secondary students participated in an informal STEM summer camp where they learned to…

  14. Music interventions for acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Wendy L; Clark, Imogen; Tamplin, Jeanette; Bradt, Joke

    2017-01-20

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, and sensory processing, and in emotional disturbances, which can severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music interventions have been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions, and sensory perceptions. An update of the systematic review published in 2010 was needed to gauge the efficacy of music interventions in rehabilitation for people with ABI. To assess the effects of music interventions for functional outcomes in people with ABI. We expanded the criteria of our existing review to: 1) examine the efficacy of music interventions in addressing recovery in people with ABI including gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, cognitive functioning, social skills, pain, behavioural outcomes, activities of daily living, and adverse events; 2) compare the efficacy of music interventions and standard care with a) standard care alone, b) standard care and placebo treatments, or c) standard care and other therapies; 3) compare the efficacy of different types of music interventions (music therapy delivered by trained music therapists versus music interventions delivered by other professionals). We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1946 to June 2015), Embase (1980 to June 2015), CINAHL (1982 to June 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to June 2015), LILACS (1982 to January 2016), and AMED (1985 to June 2015). We handsearched music therapy journals and conference proceedings, searched dissertation and specialist music databases, trials and research registers, reference lists, and contacted relevant experts and music therapy associations to identify unpublished research. We imposed no language restriction. We performed the original search in 2009. We included all randomised controlled trials

  15. Mastering languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M.Paula; Roor, Drikus; Chen, A.; Sadakata, Makiko

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and

  16. The enhanced musical rhythmic perception in second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M.P.; Roor, D.A.; Chen, A.; Sadakata, M.

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and

  17. The enhanced musical rhythmic perception in second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M.P.; Roor, D.A.; Chen, A.; Sadakata, M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that mastering languages with distinct rather than similar rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythmic perception. This study investigates whether learning a second language (L2) contributes to enhanced musical rhythmic perception in general, regardless of first and

  18. Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in Support of (Re)-Learning Native Languages: The Case of Runyakitara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katushemererwe, Fridah; Nerbonne, John

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results from a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system of Runyakitara (RU_CALL). The major objective was to provide an electronic language learning environment that can enable learners with mother tongue deficiencies to enhance their knowledge of grammar and acquire writing skills in Runyakitara. The system…

  19. Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in support of (re-)learning native languages : The case of Runyakitara.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katushemererwe, Fridah; Nerbonne, John

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the results from a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system of Runyakitara (RU_CALL). The major objective was to provide an electronic language learning environment that can enable learners with mother tongue deficiencies to enhance their knowledge of grammar and acquire

  20. Perceived Foreign Accent in First Language Attrition and Second Language Acquisition: The Impact of Age of Acquisition and Bilingualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger; Schmid, Monika S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates constraints on ultimate attainment in second language (L2) pronunciation in a direct comparison of perceived foreign accent of 40 late L2 learners and 40 late first language (L1) attriters of German. Both groups were compared with 20 predominantly monolingual controls. Contrasting participants who acquired the target…

  1. Verizon acquired Vodafone: Analysis of market reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pal Netra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent big tickets in telecom industry include Microsoft acquiring part of Nokia for US$ 7.2 billion, Verizon buying 45% stake in Vodafone for US$130 billion, Google acquiring Motorola for 12.5 billion, and Lenovo acquiring Motorola mobility from Google for US$ 3 billion. These buyouts are analyzed and commented by experts of the industry. This research paper is an attempt to analyze and collate their views with respect to Verizon and Vodafone deal. The analysis includes reasons for buyout, size of the deal, general comments in the media, what is in the deal for Verizon and Vodafone, impact on the eco-system, etc.

  2. Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, Joseph P; McCary, John

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation. The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro

  3. Religious Language: Problems and Meaning Emeka Ugwueye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    have or show some meanings at least to the group of people who use such language. This paper concludes that .... religion. Acquiring a religion involves to some extent learning a new vocabulary and syntax. ... The underlying message communicated by these is. “We are a unified group with common religious values and.

  4. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  5. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  6. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh; Abdullah Jaradat; Husam Al-momani; Baker Bani-Khair

    2016-01-01

    Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013) has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013). Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their commun...

  7. The Communicative Competence Required of Japanese Language Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    黒崎, 佐仁子

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the communicative competence required of Japanese teachers. The aim of Japanese language education isto help learnersacquire communication-oriented Japanese. In other words, Japanese language learners are expected to acquire communicative competence in Japanese. However, the Agency for Cultural Affairs sets “Communication” as the center of training-course curriculums for Japanese language teachers. This paper examines descriptions in booksfor Japanese teacher traineesregar...

  8. Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, Johan; Eriksson, Johan; Bodammer, Nils Christian; Lindgren, Magnus; Johansson, Mikael; Nyberg, Lars; Lövdén, Martin

    2012-10-15

    The influence of adult foreign-language acquisition on human brain organization is poorly understood. We studied cortical thickness and hippocampal volumes of conscript interpreters before and after three months of intense language studies. Results revealed increases in hippocampus volume and in cortical thickness of the left middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus for interpreters relative to controls. The right hippocampus and the left superior temporal gyrus were structurally more malleable in interpreters acquiring higher proficiency in the foreign language. Interpreters struggling relatively more to master the language displayed larger gray matter increases in the middle frontal gyrus. These findings confirm structural changes in brain regions known to serve language functions during foreign-language acquisition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Infants Prefer Tunes Previously Introduced by Speakers of Their Native Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Gaye; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Infants show attentional biases for certain individuals over others based on various cues. However, the role of these biases in shaping infants' preferences and learning is not clear. This study asked whether infants' preference for native speakers (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007) would modulate their preferences for tunes. After getting equal exposure to two different tunes introduced by two speakers, 7-month-olds (N = 32) listened longer to the tune that was introduced by a native speaker compared to the tune that was introduced by a foreign speaker. This suggests that the social-emotional context in which exposure to stimuli occurs influences auditory preferences, and that the early emerging attentional biases might have important ramifications regarding social learning in early infancy. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Infants Prefer Tunes Previously Introduced by Speakers of Their Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Gaye; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Infants show attentional biases for certain individuals over others based on various cues. However, the role of these biases in shaping infants' preferences and learning is not clear. This study asked whether infants' preference for native speakers (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007) would modulate their preferences for tunes. After getting…

  11. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Manuel; Chaves, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik's Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students' acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in…

  12. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  13. Acquiring New Competencies Through Continuing Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , specify core competencies to be acquired by all practicing librarians, that the Nigerian Library Association must take the issue of library continuing education seriously to enable librarians to retain their jobs and global job mobility and that ...

  14. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within...

  15. Acquired pure red cell aplasia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata R Dafale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA is a rare occurrence in children.This is a case of an eight year old girl child who developed acquired PRCA secondary to long term intake of sodium Valproate. This case is reported to review the causes of PRCA in children and to reconsider the use of drugs of longer duration in children and adults.

  16. Method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from image of red apple in orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jidong; Xu, Liming

    2017-07-01

    This work proposed a method to acquire regions of fruit, branch and leaf from red apple image in orchard. To acquire fruit image, R-G image was extracted from the RGB image for corrosive working, hole filling, subregion removal, expansive working and opening operation in order. Finally, fruit image was acquired by threshold segmentation. To acquire leaf image, fruit image was subtracted from RGB image before extracting 2G-R-B image. Then, leaf image was acquired by subregion removal and threshold segmentation. To acquire branch image, dynamic threshold segmentation was conducted in the R-G image. Then, the segmented image was added to fruit image to acquire adding fruit image which was subtracted from RGB image with leaf image. Finally, branch image was acquired by opening operation, subregion removal and threshold segmentation after extracting the R-G image from the subtracting image. Compared with previous methods, more complete image of fruit, leaf and branch can be acquired from red apple image with this method.

  17. Tactical Language and Culture Training Systems: Using AI to Teach Foreign Languages and Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, W. Lewis; Valente, Andre

    2009-01-01

    The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) helps people quickly acquire communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures.  More than 40,000 learners worldwide have used TLCTS courses.  TLCTS utilizes artificial intelligence technologies during the authoring process, and at run time to process learner speech, engage in dialog, and evaluate and assess learner performance. This paper describes the architecture of TLCTS and the artificial intelligence technologies that it emp...

  18. Building Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oral — Natural Gestures, Listening, Speech (Lip) Reading, Speech Auditory-Verbal — Listening, Speech Bilingual — American Sign Language, Finger Spelling, Natural Gestures Cued Speech — Cueing, Speech (Lip) Reading Total Communication — Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE), Finger Spelling, Listening, ...

  19. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  20. Programming Languages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 12. Programming Languages - A Brief Review ... IBM Professor of Information Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560012, India; Hon.Professor, Supercomputer Education & Research Centre ...

  1. Local language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2002-01-01

    Original title: Taal lokaal. Children of immigrants living in the Netherlands have for years had the opportunity to receive lessons in their mother tongue at primary school. Since 1998 this has been referred to as minority language teaching (OALT in Dutch), and has been the responsibility

  2. language teachers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Le Rosey Institute at Rolle (autumn and spring) and Gstaad (winter) is looking for part-time language teachers of 
Bulgarian, Farsi, Hindi, Korean and Romanian for the start of the autumn term in September 2007. For further details, please contact : www.rosey.ch Please send applications with CVs to job@rosey.ch

  3. Semantic Fluency in Deaf Children Who Use Spoken and Signed Language in Comparison with Hearing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C. R.; Jones, A.; Fastelli, A.; Atkinson, J.; Botting, N.; Morgan, G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Deafness has an adverse impact on children's ability to acquire spoken languages. Signed languages offer a more accessible input for deaf children, but because the vast majority are born to hearing parents who do not sign, their early exposure to sign language is limited. Deaf children as a whole are therefore at high risk of language…

  4. Shedding Light on Words and Sentences: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Language Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sonja; Telkemeyer, Silke; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the neuronal network underlying language processing may contribute to a better understanding of how the brain masters this complex cognitive function with surprising ease and how language is acquired at a fast pace in infancy. Modern neuroimaging methods permit to visualize the evolvement and the function of the language network. The…

  5. The Din in the Head, Input, and the Language Acquisition Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen D.

    1983-01-01

    Involuntary mental rehearsal of foreign language words, sounds, and phrases is found consistent with current second language acquisition theory and case history reports. It is suggested the "din in the head" results from stimulation of the language acquisition device set off when the acquirer receives enough comprehensible input. (Author/MSE)

  6. When Technology Became Language: The Origins of the Linguistic Conception of Computer Programming, 1950-1960

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nofre, D.; Priestley, M.; Alberts, G.

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages

  7. Modern Languages and Interculturality in the Primary Sector in England, Greece, Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal, Fernando

    1997-01-01

    Addresses concerns and issues regarding modern language teaching and learning at primary schools in Greece, Italy, Spain, and England. It focuses on the optimal age for learning and acquiring languages and to the educational reforms which have been undertaken in each country relating to early modern language teaching and learning and…

  8. The Development of Early Childhood Teachers' Language Knowledge in Different Educational Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Janina; Mischo, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood teachers should have extensive knowledge about language and language development, because these facets of professional knowledge are considered as important requirements for fostering language development in early childhood education settings. It is assumed that early childhood teachers acquire this knowledge during pre-service…

  9. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  10. A review of theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbahira Mohamad Nor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews three main theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition in an attempt to elucidate how people acquire their first language (L1 and learn their second language (L2. Behaviorist, Innatist and Interactionist offer different perspectives on language learning and acquisition which influence the acceptance of how an L2 should be taught and learned. This paper also explicates the relationship between L1 and L2, and elaborates on the similarities and differences between the two. This paper concludes that there is no one solid linguistic theory which can provide the ultimate explanation of L1 acquisition and L2 learning as there are many interrelated factors that influence the success of language acquisition or language learning. The implication is that teachers should base their classroom management practices and pedagogical techniques on several theories rather than a single theory as learners learn and acquire language differently. It is hoped that this paper provides useful insights into the complex process involved in language acquisition and learning, and contributes to the increased awareness of the process among the stakeholders in the field of language education. Keywords: behaviorist, innatist, interactionist, language acquisition, second language learning

  11. Implicit Memory in Music and Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eEttlinger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system.

