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  1. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  2. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  3. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  4. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  5. Experimental Chagas disease in Balb/c mice previously vaccinated with T. rangeli. II. The innate immune response shows immunological memory: reality or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Marini, V

    2015-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a real challenge to the host's immune system, because it requires strong humoral and cellular immune response to remove circulating trypomastigote forms, and to prevent the replication of amastigote forms in tissues, involving many regulator and effector components. This protozoan is responsible for Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latinamerica. We have developed a model of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli, a parasite closely related to T. cruzi, but nonpathogenic to humans, which reduces the infectiousness in three different species of animals, mice, dogs and guinea pigs, against challenge with T. cruzi. In a previous work, we demonstrated that mice vaccinated with T. rangeli showed important soluble mediators that stimulate phagocytic activity versus only infected groups. The aim of this work was to study the innate immune response in mice vaccinated or not with T. rangeli. Different population cells and some soluble mediators (cytokines) in peritoneal fluid and plasma in mice vaccinated-infected and only infected with T. cruzi were studied. In the first hours of challenge vaccinated mice showed an increase of macrophages, NK, granulocytes, and regulation of IL6, IFNγ, TNFα and IL10, with an increase of IL12, with respect to only infected mice. Furthermore an increase was observed of Li T, Li B responsible for adaptative response. Finally the findings showed that the innate immune response plays an important role in vaccinated mice for the early elimination of the parasites, complementary with the adaptative immune response, suggesting that vaccination with T. rangeli modulates the innate response, which develops some kind of immunological memory, recognizing shared antigens with T. cruzi. These results could contribute to the knowledge of new mechanisms which would have an important role in the immune response to Chagas disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  7. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Making sense of enthalpy of vaporization trends for ionic liquids: new experimental and simulation data show a simple linear relationship and help reconcile previous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verevkin, Sergey P; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Yermalayeu, Andrei V; Schick, Christoph; Liu, Hongjun; Maginn, Edward J; Bulut, Safak; Krossing, Ingo; Kalb, Roland

    2013-05-30

    Vaporization enthalpy of an ionic liquid (IL) is a key physical property for applications of ILs as thermofluids and also is useful in developing liquid state theories and validating intermolecular potential functions used in molecular modeling of these liquids. Compilation of the data for a homologous series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide ([C(n)mim][NTf2]) ILs has revealed an embarrassing disarray of literature results. New experimental data, based on the concurring results from quartz crystal microbalance, thermogravimetric analyses, and molecular dynamics simulation have revealed a clear linear dependence of IL vaporization enthalpies on the chain length of the alkyl group on the cation. Ambiguity of the procedure for extrapolation of vaporization enthalpies to the reference temperature 298 K was found to be a major source of the discrepancies among previous data sets. Two simple methods for temperature adjustment of vaporization enthalpies have been suggested. Resulting vaporization enthalpies obey group additivity, although the values of the additivity parameters for ILs are different from those for molecular compounds.

  9. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency. The... the original data submitter, the applicant may cite the study only in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  10. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  11. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (P<0.001). No ECV-associated complications occurred in women with previous cesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  13. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  14. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  15. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  16. Case Study Shows Disconnect on Civic Journalism's Role

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, M.; Harmsen, S.; Singer, J.; Ekdale, B.

    2017-01-01

    This in-depth case study examines attempts to transform a traditional newsroom to one oriented around civic journalism principles, offering a unique look at the resistance toward those principles even in a digital environment that facilitates new audience relationships. Civic journalism emphasizes understanding and addressing community concerns from a citizen perspective. This study finds that journalists still struggle to integrate citizens’ contributions into newsroom practice in meaningful...

  17. Oklahoma Cherokee formation study shows benefits of gas tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, B.J.; Cline, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    To no one's surprise, the administration's recently released energy initiative package does not advocate the use of tax incentives such as the Internal Revenue Code Sec. 29 (tight sand gas) credit that expired Dec. 31, 1992. This is unfortunate since tax credits do stimulate drilling, as the authors' recent study of Oklahoma's Pennsylvanian age Cherokee formation demonstrates. Within this 783,000 acre study area, more than 130 additional wells were drilled between 1991--92 because of tax credit incentives. And such tax credits also increase total federal tax revenues by causing wells to be drilled that would not have been drilled or accelerating the drilling of wells, thereby increasing taxable revenue. In short, tax credits create a win-win situation: they stimulate commerce, increase tax revenues, reduce the outflow of capital to foreign petroleum projects, and add to the nation's natural gas reserve, which is beneficial for national security, balance of payments, the environment, and gas market development. The paper discusses the study assumptions, study results, and the tax credit policy

  18. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  19. Investigations into the myocardial metabolism of 123-I-ω-HDA in patients showing the clinical signs and symptoms of mitral valve prolapse and previously proven to have no coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voth, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 53 patients showing the clinical signs and symptoms of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) where coronary heart disease (CHD) had previously been excluded by angiography the myocardial metabolism of fatty acids was examined at rest using metabolic myocardial scintigraphy (MMS) and 123-I-ω-HDA as tracer substance. The results were correlated with those obtained by other methods of investigation (findings at rest and during exercise from ECG recordings, tests using a flow-guided catheter and radionuclide ventriculography, further from echocardiography as well as myocardial Tl redistribution scintiscanning during exercise). For purposes of reference, MMS was additionally carried out in twelve normal individuals subjected to coronary angiography to exclude both MVP and CHD. The results of this study would appear to suggest that the pathological findings revealed by myocardial Tl scintigraphy in patients showing symptoms of MVP cannot invariably be classified as 'false' but are at least to some extent attributable to impaired myocardial perfusion, vitality or metabolism. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  1. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  2. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  3. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  4. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  5. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A New Zealand based cohort study of anaesthetic trainees' career outcomes compared with previously expressed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E M L; French, R A; Kennedy, R R

    2011-09-01

    Predicting workforce requirements is a difficult but necessary part of health resource planning. A 'snapshot' workforce survey undertaken in 2002 examined issues that New Zealand anaesthesia trainees expected would influence their choice of future workplace. We have restudied the same cohort to see if that workforce survey was a good predictor of outcome. Seventy (51%) of 138 surveys were completed in 2009 compared with 100 (80%) of 138 in the 2002 survey. Eighty percent of the 2002 respondents planned consultant positions in New Zealand. We found 64% of respondents were working in New Zealand (P New Zealand based respondents but only 40% of those living outside New Zealand agreed or strongly agreed with this statement (P New Zealand but was important for only 2% of those resident in New Zealand (P New Zealand were predominantly between NZ$150,000 and $200,000 while those overseas received between NZ$300,000 and $400,000. Of those that are resident in New Zealand, 84% had studied in a New Zealand medical school compared with 52% of those currently working overseas (P < 0.01). Our study shows that stated career intentions in a group do not predict the actual group outcomes. We suggest that 'snapshot' studies examining workforce intentions are of little value for workforce planning. However we believe an ongoing program matching career aspirations against career outcomes would be a useful tool in workforce planning.

  7. Title: Studies on drug switchability showed heterogeneity in methodological approaches: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleudi, Valeria; Trotta, Francesco; Vecchi, Simona; Amato, Laura; Addis, Antonio; Davoli, Marina

    2018-05-16

    Several drugs share the same therapeutic indication, including those undergoing patent expiration. Concerns on the interchangeability are frequent in clinical practice, challenging the evaluation of switchability through observational research. To conduct a scoping review of observational studies on drug switchability to identify methodological strategies adopted to deal with bias and confounding. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science (updated 1/31/2017) to identify studies evaluating switchability in terms of effectiveness/safety outcomes or compliance. Three reviewers independently screened studies extracting all characteristics. Strategies to address confounding, particularly, previous drug use and switching reasons were considered. All findings were summarized in descriptive analyses. Thirty-two studies, published in the last 10 years, met the inclusion criteria. Epilepsy, cardiovascular and rheumatology were the most frequently represented clinical areas. 75% of the studies reported data on effectiveness/safety outcomes. The most frequent study design was cohort (65.6%) followed by case-control (21.9%) and self-controlled (12.5%). Case-control and case-crossover studies showed homogeneous methodological strategies to deal with bias and confounding. Among cohort studies, the confounding associated with previous drug use was addressed introducing variables in multivariate model (47.3%) or selecting only adherent patients (14.3%). Around 30% of cohort studies did not report reasons for switching. In the remaining 70%, clinical parameters or previous occurrence of outcomes were measured to identify switching connected with lack of effectiveness or adverse events. This study represents a starting point for researchers and administrators who are approaching the investigation and assessment of issues related to interchangeability of drugs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  9. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  10. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  11. Phase III Study of Cabozantinib in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: COMET-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; De Bono, Johann; Sternberg, Cora; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Oudard, Stéphane; De Giorgi, Ugo; Krainer, Michael; Bergman, Andries; Hoelzer, Wolfgang; De Wit, Ronald; Bögemann, Martin; Saad, Fred; Cruciani, Giorgio; Thiery-Vuillemin, Antoine; Feyerabend, Susan; Miller, Kurt; Houédé, Nadine; Hussain, Syed; Lam, Elaine; Polikoff, Jonathan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Mainwaring, Paul; Ramies, David; Hessel, Colin; Weitzman, Aaron; Fizazi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of kinases, including MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, and has shown activity in men with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This blinded phase III trial compared cabozantinib with prednisone in patients with mCRPC. Men with progressive mCRPC after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to cabozantinib 60 mg once per day or prednisone 5 mg twice per day. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Bone scan response (BSR) at week 12 as assessed by independent review committee was the secondary end point; radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and effects on circulating tumor cells (CTCs), bone biomarkers, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) were exploratory assessments. A total of 1,028 patients were randomly assigned to cabozantinib (n = 682) or prednisone (n = 346). Median OS was 11.0 months with cabozantinib and 9.8 months with prednisone (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.06; stratified log-rank P = .213). BSR at week 12 favored cabozantinib (42% v 3%; stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P < .001). rPFS was improved in the cabozantinib group (median, 5.6 v 2.8 months; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.57; stratified log-rank P < .001). Cabozantinib was associated with improvements in CTC conversion, bone biomarkers, and post-random assignment incidence of SSEs but not PSA outcomes. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events and discontinuations because of adverse events were higher with cabozantinib than with prednisone (71% v 56% and 33% v 12%, respectively). Cabozantinib did not significantly improve OS compared with prednisone in heavily treated patients with mCRPC and progressive disease after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. Cabozantinib had some activity in improving BSR, rPFS, SSEs, CTC conversions, and bone biomarkers but not PSA outcomes. © 2016 by

  12. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  13. Interbirth interval and history of previous preeclampsia: a case–control study among multiparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Armenian, Haroutune; Petrosyan, Varduhi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a disorder with a reported incidence of 2%-8% among all pregnancies, accounting for more than 50,000 deaths worldwide each year. In low- and middle- income countries maternal/perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia are high due to the lack of proper prenatal and hospital care and limited access to neonatal intensive care. The objectives of our study were to determine the association of long in...

  14. A Review of Previous Studies on Information Processing in Career Decision Making among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 智子; Satoko, Ikeda

    2018-01-01

    This review of the researches of career choice of Japanese university students focused the studies on decision-making theory conducted in Japan. The present review suggested the necessity of examination of the effect of self-efficacy about career information search on the process of career choice. It is also needed to examine the relationship between specific self-efficacy about career information search and career decision-making self-efficacy, moreover, general self-efficacy.

  15. A Comment Upon Previous Studies on 3-D Boundary Layer Transition

    OpenAIRE

    ÇARPINLIOĞLU, Melda Özdinç

    2014-01-01

    The common feature of the experimental studies upon 3-D boundary layer development on swept flat plates cited in the available literature is the application of streamwise and/or spanwise pressure gradients. In fact; presence of the pressure gradients was suggested to be vital for having crossflow effective in 3-D boundary layer transition. In the presented paper here, this idea is questioned evaluating the results of an experimental investigation conducted on swept flat plates under the ab...

  16. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of...

  17. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  18. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study.

  19. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of this misclassification for analysing the risk of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prescription data were obtained from Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics and we applied various methods to approximate treatment episodes. We analysed the duration of HT episodes to study the ability to identify......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  20. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection among healthy cats at shows in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nødtvedt Ane

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, the protozoan Tritrichomonas foetus has been recognised as an important cause of chronic large-bowel diarrhoea in purebred cats in many countries, including Norway. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the proportion of animals with T. foetus infection among clinically healthy cats in Norway and to assess different risk factors for T. foetus infection, such as age, sex, former history of gastrointestinal symptoms and concurrent infections with Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium sp. Methods The sample population consisted of 52 cats participating in three cat shows in Norway in 2009. Samples were examined for motile T. foetus by microscopy, after culturing and for T. foetus-DNA by species-specific nested PCR, as well as for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Results By PCR, T. foetus-DNA was demonstrated in the faeces of 11 (21% of the 52 cats tested. DNA-sequencing of five positive samples yielded 100% identity with previous isolates of T. foetus from cats. Only one sample was positive for T. foetus by microscopy. By IFAT, four samples were positive for Giardia cysts and one for Cryptosporidium oocysts, none of which was co-infected with T. foetus. No significant associations were found between the presence of T. foetus and the various risk factors examined. Conclusions T. foetus was found to be a common parasite in clinically healthy cats in Norway.

  1. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in previously treated patients with diabetic macular edema : Subgroup analysis of the MEAD study

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, A.J.; Kuppermann, B.D.; Lanzetta, P.; Loewenstein, A.; Li, X.; Cui, H.; Hashad, Y.; Whitcup, S.M.; Abujamra, S.; Acton, J.; Ali, F.; Antoszyk, A.; Awh, C.C.; Barak, A.; Bartz-Schmidt, K.U.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7?mg (DEX 0.7) was approved for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) after demonstration of its efficacy and safety in the MEAD registration trials. We performed subgroup analysis of MEAD study results to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DEX 0.7 treatment in patients with previously treated DME. Methods Three-year, randomized, sham-controlled phase 3 study in patients with DME, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 34?68 Early Treatment...

  2. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  3. Radioimmunotherapy with Y-90-epratuzumab in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma. A fractionated dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, O.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Tennvall, J.; Hindorf, C.; Olsson, T.; Strand, S.E.; Stenberg, L.; Wingardh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fractionated RIT may improve outcome by decreasing heterogeneity in absorbed dose and by increasing therapeutic window. The humanised anti-CD22 antibody, Epratuzumab, (Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ) can be given repeatedly with minimal risk of neutralising Ab (HAHA), making fractionated treatment with 90 Y-labelled epratuzumab possible. Materials and Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma received increasing number (2-4) of weekly infusions of 90 Y-epratuzumab. Patients received either 185 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group A), or, if they had a history of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue, 92.5 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group B). The first infusion included 150 MBq of 111 Indium for scintigraphic verification of tumour targeting and dosimetry. 1.5 mg/kg epratuzumab was administered with each infusion. The treatment could be repeated once after 3 m. Results: Of 23 patients, 16 in group A and 6 in group B were evaluable for response. The RR in group A was 62% objective response (OR) and 25% CR/CRu. One patient in group B showed OR. OR was seen in aggressive and indolent lymphoma. Response was also long-lasting and event-free survival of patients showing CR/CRu was 14 to 25+ months. In group A all seven patient, receiving three infusions, showed less than grade 3 platelet and neutrophil toxicity, except for two patients suffering grade 3 neutropenia. Of five patients with 4 weekly infusions there were two patients with dose-limiting haematological toxicity (DLT), both recently treated with high dose cytosar before RIT. With criteria used the maximal tolerated dose was three infusions 185 MBq/m 2 . In group B no patient suffered DLT and one patient exhibited OR. Seven patients were retreated after 3 months with minor toxicity, but improvement in OR in two cases. No patient has developed HAHA. CD22 expression on tumour cells, as assessed by flow cytometry, is available in 18 of 22 patients. In group A, seven of eight patients with

  4. Youth suicide: an insight into previous hospitalisation for injury and sociodemographic conditions from a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesco; Laflamme, Lucie; Spolaore, Paolo; Visentin, Cristiana; Hasselberg, Marie

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the degree to which a previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent is a risk of subsequent youth suicide and whether this association is influenced by family socioeconomic status or economic stress. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted covering all Swedish subjects born between January 1977 and December 1991 (N=1,616,342, male/female ratio=1.05). The cohort subjects were followed-up from January 1998 to December 2003, when aged 7-26 years. Poisson regression and the likelihood ratio test (95% CI) were used to assess the age-adjusted effect of hospitalisation for injuries of various intent on youth suicide and its effect once adjusted for family sociodemographic and social circumstances. Each set of exposures was associated independently and significantly with suicide mortality. Being hospitalised for self-inflicted injuries or injuries of undetermined intent was associated with a risk of suicide 36 to 47 times, respectively, that of subjects never hospitalised in the period under study (95% CI 28.36 to 45.58 and 26.67 to 83.87 for self-inflicted injuries and for events of undetermined intent, respectively; overall psuicide (RR 3.08; 95% CI 2.26 to 4.19). These effects were solid and not substantially altered after adjustment for family demographic and socioeconomic circumstances. A strong association exists between previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent and youth suicide. The association is robust and unaltered by family socioeconomic circumstances.

  5. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  6. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  7. Everolimus for Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer: Results of the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III GRANITE-1 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Results Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Conclusion Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers. PMID:24043745

  8. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  9. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, R.; Espen, P. van; Torres, P.P. Godo

    2006-01-01

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a 241 Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery

  10. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  11. Treatment satisfaction with paliperidone extended-release tablets: open-label study in schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fu De Yang,1 Juan Li,1 Yun Long Tan,1 Wei Ye Liang,1 Rongzhen Zhang,1 Ning Wang,1 Wei Feng,1 Shangli Cai,2 Jian Min Zhuo,2 Li Li Zhang2 1Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, 2Department of Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in treatment satisfaction after switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER in Chinese schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with their previous antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, prospective study, 1,693 patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication were enrolled and switched to paliperidone ER tablets (3–12 mg/d based on clinical judgment. The primary efficacy end point was change in Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ score from baseline to week 8. The secondary end points included percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4, as well as changes in Clinical Global Improvement-Severity (CGI-S and Personal and Social Performance (PSP scores.Results: MSQ scores increased significantly from baseline (mean [standard deviation {SD}]: 2.48 [0.55] to week 8 (5.47 [0.89], P<0.0001; primary end point, full analysis set. The percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4 was 95.9% at week 8, indicating that most of the patients were satisfied with their treatment. Significant (P<0.0001 improvements from baseline to week 8 were noted in CGI-S score (2.37 [1.20] and PSP score (25.5 [15.0]. A total of 174 (10.28% patients experienced adverse events (AEs. The most common (>10 patients events were extrapyramidal disorder (n=84, 4.96%, poor quality sleep (n=18, 1.06% and akathisia (n=13, 0.77%. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. No deaths occurred.Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction improved after switching to paliperidone ER from the previous antipsychotic in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, open label

  12. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  14. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  15. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  16. Magnetism reflectometer study shows LiF layers improve efficiency in spin valve devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardoel, Agatha A [ORNL; Lauter, Valeria [ORNL; Szulczewski, Greg J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    New, more efficient materials for spin valves - a device used in magnetic sensors, random access memories, and hard disk drives - may be on the way based on research using the magnetism reflectometer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Spin valve devices work by means of two or more conducting magnetic material layers that alternate their electrical resistance depending on the layers alignment. Giant magnetoresistance is a quantum mechanical effect first observed in thin film structures about 20 years ago. The effect is observed as a significant change in electrical resistance, depending on whether the magnetization of adjacent ferromagnetic layers is in a parallel or an antiparallel magnetic alignment. 'What we are doing here is developing new materials. The search for new materials suitable for injecting and transferring carriers with a preferential spin orientation is most important for the development of spintronics,' said Valeria Lauter, lead instrument scientist on the magnetism reflectometer at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), who collaborated on the experiment. The researchers discovered that the conductivity of such materials is improved when an organic polymer semiconductor layer is placed between the magnetic materials. Organic semiconductors are now the material of choice for future spin valve devices because they preserve spin coherence over longer times and distances than conventional semiconductors. While research into spin valves has been ongoing, research into organic semiconductors is recent. Previous research has shown that a 'conductivity mismatch' exists in spin valve systems in which ferromagnetic metal electrodes interface with such organic semiconductors as Alq3 ({pi}-conjugated molecule tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline) aluminium). This mismatch limits the efficient injection of the electrons from the electrodes at the interface with the semiconductor material. However, lithium fluoride (LiF), commonly used in light

  17. A Questionnaire Study on the Attitudes and Previous Experience of Croatian Family Physicians toward their Preparedness for Disaster Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka

    2018-04-01

    To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.

  18. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. PCNL - a comparative study in nonoperated and in previously operated (open nephrolithotomy/pyelolithotomy patients - a single-surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Re-procedure in patients with history of open stone surgery is usually challenging due to the alteration in the retroperitoneal anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine the possible impact of open renal surgery on the efficacy and morbidity of subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2009 until September 2010, 120 patients underwent PCNL. Of these, 20 patients were excluded (tubeless or bilateral simultaneous PCNL. Of the remaining 100, 55 primary patients were categorized as Group 1 and the remaining (previous open nephrolithotomy as Group 2. Standard preoperative evaluation was carried out prior to intervention, Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 11 with the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. A p-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: Both groups were similar in demographic profile and stone burden. Attempts to access the PCS was less in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (1.2 + 1 2 vs 3 + 1.3 respectively and this was statistically significant (p < 0.04. However, the mean operative time between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.44. Blood transfusion rate was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.24. One patient in Group 2 developed hemothorax following a supra-11th puncture. Remaining complications were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with past history of renal stone surgery may need more attempts to access the pelvicaliceal system and have difficulty in tract dilation secondary to retroperitoneal scarring. But overall morbidity and efficacy is same in both groups.

  1. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H.; Wang, Timothy S.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit UV exposure. Objective To determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. Methods We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Results Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% versus 27.0%; aPOR=1.41; 1.16–1.71), long sleeves (20.5% versus 7.7%; aPOR=1.55; 1.21–1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% versus 10.5%; aPOR=1.52; 1.24–1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% versus 33.1%; aPOR=2.11; 95% CI=1.73–2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% versus 40.7%; aPOR=0.95; 0.77–1.17). Among subjects with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Limitations Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure. Conclusion Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. PMID:27198078

  2. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  3. Contesting the "Nature" Of Conformity: what Milgram and Zimbardo's studies really show.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alexander Haslam

    Full Text Available Understanding of the psychology of tyranny is dominated by classic studies from the 1960s and 1970s: Milgram's research on obedience to authority and Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment. Supporting popular notions of the banality of evil, this research has been taken to show that people conform passively and unthinkingly to both the instructions and the roles that authorities provide, however malevolent these may be. Recently, though, this consensus has been challenged by empirical work informed by social identity theorizing. This suggests that individuals' willingness to follow authorities is conditional on identification with the authority in question and an associated belief that the authority is right.

  4. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  5. A multicenter study of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes in early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhangyuanzhu; Yu, Jiang; Deng, Zhenwei; Xue, Fangqing; Zheng, Yu; Chen, Feng; Shi, Hong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Cai, Lisheng; Cai, Mingzhi; Xiang, Gao; Hong, Yunfeng; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Guoxin

    2016-04-01

    Lymph node metastasis occurs in approximately 10% of early gastric cancer. Preoperative or intra-operative identification of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer is crucial for surgical planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in early gastric cancer. A multicenter study was performed between July 2012 and November 2014. Ninety-one patients with early gastric cancer identified by preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography were recruited. One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug Administration, was endoscopically injected into the submucosal layer at four points around the site of the primary tumor 6-12 h before surgery. Laparoscopic radical resection with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. SLNs were defined as nodes that were black-dyed by carbon nanoparticles in greater omentum and lesser omentum near gastric cancer. Lymph node status and SLNs accuracy were confirmed by pathological analysis. All patients had black-dyed SLNs lying in greater omentum and/or lesser omentum. SLNs were easily found under laparoscopy. The mean number of SLNs was 4 (range 1-9). Carbon nanoparticles were around cancer in specimen. After pathological analysis, 10 patients (10.99%) had lymph node metastasis in 91 patients with early gastric cancer. SLNs were positive in 9 cases and negative in 82 cases. In pathology, carbon nanoparticles were seen in lymphatic vessels, lymphoid sinus, and macrophages in SLNs. When SLNs were positive, cancer cells were seen in lymph nodes. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of black-dyed SLNs in early gastric cancers were 90, 100, and 98.9 %, respectively. No patient had any side effects of carbon nanoparticles in this study. It is feasible to use carbon nanoparticles to show SLNs in early gastric cancer. Carbon nanoparticles suspension is safe for submucosal injection.

  6. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  7. Acceleration and Orientation Jumping Performance Differences Among Elite Professional Male Handball Players With or Without Previous ACL Reconstruction: An Inertial Sensor Unit-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, Igor; González-Izal, Miriam; Alfaro, Jesús; Gorostiaga, Esteban; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-12-01

    Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations can be observed in athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Commonly identified jumping biomechanical alterations have been described by the use of laboratory technologies. However, portable and easy-to-handle technologies that enable an evaluation of jumping biomechanics at the training field are lacking. To analyze unilateral/bilateral acceleration and orientation jumping performance differences among elite male handball athletes with or without previous ACL reconstruction via a single inertial sensor unit device. Case control descriptive study. At the athletes' usual training court. Twenty-two elite male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) handball players were evaluated. The participants performed a vertical jump test battery that included a 50-cm vertical bilateral drop jump, a 20-cm vertical unilateral drop jump, and vertical unilateral countermovement jump maneuvers. Peak 3-dimensional (X, Y, Z) acceleration (m·s(-2)), jump phase duration and 3-dimensional orientation values (°) were obtained from the inertial sensor unit device. Two-tailed t-tests and a one-way analysis of variance were performed to compare means. The P value cut-off for significance was set at P handball athletes with previous ACL reconstruction demonstrated a jumping biomechanical profile similar to control players, including similar jumping performance values in both bilateral and unilateral jumping maneuvers, several years after ACL reconstruction. These findings are in agreement with previous research showing full functional restoration of abilities in top-level male athletes after ACL reconstruction, rehabilitation and subsequent return to sports at the previous level. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anshuman; Nizammuddin, Sheikh; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Singh, Sakshi; Prakash, Satya; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Rai, Niraj; Carlus, S Justin; Sudhakar, Digumarthi V S; Tripathi, Vishnu P; Möls, Märt; Kim-Howard, Xana; Dewangan, Hemlata; Mishra, Abhishek; Reddy, Alla G; Roy, Biswajit; Pandey, Krishna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Das, Pradeep; Nath, Swapan K; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Cao, F; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Leong, C; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Schroeder, J; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Lee, B

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  10. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  11. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic keratocyst previously treated with marsupialization: case report and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Marisol; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Rumayor-Piña, Alicia; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2016-04-01

    A rare case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma arising in an odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is presented here, with the clinical and histologic features of the first biopsy showing characteristics of OKC and the second biopsy disclosing a squamous cell carcinoma. Immunoprofile of this case was compared with five cases of classical OKC by using cytokeratins CK5, CK14, and CK19, CD138, p63, Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2. Classic OKCs showed expected positivity, mainly in the basal and/or suprabasal layers with most antibodies, except for p53, which was negative, whereas the present case showed irregular positivity in all layers, indicating that this can be useful for differential diagnosis and suggesting a possible role in malignant transformation into primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, immunohistochemical differences between the first biopsy of the present case and classic OKC suggest that immunohistochemistry can be helpful in cases with areas of subtle initial malignant transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cadmium in Salix. A study to show the capacity of Salix to remove cadmium from farmland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestman, G.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this report has been to show the ability of Salix to take up cadmium and how the uptake varies between different types of soil. The information that the results are based on has been obtained from analyses of soil and Salix. The samples were taken at five sites in the district around Lake Maelaren. Two or three stands were taken at each place. The factors studied were the pH, the organic matter content, and the concentration of cadmium in the soil. Salix has a good ability, relative to other crops, to remove cadmium from arable land. The cadmium uptake is 35 times higher with Salix than with straw or energy grass. Salix uptake of cadmium varies between 3 and 14% of the cadmium content in the soil that is accessible to plants. The present annual increase of cadmium in arable land is 1 g/ha, whereas the removal in a Salix plantation is 21 g Cd/ha, yr at an annual growth of 10 tonnes DM. If the Cd uptake is the same each year, then a total of 420 g Cd/ha is removed when Salix is grown over a 20-year period. This is a very large part of the topsoil's total cadmium content, which is 550 g/ha on average in Sweden. The investigation reveals no clear relationship between the Cd concentration in Salix and the concentration of Cd in the soil, the organic matter content or the pH. 22 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Complement activation in leprosy: a retrospective study shows elevated circulating terminal complement complex in reactional leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia El Idrissi, N; Hakobyan, S; Ramaglia, V; Geluk, A; Morgan, B Paul; Das, P Kumar; Baas, F

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium leprae infection gives rise to the immunologically and histopathologically classified spectrum of leprosy. At present, several tools for the stratification of patients are based on acquired immunity markers. However, the role of innate immunity, particularly the complement system, is largely unexplored. The present retrospective study was undertaken to explore whether the systemic levels of complement activation components and regulators can stratify leprosy patients, particularly in reference to the reactional state of the disease. Serum samples from two cohorts were analysed. The cohort from Bangladesh included multi-bacillary (MB) patients with (n = 12) or without (n = 46) reaction (R) at intake and endemic controls (n = 20). The cohort from Ethiopia included pauci-bacillary (PB) (n = 7) and MB (n = 23) patients without reaction and MB (n = 15) patients with reaction. The results showed that the activation products terminal complement complex (TCC) (P ≤ 0·01), C4d (P ≤ 0·05) and iC3b (P ≤ 0·05) were specifically elevated in Bangladeshi patients with reaction at intake compared to endemic controls. In addition, levels of the regulator clusterin (P ≤ 0·001 without R; P < 0·05 with R) were also elevated in MB patients, irrespective of a reaction. Similar analysis of the Ethiopian cohort confirmed that, irrespective of a reaction, serum TCC levels were increased significantly in patients with reactions compared to patients without reactions (P ≤ 0·05). Our findings suggests that serum TCC levels may prove to be a valuable tool in diagnosing patients at risk of developing reactions. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  14. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  15. Studying the Effect of a Competitive Game Show in a Learning by Teaching Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Noboru; Yarzebinski, Evelyn; Keiser, Victoria; Raizada, Rohan; Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how competition among tutees in the context of learning by teaching affects tutors' engagement as well as tutor learning. We conducted this investigation by incorporating a competitive Game Show feature into an online learning environment where students learn to solve algebraic equations by teaching a synthetic…

  16. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  17. Differential typology and prognosis for dissexual behavior--a follow-up study of previously expert-appraised child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, K M

    1998-01-01

    In terms of identifying socially-dysfunctional forms of sexuality--regardless of the legal valuation--dissexuality is defined as "an expression of social failure in sexual behavior." This failure was the subject of a longitudinal analysis of 186 expert-appraised pedophile sexual delinquents at the University of Kiel from 1945 through 1981. Of the child molesters 121 were followed up between September 1990 and September 1992 and 100 were personally contacted. The goal was to empirically develop prognosis criteria, given knowledge of the former delinquents' social development as well as sexual/dissexual practices, which could be of both forensic and interdisciplinary use. Among the bi- and homosexually-orientated pedophiles, the number of offenders for which the act is one of "compensation" was half of the initial collective. In contrast, this number was three-quarters for the heterosexually-orientated perpetrators. Correspondingly, the other half of the bi- and homosexually-orientated pedophiles were either exclusive-type or non-exclusive-type pedophiles (the so-called "true" pedophiles). Among the heterosexually-orientated offenders, the number was only one-quarter. According to the empirical data, we may expect a biographically continuing potential of dissexual behavior for only the exclusive and the non-exclusive type of pedophilia. Most of the relapsed dissexual activities showed up a long time after the expert's report. This is true for both the heterosexually- and the bi- and homosexually orientated groups. The present evaluation of the results allows assignment of behavior for certain delinquent typologies restricted to life phases or lifelong dissexual behavior.

  18. Structural Study and Evaluation of Previous Restoration Work of Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Yaser Yehya Amin Abdel-Aty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo is considered one of the main landmarks in Egypt. It majestically stands at a northwestern bend of the Citadel and it is visible from numerous locations in Cairo. It has become the symbol of the Citadel, to the point that its name is given to the whole complex in the colloquial Egyptian parlance. This paper studies analytically the static and dynamic structural behavior of this great mosque using computer numerical modeling techniques, to reach the main reasons for past cracking and failures in its domed-roof and other structural elements, which occurred by the end of 19th Century. A number of 3D-models are analyzed to study the mosque, in both original and after restoration conditions, under static (i.e. dead and live loads and dynamic (i.e. Eigenvector modal analysis, response-spectrum and time-history cases of loading. Besides, structural evaluation of major restoration project, in 1930s, is conducted to determine the current structural safety status of the mosque

  19. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Excessive users of violent video games do not show emotional desensitization: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szycik, Gregor R; Mohammadi, Bahram; Hake, Maria; Kneer, Jonas; Samii, Amir; Münte, Thomas F; Te Wildt, Bert T

    2017-06-01

    Playing violent video games have been linked to long-term emotional desensitization. We hypothesized that desensitization effects in excessive users of violent video games should lead to decreased brain activations to highly salient emotional pictures in emotional sensitivity brain regions. Twenty-eight male adult subjects showing excessive long-term use of violent video games and age and education matched control participants were examined in two experiments using standardized emotional pictures of positive, negative and neutral valence. No group differences were revealed even at reduced statistical thresholds which speaks against desensitization of emotion sensitive brain regions as a result of excessive use of violent video games.