  12. Examining Peer Language Use and Investment in a Distinct North American Immersion Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that immersion students tend to speak the majority language during peer interactions, regardless of the language of instruction or their dominant language. Researchers have argued that the societal status of the majority language presents an obstacle to providing equitable support for both languages of instruction. To…

  13. Improving Science and Vocabulary Learning of English Language Learners. CREATE Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Diane; Artzi, Lauren; Mazrum, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This brief reviews previous research related to the development of science knowledge and academic language in English language learners as well as the role of English language proficiency, learning in a second language, and first language knowledge in science learning. It also describes two successful CREATE interventions that build academic and…

  14. Language Policy, Language Choice and Language Use in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the pros and cons of the checkered nature of language use in the Tanzanian Parliament. It focuses on language policy, language choice and the practicality of language use in parliamentary discourse. Right from the eve of independence, the medium of communication in the Tanzanian parliament has ...

  15. Analytical Review of Universal Grammar (UG Approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwandy M.Pd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the analysis of Universal Grammar (UG approach on Second Language Acquisition (SLA. This paper is significant as the sources for teacher or researcher of the second language since this elaboration is deeply focusing on the use of UG on SLA. The method used in this academic writing is inductive method of writing. Three main analyses namely Construct Knowledge of Language, Acquiring Language and Language Use are elaborated strongly in this paper. Furthermore, this paper concludes that UG is very important on teaching and learning of the second language in Indonesia. Keywords: Universal Grammar (UG, Second Language Acquisition (SLA

  16. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Preschool language disorders. www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/Preschool-Language-Disorders . Accessed July 8, 2016. Nass R, Trauner DA. Developmental language disorders. ...

  17. A Stroke of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaisdell, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The author reflects on foreign-language learning by his EFL students as well as his own foreign-language learning. He concludes by musing on the possible and fantastical devastation on language-ability wrought by strokes.

  18. Trilinguals' language switching: A strategic and flexible account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how trilinguals select the language they intend to use in a language switching context. Two accounts are examined: (a) a language-specific account, according to which language selection considers the activation level of words of the intended language only (i.e., language co-activation without language competition), and (b) a language non-specific account, where activated words from both the intended and non-intended languages compete for selection (i.e., language co-activation with language competition). Results showed that, in both groups, all three languages competed for selection and that selection was achieved by inhibiting the currently non-relevant languages. Moreover, extending findings from previous research, the study reveals that, in both Experiments 1 and 2, the amount of inhibition was influenced not only by language proficiency but also by the typological similarity between languages. Overall, the study shows that language switching performance can be accounted for by a strategic and flexible inhibitory account. In particular, the controlling system is "strategic" in the sense that it aims at preventing potential conflicting situations, such as typological closeness between languages, and it is "flexible" in that it adjusts languages' activation levels, depending on the conflict to be solved.

  19. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on grey matter volume in language-associated brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelis eKaiser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to 2 languages simultaneously from birth (SiM were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM. Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower grey matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and influence experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  20. Age of second language acquisition in multilinguals has an impact on gray matter volume in language-associated brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Anelis; Eppenberger, Leila S; Smieskova, Renata; Borgwardt, Stefan; Kuenzli, Esther; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Nitsch, Cordula; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Numerous structural studies have established that experience shapes and reshapes the brain throughout a lifetime. The impact of early development, however, is still a matter of debate. Further clues may come from studying multilinguals who acquired their second language at different ages. We investigated adult multilinguals who spoke three languages fluently, where the third language was learned in classroom settings, not before the age of 9 years. Multilinguals exposed to two languages simultaneously from birth (SiM) were contrasted with multinguals who acquired their first two languages successively (SuM). Whole brain voxel based morphometry revealed that, relative to SuM, SiM have significantly lower gray matter volume in several language-associated cortical areas in both hemispheres: bilaterally in medial and inferior frontal gyrus, in the right medial temporal gyrus and inferior posterior parietal gyrus, as well as in the left inferior temporal gyrus. Thus, as shown by others, successive language learning increases the volume of language-associated cortical areas. In brains exposed early on and simultaneously to more than one language, however, learning of additional languages seems to have less impact. We conclude that - at least with respect to language acquisition - early developmental influences are maintained and have an effect on experience-dependent plasticity well into adulthood.

  1. When the Second Language Takes the Lead: Neurocognitive Processing Changes in the First Language of Adult Attriters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparian, Kristina; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Although research on multilingualism has revealed continued neuroplasticity for language-learning beyond what was previously expected, it remains controversial whether and to what extent a second language (L2) acquired in adulthood may induce changes in the neurocognitive processing of a first language (L1). First language (L1) attrition in adulthood offers new insight on neuroplasticity and the factors that modulate neurocognitive responses to language. To date, investigations of the neurocognitive correlates of L1 attrition and of factors influencing these mechanisms are still scarce. Moreover, most event-related-potential (ERP) studies of second language processing have focused on L1 influence on the L2, while cross-linguistic influence in the reverse direction has been underexplored. Using ERPs, we examined the real-time processing of Italian relative-clauses in 24 Italian-English adult migrants with predominant use of English since immigration and reporting attrition of their native-Italian (Attriters), compared to 30 non-attriting monolinguals in Italy (Controls). Our results showed that Attriters differed from Controls in their acceptability judgment ratings and ERP responses when relative clause constructions were ungrammatical in English, though grammatical in Italian. Controls' ERP responses to unpreferred sentence constructions were consistent with garden path effects typically observed in the literature for these complex sentences. In contrast, due to L2-English influence, Attriters were less sensitive to semantic cues than to word-order preferences, and processed permissible Italian sentences as outright morphosyntactic violations. Key factors modulating processing differences within Attriters were the degree of maintained L1 exposure, length of residence in the L2 environment and L2 proficiency - with higher levels of L2 immersion and proficiency associated with increased L2 influence on the L1. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that

  2. Language regression in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suman; Karmakar, Probir; Mohanan, Akhil

    2014-02-01

    Regression in autism applies to the phenomenon of apparently normal early development followed by the loss of previously acquired skills and manifestation of symptoms of autism. Estimates of the frequency of regression in autism range from 10% to 50%. Although there are tools available to evaluate and diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders, however, there is no published tool available in Indian context to identify the children with ASD at an early age. The study was aimed to describe the differences in language regression between children with ASD and typically developing children and also to determine the age of regression. Regression screening tool, a questionnaire was developed based on Regression Supplement Form (Goldberg et al., 2003). The skills were validated by five Clinical Psychologists. It comprised of 16 skills which included domains like, 'spoken language and non verbal communication', 'social interest and responsiveness' and 'play and imagination'. This retrospective study was conducted on a single group. The participants consisted of parents of 30 children with ASD (22 males and 8 females). The findings revealed a significant regression in children with ASD. The mean regression age is 20.19 months (SD-5.2). The regression profile of the children with ASD revealed regression of language skills occurred at 19.16 months followed by non language skills at 20.5 months. Based on the findings it can be stated that inclusion of regression screening tool will offer clinicians a convenient tool to examine the phenomena of regression in children with ASD and identify them as early as 21 months of age for early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated language education - a means of enhancing engineers' social competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, P.

    2010-08-01

    The changes facing industries are necessitating a concomitant change in university curriculum. Before instigating a reform, however, education providers need to acquire an understanding of the most pertinent development needs essential for filling industrial competence gaps. The Language Centre at the Helsinki University of Technology in Finland set out to respond to the emerging competence demands by examining industrial requirements through previous research and stakeholder analyses. Surveys conducted among employers and students corroborated a need to shift focus towards oral communication abilities. More specifically, university education needs to address interaction skills essential in meetings and managerial tasks. As a result, a so-called integrated language course was designed and piloted to train students into multi-disciplinary, culturally and ethically aware communicators who possess leveraged self-leadership and managerial abilities. 'Organisational Communications' integrates substance matters such as finance, strategy, leadership and ethics into a language course, while harnessing the English language as a tool. Course methodology is based on project- and problem-based learning and situational learning, rooting the students in real working life by imitating authentic corporate cases and industrial contexts. The course aims to provide the students with preparedness, ability and mindset to deal with working life challenges and ways of working while applying their specialist discourse, that is, the appropriate industrial jargon and linguistic practices. The learning outcomes and student feedback from this course indicate that the pedagogy in use in this experiment, drawing from exercises emulating authentic, industrial problems, offers an effective method of preparing students for working life requirements.

  4. Spatial Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling

    2016-01-01

    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  5. Historical Perspectives on Ancient Greek Derived "a" Prefixed Nomenclature for Acquired Neurocognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Distinct forms of acquired neurocognitive impairment are often described by "a" prefixed terms that derive from ancient Greek (and in one case Latin). Two modern English language neurological and neuropsychological reference books were searched to identify 17 such terms in contemporary usage: amnesia, akinesia, ataxia, aphasia, agraphia, anosmia, apraxia, athetosis, ageusia, achromatopsia, agnosia, alexia, amusia, anomia, anarthria, anosognosia, and acalculia. These were traced to their initial association with acquired neurocognitive impairment in German, English, and French language medical publications from the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries (1770 through 1920). Some of these terms (e.g., agnosia) were used in ancient Greek, although not associated with neurocognitive impairment. The remainder constitute novel semantically plausible (e.g., anosmia) and unclear (e.g., alexia) formulations. In the localizationist thinking of the time, neurocognition was conceived as being organized within specialized "centers" in specific locations connected by pathways within the brain.

  6. The benefits of sign language for deaf learners with language challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Staden, Annalene

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues the importance of allowing deaf children to acquire sign language from an early age. It demonstrates firstly that the critical/sensitive period hypothesis for language acquisition can be applied to specific language aspects of spoken language as well as sign languages (i.e. phonology, grammatical processing and syntax. This makes early diagnosis and early intervention of crucial importance. Moreover, research findings presented in this article demonstrate the advantage that sign language offers in the early years of a deaf child’s life by comparing the language development milestones of deaf learners exposed to sign language from birth to those of late-signers, orally trained deaf learners and hearing learners exposed to spoken language. The controversy over the best medium of instruction for deaf learners is briefly discussed, with emphasis placed on the possible value of bilingual-bicultural programmes to facilitate the development of deaf learners’ literacy skills. Finally, this paper concludes with a discussion of the implications/recommendations of sign language teaching and Deaf education in South Africa.

  7. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  8. Progress in Understanding Adolescent Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Victoria L.; Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This prologue introduces a clinical forum on adolescent language disorders, a topic that has long been of interest to school-based speech-language pathologists/therapists. Method: A rationale for the clinical forum is provided, and the content is contrasted with a previous forum on the same topic that was published nearly 20 years ago.…

  9. Intercultural Communication in English Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogancay-Aktuna, Seran

    2005-01-01

    As a result of their sociocultural backgrounds and previous educational experiences, both language learners and teachers bring to the classroom certain norms and expectations concerning appropriate teacher and learner roles and the learning-teaching practices they believe to be conducive to language learning. To prevent frustrations and failure…

  10. Banana Algebra: Compositional Syntactic Language Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Brabrand, Claus; Christiansen, David Raymond

    2013-01-01

    algebra as presented in the paper is implemented as the Banana Algebra Tool which may be used to syntactically extend languages in an incremental and modular fashion via algebraic composition of previously defined languages and transformations. We demonstrate and evaluate the tool via several kinds...

  11. Input to interaction to instruction: three key shifts in the history of child language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Catherine E

    2014-07-01

    In the early years of the Journal of Child Language, there was considerable disagreement about the role of language input or adult-child interaction in children's language acquisition. The view that quantity and quality of input to language-learning children is relevant to their language development has now become widely accepted as a principle guiding advice to parents and the design of early childhood education programs, even if it is not yet uncontested in the field of language development. The focus on variation in the language input to children acquires particular educational relevance when we consider variation in access to academic language - features of language particularly valued in school and related to success in reading and writing. Just as many children benefit from language environments that are intentionally designed to ensure adequate quantity and quality of input, even more probably need explicit instruction in the features of language that characterize its use for academic purposes.

  12. An Ethnographic Study of Chinese Heritage Language Education and Technological Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjuan Wang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has increasingly uncovered the cognitive, cultural, and economic advantages of bilingualism and the positive impact of heritage language on children's second language acquisition (M:cLaughlin, 1995. As one type of heritage language education organizations, Chinese language schools have been in existence for decades in the U.S., but their practices have remained informal and not readily accessible to people from other cultures. In order to bridge this gap, this ethnographic study illustrates family and community involvement in promoting language proficiency in heritage language populations and explores language education methods practiced in Chinese community language schools in an urban Southern California area. The study examines the intricate issues affecting heritage language learning and explores the potential uses of technology in assisting young learners in acquiring their heritage language (Chinese. In addition, the study generates guidelines for adapting existing technology-assisted language programs (e.g., the Chinese Cultural Crystals for instructional uses.

  13. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    of the multifaceted nature of the integration process further enhances our understanding of which conditions will be more or less detrimental for corporate inventors. We focus on R&D teams which are the immediate organizational context in which inventors operate and drawing on insights from learning theory...... and evolutionary economics we posit and find that the reorganization of R&D teams after acquisition harms acquired inventors? innovative performance. Though, the implementation of other integration decisions can mitigate or aggravate this negative effect.......Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination...

  14. Emotional sound symbolism: Languages rapidly signal valence via phonemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary; Cossu, Martina

    2018-03-03

    Rapidly communicating the emotional valence of stimuli (i.e., negativity or positivity) is vital for averting dangers and acquiring rewards. We therefore hypothesized that human languages signal emotions via individual phonemes (emotional sound symbolism), and more specifically that the phonemes at the beginning of the word signal its valence, as this would maximize the receiver's time to respond adaptively. Analyzing approximately 37,000 words across five different languages (English, Spanish, Dutch, German, and Polish), we found emotional sound symbolism in all five languages, and within each language the first phoneme of a word predicted its valence better than subsequent phonemes. Moreover, given that averting danger is more urgent than acquiring rewards, we further hypothesized and demonstrated that phonemes that are uttered most rapidly tend to convey negativity rather than positivity. Thus, emotional sound symbolism is an adaptation providing an early warning system in human languages, analogous to other species' alarm calls. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neural correlates of foreign-language learning in childhood: a 3-year longitudinal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Shiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    A foreign language (a language not spoken in one's community) is difficult to master completely. Early introduction of foreign-language (FL) education during childhood is becoming a standard in many countries. However, the neural process of child FL learning still remains largely unknown. We longitudinally followed 322 school-age children with diverse FL proficiency for three consecutive years, and acquired children's ERP responses to FL words that were semantically congruous or incongruous with the preceding picture context. As FL proficiency increased, various ERP components previously reported in mother-tongue (L1) acquisition (such as a broad negativity, an N400, and a late positive component) appeared sequentially, critically in an identical order to L1 acquisition. This finding was supported not only by cross-sectional analyses of children at different proficiency levels but also by longitudinal analyses of the same children over time. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that FL learning in childhood reproduces identical developmental stages in an identical order to L1 acquisition, suggesting that the nature of the child's brain itself may determine the normal course of FL learning. Future research should test the generalizability of the results in other aspects of language such as syntax.

  16. Language Planning and Language Policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    A five-year period of particular activity in Australian language policy and language planning culminated with the 1991 publication of the White Paper called Australia's Language, which outlines proposed government programs in languages until 1994. Many of the papers in this theme issue of the journal of the Applied Linguistics Association of…

  17. Mathematics for Language, Language for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Lenka Tejkalova

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses the balance and mutual influence of the language of instruction and mathematics in the context of CLIL, Content and Language Integrated Learning. Different aspects of the relationship of language and Mathematics teaching and learning are discussed: the benefits of using a foreign language of instruction, as well as the…

  18. Language learning interventions | Kilfoil | Journal for Language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results for that intervention show that the hypothesis was correct and students need more time and structure if they are to improve their language competence sufficiently. Keywords: language learning interventions, English for specific purposes, language competence, fossilization. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.

  19. Book Review : A DICTIONARY OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION: A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF KEY TERMS IN FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaswan Kaswan

    2014-10-01

    on their own to ensure that language develops. Nor is simple exposure to language enough. What is important is the interaction, both linguistic and non-linguistic, which derives from the child’s need to communicate (Tavakoli, 2012: 323.   Next factor is cognitive development which refers to “developmental changes in cognitive abilities, processes, and structures” (Tavakoli, 2012: 62. The best known theory of childhood cognitive development is that of Jean Piaget. For Piaget language was both a social and a cognitive phenomenon. It was not an independent modular faculty but part of general cognitive and perceptual processing. Language acquisition was thus dependent upon cognitive development. The child’s level of language was determined by whether it had acquired certain fundamental concepts and by the complexity of the processing operations of which it was capable. Piaget suggested that cognitive development fell into four phases. They constitute a gradual progression in which previous stages are revisited cyclically. The age at which a particular child goes through each stage varies considerably. Each stage has implications for linguistic development.   1 Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years. The child achieves recognition of object permanence (the fact that an object still exists even when it is not in view. This is a prerequisite to the formation of concepts (including lexical concepts.   2 Preoperational (2 to 6 or 7 years. The child’s behavior reflects egocentric thought: it is unable to identify with the views of others. The child’s language progresses through echolalia (repeating others’ utterances to monologues (speaking aloud what would normally be private thoughts. It may engage in collective monologues with other children, in which participants appear to be taking turns, but express their own ideas without responding to those of others.   3 Concrete operational (6/7 to 11/12. The child’s vocabulary shows signs of organization into

  20. In vivo mechanisms of acquired thymic tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Sayegh, M H

    1997-01-01

    expansion of transferred CD4+ TCR transgenic cells in tolerant mice in vivo. There was an increase in clonotype-positive T cells in the thymus after immunization, confirming that activated T cells circulate through the thymus. Furthermore, thymectomy after intrathymic injection abrogates the effect...... of acquired thymic tolerance and restores antigen-dependent clonal expansion in vivo. We conclude that intrathymic injection of antigen induces Th1 cell unresponsiveness and prevents the peripheral expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells in vivo. This is the first demonstration that in acquired thymic...

  1. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  2. Intercultural challenge to language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Muñoz de Cote

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project set to investigate the piloting process of an innovative language program for university students. It challenges traditional English language teaching courses celebrating a view centered on learning; classes become spaces for students to understand the language they are learning through the development of small projects. The approach moves from a teaching transmission paradigm to one where the most important agent is each student who has to engage with a topic of his or her interest. Students are seen as individuals whose knowledge and understanding of the world is valued and not as people whose lack of language skills prevents themfrom engaging in discussions of complex topics. The objective of this innovation is to enhance students’ understanding and use of academic English in their field of interest. In this project, we argue that knowledge and understanding of the mother tongue and culture play key roles in the development of a second language. A number of studies suggest that students who had strong first language literacy skills achieved higher proficiency levels in their second language. Based on this argument and Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory, we designed disciplinary content language learning workshops for first-degree students. The main tenet is that students can develop academic English given that they know about their discipline. Findings so far reveal the difficulty of students to take distance from their previous learning experiences. They also show that students’ ideas expressed in English are far more complex than what would be expected of them given their second language skills. The complexity is not only related to thecontent, but to the way they construct their paragraphs and the understanding of how the register of their field  may be used.

  3. 17 CFR 210.8-04 - Financial statements of businesses acquired or to be acquired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Article 8 Financial Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-04 Financial statements of... financial statements of the business acquired or to be acquired and the smaller reporting company's most...) of this section and the pro forma financial information required by § 210.8-05, the determination of...

  4. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  5. Acquired dysfibrinogenemia secondary to multiple myeloma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlín, R.; Sobotková, A.; Riedel, Tomáš; Salaj, P.; Suttnar, J.; Reicheltová, Z.; Májek, P.; Khaznadar, T.; Dyr, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2008), s. 75-81 ISSN 0001-5792 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : acquired dysfibrinogenemia * amorphous clot * fibrinogen Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.191, year: 2008

  6. Neutrophil Segmentation Index Anomaly in Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neutrophil lobe count was conducted on the blood films of 262 patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus (AIDS) and 204 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody-negative apparently healthy controls. The count for each group was evaluated for neutrophil segmentation index by standard method.

  7. Beliefs and perceptions about Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This should include town cry, health talk at their worship centres and local gatherings. The electronic and print media are not the best based on their peculiarities. Keywords: Beliefs; Perceptions; Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 8 (1) 2007: pp. 40-48 ...

  8. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  9. Perceptions and knowledge about the acquired immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using an anonymous questionnaire to obtain baseline data on sexual behaviour and knowledge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among students in university residences, the following information was obtained: Knowledge of AIDS was found to be high, although misconceptions regarding transmission ...

  10. Beliefs and perceptions about Acquired Immunodeficieny Syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has assumed a disease of epidemic dimension both in Nigeria's rural and urban communities. Different people have varying knowledge and beliefs about this disease. This study was designed to assess the beliefs and perceptions of the people of Ihugh community in that ...

  11. Some Characteristics of Patients with Community Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of studies relating the information from the history of patients with community-acquired pneumonia to the mortality of the disease. The relationship between age, sex, occupation, marital status, smoking history, alcohol use, concomitant COPD / bronchial asthma, source of referral and the mortality of patients ...

  12. Radiological pulmonary manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Ossa, Alfonso Jaramillo

    1999-01-01

    In this article are reviewed the principal radiologic manifestations of inflammatory and tumoral diseases the compromise the lungs of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the group of inflammatory diseases the radiologic aspects of pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonias are emphasized. In the neoplasic diseases' group the aspects of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are specially presented. (author)

  13. Perceptions and knowledge about the acquired immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... The acquired immunodeficiency sydrome (AIDS) is becoming a major health care priority and a threat to all South Africans. Since the diagnosis of the first case of AIDS in South Africa in March 19821 over 430 cases have been reported to 21 June. 1990 (information courtesy the AIDS Advisory Group). At.