  1. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike E. Morel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ for certain HPV assays is unknown. Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Results: Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months’ stability at 18–25 °C, 2–8 °C, −20 °C and −80 °C; and at least 3 months’ stability at 40 °C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months’ stability at 18–25 °C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Conclusions: Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Keywords: HPV, Preservative, Sample stability, Automated HR HPV assay

  2. A case study of lightning attachment to flat ground showing multiple unconnected upward leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Krider, E. Philip; Olbinski, Mike; Holle, Ronald L.

    2018-04-01

    On 10 July 2015, a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash that produced two ground terminations was photographed from inside the safety of a truck in southern New Mexico. An analysis of archived NLDN data verified that this was a two-stroke flash, and a close-up view of the first stroke shows that it also initiated at least 12 unconnected, upward leaders (or "streamers") near the ground termination. No unconnected upward leaders were seen near the second ground attachment. After combining an analysis of the photograph with information provided by the NLDN, we infer that the first stroke was of negative (normal) polarity, had modest peak current, and struck about 460 m (± 24%) from the camera. Attachment occurred when an upward-propagating positive leader reached an inferred height of about 21 m above local ground. The second stroke struck ground about 740 m from the camera, and the height of its attachment leader is estimated to be 15 m. The estimated lengths of the unconnected upward leaders in the two-dimensional (2-D) plane of the first stroke range from 2 to 8 m, and all appear to be located within 15 m (2-D) of the main ground termination, with 24% uncertainty. Many of the unconnected upward leaders (inferred to be positive) exhibit multiple upward branches, and most of those branches have upward-directed forks or splits at their ends. This is the first report showing such extensive branching for positive upward leaders in natural lightning strikes to ground. None of the upward leaders can be seen to emanate from the tops of tall, isolated, or pointed objects on the ground, but they likely begin on small plants and rocks, or flat ground. In terms of lightning safety, this photo demonstrates that numerous upward leaders can be produced near a lightning strike point and have the potential to damage or cause injury at more than one specific point on the ground.

  3. New study shows normally helpful natural bacteria may also trigger lupus | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR scientists have discovered that a protein produced by bacteria that naturally inhabit our bodies may trigger the autoimmune disease lupus. The results of the study could unveil an entirely new set of drug targets for treating lupus and other autoimmune diseases. Read more…

  4. Older Adults Show Deficits in Retrieving and Decoding Associative Mediators Generated at Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Christopher; Fulton, Erika K.; Mandviwala, Lulua; Dunlosky, John

    2013-01-01

    We instructed the use of mediators to encode paired-associate items, and then measured both cued recall of targets and mediators. Older adults (n = 49) and younger adults (n = 57) studied a mixed list of concrete and abstract noun pairs under instructions to either generate a sentence or an image to form a new association between normatively…

  5. Study of medication-free children with Tourette syndrome do not show imaging abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Signe Søndergaard; Debes, Nanette Mol; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imaging studies of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) across different cohorts have shown alterations in gray and white matter in areas associated with the cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) pathways; however, no consistent findings have subsequently established a clear...

  6. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  7. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  8. A morphometric CT study of Down's syndrome showing small posterior fossa and calcification of basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieshima, A.; Yoshino, K.; Takashima, S.; Takeshita, K.; Kisa, T.

    1984-01-01

    We report characteristic and morphometric changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) with increasing age in 56 patients with Down's syndrome aged from 0 month to 37 years. Patients were compared with 142 normal controls aged 0 to 59 years. Width of ventricles, Sylvian fissures, posterior fossa, pons and cisterna magna were measured on CT. The incidences of the cavum septi pellucidi, cavum vergae and cavum veli interpositi and high density in the basal ganglia were examined. There was high incidence (10.7%) of bilateral calcification of basal ganglia in Down's syndrome, although that of pineal body and choroid plexus calcification was similar in Down's syndrome and controls. Basal ganglia calcification is more frequently seen in young Down's syndrome and may be related to the premature aging characteristic of Down's syndrome. The CT in Down's syndrome showed relatively small posterior fossa, small cerebellum, small brain stem and relatively large Sylvian fissures in those under one year of age. There was a high frequency of midline cava and large cisterna magna. There were no significant atrophic changes on CT except after the fifth decade comparing with controls. (orig.)

  9. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M

    2011-01-01

    them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...... tertiles). The difference observed in the average score in each tertile in active vs placebo-treated patients was assessed. This allowed an estimation of the efficacy that could be achieved in patients from sites where symptoms were high during the pollen season. Results:  An increased treatment effect...... of this analysis was to assess the effect possible to achieve with AIT in the groups of patients presenting the most severe allergic symptoms. Methods:  Study centres were grouped into tertiles categorized according to symptom severity scores observed in the placebo patients in each centre (low, middle and high...

  10. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  11. 'Show me the money': financial incentives increase chlamydia screening rates among tertiary students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Marian J; Schmidt, Matthias; Davis, Belinda K; Baynes, Anne M; O'Keefe, Elissa J; Bavinton, Tim P; McNiven, Michelle; Martin, Sarah J; Bowden, Francis J

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesise that text-messaging and financial incentives would increase tertiary student participation in chlamydia screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted over two phases on eight tertiary campuses during 2007. During Phase 1 (6 months) study activities were advertised through student organisations and media. Education and screening were offered during a range of student activities. During Phase 2 (4 days) education and screening were offered via text messages. Non-financial incentives were offered during Phase 1 and a $10 cash incentive was offered during Phase 2. Rates of specimens provided by students and the direct costs incurred during each phase were compared. 2786 students attended the 31 activities conducted in Phase 1. Of these, 627 students (22.5%) provided urine specimens for chlamydia testing. During Phase 2, the dissemination of 866 text messages resulted in urine specimens from 392 students (45.3%). Costs per test were AUD $175.11 in Phase 1 and AUD $27.13 in Phase 2. Compared with more labour intensive (and therefore more expensive) screening activities conducted over a 6-month period, offering a small financial incentive to tertiary students through text messaging over a 4-day period significantly increased participation in on-campus chlamydia screening. This model could readily be applied to other populations to increase participation in chlamydia screening.

  12. Feasibility Study on the Development of Index that Shows Social and Cultural Acceptance of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, SeongKyung; Choi, Seungho; Yoon, Hana; Song, Jiyeon

    2015-01-01

    In this context, it is necessary to manage and develop an index that can measure the level of public acceptance by establishing the terms of social/cultural public acceptance of nuclear power in a practical manner and by identifying influential factors of public acceptance. Developing an index itself is not intended to increase the public acceptance of nuclear power. This study intends to contribute to determining energy policy acceptable to the public by estimating the level of potential social conflicts related to nuclear power policies with eligible evaluation criteria on social/cultural acceptance and by reducing relevant social costs. Key conclusions and proposal of this research are as follows. First, the influential factors of acceptance are reliability of nuclear safety, risk perception of nuclear power and beneficial perception of nuclear power. Among them, reliability of nuclear safety appears to have the most influence. In addition, benefit perception of nuclear power at the social level is significantly higher than that at the individual level. However, in relation to risk perception, a gap between experts and the public is found as nuclear industry premises that accident does not occur while the public premises that accident may occur

  13. Radiance Assimilation Shows Promise for Snowpack Characterization: A 1-D Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Michael; Kim, Edward; Margulis, Steve

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an ensemble-based radiometric data assimilation (DA) methodology for estimating snow depth and snow grain size using ground-based passive microwave (PM) observations at 18.7 and 36.5 GHz collected during the NASA CLPX-1, March 2003, Colorado, USA. A land surface model was used to develop a prior estimate of the snowpack states, and a radiative transfer model was used to relate the modeled states to the observations. Snow depth bias was -53.3 cm prior to the assimilation, and -7.3 cm after the assimilation. Snow depth estimated by a non-DA-based retrieval algorithm using the same PM data had a bias of -18.3 cm. The sensitivity of the assimilation scheme to the grain size uncertainty was evaluated; over the range of grain size uncertainty tested, the posterior snow depth estimate bias ranges from -2.99 cm to -9.85 cm, which is uniformly better than both the prior and retrieval estimates. This study demonstrates the potential applicability of radiometric DA at larger scales.

  14. Feasibility Study on the Development of Index that Shows Social and Cultural Acceptance of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SeongKyung [Bangmok College of General Education at Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seungho; Yoon, Hana; Song, Jiyeon [Domo Brodeur, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this context, it is necessary to manage and develop an index that can measure the level of public acceptance by establishing the terms of social/cultural public acceptance of nuclear power in a practical manner and by identifying influential factors of public acceptance. Developing an index itself is not intended to increase the public acceptance of nuclear power. This study intends to contribute to determining energy policy acceptable to the public by estimating the level of potential social conflicts related to nuclear power policies with eligible evaluation criteria on social/cultural acceptance and by reducing relevant social costs. Key conclusions and proposal of this research are as follows. First, the influential factors of acceptance are reliability of nuclear safety, risk perception of nuclear power and beneficial perception of nuclear power. Among them, reliability of nuclear safety appears to have the most influence. In addition, benefit perception of nuclear power at the social level is significantly higher than that at the individual level. However, in relation to risk perception, a gap between experts and the public is found as nuclear industry premises that accident does not occur while the public premises that accident may occur.

  15. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  16. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  17. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee

    2000-01-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m 2 (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  19. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  20. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R; Francisco, J L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies novel locus for neuroticism and shows polygenic association with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Marleen H.M.; van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Verweij, Karin J.H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Luciano, Michelle; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Matteson, Lindsay K.; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; Amin, Najaf; Gordon, Scott D.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hart, Amy B.; Seppälä, Ilkka; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Minyoung; Miller, Mike; Nutile, Teresa; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; Viktorin, Alexander; Wedenoja, Juho; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Adkins, Daniel E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Appel, Katja; Bigdeli, Timothy B.; Busonero, Fabio; Campbell, Harry; Costa, Paul T.; Smith, George Davey; Davies, Gail; de Wit, Harriet; Ding, Jun; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fedko, Iryna O.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbara; Giegling, Ina; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heinonen, Kati; Henders, Anjali K.; Homuth, Georg; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Karlsson, Robert; Kemp, John P.; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Latvala, Antti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Magri, Chiara; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marten, Jonathan; Maschio, Andrea; Medland, Sarah E.; Mihailov, Evelin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nauck, Matthias; Ouwens, Klaasjan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Pettersson, Erik; Polasek, Ozren; Qian, Yong; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M.; Pourcain, Beate St; Sutin, Angelina R.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Trochet, Holly; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Wouda, Jasper; Wright, Margaret J.; Zgaga, Lina; Scotland, Generation; Porteous, David; Minelli, Alessandra; Palmer, Abraham A.; Rujescu, Dan; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Metspalu, Andres; Kaprio, Jaakko; Deary, Ian J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Wilson, James F.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Bierut, Laura J.; Hettema, John M.; Grabe, Hans J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Evans, David M.; Schlessinger, David; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Terracciano, Antonio; McGue, Matt; Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Neuroticism is a personality trait that is briefly defined by emotional instability. It is a robust genetic risk factor for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Hence, neuroticism is an important phenotype for psychiatric genetics. The Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) has created a resource for genome-wide association analyses of personality traits in over 63,000 participants (including MDD cases). Objective To identify genetic variants associated with neuroticism by performing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results based on 1000Genomes imputation, to evaluate if common genetic variants as assessed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) explain variation in neuroticism by estimating SNP-based heritability, and to examine whether SNPs that predict neuroticism also predict MDD. Setting 30 cohorts with genome-wide genotype, personality and MDD data from the GPC. Participants The study included 63,661 participants from 29 discovery cohorts and 9,786 participants from a replication cohort. Participants came from Europe, the United States or Australia. Main outcome measure(s) Neuroticism scores harmonized across all cohorts by Item Response Theory (IRT) analysis, and clinically assessed MDD case-control status. Results A genome-wide significant SNP was found in the MAGI1 gene (rs35855737; P=9.26 × 10−9 in the discovery meta-analysis, and P=2.38 × 10−8 in the meta-analysis of all 30 cohorts). Common genetic variants explain 15% of the variance in neuroticism. Polygenic scores based on the meta-analysis of neuroticism in 27 of the discovery cohorts significantly predicted neuroticism in 2 independent cohorts. Importantly, polygenic scores also predicted MDD in these cohorts. Conclusions and relevance This study identifies a novel locus for neuroticism. The variant is located in a known gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in previous studies. In addition, the study

  2. Swedish and American studies show that initiatives to decrease maternal obesity could play a key role in reducing preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jeffrey B; Mayo, Jonathan; Shaw, Gary M; Stevenson, David K

    2014-06-01

    Maternal obesity is a major source of preventable perinatal morbidity, but studies of the relationship between obesity and preterm birth have been inconsistent. This review looks at two major studies covering just under 3.5 million births, from California, USA, and Sweden. Inconsistent findings in previous studies appear to stem from the complex relationship between obesity and preterm birth. Initiatives to decrease maternal obesity represent an important strategy in reducing preterm birth. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  4. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  5. Is email a reliable means of contacting authors of previously published papers? A study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, F

    2003-07-01

    To determine whether it is possible to contact authors of previously published papers via email. A cross sectional study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001. 118 articles were included in the study. The response rate from those with valid email addresses was 73%. There was no statistical difference between the type of email address used and the address being invalid (p=0.392) or between the type of article and the likelihood of a reply (p=0.197). More responses were obtained from work addresses when compared with Hotmail addresses (86% v 57%, p=0.02). Email is a valid means of contacting authors of previously published articles, particularly within the emergency medicine specialty. A work based email address may be a more valid means of contact than a Hotmail address.

  6. Previous dropout from diabetic care as a predictor of patients' willingness to use mobile applications for self-management: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoko; Waki, Kayo; Tomizawa, Nobuko; Waki, Hironori; Nannya, Yasuhito; Nangaku, Masaomi; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Preventing dropout is crucial in managing diabetes. Accordingly, we investigated whether patients who had dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for the use of mobile technologies - such as smartphone applications - to support self-management (mHealth), which might help prevent dropout. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Tokyo, Japan. Patients aged 20 years or older who were clinically diagnosed as diabetic and who regularly visited the outpatient unit at the University of Tokyo Hospital were recruited between August 2014 and March 2015. Data were collected through face-to-face structured interviews, physical measurements and medical records. Participants were asked whether they were willing to use mHealth after being shown DialBetics - an mHealth application for diabetics - as an example, and about their history of dropout and previous mHealth experience. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models. Of 307 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, 34 (11.1%) had previously dropped out from diabetic care. Multivariate analysis identified previous mHealth experience as a negative predictor of dropout (odds ratio 0.211, P = 0.023). Of those 34 patients, 27 (79.4%) expressed willingness to use mHealth, a significantly higher percentage than for those who had never dropped out (51.5%, P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounders, history of dropout remained a strong predictor of willingness (odds ratio 3.870, P = 0.004). Patients who previously dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for mHealth. Future studies must evaluate whether mHealth is effective for preventing repeated dropout and improving glycemic control among this population. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena D. Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases. To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12–17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants' exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001 and energetic arousal (p < 0.001 were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001 was negatively associated with non-exercise activity

  8. Social Phobia in an Italian region: do Italian studies show lower frequencies than community surveys conducted in other European countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell'Osso Liliana

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lifetime prevalence of Social Phobia (SP in European countries other than Italy has been estimated to range from 3.5% to 16.0%. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of SP in Sardinia (Italy in order to verify the evidence of a lower frequency of SP in Italy observed in previous studies (from 1.0% to 3.1%. Methods A randomised cross sample of 1040 subjects, living in Cagliari, in rural areas, and in a mining district in Sardinia were interviewed using a Simplified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDIS. Diagnoses were made according to the 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. Results Lifetime prevalence of SP was 2.2% (males: 1.5%, females: 2.8% whereas 6-month prevalence resulted in 1.5% (males: 0.9%, females: 2.1%. Mean age at onset was 16.2 ± 9.3 years. A statistically significant association was found with Depressive Episode, Dysthymia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Conclusions The study is consistent with findings reported in several previous studies of a lower prevalence of SP in Italy. Furthermore, the results confirm the fact that SP, due to its early onset, might constitute an ideal target for early treatment aimed at preventing both the accumulation of social disabilities and impairments caused by anxiety and avoidance behaviour, as well as the onset of more serious, associated complications in later stages of the illness.

  9. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  10. De novo adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma presenting anew in an elderly patient with previous normal CT and MRI studies: A case report and implications on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Walker, B.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign epithelial tumors which arise from embryonic remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and Rathke’s pouch. They are thought to have a congenital origin and are histologically unique from papillary craniopharyngioma. We describe the case of an elderly male who presented with symptoms related to a large craniopharyngioma with previously normal brain magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging studies. These findings dispute the embryogenic theory that craniopharyngiomas observed in adults develop from the persistent slow growth of embryonic remnants.

  11. In-State and Interstate Associations Between Gun Shows and Firearm Deaths and Injuries: A Quasi-experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthay, Ellicott C; Galin, Jessica; Rudolph, Kara E; Farkas, Kriszta; Wintemute, Garen J; Ahern, Jennifer

    2017-12-19

    Gun shows are an important source of firearms, but no adequately powered studies have examined whether they are associated with increases in firearm injuries. To determine whether gun shows are associated with short-term increases in local firearm injuries and whether this association differs by the state in which the gun show is held. Quasi-experimental. California. Persons in California within driving distance of gun shows. Gun shows in California and Nevada between 2005 and 2013 (n = 915 shows) and rates of firearm-related deaths, emergency department visits, and inpatient hospitalizations in California. Compared with the 2 weeks before, postshow firearm injury rates remained stable in regions near California gun shows but increased from 0.67 injuries (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.80 injuries) to 1.14 injuries (CI, 0.97 to 1.30 injuries) per 100 000 persons in regions near Nevada shows. After adjustment for seasonality and clustering, California shows were not associated with increases in local firearm injuries (rate ratio [RR], 0.99 [CI, 0.97 to 1.02]) but Nevada shows were associated with increased injuries in California (RR, 1.69 [CI, 1.16 to 2.45]). The pre-post difference was significantly higher for Nevada shows than California shows (ratio of RRs, 1.70 [CI, 1.17 to 2.47]). The Nevada association was driven by significant increases in firearm injuries from interpersonal violence (RR, 2.23 [CI, 1.01 to 4.89]) but corresponded to a small increase in absolute numbers. Nonfirearm injuries served as a negative control and were not associated with California or Nevada gun shows. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Firearm injuries were examined only in California, and gun show occurrence was not randomized. Gun shows in Nevada, but not California, were associated with local, short-term increases in firearm injuries in California. Differing associations for California versus Nevada gun shows may be due to California's stricter firearm regulations. National

  12. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-2006), and (3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  13. A comparative study of the effectiveness of "Star Show" vs. "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" lessons in a middle school Starlab setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platco, Nicholas L.., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of "Star Show" and the "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" (POP) instructional programs in a middle school Starlab setting. The Star Show is a planetarium program that relies heavily on an audiovisual/lecture format to impart information, while the POP method of instruction is an inquiry, activity-based approach to teaching astronomy. All Star Show and POP lessons were conducted in a Starlab planetarium. This study examined the effectiveness of the two methods on the attainment of astronomy knowledge, changes in student attitudes toward astronomy, retention of knowledge, and gender differences. A pilot study (N = 69) was conducted at a middle school near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The main study (N = 295) was conducted at a middle school near Reading, Pennsylvania. All students were pretested and posttested in both studies. The testing instruments included a 60-question paper-and-pencil content test and a 22-item Likert-style science attitude test. The content test was judged to be valid and reliable by a panel of science educators. The attitude test is a field-tested attitude survey developed by Michael Zeilik. The topics included in the Star Show and POP lessons were seasons, moon phases, eclipses, stars, and constellations. The Star Show programs used in this study are professionally prepared planetarium programs from Jeff Bowen Productions. Several planetarium educators who have been involved with planetarium training workshops throughout the United States developed the POP lessons used in this study. The Star Show was clearly the more effective method for improving student knowledge in both the pilot and main studies. Both methods were equally effective for improving student attitudes toward astronomy. The POP method was the more effective method of instruction when retention of knowledge was examined four weeks after the treatments ended. Gender did not have any significant effect on this study

  14. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  15. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  16. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

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    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  17. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasagasti-Angulo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Vega, Yanelda; Barcelona-Perez, Silvia; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052

  18. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan...... and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC...... age was 59 (range 44-74), 79% had performance status 0 or 1. Thirty-one patients completed all six cycles. Grade 3/4 anemia, neutrocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 9.5%, 66.7%, and 21.4% of patients, respectively. Fourteen percent of patients experienced neutropenic fever. No episodes...

  20. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (OR adj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (OR adj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-01-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] “top scoring pairs” polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible

  2. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  3. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  4. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......; to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats, and to what degree its global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the formats to local audience tastes. A consensus has developed...

  5. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Andrea; Miolo, GianMaria; Magri, Maria D; Crivellari, Diana; Scalone, Simona; Bidoli, Ettore; Lombardi, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM). This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance) was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216). Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up) included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294), in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER) positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44) occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005). Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically significant differences have emerged thus far

  7. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Prevented Weight Regain in Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Previously Treated with Liraglutide: A Pilot Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan, Simona; Janez, Andrej; Jensterle, Mojca

    2017-12-01

    Weight loss is often nonsustainable after liraglutide cessation. The present study is the first insight into the potential prevention of weight regain in obese subjects who have been withdrawn from liraglutide. We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevents body weight regain more effectively than metformin alone in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) previously treated with liraglutide. A 12-week prospective randomized open-label study was conducted with 24 obese women with PCOS who had been pretreated with liraglutide 3.0 mg due to antiobesity management (aged 34.3 ± 6.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 36.3 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , mean ± standard deviation). They were randomized to combined treatment (COMBO) with sitagliptin 100 mg per day (QD) and metformin (MET) 1000 mg twice daily (BID) (n = 12) or MET 1000 mg BID (n = 12). Lifestyle intervention was promoted in both groups. The primary outcome was change in anthropometric measures of obesity. Women treated with MET regain 4.7 ± 2.7 kg (P = 0.002) compared with a 0.9 ± 2.5 kg in COMBO (P = 0.147). BMI increased for 1.7 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 in MET (P = 0.002) compared with 0.3 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 increase in COMBO (P = 0.136). MET group regain 4.5% ± 2.5% of body weight as opposed to 0.8% ± 2.6% in COMBO. The between-treatment differences were significant for weight change (P weight change (P weight regain in obese women with PCOS previously treated with liraglutide.

  8. Noise exposure in movie theaters: a preliminary study of sound levels during the showing of 25 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawa, Anna; Sataloff, Robert T

    2010-09-01

    The harmful effects of noise exposure during leisure-time activities are beginning to receive some scrutiny. We conducted a preliminary study to investigate the noise levels during the showings of 25 different films. During each screening, various sound measurements were made with a dosimeter. The movies were classified on the basis of both their Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating and their genre, and the size of the theater and the size of the audience were taken into consideration in the final analysis. Our findings suggest that the sound levels of many movies might be harmful to hearing, although we can draw no definitive conclusions. We did not discern any relationship between noise levels and either MPAA rating or genre. Further studies are recommended.

  9. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahiyo Rajabu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  10. Caring for women wanting a vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A qualitative study of the experiences of midwives and obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureur, Maralyn; Turkmani, Sabera; Clack, Danielle C; Davis, Deborah L; Mollart, Lyndall; Leiser, Bernadette; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-02-01

    One of the greatest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate is elective repeat caesarean section. Decisions around mode of birth are often complex for women and influenced by the views of the doctors and midwives who care for and counsel women. Women may be more likely to choose a repeat elective caesarean section (CS) if their health care providers lack skills and confidence in supporting vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC). To explore the views and experiences of providers in caring for women considering VBAC, in particular the decision-making processes and the communication of risk and safety to women. A descriptive interpretive method was utilised. Four focus groups with doctors and midwives were conducted. The central themes were: 'developing trust', 'navigating the system' and 'optimising support'. The impact of past professional experiences; the critical importance of continuity of carer and positive relationships; the ability to weigh up risks versus benefits; and the language used were all important elements. The role of policy and guidelines on providing standardised care for women who had a previous CS was also highlighted. Midwives and doctors in this study were positively oriented towards assisting and supporting women to attempt a VBAC. Care providers considered that women who have experienced a prior CS need access to midwifery continuity of care with a focus on support, information-sharing and effective communication. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gefitinib plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Chen Changhu; Kane, Madeleine; Kawecki, Andrzej; Julka, Pramod K.; Wang, Hung-Ming; Prasad, Srihari; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Radosevic-Jelic, Ljiljana; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Korzeniowski, Stanislaw; Fijuth, Jacek; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Sellers, Mark V.; Tchakov, Ilian; Raben, David

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib given concomitantly and/or as maintenance therapy to standard cisplatin/radiotherapy for previously untreated, unresected, stage III/IV non-metastatic SCCHN. Materials and methods: In this phase II, double-blind, study, 226 patients were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg/day, 500 mg/day or placebo in two phases: a concomitant phase (gefitinib or placebo with chemoradiotherapy), followed by a maintenance phase (gefitinib or placebo alone). Primary endpoint was local disease control rate (LDCR) at 2 years; secondary endpoints were LDCR at 1 year, objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety and tolerability. Results: Gefitinib (250 and 500 mg/day) did not improve 2-year LDCR compared with placebo either when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy (32.7% vs. 33.6%, respectively; OR 0.921, 95% CI 0.508, 1.670 [1-sided p = 0.607]) or as maintenance therapy (28.8% vs. 37.4%, respectively; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.377, 1.241 [1-sided p = 0.894]). Secondary efficacy outcomes were broadly consistent with the 2-year LDCR results. In both doses, gefitinib was well-tolerated and did not adversely affect the safety and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: Gefitinib was well-tolerated, but did not improve efficacy compared with placebo when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy, or as maintenance therapy alone.

  12. A single qualitative study can show same findings as years of quantitative research: Obstructive sleep apnoea as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Tandeter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many years of quantitative research led to our present knowledge of the symptoms and associated features (S&AF of the obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome. Aims 1. To prove that a qualitative research approach may identify symptoms and associated features of OSA in less time/effort than that used in a quantitative approach; 2. To describe the experience of patients with OSA and the effects of the syndrome on their quality of life and that of their spouses and families (issues that quantitative methods fail to recognize. Methods We used a narrative inquiry methodology (qualitative research. The sample was selected using the “snowball sampling technique". The sample included 10 patients with moderate to severe OSA who had good adherence to CPAP and significant clinical improvement after treatment, and 3 of the patient’s spouses. Results The following issues were identified: A long pre-diagnosis phase of OSA (20 years in one of the patients; Characteristic S&AF of the syndrome as experienced by patients and their spouses; The need for increased awareness of both the public and the medical establishment in regards to this disorder; Premature ejaculation (not reported previously and nightmares (non-conclusive in the literature were identified and improved with CPAP therapy. Conclusion With the use of quantitative research methods it took decades to discover things that we found in one simple qualitative study. We therefore urge scientists to use more often these qualitative methods when looking for S&AF of diseases and syndromes.

  13. Whole blood DNA aberrant methylation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma shows association with the course of the disease: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertas Dauksa

    Full Text Available Pancreatic tumors are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage in the progression of the disease, thus reducing the survival chances of the patients. Non-invasive early detection would greatly enhance therapy and survival rates. Toward this aim, we investigated in a pilot study the power of methylation changes in whole blood as predictive markers for the detection of pancreatic tumors. We investigated methylation levels at selected CpG sites in the CpG rich regions at the promoter regions of p16, RARbeta, TNFRSF10C, APC, ACIN1, DAPK1, 3OST2, BCL2 and CD44 in the blood of 30 pancreatic tumor patients and in the blood of 49 matching controls. In addition, we studied LINE-1 and Alu repeats using degenerate amplification approach as a surrogate marker for genome-wide methylation. The site-specific methylation measurements at selected CpG sites were done by the SIRPH method. Our results show that in the patient's blood, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while repeats were slightly less methylated compared to control blood. This was found to be significantly associated with higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Additionally, high methylation levels at TNFRSCF10C were associated with positive perineural spread of tumor cells, while higher methylation levels of TNFRSF10C and ACIN1 were significantly associated with shorter survival. This pilot study shows that methylation changes in blood could provide a promising method for early detection of pancreatic tumors. However, larger studies must be carried out to explore the clinical usefulness of a whole blood methylation based test for non-invasive early detection of pancreatic tumors.

  14. A Pilot Study of Reasons and Risk Factors for "No-Shows" in a Pediatric Neurology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Lindsay M; Fadel, William F; Golomb, Meredith R

    2015-09-01

    Missed clinic appointments lead to decreased patient access, worse patient outcomes, and increased healthcare costs. The goal of this pilot study was to identify reasons for and risk factors associated with missed pediatric neurology outpatient appointments ("no-shows"). This was a prospective cohort study of patients scheduled for 1 week of clinic. Data on patient clinical and demographic information were collected by record review; data on reasons for missed appointments were collected by phone interviews. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression to assess risk factors for missed appointments. Fifty-nine (25%) of 236 scheduled patients were no-shows. Scheduling conflicts (25.9%) and forgetting (20.4%) were the most common reasons for missed appointments. When controlling for confounding factors in the logistic regression, Medicaid (odds ratio 2.36), distance from clinic, and time since appointment was scheduled were associated with missed appointments. Further work in this area is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate change over 10 years concerning the prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet, among previously tortured refugees settled in Denmark, and to compare associations between methods of torture and prevalent pain at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. METHODS: 139 refugees previous...... associated with the type and bodily focus of the torture. This presents a considerable challenge to future evidence-based development of effective treatment programs....

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Mägi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Grönberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Järvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Hofman, A.; Zillikens, M.C.; den Heijer, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Maschio, A.; Hall, P.; Tyrer, J.; Teumer, A.; Völzke, H.; Kovacs, P.; Tönjes, A.; Mangino, M.; Spector, T.D.; Hayward, C.; Rudan, I.; Hall, A.S.; Samani, N.J.; Attwood, A.P.; Sambrook, J.G.; Hung, J.; Palmer, L.J.; Lokki, M.L.; Sinisalo, J.; Boucher, G.; Huikuri, H.V.; Lorentzon, M.; Ohlsson, C.; Eklund, N.; Eriksson, J.G.; Barlassina, C.; Rivolta, C.; Nolte, I.M.; Snieder, H.; van der Klauw, M.M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Shi, J.; Jacobs, K.B.; Wang, Z.; Bakker, S.J.; Mateo Leach, I.; Navis, G.; van der Harst, P.; Martin, N.G.; Medland, S.E.; Montgomery, G.W.; Yang, J.; Chasman, D.I.; Ridker, P.M.; Rose, L.M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Raitakari, O.; Absher, D.; Iribarren, C.; Basart, H.; Hovingh, K.G.; Hyppönen, E.; Power, C.; Anderson, D.; Beilby, J.P.; Hui, J.; Jolley, J.; Sager, H.; Bornstein, S.R.; Schwarz, P.E.; Kristiansson, K.; Perola, M.; Lindström, J.; Swift, A.J.; Uusitupa, M.; Atalay, M.; Lakka, T.A.; Rauramaa, R.; Bolton, J.L.; Fowkes, G.; Fraser, R.M.; Price, J.F.; Fischer, K.; Krjuta Kov, K.; Metspalu, A.; Mihailov, E.; Langenberg, C.; Luan, J.; Ong, K.K.; Chines, P.S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemie, S.; Saaristo, T.E.; Edkins, S.; Franks, P.W.; Hallmans, G.; Shungin, D.; Morris, A.D.; Palmer, C.N.A.; Erbel, R.; Moebus, S.; Nöthen, M.M.; Pechlivanis, S.; Hveem, K.; Narisu, N.; Hamsten, A.; Humphries, S.E.; Strawbridge, R.J.; Tremoli, E.; Grallert, H.; Thorand, B.; Illig, T.; Koenig, W.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Peters, A.; Boehm, B.O.; Kleber, M.E.; März, W.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Kuusisto, J.; Laakso, M.; Arveiler, D.; Cesana, G.; Kuulasmaa, K.; Virtamo, J.; Yarnell, J.W.; Kuh, D; Wong, A.; Lind, L.; de Faire, U.; Gigante, B.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Pedersen, N.L.; Dedoussis, G.; Dimitriou, M.; Kolovou, G.; Kanoni, S.; Stirrups, K.; Bonnycastle, L.L.; Njolstad, I.; Wilsgaard, T.; Ganna, A.; Rehnberg, E.; Hingorani, A.D.; Kivimaki, M.; Kumari, M.; Assimes, T.L.; Barroso, I.; Boehnke, M.; Borecki, I.B.; Deloukas, P.; Fox, C.S.; Frayling, T.M.; Groop, L.C.; Haritunians, T.; Hunter, D.; Ingelsson, E.; Kaplan, R.; Mohlke, K.L.; O'Connell, J.R.; Schlessinger, D.; Strachan, D.P.; Stefansson, K.; van Duijn, C.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; McCarthy, M.I.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Qi, L.; Loos, R.J.; Lindgren, C.M.; North, K.E.; Heid, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  18. Retrospective cohort study shows that the risks for retinopathy of prematurity included birth age and weight, medical conditions and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aliaa A; Gomaa, Nancy A S; Awadein, Ahmed R; Al-Hayouti, Huda H; Hegazy, Ahmed I

    2017-12-01

    This study described the characteristics and risk factors of neonates who developed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe treatable ROP in two Egyptian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This retrospective cohort study comprised 108 preterm neonates who were screened for ROP after being admitted to the two NICUs run by Cairo University Hospital from June 2014 to May 2015. Patients were examined using digital fundus photography and indirect ophthalmoscopy was performed if ROP was detected. Retinopathy of prematurity occurred in 75 patients. Late-onset sepsis, ventilation and hypercapnia were independently associated with ROP. Patients who developed severe treatable ROP had a younger gestational age (GA) than patients who did not develop ROP or developed mild or moderate ROP (29 weeks, range 27-33 weeks versus 32 weeks, range 28-36 weeks, p = 0.002) and a lower birthweight (1200 g, range 980-1590 g versus 1460 g, range 770-2475 g, p = 0.029). The risk factors associated with severe treatable ROP included the duration of admission, the duration of incubator oxygen, late-onset sepsis, intraventricular haemorrhage, total parenteral nutrition and the duration of caffeine citrate therapy. This study showed that the risks for ROP were wide-ranging and included GA and weight, medical conditions and treatment. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Following Musical Shows: A Study with Focal Groups on Satisfaction of Musical Concerts Regular Visitors and Socialization between Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúmia Massa Garcia Pires

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to identify which attributes impact more significantly on the satisfaction of concerts’ regular visitors and socialization between them when inserted in these kinds of events. Thus, we used a qualitative methodology, performing focus groups. Among the main results of this study, we found, regarding satisfaction of concerts’ visitors, the attributes that most influence the public are related to services - especially for beverage supply, cleaning of bathrooms and lines formed inside the event - organization, show infrastructure and performance artists. Furthermore, considering the socialization of the visitors, we found that most respondents often go to concerts together with other people, but some did not exclude the possibility to attend the concerts alone when it comes to a familiar artist.

  20. A Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre: Talent Shows in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt; Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in early 2013. Within the international business model of selling and adapting...... continents (Zwaan & de Bruin 2012). Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal, to what degree its reach has to do with a universal appeal inherent in the genre and/or the innovative character of individual formats (Armbruster and Mikos 2009), and to what degree...... the global success is due to local broadcasters’ ability to successfully adapt the format to local audience tastes. A few trans-national, comparative textual analyses of various adaptations of the same formats have been carried out to reveal the differences between adaptations (e.g. Mikos and Perotta 2012...

  1. Ethical Disputes and Public Service Televison. Case Study: Otvoreno Political Talk Show, Broadcasted on 21st of January, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Škaljac Narančić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratings of the television programs as well as commercial effects become crucial measures of the media success and journalists’ efficiency neglecting minimal ethical standards. The profit maximisation logic and mere survival in times of the economic crisis also has the impact on preserving the sensitive ethical standards. In this respect, the television, as the most influential medium, especially public television, has the biggest responsibility. Violation of the ethical norms on public television means that it does not fulfil its key role – the role of public service. In important cases of the violation of ethical rules, the lack of clear responses of the regulators is the other side of the problem. The case study in this text shows us how easy it is to turn to the contempt of the professional journalistic standards and, consequently, ethical norms. This leads us to think how difficult is today to remain professional and ethical in times of the tangible commercialism and sensationalism.

  2. Complex mixtures of dissolved pesticides show potential aquatic toxicity in a synoptic study of Midwestern U.S. streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Norman, Julia E.; Nakagaki, Naomi; Shoda, Megan E.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Stone, Wesley W.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.

    2018-01-01

    Aquatic organisms in streams are exposed to pesticide mixtures that vary in composition over time in response to changes in flow conditions, pesticide inputs to the stream, and pesticide fate and degradation within the stream. To characterize mixtures of dissolved-phase pesticides and degradates in Midwestern streams, a synoptic study was conducted at 100 streams during May–August 2013. In weekly water samples, 94 pesticides and 89 degradates were detected, with a median of 25 compounds detected per sample and 54 detected per site. In a screening-level assessment using aquatic-life benchmarks and the Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI), potential effects on fish were unlikely in most streams. For invertebrates, potential chronic toxicity was predicted in 53% of streams, punctuated in 12% of streams by acutely toxic exposures. For aquatic plants, acute but likely reversible effects on biomass were predicted in 75% of streams, with potential longer-term effects on plant communities in 9% of streams. Relatively few pesticides in water—atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, imidacloprid, fipronil, organophosphate insecticides, and carbendazim—were predicted to be major contributors to potential toxicity. Agricultural streams had the highest potential for effects on plants, especially in May–June, corresponding to high spring-flush herbicide concentrations. Urban streams had higher detection frequencies and concentrations of insecticides and most fungicides than in agricultural streams, and higher potential for invertebrate toxicity, which peaked during July–August. Toxicity-screening predictions for invertebrates were supported by quantile regressions showing significant associations for the Benthic Invertebrate-PTI and imidacloprid concentrations with invertebrate community metrics for MSQA streams, and by mesocosm toxicity testing with imidacloprid showing effects on invertebrate communities at environmentally relevant concentrations. This study documents the most

  3. Food and Drug Administration criteria for the diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease in patients previously exposed to benfluorex: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Rusinaru, Dan; Jobic, Yannick; Ederhy, Stéphane; Donal, Erwan; Réant, Patricia; Arnalsteen, Elise; Boulanger, Jacques; Garban, Thierry; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Jeu, Antoine; Szymanski, Catherine; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) are only based on the observation of aortic regurgitation ≥ mild and/or mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDA criteria in a cohort of control patients and in a cohort of patients exposed to a drug (benfluorex) known to induce VHD. This prospective, multicentre study included 376 diabetic control patients not exposed to valvulopathic drugs and 1000 subjects previously exposed to benfluorex. Diagnosis of mitral or aortic DIVHD was based on a combined functional and morphological echocardiographic analysis of cardiac valves. Patients were classified according to the FDA criteria [mitral or aortic-FDA(+) and mitral or aortic-FDA(-)]. Among the 376 control patients, 2 were wrongly classified as mitral-FDA(+) and 17 as aortic-FDA(+) (0.53 and 4.5% of false positives, respectively). Of those exposed to benfluorex, 48 of 58 with a diagnosis of mitral DIVHD (83%) were classified as mitral-FDA(-), and 901 of the 910 patients (99%) without a diagnosis of the mitral DIVHD group were classified as mitral-FDA(-). All 40 patients with a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD were classified as aortic-FDA(+), and 105 of the 910 patients without a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD (12%) were classified aortic-FDA(+). Older age and lower BMI were independent predictors of disagreement between FDA criteria and the diagnosis of DIVHD in patients exposed to benfluorex (both P ≤ 0.001). FDA criteria solely based on the Doppler detection of cardiac valve regurgitation underestimate for the mitral valve and overestimate for the aortic valve the frequency of DIVHD. Therefore, the diagnosis of DIVHD must be based on a combined echocardiographic and Doppler morphological and functional analysis of cardiac valves. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF TEMSIROLIMUS AND BEVACIZUMAB IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PREVIOUSLY TREATED WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS: A PHASE 2 CONSORTIUM STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan, Jaime R.; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fruth, Briant F.; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab or Temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. Methods In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with Temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV Bevacizumab (level 1=5mg/kg; level 2=10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, PFS and OS. Results MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (Temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks). The 6-month progression free rate was 40% (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response/stable/progressive disease were seen in 23%/63%/14% of patients. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%), stomatitis (8.9%), proteinuria (8.9%), abdominal pain (6.7%), and anemia (6.7%). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population. PMID:25556030

  5. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  6. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  7. [Mutations of resistance of HIV-1 in previously untreated patients at penitentiary centers of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. REPRICOVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, Julio; Herrero, Agustín; Vera, Enrique; Almenara, José M; Araújo, Rosa; Saurí, Vicente V; Castellano, Juan C; Fernández-Clemente, Luis; Bedia, Miguel; Llorente, María I; González-Morán, Francisco

    2002-03-02

    Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of mutations of resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (NIRT) and protease inhibitors (PI) in the HIV-1 genotype of naïve infected subjects in the prisons of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of prevalence including a systematic stratified and randomised sampling by centres. Demographic, clinical, virological and immunological data were collected. The HIV gene of protease and transcriptase was studied in peripheral blood plasma samples by means of double PCR amplification and subsequent automatic sequence. Reference: wild strain HXB2. Plasma was obtained from 133 individuals (119 men and 14 women). 117 samples were selected and the rest did not have enough copies for transcription. With regard to NIRT, 7 samples (5.2% of total) showed some mutation of resistance: M41L, D67N, L210W and K219Q, all them secondary to and associated with resistance to zidovudine, abacavir as well as group B multinucleoside-resistance. With regard to PI, only one sample showed a primary mutation, M46I, which was associated with resistance to indinavir. Moreover, a further 41 samples were found to express some secondary mutation. In our series, there was a low number of primary mutations of resistance. These results allow us to exclude the systematic use of resistance tests before an initiation antiretroviral therapy.

  8. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit ultraviolet exposure. We sought to determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% vs 27.0%; aPOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.16-1.71), long sleeves (20.5% vs 7.7%; aPOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.21-1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% vs 10.5%; aPOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.24-1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% vs 33.1%; aPOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.73-2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% vs 40.7%; aPOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.77-1.17). Among those with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure are limitations. Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The social well-being of nurses shows a thirst for a holistic support: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Naser; Peyrovi, Hamid; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan

    2015-01-01

    Social well-being is one of the important aspects of health. In fact, this is a reflection of experience in a social environment, indicating how social challenges are determined. In other words, social well-being is an explanation of people's perception and experience of being in a good situation, satisfaction with the structure, and social interaction. This qualitative study intended to explore nurses' experience of social well-being. Qualitative content analysis was used to conduct the study. Through purposive sampling, a total of 18 nurses with various clinical experiences participated in semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using the five-step, qualitative content analysis introduced by Graneheim and Lundman. The main theme extracted from the data analysis was "thirst for a holistic support" in nurses. It consisted of two subthemes including internal support (family's support, colleague's support, and organizational support) and external support (society's support and media's support). Nurses' experiences in shaping their social well-being show that nurses need support in order to rebuild their social well-being. It is supported in partnership with the media, the community, health-related organizations, and by nurses and family. This improves job satisfaction, hope, motivation, commitment, and confidence so as to ultimately facilitate improvement of social well-being of nurses.

  10. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants.

  11. Cefepime shows good efficacy and no antibiotic resistance in pneumonia caused by Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis - an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayan, Josef; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Rasche, Kurt

    2016-03-23

    Many antibiotics have no effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes, which necessitates the prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that can lead to increased risk of antibiotic resistance. These pathogens constitute a further threat because they are also resistant to numerous beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as other antibiotic groups. This study retrospectively investigates antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized patients suffering from pneumonia triggered by Gram-negative Serratia marcescens or Proteus mirabilis. The demographic and clinical data analyzed in this study were obtained from the clinical databank of the HELIOS Clinic, Witten/Herdecke University, Wuppertal, Germany, for inpatients presenting with pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens or P. mirabilis from 2004 to 2014. An antibiogram was conducted for the antibiotics utilized as part of the management of patients with pneumonia triggered by these two pathogens. Pneumonia was caused by Gram-negative bacteria in 115 patients during the study period from January 1, 2004, to August 12, 2014. Of these, 43 (37.4 %) hospitalized patients [26 males (60.5 %, 95 % CI 45.9 %-75.1 %) and 17 females (39.5 %, 95 % CI 24.9 %-54.1 %)] with mean age of 66.2 ± 13.4 years had pneumonia triggered by S. marcescens, while 20 (17.4 %) patients [14 males (70 %, 95 % CI 49.9 %-90.1 %) and 6 females (30 %, 95 % CI 9.9 %-50.1 %)] with a mean age of 64.6 ± 12.8 years had pneumonia caused by P. mirabilis. S. marcescens showed an increased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (100 %), ampicillin-sulbactam (100 %), and cefuroxime (100 %). P. mirabilis had a high resistance to tetracycline (100 %) and ampicillin (55 %). S. marcescens (P < 0.0001) and P. mirabilis (P = 0.0003) demonstrated no resistance to cefepime in these patients with pneumonia. S. marcescens and P. mirabilis were resistant to several commonly used antimicrobial agents, but showed no resistance to

  12. Dyslexic children show short-term memory deficits in phonological storage and serial rehearsal: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneventi, Harald; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Ersland, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Dyslexia is primarily associated with a phonological processing deficit. However, the clinical manifestation also includes a reduced verbal working memory (WM) span. It is unclear whether this WM impairment is caused by the phonological deficit or a distinct WM deficit. The main aim of this study was to investigate neuronal activation related to phonological storage and rehearsal of serial order in WM in a sample of 13-year-old dyslexic children compared with age-matched nondyslexic children. A sequential verbal WM task with two tasks was used. In the Letter Probe task, the probe consisted of a single letter and the judgment was for the presence or absence of that letter in the prior sequence of six letters. In the Sequence Probe (SP) task, the probe consisted of all six letters and the judgment was for a match of their serial order with the temporal order in the prior sequence. Group analyses as well as single-subject analysis were performed with the statistical parametric mapping software SPM2. In the Letter Probe task, the dyslexic readers showed reduced activation in the left precentral gyrus (BA6) compared to control group. In the Sequence Probe task, the dyslexic readers showed reduced activation in the prefrontal cortex and the superior parietal cortex (BA7) compared to the control subjects. Our findings suggest that a verbal WM impairment in dyslexia involves an extended neural network including the prefrontal cortex and the superior parietal cortex. Reduced activation in the left BA6 in both the Letter Probe and Sequence Probe tasks may be caused by a deficit in phonological processing. However, reduced bilateral activation in the BA7 in the Sequence Probe task only could indicate a distinct working memory deficit in dyslexia associated with temporal order processing.

  13. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykes Anna-Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1% met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4% women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5% women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26 of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08, OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50, respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96. Conclusions Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  14. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnbogadóttir, Hafrún; Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2011-02-21

    Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4%) women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5%) women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26) of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08), OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50), respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96). Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  15. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4%) women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5%) women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26) of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08), OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50), respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96). Conclusions Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia. PMID:21338523

  16. Clinical and biomarker changes in premanifest Huntington disease show trial feasibility: a decade of the PREDICT-HD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane S Paulsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing consensus that intervention and treatment of Huntington disease (HD should occur at the earliest stage possible. Various early-intervention methods for this fatal neurodegenerative disease have been identified, but preventive clinical trials for HD are limited by a lack of knowledge of the natural history of the disease and a dearth of appropriate outcome measures. Objectives of the current study are to document the natural history of premanifest HD progression in the largest cohort ever studied and to develop a battery of imaging and clinical markers of premanifest HD progression that can be used as outcome measures in preventive clinical trials. PREDICT-HD is a 32-site, international, observational study of premanifest HD, with annual examination of 1013 participants with premanifest HD and 301 gene-expansion negative controls between 2001 and 2012. Findings document 39 variables representing imaging, motor, cognitive, functional, and psychiatric domains, showing different rates of decline between premanifest Huntington disease and controls. Required sample size and models of premanifest HD are presented to inform future design of clinical and preclinical research. Preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD with participants who have a medium or high probability of motor onset are calculated to be as resource-effective as those conducted in diagnosed HD and could interrupt disease seven to twelve years earlier. Methods and measures for preventive clinical trials in premanifest HD more than a dozen years from motor onset are also feasible. These findings represent the most thorough documentation of a clinical battery for experimental therapeutics in stages of premanifest HD, the time period for which effective intervention may provide the most positive possible outcome for patients and their families affected by this devastating disease.

  17. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  18. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Ghinai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  19. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alasdair; Tao, Yong; Luo, Qing; Zhong, Gemei; Romm, Jeff; Colford, John M.; Ray, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Background In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT) methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness. Methods We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC), and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013–2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data. Findings Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method). Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water). Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, pwater (-0.45, pwater, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34–0.70, pwater users (RR = 0.70, 0.53–0.93, pwater access and reduce HAP exposure in rural China. PMID:26421716

  20. Microbiological Evaluation of Household Drinking Water Treatment in Rural China Shows Benefits of Electric Kettles: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Cohen

    Full Text Available In rural China ~607 million people drink boiled water, yet little is known about prevailing household water treatment (HWT methods or their effectiveness. Boiling, the most common HWT method globally, is microbiologically effective, but household air pollution (HAP from burning solid fuels causes cardiovascular and respiratory disease, and black carbon emissions exacerbate climate change. Boiled water is also easily re-contaminated. Our study was designed to identify the HWT methods used in rural China and to evaluate their effectiveness.We used a geographically stratified cross-sectional design in rural Guangxi Province to collect survey data from 450 households in the summer of 2013. Household drinking water samples were collected and assayed for Thermotolerant Coliforms (TTC, and physicochemical analyses were conducted for village drinking water sources. In the winter of 2013-2104, we surveyed 120 additional households and used remote sensors to corroborate self-reported boiling data.Our HWT prevalence estimates were: 27.1% boiling with electric kettles, 20.3% boiling with pots, 34.4% purchasing bottled water, and 18.2% drinking untreated water (for these analyses we treated bottled water as a HWT method. Households using electric kettles had the lowest concentrations of TTC (73% lower than households drinking untreated water. Multilevel mixed-effects regression analyses showed that electric kettles were associated with the largest Log10TTC reduction (-0.60, p<0.001, followed by bottled water (-0.45, p<0.001 and pots (-0.44, p<0.01. Compared to households drinking untreated water, electric kettle users also had the lowest risk of having TTC detected in their drinking water (risk ratio, RR = 0.49, 0.34-0.70, p<0.001, followed by bottled water users (RR = 0.70, 0.53-0.93, p<0.05 and households boiling with pots (RR = 0.74, 0.54-1.02, p = 0.06.As far as we are aware, this is the first HWT-focused study in China, and the first to quantify the

  1. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  2. Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Show Impaired Adaptation During Stress: An Executive Functioning Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, Sophie; de Wied, Minet; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2018-04-01

    Evidence for problems in executive functioning (EF) in children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) is mixed and the impact stress may have on EF is understudied. Working memory, sustained attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility of boys with ODD/CD (n = 65) and non-clinical controls (n = 32) were examined under typical and stressful test conditions. Boys with ODD/CD showed impaired working memory under typical testing conditions, and impairments in working memory and sustained attention under stressful conditions. In contrast to controls, performance on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility and inhibition was less influenced by stress in boys with ODD/CD. These results suggest that boys with ODD/CD show impairments in adaptation to the environment whereas typically developing boys show adaptive changes in EF.

  3. Female emotional eaters show abnormalities in consummatory and anticipatory food reward: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hu

    Full Text Available Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety.From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m, respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127, diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127 and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127.In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  5. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingsheng; Zhang, Li; Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  6. 4-step 4-h carboplatin desensitization protocol for patients with gynecological malignancies showing platinum hypersensitivity: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Naoto; Matsumoto, Koji; Onoe, Takuma; Kitao, Akihito; Tanioka, Maki; Kikukawa, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi; Negoro, Shunichi

    2015-06-01

    Platinum agents are essential for treating gynecological malignancies, particularly ovarian cancer. However, multiple carboplatin doses may cause hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs). Carboplatin desensitization prevents life-threatening HSRs and promotes the successful completion of planned chemotherapy. Since January 2010, carboplatin desensitization was performed at our institution. Solutions with 1/1000, 1/100, and 1/10 dilutions of carboplatin and an undiluted solution were prepared in 250 mL of 5% glucose. Each solution was administered as a 1-h intravenous infusion (4-step 4-h protocol). This retrospective analysis was approved by the institutional review board. From January 2010 to December 2013, 20 patients with gynecological malignancies (median age 62 years, range 43-74 years) received desensitization treatment. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages at presentation were I, II, III, and IV in 1, 1, 15, 13 patients, respectively. During first-line and second-line treatments, 3 and 17 patients, respectively, experienced carboplatin-induced HSRs. The median carboplatin cycle number was 11 (range 2-16). In the first desensitization cycle, 17 (85%) patients completed treatment without adverse events, 2 experienced Grade 1 HSRs but completed treatment, and 1 experienced Grade 3 HSR and discontinued treatment. The first desensitization cycle completion rate was 95%. Of 83 desensitization cycles administered, 79 (95.2%) were completed. No treatment-related deaths occurred. Most patients completed the planned chemotherapy. Our protocol could be conducted safely with shorter duration and simpler procedures than previous protocols. Carboplatin desensitization seems beneficial for patients with a history of carboplatin-induced HSRs; however, the risk of HSR recurrence still remains. Desensitization should therefore be performed only by well-trained staff.

  7. Laboratory, Epidemiological, and Human Intervention Studies Show That Tea (Camellia sinensis) May Be Useful in the Prevention of Obesity12

    OpenAIRE

    Grove, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2010-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity. Obesity currently affects >20% of adults in the United States and is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Given this increasing public health concern, the use of dietary agents for the prevention of obesity would be of tremendous benefit. Whereas many laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential eff...

  8. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  9. Implementation of an electronic medical record system in previously computer-naïve primary care centres: a pilot study from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoutis, George; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kounalakis, Dimitris K; Zachariadou, Theodora; Philalithis, Anastasios; Lionis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    The computer-based electronic medical record (EMR) is an essential new technology in health care, contributing to high-quality patient care and efficient patient management. The majority of southern European countries, however, have not yet implemented universal EMR systems and many efforts are still ongoing. We describe the development of an EMR system and its pilot implementation and evaluation in two previously computer-naïve public primary care centres in Cyprus. One urban and one rural primary care centre along with their personnel (physicians and nurses) were selected to participate. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation tools were used during the implementation phase. Qualitative data analysis was based on the framework approach, whereas quantitative assessment was based on a nine-item questionnaire and EMR usage parameters. Two public primary care centres participated, and a total often health professionals served as EMR system evaluators. Physicians and nurses rated EMR relatively highly, while patients were the most enthusiastic supporters for the new information system. Major implementation impediments were the physicians' perceptions that EMR usage negatively affected their workflow, physicians' legal concerns, lack of incentives, system breakdowns, software design problems, transition difficulties and lack of familiarity with electronic equipment. The importance of combining qualitative and quantitative evaluation tools is highlighted. More efforts are needed for the universal adoption and routine use of EMR in the primary care system of Cyprus as several barriers to adoption exist; however, none is insurmountable. Computerised systems could improve efficiency and quality of care in Cyprus, benefiting the entire population.

  10. Show your best self(ie) : An exploratory study on selfie-related motivations and behavior in emerging adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bij de Vaate, Anna J.D.(Nadia); Veldhuis, Jolanda; Alleva, Jessica M.; Konijn, Elly A.; van Hugten, Charlotte H.M.

    2018-01-01

    Although self-presentation has been studied for decades, social networking sites (SNS) such as Facebook have produced novel opportunities for visual online self-presentation. Posting selfies is currently a popular mode of consciously constructing visual online self-presentations, yet most prior

  11. Study shows aspirin reduces the risk and recurrence of prostate cancer in African-American men | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American men who take a daily dose of aspirin experience a significantly lower risk of developing advanced prostate cancer – the aggressive and deadly form of the disease – than African-American men who do not regularly use aspirin, according to a study from the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis. Learn more...

  12. Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tanaka (Toshiko); J.S. Ngwa; F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis); D.K. Houston (Denise); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn ); J. Luan; V. Mikkilä (Vera); F. Renström (Frida); E. Sonestedt (Emily); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); L. Qi (Lu); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); M.C. De Oliveira Otto (Marcia); E.J. Dhurandhar (Emily); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); I. Johansson (Ingegerd); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); K. Lohman (Kurt); A. Manichaikul (Ani); N.M. McKeown (Nicola ); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); K. Stirrups (Kathy); J. Viikari (Jorma); Z. Ye (Zheng); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); A. Hofman (Albert); Y. Liu (YongMei); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K.E. North (Kari); M. Dimitriou (Maria); G. Hallmans (Göran); M. Kähönen (Mika); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J.M. Ordovas (Jose); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.B. Hu (Frank); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); O. Raitakari (Olli); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Johnson (Anthony); V. Emilsson (Valur); J.A. Schrack (Jennifer); R.D. Semba; D.S. Siscovick (David); D.K. Arnett (Donna); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P.W. Franks (Paul); S.B. Kritchevsky (Stephen); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Orho-Melander (Marju); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N.J. Wareham (Nick); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer )

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake.

  13. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  14. The importance of continued exercise participation in quality of life and psychological well-being in previously inactive postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Elizabeth A; Chandrruangphen, Pornpat; Collins, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity provide a wide range of health benefits for postmenopausal women, although the impact of maintained exercise participation on psychological well-being is unclear. An exploration of continued exercise participation in psychological well-being after a moderate-intensity exercise program in previously inactive postmenopausal women was therefore undertaken. : Twenty-three healthy sedentary postmenopausal women (age 56 +/- 4 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. All participants completed the Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ) and then began a 6-week walking program at 50% heart rate reserve defined by (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing. Post-intervention, all participants underwent (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing and questionnaires. Group 1 was then instructed to continue exercising, whereas group 2 was instructed to desist for an additional 6-week period. On completion of the 6-week follow-up, participants completed a final set of questionnaires. Participants performed 97% of the prescribed 15-hour (900 minute) exercise program (875.1 +/- 177.4 minutes) in an average of 26 +/- 5 sessions. Total HAQ (P = 0.001), health worry (P = 0.001), fear of illness (P = 0.037), reassurance seeking behavior (P = 0.037), SF-36 well-being (P = 0.037), total HADS (P = 0.019), and HADS depression (P = 0.015) improved significantly following the exercise program. At follow-up, group 1 had lower HADS anxiety (P = 0.013), total HADS (P = 0.02), total HAQ (P = 0.03), and HAQ interference with life (P = 0.03) and significantly higher SF-36 energy (P = 0.01) than group 2. Healthy postmenopausal women gain significant psychological benefit from moderate-intensity exercise. However, exercise participation must continue to maintain improvements in psychological well-being and quality of life.

  15. Prospective cohort study showing persistent HSV-2 shedding in women with genital herpes 2 years after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Meena; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Barnum, Gail; Huang, Meei-Li Wu; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2017-11-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a prevalent infection with great variability in clinical and virological manifestations among individuals. This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the natural history of HSV-2 reactivation in the genital area in the same group of women over time. Eighteen immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive women were evaluated for viral shedding for 70 consecutive days within a median of 8 months (range 1-24 months) of HSV-2 acquisition and again approximately 2.5 years later from the original study. Participants obtained daily swabs of genital secretions for HSV PCR and recorded genital symptoms. The viral shedding rate was 29% during the initial study and 19% in the follow-up study (32% reduction, P=0.019). Subclinical shedding rate also decreased from 24% to 13% (37% reduction, P=0.032), as did the rate of days with genital lesions from 22% to 15% (33% reduction, P=0.24). The mean copy number during viral shedding remained unchanged over time at 4.8 log 10 c/mL (SD=2.0 and 1.6 during each study, respectively, P=0.33). Women with high viral shedding rates in the past were likely to continue to have high shedding rates (r=0.63, P=0.005). Despite some reduction, high viral shedding rates persist in women with genital HSV-2 greater than 2 years after acquisition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  17. Heart transplant centers with multidisciplinary team show a higher level of chronic illness management - Findings from the International BRIGHT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Baumgartner, Eva; Berben, Lut; Denhaerynck, Kris; Helmy, Remon; Schönfeld, Sandra; Berger, Gabriele; Vetter, Christine; Dobbels, Fabienne; Russell, Cynthia L; De Geest, Sabina

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) explore the proportion of HTx centers that have a multidisciplinary team and (2) assess the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of chronic illness management (CIM). The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) recommends a multidisciplinary approach in heart transplant (HTx) follow-up care but little is known regarding the proportion of HTx centers that meet this recommendation and the impact on patient care. HTx centers with a multidisciplinary team may offer higher levels of CIM, a care model that has the potential to improve outcomes after HTx. We conducted a secondary analysis of the BRIGHT study, a cross-sectional study in 11 countries. Multidisciplinarity in the 36 HTx centers was assessed through HTx director reports and was defined as having a team that was composed of physician(s), nurse(s), and another healthcare professional (either a social worker, psychiatrist, psychologist, pharmacist, dietician, physical therapist, or occupational therapist). CIM was assessed with the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC). Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between multidisciplinarity and the level of CIM. Twenty-nine (80.6%) of the HTx centers had a multidisciplinary team. Furthermore, multidisciplinarity was significantly associated with higher levels of CIM (β = 5.2, P = 0.042). Majority of the HTx centers follows the ISHLT recommendation for a multidisciplinary approach. Multidisciplinarity was associated with CIM and point toward a structural factor that needs to be in place for moving toward CIM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A multicenter study shows PTEN deletion is strongly associated with seminal vesicle involvement and extracapsular extension in localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Dean A; Jamaspishvili, Tamara; Wei, Wei; Feng, Ziding; Good, Jennifer; Hawley, Sarah; Fazli, Ladan; McKenney, Jesse K; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Carroll, Peter R; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Nelson, Peter S; Thompson, Ian M; True, Lawrence D; Brooks, James D; Squire, Jeremy A

    2015-08-01

    Loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is a promising marker of aggressive prostate cancer. Active surveillance and watchful waiting are increasingly recommended to patients with small tumors felt to be low risk, highlighting the difficulties of Gleason scoring in this setting. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers that can be rapidly deployed to aid in clinical decision-making. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and ability of PTEN alterations to predict aggressive disease in a multicenter study. We used recently developed probes optimized for sensitivity and specificity in a four-color FISH deletion assay to study the Canary Retrospective multicenter Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarray (TMA). This TMA was constructed specifically for biomarker validation from radical prostatectomy specimens, and is accompanied by detailed clinical information with long-term follow-up. In 612 prostate cancers, the overall rate of PTEN deletion was 112 (18.3%). Hemizygous PTEN losses were present in 55/612 (9.0%) of cancers, whereas homozygous PTEN deletion was observed in 57/612 (9.3%) of tumors. Significant associations were found between PTEN status and pathologic stage (P free survival (number of events = 189), pre-operative prostate specific antigen (PSA) (P free survival in multivariate models, as were seminal vesicle invasion, extracapsular extension, and Gleason score, and preoperative PSA. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that the assay can be readily introduced at first diagnosis in a cost effective manner analogous to the use of FISH for analysis of HER2/neu status in breast cancer. Combined with published research beginning 17 years ago, both the data and tools now exist to implement a PTEN assay in the clinic. © 2015 The Authors. The Prostate, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Population-based study shows improved postnatal growth in preterm very-low-birthweight infants between 1995 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek Shlomai, Noa; Reichman, Brian; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Boyko, Valentina; Bar-Oz, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    To assess whether the postnatal growth of preterm very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants, as determined by measures of postnatal growth failure (PNGF), improved during the period 1995-2010 and to evaluate postnatal growth by gestational age (GA) and intrauterine growth groups. The study was based on the Israel national VLBW infant database and comprised 13 531 VLBW infants of 24-32 weeks' GA, discharged at a postmenstrual age of ≤40 weeks. Z-scores were determined for weight at birth and discharge. Severe and mild PNGF was defined as a decrease >2 and 1-2 z-scores, respectively. Three time periods were considered: 1995-2000, 2001-2005 and 2006-2010. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent effect of time period on PNGF. Severe PNGF decreased from 11.7% in 1995-2000 to 7.2% in 2001-2005 and 5.2% in 2006-2010. Infants born in 2006-2010 had sixfold lower odds for severe PNGF than babies born in 1995-2000 (adjusted odds ratio 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.21) and

  20. Ohio study shows that insurance coverage is critical for children with special health care needs as they transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, Anthony; Carle, Adam C

    2011-12-01

    Nearly 30 percent of young adults with special health care needs in Ohio lack health insurance, compared to 5 percent of the state's children with special health care needs. As children with such needs become too old for Medicaid or insurance through their parents' employer, they face great challenges in obtaining insurance. Lack of insurance is highly predictive of unmet needs, which in turn are predictive of costly hospital-based encounters. Young adults with special health care needs who are uninsured are more than twice as likely as their peers with insurance to forgo filling prescriptions and getting care and to have problems getting care. Even after insurance status is accounted for, young adults with special health care needs are more likely than children with such needs to not fill prescriptions because of cost and to delay or forgo needed care. This study demonstrates that continuous and adequate health insurance is vital to the continued well-being of children with special health care needs as they transition to young adulthood.

  1. Questionnaire-based study showed that neonatal chest radiographs could be reliably interpreted using the WhatsApp messaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Itai; Langer, Yshia; Pasternak, Yehonatan; Abu Ahmad, Wiessam; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Koplewitz, Benjamin Z

    2018-06-11

    We surveyed whether clinicians used the WhatsApp messaging application to view neonatal chest radiographs and asked a sub-sample to compare them with computer screen viewings. The study was conducted at three university-affiliated medical centres in Israel from June-December 2016. Questionnaires on using smartphones for professional purposes were completed by 68/71 paediatric residents and 20/28 neonatologists. In addition, 11 neonatologists viewed 20 chest radiographs on a computer screen followed by a smartphone and 10 viewed the same radiographs in the opposite order, separated by a washout period of two months. After another two months, five from each group viewed the same radiographs on a computer screen. Different interpretations between viewing modes were assessed. Most respondents used WhatsApp to send chest radiographs for consultation: 82% of the paediatric residents and 80% of the neonatologists. The mean number of inconsistencies in diagnosis was 3.7/20 between two computer views and 2.9/20 between computer and smartphone views (p=0.88) and the disease severity means were 3.7/20 and 2.85/20, respectively (p=0.94). Neonatologists using WhatsApp only determined umbilical line placement in 80% of cases. WhatsApp was reliable for preliminary interpretation of neonatal chest radiographs, but caution was needed when assessing umbilical lines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of fibromyalgia symptoms in patients 55-95 years old: a longitudinal study showing symptom persistence with suboptimal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Sandra A; Simpson, Rachel G; Lubahn, Cheri; Hu, Chengcheng; Belden, Christine M; Davis, Kathryn J; Nicholson, Lisa R; Long, Kathy E; Osredkar, Tracy; Lorton, Dianne

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption. To characterize FM symptoms and treatments in a cohort of older subjects examined over time to determine the extent to which current, community-based treatment for older FM patients is in accord with published guidelines, and effective in reducing symptoms. A longitudinal, observational study of 51 subjects with FM (range 55-95 years) and 81 control subjects (58-95 years) performed at Banner Sun Health Research Institute in Sun City, AZ, USA. Serial history and examination data were obtained over a 6-year period. FM data included medical history, medications, physical examination, tender point examination, neuropsychological testing, sleep and pain ratings, the Physical Function Subscale of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and other standardized scales to evaluate depression and other psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional impairment. Pain and stiffness that interfered with physical activity, sleep, and mood were reported by 80 % or more of subjects. Over time, pain involved an increasing number of body areas. Over half of subjects were treated with NSAIDs, one-quarter with opioids, and one-quarter with estrogen. Few were treated with dual-acting antidepressants or pregabalin. In this cohort of elders with suboptimally treated FM, substantial persistence of symptoms was seen over time. In general, recommended treatments were either not used or not tolerated. Age-appropriate treatments as well as education of primary care providers are needed to improve treatment of FM in the older population.