  14. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  15. Early Language Learning and the Social Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Patricia K

    2014-01-01

    Explaining how every typically developing child acquires language is one of the grand challenges of cognitive neuroscience. Historically, language learning provoked classic debates about the contributions of innately specialized as opposed to general learning mechanisms. Now, new data are being brought to bear from studies that employ magnetoencephalograph (MEG), electroencephalograph (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on young children. These studies examine the patterns of association between brain and behavioral measures. The resulting data offer both expected results and surprises that are altering theory. As we uncover what it means to be human through the lens of young children, and their ability to speak, what we learn will not only inform theories of human development, but also lead to the discovery of neural biomarkers, early in life, that indicate risk for language impairment and allow early intervention for children with developmental disabilities involving language. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Statistical learning of music- and language-like sequences and tolerance for spectral shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yumoto, Masato

    2015-02-01

    In our previous study (Daikoku, Yatomi, & Yumoto, 2014), we demonstrated that the N1m response could be a marker for the statistical learning process of pitch sequence, in which each tone was ordered by a Markov stochastic model. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the statistical learning of music- and language-like auditory sequences is reflected in the N1m responses based on the assumption that both language and music share domain generality. By using vowel sounds generated by a formant synthesizer, we devised music- and language-like auditory sequences in which higher-ordered transitional rules were embedded according to a Markov stochastic model by controlling fundamental (F0) and/or formant frequencies (F1-F2). In each sequence, F0 and/or F1-F2 were spectrally shifted in the last one-third of the tone sequence. Neuromagnetic responses to the tone sequences were recorded from 14 right-handed normal volunteers. In the music- and language-like sequences with pitch change, the N1m responses to the tones that appeared with higher transitional probability were significantly decreased compared with the responses to the tones that appeared with lower transitional probability within the first two-thirds of each sequence. Moreover, the amplitude difference was even retained within the last one-third of the sequence after the spectral shifts. However, in the language-like sequence without pitch change, no significant difference could be detected. The pitch change may facilitate the statistical learning in language and music. Statistically acquired knowledge may be appropriated to process altered auditory sequences with spectral shifts. The relative processing of spectral sequences may be a domain-general auditory mechanism that is innate to humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing Local and International Chinese Students' English Language Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Margreat Aloysious; Ganesen, Sree Nithya

    2012-01-01

    According to Horwitz (1987) learners' belief about language learning are influenced by previous language learning experiences as well as cultural background. This study examined the English Language Learning Strategies between local and international Chinese students who share the same cultural background but have been exposed to different…

  18. Bilingualism and the Emotional Intensity of Advertising Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Puntoni (Stefano); B. de Langhe (Bart); S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis research contributes to the current understanding of language effects in ad- vertising by uncovering a previously ignored mechanism shaping consumer re- sponse to an increasingly globalized marketplace. We propose a language-specific episodic trace theory of language emotionality

  19. Isolated Words Enhance Statistical Language Learning in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-Williams, Casey; Pelucchi, Bruna; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2011-01-01

    Infants are adept at tracking statistical regularities to identify word boundaries in pause-free speech. However, researchers have questioned the relevance of statistical learning mechanisms to language acquisition, since previous studies have used simplified artificial languages that ignore the variability of real language input. The experiments…

  20. Differential Contributions of Language Skills to Children's Episodic Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemfuss, J. Zoe

    2015-01-01

    Theorists have identified language as a critical contributor to children's episodic memory development, yet studies linking language and memory have had mixed results. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanisms linking language and memory and to explain the previous mixed results. Sixty-four preschool children's receptive and productive…

  1. The indispensable role of the English language in sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous researches and prevalent issues have revealed that the world has indeed become a global world with a dominate language which is the English language. English has become a unifying factor in multilingual multicultural nations. In Nigeria precisely, the English language occupies a unique position and ...

  2. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  3. There's no language like our language, like no language we know. But how did it evolve?

    CERN Multimedia

    Wim de Geest

    2011-01-01

    Every normal child will rapidly acquire the native language to which it is exposed. It will do so with little teaching or coaching. A chimpanzee will fail to do so. Yet, chimpanzees are closer to humans, in genetic and evolutionary terms, than they are to gorillas. The only obvious and important deficit in the ape’s innate intelligence, as compared with man’s, is a missing faculty for using and understanding language. To determine how humans developed this unique capacity for language is the hardest problem in science. It is this problem the talk will address. The approach will be three pronged. In the first part Wim de Geest will attempt to present a couple of innovative insights made possible by the new Evo-Devo and the modern linguistics perspective. In the second part he shall illustrate what is specific for the human faculty of language in its narrow sense. Human linguistic communication is markedly discrete and recursive, to a degree that is obviously absent in other types ...

  4. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    PermanenceA "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00 New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF and BULATS). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link: http://English courses http://French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 mailto:nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  5. Language Training

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    Permanence A "permanence" for language Training has been set up. If anyone has a question or requires information on any aspect of English or French training please come to our office 5 4-016 at the following times. Lucette Fournier - French courses Monday 13.30 - 15.30 Tuesday\t10.30 - 12.30 Tessa Osborne - English courses Wednesday\t12.00 - 14.00 Thursday\t11.00 - 13.00   New courses Specific English and French courses - Exam preparation/ We are now offering specific courses in English and French leading to a recognised external examination (e.g. Cambridge, DELF, DALF). If you are interested in following one of these courses and have at least an upper intermediate level of English or French, please enrol through the following link:  English courses French courses Or contact: Tessa Osborne 72957 (English courses) Lucette Fournier 73483 (French courses) Language Training Nathalie Dumeaux Tel. 78144 nathalie.dumeaux@cern.ch

  6. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz: Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for people wi...

  7. LANGUAGE TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 language.training@cern.ch FRENCH TRAINING General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 26 January to 02 April 2004. This course is designed for peop...

  8. Language training

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    If one of your New Year’s resolutions is to learn a language, there is no excuse any more.    You can attend one of our English or French courses and you can practise the language with a tandem partner!   General & Professional French courses The next General & Professional French course will start on 26 January. These collective courses aim to bring participants who have at least level A1 to higher levels (up to C2). Each level consists of a combination of face-to-face sessions (40 hours) with personal work (20 hours) following a specially designed programme. A final progress test takes place at the end of the term. Please note that it is mandatory to take the placement test. Please sign up here. French courses for beginners The aim of this course is to give some basic skills to beginners in order to communicate in simple everyday situations in both social and professional life. These courses can start at any time during the year, as soon as a group of beg...

  9. Testing framework for embedded languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskó, Dániel; Tejfel, Máté

    2012-09-01

    Embedding a new programming language into an existing one is a widely used technique, because it fastens the development process and gives a part of a language infrastructure for free (e.g. lexical, syntactical analyzers). In this paper we are presenting a new advantage of this development approach regarding to adding testing support for these new languages. Tool support for testing is a crucial point for a newly designed programming language. It could be done in the hard way by creating a testing tool from scratch, or we could try to reuse existing testing tools by extending them with an interface to our new language. The second approach requires less work, and also it fits very well for the embedded approach. The problem is that the creation of such interfaces is not straightforward at all, because the existing testing tools were mostly not designed to be extendable and to be able to deal with new languages. This paper presents an extendable and modular model of a testing framework, in which the most basic design decision was to keep the - previously mentioned - interface creation simple and straightforward. Other important aspects of our model are the test data generation, the oracle problem and the customizability of the whole testing phase.

  10. Foreign Language Teachers' Language Proficiency and Their Language Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Heather; Conway, Clare; Roskvist, Annelies; Harvey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Teachers' subject knowledge is recognized as an essential component of effective teaching. In the foreign language context, teachers' subject knowledge includes language proficiency. In New Zealand high schools, foreign languages (e.g. Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish) have recently been offered to learners earlier in their schooling,…

  11. Technology in Language Use, Language Teaching, and Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Dorothy; Smith, Bryan; Kern, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a capacious view of technology to suggest broad principles relating technology and language use, language teaching, and language learning. The first part of the article considers some of the ways that technological media influence contexts and forms of expression and communication. In the second part, a set of heuristic…

  12. Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberland, Hartmut; Mortensen, Janus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university......Introduction to thematic issue on Language variety, language hierarchy, and language choice in the international university...

  13. Linguistics in Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yunus, Reva

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the contribution of insights from theoretical linguistics to an understanding of language acquisition and the nature of language in terms of their potential benefit to language education. We examine the ideas of innateness and universal language faculty, as well as multilingualism and the language-society relationship. Modern…

  14. Language Teachers' Target Language Project: Language for Specific Purposes of Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Alexey; Westbrook, Carolyn; Merry, Yvonne; Ershova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    The Language Teachers' Target Language project (LTTL) aims to describe language teachers' target language use domain (Bachman & Palmer 2010) and to develop a language test for future teachers of English. The team comprises four researchers from Moscow State University (MSU) and Southampton Solent University.

  15. Inference in `poor` languages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  16. Let There Be Languages!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Petur

    1992-01-01

    Examines the resilience of small languages in the face of larger ones. Highlights include the concept of one dominant language, such as Esperanto; the threat of television to small visual-language societies; the power of visual media; man's relationship to language; and the resilience of language. (LRW)

  17. Towards Strategic Language Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdam, R.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    1995-01-01

    Towards Strategic Language Learning is the result of extensive research in the relationship between mother tongue education and foreign language learning. As language skills that are taught during native language lessons are applied in foreign language performance as well, it is vital that curricula

  18. Language as Pure Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2016-01-01

    Language occupies a crucial position in neoliberalism, due to the reimagination of language as commodified skill. This paper studies the role of language ideology in this transformation by identifying a particular ideology that facilitates this process, namely the ideology which views language as pure potential. Neoliberalism treats language as a…

  19. The Link between Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety, Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity and Self-Rated English Proficiency among Chinese Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc; Ip, Tsui Shan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that high levels of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) have a negative effect on foreign language learning (Horwitz, 2001; Lu & Liu, 2011) while moderate levels of Second Language Tolerance of Ambiguity (SLTA) are believed to boost foreign language learning (Ely, 1995). There is prima facie evidence that…

  20. Risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Yuichiro; Ito, Ryota; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ando, Masahiko; Ichikawa, Motoshi; Shiraki, Akira; Goto, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Yasutaka; Iwaki, Mai; Okumura, Junya; Yamaguchi, Ikuo; Yagi, Tetsuya; Tanikawa, Yoshimasa; Sugino, Yasuteru; Shindoh, Joe; Ogasawara, Tomohiko; Nomura, Fumio; Saka, Hideo; Yamamoto, Masashi; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Saito, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2013-10-15

    Identification of patients with drug-resistant pathogens at initial diagnosis is essential for treatment of pneumonia. To elucidate clinical features of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), and to clarify risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens in patients with CAP and HCAP. A prospective observational study was conducted in hospitalized patients with pneumonia at 10 institutions in Japan. Pathogens identified as not susceptible to ceftriaxone, ampicillin-sulbactam, macrolides, and respiratory fluoroquinolones were defined as CAP drug-resistant pathogens (CAP-DRPs). In total, 1,413 patients (887 CAP and 526 HCAP) were analyzed. CAP-DRPs were more frequently found in patients with HCAP (26.6%) than in patients with CAP (8.6%). Independent risk factors for CAP-DRPs were almost identical in patients with CAP and HCAP. These included prior hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-3.43), immunosuppression (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.05-5.11), previous antibiotic use (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.51-3.98), use of gastric acid-suppressive agents (AOR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.39-3.57), tube feeding (AOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.18-5.00), and nonambulatory status (AOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.40-4.30) in the combined patients with CAP and HCAP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for counting the number of risk factors was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.74-0.84). The clinical profile of HCAP was different from that of CAP. However, physicians can predict drug resistance in patients with either CAP or HCAP by taking account of the cumulative number of the risk factors. Clinical trial registered with https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000004001&language=E ; number UMIN000003306.

  1. Personality expression in Chinese language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Lu, Jiahui; Ramsay, Jonathan; Yang, Shanshan; Qu, Weina; Zhu, Tingshao

    2017-12-01

    To date, little research has investigated personality expressions in languages other than English. Given that the Chinese language has the largest number of native speakers in the world, it is vitally important to examine the associations between personality and Chinese language use. In this research, we analysed Chinese microblogs and identified word categories and factorial structures associated with personality traits. We also compared our results with previous findings in English and showed that linguistic expression of personality has both universal- and language-specific aspects. Expression of personality via content words is more likely to be consistent across languages than expression via function words. This makes an important step towards uncovering universal patterns of personality expression in language. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. The impact of second language learning on semantic and nonsemantic first language reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosarti, Chiara; Mechelli, Andrea; Green, David W; Price, Cathy J

    2010-02-01

    The relationship between orthography (spelling) and phonology (speech sounds) varies across alphabetic languages. Consequently, learning to read a second alphabetic language, that uses the same letters as the first, increases the phonological associations that can be linked to the same orthographic units. In subjects with English as their first language, previous functional imaging studies have reported increased left ventral prefrontal activation for reading words with spellings that are inconsistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., PINT) compared with words that are consistent with their orthographic neighbors (e.g., SHIP). Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 17 Italian-English and 13 English-Italian bilinguals, we demonstrate that left ventral prefrontal activation for first language reading increases with second language vocabulary knowledge. This suggests that learning a second alphabetic language changes the way that words are read in the first alphabetic language. Specifically, first language reading is more reliant on both lexical/semantic and nonlexical processing when new orthographic to phonological mappings are introduced by second language learning. Our observations were in a context that required participants to switch between languages. They motivate future fMRI studies to test whether first language reading is also altered in contexts when the second language is not in use.