  3. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  4. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  5. Effect of benzalkonium chloride?free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joao F.; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005?% were transitioned to recei...

  6. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao F; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-11-12

    Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ≤18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n = 191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n = 173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.

  7. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Eighty patients eligible for HBO treatment on the indication of prevention/treatment of osteoradionecrosis or soft tissue radiation injury were consecutively sampled, of whom 45 had hyposalivation (i.e. unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate......Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  8. Small-angle scattering studies show distinct conformations of calmodulin in its complexes with two peptides based on the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trewhella, J.; Blumenthal, D.K.; Rokop, S.E.; Seeger, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering have been used to study the solution structures of calmodulin complexed with synthetic peptides corresponding to residues 342-366 and 301-326, designated PhK5 and PhK13, respectively, in the regulatory domain of the catalytic subunit of skeletal muscle phosphorylase kinase. The scattering data show that binding of PhK5 to calmodulin induces a dramatic contraction of calmodulin, similar to that previously observed when calmodulin is complexed with the calmodulin-binding domain peptide from rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. In contrast, calmodulin remains extended upon binding PhK13. In the presence of both peptides, calmodulin also remains extended. Apparently, the presence of PhK13 inhibits calmodulin from undergoing the PhK5-induced contraction. These data indicate that there is a fundamentally different type of calmodulin-target enzyme interaction in the case of the catalytic subunit of phosphorylase kinase compared with that for myosin light chain kinase

  9. Previous study for the setting up and optimization of detection of ZnS(Ag) scintillation applied to the measure of alpha radioactivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Montero, M.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of radiological water quality is useful for a wide range of environmental studies. In these cases, the gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to determine. This parameter permits to decide if further radiological analyses are necessary in order to identify and quantify the presence of alpha emitters in water. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Detector electronics is provided with two components which are adjustable by the user the high-voltage applied to the photomultiplier tubes and the low level discriminator that is used to eliminate the electronic noise. The high-voltage and low level discriminator optimization are convenient in order to reach the best counting conditions. This paper is a preliminary study of the procedure followed for the setting up and optimization of the detector electronics in the laboratories of CEDEX for the measurement of gross alpha activity. (Author)

  10. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996, H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyytiälä (Southern Finland or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany, can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not correspond to the scenarios are discussed with respect to possible reasons for the differences between model and observation. The model simulations support some state-of-the-art hypotheses on the contribution of CBL turbulence to NPF. Considering the application of box models, the present study shows, that CBL turbulence, not explicitly considered in such models, can strongly affect the spatio-temporal NPF burst evolution. The columnar high-order model presented here is a helpful tool to elucidate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions, especially the genesis of NPF bursts in the CBL. An advanced description of the cluster formation and condensation growth is required as well as a comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments. Further scenario simulations remain to be performed.

  11. In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes After Placement of Essure Microinserts in Patients With Hydrosalpinges Who Previously Failed In Vitro Fertilization Treatment: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomo B; Bouaziz, Jerome; Schiff, Eyal; Simon, Alexander; Nadjary, Michel; Goldenberg, Mordechai; Orvieto, Raoul; Revel, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion with Essure microinserts (Conceptus Inc.; Bayer, AG, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) can improve pregnancy rates in patients with hydrosalpinges who had failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. A prospective cohort study. University-affiliated tertiary centers. Twenty-four consecutive women with hydrosalpinges who had failed IVF treatment were included. Hysteroscopic placement of Essure microinserts for hydrosalpinx blockage followed by IVF treatment. Ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates were recorded. Of the 24 patients undergoing a total of 42 IVF cycles after Essure insertion, 18 (75% of patients and 42.8% of IVF cycle attempts) conceived and 16 delivered live births (66.6% of patients and 38.1% of IVF cycle attempts). Hysteroscopic proximal occlusion of hydrosalpinges with Essure microinserts is a valuable alternative to laparoscopic salpingectomy, resulting in reasonable pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m 2 on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  15. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Neprochnov, Y.P; Rao, D.G; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  18. Studies Using an in Vitro Model Show Evidence of Involvement of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells in Human Embryo Implantation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nishikawa-Uchida, Sayaka; Oda, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Akiko; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Human embryo implantation is a critical multistep process consisting of embryo apposition/adhesion, followed by penetration and invasion. Through embryo penetration, the endometrial epithelial cell barrier is disrupted and remodeled by an unknown mechanism. We have previously developed an in vitro model for human embryo implantation employing the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. Using this model we have shown that stimulation with ovarian steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone, E2P4) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids to Ishikawa. In the present study we showed that the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids and treatment with E2P4 or SAHA individually induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Ishikawa cells. This was evident by up-regulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, a mesenchymal cell marker, and concomitant down-regulation of E-cadherin in Ishikawa cells. Stimulation with E2P4 or SAHA accelerated Ishikawa cell motility, increased JAR spheroid outgrowth, and enhanced the unique redistribution of N-cadherin, which was most prominent in proximity to the adhered spheroids. Moreover, an N-cadherin functional blocking antibody attenuated all events but not JAR spheroid adhesion. These results collectively provide evidence suggesting that E2P4- and implanting embryo-induced EMT of endometrial epithelial cells may play a pivotal role in the subsequent processes of human embryo implantation with functional control of N-cadherin. PMID:22174415

  19. Empty polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) show slow radiographic fusion that reduces clinical improvement: results from the prospective multicenter "PIERCE-PEEK" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Olaf; Schomaker, Martin; Cabraja, Mario; Danne, Marco; Kombos, Theodoros; Hanna, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-established surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Previous studies showed that empty PEEK cages have lower radiographic fusion rates, but the clinical relevance remains unclear. This paper's aim is to provide high-quality evidence on the outcomes of ACDF with empty PEEK cages and on the relevance of radiographic fusion for clinical outcomes. This large prospective multicenter clinical trial performed single-level ACDF with empty PEEK cages on patients with cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. The main clinical outcomes were VAS (0-10) for pain and NDI (0-100) for functioning. Radiographic fusion was evaluated by two investigators for three different aspects. The median (range) improvement of the VAS pain score was: 3 (1-6) at 6 months, 3 (2-8) at 12 months, and 4 (2-8) at 18 months. The median (range) improvement of the NDI score was: 12 (2-34) at 6 months, 18 (4-46) at 12 months, and 22 (2-44) at 18 months. Complete radiographic fusion was reached by 126 patients (43%) at 6 months, 214 patients (73%) at 12 months, and 241 patients (83%) at 18 months. Radiographic fusion was a highly significant ( p  PEEK cages is slow and insufficient. Lack of complete radiographic fusion leads to less improvement of pain and disability. We recommend against using empty uncoated pure PEEK cages in ACDF. ISRCTN42774128. Retrospectively registered 14 April 2009.

  20. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  1. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  2. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  3. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N W; Berjak, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than -180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g(-1) dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s(-1) or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s(-1). Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s(-1)) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following cryo-exposure and formation of small

  4. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  5. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  6. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Åsa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; KrjutÅ¡kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10−8), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits. PMID:23754948

  7. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Randall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%, including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9 and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG, all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8, but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.

  8. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.

    2007-07-01

    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  9. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  10. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  11. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m 2 , and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  12. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  13. Salivary cortisol differs with age and sex and shows inverse associations with WHR in Swedish women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Ulf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on cortisol have focused on smaller, selected samples. We therefore aimed to sex-specifically study the diurnal cortisol pattern and explore its association with abdominal obesity in a large unselected population. Methods In 2001–2004, 1811 men and women (30–75 years were randomly selected from the Vara population, south-western Sweden (81% participation rate. Of these, 1671 subjects with full information on basal morning and evening salivary cortisol and anthropometric measurements were included in this cross-sectional study. Differences between groups were examined by general linear model and by logistic and linear regression analyses. Results Morning and Δ-cortisol (morning – evening cortisol were significantly higher in women than men. In both genders older age was significantly associated with higher levels of all cortisol measures, however, most consistently with evening cortisol. In women only, age-adjusted means of WHR were significantly lower in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of morning cortisol (p = 0.036 and Δ-cortisol (p Conclusion In summary, our findings of generally higher cortisol levels in women than men of all ages are novel and the stronger results seen for Δ-cortisol as opposed to morning cortisol in the association with WHR emphasise the need of studying cortisol variation intra-individually. To our knowledge, the associations in this study have never before been investigated in such a large population sample of both men and women. Our results therefore offer important knowledge on the descriptive characteristics of cortisol in relation to age and gender, and on the impact that associations previously seen between cortisol and abdominal obesity in smaller, selected samples have on a population level.

  14. Fast and slow readers of the Hebrew language show divergence in brain response ∼200 ms post stimulus: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Peter Korinth

    Full Text Available Higher N170 amplitudes to words and to faces were recently reported for faster readers of German. Since the shallow German orthography allows phonological recoding of single letters, the reported speed advantages might have their origin in especially well-developed visual processing skills of faster readers. In contrast to German, adult readers of Hebrew are forced to process letter chunks up to whole words. This dependence on more complex visual processing might have created ceiling effects for this skill. Therefore, the current study examined whether also in the deep Hebrew orthography visual processing skills as reflected by N170 amplitudes explain reading speed differences. Forty university students, native speakers of Hebrew without reading impairments, accomplished a lexical decision task (i.e., deciding whether a visually presented stimulus represents a real or a pseudo word and a face decision task (i.e., deciding whether a face was presented complete or with missing facial features while their electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 scalp positions. In both tasks stronger event related potentials (ERPs were observed for faster readers in time windows at about 200 ms. Unlike in previous studies, ERP waveforms in relevant time windows did not correspond to N170 scalp topographies. The results support the notion of visual processing ability as an orthography independent marker of reading proficiency, which advances our understanding about regular and impaired reading development.

  15. Correlations of Consumers, Leisure Motivation and Leisure Value with Leisure Benefits ─A Case Study on Taiwan International Orchid Show

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the correlations of consumers’ Leisure Motivation and Leisure Value with Leisure Benefits. Leisure Motivation contains the dimensions of Intellectual Factor, Social Factor, Competence-Mastery, and Stimulus-Avoidance; and, Leisure Value covers Product Value, Service Value, and Experience Value. Visitors to Taiwan International Orchid Show are selected as the research samples for the questionnaire survey. Total 600 copies are distributed on site and 488 valid ones are...

  16. Boosting Memory by tDCS to Frontal or Parietal Brain Regions? A Study of the Enactment Effect Shows No Effects for Immediate and Delayed Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Meier

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Boosting memory with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS seems to be an elegant way to optimize learning. Here we tested whether tDCS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or to the left posterior parietal cortex would boost recognition memory in general and/or particularly for action phrases enacted at study. During study, 48 young adults either read or enacted simple action phrases. Memory for the action phrases was assessed after a retention interval of 45 min and again after 7-days to investigate the long-term consequences of brain stimulation. The results showed a robust enactment effect in both test sessions. Moreover, the decrease in performance was more pronounced for reading than for enacting the phrases at study. However, tDCS did not reveal any effect on subsequent recognition memory performance. We conclude that memory benefits of tDCS are not easily replicated. In contrast, enactment at study reliably boosts subsequent memory.

  17. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A Narvekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  18. Predictive effects of previous episodes on the risk of recurrence in depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2005-01-01

    Findings from several studies have suggested that the risk of recurrence increases with the number of previous episodes in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, a comprehensive and critical review of the literature published during the past century shows that in several previous studies...

  19. Effect of a supplementation with myo-inositol plus melatonin on oocyte quality in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization cycles for poor oocyte quality: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfer, Vittorio; Raffone, Emanuela; Rizzo, Piero; Buffo, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Several factors can affect oocyte quality and therefore pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Recently, a number of studies have shown that the presence of several compounds in the follicular fluid positively correlates with oocyte quality and maturation (i.e., myo-inositol and melatonin). In the present study, we aim to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes after the administration of myo-inositol combined with melatonin in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles due to poor oocyte quality. Forty-six women were treated with 4 g/day myo-inositol and 3 mg/day melatonin (inofolic® and inofolic® Plus, Lo.Lipharma, Rome) for 3 months and then underwent a new IVF cycle. After treatment, the number of mature oocytes, the fertilization rate, the number of both, total and top-quality embryos transferred were statistically higher compared to the previous IVF cycle, while there was no difference in the number of retrieved oocyte. After treatment, a total of 13 pregnancies occurred, 9 of them were confirmed echographically; four evolved in spontaneous abortion. The treatment with myo-inositol and melatonin improves ovarian stimulation protocols and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with poor oocyte quality.

  20. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) with Anatomically Guided (3D) Neural Targeting Shows Superior Chronic Axial Low Back Pain Relief Compared to Traditional SCS-LUMINA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizi, Elias; Hayek, Salim M; North, James; Brent Chafin, T; Yearwood, Thomas L; Raso, Louis; Frey, Robert; Cairns, Kevin; Berg, Anthony; Brendel, John; Haider, Nameer; McCarty, Matthew; Vucetic, Henry; Sherman, Alden; Chen, Lilly; Mekel-Bobrov, Nitzan

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether spinal cord stimulation (SCS) using 3D neural targeting provided sustained overall and low back pain relief in a broad routine clinical practice population. This was a multicenter, open-label observational study with an observational arm and retrospective analysis of a matched cohort. After IPG implantation, programming was done using a patient-specific, model-based algorithm to adjust for lead position (3D neural targeting) or previous generation software (traditional). Demographics, medical histories, SCS parameters, pain locations, pain intensities, disabilities, and safety data were collected for all patients. A total of 213 patients using 3D neural targeting were included, with a trial-to-implant ratio of 86%. Patients used seven different lead configurations, with 62% receiving 24 to 32 contacts, and a broad range of stimulation parameters utilizing a mean of 14.3 (±6.1) contacts. At 24 months postimplant, pain intensity decreased significantly from baseline (ΔNRS = 4.2, N = 169, P  pain subgroup (ΔNRS = 5.3, N = 91, P  low back pain also decreased significantly from baseline to 24 months (ΔNRS = 4.1, N = 70, P  pain responder rates of 51% (traditional SCS) and 74% (neural targeting SCS) and axial low back pain responder rates of 41% and 71% in the traditional SCS and neural targeting SCS cohorts, respectively. Lastly, complications occurred in a total of 33 of the 213 patients, with a 1.6% lead replacement rate and a 1.6% explant rate. Our results suggest that 3D neural targeting SCS and its associated hardware flexibility provide effective treatment for both chronic leg and chronic axial low back pain that is significantly superior to traditional SCS. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  2. Cerebellar nuclei neurons show only small excitatory responses to optogenetic olivary stimulation in transgenic mice: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo eLu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the olivary input to the cerebellar nuclei (CN we used optogenetic stimulation in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 in olivary neurons. We obtained in vivo extracellular Purkinje cell (PC and CN recordings in anesthetized mice while stimulating the contralateral inferior olive (IO with a blue laser (single pulse, 10 - 50 ms duration. Peri-stimulus histograms were constructed to show the spike rate changes after optical stimulation. Among 29 CN neurons recorded, 15 showed a decrease in spike rate of variable strength and duration, and only 1 showed a transient spiking response. These results suggest that direct olivary input to CN neurons is usually overridden by stronger Purkinje cell inhibition triggered by climbing fiber responses. To further investigate the direct input from the climbing fiber collaterals we also conducted whole cell recordings in brain slices, where we used local stimulation with blue light. Due to the expression of ChR2 in Purkinje cell axons as well as the IO in our transgenic line, strong inhibitory responses could be readily triggered with optical stimulation (13 of 15 neurons. After blocking this inhibition with GABAzine, only in 5 of 13 CN neurons weak excitatory responses were revealed. Therefore our in vitro results support the in vivo findings that the excitatory input to CN neurons from climbing fiber collaterals in adult mice is masked by the inhibition under normal conditions.

  3. Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

    2012-03-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made

  4. Ibrutinib combined with bendamustine and rituximab compared with placebo, bendamustine, and rituximab for previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (HELIOS): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher; Cramer, Paula; Demirkan, Fatih; Fraser, Graeme; Silva, Rodrigo Santucci; Grosicki, Sebastian; Pristupa, Aleksander; Janssens, Ann; Mayer, Jiri; Bartlett, Nancy L; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Pylypenko, Halyna; Loscertales, Javier; Avigdor, Abraham; Rule, Simon; Villa, Diego; Samoilova, Olga; Panagiotidis, Panagiots; Goy, Andre; Mato, Anthony; Pavlovsky, Miguel A; Karlsson, Claes; Mahler, Michelle; Salman, Mariya; Sun, Steven; Phelps, Charles; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Howes, Angela; Hallek, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Most patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma relapse after initial therapy. Bendamustine plus rituximab is often used in the relapsed or refractory setting. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adding ibrutinib, an oral covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), to bendamustine plus rituximab in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma. The HELIOS trial was an international, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study in adult patients (≥18 years of age) who had active chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma with measurable lymph node disease (>1·5 cm) by CT scan, and had relapsed or refractory disease following one or more previous lines of systemic therapy consisting of at least two cycles of a chemotherapy-containing regimen, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and kidney function. Patients with del(17p) were excluded because of known poor response to bendamustine plus rituximab. Patients who had received previous treatment with ibrutinib or other BTK inhibitors, refractory disease or relapse within 24 months with a previous bendamustine-containing regimen, or haemopoietic stem-cell transplant were also excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a web-based system to receive bendamustine plus rituximab given in cycles of 4 weeks' duration (bendamustine: 70 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 2-3 in cycle 1, and days 1-2 in cycles 2-6; rituximab: 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 of cycle 1, and 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 of cycles 2-6 for a maximum of six cycles) with either ibrutinib (420 mg daily orally) or placebo until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients were stratified according to whether they were refractory to purine analogues and by number of previous lines of therapy. The primary endpoint was independent review committee (IRC)-assessed progression

  5. Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Vlaming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic effects are heterogeneous across studies, the statistical power of a GWAS and the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores are attenuated, contributing to the so-called 'missing heritability'. Here, we describe the online Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP calculator (available at www.devlaming.eu which quantifies this attenuation based on a novel multi-study framework. By means of simulation studies, we show that under a wide range of genetic architectures, the statistical power and predictive accuracy provided by this calculator are accurate. We compare the predictions from the MetaGAP calculator with actual results obtained in the GWAS literature. Specifically, we use genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the SNP heritability and cross-study genetic correlation of height, BMI, years of education, and self-rated health in three large samples. These estimates are used as input parameters for the MetaGAP calculator. Results from the calculator suggest that cross-study heterogeneity has led to attenuation of statistical power and predictive accuracy in recent large-scale GWAS efforts on these traits (e.g., for years of education, we estimate a relative loss of 51-62% in the number of genome-wide significant loci and a relative loss in polygenic score R2 of 36-38%. Hence, cross-study heterogeneity contributes to the missing heritability.

  6. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuemei; Pan, Wei; Li, Chao; Weng, Lei; Yao, Mengyun; Chen, Antao

    2017-01-01

    As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others' pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players' empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG) were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others' pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated.

  7. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others’ pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs could change players’ empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others’ pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated.

  8. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuemei; Pan, Wei; Li, Chao; Weng, Lei; Yao, Mengyun; Chen, Antao

    2017-01-01

    As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others’ pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players’ empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two groups of participants (18 in VVG group, VG; 17 in non-VVG group, NG) were screened from nearly 200 video game experience questionnaires. And then, the functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded when they were viewing painful and non-painful stimuli. The results showed that the perception of others’ pain were not significantly different in brain regions between groups, from which we could infer that the desensitization effect of VVGs was overrated. PMID:28512439

  9. 'Then I just showed her my arms . . .' Bodily sensations in moments of alienation related to self-injurious behaviour. A hermeneutic phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppmann, S; Schröck, R; Schnepp, W; Büscher, A

    2007-09-01

    People committing self-injurious behaviour are often perceived as difficult patients; confronted with unhelpful reactions from nurses, the patients find themselves left alone in their distress. A connection between self-injurious behaviour and feelings of alienation is suggested in the literature. Alienation is described as a state in which the self is perceived as strange, machinelike and not in contact with its emotional and physical needs. On one hand, complex neuro-biological processes are seen as responsible for this; on the other hand, alienation is seen as a means of self-protection when one is exposed to a threatening or traumatic situation. Nursing interventions focus on the nurse-patient relationship and on the handling of self-injuries, but they tend to ignore the client's previous experience. Proceeding from the assumption that patients committing self-injurious behaviour are the experts on their own harm, the purpose of the present study is to get insight into their 'lived experience' and to contribute to the understanding of this vulnerable group. Adopting a hermeneutic phenomenological research perspective, methods of participant observation and qualitative interviewing were chosen to generate data. The database consists of 99 observational sequences, five interviews and a set of email texts written by a self-injuring woman. A thematic analysis as described by Van Manen was done. The main findings are that alienation is experienced in several stages, that nurses can detect early signs of an impending loss of control, and that self-injurious behaviour is an effective strategy to end a painful experience of alienation. Self-injurious behaviour is appropriately understood as a form of 'self-care'.

  10. Analyzing on Reality TV Show in the Perspective of Performance Study%电视真人秀节目的表演学解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李绍元

    2012-01-01

    表演学为电视真人秀提供了一种新的研究视野和研究路径。在真人秀节目的表演学解读中,可以将自我呈现作为逻辑前设,把自我实现作为目标诉求,考察节目选手、主持、评委、观众、电视媒体乃至政府等主体的行为。分析真人秀表演的自我呈现、规范向度、审美旨趣和中介化问题。在这个意义上说,电视真人秀其实是一种表演范式,它既是一种审美表演(舞台表演),也是一种社会表演,还是一种媒介表演。%Performance study provides a new research field of vision and research path to the reality TV show. If we discuss reality TV show according to performance study,we will acquire the presentation of self as the logical presupposition,will set self-fulfillment as a target appeal,analyze the behavior of the players, the judges, the audience, the TV media and the government officials etc.,and research the presentation of self presentation, the standard dimension, the aesthetic objective and the mediated problems. In this sense, the reality TV show is actually a kind of performance model, which is not only a kind of aesthetic performance (stage performance), but also a kind social performance and media performance.

  11. Using the genome aggregation database, computational pathogenicity prediction tools, and patch clamp heterologous expression studies to demote previously published long QT syndrome type 1 mutations from pathogenic to benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Daniel J; Lentino, Anne R; Kapplinger, Jamie D; Ye, Dan; Zhou, Wei; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1). It has been suggested that ∼10%-20% of rare LQTS case-derived variants in the literature may have been published erroneously as LQT1-causative mutations and may be "false positives." The purpose of this study was to determine which previously published KCNQ1 case variants are likely false positives. A list of all published, case-derived KCNQ1 missense variants (MVs) was compiled. The occurrence of each MV within the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) was assessed. Eight in silico tools were used to predict each variant's pathogenicity. Case-derived variants that were either (1) too frequently found in gnomAD or (2) absent in gnomAD but predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools were considered potential false positives. Three of these variants were characterized functionally using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Overall, there were 244 KCNQ1 case-derived MVs. Of these, 29 (12%) were seen in ≥10 individuals in gnomAD and are demotable. However, 157 of 244 MVs (64%) were absent in gnomAD. Of these, 7 (4%) were predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools, 3 of which we characterized functionally. There was no significant difference in current density between heterozygous KCNQ1-F127L, -P477L, or -L619M variant-containing channels compared to KCNQ1-WT. This study offers preliminary evidence for the demotion of 32 (13%) previously published LQT1 MVs. Of these, 29 were demoted because of their frequent sighting in gnomAD. Additionally, in silico analysis and in vitro functional studies have facilitated the demotion of 3 ultra-rare MVs (F127L, P477L, L619M). Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Show what you know and deal with stress yourself: a qualitative interview study of medical interns' perceptions of stress and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Räntzsch, Viktoria; de Vries, Remko; Houkes, Inge

    2014-05-17

    Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians' perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns' perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010-2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one's self and show off competencies and motivation ("Show What You Know…"). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… "And Deal With Stress Yourself"). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as 'professional and self-confident', remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the 'masculine protest' may benefit from a culture that embraces more collaborative styles, such as having open conversation

  13. Comparative Study Showing The Application Of Three Dimensional Oct And Ffa Correlation After Combined Bevacizumab/Laser And Triamcinolone/Laser In The Management Of Diabetic Macular Edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, N.; Afahmoud, A.F.; Eliwa, T.F.; Omar, O.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: to compare combined therapy by intravitreal triamicinolone acetonide and laser versus intravitreal bevacizumab and laser by three dimensional OCT in the management of diabetic macular edema regarding, the efficacy, duration of action, side effects, and complications of both regimens. Patients and methods: 40 eyes of 32 patients with type II diabetes mellitus, with clinically significant macular edema were enrolled into the study. They were divided equally into two groups, the first group was treated with intravitreal triamicinolone acetonide (4 mg/0.1 ml) followed 6 weeks later by focal Laser and the other group was treated by intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) followed 4 weeks later by focal Laser. Complete ophthalmological examination including BCVA, OCT and FFA were done preoperative and postoperative at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results: the IVTA/Laser group showed an earlier improvement of BCVA by one line at the 3 month visit (p value 0.025 <0.05), compared to the IVA/Laser group that showed this change to be statistically significant at the 6 month visit (p value 0.048) with a one line improvement in BCVA. Regarding CMT and decrease of CMT than IVA/Laser although in both groups the improvement was transient, and relapses in both parameters occurred. There was a high incidence of cataract and steroid induced glaucoma in susceptible subjects in the IVTA/laser group than the IVA/Laser group. IVA/Laser may have a detrimental effect on FAZ integrity, and progression of the stage of diabetic retinopathy. Regarding mean change in CMT the IVTA/Laser has a stronger effect in reducing CMT, which is statistically significant at three months (p value <0.05). On the other hand IVA/Laser group, statistically significant change in mean CMT was at 1 month. Mean change in CMT between the 2 groups was not statistically significant throughout the study, although IVTA/Laser had a more powerful effect on the metric reduction of CMT, this difference was transient in both

  14. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  15. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I.; Jackson, Anne U.; Monda, Keri L.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Day, Felix R.; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E.; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L.; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J.; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P.; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Prokopenko, Inga; Waite, Lindsay L.; Harris, Tamara B.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Shuldiner, Alan R.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Grönberg, Henrik; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Li, Guo; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Johnson, Toby; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Teder-Laving, Maris; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Amin, Najaf; Oostra, Ben A.; Kraja, Aldi T.; Province, Michael A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hengstenberg, Christian; Loley, Christina; Schunkert, Heribert; Lamina, Claudia; Wichmann, H. Erich; Albrecht, Eva; Gieger, Christian; Hicks, Andrew A.; Johansson, Asa; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Penninx, Brenda; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Gyllensten, Ulf; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Campbell, Harry; Wilson, James F.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Estrada, Karol; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Zillikens, M. Carola; den Heijer, Martin; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Maschio, Andrea; Hall, Per; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Hall, Alistair S.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Attwood, Antony Paul; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Hung, Joseph; Palmer, Lyle J.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Boucher, Gabrielle; Huikuri, Heikki; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Eklund, Niina; Eriksson, Johan G.; Barlassina, Cristina; Rivolta, Carlo; Nolte, Ilja M.; Snieder, Harold; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Gejman, Pablo V.; Shi, Jianxin; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Yang, Jian; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Absher, Devin; Iribarren, Carlos; Basart, Hanneke; Hovingh, Kees G.; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris; Anderson, Denise; Beilby, John P.; Hui, Jennie; Jolley, Jennifer; Sager, Hendrik; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Kristiansson, Kati; Perola, Markus; Lindström, Jaana; Swift, Amy J.; Uusitupa, Matti; Atalay, Mustafa; Lakka, Timo A.; Rauramaa, Rainer; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Fowkes, Gerry; Fraser, Ross M.; Price, Jackie F.; Fischer, Krista; Krjutå Kov, Kaarel; Metspalu, Andres; Mihailov, Evelin; Langenberg, Claudia; Luan, Jian'an; Ong, Ken K.; Chines, Peter S.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Saaristo, Timo E.; Edkins, Sarah; Franks, Paul W.; Hallmans, Göran; Shungin, Dmitry; Morris, Andrew David; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Erbel, Raimund; Moebus, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Hveem, Kristian; Narisu, Narisu; Hamsten, Anders; Humphries, Steve E.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tremoli, Elena; Grallert, Harald; Thorand, Barbara; Illig, Thomas; Koenig, Wolfgang; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Peters, Annette; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Kleber, Marcus E.; März, Winfried; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Arveiler, Dominique; Cesana, Giancarlo; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Virtamo, Jarmo; Yarnell, John W. G.; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Lind, Lars; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Dedoussis, George; Dimitriou, Maria; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kanoni, Stavroula; Stirrups, Kathleen; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Njølstad, Inger; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ganna, Andrea; Rehnberg, Emil; Hingorani, Aroon; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Fox, Caroline S.; Frayling, Timothy; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hunter, David; Ingelsson, Erik; Kaplan, Robert; Mohlke, Karen L.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Qi, Lu; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; North, Kari E.; Heid, Iris M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  16. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133...

  17. Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, J.C.; Winkler, T.W.; Kutalik, Z.; Berndt, S.I.; Jackson, A.U.; Monda, K.L.; Kilpelainen, T.O.; Esko, T.; Magi, R.; Li, S.; Workalemahu, T.; Feitosa, M.F.; Croteau-Chonka, D.C.; Day, F.R.; Fall, T.; Ferreira, T.; Gustafsson, S.; Locke, A.E.; Mathieson, I.; Scherag, A.; Vedantam, S.; Wood, A.R.; Liang, L.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorleifsson, G.; Dermitzakis, E.T.; Dimas, A.S.; Karpe, F.; Min, J.L.; Nicholson, G.; Clegg, D.J.; Person, T.; Krohn, J.P.; Bauer, S.; Buechler, C.; Eisinger, K.; Bonnefond, A.; Froguel, P.; Hottenga, J.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Waite, L.L.; Harris, T.B.; Smith, A.V.; Shuldiner, A.R.; McArdle, W.L.; Caulfield, M.J.; Munroe, P.B.; Gronberg, H.; Chen, Y.D.; Li, G.; Beckmann, J.S.; Johnson, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Teder-Laving, M.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Zhao, J.H.; Amin, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Kraja, A.T.; Province, M.A.; Cupples, L.A.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Kaprio, J.; Ripatti, S.; Surakka, I.; Collins, F.S.; Saramies, J.; Tuomilehto, J.; Jula, A.; Salomaa, V.; Erdmann, J.; Hengstenberg, C.; Loley, C.; Schunkert, H.; Lamina, C.; Wichmann, H.E.; Albrecht, E.; Gieger, C.; Hicks, A.A.; Johansson, A; Pramstaller, P.P.; Kathiresan, S.; Speliotes, E.K.; Penninx, B.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Gyllensten, U.; Boomsma, D.I.; Campbell, H.; Wilson, J.F.; Chanock, S.J.; Farrall, M.; Goel, A.; Medina-Gomez, C.; Rivadeneira, F.; Estrada, K.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Heijer, M. den; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  18. Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Kutalik, Zoltán; Berndt, Sonja I; Jackson, Anne U; Monda, Keri L; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Li, Shengxu; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Feitosa, Mary F; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Day, Felix R; Fall, Tove; Ferreira, Teresa; Gustafsson, Stefan; Locke, Adam E; Mathieson, Iain; Scherag, Andre; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R; Liang, Liming; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Dimas, Antigone S; Karpe, Fredrik; Min, Josine L; Nicholson, George; Clegg, Deborah J; Person, Thomas; Krohn, Jon P; Bauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa; Eisinger, Kristina; Bonnefond, Amélie; Froguel, Philippe; Smith, Albert Vernon; Zhao, Jing Hua; Penninx, Brenda; Nolte, Ilja M; Snieder, Harold; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Bakker, Stephan J L; Mateo Leach, Irene; Navis, Gerjan; van der Harst, Pim; Kumari, Meena

    Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723

  19. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-27

    Abstract Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  20. Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies shows altered fractional anisotropy occurring in distinct brain areas in association with depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Melissa L

    2011-09-01

    Fractional anisotropy anomalies occurring in the white matter tracts in the brains of depressed patients may reflect microstructural changes underlying the pathophysiology of this disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy abnormalities occurring in major depressive disorder using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging studies. Using the Embase, PubMed and Google Scholar databases, 89 relevant data sets were identified, of which 7 (including 188 patients with major depressive disorder and 221 healthy controls) met our inclusion criteria. Authors were contacted to retrieve any additional data required. Coordinates were extracted from clusters of significant white matter fractional anisotropy differences between patients and controls. Relevant demographic, clinical and methodological variables were extracted from each study or obtained directly from authors. The meta-analysis was carried out using Signed Differential Mapping. Patients with depression showed decreased white matter fractional anisotropy values in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and increased fractional anisotropy values in the fronto-occipital fasciculus compared to controls. Using quartile and jackknife sensitivity analysis, we found that reduced fractional anisotropy in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus was very stable, with increases in the right fronto-occipital fasciculus driven by just one study. In conclusion, our meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction in fractional anisotropy values in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, which may ultimately play an important role in the pathology of depression.