  3. New Added Languages within EU -2015 and the Rroma’ language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Pop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The refugees and migrants waves detonated a bomb in the EU’ 2015. The people composing the waves aimed, as usually, the Western and Northern countries, where the advances inclusive policies and high social benefices are available. A moderate rate of legal and illegal migrants (plus some refugees took the central Mediterranean route to Europe and directed to North. In 2015, the new comers, (much more than previously used additional routes, too. One of their new route, the Balkan Route, is the topic of the present paper, seen on the sociolinguistic perspective. On the Balkan Route with the new people arrived large of speakers of new languages, rare and extremely rare for Europe. On the one hand, this speakers challenge the management of migratory fluxes and also the future linguistic policies in EU. On the other hand, their speakers risk to miss the EU CEAS protection and to become victims of traffickers and exploiters of the Human Being. The present paper aims to draw the attention to the impact of the new languages received in Europe and to indicate European resources already able to work with some of them. It is trying to list the new added languages within the EU languages coming via Balkan route 2015, in the Q 3, looking to the first 10 “providers states” of the new languages. It limits the research on the languages coming from Asia. The analysis compares them, in terms of the number, of languages’ family; of the previous speakers’ communities’ presence within the EU. It will draw the attention to the Rare Added Languages in Europe (RALE, and especially, to some languages (and dialect belong to the family ROM and DOM. The rarity of some of the new added languages represents real issues for the immigration officers. They need European interpreters, objective and well qualified, able to speak directly with the persons in need, able to recognize the language of those people who do not speak any of the linguae francae working in

  4. The 'patient journey' of adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, V K C; Stephens, D

    2012-05-01

    A previous study examined the 'patient journey' of adults with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. This study examined the same for adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, and assessed differences. Data were collected from 16 audiologists, using the Ida Institute template, and from four adults with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, through semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and presented using a process mapping model. A patient journey template for sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment was developed based on the professionals' and patients' perspectives. The main difference between these two groups' perspectives was seen in the self-evaluation phase: some stages within this phase were recognised by the patients but not by the professionals. The main difference between the current and the previous study was the absence of a pre-awareness phase in the journey described by patients with sudden-onset acquired hearing impairment, compared with that described by patients with gradual-onset acquired hearing impairment. Patient journey templates could be useful counselling tools for ear and hearing healthcare specialists. However, such templates should be used only as a baseline; it is important to take a detailed case history to understand each patient's unique experience, including the psychosocial impact of hearing impairment.

  5. Programming languages for business problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shouhong

    2007-01-01

    It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin

  6. Acquired preferences for piquant foods by chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Kennel, K

    1983-06-01

    Humans frequently develop likings for innately unpalatable substances, while this occurs very rarely in non-humans. In this study, we establish a preference for crackers seasoned with chili pepper in two domesticated chimpanzees. Chimps were offered a series of increasingly piquant crackers by their caretaker, and gradually came to prefer these crackers to unseasoned crackers. The preferences were stable over months, and generalized to a different piquant cracker. Available evidence suggests that these are acquired likes rather than preferences maintained because of positive consequences that follow ingestion. We note that all existing instances of acquired likings for innately aversive foods in animals (including some informal results from dogs presented in this paper) involve animals with a close personal relationship with humans, suggesting an important role for social-affective factors in the reversal of innate aversions.

  7. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  8. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  9. Postpartum Acquired Hemophilia. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Cabezas Poblet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Periparturient hemorrhages are the leading cause of extremely serious maternal morbidity and maternal death in Cuba and the world. Acquired Hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by the presence of antibodies against circulating factor VIII (FVIII. We present the case of a 36 years old pregnant woman with term pregnancy and vaginal delivery that suffers from hemorrhagic manifestations in the immediate postpartum secondary to raffia hematoma, requiring blood transfusion. Then she presents a bruise in the right upper limb secondary to stroke that requires surgical repair. The postpartum torpid evolution characterized by sustained bleeding raffia and the surgically treated arm, makes us suspect of the presence of a blood disorder. We observed a decrease in the FVIII factor, which involves the diagnosis of acquired hemophilia and requires treatment with recombinant VIIa factor (FVIIar concentrate and cyclophosphamide. Posterior evolution was favorable. The patient was discharged without sequelae.

  10. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  11. Language lateralization shifts with learning by adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K; Vance, Christopher J; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2015-05-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left-hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting that this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to an unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left-lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short term within a learning context, independent of maturation.

  12. Phylogenetically Acquired Representations and Evolutionary Algorithms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak , Adrianna

    2006-01-01

    First, we explain why Genetic Algorithms (GAs), inspired by the Modern Synthesis, do not accurately model biological evolution, being rather an artificial version of artificial, rather than natural selection. Being focused on optimisation, we propose two improvements of GAs, with the aim to successfully generate adapted, desired behaviour. The first one concerns phylogenetic grounding of meaning, a way to avoid the Symbol Grounding Problem. We give a definition of Phylogenetically Acquired Re...

  13. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  14. Acquired flat foot deformity: postoperative imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmick, Simon; Chhabra, Avneesh; Grujic, Leslie; Linklater, James M

    2012-07-01

    Flat foot (pes planus) is a progressive and disabling pathology that is treated initially with conservative measures and often followed by a variety of surgeries. This article briefly reviews the pathology in acquired flat foot deformity, the classification of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, discusses surgical techniques for the management of adult flat foot deformity, and reviews potential complications and their relevant imaging appearances. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Balçıkanlı

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ experiences in a Language Exchange Community, namely xLingo.Method: 16 students from a state university spent time on language exchange communities. The researcher met these students once a week to make sure that everything was going fine. The students used xLingo for almost six months. The researcher interviewed them through the five questions that were earlier developed and piloted by the researcher himself.Findings and Results: The findings mostly focused on four aspects namely language development, autonomy, culture and self-confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the challenges Turkish EFL learners have to face in the process of language learning, language exchange communities are believed to open up more possibilities for language learners to get more comprehensible input and to interact with more native speakers and more importantly to do something with a language. In order to make best use of these communities, it is a mandatory step that language teachers be introduced to the concept along with practical applications and that these communities should be integrated into language testing system.

  16. Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Domestic Violence URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Domestic Violence - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. Health Literacy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Health Literacy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Health Literacy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  18. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cesarean Section URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Panic Disorder URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Panic Disorder - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oral Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Introduction to formal languages

    CERN Document Server

    Révész, György E

    1991-01-01

    Covers all areas, including operations on languages, context-sensitive languages, automata, decidability, syntax analysis, derivation languages, and more. Numerous worked examples, problem exercises, and elegant mathematical proofs. 1983 edition.

  7. Orchidopexy in late childhood often associated with previously normal testicular position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Evelyn; Zijp, Gerda; Froeling, Frank; de Wilde, Jeroen; van der Voort, Laszla; Hack, Wilfried

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of acquired undescended testis (UDT) in boys who underwent late orchidopexies, that is, performed after the age of 2 years. We included all patients who were 2 years or older when they underwent orchidopexy (ORP) for UDT at the Juliana Children's Hospital during 1996 to 2009. Previous testis position from birth until the date of ORP was obtained from youth health care records. We identified 660 boys who underwent ORP after the age of 2 years for undescended testis. For 421 of these 660 boys, the previous testicular position could be retrieved from the health records. In 143 of these 421 boys (34%), the operated testis had never been scrotal (congenital UDT), whereas in the other 278 boys (66%), a previous scrotal position had been documented twice or more (acquired UDT). Our results show that two-thirds of the boys that underwent ORP after the age of 2 had previously normal descended testes. This finding may offer an additional explanation for the discrepancy between the incidence of congenital UDT and the high rate of ORP in mid and late childhood. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The Significance of the Poetic in Early Childhood Education: Stanley Cavell and Lucy Sprague Mitchell on Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of Stanley Cavell's philosophy of language learning. Young people learn more than the meaning of words when acquiring language: they learn about (the quality of) our form of life. If we--as early childhood educators--see language teaching as something like handing some inert thing to a child, then we unduly…

  9. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Spanish-English Bilinguals' Acquisition of Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caralho, Ana Maria; da Silva, Antonio Jose Bacelar

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates typological distance and order of acquisition (i.e., the order in which languages were acquired) in the context in which Spanish-English bilingual students, whose first language is English or Spanish, are learning Portuguese as a third language (L3). Participants were asked to think aloud as they worked on pedagogical tasks…

  10. Involuntary Rehearsal of Second Language at the Elementary Level: Do Elementary School Children Experience the Din in the Head?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Jennifer M.

    1996-01-01

    Documents the occurrence of involuntary rehearsal of second-language words and sentences in elementary school children. Results of the study suggest that regardless of language background, sex, or age of an individual, we all acquire language in the same way. (six references) (Author/CK)

  11. Language Ability of Young English Language Learners: Definition, Configuration, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this study I examined the dimensionality of the latent ability underlying language use that is needed to fulfill the demands young learners face in English-medium instructional environments, where English is used as the means of instruction for teaching subject matters. Previous research on English language use by school-age children provided…

  12. Failure to meet language milestones at two years of age is predictive of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, Babette; Dusseldorp, Elise; Bol, Gerard; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Verkerk, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study established predictive properties of single language milestones for specific language impairment (SLI) after the age of four, as these had not previously been reported in the literature. Methods In this nested case–control study, children attending special needs schools for severe

  13. Failure to meet language milestones at two years of age is predictive of specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, F.B.; Dusseldorp, E.; Bol, G.W.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study established predictive properties of single language milestones for specific language impairment (SLI) after the age of four, as these had not previously been reported in the literature. Methods In this nested case-control study, children attending special needs schools for severe speech

  14. Prognostic value of severity indicators of nursing-home-acquired pneumonia versus community-acquired pneumonia in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugajin M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motoi Ugajin, Kenichi Yamaki, Natsuko Hirasawa, Takanori Kobayashi, Takeo Yagi Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ichinomiya-Nishi Hospital, Ichinomiya City, Japan Background: The credibility of prognostic indicators in nursing-home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP is not clear. We previously reported a simple prognostic indicator in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP: blood urea nitrogen to serum albumin (B/A ratio. This retrospective study investigated the prognostic value of severity indicators in NHAP versus CAP in elderly patients. Methods: Patients aged ≥65 years and hospitalized because of NHAP or CAP within the previous 3 years were enrolled. Demographics, coexisting illnesses, laboratory and microbiological findings, and severity scores (confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age ≥65 [CURB-65] scale; age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation disturbance, and pressure [A-DROP] scale; and pneumonia severity index [PSI] were retrieved from medical records. The primary outcome was mortality within 28 days of admission. Results: In total, 138 NHAP and 307 CAP patients were enrolled. Mortality was higher in NHAP (18.1% than in CAP (4.6% (P<0.001. Patients with NHAP were older and had lower functional status and a higher rate of do-not-resuscitate orders, heart failure, and cerebrovascular diseases. The NHAP patients more frequently had typical bacterial pathogens. Using the receiver-operating characteristics curve for predicting mortality, the area under the curve in NHAP was 0.70 for the A-DROP scale, 0.69 for the CURB-65 scale, 0.67 for the PSI class, and 0.65 for the B/A ratio. The area under the curve in CAP was 0.73 for the A-DROP scale, 0.76 for the CURB-65 scale, 0.81 for the PSI class, and 0.83 for the B/A ratio. Conclusion: Patient mortality was greater in NHAP than in CAP. Patient characteristics, coexisting illnesses, and detected pathogens differed greatly between NHAP and CAP. The existing severity indicators

  15. Natural Language Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti; BrahmaleenKaurSidhu

    2013-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) work began more than sixty years ago; it is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language. Natural Language Processing holds great promise for making computer interfaces that are easier to use for people, since people will be able to talk to the computer in their own language, rather than learn a specialized language of computer commands. Natural Language processing techniques can make possi...

  16. Emergent Processes of Language Acquisition: Japanese Language Leaning and the Consumption of Japanese Cultural Products in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Motivation for learning a second language varies among individuals: some people enjoy the process of learning languages, while others learn a second language for practical reasons. Previous fieldwork research in Thailand has shown that many consumers of Japanese cultural products are also learners of the Japanese language. This suggests that Japanese cultural products motivate consumers to start studying Japanese and to continue learning it. In this study, two hypotheses will be posed in orde...

  17. Language as capital in international university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    be a trade-off between the fluency in a second language provided by its use as sole or parallel medium in education and educational depth in the discipline studied. This fluency may in some circumstances constitute greater capital than the disciplinary insights partially sacrificed. But this varies...... that academic discourse skills are transferable from L1 to L2 and best acquired in L1, but it is not clear to what extent these skills represent usable capital in professional life. Graduates often report having to write in a very different style from the one they have been taught at university. There may...... strikingly across disciplines. This paper uses Bourdieu’s framework to assess the types of linguistic capital – academic discourse, foreign-language fluency, and more – to be acquired in the internationalized university, their utility in the personal advancement of graduates in various societies...

  18. Critical language awareness in foreign language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Farias

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a panoramic description of the ways in which the so-called Critical Language Awareness (CLA), can contribute to the teaching and learning of English as a global language, which increasingly involves a wide range of visual, verbal, and digitally-delivered media and modes of communication. The overview presented begins with the concept of Language Awareness, and goes into more depth with respect to that of Critical Language Awareness, establishing a parallel with Paulo Freir...

  19. Language Assessment Literacy: Implications for Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved--what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students…

  20. Language and Language Policy in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, William H., III

    1985-01-01

    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  1. Foreign language education: Principles of teaching English to adults at commercial language schools and centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Tarnopolsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing spread of English as the language of global communication leads to ever-increasing demand for learning it among adult populations of non-English-speaking countries. If such people did not have a chance of acquiring English during their school or university years but urgently need it for professional or personal purposes, they have no other choice but to go and learn it at courses offered by numerous commercial language schools and centers. In post-Communist countries, such as Ukraine, commercial language schools and centers are responsible for English language training of the majority of adults learning that language after their secondary or tertiary school studies. They also serve the needs of many high and higher schools’ students who, due to various reasons, are not satisfied with learning English at their educational institutions. However, despite the importance and spread of this specific type of language education, its pedagogical and methodological foundations have hardly been developed at all. The present article is an attempt of partly filling this gap in pedagogy and methodology of English language education in non-English-speaking countries. The paper develops some theoretical underpinnings of that kind of education in the form of six principles underlying the organization of commercial English language courses, formulating their goals, selecting the learning contents, and choosing the methods of teaching and learning. The practical consequences of adopting the six suggested principles are outlined.

  2. The Development of English as a Second Language With and Without Specific Language Impairment: Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of typical and atypical development of English as a second language (L2) and to present strategies for clinical assessment with English language learners (ELLs). A review of studies examining the lexical, morphological, narrative, and verbal memory abilities of ELLs is organized around 3 topics: timeframe and characteristics of typical English L2 development, comparison of the English L2 development of children with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and strategies for more effective assessment with ELLs. ELLs take longer than 3 years to converge on monolingual norms and approach monolingual norms asynchronously across linguistic subdomains. Individual variation is predicted by age, first language, language learning aptitude, length of exposure to English in school, maternal education, and richness of the English environment outside school. ELLs with SLI acquire English more slowly than ELLs with typical development; their morphological and nonword repetition abilities differentiate them the most. Use of strategies such as parent questionnaires on first language development and ELL norm referencing can result in accurate discrimination of ELLs with SLI. Variability in the language abilities of ELLs presents challenges for clinical practice. Increased knowledge of English language learning development with and without SLI together with evidence-based alternative assessment strategies can assist in overcoming these challenges.

  3. Trading Spaces: Carving Up Events for Learning Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göksun, Tilbe; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2010-01-01

    Relational terms (e.g., verbs and prepositions) are the cornerstone of language development, bringing together two distinct fields: linguistic theory and infants' event processing. To acquire relational terms such as run, walk, in, and on, infants must first perceive and conceptualize components of dynamic events such as containment-support, path-manner, source-goal, and figure-ground. Infants must then uncover how the particular language they are learning encodes these constructs. This review addresses the interaction of language learning with infants' conceptualization of these nonlinguistic spatial event components. We present the thesis that infants start with language-general nonlinguistic constructs that are gradually refined and tuned to the requirements of their native language. In effect, infants are trading spaces, maintaining their sensitivity to some relational distinctions while dampening other distinctions, depending on how their native language expresses these constructs. © The Author(s) 2010.

  4. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy, Gamification is basically new, but it has been used successfully in the business world. Gamification not only uses game elements and game design ...

  5. Spoken Language Understanding Software for Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Alam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a preliminary, work-in-progress Spoken Language Understanding Software (SLUS with tailored feedback options, which uses interactive spoken language interface to teach Iraqi Arabic and culture to second language learners. The SLUS analyzes input speech by the second language learner and grades for correct pronunciation in terms of supra-segmental and rudimentary segmental errors such as missing consonants. We evaluated this software on training data with the help of two native speakers, and found that the software recorded an accuracy of around 70% in law and order domain. For future work, we plan to develop similar systems for multiple languages.

  6. [Acquired ichthyosis and haematological malignancies: five cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrady, R; Baybay, H; Khammar, Z; Lahlou, M; Lamchachti, L; Gallouj, S; El Hatimi, A; Mernissi, F-Z; Bono, W

    2012-01-01

    Acquired ichthyosis is a rare condition that can reveal an unsuspected haematological malignancy, thus allowing early diagnosis and management. If ichthyosis regresses under treatment for the haematological disorder, its recurrence reflects a turning point in the course of the disease and implies worsening of the prognosis. The patients were examined at a joint dermatology/haematology consultation. The diagnosis of ichthyosis was based on clinical examination alone with no patients undergoing skin biopsy. Our series included three men and two women aged 38 to 65 years consulting for a variety of reasons including asthenia, anaemia and adenopathy. Ichthyosis occurred 2 to 9 months after the initial symptoms of the blood disease. Lesions consisted of diffuse brown scales. The disease was associated with lymphadenopathy and biological inflammatory syndrome. Two patients were presenting non-Hodgkin lymphoma, one had Hodgkin's disease, one had chronic myeloid leukaemia in progression and one had an undifferentiated lymphomatous process. Treatment was based on chemotherapy and emollients. The ichthyosis progressed in step with the underlying malignancy in all cases, with regression being complete in three cases, partial in one case and absent in one case. In rare cases, acquired ichthyosis reveals systemic disease, and may be of infectious, endocrine or drug origin; it may also be idiopathic. However, it is most often a paraneoplastic syndrome with cutaneous expression encountered during haematological malignancies. Because of the variety of causative blood dyscrasias, ichthyosis cannot be used to guide their diagnosis, although it remains a reliable monitoring tool. Acquired ichthyosis should prompt the clinician to search for a neoplastic condition, primarily a haematological disorder, guided by other associated signs, given that in our study, skin lesions generally appear to precede signs of the blood disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  8. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Pengfei; Lv, Han; Dong, Cheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  9. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthracyclines and Acquired Long QT Syndrome. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez Armada

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acquired long QT syndrome results from secondary causes and can be caused by more than 100 non-antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac arrest due to Torsades de pointes induced by drugs causing prolonged QT syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal event, even in hospitals. The case of a 47-year-old patient diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma admitted to the hematology department of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. The patient had been previously treated with anthracyclines and developed episodes of palpitations and syncope later. The treatment included monitoring the patient, avoiding other QT prolonging agents and administrating magnesium sulfate and potassium chloride with a proper maintenance of the fluid and acid-base balance. The presentation of this case aims at motivating interest in new reports on the subject and establishing a direct causal relationship through the evidence provided by new experiences.

  11. Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a dog with leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A 5 year old male neutered Cairn Terrier was evaluated for signs of polyuria and polydipsia. Initial hematology and chemistry panels were unremarkable and urinalysis showed a persistent hyposthenuria. Eleven days later, the dog became lethargic, inappetent and had developed acute renal failure. The dog was ultimately euthanized due to a poor response to treatment. Microscopic agglutination titres were consistent with a diagnosis of leptospirosis. The initial hyposthenuria in this case was consistent with acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This is an uncommon presentation of leptospirosis that has not previously been described to progress to acute renal failure. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any dog presenting with polyuria and polydipsia and these patients should be treated as a zoonotic risk. PMID:24739820

  12. Developing a useful and integrative STEM disciplinary language

    OpenAIRE

    Capraro, Robert M.; Barroso, Luciana R.; Nite, Sandra; Rice, Devyn; Lincoln, Yvonna; Young, Jamaal; Young, Jemimah

    2018-01-01

    STEM disciplinary language is a necessary component for STEM success. It can be developed through experiences and attention to the development of STEM activities that are rich in language and can be acquired through practical experiences and systematic practice. Secondary students participated in an informal STEM summer camp where they learned to use Google Sketchup® and a 3-D printer to design their own objects. They interacted with peers and collaborated on issues as they arose, to solve pr...

  13. Syntactic versus Lexical Therapy for Anomia in Acquired Aphasia: Differential Effects on Narrative and Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Ruth; Gregory, Emma; Best, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of therapy for acquired anomia have treated nouns in isolation. The effect on nouns in connected speech remains unclear. In a recent study in 2012, we used a novel noun syntax therapy and found an increase in the number of determiner plus noun constructions in narrative after therapy. Aims: Two aims arose from the…

  14. Role of Atypical Bacteria in Hospitalized Patients With Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Junco, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) has been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and hospitalization for long-term care residents. However, current and previous pneumonia guidelines differ on the appropriate management of NHAP in hospitalized patients, specifically in regard to the role of atypical bacteria such as Chlamydiae pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella.

  15. Acquired generalised neuromyotonia, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and alopecia areata in a patient with myasthenia gravis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S S

    2012-02-03

    We describe a patient with the diagnoses of acquired neuromyotonia, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and alopecia areata, occurring many years after a thymectomy for myasthenia gravis associated with a thymoma. We review the current literature on autoimmune conditions associated with myasthenia gravis and thymectomy. To our knowledge, this combination of multiple autoimmune conditions has not been reported previously.

  16. Language development in internationally adopted children: a special case of early second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Karine; Genesee, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The French language development of children adopted (n=24) from China was compared with that of control children matched for socioeconomic status, sex, and age. The children were assessed at 50 months of age, on average, and 16 months later. The initial assessment revealed that the 2 groups did not differ with respect to socioemotional adjustment or intellectual abilities. However, the adopted children's expressive language skills were significantly lower than those of the nonadopted children at both assessments. The receptive language skills were also significantly weaker for the adopted children at the second assessment. The results are discussed in terms of possible early age-of-acquisition effects that might affect adopted children's ability to acquire a second first language. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha B Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA, and pityriasis versicolor (PV. Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included.

  18. Acanthamoeba endophthalmitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, K F; Eckhardt, T J; Reboli, A C; Stieritz, D

    1996-10-01

    To report the findings of Acanthamoeba endophthalmitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A 35-year-old man with AIDS and Acanthamoeba infection of the skin and lungs was treated for a granulomatous uveitis in the left eye. The left eye developed mutton-fat keratic precipitates, iris granulomas, cataract, hypotony, and choroidal infiltrates. Aqueous and vitreous specimens were positive for Acanthamoeba cysts. Topical and systemic antiamebic medications decreased the inflammation but failed to control the infection. Acanthamoeba infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of uveitis in patients with AIDS.

  19. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome manifested as disseminated cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, G; Seger, D

    1985-01-01

    A 32-year-old male homosexual presented to the emergency department (ED) with the clinical picture of a nonspecific illness. While in the ED, he experienced a first-time seizure. Computed tomography (CT) showed an enhancing mass lesion. Antibacterial therapy was started and continued until a second lumbar puncture (LP), 36 hours after admission, showed distinct yeast forms. Subsequent institution of appropriate therapy did not prevent the patient's death. The cause of death was disseminated cryptococcosis secondary to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  20. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  1. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha B; Kubba, Raj; Kubba, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA), and pityriasis versicolor (PV). Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included.