  1. Which surgery should be offered for carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient who was previously treated for recurrence on the contralateral side? Preliminary study of 13 patients with the Canaletto® implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, I; Seigle-Murandi, F; Gouzou, S; Fabacher, T; Facca, S; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Liverneaux, P

    2017-12-01

    There are no published studies on the management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients who have already been operated for recurrent CTS on the contralateral side. The aim of this study was to evaluate 13 patients with CTS who underwent primary release using a Canaletto ® implant. The 13 patients had all been operated for recurrent CTS previously. On the contralateral side, they all had subjective signs, and two of them already had complications. All were operated with the Canaletto ® implant according to Duché's technique, in a mean of 20minutes. After a mean 19.3-month follow-up, paresthesia, pain, and QuickDASH scores were significantly improved, even in one patient who underwent revision at another facility. This preliminary study suggests that use of a Canaletto ® implant as first-line treatment for CTS in patients who already underwent revision surgery on the other side is a simple and safe technique, without worsening of symptoms. These findings should be assessed with a prospective randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue Shen

    Full Text Available It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP. The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women.We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis.A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors.Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency.

  3. Show what you know and deal with stress yourself: a qualitative interview study of medical interns’ perceptions of stress and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians’ perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns’ perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. Methods In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010–2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. Results First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one’s self and show off competencies and motivation (“Show What You Know…”). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… “And Deal With Stress Yourself”). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as ‘professional and self-confident’, remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. Conclusions The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the ‘masculine protest’ may benefit from a culture that

  4. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine.

  6. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  7. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Myocardial adaption to HI(R)T in previously untrained men with a randomized, longitudinal cardiac MR imaging study (Physical adaptions in Untrained on Strength and Heart trial, PUSH-trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael; Oezdemir, Derya; Schmid, Axel; Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; May, Matthias S; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance) training (HI(R)T) induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. 80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(R)T-group (n = 40; 43.5±5.9 years) or an inactive control group (n = 40; 42.0±6.3 years). HI(R)T comprised 22 weeks of training focusing on a single-set to failure protocol in 2-3 sessions/week, each with 10-13 exercises addressing main muscle groups. Repetitions were decreased from 8-10 to 3-5 during study period. Before and after HI(R)T all subjects underwent physiologic examination and cardiac MRI (cine imaging, tagging). Indexed left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume (LV: 76.8±15.6 to 78.7±14.8 ml/m2; RV: 77.0±15.5 to 78.7±15.1 ml/m2) and mass (LV: 55.5±9.7 to 57.0±8.8 g/m2; RV: 14.6±3.0 to 15.0±2.9 g/m2) significantly increased with HI(R)T (all pHI(R)T-group did not alter with training (0.73g/mL and 0.19g/mL, respectively [p = 0.96 and p = 0.87]), indicating balanced cardiac adaption. Indexed LV (48.4±11.1 to 50.8±11.0 ml/m2) and RV (48.5±11.0 to 50.6±10.7 ml/m2) stroke volume significantly increased with HI(R)T (pHI(R)T (36.2±7.9 to 37.0±8.4 ml/m2, p = 0.411), the ratio to end-diastolic LV volume at baseline and post-training was unchanged (0.47 vs. 0.47, p = 0.79). 22 weeks of HI(R)T lead to measurable, physiological changes in cardiac atrial and ventricular morphologic characteristics and function in previously untrained men. The PUSH-trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov), NCT01766791.

  9. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  10. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-05-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  11. Randomised study showed that recorded maternal voices reduced pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, G; Cabano, R; Villa, G; Bigogno, A; Ardesi, M; Dioni, E

    2017-10-01

    Alleviating pain in neonates should be the goal of all caregivers. We evaluated whether recorded maternal voices were safe and effective in limiting pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit of an Italian children's hospital. This prospective, controlled study took place from December 2013 to December 2015. We enrolled 40 preterm infants, born at a 26-34 weeks of gestation, at a corrected gestational age 29-36 weeks and randomised them to listen or not listen to a recording of their mother's voice during a painful, routine heel lance for blood collection. Changes in the infants' Premature Infant Pain Profile, heart rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure during the procedure were compared by analysis of variance. Possible side effects, of apnoea, bradycardia, seizures and vomiting, were also recorded. Both groups showed a marked increase in PIPP scores and decrease in oxygen saturation during the procedure, but infants in the treatment group had significantly lower PIPP scores (p = 0.00002) and lower decreases in oxygen saturation (p = 0.0283). No significant side effects were observed. Using recorded maternal voices to limit pain in preterm infants undergoing heel lance procedures appeared safe and effective. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The influence of previous low back trouble, general health, and working conditions on future sick-listing because of low back trouble. A 15-year follow-up study of risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing caused by low back trouble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C F; Monrad, T; Biering-Sørensen, F; Darre, E; Deis, A; Kryger, P

    1999-08-01

    A 15-year follow-up study. To find risk indicators for self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble and to evaluate which variables were the most important indicators of work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. The initial data were obtained from a health survey conducted in a general population from the Municipality of Glostrup, Denmark. The follow-up data included information from the Central Person Register, the Early Retirement Pension Register, and a postal questionnaire regarding self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble. An epidemiologic study, in which logistic regression analyses were used for evaluation of the data. The model used consisted of the variable in question, age, gender, and previous experience of low back trouble, along with interactions. It was found that 22 of 37 variables were risk indicators for later self-reported sick-listing because of low back trouble during the preceding year or the 7 years before the date of follow-up evaluation. In analyzing the most significant variables simultaneously, it was found that information from the initial investigation about sick-listing in general during the previous 10 years, sciatic pain, use of analgesics for low back trouble, previous sick-listing because of low back trouble, and occupation were the most important risk indicators for self-reported work incapacity resulting from low back trouble during the follow-up period of 15 years. Findings showed that the strongest prognostic indicators of later sick-listing because of low back trouble involve information from the person about previous sick-listing behavior in general and previous experience of low back trouble episodes, especially if these had been accompanied by sciatic pain, use of analgesics, or previous low back trouble sick-listing.

  13. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Shows Minimal, Measure-Specific Effects on Dynamic Postural Control in Young and Older Adults: A Double Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Chesney E; Doumas, Michail

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether stimulating the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could affect postural control in young and older adults. tDCS was employed using a double-blind, sham-controlled design, in which young (aged 18-35) and older adults (aged 65+) were assessed over three sessions, one for each stimulatory condition-M1, cerebellar and sham. The effect of tDCS on postural control was assessed using a sway-referencing paradigm, which induced platform rotations in proportion to the participant's body sway, thus assessing sensory reweighting processes. Task difficulty was manipulated so that young adults experienced a support surface that was twice as compliant as that of older adults, in order to minimise baseline age differences in postural sway. Effects of tDCS on postural control were assessed during, immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Additionally, the effect of tDCS on corticospinal excitability was measured by evaluating motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation immediately after and 30 minutes after tDCS. Minimal effects of tDCS on postural control were found in the eyes open condition only, and this was dependent on the measure assessed and age group. For young adults, stimulation had only offline effects, as cerebellar stimulation showed higher mean power frequency (MPF) of sway 30 minutes after stimulation. For older adults, both stimulation conditions delayed the increase in sway amplitude witnessed between blocks one and two until stimulation was no longer active. In conclusion, despite tDCS' growing popularity, we would caution researchers to consider carefully the type of measures assessed and the groups targeted in tDCS studies of postural control.

  14. A Microarray Study of Carpet-Shell Clam (Ruditapes decussatus Shows Common and Organ-Specific Growth-Related Gene Expression Differences in Gills and Digestive Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saavedra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate is one of the most important traits from the point of view of individual fitness and commercial production in mollusks, but its molecular and physiological basis is poorly known. We have studied differential gene expression related to differences in growth rate in adult individuals of the commercial marine clam Ruditapes decussatus. Gene expression in the gills and the digestive gland was analyzed in 5 fast-growing and five slow-growing animals by means of an oligonucleotide microarray containing 14,003 probes. A total of 356 differentially expressed genes (DEG were found. We tested the hypothesis that differential expression might be concentrated at the growth control gene core (GCGC, i.e., the set of genes that underlie the molecular mechanisms of genetic control of tissue and organ growth and body size, as demonstrated in model organisms. The GCGC includes the genes coding for enzymes of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS, enzymes of four additional signaling pathways (Raf/Ras/Mapk, Jnk, TOR, and Hippo, and transcription factors acting at the end of those pathways. Only two out of 97 GCGC genes present in the microarray showed differential expression, indicating a very little contribution of GCGC genes to growth-related differential gene expression. Forty eight DEGs were shared by both organs, with gene ontology (GO annotations corresponding to transcription regulation, RNA splicing, sugar metabolism, protein catabolism, immunity, defense against pathogens, and fatty acid biosynthesis. GO term enrichment tests indicated that genes related to growth regulation, development and morphogenesis, extracellular matrix proteins, and proteolysis were overrepresented in the gills. In the digestive gland overrepresented GO terms referred to gene expression control through chromatin rearrangement, RAS-related small GTPases, glucolysis, and energy metabolism. These analyses suggest a relevant role of, among others

  15. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anuradha; Mantri, Shrikant; Sharma, Monica; Chaudhury, Ashok; Tuli, Rakesh; Roy, Joy

    2014-01-16

    The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT-PCR. Therefore, this study

  16. Genome-wide transcriptome study in wheat identified candidate genes related to processing quality, majority of them showing interaction (quality x development) and having temporal and spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cultivated bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses unique flour quality, which can be processed into many end-use food products such as bread, pasta, chapatti (unleavened flat bread), biscuit, etc. The present wheat varieties require improvement in processing quality to meet the increasing demand of better quality food products. However, processing quality is very complex and controlled by many genes, which have not been completely explored. To identify the candidate genes whose expressions changed due to variation in processing quality and interaction (quality x development), genome-wide transcriptome studies were performed in two sets of diverse Indian wheat varieties differing for chapatti quality. It is also important to understand the temporal and spatial distributions of their expressions for designing tissue and growth specific functional genomics experiments. Results Gene-specific two-way ANOVA analysis of expression of about 55 K transcripts in two diverse sets of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti quality at three seed developmental stages identified 236 differentially expressed probe sets (10-fold). Out of 236, 110 probe sets were identified for chapatti quality. Many processing quality related key genes such as glutenin and gliadins, puroindolines, grain softness protein, alpha and beta amylases, proteases, were identified, and many other candidate genes related to cellular and molecular functions were also identified. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the expression of 56 of 110 probe sets was involved in interaction (quality x development). Majority of the probe sets showed differential expression at early stage of seed development i.e. temporal expression. Meta-analysis revealed that the majority of the genes expressed in one or a few growth stages indicating spatial distribution of their expressions. The differential expressions of a few candidate genes such as pre-alpha/beta-gliadin and gamma gliadin were validated by RT

  17. Multiple challenges of antibiotic use in a large hospital in Ethiopia - a ward-specific study showing high rates of hospital-acquired infections and ineffective prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutema, Girma; Håkonsen, Helle; Engidawork, Ephrem; Toverud, Else-Lydia

    2018-05-03

    This project aims to study the use of antibiotics in three clinical wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia for a period of 1 year. The specific aims were to assess the prevalence of patients on antibiotics, quantify the antibiotic consumption and identify the main indications of use. The material was all the medical charts (n = 2231) retrieved from three clinical wards (internal medicine, gynecology/obstetrics and surgery) in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) in Addis Ababa between September 2013 and September 2014. Data collection was performed manually by four pharmacists. Each medical chart represented one patient. About 60% of the patients were admitted to internal medicine, 20% to each of the other two wards. The number of bed days (BD) was on average 16.5. Antibiotics for systemic use were prescribed to 73.7% of the patients (on average: 2.1 antibiotics/patient) of whom 86.6% got a third or fourth generation cephalosporin (mainly ceftriaxone). The average consumption of antibiotics was 81.6 DDD/100BD, varying from 91.8 in internal medicine and 71.6 in surgery to 47.6 in gynecology/obstetrics. The five most frequently occurring infections were pneumonia (26.6%), surgical site infections (21.5%), neutropenic fever (6.9%), sepsis (6.4%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%). About one fourth of the prescriptions were for prophylactic purposes. Hospital acquired infections occurred in 23.5% of the patients (353 cases of surgical site infection). The prescribing was based on empirical treatment and sensitivity testing was reported in only 3.8% of the cases. In the present study from three wards in the largest tertiary teaching hospital in Ethiopia, three out of four patients were prescribed antibiotics, primarily empirically. The mean antibiotic consumption was 81.6 DDD/100BD. Surgical site infections constituted a large burden of the infections treated in the hospital, despite extensive prescribing of prophylaxis. The findings show

  18. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  19. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  20. Polysomy of chromosome 17 in breast cancer tumors showing an overexpression of ERBB2: a study of 175 cases using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salido, Marta; Solé, Francesc; Tusquets, Ignasi; Corominas, Josep M; Suarez, Marta; Espinet, Blanca; Corzo, Cristina; Bellet, Meritxell; Fabregat, Xavier; Serrano, Sergi

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common genetic aberrations associated with breast cancer is the amplification and overexpression of the ERBB2 proto-oncogene located at chromosome 17, bands q12-21. The amplification/overexpression occurs in 25 to 30% of all breast cancers. In breast cancer, aneusomy of chromosome 17, either monosomy or polysomy, is frequently observed by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not numerical aberrations on chromosome 17 have a correlation to the amplification or overexpression of the ERBB2 gene and to analyze their clinical implications in subgroups showing 2+ or 3+ positive scores by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We used FISH on a series of 175 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas to detect ERBB2 amplification, using a dual-probe system for the simultaneous enumeration of the ERBB2 gene and the centromeric region of chromosome 17, as well as using IHC to detect overexpression. We analyzed clinical and pathological variables in a subgroup of patients with 2+ and 3+ IHC scores (147 patients), to describe any differences in clinicopathological characteristics between polysomic and non-polysomic cases with the use of the χ 2 test. We found 13% of cases presenting polysomy, and three cases presented monosomy 17 (2%). According to the status of the ERBB2 gene, instances of polysomy 17 were more frequently observed in non-amplified cases than in FISH-amplified cases, suggesting that the mechanism for ERBB2 amplification is independent of polysomy 17. Polysomy 17 was detected in patients with 2+ and 3+ IHC scores. We found that nodal involvement was more frequent in polysomic than in non-polysomic cases (P = 0.046). The determination of the copy number of chromosome 17 should be incorporated into the assesment of ERBB2 status. It might also be helpful to differentiate a subgroup of breast cancer patients with polysomy of chromosome 17 and overexpression of ERBB2

  1. A 10-Day Developmental Voyage: Converging Evidence from Three Studies Showing that Self-Esteem May Be Elevated and Maintained without Negative Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, S.; Hunter, J. A.; Hayhurst, J.; Boyes, M.; Thomson, R. L.; Clarke, H.; Grocott, A. M.; Stringer, M.; O'Brien, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that educational experiences in the context of the outdoors lead to elevated self-esteem. Although elevated self-esteem is widely assumed to promote beneficial outcomes, recent evidence suggests that elevated self-esteem may also facilitate a variety of negative outcomes (i.e., increased prejudice, aggression, drug and…

  2. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life

  3. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  4. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  5. Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Reeves, James A; Tulpule, Anil; Flinn, Ian W; Kolevska, Tatjana; Robles, Robert; Flowers, Christopher R; Collins, Robert; DiBella, Nicholas J; Papish, Steven W; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Horodner, Andrew; Tabatabai, Amir; Hajdenberg, Julio; Park, Jaehong; Neuwirth, Rachel; Mulligan, George; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; de Vos, Sven

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m 2 intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.

  6. Study of 201 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Given Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Shows Local Control Dependence on Dose Calculation Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Kujtim, E-mail: Kujtim.Latifi@Moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Oliver, Jasmine [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida (United States); Baker, Ryan [University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, Florida (United States); Dilling, Thomas J.; Stevens, Craig W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Kim, Jongphil; Yue, Binglin [Department of Biostatics and Bioinformatics, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); DeMarco, MaryLou; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Feygelman, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Pencil beam (PB) and collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithms differ significantly when used in the thorax. However, such differences have seldom been previously directly correlated with outcomes of lung stereotactic ablative body radiation (SABR). Methods and Materials: Data for 201 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with 50 Gy in 5 fractions of 10 Gy each. The radiation prescription mandated that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) receive the prescribed dose. One hundred sixteen patients were planned with BrainLab treatment planning software (TPS) with the PB algorithm and treated on a Novalis unit. The other 85 were planned on the Pinnacle TPS with the CCC algorithm and treated on a Varian linac. Treatment planning objectives were numerically identical for both groups. The median follow-up times were 24 and 17 months for the PB and CCC groups, respectively. The primary endpoint was local/marginal control of the irradiated lesion. Gray's competing risk method was used to determine the statistical differences in local/marginal control rates between the PB and CCC groups. Results: Twenty-five patients planned with PB and 4 patients planned with the CCC algorithms to the same nominal doses experienced local recurrence. There was a statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between the PB and CCC groups (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% confidence interval: 1.18-9.83], Gray's test P=.019). The differences (Δ) between the 2 algorithms for target coverage were as follows: ΔD99{sub GITV} = 7.4 Gy, ΔD99{sub PTV} = 10.4 Gy, ΔV90{sub GITV} = 13.7%, ΔV90{sub PTV} = 37.6%, ΔD95{sub PTV} = 9.8 Gy, and ΔD{sub ISO} = 3.4 Gy. GITV = gross internal tumor volume. Conclusions: Local control in patients receiving who were planned to the same nominal dose with PB and CCC algorithms were statistically significantly different. Possible

  7. New sub-family of lysozyme-like proteins shows no catalytic activity: crystallographic and biochemical study of STM3605 protein from Salmonella Typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina; Brown, Roslyn N.; Li, Hui; Jedrzejczak, Robert; Niemann, George; Heffron, Fred; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Phage viruses that infect prokaryotes integrate their genome into the host chromosome; thus, microbial genomes typically contain genetic remnants of both recent and ancient phage infections. Often phage genes occur in clusters of atypical G+C content that reflect integration of the foreign DNA. However, some phage genes occur in isolation without other phage gene neighbors, probably resulting from horizontal gene transfer. In these cases, the phage gene product is unlikely to function as a component of a mature phage particle, and instead may have been co-opted by the host for its own benefit. The product of one such gene from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, STM3605, encodes a protein with modest sequence similarity to phage-like lysozyme (N-acetylmuramidase) but appears to lack essential catalytic residues that are strictly conserved in all lysozymes. Close homologs in other bacteria share this characteristic. The structure of the STM3605 protein was characterized by X-ray crystallography, and functional assays showed that it is a stable, folded protein whose structure closely resembles lysozyme. However, this protein is unlikely to hydrolyze peptidoglycan. Instead, STM3605 is presumed to have evolved an alternative function because it shows some lytic activity and partitions to micelles.

  8. A palynological study of Polynesian and European effects on vegetation in Coromandel, New Zealand, showing the variability between four records from a single swamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrami, M.; Ogden, J.; Horrocks, M.; Deng, Y.; Shane, P.; Palmer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Seven cores were extracted from a river terrace swamp in the forested Kauaeranga valley, Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. High-resolution (c. 36-73 yr interval) pollen records were obtained from four of the cores and aged by radiocarbon dating and with stratigraphic reference to the 665 ± 15 14 C yr BP Kaharoa Tephra. The records span the last c. 1800 yr and show that the vegetation consisted of lowland podocarp-hardwood forest before deforestation by burning occurred. The pattern of deforestation at Kauaeranga, indicated by the abrupt dominance of Pteridium with concurrent increased charcoal, is typical of pollen records associated with early Polynesian settlement in New Zealand. Peaks of Pteridium and charcoal were also found in sediments deposited after European settlement. Different cores show marked palynological and stratigraphic differences relative to the Kaharoa Tephra, most importantly with regard to the timing of deforestation. Deforestation occurred close to the Kaharoa, at a calculated age of c. 750 BP in one core but well above the Kaharoa (c. 480 BP) in another. The stratigraphic unconformities between cores are attributed to variable fluvial processes causing an uneven deposition of sediments within the swamp. (author). 32 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Investigation and studies on plant damage due to Tokyo photochemical smog. Part II. On the damage of petunia which showed the symptoms like injuries by pan (peroxyacetyl nitrate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terakado, K.

    1973-10-01

    Twice in the middle of June and in early Aug. 1972, petunia leaves were damaged by peroxyacetyl nitrate in Tokyo. The leaf damage, root activity, and pH and specific conductivity of the soil were studied. Similar plants were exposed experimentally to ozone for comparison. No damage was found on other types of plants in the same greenhouse, and different types of petunias were damaged to different degrees. The damage was studied by microscopy anbd by gross symptoms.

  10. Long-Time Exposure to Violent Video Games Does Not Show Desensitization on Empathy for Pain: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xuemei; Pan, Wei; Li, Chao; Weng, Lei; Yao, Mengyun; Chen, Antao

    2017-01-01

    As a typical form of empathy, empathy for pain refers to the perception and appraisal of others’ pain, as well as the corresponding affective responses. Numerous studies investigated the factors affecting the empathy for pain, in which the exposure to violent video games (VVGs) could change players’ empathic responses to painful situations. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to VVG influences the empathy for pain. In the present study, in terms of the exposure experience to VVG, two...

  11. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure

  12. FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI SIKAP AUDIENCE TERHADAP PRODUCT/BRAND PLACEMENT DALAM ACARA TV (STUDI KASUS INDONESIAN IDOL 2007 & MAMAMIA SHOW 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Julivan Rumambi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Product/brand placement is not such a new matter in the marketing world, including in Indonesia in the last few years. These practice have been conducted at 1920 by cigarette's company in USA, while on the success story can be found on E.T (Extra-Terrestrial: the movie by 1982 presenting Reese's Pieces candy. Product/brand placement can be found widely in various medium starting from movies, TV shows, comics, games, video clip, etc. Today, various TV shows like 'Akademi Fantasi Indosiar (AFI', 'Indonesian Idol', 'Mamamia Show', 'Kontes Dangdut Indonesia (KDI', 'Empat Mata', 'Katakan Cinta', 'I-Gosip' & 'Cek & Ricek' are popular to advertise and become alternative medium for product / brand placement. In order to make the right decisions by conducting product/brand placement especially in TV shows, the company should know & understand several factors that influence audience attitude towards product/brand placement. Based on article entitled 'audience attitude towards product placement in movies: a case from Turkey' as a referred journal, the result of the research conducted have been formed four factors influencing attitude of audience toward product/brand placement. The four factors are 'attention', 'acceptance', 'reference' and 'ethics & regulation' with total variance explained equal to 53,53%. By conducting principal component factor analysis for this research, there are five factors influencing audience attitude toward product/brand placement formed with the total variance explained equal to 63,823 %. Three among other formed factors have several similar variables with the factor in the referred journal, while the two other factors compiled with only two variable/statement item for each. The percentage of each factor were 'acceptance' (18,923%, ethics & regulation (14,978%, attention (13,844%, reference (9,139% and interest (6,939%. The result of this research tried to conclude and give some input related with the final result of the main

  13. Local recurrence risk after previous salvage mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, M; Iwase, T; Okumura, Y; Yoshida, A; Masuda, N; Nakatsukasa, K; Shien, T; Tanaka, S; Komoike, Y; Taguchi, T; Arima, N; Nishimura, R; Inaji, H; Ishitobi, M

    2016-07-01

    Breast-conserving surgery is a standard treatment for early breast cancer. For ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conserving surgery, salvage mastectomy is the current standard surgical procedure. However, it is not rare for patients with IBTR who have received salvage mastectomy to develop local recurrence. In this study, we examined the risk factors of local recurrence after salvage mastectomy for IBTR. A total of 118 consecutive patients who had histologically confirmed IBTR without distant metastases and underwent salvage mastectomy without irradiation for IBTR between 1989 and 2008 were included from eight institutions in Japan. The risk factors of local recurrence were assessed. The median follow-up period from salvage mastectomy for IBTR was 4.6 years. Patients with pN2 or higher on diagnosis of the primary tumor showed significantly poorer local recurrence-free survival than those with pN0 or pN1 at primary tumor (p mastectomy for IBTR. Further research and validation studies are needed. (UMIN-CTR number UMIN000008136). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nationwide individual record linkage study showed poor agreement of causes of death and hospital diagnoses at individual level but reasonable agreement at population level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    Objectives: To investigate to what extent underlying and multiple causes of death represent end-of-life morbidity in individuals and at population level. Study Design and Setting: Cause of death and national hospital data were individually linked for all deaths at the age of 50-84 years, in 2005 in

  15. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Performing Eye-Hand Integration Tasks: Four Preliminary Studies with Children Showing Low-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Trubia, Grazia; Ferri, Raffaele; Musso, Sabrina; Alagona, Giovanna; Di Guardo, Giuseppe; Barone, Concetta; Gaglione, Maria P.; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    This report, based on four studies with children with low-functioning autism, aimed at evaluating the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered on the left and right premotor cortices on eye-hand integration tasks; defining the long-lasting effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; and…

  16. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-Guillen Vicente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment.

  17. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  18. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Gao, Xuemei; Shi, Shuo; Liu, Fuqu; Li, Chao

    2017-01-01

    A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won't significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated.

  20. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF and fractional ALFF (fALFF to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won’t significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated.

  1. Spontaneous Brain Activity Did Not Show the Effect of Violent Video Games on Aggression: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Gao, Xuemei; Shi, Shuo; Liu, Fuqu; Li, Chao

    2018-01-01

    A great many of empirical researches have proved that longtime exposure to violent video game can lead to a series of negative effects. Although research has focused on the neural basis of the correlation between violent video game and aggression, little is known whether the spontaneous brain activity is associated with violent video game exposure. To address this question, we measured the spontaneous brain activity using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) to quantify spontaneous brain activity. The results showed there is no significant difference in ALFF, or fALFF, between violent video game group and the control part, indicating that long time exposure to violent video games won’t significantly influence spontaneous brain activity, especially the core brain regions such as execution control, moral judgment and short-term memory. This implies the adverse impact of violent video games is exaggerated. PMID:29375416

  2. 24-hour aortic blood pressure variability showed a stronger association with carotid damage than 24-hour brachial blood pressure variability: The SAFAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shikai; Chi, Chen; Protogerou, Athanase D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques; Argyris, Antonis A; Nasothimiou, Efthimia G; Sfikakis, Petros P; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Xu, Henry; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yawei

    2018-03-01

    We aim to compare 24-hour aortic blood pressure variability (BPV) with brachial BPV in relation to carotid damage as estimated by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cross-sectional area (CCSA). Four hundred and forty five individuals received brachial and aortic 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring with a validated device (Mobil-O-Graph). Systolic BPV was estimated by average real variability (ARV) and time-weighted standard deviation (wSD). In multiple logistic regression analysis, CIMT > 900 μm was significantly and independently associated with aortic ARV (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.04-1.84), aortic wSD (OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.19-2.29) and brachial ARV (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.07-2.18), but not with brachial wSD. CCSA > 90th percentile was significantly and independently associated with aortic ARV (OR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.07-2.10) and wSD (OR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.12-2.56), but not with brachial BPVs. In receiver operator characteristics curve analysis, aortic wSD identified CCSA > 90th percentile better than brachial wSD (AUC: 0.73 vs 0.68, P < .01). In conclusion, aortic 24-hour systolic BPV showed a slightly stronger association with carotid damage than brachial BPV. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Kristin; Barkmann, Claus; Klasen, Fionna; Bullinger, Monika; Glaeske, Gerd; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative ...

  4. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study shows increased prevalence of primary recurrent headaches among adolescents over a four-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsena, Brit A; Dyb, Grete; Hagen, Knut; Stovner, Lars J; Holmen, Turid L; Zwart, John-Anker

    2017-12-29

    Objective Earlier epidemiological studies have shown that headaches are frequent among adolescents, especially girls. In particular, recurrent primary headache disorders such as migraine and tension-type headaches are common complaints in this age group. Headaches are increasingly being recognized as a significant health problem in adolescents and can lead to significant disabilities by affecting their lives, their school performance and their social lives. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of primary headaches among adolescents aged 16-20 years in Norway in two periods. Very few replicate studies have re-evaluated the prevalence of primary headaches in this age range and it is uncertain whether the prevalence is increasing. Methods Two cross-sectional, population-based studies were conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT 1) and from 1999 to 2001 (Young-HUNT 2). In Young-HUNT 1, 2594 adolescents in 2nd and 3rd grade in upper secondary school (aged 16-20 years) completed a comprehensive questionnaire including one question regarding headache during the last 12 months. In addition, 1730 of the students were interviewed about their headache complaints. In Young-HUNT 2, 2373 adolescents aged 16-20 years completed the same questionnaire and 1655 were interviewed in the same way as the earlier survey. The interviews were performed by trained nurses, and respondents were asked if they had experienced recurrent headache during the last year. If so, the headache was classified as migraine (MI), tensiontype headache (TTH) or non-classifiable headache (NCH). Headache frequency during the past year was recorded according to the following categories: Less than 1 day per month (less than monthly), 1-3 days per month (monthly), 1-5 days per week (weekly), or more than 5 days per week (daily). Results The participation rate was 88% in Young-HUNT 1 and 81% in Young-HUNT 2. The overall prevalence of having had headaches during the last 12 months did not

  5. Assessing blood flow, microvasculature, erythema and redness in hypertrophic scars: A cross sectional study showing different features that require precise definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, M E H; Stekelenburg, C M; Simons, J M; Brouwer, K M; Vlig, M; van den Kerckhove, E; Middelkoop, E; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2017-08-01

    In hypertrophic scar assessment, laser Doppler imaging (LDI), colorimetry and subjective assessment (POSAS) can be used to evaluate blood flow, erythema and redness, respectively. In addition, the microvasculature (i.e. presence of microvessels) can be determined by immunohistochemistry. These measurement techniques are frequently used in clinical practice and/or in research to evaluate treatment response and monitor scar development. However, until now it has not been tested to what extent the outcomes of these techniques are associated, whilst the outcome terms are frequently used interchangeably or replaced by the umbrella term 'vascularization'. This is confusing, as every technique seems to measure a specific feature. Therefore, we evaluated the correlations of the four measurement techniques. We included 32 consecutive patients, aged ≥18 years, who underwent elective resection of a hypertrophic scar. Pre-operatively, we performed LDI (measuring blood flow), colorimetry (measuring erythema) and the POSAS (subjective redness) within the predefined scar area of interest (∼1.5cm). Subsequently, the scar was excised and the area of interest was sent for immunohistochemistry, to determine the presence of microvessels. Only a statistically significant correlation was found between erythema values (colorimetry) and subjective redness assessment (POSAS) (r=0.403, p=0.030). We found no correlations between the outcomes of LDI, immunohistochemistry and colorimetry. Blood flow, the presence of microvessels and erythema appear to be different hypertrophic scar features because they show an absence of correlation. Therefore, in the field of scar assessment, these outcome terms cannot be used interchangeably. In addition, we conclude that the term 'vascularization' does not seem appropriate to serve as an umbrella term. The use of precise definitions in research as well as in clinical practice is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. The perioperative surgical home (PSH): a comprehensive review of US and non-US studies shows predominantly positive quality and cost outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita A; Zhang, Yichen; Cline, Kayla M; Menser, Terri; Miller, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Policy Points: The perioperative surgical home (PSH) is complementary to the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and defines methods for improving the patient experience and clinical outcomes, and controlling costs for the care of surgical patients. The PSH is a physician-led care delivery model that includes multi-specialty care teams and cost-efficient use of resources at all levels through a patient-centered, continuity of care delivery model with shared decision making. The PSH emphasizes "prehabilitation" of the patient before surgery, intraoperative optimization, improved return to function through follow-up, and effective transitions to home or post-acute care to reduce complications and readmissions. The evolving concept of more rigorously coordinated and integrated perioperative management, often referred to as the perioperative surgical home (PSH), parallels the well-known concept of a patient-centered medical home (PCMH), as they share a vision of improved clinical outcomes and reductions in cost of care through patient engagement and care coordination. Elements of the PSH and similar surgical care coordination models have been studied in the United States and other countries. This comprehensive review of peer-reviewed literature investigates the history and evolution of PSH and PSH-like models and summarizes the results of studies of PSH elements in the United States and in other countries. We reviewed more than 250 potentially relevant studies. At the conclusion of the selection process, our search had yielded a total of 152 peer-reviewed articles published between 1980 and 2013. The literature reports consistent and significant positive findings related to PSH initiatives. Both US and non-US studies stress the role of anesthesiologists in perioperative patient management. The PSH may have the greatest impact on preparing patients for surgery and ensuring their safe and effective transition to home or other postoperative rehabilitation. There appear

  7. An endemic of scabies in Kahuta, Azad Kashmir. The study shows a lack of awareness of scabies; mass treatment is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Afaque

    2017-09-01

    The study was planned to find the awareness of scabies in the Forward Kahuta area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. For this, a questionnaire related to scabies was distributed among the patients at different walk-in clinics in the region from June 2015 to May 2016. Of the 234 participants, 97(41.5%) were males and 137(58.5%) were females. All of them reported with itching, but 120(51.3%) of the participants didn't even know that itching may be due to scabies which was found in 157(67%) patients, and of them, 106(67.52%) knew that scabies was curable and preventable. Scabies was found in common school students (n=39(24.84%), farmers (n=32(2.38%) and laborers (n=31(19.74%). Due to poor awareness, a multi-dimensional approach is suggested to spread the awareness of skin diseases like scabies in the population under study and mass treatment of scabies in the area is recommended.