  2. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  3. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one′s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

  4. Acquired apraxia of speech: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollman-Porter, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an acquired adult neurogenic communication disorder that often occurs following stroke. The purpose of this article is to review current research studies addressing the diagnostic and therapeutic management of AOS. Traditional definitions and characteristics are compared with current features that assist in the differential diagnosis of AOS. Prognostic indicators are reviewed in addition to how neuroplasticity may impact treatment in chronic AOS. Treatment techniques discussed include the articulatory kinematic approach (AKA), use of augmentative/alternative communication devices, intersystemic facilitation/reorganization, and constraint-induced therapy. Finally, the need to address functional communication through support groups, outside the therapeutic environment, is discussed.

  5. Prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Mathilde; Overgaard-Steensen, C

    2015-01-01

    . In the hospitalised patient, non-osmotic antidiuretic hormone secretion is frequent and results in a reduced renal electrolyte-free water clearance (EFWC). This condition puts the patient at risk of hyponatraemia upon infusion of fluids that are hypotonic such as 5% glucose, Darrow-glucose, NaKglucose and 0.45% Na...... like Ringer-acetate/Ringer-lactate can increase the intracranial pressure dramatically. Consequently, 0.9 % NaCl is recommended as first-line fluid for such patients. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia may be reduced by prescribing fluids, type and amount, with the same...

  6. [Iris heterochromia in acquired Horner's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynat, J; Soichot, P; Bidot, S; Dugas, B; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bron, A

    2007-09-01

    Horner's syndrome (HS) is related to an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway. The classic clinical findings associated with this condition are ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos. Heterochromia is typically described in congenital HS, but it is an uncommon finding in acquired HS. We report a case of post-traumatic HS associated with heterochromia. A literature review indicates that this type of heterochromia may be related to a reduction in the number of iris melanocytes. This mechanism may be the same in the physiological iris color modifications in adulthood.

  7. Acquired CNS lesions in fetal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Pogledic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Acquired central nervous system (CNS) lesions are often subtle; therefore, the prenatal diagnosis of these lesions is extremely important. The fetal ultrasound examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two important imaging methods that give an insight into these types lesions. The method of choice during pregnancy is still fetal ultrasound; however, fetal MRI is important when there are certain pathologies, e.g. periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or malformations of the vein of Galen. In this manner clinicians can plan further therapy after childbirth in advance (e.g. cerebral angiography or embolization). (orig.) [de

  8. The Usefulness of Translation in Foreign Language Learning: Students’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Fernández-Guerra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars have argued that translation is not a useful tool when acquiring a second or foreign language; since it provides a simplistic one-to-one relationship between the native and the foreign language, it can cause interference between them, and it is an artificial exercise that has nothing to do in a communicative approach to language teaching. Recent studies, however, show that, far from being useless, translation can be a great aid to foreign language learning. The aim of the present paper is twofold: (1 to summarize and assess the arguments that encourage the use of translation in the foreign language classroom, supporting the integration of several forms of translating; and (2 to present the results of a survey that focused on students’ perceptions and responses towards translation tasks and their effectiveness in foreign language acquisition. Results show that students’ attitudes were surprisingly positive for several reasons: translation is one of their preferred language learning tasks, it is motivating, it facilitates a deeper understanding of the form and content of the source language text, it increases learners’ awareness of the differences between both linguistic systems, it allows them to re-express their thoughts faster and easier, and it helps them acquire linguistic and cultural knowledge.

  9. Evidentiality in Language and Cognition☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragou, Anna; Li, Peggy; Choi, Youngon; Han, Chung-hye

    2006-01-01

    What is the relation between language and thought? Specifically, how do linguistic and conceptual representations make contact during language learning? This paper addresses these questions by investigating the acquisition of evidentiality (the linguistic encoding of information source) and its relation to children’s evidential reasoning. Previous studies have hypothesized that the acquisition of evidentiality is complicated by the subtleness and abstractness of the underlying concepts; other studies have suggested that learning a language which systematically (e.g. grammatically) marks evidential categories might serve as a pacesetter for early reasoning about sources of information. We conducted experimental studies with children learning Korean (a language with evidential morphology) and English (a language without grammaticalized evidentiality) in order to test these hypotheses. Our experiments compared 3- and 4-year-old Korean children’s knowledge of the semantics and discourse functions of evidential morphemes to their (non-linguistic) ability to recognize and report different types of evidential sources. They also compared Korean children’s source monitoring abilities to the source monitoring abilities of English-speaking children of the same age. We found that Korean-speaking children have considerable success in producing evidential morphology but their comprehension of such morphology is very fragile. Nevertheless, young Korean speakers are able to reason successfully about sources of information in non-linguistic tasks; furthermore, their performance in these tasks is similar to that of English-speaking peers. These results support the conclusion that the acquisition of evidential expressions poses considerable problems for learners; however, these problems are not (necessarily) conceptual in nature. Our data also suggest that, contrary to relativistic expectations, children’s ability to reason about sources of information proceeds along similar

  10. Language Assessment Literacy: Implications for Language Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Giraldo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the applied linguistics field has examined the knowledge, skills, and principles needed for assessment, defined as language assessment literacy. Two major issues in language assessment literacy have been addressed but not fully resolved—what exactly language assessment literacy is and how it differs among stakeholders (e.g., students and teachers. This reflective article reviews assessment literacy from general education experts and language education scholars and shows how the meaning of language assessment literacy has expanded. To add to the discussion of this construct, the article focuses on the specific language assessment literacy for language teachers and proposes a core list of assessment knowledge, skills, and principles for these stakeholders.

  11. Demographic and clinical data in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoebl, P; Marco, P; Baudo, F; Collins, P; Huth-Kühne, A; Nemes, L; Pellegrini, F; Tengborn, L; Lévesque, H

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII and characterized by spontaneous hemorrhage in patients with no previous family or personal history of bleeding. Although data on several AHA cohorts have been collected, limited information is available on the optimal management of AHA. The European Acquired Hemophilia Registry (EACH2) was established to generate a prospective, large-scale, pan-European database on demographics, diagnosis, underlying disorders, bleeding characteristics, treatment and outcome of AHA patients. Five hundred and one (266 male, 235 female) patients from 117 centers and 13 European countries were included in the registry between 2003 and 2008. In 467 cases, hemostasis investigations and AHA diagnosis were triggered by a bleeding event. At diagnosis, patients were a median of 73.9 years. AHA was idiopathic in 51.9%; malignancy or autoimmune diseases were associated with 11.8% and 11.6% of cases. Fifty-seven per cent of the non-pregnancy-related cases were male. Four hundred and seventy-four bleeding episodes were reported at presentation, and hemostatic therapy initiated in 70.5% of patients. Delayed diagnosis significantly impacted treatment initiation in 33.5%. Four hundred and seventy-seven patients underwent immunosuppression, and 72.6% achieved complete remission. Representing the largest collection of consecutive AHA cases to date, EACH2 facilitates the analysis of a variety of open questions in AHA. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Can pluralistic approaches based upon unknown languages enhance learner engagement and lead to active social inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Rebecca

    2017-08-01

    One way to foster active social inclusion is to enable students to develop a positive attitude to "foreignness". Creating a situation where mainstream students are less wary of foreign languages and cultures, and where newcomers feel their linguistic background is being valued, provides favourable conditions for the inclusion of these newcomers in the classroom and in society. However, language classrooms in French schools rarely take any previously acquired linguistic knowledge into account, thus unconsciously contributing to the rift between multilingual learners (e.g. 1st- and 2nd-generation immigrant children, refugees, children of parents with different mother tongues) and French learners. Native French learners' first experience of learning another language is usually when English is added as a subject to their curriculum in primary school. In some schools in France, English lessons now include the simulation of multilingual situations, designed in particular for the French "quasi-monolingual" students to lose their fear of unknown languages and "foreignness" in general. But the overall aim is to help both groups of learners become aware of the positive impact of multilingualism on cognitive abilities. However, to achieve long-term effects, this awareness-raising needs to be accompanied by maximum engagement on the part of the students. This article explores an instructional strategy termed Pluralistic Approaches based upon Unknown Languages (PAUL), which was designed to develop learning strategies of quasi-monolingual students in particular and to increase learner engagement more generally. The results of a small-scale PAUL study discussed by the author seem to confirm an increase in learner engagement leading to an enhancement of learning outcomes. Moreover, PAUL seems indeed suitable for helping to prepare the ground for social inclusion.

  13. Social Interaction Affects Neural Outcomes of Sign Language Learning As a Foreign Language in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Noriaki; Kim, Jungho; Koizumi, Masatoshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-01-01

    Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to adult second language acquisition of syntactic rules. Does learning second language syntactic rules through social interactions with a native speaker or without such interactions impact behavior and the brain? The current study aims to answer this question. Adult Japanese participants learned a new foreign language, Japanese sign language (JSL), either through a native deaf signer or via DVDs. Neural correlates of acquiring new linguistic knowledge were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants in each group were indistinguishable in terms of their behavioral data after the instruction. The fMRI data, however, revealed significant differences in the neural activities between two groups. Significant activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were found for the participants who learned JSL through interactions with the native signer. In contrast, no cortical activation change in the left IFG was found for the group who experienced the same visual input for the same duration via the DVD presentation. Given that the left IFG is involved in the syntactic processing of language, spoken or signed, learning through social interactions resulted in an fMRI signature typical of native speakers: activation of the left IFG. Thus, broadly speaking, availability of communicative interaction is necessary for second language acquisition and this results in observed changes in the brain.

  14. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  15. The Mixed language Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin.......A range of views on mixed languages and their connections to phenomena such as secret languages, massive borrowing, codeswitching and codemixing, and thier origin....

  16. Creativity in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.

    2013-01-01

    One quality among the many that characterize effective teachers is the ability to bring a creative disposition to teaching. In second language teaching, creativity has also been linked to levels of attainment in language learning. Many of the language tasks favored by contemporary language teaching methods are believed to release creativity in…

  17. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young R; Houngue, Coovi; Hall, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA. Adherence to the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society community-acquired pneumonia guidelines has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, choice between guideline-recommended treatments is at the discretion of the prescribing clinician. This review is intended to discuss the characteristics of these treatment options including dosing frequency, dose adjustment for renal/hepatic dysfunction, serious/common adverse events, drug interactions, lung penetration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target and effect of obesity to help guide antimicrobial selection. An increasing portion of patients are receiving expanded empiric coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as recommended by the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America for healthcare-associated pneumonia. However, this expanded coverage may not be achieving the desired improvements in clinical outcomes. We expect this increasingly diverse spectrum of patients with pneumonia to eventually result in the merger of these two guidelines to include all patients with pneumonia.

  18. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication.

  19. [Acquired hemophilia A after an early abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullen, B; Mühlhöfer, A; Luz, H; Zoller, W G

    2002-05-17

    A 30-year-old woman was referred to our clinic because she had developed recurrent spontaneous hematomas of both calves within the last 2 months. 6 months earlier the patient had developed an ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome after ovarian stimulation treatment and intrauterine insemination. Shortly afterwards a missed abortion (8 (th) week) had been diagnosed. A curettage was carried out. Routine coagulation tests confirmed a prolongation of aPTT to 90 s and a lupus anticoagulant. A high-titre factor VIII inhibitor (56 Bethesda units) was identified. Given these facts an acquired post-partum hemophilia was diagnosed. The patient was treated with prednisolone and immunoglobulins. The aPTT shortened to normal values. The factor VIII inhibitor and lupus anticoagulant disappeared. There were no further hematomas. The simultaneous occurrence of antibodies in an altered immune state such as pregnancy is well known. In our case, acquired factor VIII inhibitor was found after an early abortion. Treatment with steroids and immunoglobulines led to the disappearance of factor VIII inhibitor and lupus anticoagulant.