  8. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  9. Seasonality shows evidence for polygenic architecture and genetic correlation with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder – a meta-analysis of genetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Enda M; Raheja, Uttam; Stephens, Sarah H.; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Vaswani, Dipika; Nijjar, Gagan V.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Youssufi, Hassaan; Gehrman, Philip R; Shuldiner, Alan R; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Wray, Naomi R; Nelson, Elliot C; Mitchell, Braxton D; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test common genetic variants for association with seasonality (seasonal changes in mood and behavior) and to investigate whether there are shared genetic risk factors between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Methods A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in Australian and Amish populations in whom the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) had been administered. The total sample size was 4,156 individuals. Genetic risk scores based on results from prior large GWAS studies of bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ) were calculated to test for overlap in risk between psychiatric disorders and seasonality. Results The most significant association was with rs11825064 (p = 1.7 × 10−6, β = 0.64, S.E = 0.13), an intergenic SNP found on chromosome 11. The evidence for overlap in risk factors was strongest for SCZ and seasonality, with the SCZ genetic profile scores explaining 3% of the variance in log-transformed GSS. BD genetic profile scores were also significantly associated with seasonality, although at much weaker levels, and no evidence for overlap in risk was detected between MDD and seasonality. Conclusions Common SNPs of very large effect likely do not exist for seasonality in the populations examined. As expected, there was overlapping genetic risk factors for BD (but not MDD) with seasonality. Unexpectedly, the risk for SCZ and seasonality had the largest overlap, an unprecedented finding that requires replication in other populations, and has potential clinical implications considering overlapping cognitive deficits in seasonal affective disorders and SCZ PMID:25562672

  10. A randomized crossover clinical study showing that methylphenidate-SODAS improves attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Szobot

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a long-acting formulation of methylphenidate (MPH-SODAS on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms in an outpatient sample of adolescents with ADHD and substance use disorders (SUD. Secondary goals were to evaluate the tolerability and impact on drug use of MPH-SODAS. This was a 6-week, single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study assessing efficacy of escalated doses of MPH-SODAS on ADHD symptoms in 16 adolescents with ADHD/SUD. Participants were randomly allocated to either group A (weeks 1-3 on MPH-SODAS, weeks 4-6 on placebo or group B (reverse order. The primary outcome measures were the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale, version IV (SNAP-IV and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI. We also evaluated the adverse effects of MPH-SODAS using the Barkley Side Effect Rating Scale and subject reports of drug use during the study. The sample consisted of marijuana (N = 16; 100% and cocaine users (N = 7; 43.8%. Subjects had a significantly greater reduction in SNAP-IV and CGI scores (P < 0.001 for all analyses during MPH-SODAS treatment compared to placebo. No significant effects for period or sequence were found in analyses with the SNAP-IV and CGI scales. There was no significant effect on drug use. MPH-SODAS was well tolerated but was associated with more severe appetite reduction than placebo (P < 0.001. MPH-SODAS was more effective than placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms in a non-abstinent outpatient sample of adolescents with comorbid SUD. Randomized clinical trials, with larger samples and SUD intervention, are recommended.

  11. The epidemiology of hypernatraemia in hospitalised children in Lothian: a 10-year study showing differences between dehydration, osmoregulatory dysfunction and salt poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Sarah; Crofton, Patricia; Huang, Hian; Marshall, Tom; Fares, Katia; McIntosh, Neil

    2012-06-01

    The relative frequencies of the causes of hypernatraemia in children after the neonatal period are unknown. Salt poisoning and osmoregulatory dysfunction are extremely rare and potentially fatal. In this retrospective 10-year study, the incidence, causes and differential biochemistry of hypernatraemia in children is examined. Children with hypernatraemia (sodium ≥ 150 mmol/litre) aged >2 weeks to 17 years were identified from laboratory data of two paediatric departments serving the Lothian region of Scotland. A review of patient notes established time of onset and cause. Denominator data were available from the Scottish Health Service. On admission to hospital, 1 in 2288 children (1:1535 admitted as an emergency) had hypernatraemia. This is 1 in 30 563 Lothian children children admitted with 64 separate episodes (11 from a case of salt poisoning), the commonest cause was dehydration secondary to either gastroenteritis or systemic infection; 31% had an underlying chronic neurological disorder. A total of 177 further cases developed hypernatraemia after admission. The commonest causes were dehydration secondary to severe systemic infection and postoperative cardiac surgery. Urine sodium:creatinine ratio and fractional excretion of sodium were both much higher in the salt poisoning case than in a child with osmoregulatory dysfunction or children with simple dehydration. Hypernatraemia after 2 weeks of age is uncommon, and on admission is usually associated with dehydration. Salt poisoning and osmoregulatory dysfunction are rare but should be considered in cases of repeated hypernatraemia without obvious cause. Routine measurement of urea, creatinine and electrolytes on paired urine and plasma on admission will differentiate these rare causes.

  12. A prospective study of patients with brain MRI showing incidental t2 hyperintensities addressed as multiple sclerosis: a lot of work to do before treating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Christine; Cohen, Mikael; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Mondot, Lydiane; Chanalet, Stephane

    2014-12-01

    With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and publications about radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), a lot of patients are referred to multiple sclerosis (MS) tertiary centers to confirm diagnosis of RIS or MS when brain T2 abnormalities are identified, whatever their characteristics. We evaluate prospectively the occurrence of RIS or MS and sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of McDonald criteria in diagnosis for patients presenting with incidental brain MRI T2 lesions. The authors ran standardized procedures on 220 consecutive patients addressed by general practitioners or neurologists to confirm RIS or MS diagnosis on brain MRI and give a therapeutic advice. All patients underwent neurological tests, extensive blood screening, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination, visual evoked potential (VEP) and follow-up MRI after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months to consider dissemination in time and space. Patient characteristics were: 165 women and 55 men, mean age: 42.7 years old (23-59). The major symptom motivating MRI was headaches (39%), sensitive atypical manifestations or pain (12%), mood disorders (10%), transient visual symptoms (9%), fatigue (8%), hormonal screening (6%), vertigo (6%), cranial trauma (5%), and dummy run for clinical study (5%). After a structured analysis of T2 lesions, the suspected diagnosis was: inflammatory disease 45%, vascular 33%, non-pathological 19%, genetic 2%, and metabolic 1%. Extensive screening confirmed the proposed diagnosis in 97% of cases. Among all the 220 proposed RIS patients, only 35.4% fulfilled the 2010 McDonald criteria, and 8% can be categorized as RIS. Dissemination in time criteria was present for 82.7% of MS patients and 36% of RIS patients but none of the vascular or non-pathological T2 abnormalities. Even if RIS was initially suspected on MRI, only a third of the patients had an inflammatory disease. Most of the patients had either non-specific T2 lesions or a non-inflammatory disease. Others

  13. Cerebral perfusion characteristics show differences in younger versus older children with sickle cell anaemia: Results from a multiple-inflow-time arterial spin labelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawadler, Jamie M; Hales, Patrick W; Barker, Simon; Cox, Timothy C S; Kirkham, Fenella J; Clark, Chris A

    2018-03-30

    Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with chronic anaemia and oxygen desaturation, which elevate cerebral blood flow (CBF) and increase the risk of neurocognitive complications. Arterial spin labelling (ASL) provides a methodology for measuring CBF non-invasively; however, ASL techniques using only a single inflow time are not sufficient to fully characterize abnormal haemodynamic behaviour in SCA. This study investigated haemodynamic parameters from a multi-inflow-time ASL acquisition in younger (8-12 years) and older (13-18 years) children with SCA with and without silent cerebral infarction (SCI+/-) (n = 20 and 19 respectively, 6 and 4 SCI+ respectively) and healthy controls (n = 9 and 7 respectively). Compared with controls, CBF was elevated globally in both groups of patients. In the younger SCA patients, blood oxygen content was negatively correlated with CBF in the middle and posterior cerebral artery territories and significantly positively correlated with bolus arrival time (BAT) in the anterior and middle cerebral artery territories. In older children, SCA patients had significantly shorter BAT than healthy controls and there was a significant negative correlation between CBF and oxygen content only in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery, with a trend for a correlation in the anterior cerebral artery but no relationship for the middle cerebral artery territory. In the younger group, SCI+ patients had significantly higher CBF in the posterior cerebral artery territory (SCI+ mean = 92.78 ml/100 g/min; SCI- mean = 72.71 ml/100 g/min; F = 4.28, p = 0.04), but this no longer reached significance when two children with abnormal transcranial Doppler and one with haemoglobin SC disease were excluded, and there were no significant differences between patients with and without SCI in the older children. With age, there appears to be increasing disparity between patients and controls in terms of the relationship between CBF and oxygen

  14. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  15. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  16. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  17. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  18. Studies Show Curricular Efficiency Can Be Attained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the nine factors contributing to educational productivity, the effectiveness of instructional techniques (mastery learning ranks high and Skinnerian reinforcement has the largest overall effect), and the effects of psychological enviroments on learning. Includes references and a table. (MD)

  19. (hydronsan) in previously untreated cases of pulmo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B., M.D., King George V. Hospital, Durban. SUMMARY. The results of a randomized, single-blind, between-paTienI trial of various combinations of rifampicin, .... clearing after 16 weeks of trial is higher in the rifampicin- treated groups than in the ethambutol-plus-Hydronsan group. Table III shows the radiological clearing.

  20. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  1. Reports show fewer pallets entering landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    2010-01-01

    Information from a series of Virginia Tech studies reveals current trends in core utilization by the pallet industry. The most recent report released this year studied trends from 2006. Virginia Tech researchers compared these results to five previous studies going all the way back to 1992.

  2. Diet and bone mineral density study in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry shows a negative association with a traditional English dietary pattern and a positive association with wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Skinner, Jane; Guile, Geoffrey R; Cassidy, Aedín; Spector, Tim D; MacGregor, Alex J

    2011-11-01

    The effect of diet on bone mineral density (BMD) remains controversial, mainly because of difficulties in isolating dietary factors from the confounding influences of age, lifestyle, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to use a novel method to examine the relation between BMD and diet. A co-twin control study design with linear regression modeling was used to test for associations between BMD and habitual intakes of calcium, vitamin D, protein, and alcohol plus 5 previously identified dietary patterns in postmenopausal women from the TwinsUK registry. This approach exploited the unique matching of twins to provide an estimate of an association that was not confounded by age, genetic background, or shared lifestyle. In >2000 postmenopausal women (BMD data on 1019, 1218, and 1232 twin pairs at the hip neck, hip, and spine, respectively), we observed a positive association between alcohol intake (from wine but not from beer or spirits) and spine BMD (P = 0.01) and a negative association with a traditional 20th-century English diet at the hip neck (P = 0.01). Both associations remained borderline significant after adjustment for mean twin-pair intakes (P = 0.04 and P = 0.055, respectively). Other dietary patterns and intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and protein were unrelated to BMD. Our results showed that diet has an independent but subtle effect on BMD; wine intake was positively associated with spine BMD, whereas a traditional (20th-century) English diet had a negative association with hip BMD.

  3. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, V.

    1976-03-01

    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  4. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Olivier, Berend; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE). Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs) reported in the recently published meta-analysis. Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%), SL(-2.3%), SS(0.6%). In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%), SL(-18.5%) and SS(21.8%) with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  5. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy K C Janssen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE. METHODS: Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE. Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs reported in the recently published meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%, SL(-2.3%, SS(0.6%. In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%, SL(-18.5% and SS(21.8% with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. CONCLUSIONS: In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  6. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    In the empirical study, a self-administered questionnaire was dis- ... The task of management at all levels in the education system is to create and sustain .... improved school performance (better policies and more innovative fresh ideas);.

  7. INDEXES OF OBESITY AND COMPARISONS WITH PREVIOUS NATIONAL SURVEY DATA IN 9-YEAR-OLD AND 10-YEAR-OLD BLACK-AND-WHITE GIRLS - THE NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GROWTH AND HEALTH STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAMPAIGNE, BN; MORRISON, JA; SCHUMANN, BC; FALKNER, F; LAKATOS, E; SPRECHER, D; SCHREIBER, GB

    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  8. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  9. A previous hamstring injury affects kicking mechanics in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navandar, Archit; Veiga, Santiago; Torres, Gonzalo; Chorro, David; Navarro, Enrique

    2018-01-10

    Although the kicking skill is influenced by limb dominance and sex, how a previous hamstring injury affects kicking has not been studied in detail. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sex and limb dominance on kicking in limbs with and without a previous hamstring injury. 45 professional players (males: n=19, previously injured players=4, age=21.16 ± 2.00 years; females: n=19, previously injured players=10, age=22.15 ± 4.50 years) performed 5 kicks each with their preferred and non-preferred limb at a target 7m away, which were recorded with a three-dimensional motion capture system. Kinematic and kinetic variables were extracted for the backswing, leg cocking, leg acceleration and follow through phases. A shorter backswing (20.20 ± 3.49% vs 25.64 ± 4.57%), and differences in knee flexion angle (58 ± 10o vs 72 ± 14o) and hip flexion velocity (8 ± 0rad/s vs 10 ± 2rad/s) were observed in previously injured, non-preferred limb kicks for females. A lower peak hip linear velocity (3.50 ± 0.84m/s vs 4.10 ± 0.45m/s) was observed in previously injured, preferred limb kicks of females. These differences occurred in the backswing and leg-cocking phases where the hamstring muscles were the most active. A variation in the functioning of the hamstring muscles and that of the gluteus maximus and iliopsoas in the case of a previous injury could account for the differences observed in the kicking pattern. Therefore, the effects of a previous hamstring injury must be considered while designing rehabilitation programs to re-educate kicking movement.

  10. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The positive effect of education on oral hygiene practices is highlighted in this study. However there is still need for proper health enlightenment in this population with regards to use of the available oral health care facilities. Keywords: Oral hygiene, Pregnancy, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.

  11. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm

    2009-01-01

    Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development...... and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...

  12. Estudios previos cursados y género de los maestros de primaria en formación: efectos sobre la resolución de problemas / Pre-service primary teachers' gender and studies previously undertaken: effects on problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Caballer Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este trabajo analiza la influencia del género y los estudios previos cursados en la resolución de problemas. Se utilizó un diseño experimental con dos variables independientes (género y estudios previos y una variable dependiente (puntuación en los problemas. Se administró un cuadernillo con dos problemas de diferente estructura a 66 estudiantes de tercer curso del Grado de Maestro en Educacion Primaria de la misma Facultad (Facultad de Magisterio de la Universidad de Valencia, España. Los resultados de los análisis de varianza simple muestran que: a los estudiantes de sexo masculino resuelven el problema difícil con más éxito que las estudiantes, b los estudiantes que han cursado bachillerato no resuelven los problemas significativamente mejor que los que no lo han cursado y, c los estudiantes que siguieron un itinerario en 4º de la ESO con Física y Química resuelven significativamente mejor los problemas que los restantes. Abstract: This study analyses the influence of gender and studies previously undertaken on problem-solving. An experimental design was used with two independent variables (gender and studies previously undertaken and one dependent variable (scores in the problems. A booklet containing two word problems that differ from each other in structure was administered to 66 third-year pre-service primary teachers from the same Faculty (Faculty of Teacher Training, University of Valencia, Spain. The results of the analyses of variance simple showed that: a men undergraduate students solve the difficult problem more successfully than women undergraduate students, b students who had completed post-compulsory secondary education do not solve the problems significantly better than the others, and c students who had studied physics and chemistry in the tenth grade at high school solve the problems significantly better than the others.

  13. Impact of the use of autologous stem cell transplantation at first relapse both in naïve and previously rituximab exposed follicular lymphoma patients treated in the GELA/GOELAMS FL2000 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouill, Steven; De Guibert, Sophie; Planche, Lucie; Brice, Pauline; Dupuis, Jehan; Cartron, Guillaume; Van Hoof, Achiel; Casasnovas, Olivier; Gyan, Emmanuel; Tilly, Hervé; Fruchart, Christophe; Deconinck, Eric; Fitoussi, Olivier; Gastaud, Lauris; Delwail, Vincent; Gabarre, Jean; Gressin, Rémy; Blanc, Michel; Foussard, Charles; Salles, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Background We analyzed detailed characteristics and salvage treatment in 175 follicular lymphoma patients from the FL2000 study who were in progression after first-line therapy with or without addition of rituximab to chemotherapy and interferon. Design and Methods The impact of using autologous stem cell transplantation and/or rituximab administration at first progression was investigated, taking into account initial therapy. With a median follow up of 31 months, 3-year event free and overall survival rates after progression were 50% (95%CI 42–58%) and 72% (95%CI 64–78%), respectively. Results The 3-year event free rate of rituximab re-treated patients (n=112) was 52% (95%CI 41–62%) versus 40% (95%CI 24–55%) for those not receiving rituximab second line (n=53) (P=0.075). There was a significant difference in 3-year overall survival between patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation and those not: 92% (95%CI 78–97%) versus 63% (95%CI 51–72%) (P=0.0003), respectively. In multivariate analysis, both autologous stem cell transplantation and period of progression/relapse affected event free and overall survival. Conclusions Regardless of front-line rituximab exposure, this study supports incorporating autologous stem cell transplantation in the therapeutic approach at first relapse for follicular lymphoma patients. PMID:21486862

  14. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A significant unmet medical need exists in patients with uncontrolled asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate/formoterol (MF/F) 400/10 microg versus MF 400 microg administered twice-daily (b.i.d.) via metered-dose inhaler in patients...... with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...... microg b.i.d. The primary end point was mean change in area under the curve from 0 to 12 hours in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1) AUC(0-12h)) from baseline to week 12 for MF/F 400/10 microg versus MF 400 microg. Effects of MF/F on asthma control and symptoms were evaluated and adverse events...

  15. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, a target group in general practice for preventive interventions: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Daly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated with developing type 2 diabetes, but very few studies have examined its effect on developing cardiovascular disease.We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. From 1 February 1990 to 15 May 2016, 9,118 women diagnosed with GDM were identified and randomly matched with 37,281 control women by age and timing of pregnancy (up to 3 months. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated for cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Women with GDM were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes (IRR = 21.96; 95% CI 18.31-26.34 and hypertension (IRR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.59-2.16 after adjusting for age, Townsend (deprivation quintile, body mass index, and smoking. For ischemic heart disease (IHD, the IRR was 2.78 (95% CI 1.37-5.66, and for cerebrovascular disease 0.95 (95% CI 0.51-1.77; p-value = 0.87, after adjusting for the above covariates and lipid-lowering medication and hypertension at baseline. Follow-up screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors was poor. Limitations include potential selective documentation of severe GDM for women in primary care, higher surveillance for outcomes in women diagnosed with GDM than control women, and a short median follow-up postpartum period, with a small number of outcomes for IHD and cerebrovascular disease.Women diagnosed with GDM were at very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and had a significantly increased incidence of hypertension and IHD. Identifying this group of women in general practice and targeting cardiovascular risk factors could improve long-term outcomes.

  16. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  17. Short-and long-term effects of discharged OBM cuttings, with and without previous washing, tested in field and laboratory studies on the Dutch continental shelf, 1985-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, A.; Zevenboom, W.; Van Het Groenewoud, H.; Daan, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Dutch programme that was carried out to study the distribution of discharged washed and unwashed oil-containing cuttings in the sediment and waterphase and their effects on selected test species in the Dutch part of the North Sea. The distribution of OBM cuttings in sediment around drilling locations was related to the total amount of oil discharged in the watercolumn. Increased oil contents were found over a range of 1000 to 5000 m in residual current direction. Total oil contents remained high at locations where unwashed OBM cuttings were discharged. At one location oil was found in high concentrations up to 6 years after discharge of OBM cuttings, especially due to the persistence of the oil fractions Other peaks and UCM. Washing of OBM cuttings resulted in lower amounts of oil discharged, lower concentrations in the sediment in the vicinity of the platform (up to 100 m), equal concentrations at 250 m but higher concentrations up to at more than 500 m off the platform when compared with unwashed cuttings and the respective amount of oil discharged. However, within one year, degradation of oil seems to have taken place at one of the washed sites at 5000 m. During discharge in the watercolumn, oil was taken up by Mytilus edulis from washed cuttings as well as from unwashed cuttings. Leaching of oil from the sediment into the waterphase was measurable in the field for only a limited period to time, less than a year after discharge. Several sediment-inhabiting species were tested on their response to oil contamination. Four species tested in experimental boxcosm set-ups, Echinocardium cordatum, Amphiura filiformis, Lagis koreni and Nucula turgida responded to elevated contamination levels by increased mortality

  18. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  19. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  20. Ultrasound screening of thyroid nodules in adults with no previous exposed to irradiation comparison between scanning, palpation and fine needle aspiration cytology. A study in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, North East of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahrouh, M.; Namadanian, G.R.; Zakavi, S.R.; Rezaei, H.

    2003-01-01

    There are a great number of studies on the association between childhood radiation exposure and thyroid nodules and cancer. Ultrasound imaging of thyroid nodules is valuable part of diagnostics and identifies abnormalities, because ultrasound can detect nodules as small as 2-3 mm and no radiation is involved , it has gained wide acceptance for the screening of nodular thyroid disease. 500 subjects were selected randomly from medical students in university of medical sciences in Mashhad North East of Iran. Individuals were screened by a health survey , thyroid ultrasounds, 99mTc-pertechnetate scans, palpation and fine needle aspiration obtained as necessary. The ultrasound was performed with a 7.5-MHz transducer in direct contact with the lubricated skin of the extended neck. Each ultrasound exam was read independently by two radiologists and one endocrinologist. Each nodule was characterized as follows: 1) presence; 2) size ; 3) location; ant or post; 4) location; upper pole, midportion of lobe, lower pole, or isthmus; and 5) type; solid, cystic, or mixed. In 500 cases (312 men, 188 women; age range, 18 - 30 years) underwent neck sonography. Normal findings were verified by clinical follow-up and thyroid disease was found in (5%) of subjectes. A total of 25 certain thyroid nodules were detected by the ultrasound examinations. Eighty eight percent nodules were less than 1.0 cm dimension.Among the subjects who had them thyroid nodules,(48%) were cystic , (44%) were hypoechoic lesions and (8 %) were hyperechoic .The abnormality of thyroid echo was solitary in (1,8%) ,multiple in (1,4%) and diffuse in (0,6%) of subjectes. All abnormal findings were verified by fine needle aspiration biopsy and correlated with thyroid scan, and surgery. The results reported here can be compared to several reports on the prevalence of ultrasound detected thyroid nodules in adult populations not exposed to radiation .The major advantage is that ultrasound can find clinically important

  1. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  2. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  3. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  4. Moyamoya disease in a child with previous acute necrotizing encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-09-01

    A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)

  5. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged ..... I am still riding the cloud … I hope it lasts. .... as a way of creating a climate and culture in schools where individuals are willing to explore.

  6. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  7. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryan, Charles J.; Smith, Matthew R.; de Bono, Johann S.; Molina, Arturo; Logothetis, Christopher J.; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mainwaring, Paul; Piulats, Josep M.; Ng, Siobhan; Carles, Joan; Mulders, Peter F. A.; Basch, Ethan; Small, Eric J.; Saad, Fred; Schrijvers, Dirk; van Poppel, Hendrik; Mukherjee, Som D.; Suttmann, Henrik; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Flaig, Thomas W.; George, Daniel J.; Yu, Evan Y.; Efstathiou, Eleni; Pantuck, Allan; Winquist, Eric; Higano, Celestia S.; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Park, Youn; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas; Scher, Howard I.; Rathkopf, Dana E.; Boyce, A.; Costello, A.; Davis, I.; Ganju, V.; Horvath, L.; Lynch, R.; Marx, G.; Parnis, F.; Shapiro, J.; Singhal, N.; Slancar, M.; van Hazel, G.; Wong, S.; Yip, D.; Carpentier, P.; Luyten, D.; de Reijke, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. In this double-blind study, we randomly assigned

  8. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  9. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  10. [Population policy and women: the relevance of previous studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barbieri, M T

    1983-01-01

    Although Mexico has had high rates of population growth since the 1930s caused by continuing high fertility but declining infant and general mortality, and has undergone deep structural change including declining agricultural production, rapid industrialization, urbanization, and increasing urban umemployment, it was not until the 1970s that the government began to adopt measures aimed at controlling population growth. Opponents of family planning argued that economic and social development would lead to fertility decline, but its proponents believed that reducing population growth would free resources for productive investment that otherwise would have to be used to finance services for the ever-growing population. At the same time that the constitution and laws were changed to allow or promote family planning, Mexican civil and labor laws were changed to provide for equality of men and women. Some background is necessary to understand the effect of such changes in the role and status of the Mexican woman. A relationship has been noted between demographic models--the form in which a society reproduces over a given time--and the social condition of women. Women have generally been subordinated to men during known history, but recent research indicates that their history has not been as uniform as once supposed. The particular form in which each society defines the natural-biological basis of sex roles varies; social definitions of sex and gender vary depending on the extension of "natural-biological" character to specific areas and tasks. The cases of French women in the 16th-18th centuries and German women under Hitler illustrate different ways in which demographic models and the condition of women have varied within a general framework of subordination of women. But when attempts are made to change a given demographic model, the condition of women is redefined at the level of practice as well as of value orientations concerning motherhood, female labor force participation, and the role of women in society. Moreover, the literature concerning fertility decline contains numerous statements by both those opposed to and in favor of birth control, that improving the status of women is 1 of the most effective means of reducing population growth. It can then be asked what changes in the role of women in Mexico will attend application of a fertility reduction policy. The crude birth rate declined from 44.2 in 1970 to 34.4 in 1980, with fertility falling among all age groups but especially among women over 40. The decline occurred primarily among urban nonmanual occupations. More research must be done on recent fertility change in Mexico and on related changes in the role orientations of men and women in different classes and life cycle stages, that have occurred at various stages of the population debate.

  11. Ultracold gas shows 'lopsided' properties

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Duke University researchers have created an ultracold gas that has the startling property of bursting outward in a preferred direction when released. According to the researchers, studying the properties of the "lopsided" gas will yield fundamental insights into how matter holds itself together at the subatomic level" (1 page).

  12. Fish quality – linking previous infections to the quality of consumers’ fillet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon a wide range of biological and non-biological factors. In the present study it has been established that previous infections by Vibrio anguillarum in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) influence the quality of the fish meat (fillet) at slaughter more...... than after the fish have recovered from the infection. The texture of the fillet analysed by sensory analysis showed changes, which could be explained by previous tissue damage caused by the infection. These changes indicated formation of scars in affected tissue during the processes of tissue repair......, which gave rise to a more fibrous, tougher and flaky texture of the fillets....

  13. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  14. Sex ratio at birth in India, its relation to birth order, sex of previous children and use of indigenous medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha Manchanda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sex-ratio at birth in families with previous girls is worse than those with a boy. Our aim was to prospectively study in a large maternal and child unit sex-ratio against previous birth sex and use of traditional medicines for sex selection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex-ratio among mothers in families with a previous girl and in those with a previous boy, prevalence of indigenous medicine use and sex-ratio in those using medicines for sex selection. RESULTS: Overall there were 806 girls to 1000 boys. The sex-ratio was 720:1000 if there was one previous girl and 178:1000 if there were two previous girls. In second children of families with a previous boy 1017 girls were born per 1000 boys. Sex-ratio in those with one previous girl, who were taking traditional medicines for sex selection, was 928:1000. CONCLUSION: Evidence from the second children clearly shows the sex-ratio is being manipulated by human interventions. More mothers with previous girls tend to use traditional medicines for sex selection, in their subsequent pregnancies. Those taking such medication do not seem to be helped according to expectations. They seem to rely on this method and so are less likely use more definitive methods like sex selective abortions. This is the first such prospective investigation of sex ratio in second children looked at against the sex of previous children. More studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  15. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed.

  16. Reflections of distraction in memory: transfer of previous distraction improves recall in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ruthann C; Hasher, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Three studies explored whether younger and older adults' free recall performance can benefit from prior exposure to distraction that becomes relevant in a memory task. Participants initially read stories that included distracting text. Later, they studied a list of words for free recall, with half of the list consisting of previously distracting words. When the memory task was indirect in its use of distraction (Study 1), only older adults showed transfer, with better recall of previously distracting compared with new words, which increased their recall to match that of younger adults. However, younger adults showed transfer when cued about the relevance of previous distraction both before studying the words (Study 2) and before recalling the words (Study 3) in the memory test. Results suggest that both younger and older adults encode distraction, but younger adults require explicit cueing to use their knowledge of distraction. In contrast, older adults transfer knowledge of distraction in both explicitly cued and indirect memory tasks. Results are discussed in terms of age differences in inhibition and source-constrained retrieval.

  17. Association between urinary incontinence in women and a previous history of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommsen, S.; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, L.

    1993-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, 85% of 3114 women responded to a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and a history of abdominal, gynaecological and urological surgery. In 1987 the prevalence of urinary incontinence was 17%; 63% had undergone surgery, mainly gynaecological, and almost one......-third of the respondents had had more than one operation. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed stress urinary incontinence to be associated with previous exposure to surgery....

  18. Effect of media composition, including gelling agents, on isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyonyo, T; Shinkai, T; Tajima, A; Mitsumori, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel anaerobic media using gellan gum for the isolation of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Four anaerobic media, a basal liquid medium (BM) with agar (A-BM), a modified BM (MBM) with agar (A-MBM), an MBM with phytagel (P-MBM) and an MBM with gelrite (G-MBM) were used for the isolation of rumen bacteria and evaluated for the growth of previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Of the 214 isolates composed of 144 OTUs, 103 isolates (83 OTUs) were previously uncultured rumen bacteria. Most of the previously uncultured strains were obtained from A-MBM, G-MBM and P-MBM, but the predominant cultural members, isolated from each medium, differed. A-MBM and G-MBM showed significantly higher numbers of different OTUs derived from isolates than A-BM (P rumen bacteria were isolated from all media used, the ratio of previously uncultured bacteria to total isolates was increased in A-MBM, P-MBM and G-MBM. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Influence of previous experience on resistance training on reliability of one-repetition maximum test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Avelar, Ademar; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2011-05-01

    The 1-repetition maximum test (1RM) has been widely used to assess maximal strength. However, to improve accuracy in assessing maximal strength, several sessions of the 1RM test are recommended. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of previous resistance training experience on the reliability of 1RM test. Thirty men were assigned to the following 2 groups according to their previous resistance training experience: no previous resistance training experience (NOEXP) and more than 24 months of resistance training experience (EXP). All subjects performed the 1RM tests in bench press and squat in 4 sessions on distinct days. There was a significant session × group effect in bench press (F = 3.09; p reliability of the 1RM test is influenced by the subject's previous experience in resistance training. Subjects without experience in resistance training require more practice and familiarization and show greater increases in maximal strength between sessions than subjects with previous experience in resistance training.

  20. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill

    2002-01-01

    to both the results of the contrast sensitivity test and to the Snellen visual acuity. Our results indicate that fMRI is a useful method for the study of ON, even in cases where the visual acuity is severely impaired. The reduction in activated volume could be explained as a reduced neuronal input......The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...... of the activated area and the signal change following ON, and compared the results with results of neuroophthalmological testing. We studied nine patients with previous acute ON and 10 healthy persons served as controls using fMRI with visual stimulation. In addition to a reduced activated volume, patients showed...

  1. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  2. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  4. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  5. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  6. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  7. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  8. Pengaruh Oprah Winfrey Dalam Acara The Oprah Winfrey Show Terhadap Minat Mahasiswa Menjadi Pembawa Acara(Studi Deskriptif Pengaruh Oprah Winfrey Dalam Acara The Oprah Winfrey Show Di Metro TV Terhadap Minat Mahasiswa Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Utara (UMSU) Menjadi Pembawa Acara)

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Chairinal D.

    2011-01-01

    Acara The Oprah Winfrey Show tercatat menempati rating teratas sebagai acara talkshow paling fenomenal dan terkenal di Amerika. Acara ini pertama kali ditayangkan secara nasional di televisi Amerika Serikat pada September 1986 di 108 televisi. Topik pertama yang dihadirkannya adalah ‘How to Marry the Man/Woman of Your Choice’. Meskipun ada yang meragukan bahwa acara ini akan mampu meraih perhatian public, namun ternyata keraguan itu tidak beralasan. Oprah mencatat sukses, dalam waktu singkat ...

  9. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Satwant K

    2011-01-01

    Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. The study is based on field investigations. Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects' mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.

  10. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  11. Functional MRI of the visual cortex and visual testing in patients with previous optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Frederiksen, J.L.; Rostrup, Egill

    2002-01-01

    of the activated area and the signal change following ON, and compared the results with results of neuroophthalmological testing. We studied nine patients with previous acute ON and 10 healthy persons served as controls using fMRI with visual stimulation. In addition to a reduced activated volume, patients showed...... a reduced blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increase and a greater asymmetry in the visual cortex, compared with controls. The volume of visual cortical activation was significantly correlated to the result of the contrast sensitivity test. The BOLD signal increase correlated significantly......The volume of cortical activation as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the visual cortex has previously been shown to be reduced following optic neuritis (ON). In order to understand the cause of this change, we studied the cortical activation, both the size...