  20. Living with acquired dysarthria: the speaker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Miller, Nick

    2011-01-01

    To explore the speaker's experience of living with acquired chronic dysarthria. Ten people with dysarthria and progressive neurological illness and one person with dysarthria following stroke were interviewed in depth about their experience of living with dysarthria. They covered a range of ages, time post-onset and dysarthria severity levels. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using Framework Method of Analysis. Acquired dysarthria can negatively impact on speakers' lives. Findings here suggest that the experience of living with dysarthria is highly individual. There were some common perspectives. Six key themes emerged from interviews: 'dysarthria as only part of the picture', 'communication has changed', 'people treat me differently', 'dysarthria resulting in negative emotions', 'barriers to communication' and 'life is different now. The impact of co-existing physical disability and the need to consider dysarthria in context was emphasised by all participants. Findings re-emphasise the need to consider the individual experience in clinical practice. The findings provide direction for assessment and intervention in the area.

  1. Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

    2003-01-01

    PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea and oral language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Camila de Castro; Cavalheiro, Maria Gabriela; Maximino, Luciana Paula; Weber, Silke Anna Theresa

    Children and adolescents with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may have consequences, such as daytime sleepiness and learning, memory, and attention disorders, that may interfere in oral language. To verify, based on the literature, whether OSA in children was correlated to oral language disorders. A literature review was carried out in the Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases using the descriptors "Child Language" AND "Obstructive Sleep Apnea". Articles that did not discuss the topic and included children with other comorbidities rather than OSA were excluded. In total, no articles were found at Lilacs, 37 at PubMed, 47 at Scopus, and 38 at Web of Science databases. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, six studies were selected, all published from 2004 to 2014. Four articles demonstrated an association between primary snoring/OSA and receptive language and four articles showed an association with expressive language. It is noteworthy that the articles used different tools and considered different levels of language. The late diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with a delay in verbal skill acquisition. The professionals who work with children should be alert, as most of the phonetic sounds are acquired during ages 3-7 years, which is also the peak age for hypertrophy of the tonsils and childhood OSA. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Constitutionalising Language: A Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    existing languages in a new born state. The discussion began remarking upon the enormous significance of language in political, identity and constitutional terms. It follows comparing different constitutional systems in the world and the status of minority languages in Argentina, Bolivia, Croatia, Serbia....... The paper emphasises the international human right to language, and proposes an accommodation strategy in which the traditional majority language forms the lingua franca, other major languages are granted equal official status, and the government promotes and respects important minority languages. The paper...

  4. Language Literacy in Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the ways in which the transfer of assumptions from first language (L1 writing can help the process of writing in second language (L2. In learning second language writing skills, learners have two primary sources from which they construct a second language system: knowledge and skills from first language and input from second language. To investigate the relative impact of first language literacy skills on second language writing ability, 60 EFL students from Tabriz Islamic Azad University were chosen as participants of this study, based on their language proficiency scores. The subjects were given two topics to write about: the experimental group subjects were asked to write in Persian and then translate their writing into English. The control group wrote in English. The results obtained in this study indicate that the content and vocabulary components of the compositions were mostly affected by the use of first language.

  5. The Terminology of the Public Relations Field in the Slovenian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kalin Golob

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article includes two starting points: (a the development of the Slovenian (and Croatian language in science and professions is being increasingly limited by the narrow comprehension of internationalised higher education and science; (b in the digital age, the fields of usage being lost in those languages are those not supported enough in terms of language technology. With the case of the Slovenian public relations terminology, we reveal that it is possible to confront both: on the basis of the previously formed corpus of professional texts, KoRP, which is linguistically earmarked and freely available online, and in the TERMIS project. We initially inferred one- or multi-word term candidates with the LUIZ programme, and then acquired the typical text environment and best dictionary examples automatically by means of the Sketch Engine tool and its application Word Sketches together with the GDEX tool. The infrastructure formed during the project will be freely available after the conclusion of the project (June 2013, and the dictionary, which will include 2,000 terms regarding public relations, may be understood as a model for the creation of modern terminology dictionaries of other professions as well.

  6. The Functions of Language: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Redhead

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We test between four separate hypotheses (social gossip, social contracts, mate advertising and factual information exchange for the function(s of language using a recall paradigm. Subjects recalled the social content of stories (irrespective of whether this concerned social behavior, defection or romantic events significantly better than they did ecological information. Recall rates were no better on ecological stories if they involved flamboyant language, suggesting that, if true, Miller's “Scheherazade effect” may not be independent of content. One interpretation of these results might be that language evolved as an all-purpose social tool, and perhaps acquired specialist functions (sexual advertising, contract formation, information exchange at a later date through conventional evolutionary windows of opportunity.

  7. Epigenetics: the language of the cell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Jiang, Cizhong; Zhang, Rongxin

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly developing fields of biological research. Breakthroughs in several technologies have enabled the possibility of genome-wide epigenetic research, for example the mapping of human genome-wide DNA methylation. In addition, with the development of various high-throughput and high-resolution sequencing technologies, a large number of functional noncoding RNAs have been identified. Massive studies indicated that these functional ncRNA also play an important role in epigenetics. In this review, we gain inspiration from the recent proposal of the ceRNAs hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that miRNAs act as a language of communication. Accordingly, we further deduce that all of epigenetics may functionally acquire such a unique language characteristic. In summary, various epigenetic markers may not only participate in regulating cellular processes, but they may also act as the intracellular 'language' of communication and are involved in extensive information exchanges within cell.

  8. The influence of the age of acquisition of a foreign language on the activation patterns of language areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryll, A.; Urbanik, A.; Herman-Sucharska, I.; Podsiadlo, L.; Binder, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The of aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the acquisition age of the second language on activation patterns of language areas. Material/Methods: Forty volunteers participated in the study (20 females and 20 males). Their age ranged from 18 to 40 years. A mean age was 28 years. All participants had possessed a high proficiency of the acquired foreign language. They were divided into two groups, according to the age of the foreign language acquisition. The participants who acquired the second language before puberty, were qualified to the early acquisition group. The remaining participants were qualified to the late acquisition group. The second criterion was the level of the acquired, foreign language. Proficiency in using the language was assessed by a teacher. Block design method was used in the performed experiment. The experimental task was speech production in the form of voiceless sentences, the control task was silence. Each experimental session consisted of five 30-second alternating blocks. Every volunteer participated in two sessions, where she/he described his house without the use of voice. One session applied the native language, L1, and the other one the foreign language, L2. The experiment was performed using MR Signa Horizon system (GE Medical Systems, USA) with 1.5 T magnetic field strength. Functional images were obtained using the echoplanar sequence (EPI) that applies spin echo and is sensitive to the changes of the BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent signal) signal having the following parameters: TR = 3000 ms, TE = 60 ms, flip angle 90 0 , FOV = 28 x 21 cm, matrix 96 x 96 pixels, 1 NEX. Functional data analysis was performed using SPM2 software (Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Great Britain). Results: In EA and LA groups, the cortex activation was not more intense in patients speaking their native language, as compared to the foreign language. In the LA group, left inferior frontal gyrus (pars

  9. Acquiring English language competences in a multi-lingual situation: the learning experiences of Dutch second language learners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.,P.G.C.E., M.A. N.H. Helen Renou-Kirby

    2004-01-01

    Background to the problem Dutch society demonstrates a development which is apparent in many societies in the 21st century; it is becoming ethnically heterogeneous. This means that children who are secondlanguage speakers of Dutch are learning English, a core curriculum subject, through the medium

  10. Learning a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Caroline; Hermann, Charlotte; Andersen, Signe Hvalsøe; Grigalauskyte, Simona; Tolsgaard, Mads; Holmegaard, Thorbjørn; Hajaya, Zaedo Musa

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the concept of second language learning in Denmark with focus on how second language learners negotiate their identities in relation to language learning and integration. By investigating three language learners’ acquisition of Danish through key theories on the field of second language learning, focus is centred on the subjects’ lived experiences of the learning process within their everyday lives and in the classroom. Through interviews and observations it can be conclud...

  11. Lost in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nellemann, Kristian Lindhardt; Birk, Nikoline Aarup; Toft-Nielsen, Nina Kristine; Justice, Alexandra Isabella; Løkkegaard, Jakob Ludvig; Mørch, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This project seeks to investigate the intricate processes immigrants in Denmark go through when learning Danish as a foreign or second language. It builds from an understanding of language as a social practice and a view of language learning as having more than a cognitive level. By combining theory on second language acquisition with theory on identity and communities of practice, this project looks to explore how immigrants through investment in language learning create or maintain a meanin...

  12. Language and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo

    and sensorimotor conceptual patterns. In order to better articulate social uses of language to the cognitive study of metaphors, after a critical review of conceptual metaphor theory in the light of the pragmatist model, I analysed the birth and evolution of the metaphor “Berlusconi is a caiman” over 9 years...... on the coordination of other cognitive processes. I analysed the linguistic interactions and the performance of participants in a joint decision-making experimental task. The participants had to discuss their own confidence in a previous individual visual discrimination task in order to reach a joint decision on who...... was right. The analysis shows how, in order to effectively express and discuss confidence, the participants had to develop linguistic tools apt to the task: a confidence scale. It did not matter which linguistic items were used – 32 different types of such items were observed – but how much the participants...

  13. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Kei; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Noguchi, Shingo; Nagata, Shuya; Nishida, Chinatsu; Kido, Takashi; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%), Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%)], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6%) and oral bacteria (15.6%) than previous reports. Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  14. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. METHODS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. RESULTS: In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6% and oral bacteria (15.6% than previous reports. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  15. Language Revitalization and Language Pedagogy: New Teaching and Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Language learning and teaching of endangered languages have many features and needs that are quite different from the teaching of world languages. Groups whose languages are endangered try to turn language loss around; many new language teaching and learning strategies are emerging, to suit the special needs and goals of language revitalization.…

  16. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject—One Language Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish—adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)—learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject—one language rule. PMID:26107624

  17. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneko Antón

    Full Text Available In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1 and children (Experiment 2-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish; while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish. Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  18. Mixing Languages during Learning? Testing the One Subject-One Language Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Eneko; Thierry, Guillaume; Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni

    2015-01-01

    In bilingual communities, mixing languages is avoided in formal schooling: even if two languages are used on a daily basis for teaching, only one language is used to teach each given academic subject. This tenet known as the one subject-one language rule avoids mixing languages in formal schooling because it may hinder learning. The aim of this study was to test the scientific ground of this assumption by investigating the consequences of acquiring new concepts using a method in which two languages are mixed as compared to a purely monolingual method. Native balanced bilingual speakers of Basque and Spanish-adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2)-learnt new concepts by associating two different features to novel objects. Half of the participants completed the learning process in a multilingual context (one feature was described in Basque and the other one in Spanish); while the other half completed the learning phase in a purely monolingual context (both features were described in Spanish). Different measures of learning were taken, as well as direct and indirect indicators of concept consolidation. We found no evidence in favor of the non-mixing method when comparing the results of two groups in either experiment, and thus failed to give scientific support for the educational premise of the one subject-one language rule.

  19. Do grammatical-gender distinctions learned in the second language influence native-language lexical processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Smith, Samantha

    2016-02-01

    How does learning a second language influence native language processing? In the present study, we examined whether knowledge of Spanish - a language that marks grammatical gender on inanimate nouns - influences lexical processing in English - a language that does not mark grammatical gender. We tested three groups of adult English native speakers: monolinguals, emergent bilinguals with high exposure to Spanish, and emergent bilinguals with low exposure to Spanish. Participants engaged in an associative learning task in English where they learned to associate names of inanimate objects with proper names. For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun's Spanish translation matched the gender of the proper name (e.g., corn-Patrick). For half of the pairs, the grammatical gender of the noun's Spanish translation mismatched the gender of the proper noun (e.g., beach-William). High-Spanish-exposure bilinguals (but not monolinguals or low-Spanish-exposure bilinguals) were less accurate at retrieving proper names for gender-incongruent than for gender-congruent pairs. This indicates that second-language morphosyntactic information is activated during native-language processing, even when the second language is acquired later in life.

  20. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...