  12. Workers on transformation of the shelter object of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant into an ecologically-safe system show qEEG abnormalities and cognitive dysfunctions: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantyn; Perchuk, Iryna; Marazziti, Donatella

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed at assessing bioelectric activity and cognitive functions in the workers on the conversion project of the "Shelter" object (SO) of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant into an environmentally safe system. A total of 196 men were included and examined before (t0) and after (t1) working on the SO in the period 2004-2008. They underwent a qEEG and a battery of neuropsychological and psychiatric assessments. At t1, the organized type of qEEG shifted towards the disorganized one. An increase of spectral δ-power in the left frontotemporal area, of θ- and α-power in the left temporal area, with redistribution of α-activity to the front and reduction of dominant frequency in the left temporal area, were registered. Further, neurocognitive tests revealed the presence of mild cognitive disorders at t1. Interestingly, those subjects previously exposed to radiation with no consequences, were more resistant to these detrimental effects. Taken together, the disturbances observed may be considered as cognitive symptoms of a chronic fatigue syndrome resulting from the exposure to ionizing radiation. Simple and non-invasive assessments, such as those performed by us, may be helpful to detect early brain changes caused by the presence of radiological risk factors.

  13. Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of previously disadvantaged land-users on sustainable agricultural ... about previously disadvantaged land users involved in communal farming systems ... of input, capital, marketing, information and land use planning, with effect on ...

  14. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  15. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  16. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  17. Milky Way Past Was More Turbulent Than Previously Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Results of 1001 observing nights shed new light on our Galaxy [1] Summary A team of astronomers from Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden [2] has achieved a major breakthrough in our understanding of the Milky Way, the galaxy in which we live. After more than 1,000 nights of observations spread over 15 years, they have determined the spatial motions of more than 14,000 solar-like stars residing in the neighbourhood of the Sun. For the first time, the changing dynamics of the Milky Way since its birth can now be studied in detail and with a stellar sample sufficiently large to allow a sound analysis. The astronomers find that our home galaxy has led a much more turbulent and chaotic life than previously assumed. PR Photo 10a/04: Distribution on the sky of the observed stars. PR Photo 10b/04: Stars in the solar neigbourhood and the Milky Way galaxy (artist's view). PR Video Clip 04/04: The motions of the observed stars during the past 250 million years. Unknown history Home is the place we know best. But not so in the Milky Way - the galaxy in which we live. Our knowledge of our nearest stellar neighbours has long been seriously incomplete and - worse - skewed by prejudice concerning their behaviour. Stars were generally selected for observation because they were thought to be "interesting" in some sense, not because they were typical. This has resulted in a biased view of the evolution of our Galaxy. The Milky Way started out just after the Big Bang as one or more diffuse blobs of gas of almost pure hydrogen and helium. With time, it assembled into the flattened spiral galaxy which we inhabit today. Meanwhile, generation after generation of stars were formed, including our Sun some 4,700 million years ago. But how did all this really happen? Was it a rapid process? Was it violent or calm? When were all the heavier elements formed? How did the Milky Way change its composition and shape with time? Answers to these and many other questions are 'hot' topics for the

  18. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones affect every cell in the human body, and the cardiovascular changes associated with increased levels of thyroid hormones are especially well described. As an example, short-term hyperthyroidism has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart, leading to a hyperdynamic...... with CVD, LD and DM both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Although the design used does not allow a stringent distinction between cause and effect, the findings indicate a possible direct association between hyperthyroidism and these morbidities, or vice versa....... vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions...

  19. Perfil das características do treinamento e associação com lesões musculoesqueléticas prévias em corredores recreacionais: um estudo transversal A description of training characteristics and its association with previous musculoskeletal injuries in recreational runners: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. Hespanhol Junior

    2012-02-01

    the routines, training characteristics and history of injury in recreational runners and to evaluate possible associations between the routines and training characteristics with previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries. METHODS: A total of 200 runners participated in this study. The participants completed an electronic form containing questions about personal characteristics, running experience, training characteristics, type of running shoes, foot type and previous injuries history over the last 12 months. The data were analyzed descriptively as well as by using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The majority of the runners was male, aged 43.0 (SD=10.5 years-old, have a body mass index of 24.2 (IQR=4.3 kg/m², and had training volume of 35.0 (IQR=28.0 kilometers per week. Fifty-five percent of runners had injuries over the last 12 months. The most prevalent injuries observed were tendinopathies and muscle injuries. The variable that showed an association with previous running-related injuries was running experience from 5 to 15 years (Odds Ratio (OR=0.2; 95%CI=0.1 to 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of running-related injuries over the last 12 months was 55%. The variable running experience was associated with the absence of previous musculoskeletal running-related injuries.

  20. Previous encapsulation response enhances within individual protection against fungal parasite in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-12-01

    Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  2. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  3. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-07-30

    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  4. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B, bad (Group D, and minimal handling (Group C conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.

  5. Initial results of CyberKnife treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himei, Kengo; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CyberKnife for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer. Thirty-one patients with recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer were treated with a CyberKnife from July 1999 to March 2002 at Okayama Kyokuto Hospital were retrospectively studied. The accumulated dose was 28-80 Gy (median 60 Gy). The interval between CyberKnife treatment and previous radiotherapy was 0.4-429.5 months (median 16.3 months). Primary lesions were nasopharynx: 7, maxillary sinus: 6, tongue: 5, ethmoid sinus: 3, and others: 1. The pathology was squamous cell carcinoma: 25, adenoid cystic carcinoma: 4, and others: 2. Symptoms were pain: 8, and nasal bleeding: 2. The prescribed dose was 15.0-40.3 Gy (median 32.3 Gy) as for the marginal dose. The response rate (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) and local control rate (CR+PR+no change (NC)) was 74% and 94% respectively. Pain disappeared for 4 cases, relief was obtained for 4 cases and no change for 2 cases and nasal bleeding disappeared for 2 cases for an improvement of symptoms. An adverse effects were observed as mucositis in 5 cases and neck swelling in one case. Prognosis of recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer was estimated as poor. Our early experience shows that CyberKnife is expected to be feasible treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer, and for the reduction adverse effects and maintenance of useful quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)

  6. [ANTITHROMBOTIC MEDICATION IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PREVIOUS INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neykova, K; Dimitrova, V; Dimitrov, R; Vakrilova, L

    2016-01-01

    To analyze pregnancy outcome in patients who were on antithrombotic medication (AM) because of previous pregnancy with fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The studied group (SG) included 21 pregnancies in 15 women with history of previous IUGR. The patients were on low dose aspirin (LDA) and/or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Pregnancy outcome was compared to the one in two more groups: 1) primary group (PG) including the previous 15 pregnancies with IUGR of the same women; 2) control group (CG) including 45 pregnancies of women matched for parity with the ones in the SG, with no history of IUGR and without medication. The SG, PG and CG were compared for the following: mean gestational age (g.a.) at birth, mean birth weight (BW), proportion of cases with early preeclampsia (PE), IUGR (total, moderate, and severe), intrauterine fetal death (IUFD), neonatal death (NND), admission to NICU, cesarean section (CS) because of chronic or acute fetal distress (FD) related to IUGR, PE or placental abruption. Student's t-test was applied to assess differences between the groups. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The differences between the SG and the PG regarding mean g. a. at delivery (33.7 and 29.8 w.g. respectively) and the proportion of babies admitted to NICU (66.7% vs. 71.4%) were not statistically significant. The mean BW in the SG (2114,7 g.) was significantly higher than in the PG (1090.8 g.). In the SG compared with the PG there were significantly less cases of IUFD (14.3% and 53.3% respectively), early PE (9.5% vs. 46.7%) moderate and severe IUGR (10.5% and 36.8% vs. 41.7% and 58.3%). Neonatal mortality in the SG (5.6%) was significantly lower than in the PG (57.1%), The proportion of CS for FD was not significantly different--53.3% in the SG and 57.1% in the PG. On the other hand, comparison between the SG and the CG demonstrated significantly lower g.a. at delivery in the SG (33.7 vs. 38 w.g.) an lower BW (2114 vs. 3094 g

  7. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  9. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  10. Urethrotomy has a much lower success rate than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Richard; Eisenberg, Lauren

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the success rate of direct vision internal urethrotomy as a treatment for simple male urethral strictures. A retrospective chart review was performed on 136 patients who underwent urethrotomy from January 1994 through March 2009. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze stricture-free probability after the first, second, third, fourth and fifth urethrotomy. Patients with complex strictures (36) were excluded from the study for reasons including previous urethroplasty, neophallus or previous radiation, and 24 patients were lost to followup. Data were available for 76 patients. The stricture-free rate after the first urethrotomy was 8% with a median time to recurrence of 7 months. For the second urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 6% with a median time to recurrence of 9 months. For the third urethrotomy stricture-free rate was 9% with a median time to recurrence of 3 months. For procedures 4 and 5 stricture-free rate was 0% with a median time to recurrence of 20 and 8 months, respectively. Urethrotomy is a popular treatment for male urethral strictures. However, the performance characteristics are poor. Success rates were no higher than 9% in this series for first or subsequent urethrotomy during the observation period. Most of the patients in this series will be expected to experience failure with longer followup and the expected long-term success rate from any (1 through 5) urethrotomy approach is 0%. Urethrotomy should be considered a temporizing measure until definitive curative reconstruction can be planned. 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A candidate gene study of serotonergic pathway genes and pain relief during treatment with escitalopram in patients with neuropathic pain shows significant association to serotonin receptor2C (HTR2C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Møller, Malik U; Christiansen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    the association between polymorphisms in genes involved in the serotonergic pathway and the effect of escitalopram on peripheral neuropathic pain. METHODS: We genotyped 34 participants from a placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in peripheral neuropathic pain for polymorphisms in five genes: the serotonin.......047), with 75% carrying the C allele being responders. The same tendency was seen in women. Similarly, carriership of the C allele at rs6318 was associated with better pain relief during treatment with escitalopram [odds ratio (OR) 15.5, p = 0.014)] Furthermore, there was a tendency of better relief...... with increasing number of short alleles for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (OR 5.7, p = 0.057). None of the other polymorphisms showed a significant association with treatment response to escitalopram. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that variation in the HTR2C gene is associated...

  12. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  13. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act and...

  14. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  15. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  16. Prävention und Gesundheitsförderung im Medizinstudium: Querschnittstudie zu Präferenzen, Haltungen und Vorkenntnissen von Studierenden [Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement, Andreas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10 was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to provide a first step for closing this gap.Methods: Medical students (n=220 in the fifth academic year were asked to fill in a standardized questionnaire prior to the Q10 curriculum. Questions focused on preferences for teaching and testing formats and self-estimated previous knowledge as well as on rating the importance of prevention topics and health risks. The questions were multiple choice, five-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. Results: A total of 94 students filled questionnaires (42% response rate. Prevention and health promotion was rated as “important” or “very important” for their “own medical professionalism” by 68% of students. Ratings showed preferences for self-directed teaching and learning strategies, including case-based learning, and 78% wished for predominantly oral examinations. The self-estimated knowledge about prevention and health promotion is rated as “rather poor”. The most favored training aim was “decision making within the physician-patient-relationship”. Regarding medical health consultation, students frequently estimate “lifestyle factors” and “psychological disease” as being "very important". Conclusion: Students’ self-estimated poor previous knowledge of prevention and health promotion creates special challenges for curriculum development. High ratings of relevance assigned to prevention-related topics point to a motivational potential which should be utilized through

  17. Exercise induced ST elevation and residual myocardial ischemia in previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of stress induced ST elevation on infarcted area in 65 patients with previous myocardial infarction (single vessel disease) who had stress thallium scan. Stress induced ST changes on infarcted area were compared with quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia (thallium ischemic score; TIS) and extent of myocardial infarction (defect score; DS) derived from circumferential profile analysis. In patients with previous myocardial infarction in less than 3 month from the onset (n = 36), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and extent of abnormal LV wall motion were not significantly different between patients with stress induced ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 26) and those with stress induced ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 10), while, in patients with previous myocardial infarction in more than 3 month (n = 29), patients with stress induced ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 15) showed left ventricular dyskinesis more frequently than those with ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 14). In addition, the former showed significantly higher DS and significantly lower TIS than the latter. In patients with previous myocardial infarction in less than 3 month, patients with ST elevation ( ≥ 2 mm, n = 15) with prominent upright T wave (n = 15) had transient thallium defect in infarcted area in 73 % and they had significantly higher LVEF and TIS than those with ST elevation ( < 2 mm, n = 11). These results indicated that ST elevation in infarcted area reflect different significance according to the recovery of injured myocardium and stress induced ST elevation with prominent upright T wave in infarcted area reflect residual myocardial ischemia in less than 3 month from the onset of myocardial infarction. (author)

  18. Economic impact of feeding a phenylalanine-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M C; Guest, J F

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the direct healthcare cost of managing adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) for one year before any dietary restrictions and for the first year after a phenylalanine- (PHE-) restricted diet was introduced. The resource use and corresponding costs were estimated from medical records and interviews with health care professionals experienced in caring for adults with previously untreated PKU. The mean annual cost of caring for a client being fed an unrestricted diet was estimated to be 83 996 pound silver. In the first year after introducing a PHE-restricted diet, the mean annual cost was reduced by 20 647 pound silver to 63 348 pound silver as a result of a reduction in nursing time, hospitalizations, outpatient clinic visits and medications. However, the economic benefit of the diet depended on whether the clients were previously high or low users of nursing care. Nursing time was the key cost-driver, accounting for 79% of the cost of managing high users and 31% of the management cost for low users. In contrast, the acquisition cost of a PHE-restricted diet accounted for up to 6% of the cost for managing high users and 15% of the management cost for low users. Sensitivity analyses showed that introducing a PHE-restricted diet reduces the annual cost of care, provided that annual nursing time was reduced by more than 8% or more than 5% of clients respond to the diet. The clients showed fewer negative behaviours when being fed a PHE-restricted diet, which may account for the observed reduction in nursing time needed to care for these clients. In conclusion, feeding a PHE-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated PKU leads to economic benefits to the UK's National Health Service and society in general.

  19. Impact of Students’ Class Attendance on Recalling Previously Acquired Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camellia Hemyari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, availability of class material including typed lectures, the professor’s Power Point slides, sound recordings, and even videos made a group of students feel that it is unnecessary to attend the classes. These students usually read and memorize typed lectures within two or three days prior to the exams and usually pass the tests even with low attendance rate. Thus, the question is how effective is this learning system and how long the one-night memorized lessons may last.Methods: A group of medical students (62 out of 106 students, with their class attendance and educational achievements in the Medical Mycology and Parasitology course being recorded since two years ago, was selected and their knowledge about this course was tested by multiple choice questions (MCQ designed based on the previous lectures.Results: Although the mean re-exam score of the students at the end of the externship was lower than the corresponding final score, a significant association was found between the scores of the students in these two exams (r=0.48, P=0.01. Moreover, a significant negative association was predicted between the number of absences and re-exam scores (r=-0.26, P=0.037.Conclusion: As our findings show, the phenomenon of recalling the acquired lessons is preserved for a long period of time and it is associated with the students’ attendance. Many factors including generation effect (by taking notes and cued-recall (via slide picture might play a significant role in the better recalling of the learned information in students with good class attendance.Keywords: STUDENT, MEMORY, LONG-TERM, RECALL, ABSENTEEISM, LEARNING

  20. Prospective memory and its correlates and predictors in schizophrenia: an extension of previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Gabor S; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Shum, David

    2008-09-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to do something in the future without explicit prompts. Extending the number of subjects and the scope of our previously published study, this investigation examined the relationship between PM and socio-demographic and clinical factors, activities of daily living (ADL) and frontal lobe functions in patients with chronic schizophrenia. One hundred and ten Chinese schizophrenia patients, 60 from the previous study and 50 additional patients recruited for this study, and 110 matched healthy comparison subjects (HC) formed the study sample. Patients' clinical condition and activity of daily living were evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Functional Needs Assessment (FNA). Time- and event-based PM tasks and three tests of prefrontal lobe functions (Design Fluency Test [DFT], Tower of London [TOL], Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST]) were also administered. Patients' level of ADL and psychopathology were not associated with PM functions and only anticholinergic medications (ACM) showed a significant negative correlational relationship with PM tasks. Confirming the findings of the previous study, patients performed significantly more poorly on all two PM tasks than HC. Performance on time-based PM task significantly correlated with age, education level and DFT in HC and with age, DFT, TOL and WCST in patients. Patients' performance on the event-based PM correlated with DFT and one measure of WCST. In patients, TOL and age predicted the performance on time-based PM task; DFT and WCST predicted the event-based task. Involving a large sample of patients with matched controls, this study confirmed that PM is impaired in chronic schizophrenia. Deficient PM functions were related to prefrontal lobe dysfunction in both HC and patients but not to the patients' clinical condition, nor did they significantly affect ADL. ACMs determined certain aspects of PM.

  1. Mediastinal involvement in lymphangiomatosis: a previously unreported MRI sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikas; Shah, Sachit; Barnacle, Alex; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Brock, Penelope [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Harper, John I. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Dermatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare systemic disorder affecting children. Due to its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical, histological and imaging features, establishing the diagnosis of multifocal lymphangiomatosis can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to describe a new imaging sign in this disorder: paraspinal soft tissue and signal abnormality at MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging, clinical and histopathological findings in a cohort of eight children with thoracic involvement from this condition. Evidence of paraspinal chest disease was identified at MRI and CT in all eight of these children. The changes comprise heterogeneous intermediate-to-high signal parallel to the thoracic vertebrae on T2-weighted sequences at MRI, with abnormal paraspinal soft tissue at CT and plain radiography. Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder with a broad range of clinicopathological and imaging features. MRI allows complete evaluation of disease extent without the use of ionising radiation and has allowed us to describe a previously unreported imaging sign in this disorder, namely, heterogeneous hyperintense signal in abnormal paraspinal tissue on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  2. Histochemical study of trans-polyisoprene accumulation by spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy and a specific dye showing fluorescence solvatochromism in the rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Tatsushi; Harada, Yoko; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio

    2013-09-01

    A microscopic technique combining spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy with a lipophilic fluorescent dye, Nile red, which can emit trans-polyisoprene specific fluorescence, was developed, and unmixed images of synthesized trans-polyisoprene in situ in Eucommia ulmoides were successfully obtained. The images showed that trans-polyisoprene was initially synthesized as granules in non-articulated laticifers that changed shape to fibers during laticifer maturation. Non-articulated laticifers are developed from single laticiferous cells, which are differentiated from surrounding parenchyma cells in the cambium. Therefore, these observations suggested that trans-polyisoprene biosynthesis first started in laticifer cells as granules and then the granules accumulated and fused in the inner space of the laticifers over time. Finally, laticifers were filled with the synthesized trans-polyisoprene, which formed a fibrous structure fitting the laticifers shape. Both trans- and cis-polyisoprene are among the most important polymers naturally produced by plants, and this microscopic technique combined with histological study should provide useful information in the fields of plant histology, bioindustry and phytochemistry.

  3. Talentová show Got Talent jako televizní formát a jeho kulturní odlišnosti: komparativní studie čtyř světových verzí

    OpenAIRE

    Vondroušová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with talent show Got Talent and through this television format compares four culturally different adaptations. This comparision is based on analysis of these four shows: Česko Slovensko má talent, America's Got Talent, Britain's Got Talent and China's Got Talent. Content of the shows is different in many respects thanks to distincts in television histories and diverse culture in each territory. The theoretical part focus on culture and development in television broadcasting ...

  4. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    Bali karena berimplikasi positif pada ekonomi para pihak terkait, pengayaan bagi seni pertunjukan daerah setempat, dan identitas bagi kawasan wisata Nusa Dua, Bali. This article was compiled from the research results that aimed to understand the Davedan Show at Amphi Theater Nusa Dua, Bali. This research was conducted due to the imbalance between the assumption and the reality in real life. Generally, tourists visiting Bali are more excited and enthusiastic to watch the tourism performing arts that are based on local traditional art and culture. However, the reality is different. The questions are: how is the form of the Davedan show?; why do the tourists enjoy watching the show ?; what are the implications for the performer, the society, and the tourism industry in Nusa Dua, Bali?. This research applied qualitative research methods, especially the participative implementation that prioritized cooperation between the researchers and the related informants. The data sources of the research were the Davedan show, management, dancers, audiences, and similar research results produced by previous researchers. All data that had been collected by observation, interview, FGD, and literature study were then analyzed with aesthetic postmodern theory, theory of practice, and theory of power relationship. The results showed that: (1 Davedan Show was presented with the concept of a new presentation in the tourism performing arts in Bali. It could be seen from the material, the form, the way of presentation, and the management of the show. Davedan Show, presenting the theme of Treasure of the Archipelago and opening the new adventure gate, was accompanied by ethnic music recordings of the archipelago in a medley then continued with the performance structures of: Balinese, Sumatran, Sundanese, Solo, Borneo and Papuan art and culture; (2 Davedan Show attracted many foreign tourists because the show was based on the existence of market, aesthetic, and cultural ideologies of the

  5. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ASSESSMENT MODEL AND METHOD TOWARD THE SCIENCE LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT BY CONTROLLING THE STUDENTS? PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE OF MATHEMATICS.

    OpenAIRE

    Adam rumbalifar; I. g. n. Agung; Burhanuddin tola.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to study the influence of the assessment model and method toward the science learning achievement by controlling the students? previous knowledge of mathematics. This study was conducted at SMP East Seram district with the population of 295 students. This study applied a quasi-experimental method with 2 X 2 factorial design using the ANCOVA model. The findings after controlling the students\\' previous knowledge of mathematics show that the science learning achievement of th...

  7. Gestational Diabetes in Korea: Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Chul Jang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Korean women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM have a 3.5 times greater risk of developing postpartum diabetes than the general population. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in early postpartum is reported as 10-15% in Korean women. A prospective follow-up study on Korean women with GDM showed that approximately 40% of women with previous GDM were expected to develop diabetes within 5 years postpartum. Independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM are pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational age at diagnosis, antepartum hyperglycemia on oral glucose tolerance test, low insulin response to oral glucose load, and family history of diabetes. Women with postpartum diabetes have greater body mass indexes, body weight, and waist circumferences than women with normal glucose tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis has revealed that waist circumference is the strongest obesity index along with systolic blood pressure and that triglyceride levels are a major independent risk factor for developing diabetes. These results in Korean women with previous GDM underline the importance of postpartum testing in Korean women diagnosed with GDM, and demonstrate that impaired B-cell function, obesity, and especially visceral obesity, are associated with the development of diabetes.

  8. Rapid mineralisation of the herbicide isoproturon in soil from a previously treated Danish agricultural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Aamand, Jens

    2003-10-01

    Mineralisation of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon (3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and two of its known metabolites, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea (monodesmethyl-isoproturon) and 4-isopropylaniline, was studied in Danish agricultural soils with or without previous exposure to isoproturon. A potential for rapid mineralisation of isoproturon and the two metabolites was present in soils sampled from three plots within an agricultural field previously treated regularly with the herbicide, with 34-45%, 51-58% and 33-36% of the added [phenyl-U-14C]isoproturon, [phenyl-U-14C]monodesmethyl-isoproturon and [phenyl-U-14C]4-isopropylaniline metabolised to [14C]carbon dioxide within 30 days at 20 degrees C. In contrast, such extensive mineralisation of these three compounds was not observed within this period in soils sampled from two other agricultural fields without previous treatment with isoproturon. The mineralisation patterns indicated growth-linked metabolism of the three compounds in the previously exposed soils, and doubling times for [14C]carbon dioxide production ranged from 1.6 to 3.2, 1.0 to 2.1 and 1.3 to 1.7 days for isoproturon, monodesmethyl-isoproturon and 4-isopropylaniline, respectively. The ability to mineralise [phenyl-U-14C]isoproturon to [14C]carbon dioxide was successfully sub-cultured to a fresh mineral medium which provided isoproturon as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One of the soils sampled from an agricultural field not previously treated with isoproturon showed accelerated mineralisation of [phenyl-U-14C]4-isopropylaniline toward the end of the experiment, with a doubling time for [14C]carbon dioxide production of 7.4days. This study indicates that the occurrence of rapid mineralisation of the phenyl ring of isoproturon to carbon dioxide is related to previous exposure to the herbicide, which suggests that microbial adaptation upon repeated isoproturon use may occur within agricultural fields.

  9. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  10. Protein Supplement Usage Among Male University Students: Comparisons Between Current and Previous Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Youngmo; Choi, Jinkyung

    2018-02-01

    Interest in specialized dietary supplements is leading market growth, and protein supplements are popular for increasing muscle mass among young males. Therefore, this study investigated the attitudes toward and satisfaction with protein supplements to identify detailed consumer behaviors related to the consumption of protein supplements. The study sample includes male university students in their 20s in South Korea. In total, 223 responses were entered for analysis. Questions related to attitudes, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions were asked using 5-point Likert scales. The responses were divided into two groups, current and previous users, to identify significant differences in terms of attitudes, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions. A descriptive analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple regression were run. The majority of respondents prefer the powdered form of supplements in bulk with a price range between 30,000 won and 60,000 won. Online shopping was preferred, while word of mouth and friends/family were considered credible information sources. The most common side effects experienced were problems with digestion and hives, although more than 78% did not experience side effects. In comparison between current and previous users in terms of attitudes and satisfaction, the following areas showed significances. Regarding attitudes, the importance of brand, preference for products from overseas, the search for nutritional facts, and reading carefully all product information were significant, while regarding satisfaction, price, effectiveness, and ease of consumption were significant. All significances showed that current users had more positive attitudes and greater satisfaction. Overall, consumers' satisfaction regarding ease of consumption influenced future behavioral intentions. The market for protein supplements has been growing, so measuring consumers' attitudes and satisfaction would help attract potential consumers. In

  11. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacman, David; Merkel, Susanne; Croner, Roland; Papadopoulos, Thomas; Brueckl, Wolfgang; Dimmler, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4) in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2) vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4)), lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival) using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and shorter survival. Stromal TGF-beta receptor 2

  12. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Methods Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4 in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2 vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. Results High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and

  13. Radioiodine treatment of recurrent hyperthyroidism in patients previously treated for Graves' disease by subtotal thyroidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Laurberg, P

    1992-01-01

    showed a higher sensitivity to radioiodine, with more cases of early hypothyroidism, than non-operated patients. However, after 50 months of follow-up the outcome was identical. The results indicate that frequent assessment is necessary after radioiodine treatment of previously operated patients, since......Radioiodine therapy is often employed for treatment of patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, after previous thyroid surgery. Little is known about the outcome of this treatment compared to patients with no previous surgery. A total of 20 patients who had received surgical...... treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism 1-46 years previously and with relapse of the hyperthyroidism, and 25 patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and no previous thyroid surgery were treated with radioiodine, following the same protocol. Early after treatment the previously operated patients...

  14. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day"−"1), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  15. Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A.; Koster, Mariska E.Y.; Houwing, Ronald H.

    2011-01-01

    Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

  16. Reasoning with Previous Decisions: Beyond the Doctrine of Precedent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in different jurisdictions use previous judicial decisions in their argument, we need to move beyond the concept of precedent to a wider notion, which would embrace practices and theories in legal systems outside the Common law tradition. This article presents the concept of ‘reasoning with previous decisions...... law method’, but they are no less rational and intellectually sophisticated. The reason for the rather conceited attitude of some comparatists is in the dominance of the common law paradigm of precedent and the accompanying ‘case law method’. If we want to understand how courts and lawyers......’ as such an alternative and develops its basic models. The article first points out several shortcomings inherent in limiting the inquiry into reasoning with previous decisions by the common law paradigm (1). On the basis of numerous examples provided in section (1), I will present two basic models of reasoning...

  17. [Prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Basto-Abreu, Ana; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Zárate-Rojas, Emiliano; Villalpando, Salvador; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh

    2018-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 with previous national surveys and to describe treatment and its complications. Mexico's national surveys Ensa 2000, Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2016 were used. For 2016, logistic regression models and measures of central tendency and dispersion were obtained. The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes in 2016 was 9.4%. The increase of 2.2% relative to 2012 was not significant and only observed in patients older than 60 years. While preventive measures have increased, the access to medical treatment and lifestyle has not changed. The treatment has been modified, with an increase in insulin and decrease in hypoglycaemic agents. Population aging, lack of screening actions and the increase in diabetes complications will lead to an increase on the burden of disease. Policy measures targeting primary and secondary prevention of diabetes are crucial.

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette

    2014-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile non-invasive imaging modality that serves a broad spectrum of indications in clinical cardiology and has proven evidence. Most of the numerous applications are appropriate in patients with previous cardiovascular surgery in the same manner as in non-surgical subjects. However, some specifics have to be considered. This review article is intended to provide information about the application of CMR in adults with previous cardiovascular surgery. In particular, the two main scenarios, i.e. following coronary artery bypass surgery and following heart valve surgery, are highlighted. Furthermore, several pictorial descriptions of other potential indications for CMR after cardiovascular surgery are given.

  19. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  20. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non...... of previous patients with gestational diabetes mellitus in whom plasma insulin was measured during an oral glucose tolerance test in late pregnancy a low insulin response at diagnosis was found to be an independent predictive factor for diabetes development. CONCLUSIONS: Women with previous dietary...

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in previously burned or irradiated skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.J.; Hirsch, R.M.; Broadwater, J.R.; Netscher, D.T.; Ames, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in previously burned or irradiated skin was reviewed in 66 patients treated between 1944 and 1986. Healing of the initial injury was complicated in 70% of patients. Mean interval from initial injury to diagnosis of SCC was 37 years. The overwhelming majority of patients presented with a chronic intractable ulcer in previously injured skin. The regional relapse rate after surgical excision was very high, 58% of all patients. Predominant patterns of recurrence were in local skin and regional lymph nodes (93% of recurrences). Survival rates at 5, 10, and 20 years were 52%, 34%, and 23%, respectively. Five-year survival rates in previously burned and irradiated patients were not significantly different (53% and 50%, respectively). This review, one of the largest reported series, better defines SCC arising in previously burned or irradiated skin as a locally aggressive disease that is distinct from SCC arising in sunlight-damaged skin. An increased awareness of the significance of chronic ulceration in scar tissue may allow earlier diagnosis. Regional disease control and survival depend on surgical resection of all known disease and may require radical lymph node dissection or amputation

  2. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  3. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  4. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  5. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  6. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  7. Investigation of previously derived Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    New Hyades polarimetry and field star photometry have been obtained to check the Hyades reddening, which was found to be nonzero in a previous paper. The new Hyades polarimetry implies essentially zero reddening; this is also true of polarimetry published by Behr (which was incorrectly interpreted in the previous paper). Four photometric techniques which are presumed to be insensitive to blanketing are used to compare the Hyades to nearby field stars; these four techniques also yield essentially zero reddening. When all of these results are combined with others which the author has previously published and a simultaneous solution for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 reddenings is made, the results are E (B-V) =3 +- 2 (sigma) mmag, -1 +- 3 (sigma) mmag, and 46 +- 6 (sigma) mmag, respectively. No support for a nonzero Hyades reddening is offered by the new results. When the newly obtained reddenings for the Hyades, Coma, and M67 are compared with results from techniques given by Crawford and by users of the David Dunlap Observatory photometric system, no differences between the new and other reddenings are found which are larger than about 2 sigma. The author had previously found that the M67 main-sequence stars have about the same blanketing as that of Coma and less blanketing than the Hyades; this conclusion is essentially unchanged by the revised reddenings

  8. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  9. 18 CFR 154.302 - Previously submitted material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously submitted material. 154.302 Section 154.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... concurrently with the rate change filing. There must be furnished to the Director, Office of Energy Market...

  10. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  11. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  12. Magnetoencephalographic localization of peritumoral temporal epileptic focus previous surgical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Carlos; Saldaña, Cristóbal; Hidalgo, Mercedes González; Maestú, Fernando; Fernández, Alberto; Arrazola, Juan; Ortiz, Tomás

    2003-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is suggested as a localizing technique of epileptogenic areas in drug-resistant seizure patients due to intracraneal lesions. A male 42-year-old patient who begins at 26 with partial complex drug-resistant seizures is put forward. MRI shows a 9 mm diameter lesion located in left superior temporal gyrus which seems compatible with cavernoma. Both conventional and sleep deprivation EEGs have proved normal. Sleep EEG shows sharp waves in left temporal region. MEG helps to localize interictal spike and spike-wave activity, as well as wide slow wave (2-7 Hz) activity areas. Craniotomy under analgesia and aware sedation conditions is carried out. Intrasurgery cortical electric stimulation assisted by neuronavigator causes a limited partial complex seizure which the patient recognizes to be exactly like his. Thus, MEG localization of the epileptogenic area is confirmed. Surgical resection of both the lesion and the epileptogenic area is carried out. The patient remains free from seizures 9 months after surgery. A control MEG study reveals no epileptogenic nor slow wave activity. in this particular case, MEG has proven to be a useful presurgical evaluation technique to localize epileptogenic activity, validated by intrasurgical cortical stimulation.

  13. Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous exerted on the victim?

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Yepes; Maria R. Vinas; Inmaculada Armadans; Miguel A. Soria

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile). All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H) (n=11), homicides with previous violence (VH) (n=9) and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B) (n=26). The aim of the study was to analyze the p...

  14. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  15. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  16. Enhanced intensity dependence and aggression history indicate previous regular ecstasy use in abstinent polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li; Baldridge, Robyn M; Colby, Amanda M; Stanford, Matthew S

    2009-11-13

    Intensity dependence is an electrophysiological measure of intra-individual stability of the augmenting/reducing characteristic of N1/ P2 event-related potential amplitudes in response to stimuli of varying intensities. Abstinent ecstasy users typically show enhanced intensity dependence and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. Enhanced intensity dependence and high impulsivity and aggression levels may be due to damage in the brain's serotonergic neurons as a result of ecstasy use. The present study investigated whether intensity dependence, impulsivity and aggression history can be used as indicators of previous chronic ecstasy usage. Forty-four abstinent polydrug users (8 women; age 19 to 61 years old) were recruited. All participants were currently residents at a local substance abuse facility receiving treatment and had been free of all drugs for a minimum of 21 days. The study found significantly enhanced intensity dependence of tangential dipole source activity and a history of more aggressive behavior in those who had previously been involved in chronic ecstasy use. Intensity dependence of the tangential dipole source and aggressive behavior history correctly identified 73.3% of those who had been regular ecstasy users and 78.3% of those who had not. Overall, 76.3% of the participants were correctly classified.

  17. Association of Aortic Valve Sclerosis with Previous Coronary Artery Disease and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Carvalho Marmelo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aortic valve sclerosis (AVS is characterized by increased thickness, calcification and stiffness of the aortic leaflets without fusion of the commissures. Several studies show an association between AVS and presence of coronary artery disease. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the association between presence of AVS with occurrence of previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors. Methods: The sample was composed of 2,493 individuals who underwent transthoracic echocardiography between August 2011 and December 2012. The mean age of the cohort was 67.5 ± 15.9 years, and 50.7% were female. Results: The most frequent clinical indication for Doppler echocardiography was the presence of stroke (28.8%, and the most common risk factor was hypertension (60.8%. The most prevalent pathological findings on Doppler echocardiography were mitral valve sclerosis (37.1% and AVS (36.7%. There was a statistically significant association between AVS with hypertension (p < 0.001, myocardial infarction (p = 0.007, diabetes (p = 0.006 and compromised left ventricular systolic function (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Patients with AVS have higher prevalences of hypertension, stroke, hypercholesterolemia, myocardial infarction, diabetes and compromised left ventricular systolic function when compared with patients without AVS. We conclude that there is an association between presence of AVS with previous coronary artery disease and classical risk factors.

  18. Validation of SWAT+ at field level and comparison with previous SWAT models in simulating hydrologic quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, J.; White, M. J.; Bieger, K.; Yen, H.; Arnold, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been adopted by many researches to assess water quantity and quality in watersheds around the world. As the demand increases in facilitating model support, maintenance, and future development, the SWAT source code and data have undergone major modifications over the past few years. To make the model more flexible in terms of interactions of spatial units and processes occurring in watersheds, a completely revised version of SWAT (SWAT+) was developed to improve SWAT's ability in water resource modelling and management. There are only several applications of SWAT+ in large watersheds, however, no study pays attention to validate the new model at field level and assess its performance. To test the basic hydrologic function of SWAT+, it was implemented in five field cases across five states in the U.S. and compared the SWAT+ created results with that from the previous models at the same fields. Additionally, an automatic calibration tool was used to test which model is easier to be calibrated well in a limited number of parameter adjustments. The goal of the study was to evaluate the performance of SWAT+ in simulating stream flow on field level at different geographical locations. The results demonstrate that SWAT+ demonstrated similar performance with previous SWAT model, but the flexibility offered by SWAT+ via the connection of different spatial objects can result in a more accurate simulation of hydrological processes in spatial, especially for watershed with artificial facilities. Autocalibration shows that SWAT+ is much easier to obtain a satisfied result compared with the previous SWAT. Although many capabilities have already been enhanced in SWAT+, there exist inaccuracies in simulation. This insufficiency will be improved with advancements in scientific knowledge on hydrologic process in specific watersheds. Currently, SWAT+ is prerelease, and any errors are being addressed.

  19. Should previous mammograms be digitised in the transition to digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Phillips, S.; Gale, A.G.; Wallis, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Breast screening specificity is improved if previous mammograms are available, which presents a challenge when converting to digital mammography. Two display options were investigated: mounting previous film mammograms on a multiviewer adjacent to the workstation, or digitising them for soft copy display. Eight qualified screen readers were videotaped undertaking routine screen reading for two 45-min sessions in each scenario. Analysis of gross eye and head movements showed that when digitised, previous mammograms were examined a greater number of times per case (p=0.03), due to a combination of being used in 19% more cases (p=0.04) and where used, looked at a greater number of times (28% increase, p=0.04). Digitising previous mammograms reduced both the average time taken per case by 18% (p=0.04) and the participants' perceptions of workload (p < 0.05). Digitising previous analogue mammograms may be advantageous, in particular in increasing their level of use. (orig.)

  20. Infrared sauna in patients with rheumathoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. A piolot study showing good tolerance, short-term improvement of pain and stiffness and a trend towards long-term beneficial effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, Frederikus G.J.; Rasker, Johannes J.; Floors, Mark; Landkroon, Robert; van Rennes, Bob; Zwijnenberg, Jan; van de Laar, Mart A F J; Koel, Gerard J.

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of infrared (IR) Sauna, a form of total-body hyperthermia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients were treated for a 4-week period with a series of eight IR treatments. Seventeen RA patients and 17 AS patients were studied. IR was well

  1. [Fatal amnioinfusion with previous choriocarcinoma in a parturient woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgović, Z; Bukovic, D; Mrcela, M; Hrgović, I; Siebzehnrübl, E; Karelovic, D

    2004-04-01

    The case of 36-year-old tercipare is described who developed choriocharcinoma in a previous pregnancy. During the first term labour the patient developed cardiac arrest, so reanimation and sectio cesarea was performed. A male new-born was delivered in good condition, but even after intensive therapy and reanimation occurred death of parturient woman with picture of disseminate intravascular coagulopathia (DIK). On autopsy and on histology there was no sign of malignant disease, so it was not possible to connect previous choricarcinoma with amniotic fluid embolism. Maybe was place of choriocarcinoma "locus minoris resistentiae" which later resulted with failure in placentation what was hard to prove. On autopsy we found embolia of lung with a microthrombosis of terminal circulation with punctiformis bleeding in mucous, what stands for DIK.

  2. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  3. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  4. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  5. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  6. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  7. ATLANTIC DIP: simplifying the follow-up of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2013-11-01

    Previous gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with a significant lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we assessed the performance of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurements against that of 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for the follow-up screening of women with previous GDM.

  8. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  9. Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

  10. Females use self-referent cues to avoid mating with previous mates

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, Tracie M; Weddle, Carie B; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2005-01-01

    Females of many species mate repeatedly throughout their lives, often with many different males (polyandry). Females can secure genetic benefits by maximizing their diversity of mating partners, and might be expected, therefore, to forego matings with previous partners in favour of novel males. Indeed, a female preference for novel mating partners has been shown in several taxa, but the mechanism by which females distinguish between novel males and previous mates remains unknown. We show that...

  11. Showing Complex Astrophysical Settings Through Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel; Smith, Denise; Smith, Louis Chad; Lawton, Brandon; Lockwood, Alexandra; Jirdeh, Hussein

    2018-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), NASA’s next great observatory launching in spring 2019, will routinely showcase astrophysical concepts that will challenge the public's understanding. Emerging technologies such as virtual reality bring the viewer into the data and the concept in previously unimaginable immersive detail. For example, we imagine a spacefarer inside a protoplanetary disk, seeing the accretion process directly. STScI is pioneering some tools related to JWST for showcasing at AAS, and in local events, which I highlight here. If we develop materials properly tailored to this medium, we can reach more diverse audiences than ever before.

  12. APPswe/PS1dE9 mice with cortical amyloid pathology show a reduced NAA/Cr ratio without apparent brain atrophy: A MRS and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Angela; Rühlmann, Claire; Lindner, Tobias; Polei, Stefan; Hadlich, Stefan; Krause, Bernd J; Vollmar, Brigitte; Teipel, Stefan J

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic animal models of Aβ pathology provide mechanistic insight into some aspects of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology related to Aβ accumulation. Quantitative neuroimaging is a possible aid to improve translation of mechanistic findings in transgenic models to human end phenotypes of brain morphology or function. Therefore, we combined MRI-based morphometry, MRS-based NAA-assessment and quantitative histology of neurons and amyloid plaque load in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model to determine the interrelationship between morphological changes, changes in neuron numbers and amyloid plaque load with reductions of NAA levels as marker of neuronal functional viability. The APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse showed an increase of Aβ plaques, loss of neurons and an impairment of NAA/Cr ratio, which however was not accompanied with brain atrophy. As brain atrophy is one main characteristic in human AD, conclusions from murine to human AD pathology should be drawn with caution.

  13. Results of the HepZero study comparing heparin-grafted membrane and standard care show that heparin-grafted dialyzer is safe and easy to use for heparin-free dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laville, Maurice; Dorval, Marc; Ros, Joan Fort; Fay, Renaud; Cridlig, Joelle; Nortier, Joelle L.; Juillard, Laurent; Debska-Slizien, Alicja; Lorente, Loreto Fernandez; Thibaudin, Damien; Franssen, Casper; Schulz, Michael; Moureau, Frederique; Loughraieb, Nathalie; Rossignol, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Heparin is used to prevent clotting during hemodialysis, but heparin-free hemodialysis is sometimes needed to decrease the risk of bleeding. The HepZero study is a randomized, multicenter international controlled open-label trial comparing no-heparin hemodialysis strategies designed to assess

  14. Pasteurization of breastmilk decreases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections, but shows a nonsignificant trend to an increased rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in very preterm infants--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Katharina; Griesmaier, Elke; Brunner, Barbara; Neubauer, Vera; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Trawöger, Rudolf

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed whether feeding preterm infants unpasteurized breastmilk (1) decreases the rate of late-onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis and (2) increases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections. Between January 2008 and July 2013, preterm infants below 32 completed weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Innsbruck Medical University (Innsbruck, Austria) (n=344) were eligible for the study. Of those, 323 fed breastmilk were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Two groups were formed, with 164 infants being fed unpasteurized and 159 infants being fed pasteurized breastmilk. There was no significant difference in the rate of late-onset sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis between the unpasteurized and pasteurized breastmilk groups (late-onset sepsis, 15.9% versus 15.1% [p=0.486]; necrotizing enterocolitis, 2.4% versus 4.4% [p=0.254]). The number of infants diagnosed with postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infection was significantly higher in the unpasteurized group (39.3%) compared with the pasteurized group (4.2%) (p=0.008). Feeding preterm infants unpasteurized breastmilk increases the rate of postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections. However, we also demonstrate a nonsignificant trend to a decreased rate of necrotizing enterocolitis in the unpasteurized group, which needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

  15. Previously Unrecognized Ornithuromorph Bird Diversity in the Early Cretaceous Changma Basin, Gansu Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ming; O'Connor, Jingmai K.; Li, Da-Qing; You, Hai-Lu

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on three new species of ornithuromorph birds from the Lower Cretaceous Xiagou Formation in the Changma Basin of Gansu Province, northwestern China: Yumenornis huangi gen. et sp. nov., Changmaornis houi gen. et sp. nov., and Jiuquanornis niui gen. et sp. nov.. The last of these is based on a previously published but unnamed specimen: GSGM-05-CM-021. Although incomplete, the specimens can be clearly distinguished from each other and from Gansus yumenensis Hou and Liu, 1984. Phylogenetic analysis resolves the three new taxa as basal ornithuromorphs. This study reveals previously unrecognized ornithuromorph diversity in the Changma avifauna, which is largely dominated by Gansus but with at least three other ornithuromorphs. Body mass estimates demonstrate that enantiornithines were much smaller than ornithuromorphs in the Changma avifauna. In addition, Changma enantiornithines preserve long and recurved pedal unguals, suggesting an arboreal lifestyle; in contrast, Changma ornithuromorphs tend to show terrestrial or even aquatic adaptions. Similar differences in body mass and ecology are also observed in the Jehol avifauna in northeastern China, suggesting niche partitioning between these two clades developed early in their evolutionary history. PMID:24147058

  16. In vitro fertilization outcome in women with endometriosis & previous ovarian surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pop-Trajkovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Women with endometriosis often need in vitro fertilization (IVF to concieve. There are conflicting data on the results of IVF in patients with endometriosis. This study was undertaken to elucidate the influence of endometriosis on IVF outcome to give the best counselling for infertile patient with this problem. Methods: The outcome measures in 78 patients with surgically confirmed endometriosis were compared with 157 patients with tubal factor infertility, all of whom have undergone IVF. The groups were matched for age and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH levels. Outcome measures included number of follicles, number of ocytes, peak oestradiol (E2 concentrations and mean number of ampoules of gonadotropins. Cumulative pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth rates were calculated in both the groups. Results: Higher cancelation rates, higher total gonadotropin requirements, lower peak E2 levels and lower oocyte yield were found in women with endometriosis and previous surgery compared with those with tubal factor infertility. However, no differences were found in fertilization, implantation, pregnancy, miscarriage, multiple births and delivery rates between the endometriosis and tubal factor infertility groups. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed that women with endometriosis and previous surgery responded less well to gonadotropins during ovarian stimulation and hence the cost of treatment to achieve pregnancy was higher in this group compared with those with tubal factor infertility. However, the outcome of IVF treatment in patients with endometriosis was as good as in women with tubal factor infertility.

  17. Is Previous Tubal Ligation a Risk Factor for Hysterectomy because of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanam Moradan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Post tubal ligation syndrome (PTLS is a term used to describe a variety of post tubal ligation side effects or symptoms. These include increased menstrual bleeding and hysterectomy. Whether or not post tubal syndrome is a real entity, it has been a subject of controversy in the medical literature for decades. Numerous studies have reported conflicting conclusions about these symptoms. In this study the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among sterilized women was compared with the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among non-sterilized female population of the same age.Methods: This study was carried out on 160 women, 38-52 years, who underwent hysterectomy in Amir University Hospital, Semnan, Iran, from September 2008 to September 2011. After gathering of data from medical records, in this study, the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among sterilized women was compared with the incidence of hysterectomy for bleeding disorders among nonsterilized female population for the same age.Results: The mean age of the study group was 44/4±5/7 and the mean age of the control group was 45/2±5/3, (p=0.424.The mean parity of the study group was 3/8±1/8 and the mean parity of the control group was 3/5±1/4, (p=0.220. So, in regard to age and parity, two groups were matched. Hysterectomies were performed for 160 cases and abnormal uterine bleeding was the cause of hysterectomy in 67 cases. Among 67 cases, 19 cases (37.3% had previous tubal sterilization + hysterectomy (study group and 48 cases (44% were not undergoing tubal sterilization but had hysterectomy for abnormal bleeding causes (control group. Statistical analyses showed that there were not significant differences between two groups, (RR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.56-1.28; p=0.418.Conclusion: The result of this study showed that previous tubal sterilization is not a risk factor for undergoing hysterectomy because of abnormal uterine bleeding.

  18. MCNP HPGe detector benchmark with previously validated Cyltran model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, I D; Russ, W R; Bronson, F

    2009-05-01

    An exact copy of the detector model generated for Cyltran was reproduced as an MCNP input file and the detection efficiency was calculated similarly with the methodology used in previous experimental measurements and simulation of a 280 cm(3) HPGe detector. Below 1000 keV the MCNP data correlated to the Cyltran results within 0.5% while above this energy the difference between MCNP and Cyltran increased to about 6% at 4800 keV, depending on the electron cut-off energy.

  19. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  20. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  1. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  2. Collaborative assessment and management of suicidality method shows effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann Colleen; Alberdi Olano, Francisco Javier Lorenzo; Rosenbaum, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies confirm the effect of collaborative assessment and management of suicidality (CAMS) in an experimental setup, but there is a need to test CAMS with regard to its effectiveness and feasibility in a real-life clinical context. The purpose of this study was to investigate CAMS in a ...

  3. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  4. Novel antiseptic compound OPB-2045G shows potent bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus both in vitro and in vivo: a pilot study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhide; Hagi, Akifumi; Nii, Takuya; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Nakata, Hikaru; Iwata, Koushi

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new compounds to effectively treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The novel monobiguanide compound 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate (OPB-2045G) has potential bactericidal activity. We sought to elucidate the potency of OPB-2045G bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE compared to those of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and povidone iodine (PVP-I). In vitro bactericidal activity was analysed using minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as the index. The in vivo bactericidal efficacy of OPB-2045G was examined by determining MRSA and VRE contamination of the normal dorsal skin of mice following removal of hair. After a 3 min treatment period, the MBC of OPB-2045G was lower than that of CHG and PVP-I against standard strains and clinical isolates. Additionally, in our in vivo mouse model, the in vivo bactericidal activity of 1.5 % OPB-2045G (a clinically relevant dose) was higher than that of 0.5 % CHG and equivalent to that of 10 % PVP-I against MRSA. Similarly, the in vivo bactericidal activity of OPB-2045G was higher than that of 0.5 % CHG and 10 % PVP-I against VRE. OPB-2045G showed more potent bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE both in vitro and in vivo compared to CHG and PVP-I, indicating that OPB-2045G may provide better protection against health care-associated infections caused by these pathogens. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  6. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  7. Pediatric cleft palate patients show a 3- to 5-fold increase in cumulative radiation exposure from dental radiology compared with an age- and gender-matched population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Pauwels, Ruben; Scarfe, William C; De Cock, Carl; Dula, Karl; Willems, Guy; Verdonck, An; Politis, Constantinus

    2018-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare estimates of pediatric cumulative exposure and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of radiation-induced cancer from dental radiology between cleft palate (CP) subjects and age- and gender-matched controls (non-CP), with and without orthodontic treatment. The radiation exposure frequency of CP subjects and non-CP controls with and without orthodontic treatment was compared for two-dimensional radiography (intra-oral, panoramic and cephalometric radiography), computed tomography (CT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using cumulative radiation dose as an estimate. From this dose estimate, the age- and gender-dependent risk for radiation-induced stochastic effects was calculated for each patient group. CP patients received more radiographic examinations than non-CP controls, with the exception of intra-oral radiographs. The cumulative dose to CP patients was considerably higher (1963 μSv at the age of 20 years) than non-CP patients with (597 μSv) and without (383 μSv) orthodontic treatment, primarily due to the higher frequency of CT scanning. Accordingly, CP patients had a three to five times higher LAR than non-CP patients. This study suggests a significantly higher lifetime radiation exposure to CP patients than non-CP controls from dental radiographic procedures. Diagnostic benefits from the use of CT and CBCT in children must be justified and appropriate dose optimization strategies implemented. The present study indicates the need for proper justification and optimization of pediatric exposures in dentistry, with a special focus on high-risk groups.

  8. A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanni; Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Gramignano, Giulia; Lusso, Maria Rita; Serpe, Roberto; Massa, Elena; Astara, Giorgio; Deiana, Laura

    2006-05-01

    To test the efficacy and safety of an integrated treatment based on a pharmaconutritional support, antioxidants, and drugs, all given orally, in a population of advanced cancer patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. An open early-phase II study was designed according to the Simon two-stage design. The integrated treatment consisted of diet with high polyphenols content (400 mg), antioxidant treatment (300 mg/d alpha-lipoic acid + 2.7 g/d carbocysteine lysine salt + 400 mg/d vitamin E + 30,000 IU/d vitamin A + 500 mg/d vitamin C), and pharmaconutritional support enriched with 2 cans per day (n-3)-PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), 500 mg/d medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 200 mg/d selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The treatment duration was 4 months. The following variables were evaluated: (a) clinical (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status); (b) nutritional [lean body mass (LBM), appetite, and resting energy expenditure]; (c) laboratory [proinflammatory cytokines and leptin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes]; (d) quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D, and MFSI-SF). From July 2002 to January 2005, 44 patients were enrolled. Of these, 39 completed the treatment and were assessable. Body weight increased significantly from baseline as did LBM and appetite. There was an important decrease of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and a negative relationship worthy of note was only found between LBM and IL-6 changes. As for quality of life evaluation, there was a marked improvement in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D(VAS), and multidimensional fatigue symptom inventory-short form scores. At the end of the study, 22 of the 39 patients were "responders" or "high responders." The minimum required was 21; therefore, the

  9. Lessons from the use of genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster in ecological studies: Hsf mutant lines show highly trait-specific performance in field and laboratory thermal assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Loeschcke, Volker; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård

    2009-01-01

    . 2.  We have tested the importance of inducible heat shock proteins (Hsps) under different thermal conditions using two heat shock factor (Hsf) mutant lines (either able (Hsf+) or unable (Hsf0) to mount a heat stress response) and an outbred laboratory adapted wild-type line of Drosophila......1.  Laboratory studies on genetically modified strains may reveal important information on mechanisms involved in coping with thermal stress. However, to address the evolutionary significance of specific genes or physiological mechanisms, ecologically relevant field tests should also be performed...

  10. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  11. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  12. Corneal perforation after conductive keratoplasty with previous refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymionis, George D; Titze, Patrik; Markomanolakis, Marinos M; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2003-12-01

    A 56-year-old woman had conductive keratoplasty (CK) for residual hyperopia and astigmatism. Three years before the procedure, the patient had arcuate keratotomy, followed by laser in situ keratomileusis 2 years later for high astigmatism correction in both eyes. During CK, a corneal perforation occurred in the right eye; during the postoperative examination, an iris perforation and anterior subcapsule opacification were seen beneath the perforation site. The perforation was managed with a bandage contact lens and an antibiotic-steroid ointment; it had a negative Seidel sign by the third day. The surgery in the left eye was uneventful. Three months after the procedure, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/32 and the best corrected visual acuity 20/20 in both eyes with a significant improvement in corneal topography. Care must be taken to prevent CK-treated spots from coinciding with areas in the corneal stroma that might have been altered by previous refractive procedures.

  13. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  14. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  15. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  16. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  17. Previous induced abortion among young women seeking abortion-related care in Kenya: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Ushie, Boniface A; Mutua, Michael M; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O

    2016-05-14

    Unsafe abortion is a leading cause of death among young women aged 10-24 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Although having multiple induced abortions may exacerbate the risk for poor health outcomes, there has been minimal research on young women in this region who have multiple induced abortions. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the prevalence and correlates of reporting a previous induced abortion among young females aged 12-24 years seeking abortion-related care in Kenya. We used data on 1,378 young women aged 12-24 years who presented for abortion-related care in 246 health facilities in a nationwide survey conducted in 2012. Socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and clinical histories, and physical examination assessment data were collected from women during a one-month data collection period using an abortion case capture form. Nine percent (n = 98) of young women reported a previous induced abortion prior to the index pregnancy for which they were receiving care. Statistically significant differences by previous history of induced abortion were observed for area of residence, religion and occupation at bivariate level. Urban dwellers and unemployed/other young women were more likely to report a previous induced abortion. A greater proportion of young women reporting a previous induced abortion stated that they were using a contraceptive method at the time of the index pregnancy (47 %) compared with those reporting no previous induced abortion (23 %). Not surprisingly, a greater proportion of young women reporting a previous induced abortion (82 %) reported their index pregnancy as unintended (not wanted at all or mistimed) compared with women reporting no previous induced abortion (64 %). Our study results show that about one in every ten young women seeking abortion-related care in Kenya reports a previous induced abortion. Comprehensive post-abortion care services targeting young women are needed. In particular, post

  18. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  19. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  20. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  1. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  2. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of 2010-2011 H1N12009-containing trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children 12-59 months of age previously given AS03-adjuvanted H1N12009 pandemic vaccine: a PHAC/CIHR Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Joanne M; Scheifele, David W; Quach, Caroline; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Ward, Brian; McNeil, Shelly; Dobson, Simon; Kellner, James D; Kuhn, Susan; Kollman, Tobias; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Smith, Bruce; Li, Yan; Halperin, Scott A

    2012-05-14

    Concern arose in 2010 that reactogenicity, particularly febrile seizures, to influenza A/H1N1-containing 2010-2011 trivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) could occur in young children who had been previously immunized and/or infected with the pandemic strain. We conducted a pre-season study of 2010-2011 TIV safety and immunogenicity in children 12-59 months of age to inform public health decision making. Children immunized with 1 or 2 doses of the pandemic vaccine, with or without the 2009-10 TIV, received 1 or 2 doses of 2010-11 TIV in an observational, multicentre Canadian study. Standard safety monitoring was enhanced by a telephone call at ~24 h post-TIV when adverse events were expected to peak. Summary safety reports were rapidly reported to public health before the launch of public programs. TIV immunogenicity was assessed day 0, and 21 days after final vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01180621. Among 207 children, a general adverse event was reported by 60.9% of children post-dose one and by 58.3% post-dose two. Only severe fever (>38.5°C) was more common in two-dose compared to one dose recipients (16.7%, n=4 v. 1.0%, n=2). At baseline 99.0% of participants had A/H1N1 hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers ≥10, and 85.5% had a protective titer of ≥40 (95% CI 80.0, 90.0). Baseline geometric mean titers (GMT) were higher in recipients of a 2-dose schedule of pandemic vaccine compared to one-dose recipients: 153.1 (95% CI 126.2, 185.7) v. 78.8 ((58.1, 106.8, pvaccine immunogenicity were exceeded for A/H1N1 and H3N2, but responses to the B antigen were poor. No correlations between reactogenicity and either baseline high influenza titers or serologic response to revaccination were evident. Infants and toddlers who received AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 2009 vaccine up to 11 months earlier retained high titers in the subsequent season but re-exposure to A/H1N1 2009 antigen in TIV resulted in no unusual adverse effects and 100% were sero

  4. The influence of current mood state, number of previous affective episodes and predominant polarity on insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Camelo, Evelyn Vieira Miranda; Peixoto, Ursula; Santana, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Morris, Robin G; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies have explored the effect of current affective episodes on insight into bipolar disorder, the potential interaction between current mood state and previous affective episodes has not been consistently investigated. To explore the influence of dominant polarity, number of previous affective episodes and current affective state on insight in bipolar disorder patients in euthymia or mania. A total of 101 patients with bipolar disorder were recruited for the study, including 58 patients in euthymia (30 with no defined predominant polarity and 28 with manic predominant polarity) and 43 in mania (26 with no defined predominant polarity and 17 with manic predominant polarity). Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. Bipolar disorder patients in mania had worse insight than those in euthymia, with no effect of dominant polarity. In addition, positive psychotic symptoms showed a significant effect on insight and its inclusion as a covariate eliminated differences related to mood state. Finally, the number of previous manic or depressive episodes did not correlate with insight level. Mania is a predictor of loss of insight into bipolar disorder. However, it is possible that its contribution is linked to the more frequent presence of psychotic symptoms in this state. Dominant polarity and number/type of previous affective episodes have a limited impact on insight.

  5. Simulation of the Effect of Different Presbyopia-Correcting Intraocular Lenses With Eyes With Previous Laser Refractive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Vicente J; Miret, Juan J; García, Celia; Tolosa, Angel; Piñero, David P

    2018-04-01

    To simulate the optical performance of three presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses (IOLs) implanted in eyes with previous laser refractive surgery. A simulation of the through-focus modulation transfer function (MTF) was performed for three presbyopia-correcting IOLs (Mplus, Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany; Symfony, Johnson & Johnson Vision, Santa Ana, CA; and Mini Well, SIFI S.p.A., Lavinaio, Italy) in one eye with previous myopic LASIK and another with hyperopic LASIK. Real topographic data and the wavefront aberration profile of each IOL obtained with a Hartmann-Shack sensor were used. In the eye with myopic LASIK, all IOLs lost optical quality at near and intermediate distances for 4- and 4.7-mm pupil size. For 3-mm pupil size, the Mini Well IOL showed the best intermediate and near MTF and maintained the far focus independently of the pupil. In the eye with hyperopic LASIK, the Mini Well IOL showed an intermediate, distance, and -4.00-diopter (D) foci for all pupils. The Symfony IOL showed a depth of focus at far and intermediate distance for 3-mm and a focus at -2.50 D in the rest. The Mplus showed a focus of -4.50 and -3.00 D for the 3- and 4-mm pupil, respectively. The Mini Well and Symfony IOLs seem to work better than the Mplus IOL in eyes with previous myopic LASIK. With previous hyperopic LASIK, the Mini Well IOL seems to be able to provide acceptable near, intermediate, and far foci for all pupil sizes. These findings should be confirmed in future clinical studies. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(4):222-227.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She had an 123I diagnostic whole body scan that showed 123I avid areas in the thyroid bed as well as left cervical lymph nodes, which later turned out to be metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid on histology. She was treated with therapeutic doses of 131I. Follow-up radioactive iodine scans and serum thyroglobulin ...

  7. Is parental competitive ability in winter negatively affected by previous springs' family size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, Rienk W; Ubels, Richard; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2017-03-01

    Reproductive behavior cannot be understood without taking the local level of competition into account. Experimental work in great tits ( Parus major ) showed that (1) a survival cost of reproduction was paid in environments with high levels of competition during the winter period and (2) experimentally manipulated family size negatively affected the ability of parents to compete for preferred breeding boxes in the next spring. The fact that survival was affected in winter suggests that the competitive ability of parents in winter may also be affected by previous reproductive effort. In this study, we aim to investigate whether (1) such carryover effects of family size on the ability of parents to compete for resources in the winter period occurred and (2) this could explain the occurrence of a survival cost of reproduction under increased competition. During two study years, we manipulated the size of in total 168 great tit broods. Next, in winter, we induced competition among the parents by drastically reducing the availability of roosting boxes in their local environment for one week. Contrary to our expectation, we found no negative effect of family size manipulation on the probability of parents to obtain a roosting box. In line with previous work, we did find that a survival cost of reproduction was paid only in plots in which competition for roosting boxes was shortly increased. Our findings thus add to the scarce experimental evidence that survival cost of reproduction are paid under higher levels of local competition but this could not be linked to a reduced competitive ability of parents in winter.

  8. Maternal psychological distress and placental circulation in pregnancies after a previous offspring with congenital malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Helbig

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal maternal psychological distress may be associated with reduced placental circulation, which could lead to lower birthweight. Studies investigating this in humans show mixed results, which may be partially due to type, strength and timing of distress. In addition, the arterial vascular resistance measures often used as outcome measures do not detect smaller changes in placental volume blood flow. We aimed to investigate the effect of a specific stressor, with increased levels of stress early in pregnancy, on the fetoplacental volume blood flow in third trimester. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 74 pregnant women with a congenital malformation in a previous fetus or child. Psychological distress was assessed twice, around 16 and 30 weeks' gestation. Psychometric measures were the General Health Questionnaire-28 (subscales anxiety and depression, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-22 (subscales intrusion, avoidance, and arousal. Placental circulation was examined at 30 weeks, using Doppler ultrasonography, primarily as fetoplacental volume blood flow in the umbilical vein, normalized for abdominal circumference; secondarily as vascular resistance measures, obtained from the umbilical and the uterine arteries. RESULTS: Maternal distress in second but not third trimester was associated with increased normalized fetoplacental blood flow (P-values 0.006 and 0.013 for score > mean for depression and intrusion, respectively. Post-hoc explorations suggested that a reduced birthweight/placental weight ratio may mediate this association. Psychological distress did not affect vascular resistance measures in the umbilical and uterine arteries, regardless of adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant women with a previous fetus or child with a congenital malformation, higher distress levels in second trimester were associated with third trimester fetoplacental blood flow that

  9. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  10. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingzhao Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans. Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  11. Global functional atlas of Escherichia coli encompassing previously uncharacterized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pingzhao; Janga, Sarath Chandra; Babu, Mohan; Díaz-Mejía, J Javier; Butland, Gareth; Yang, Wenhong; Pogoutse, Oxana; Guo, Xinghua; Phanse, Sadhna; Wong, Peter; Chandran, Shamanta; Christopoulos, Constantine; Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Nasseri, Negin Karimi; Musso, Gabriel; Ali, Mehrab; Nazemof, Nazila; Eroukova, Veronika; Golshani, Ashkan; Paccanaro, Alberto; Greenblatt, Jack F; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Emili, Andrew

    2009-04-28

    One-third of the 4,225 protein-coding genes of Escherichia coli K-12 remain functionally unannotated (orphans). Many map to distant clades such as Archaea, suggesting involvement in basic prokaryotic traits, whereas others appear restricted to E. coli, including pathogenic strains. To elucidate the orphans' biological roles, we performed an extensive proteomic survey using affinity-tagged E. coli strains and generated comprehensive genomic context inferences to derive a high-confidence compendium for virtually the entire proteome consisting of 5,993 putative physical interactions and 74,776 putative functional associations, most of which are novel. Clustering of the respective probabilistic networks revealed putative orphan membership in discrete multiprotein complexes and functional modules together with annotated gene products, whereas a machine-learning strategy based on network integration implicated the orphans in specific biological processes. We provide additional experimental evidence supporting orphan participation in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, biofilm formation, motility, and assembly of the bacterial cell envelope. This resource provides a "systems-wide" functional blueprint of a model microbe, with insights into the biological and evolutionary significance of previously uncharacterized proteins.

  12. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Richard; Kohles, Joseph D; Babbitt, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT) of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV) ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP) use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p 90% at Month 10). In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.

  13. Infants Show Stability of Goal-Directed Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkalou, Elena; Ellis-Davies, Kate; Fowler, Nia C.; Hilbrink, Elma E.; Gattis, Merideth

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that infants selectively reproduce observed actions and have argued that this selectivity reflects understanding of intentions and goals, or goal-directed imitation. We reasoned that if selective imitation of goal-directed actions reflects understanding of intentions, infants should demonstrate stability across…

  14. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  15. Study shows women fail to land top grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Women in the UK are less successful than men at securing research council funding at almost every stage of their careers, according to an analysis published by Research Councils UK (RCUK) - the umbrella organization for the country's seven research councils.

  16. Correlates of previous couples’ HIV counseling and testing uptake among married individuals in three HIV prevalence strata in Rakai, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K. B. Matovu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing