Sample records for previous studies indicating

  1. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve


    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  2. Early indicators of enduring symptoms in high school athletes with multiple previous concussions.

    Schatz, Philip; Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro; Covassin, Tracey; Karpf, Robin


    Despite recent findings of cognitive, emotional, physical, and behavioral symptomatology in retired professional athletes with a history of multiple concussions, there is little systematic research examining these symptoms in high school athletes with a history of concussion. To identify cognitive, emotional, and physical symptoms at baseline in nonconcussed high school athletes based on concussion history. A multicenter sample of 616 high school athletes who completed baseline evaluations were assigned to groups based on history of concussion (none, 1, 2, or more previous concussions). The Post-Concussion Symptom Scale was administered as part of a computerized neuropsychological test battery during athletes' preseason baseline evaluations. Cross-sectional analyses were used to examine symptoms reported at the time of baseline neuropsychological testing. High school athletes with a history of 2 or more concussions showed significantly higher ratings of concussion-related symptoms (cognitive, physical, sleep difficulties) than athletes with a history of one or no previous concussions. It appears that youth athletes who sustain multiple concussions experience a variety of subtle effects, which may be possible precursors of the future onset of concussion-related difficulties. Copyright © 2011 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne


    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  4. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed


    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  5. Discovery of an X-ray cavity near the radio lobes of Cygnus A indicating previous AGN activity

    Chon, Gayoung; Krause, Martin; Truemper, Joachim


    Cygnus A harbours the nearest powerful radio jet of an Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class II radio galaxy in a galaxy cluster where the interaction of the jet with the intracluster medium (ICM) can be studied in detail. We use a large set of Chandra archival data, VLA and new LOFAR observations to shed new light on the interaction of the jets with the ICM. We identify an X-ray cavity in the distribution of the X-ray emitting plasma in the region south of the Cyg A nucleus which has lower pressure than the surrounding medium. The LOFAR and VLA radio observations show that the cavity is filled with synchrotron emitting plasma. The spectral age and the buoyancy time of the cavity indicates an age at least as large as the current Cyg A jets and not much larger than twice this time. We suggest that this cavity was created in a previous active phase of Cyg A when the energy output of the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) was about two orders of magnitude less than today.

  6. Study of cystic artery by arteriography. Importance of previous cholecystography

    Machado, G.O.

    An oral cholecystography previously to celiac and mesenteric arteriography is performed, in order to identify the cystic artery, in 42 patients with pancreatitis, according Seldinger technique. The cystic artery was identified in all the cases, the pattern being the outlet of the cystic artery from the right hepatic artery. Infusion pump and seriography were not used.

  7. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L


    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; pTBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  8. Eye tracking indices of attentional bias in children of depressed mothers: Polygenic influences help to clarify previous mixed findings.

    Owens, Max; Harrison, Ashley J; Burkhouse, Katie L; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Palmer, Rohan H C; Gibb, Brandon E


    Information-processing biases may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depression. There is growing evidence that children of depressed mothers exhibit attentional biases for sad faces. However, findings are mixed as to whether this bias reflects preferential attention toward, versus attentional avoidance of, sad faces, suggesting the presence of unmeasured moderators. To address these mixed findings, we focused on the potential moderating role of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Participants included children (8-14 years old) of mothers with (n = 81) and without (n = 81) a history of depression. Eye movements were recorded while children passively viewed arrays of angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces. DNA was obtained from buccal cells. Children of depressed mothers exhibited more sustained attention to sad faces than did children of nondepressed mothers. However, it is important that this relation was moderated by children's genotype. Specifically, children of depressed mothers who carried reactive genotypes across the corticotropin-releasing hormone type 1 receptor (CHRH1) TAT haplotype and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) rs1360780 (but not the solute carrier family C6 member 4 [SLC6A4] of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region [5-HTTLPR]) exhibited less sustained attention to sad faces and more sustained attention to happy faces. These findings highlight the role played by specific genetic influences and suggest that previous mixed findings may have been due to genetic heterogeneity across the samples.

  9. [Previously expanded full-thickness skin grafts. Technical principles. Indications in the repair of sequelae of burns. Apropos of 22 cases].

    Foyatier, J L; Gounot, N; Comparin, J P; Delay, E; Masson, C L; Latarjet, J


    Burns raise difficult repair problems. Previously expanded full-thickness skin grafts represent a good solution in many situations. Based on their experience of 22 cases, the authors present a review of the various indications for this technique.

  10. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.


    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway


    Gurpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Previous caesarean section sparks an area of controversy in Obstetrics. The management of women with previous caesarean section regarding the mode of delivery whether to opt for repeat caesarean section or vaginal delivery, is an area of debate. Very often the decision on management is not made on Principle of sound reasoning and many who choose the elective repeat caesarean section do so to circumvent the anxious moment that arise during conduct ion of labour. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the maternal and fetal outcome in relation to type of delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A 18 month prospective observational study was conducted where in 150 patients who had a term pregnancy with a history of prior LSCS were included after obtaining their consent for participation. The obstetric and fetal outcomes of these patients in the present pregnancy were analyzed by Z test. RESULTS: Out of the 150 subjects 78 ( 52% were in age group of 26 - 30 years, 106 ( 70.67% patients belonged to the urban population, 116 ( 77.33% were booked patie nts, 107 ( 71.33% were housewives, 122 ( 81.33% belonged to middle class and 22 ( 14.67% were from high socio economic status. 67 ( 44.67% were second gravid, 112 ( 74.67% were para 1. Out of total 134 patients 29 ( 21.64% had elective caesarean section and 5 ( 3 .73% patients came as emergency admission and underwent caesarean section. Out of 134 patients, with one previous caesarean section. 32 had spontaneous onset of labour. Out of which 20 ( 68.97% had vaginal delivery and 9 ( 31.03% had repeat caesarean section. 13 patients had augmentation, 11 ( 84.62% had vaginal delivery and 2 ( 15.38% had caesarean section. In 58 patients labour was induced 29 ( 50% had section. 14 patients out of 50 who had previous 2 caesarean section only 1 ( 7.69% patient had spontane ous onset of labour and had caesarean section. 3 ( 92.86% patients had elective caesarean section. There were only 2 patients with previous 3 caesarean

  12. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. Presenting Software Metrics Indicators- A Case Study

    Pantazos, Kostas; Shollo, Arisa; Staron, Miroslaw


    decisions based on indicators. In essence, visualizing indicators and their dependencies can communicate the information to the stakeholders efficiently if done correctly, or mislead them if not done properly. In this paper we present results of a case study conducted in a unit of Ericsson. During the case...... study we identified the main requirements for methods for visualizing the indicators, developed these visualizations and conducted a series of interviews evaluating them. The results show that the dashboard presentation is the best solution, but that the simple, tabular visualizations are next best...

  14. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O


    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  15. Religious Identity in Iranian Society: A Systematic Review of Previous Studies (2001-2013


    literature on identity, evidence suggests that the role of religion in shaping individuals' and group's identity is widely ignored. However, a growing number of studies have begun to take into consideration the key role of religion (Arweck & Nesbitt 2010, King and Boyatzis 2004, Peek 2005. This article has attempted to review systematically previous research and conceptualizations on the religious identity based on national studies and surveys and academic dissertations.     Materials and Methods   As mentioned, the purpose of this study was to review the results of some influential researches in the field of religious identity. To get this purpose, one of the best known methods for reviewing previous studies, a systematic review, was applied. Systematic review deals with establishing and synthesizing of researches and evidences with focus on a specific question. This occurs through the organized, transparent, formal, clear and flexible procedures and processes. A systematic review of research is not limited to review the history and this overview and review can be used in different levels, fields and goals. During the first phase of the study, terms of "religious identity", "Islamic identity", "Iranian identity" and "religious identity" was searched at libraries and research centers and in databases such as Center for Scientific Information Database (SID, a database of Iranian journals and magazines (Magiran, Noor specialized journals database, and Science and Information Technology Institute (IrnaDoc. After reviewing the gathered documents and specifying its relationship with the object and purpose of the study, a total of 47 documents were selected. Documents based on the five major parameter were summarized and reviewed: 1-general information, 2-goals and research questions, 3-research methodology, 4-variables, 5-findings     Discussion of Results and Conclusion   Findings show that in the highest percentage (38.2% of researches, religious identity has been

  16. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali


    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  17. Presenting Software Metrics Indicators- A Case Study

    Pantazos, Kostas; Shollo, Arisa; Staron, Miroslaw


    study we identified the main requirements for methods for visualizing the indicators, developed these visualizations and conducted a series of interviews evaluating them. The results show that the dashboard presentation is the best solution, but that the simple, tabular visualizations are next best...

  18. Comparison of Synchronization Indices: Behavioral Study

    Pierre Dugué


    Full Text Available The synchronization of a neuronal response to a given periodic stimulus is usually measured by Goldberg and Brown's vector strength metric. This index does not take omitted spikes into account. This particular limitation has motivated the development of two new indices: the corrected vector strength index and the corrected phase variance index, both including a penalty factor linked to the firing rate. In this paper, a theoretical study on the normalization of the corrected phase variance index is conducted. Both indices are compared to four existing ones using a simulated dataset which considers three desynchronizing disturbances: irregularity in firing, added spikes, and omitted spikes. In the case of unimodal responses, the two new indices are satisfying and appear the more promising in the case of real signals. In the multimodal case, the entropy-based index is better than the others even if this index is not drawback-free.

  19. Sourcing quality-of-life weights obtained from previous studies: theory and reality in Korea.

    Bae, SeungJin; Bae, Eun Young; Lim, Sang Hee


    The quality-of-life weights obtained in previous studies are frequently used in cost-utility analyses. The purpose of this study is to describe how the values obtained in previous studies are incorporated into the industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI), focusing on the issues discussed in theoretical studies and national guidelines. The industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean NHI from January 2007 until December 2009 were evaluated by two independent researchers at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Specifically, we observed the methods that were used to pool, predict joint health state utilities, and retain consistency within submissions in terms of the issues discussed in methodological research papers and recommendations from national guidelines. More than half of the submissions used QALY as an outcome measure, and most of these submissions were sourced from prior studies. Heterogeneous methodologies were frequently used within a submission, with the inconsistent use of upper and lower anchors being prevalent. Assumptions behind measuring joint health state utilities or pooling multiple values for single health states were omitted in all submissions. Most national guidelines were rather vague regarding how to predict joint health states, how to select the best available value, how to maintain consistency within a submission, and how to generalize values obtained from prior studies. Previously-generated values were commonly sourced, but this practice was frequently related to inconsistencies within and among submissions. Attention should be paid to the consistency and transparency of the value, especially if the value is sourced from prior studies.

  20. Annual Journal citation indices: a comparative study

    Khaleque, Abdul; Sen, Parongama


    We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.

  1. Annual Journal Citation Indices: A Comparative Study

    Abdul Khaleque


    Full Text Available We study the statistics of citations made to the indexed Science journals in the Journal Citation Reports during the period 2004-2013 using different measures. We consider different measures which quantify the impact of the journals. To our surprise, we find that the apparently uncorrelated measures, even when defined in an arbitrary manner, show strong correlations. This is checked over all the years considered. Impact factor being one of these measures, the present work raises the question whether it is actually a nearly perfect index as claimed often. In addition, we study the distributions of the different indices which also behave similarly.


    Andreea Fortuna SCHIOPU


    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline synthetically a set of indicators for the study of productivity in education and to critically analyze their suitability as input, output or outcome. References were made to the indicators available in the databases of Romania, World Bank, Eurostat, OECD relevant for measuring productivity in education, which opposed to usual reporting between effect / result and inputs elements consumed in the production process,in the case of educational services should be considered the quantitative, but also qualitative aspects - and especially - mediated effects, on long-term and very long term. The research results presented, emphasize the importance of the educational reform efforts to focus more on qualitative aspects in measuring productivity, more precisely on the abilities, competencies that have pupils /students and adults, on motivating teachers, to achieve educational outcomes which could increase students performance, productivity growth on long-term and very long term effects, with an impact at the macroeconomic level.


    Andreea Fortuna SCHIOPU


    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline synthetically a set of indicators for the study of productivity in education and to critically analyze their suitability as input, output or outcome. References were made to the indicators available in the databases of Romania, World Bank, Eurostat, OECD relevant for measuring productivity in education, which opposed to usual reporting between effect / result and inputs elements consumed in the production process,in the case of educational services should be considered the quantitative, but also qualitative aspects - and especially - mediated effects, on long-term and very long term. The research results presented, emphasize the importance of the educational reform efforts to focus more on qualitative aspects in measuring productivity, more precisely on the abilities, competencies that have pupils /students and adults, on motivating teachers, to achieve educational outcomes which could increase students performance, productivity growth on long-term and very long term effects, with an impact at the macroeconomic level.

  4. Vibrations of twisted cantilevered plates - Summary of previous and current studies

    Leissa, A. W.; Macbain, J. C.; Kielb, R. E.


    This work summarizes a comprehensive study made of the free vibrations of twisted, cantilevered plates of rectangular planform. Numerous theoretical and experimental investigations previously made by others have resulted in frequency results which disagree considerably. To clarify the problem a joint industry/government/university research effort was initiated to obtain comprehensive theoretical and experimental results for models having useful ranges of aspect ratios, thickness ratios and twist angles. Theoretical data came from 19 independent computer analyses, including finite element, shell theory and beam theory idealizations. Two independent sets of experimental data were also obtained. The theoretical and experimental results are summarized and compared.

  5. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Aubourg, Santiago P.


    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  6. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Moreno Victor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  7. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50......-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured during pregnancy, postpartum, and at follow-up 5-11 years later. At follow-up, the women were also examined with a 75-g OGTT or an intravenous glucagon test. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (30%) of the women with previous GDM had abnormal glucose tolerance...... response) at all time points investigated; this was also found when only nonobese glucose-tolerant women were examined. Low insulin secretion during pregnancy together with a high fasting plasma glucose level at the diagnostic OGTT in pregnancy and hyperglycemia during the postpartum OGTT were predictive...

  8. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.


    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  9. Phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus vinorelbine in breast cancer with previous anthracycline exposure.

    Martin, Miguel; García-Donas, Jesus; Casado, Antonio; de la Gándara, Isabel; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; García-Saenz, Jose-Angel; Ibáñez, Gabriel; Loboff, Belen; García-Ledo, Gemma; Moreno, Fernando; Grande, Enrique; Diaz-Rubio, Eduardo


    Thirty-five patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) entered a phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 35 mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1 plus vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 every 4 weeks. Patients were required to have measurable disease, previous chemotherapy with an anthracycline-containing regimen, and a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Thirty-four patients were assessable for response and toxicity. The overall response rate (on an intent-to-treat basis) was 35% (12 of 34; 95% CI, 20%-54%). One complete response and 11 partial responses were noted. In addition, 14 patients (41%) had stable disease of > 4 months duration, and 7 patients (20.5%) had disease progression. The response rates to the combination when it was used as first- and second-line chemotherapy were 31% (4 of 13) and 38% (8 of 21), respectively. Median time to disease progression was 7 months (range, 1-35 months) and median overall survival was 13 months (range, 2 to > 62 months). Neutropenia was the most frequent toxicity (grade 4 in 44% of patients and 19% of cycles), but neutropenic fever was seen in only 3 cases. No septic deaths occurred. Nonhematologic grade 3 side effects included skin toxicity (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, 6%) and mucositis (15%). Late alopecia was seen in 53% of patients (grade 1 in 41%, and grade 2 in 12%). The median LVEFs were 64% (range, 50%-81%) at baseline and 62% (range, 37%-70%) after treatment. Three patients presented an LVEF decrease to < 50%; however, no clinical heart failure was noted, and 2 of these patients recovered normal values after cessation of therapy. The combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and vinorelbine can be safely administered to patients with anthracycline-pretreated MBC and is active in this population.

  10. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D


    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  11. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats.

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto


    The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. One hundred forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis.

  12. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Kristina Dalberg


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  13. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00]. CONCLUSIONS: A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  14. Induction of IL21 in Peripheral T Follicular Helper Cells Is an Indicator of Influenza Vaccine Response in a Previously Vaccinated HIV-Infected Pediatric Cohort.

    de Armas, Lesley R; Cotugno, Nicola; Pallikkuth, Suresh; Pan, Li; Rinaldi, Stefano; Sanchez, M Celeste; Gonzalez, Louis; Cagigi, Alberto; Rossi, Paolo; Palma, Paolo; Pahwa, Savita


    HIV-infected patients of all ages frequently underperform in response to seasonal influenza vaccination, despite virologic control of HIV. The molecular mechanisms governing this impairment, as well as predictive biomarkers for responsiveness, remain unknown. This study was performed in samples obtained prevaccination (T0) from HIV-infected children who received the 2012-2013 seasonal influenza vaccine. Response status was determined based on established criterion for hemagglutination inhibition titer; participants with a hemagglutination titer ≥1:40 plus a ≥4-fold increase over T0 at 3 wk postvaccination were designated as responders. All children had a history of prior influenza vaccinations. At T0, the frequencies of CD4 T cell subsets, including peripheral T follicular helper (pTfh) cells, which provide help to B cells for developing into Ab-secreting cells, were similar between responders and nonresponders. However, in response to in vitro stimulation with influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) Ag, differential gene expression related to pTfh cell function was observed by Fluidigm high-density RT-PCR between responders and nonresponders. In responders, H1N1 stimulation at T0 also resulted in CXCR5 induction (mRNA and protein) in CD4 T cells and IL21 gene induction in pTfh cells that were strongly associated with H1N1-specific B cell responses postvaccination. In contrast, CD4 T cells of nonresponders exhibited increased expression of IL2 and STAT5 genes, which are known to antagonize peripheral Tfh cell function. These results suggest that the quality of pTfh cells at the time of immunization is important for influenza vaccine responses and provide a rationale for targeted, ex vivo Ag-driven molecular profiling of purified immune cells to detect predictive biomarkers of the vaccine response.

  15. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert


    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  16. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A


    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  17. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P


    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at as #NCT01414205.




    Full Text Available With the world - wide rising trend of caesarean delivery (CD, modern obstetric practice deals with a new group of mothers carrying reproductive performance upon a scarred uterus with obvious risk in feto - maternal outcome. AIMS: (1 To analyse the maternal & neonatal outcome in post - caesarean pregnancy. (2 To evaluate the factors influencing outcome in such cases. Design : Observational analytical study. MATERIALS & METHODS: The present study was carried out over two years (2010 - 11 taking consecutive 100 p ost - caesarean cases as admitted on my admission days & delivered in BR Singh Hospital. Data collection was done by interview technique along with hospital records. ANALYSIS USED: Percentage analysis was most often done. Categorical variables were compared with chi - square test; P value was calculated with 2012 Graphpad Software. Relative risk (RR & Odd ratio (OR were calculated with 1993 - 2012 Medcalc Software bvba (Version 12.3.0. All statistical tests were evaluated at the 0.05 significance level. RESULT S: Post - caesarean pregnancy rate was 26.02%. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC incidence was 22% whereas VBAC success on trial of labour was 55%. VBAC gave best morbidity outcome (18.18% & 27.27%. But failed VBAC cases result more significant maternal morbidity (RR=3.97, P=0.0037 & NICU admission was also found highest in failed VBAC cases (38.89%. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were significantly high when scar integrity was lost; also significantly co - related with elderly mothers (>35 yrs., un - boo ked cases & non - admitted cases undergone repeat CD. CONCLUSIONS: Post - caesarean cases need meticulous antenatal check - up & mandatory institutional delivery with proper selection of mode of confinement to have a better maternal & neonatal outcome

  19. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail:; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza


    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  20. Experimental bluetongue virus infection of sheep; effect of previous vaccination: clinical and immunologic studies.

    Mahrt, C R; Osburn, B I


    Clinical and immunologic responses of sheep to vaccination and subsequent bluetongue virus (BTV) challenge exposure were studied and compared with those of non-vaccinated sheep. Sheep were vaccinated with inactivated BTV administered with aluminum hydroxide and cimetidine or levamisole. After sheep were vaccinated, precipitating group-specific antibodies to BTV were detected, but serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies were not detected. Cellular immune responses (lymphocyte blastogenesis) to BTV were not detected. After virulent BTV challenge exposure, vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep developed acute clinical disease of similar severity. Clinical signs included hyperemia and petechiae of oral mucosa and coronary bands of the feet, excess salivation, nasal discharge with crusting, ulceration of the muzzle, and edema of lips and intermandibular space. Marked increases in serum creatine kinase activity were associated with stiff gait, reluctance to move, and vomiting. Fever and leukopenia were detected in most of the challenge-exposed sheep. Viremia and neutralizing antibodies were detected in vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep after challenge exposure. Bluetongue virus-specific reaginic antibodies were not detected in sera from any of the sheep when the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test was used.

  1. Phase III Randomized Study of Bendamustine Compared With Chlorambucil in Previously Untreated Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Wolfgang U. Knauf; Toshko Lissichkov; Ali Aldaoud; Anna Liberati; Javier Loscertales; Raoul Herbrecht; Gunnar Juliusson; Gerhard Postner; Liana Gercheva; Stefan Goranov; Martin Becker; Hans-Joerg Fricke; Francoise Huguet; Ilaria Del Giudice; Peter Klein; Lothar Tremmel; Karlheinz Merkle; Marco Montillo


    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C...

  2. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    Berry, Kathryn


    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  3. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;


    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...... with Hazard Ratios ranging from 1.68 to 1.78 for current use compared to never use. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that it is possible to estimate the effect of never, current and previous use of HT on breast cancer using prescription data.......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  4. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Else-Marie eLøberg


    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  5. Customising turnaround time indicators to requesting clinician: a 10-year study through balanced scorecard indicators.

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Santo-Quiles, Ana; Gutierrez, Mercedes; Lugo, Javier; Lillo, Rosa; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos


    The purpose of this study is, first to present a 10-year monitoring of postanalytical turnaround time (TAT) adapted to different clinicians and patient situations, second to evaluate and analyse the indicators results during that period of time, and finally to show a synthetic appropriate indicator to be included in the balanced scorecard management system. TAT indicator for routine samples was devised as the percentage of certain key tests that were verified before a specific time on the phlebotomy day. A weighted mean synthetic indicator was also designed. They were calculated for inpatients at 15:00 and 12:00 and for primary care patients only at 15:00. The troponin TAT of emergency department patients, calculated as the difference between the troponin verification and registration time, was selected as the stat laboratory TAT indicator. The routine and stat TAT improved along the 10-year study period. The synthetic indicator showed the same trend. The implementation of systematic and continuous monitoring over years, promoted a continuous improvement in TAT which will probably benefit patient outcome and safety.

  6. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study.

    Jamshid Gadoev

    Full Text Available TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010.Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%, adolescents (4% and elderly patients (19%. Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure.Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and call for better TB

  7. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L


    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  8. Psychotic illness in first-time mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations: a population-based study.

    Unnur Valdimarsdóttir


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n = 745,596. Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7; high birth weight (> or = 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0; and diabetes (hazard ratio 0. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period.

  9. A multicenter phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    Méndez, Miguel; Salut, Antonieta; García-Girón, Carlos; Navalon, Marta; Diz, Pilar; García López, Maria José; España, Pilar; de la Torre, Ascensión; Martínez del Prado, Purificación; Duarte, Isabel; Pujol, Eduardo; Arizcun, Alberto; Cruz, Juan Jesús


    This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) previously treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study enrolled 115 patients and a total of 558 cycles (median, 6 per patient) were administered. The overall objective response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 18% (with 1 complete response and 20 partial responses), whereas 42 patients (37%) showed stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.8 months and median survival was 13.6 months. Grade 3/4 toxicities included delayed diarrhea (19.1%), nausea/vomiting (10.4%), and neutropenia (8.7%). There were 2 toxic deaths, 1 from delayed diarrhea and 1 from hemorrhage and grade 4 mucositis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy in patients with CRC pretreated with 5-FU.

  10. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one´s daily life? Pró-Saúde Study

    Gilberto Senechal de Goffredo Filho


    Full Text Available In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001 of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study, asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6, regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  11. Various sacral indices: role in study of sexual dimorphism

    Uttama Umesh Joshi


    Results: The indices like sacral index, curvature index, corpobasal index and alar Index were found to be statistically significant with p value 0.05 and was statistically not significant. Conclusions: The most useful aspect of such studies was to determine appropriate indices of sexual dimorphism for sacral bone. The study concluded that no single index can identify sex of sacrum with 100% accuracy. So multiple indices should be used for determination of sex by sacrum with 100% accuracy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 841-846

  12. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K


    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving.

  13. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail:; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)


    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  14. Topological Indices Study of Molecular Structure in Anticancer Drugs

    Wei Gao


    Full Text Available Numerous studies indicate that there is strong inherent relationship between the chemical characteristics of chemical compounds and drugs (e.g., boiling point and melting point and their molecular structures. Topological indices defined on these chemical molecular structures can help researchers better understand the physical features, chemical reactivity, and biological activity. Thus, the study of the topological indices on chemical structure of chemical materials and drugs can make up for lack of chemical experiments and can provide a theoretical basis for the manufacturing of drugs and chemical materials. In this paper, we focus on the family of smart polymer which is widely used in anticancer drugs manufacturing. Several topological indices are determined in view of edge dividing methods, and these results remedy the lack of chemical and medicine experiments thus providing the theoretical basis for pharmaceutical engineering.

  15. Improvability of assembly systems II: Improvability indicators and case study

    S.-Y. Chiang


    Full Text Available Based on the performance analysis technique developed in Part I, this paper presents improvability indicators for assembly lines with unreliable machines. In particular, it shows that assembly lines are unimprovable with respect to workforce re-distribution if each buffer is, on the average, close to being half full. These lines are unimprovable with respect to buffer capacity re-distribution if each machine is starved and blocked with almost equal frequency. In addition, the paper provides indicators for identification of bottleneck machines and bottleneck buffers. Finally, the paper reports on an application of these improvability indicators in a case study at an automotive components plant.

  16. Fluoroscopic studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract: techniques and indications.

    Sánchez-Carpintero de la Vega, M; García Villar, C

    Fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract are becoming increasing less common due to the introduction of other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and to the increased availability of endoscopy. Nevertheless, fluoroscopic studies of the gastrointestinal tract continue to appear in clinical guidelines and some of their indications are still valid. These studies are dynamic, operator-dependent examinations that require training to obtain the maximum diagnostic performance. This review aims to describe the technique and bring the indications for this imaging modality up to date. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Alemtuzumab as rescue therapy in a cohort of 16 aggressive multiple sclerosis patients previously treated by Mitoxantrone: an observational study.

    Le Page, Emmanuelle; Deburghgraeve, Véronique; Lester, Marie-Antoinette; Cardiet, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Edan, Gilles


    Our study aimed to describe safety and neurological impact of alemtuzumab as last-line rescue therapy in aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, previously treated by Mitoxantrone (MITOX). Between June 2004 and October 2013, 13 patients received alemtuzumab at 20 mg/day and 3 at 12 mg/day for 5 days. EDSS, relapses, secondary progression were prospectively assessed 12 and 6 months before treatment, at baseline and every 3 months. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years [1-10]. Mean age at alemtuzumab start was 40 years [26-49] for 8 Secondary Progressive (SP) and 30 years [26-35] for 8 Relapsing-Remitting (RR) patients. MS duration was 13.7 (± 3) and 8.3 (± 4) years, respectively. During the 12 months before alemtuzumab, annual relapse rate was 0.75 and 3.14, respectively and the 16 patients accumulated 2-30 new gadolinium enhancing lesions. 4 patients (suboptimal responders) received alemtuzumab during MITOX and 12 patients 1-7.8 years after MITOX. Out of 8 SPMS, 2 were disease free up to last visit (4.7 and 8 years), 5 improved or stabilized but only transiently and 1 worsened. Out of 8 RRMS, 1 remained stable up to last visit (8.7 years) despite 1 relapse and active MRI at 18 months and 7 improved (1-4 point EDSS): 4 remained disease free up to last visit (12, 24, 38 months and 7 years), 2 were successfully retreated at 25 and 33 months and 1 worsened progressively 24 months after alemtuzumab. 2 patients developed Grave's disease and 1 hypothyroidism. Alemtuzumab controls aggressive RRMS despite previous use of MITOX.

  18. A phase I study of imatinib mesylate in combination with chlorambucil in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    Hebb, Jonathan; Assouline, Sarit; Rousseau, Caroline; Desjardins, Pierre; Caplan, Stephen; Egorin, Merrill J; Amrein, Lilian; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence


    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, has the potential to indirectly inhibit DNA repair. This mechanism of action has been shown to mediate sensitization to chlorambucil in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate this effect in vivo, we performed a phase I study of chlorambucil combined with imatinib in relapsed CLL patients. The three dose levels studied included imatinib at 300, 400, or 600 mg/day. Imatinib was given on days 1-10, and chlorambucil (8 mg/m(2) daily) was given on days 3-7 of a 28-day cycle (up to 6 cycles). Eleven patients participated in this study. Low-grade gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Forty-five percent of patients responded (two unconfirmed CRs and three PRs). Two responding patients were fludarabine refractory. The in vitro IC(50) of chlorambucil alone or in the presence of 5 μM imatinib in CLL lymphocytes correlated with the decrease in lymphocyte counts on day 15. Imatinib plasma concentrations achieved in patients were in the range of those effective in in vitro sensitization studies. The combination of chlorambucil and imatinib in patients with previously treated CLL was well tolerated and showed evidence of clinical efficacy. Based on our results, we recommend the 400 mg daily dose of imatinib on days 1-10 with 8 mg/m(3) chlorambucil on days 3-7 every 28 days as the phase II dose. This represents the first clinical trial examining the potential synergy between a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a conventional alkylating agent for the treatment of CLL.

  19. Marine fouling community in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt compared with four decades of previous studies



    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare the fouling communities between the years 1960 and 1999 in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt and to study the main factors that may be controlling these communities. This comparison is based on monthly durations of panel immersion. By using roughened white polystyrene test panels (12.5x12.5 cm, monthly samples of marine fouling were collected from the harbour from October 1998 through September 1999. It is clear that a remarkable variation in number and diversity of fouling communities throughout the last four decades is evident. The minimum diversities were recorded during the studies of 1960 and 1970 (19 and 20 species respectively, while the maximum diversity (35 species was achieved during the 1991 study. Moreover, a small shift among the four dominant groups (Polychaeta, Cirripedia, Bryozoa and Amphipoda was noted during the four decades of the studies. The present comparison indicated that many factors may contribute to this variation, of which nutrient enrichment is the most important and the nature of the applied test panel is lees so.

  20. Comparative study of variational chaos indicators and ODEs' numerical integrators

    Darriba, Luciano A; Cincotta, Pablo M; Giordano, Claudia M


    The reader can find in the literature a lot of different techniques to study the dynamics of a given system and also, many suitable numerical integrators to compute them. Notwithstanding the recent work of Maffione et al. (2011a) for mappings, a detailed comparison among the widespread indicators of chaos in a general system is still lacking. Such a comparison could lead to select the most efficient algorithms given a certain dynamical problem. Furthermore, in order to choose the appropriate numerical integrators to compute them, more comparative studies among numerical integrators are also needed. This work deals with both problems. We first extend the work of Maffione et al. (2011) for mappings to the 2D H\\'enon & Heiles (1964) potential, and compare several variational indicators of chaos: the Lyapunov Indicator (LI); the Mean Exponential Growth Factor of Nearby Orbits (MEGNO); the Smaller Alignment Index (SALI) and its generalized version, the Generalized Alignment Index (GALI); the Fast Lyapunov Indi...

  1. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Marthoenis Marthoenis


    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  2. Phase III randomized study of bendamustine compared with chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Knauf, Wolfgang U; Lissichkov, Toshko; Aldaoud, Ali; Liberati, Anna; Loscertales, Javier; Herbrecht, Raoul; Juliusson, Gunnar; Postner, Gerhard; Gercheva, Liana; Goranov, Stefan; Becker, Martin; Fricke, Hans-Joerg; Huguet, Francoise; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Klein, Peter; Tremmel, Lothar; Merkle, Karlheinz; Montillo, Marco


    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients (chlorambucil 0.8 mg/kg (Broca's normal weight) orally on days 1 and 15; treatment cycles were repeated every 4 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. The response to treatment was assessed according to National Cancer Institute Working Group criteria, and the final determination of response was made by a blinded independent review committee. A total of 319 patients were randomly assigned (162 bendamustine, 157 chlorambucil). Complete or partial responses were achieved in 110 (68%) of 162 bendamustine-treated and 48 (31%) of 157 chlorambucil-treated patients (P chlorambucil (31% v 2%). Median progression-free survival was 21.6 months with bendamustine and 8.3 months with chlorambucil (P chlorambucil (median, 21.8 v 8.0 months). Hematologic National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more common with bendamustine than with chlorambucil (occurring in 40% v 19% of patients). Severe infections (grade 3 to 4) occurred in 8% of bendamustine-treated patients and 3% of chlorambucil-treated patients. Bendamustine offers significantly greater efficacy than chlorambucil, and a manageable toxicity profile, when used as first-line therapy in patients with advanced CLL.

  3. Integrating Sonography Training Into Undergraduate Medical Education: A Study of the Previous Exposure of One Institution's Incoming Residents.

    Day, James; Davis, Joshua; Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Heil, Daniel; Berg, Katherine; Davis, Robyn; Berg, Dale


    Sonography is a crucial and versatile tool within the field of medicine. Recent advancements in technology have led to increased use of point-of-care sonography. We designed a survey to assess prior point-of-care sonography training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2012 and 2013, we surveyed incoming interns (n = 154 and 145, respectively) regarding point-of-care sonography training received during medical school. The survey questions included formal didactic sessions, bedside instruction, and the use of simulation technology. One-fourth (26.3% in 2012 and 23.4% in 2013) of responding interns reported having never done an ultrasound scan at the bedside. In 2012 and 2013, 55.0% and 55.6% of respondents reported never having done an ultrasound scan in a simulation center, respectively. Interns agreed that sonography education should be provided during medical school. On average, interns disagreed with the statement that sonography should be taught in residency only. There was no significant difference in the sex or general previous experience with sonography across both intern classes. Point-of-care sonography is inconsistently taught in medical school. The interns in our study also thought that sonography education should begin in medical school, and sonography should be taught by using simulation and at the bedside. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Harold David McIntyre


    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  5. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel


    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  6. Epidemiological studies of reproductive performance indicators in Swedish dairy cows

    Löf, Emma


    Reproductive efficiency in dairy cows is a key factor for milk producers, and numerous studies have identified impaired reproductive performance as a major cause of reduced production efficiency in the dairy industry. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge of factors affecting the reproductive performance indicators currently used by herd advisory services and to find other, possibly more efficient, ways to measure reproductive performance in dairy cows. The studies include...


    XIANGHong-Fa; HANZi-Yan; LIANGZang-Guang; XIESu-Xiang


    There were many studies using cervicovaginal peroxidases to predict ovulation. Some resuits suggested that cervieovaginal peroxidases are reliable indicators for ovulation; but others did not. The present study was designed to determine whether the change patterns of ccrvicovaginal guaiacul peroxidase activity in fertile period of Chinese women can also be served as a basis for development of a technique to predict ovulation time in natural family planning.


    Maria Emiliana Fortună


    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for promoting sustainability by using indicators for sustainable production. The concept of sustainable production is described as it is viewed by various organisms actions involved in the analysis of the sustainable industrial systems.The measure of sustainability is approached considering indicators of sustainable production, addressing both their dimensions and qualitative and quantitative features.The proposed framework refines the sustainability dimension for a case study which envisages sustainability in paper manufacturing. The analysis takes into account the life cycle analysis for the considered process since the environmental impact is seen as an essential sustainability indicator. Paper recycling and reuse is associated environmental and social costs, as a preferred alternative in waste minimization hierarchy in the manufacturing of non-trees eco-friendly paper.Proactive initiatives to improve the environmental performances of production process are considered as powerful tools for improving the paper manufacturing environmental footprint.

  9. Persistence of cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous preeclampsia: a long-term follow-up study.

    Aykas, Fatma; Solak, Yalcin; Erden, Abdulsamet; Bulut, Kadir; Dogan, Selcuk; Sarli, Bahadr; Acmaz, Gokhan; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J; Kanbay, Mehmet


    Preeclampsia is a cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, and lifestyle modifications are recommended. It was suggested that preeclampsia may increase the prevalence of various CV disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, microalbuminuria, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. Here, we investigate the role of serum uric acid in preeclampsia in the development of CV complications. This was an observational case-control study that compared women with history of preeclampsia (n = 25) with age-matched controls with uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 20) who were followed for at least 5 years. Measurements included clinical and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ultrasound-measured flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), microalbuminuria, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and serum uric acid, as well as clinical and demographic features. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were compared in women with and without previous preeclampsia. At the time of index gestation, preeclamptic women had higher serum uric acid values (4.36 ± 0.61 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 mg/dL, P preeclampsia were more likely to have hypertension and had higher serum uric acid levels, higher microalbuminuria and CIMT levels, and lower FMD values than did the patients who did not have preeclampsia. The 2 groups were similar with regard to various ambulatory blood pressure parameters. Univariate associates of FMD were history of preeclampsia and the current hypertension status. Microalbuminuria correlated with gestational uric acid levels (coefficient of correlation of 0.40, P = 0.01 for FMD and coefficient of correlation of 0.37, P = 0.01 for CIMT, respectively). Preeclampsia might be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular risk factors at least 5 years after index pregnancy. Serum uric acid and microalbuminuria may be mechanistic mediators of heightened risk, along with impaired endothelial function in preeclampsia.

  10. Sitagliptin added to previously taken antidiabetic agents on insulin resistance and lipid profile: a 2-year study evaluation.

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Ragonesi, Pietro Dario; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Bianchi, Lucio; Bonaventura, Aldo; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the positive effects of sitagliptin on glycemic control and insulin resistance were maintained also after 2 years of therapy and whether sitagliptin could be effective also in improving lipid profile. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 205 patients with type 2 diabetes in therapy with different antidiabetic drugs were randomized to add sitagliptin 100 mg once a day or placebo to their current therapy. We evaluated at the baseline and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months the following parameters: body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (Tg). Sitagliptin, added to previously taken antidiabetic agents, proved to be effective in improving glycemic profile, reducing HbA1c by -17.5%, FPG by -12.7%, PPG by -20.5%. Regarding insulin resistance, sitagliptin decreased FPI by -8.3% and HOMA-IR by -20.0%, confirming that what have been already reported in short-term studies can be applied also after 2 years of treatment. Sitagliptin also reduced body weight by -4.3%. Our study also showed the positive effect of sitagliptin on lipid profile; in particular, sitagliptin decreased TC by -13.3%, LDL-C by -20.4%, and Tg by -32.3%, and also increased HDL-C by + 13.6%. Sitagliptin proved to be effective on glycemic profile and insulin resistance even after 2 years of therapy and to be effective in improving body weight and lipid profile. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.


    Rabi a Parveen


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Pregnancy induced hypertension includes gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia. In PIH, lower the platelet count, greater are maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Recent studies suggest that platele t parameters like platelet indices are most simple and cost effective method for prediction of PIH, way before the appearance of derangements in PT, APTT, TT values so we undertook this study with an aim to see an association between platelet indices and pregnancy induced hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHOD : This was prospective analytical case control study. Study included 125 cases, who were diagnosed as PIH with B.P. > 140/90 mmHg, detected after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Under all aseptic precautions samples were collected randomly in EDTA vials . Samples were analysed for platelet indices . RESULT : Maximum number of cases of Preeclampsia (88.57% & Eclampsia (87.5% were fo und in age group of 21 to 25 . Controls were of same age group i.e. 21 to 25 years. It was observed that platelet count showed gradual decrease in eclampsia (1.44580± 36,210 & pre - e clampsia patients (1.97850± 39,010 as compared to normotensive subjects (2.42620± 40,412. MPV showed gradual increase in eclampsia ( 10.49 ±1.12 & pre - eclampsia ( 9.14 ±0.612 patients as compared to normotensive subjects ( 8.422 ±0.743. PDW value also shows gradual increase in eclampsia ( 18.39 ±2.62 & pre - eclampsia ( 16.29 ±2.34 p atients as compared to normotensive subjects ( 12.09 ±2.53. CONCLUSION : Study showed that platelet indices were important, simple, effortless and cost effective investigations which can be used for early recognition of preventable eclampsia complications.

  12. Study on Structures of Aggressive Tax Planning and Indicators

    Meldgaard, Henrik; Bundgaard, Jakob; Weber, Katja Dyppel

    (ATP). The present study was commissioned with the aim to: 1. Identify model ATP structures; 2. Identify ATP indicators which facilitate or allow ATP; 3. Review the corporate income tax systems of the EU Member States by means of the ATP indicators, in order to identify those tax rules and practices...... (or lack thereof) that result in Member States being vulnerable to ATP. This study was carried out by Ramboll and Corit Advisory with the support of a network of independent national tax experts. It reviews and assesses the corporate income tax systems of all EU Member States. It identifies weaknesses...... of the national tax systems in the EU and sets the ground for additional analysis and new policy initiatives....

  13. Central Arctic atmospheric summer conditions during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS: contrasting to previous expeditions

    M. Tjernström


    Full Text Available Understanding the rapidly changing climate in the Arctic is limited by a lack of understanding of underlying strong feedback mechanisms that are specific to the Arctic. Progress in this field can only be obtained by process-level observations; this is the motivation for intensive ice-breaker-based campaigns such as that described in this paper: the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS. However, detailed field observations also have to be put in the context of the larger-scale meteorology, and short field campaigns have to be analysed within the context of the underlying climate state and temporal anomalies from this.

    To aid in the analysis of other parameters or processes observed during this campaign, this paper provides an overview of the synoptic-scale meteorology and its climatic anomaly during the ASCOS field deployment. It also provides a statistical analysis of key features during the campaign, such as some key meteorological variables, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and clouds, and energy fluxes at the surface. In order to assess the representativity of the ASCOS results, we also compare these features to similar observations obtained during three earlier summer experiments in the Arctic Ocean, the AOE-96, SHEBA and AOE-2001 expeditions.

    We find that these expeditions share many key features of the summertime lower troposphere. Taking ASCOS and the previous expeditions together, a common picture emerges with a large amount of low-level cloud in a well-mixed shallow boundary layer, capped by a weak to moderately strong inversion where moisture, and sometimes also cloud top, penetrate into the lower parts of the inversion. Much of the boundary-layer mixing is due to cloud-top cooling and subsequent buoyant overturning of the cloud. The cloud layer may, or may not, be connected with surface processes depending on the depths of the cloud and surface-based boundary layers and on the relative strengths of


    Dhawal H. Agrawal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pars planavitrectomy is the final step in management of many disease. Taking into consideration usefulness and necessity of Pars planavitrectomy in today's world we would like to do this study to evaluate the surgical outcome of 20 gauge pars planavitreoretinal surgery. Materials and methods: A hospital-based prospective interventional study of series of 46 patients was carried out in retina clinic of SMIMER, Surat, Gujarat, From July 2012 to November 2014 who underwent vitreo-retina surgeries were reviewed. Demography, duration of symptoms, risk factors and indications, preoperative and post-operative visual acuity, intra-operative and post-operative complications were analyzed. Results:Of 46 patients, preoperatively, 89 % had visual acuity of 2/60 to perception of light .The main indication for TPPV was nuclear drop, in 50 %.The visual acuity improved to better than 6/60 in 57% patients , whereas, overall, in 86.9 % of the subjects, it improved by 1 lines postoperatively. The commonest intra-operative complications was bleeding intraocularly(4.35%. Conclusion: Useful vision can be restored by pars planavitrectomy in the majority of the patients (p value <0.01. Timing of vitrectomy did not have influence on visual outcome in patients of nuclear drop. Progression of cataract is the commonest complication of TPPV(10.87%. Indications of vitrectomy does not have statistically significant influence on visual outcome after vitrectomy. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(2.000: 156-160

  15. Discussion on further studies to measure and evaluate fitness and motor performance for preschool children; summary and previous studies in Japan and future consideratin

    Murase, Tomohiko; Demura, Shinichi


    This article discusses and summarizes previous studies dealing with fitness and motor performance in preschool children from the viewpoint of measurement and evaluation, and determines topics for further studies. The studies reviewed in this article were mainly published in the “Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences” (edited by the Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences), and the “Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine” (edite...

  16. Recurrent personality dimensions in inclusive lexical studies: indications for a big six structure.

    Saucier, Gerard


    Previous evidence for both the Big Five and the alternative six-factor model has been drawn from lexical studies with relatively narrow selections of attributes. This study examined factors from previous lexical studies using a wider selection of attributes in 7 languages (Chinese, English, Filipino, Greek, Hebrew, Spanish, and Turkish) and found 6 recurrent factors, each with common conceptual content across most of the studies. The previous narrow-selection-based six-factor model outperformed the Big Five in capturing the content of the 6 recurrent wideband factors. Adjective markers of the 6 recurrent wideband factors showed substantial incremental prediction of important criterion variables over and above the Big Five. Correspondence between wideband 6 and narrowband 6 factors indicate they are variants of a "Big Six" model that is more general across variable-selection procedures and may be more general across languages and populations.

  17. Randomized, multicenter, phase 2 study (EVOLUTION) of combinations of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide in previously untreated multiple myeloma.

    Kumar, Shaji; Flinn, Ian; Richardson, Paul G; Hari, Parameswaran; Callander, Natalie; Noga, Stephen J; Stewart, A Keith; Turturro, Francesco; Rifkin, Robert; Wolf, Jeffrey; Estevam, Jose; Mulligan, George; Shi, Hongliang; Webb, Iain J; Rajkumar, S Vincent


    Combinations of bortezomib (V) and dexamethasone (D) with either lenalidomide (R) or cyclophosphamide (C) have shown significant efficacy. This randomized phase 2 trial evaluated VDC, VDR, and VDCR in previously untreated multiple myeloma (MM). Patients received V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, 11) and D 40 mg (days 1, 8, 15), with either C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8) and R 15 mg (days 1-14; VDCR), R 25 mg (days 1-14; VDR), C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8; VDC) or C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15; VDC-mod) in 3-week cycles (maximum 8 cycles), followed by maintenance with V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15, 22) for four 6-week cycles (all arms)≥very good partial response was seen in 58%, 51%, 41%, and 53% (complete response rate of 25%, 24%, 22%, and 47%) of patients (VDCR, VDR, VCD, and VCD-mod, respectively); the corresponding 1-year progression-free survival was 86%, 83%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Common adverse events included hematologic toxicities, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, and gastrointestinal disturbances. All regimens were highly active and well tolerated in previously untreated MM, and, based on this trial, VDR and VCD-mod are preferred for clinical practice and further comparative testing. No substantial advantage was noted with VDCR over the 3-drug combinations. This trial is registered at (NCT00507442).

  18. Risk for High Depressive Symptoms in Diagnosed and Previously Undetected Diabetes: 5-Year Follow-Up Results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    Icks, Andrea; Albers, Bernd; Haastert, Burkhard; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Pundt, Noreen; Slomiany, Uta; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kruse, Johannes; Kulzer, Bernd; Nowotny, Bettina; Herder, Christian; Giani, Guido; Moebus, Susanne


    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. Methods We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD) 59.1 (7.6) years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes) from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. Result Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI) of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2–10.9), 4.1 (1.8–8.0), and 6.5 (5.6–7.4), respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74–2.03) in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59–1.68) after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35–1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30–1.30. Conclusion We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  19. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  20. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon


    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.




    Full Text Available Introduction of nasal endoscope has revolutionized the field of rhinology. Endoscopic septoplasty is a minimally invasive technique that helps us to correct the deformity of the septum under excellent direct visualization using an endoscope. AIMS: Studied indication, technique result and complication of endoscopic septoplasty. METHODS AND MATERIAL: It was a prospective study carried out at our institute from August 2011 to December 2013 RESULTS: 57 patients having nasal obstruction were selected for the study. In present study 24(42.1% patients had only cartilagenous deviation, 9(15.7% patients had bony deviation, 15(26.3% had both bony and cartilage deviation, while 12(21% had spur and 5(8.7% had caudal dislocation. Minor complications were seen during study, no major occurred during endoscopic septoplasty or post- operative period. In 40(70% cases endoscopic septoplasty was performed as primary procedure and in 9(15.7% cases performed as conjugation with FESS, also in 8(14% patients septoplasty performed prior to endonasal DCR for good assess to lateral nasal. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic septoplasty is an effective technique that can be performed safely alone or in combination with endoscopic sinus surgery. It reduces the complication, hospital stay and has fast recovery of the patients postoperatively. It facilitates accurate identification of the pathology, and it is associated with significant reduction in patient’s morbidity in the postoperative period

  2. Prognostic indicators in bacterial meningitis: a case-control study

    Maria de Fátima Magalhães Acioly Mendizabal

    Full Text Available This was a case-control study to identify prognostic indicators of bacterial meningitis in a reference hospital in Pernambuco/Brazil. The data were collected from charts of 294 patients with bacterial meningitis between January 2000 and December 2004. Variables were grouped in biological, clinical, laboratory and etiologic agent/treatment. Variables selected in each step were grouped and adjusted for age. Two models were created: one containing clinical variables (clinical model and other containing laboratory variables (laboratory model. In the clinical model the variables associated with death due to bacterial meningitis were dyspnea (p = 0.006, evidence of shock (p = 0.051, evidence of altered mental state (p = 0.000, absence of headache (p = 0.008, absence of vomiting (p = 0.052, and age >40 years old (p = 0.013. In the laboratory model, the variables associated with death due to bacterial meningitis were positive blood cultures (p = 0.073 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.019. Identification of prognostic indicators soon after admission may allow early specific measures, like admission of patients with higher risk of death to Intensive Care Units.

  3. Experimental Study on Volume Change Indices of Bentonite Soils


    This paper reports experimental results regarding statically compacted clay specimens to study the volume change behavior of bentonites. The volume change indices such as the coefficients of compressibility, volume compressibility, and consolidation ( i. e.av , mv and cv respectively) and the saturated coefficient of permeability k at different surcharge pressures were determined with the commonly adopted procedures. The swell potentials, swelling pressures, different phases of the swollen specimens were analyzed for the volume change behavior during compression. Experimental results revealed that the swell potential is dependent on the initial dry density, the initial water content and the vertical pressure at which the clay specimens were allowed to swell. The swelling pressure was found to be similar for the specimens with varying water content, showing strong dependency on the initial void ratio. The compression indices ( viz. mv and av) of saturated specimens decreased with an increase in the vertical pressure. About 80% to 90% of the volume change occurred in the primary compression phase under any given vertical pressure. The coefficient of consolidation cv and the saturated coefficient of permeability k decreased with an increase in the vertical pressure.

  4. Increasing incidence of statin prescribing for the elderly without previous cardiovascular conditions:  A nation wide register study

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    Supported by the growing evidence of the beneficial effects of statins in a range of conditions, statin utilization has increased considerably in most Western countries over the last decade. Objectives To estimate to what extent a widening of indication scope for statins accounts for the increasi...... for initiating statin treatment, including the "abolition of ageism". The fact that treatment incidence grew most among elderly without disease markers reflects a changing prescribing behaviours among general practitioners, presumably related to an increased use of risk scoring....

  5. Patient acceptance and clinical impact of Bravo monitoring in patients with previous failed catheter-based studies.

    Sweis, R; Fox, M; Anggiansah, R; Anggiansah, A; Basavaraju, K; Canavan, R; Wong, T


    Standard pH monitoring is performed over 24 h with a naso-oesophageal catheter (C-pH). Limitations include naso-pharyngeal discomfort, nausea and social embarrassment resulting in reduced reflux-provoking activities. Recently a catheter-free pH-monitoring technique has become available. The tolerability and diagnostic yield of this system in patients who failed standard monitoring remain unknown. To examine the tolerability and diagnostic outcome of catheter-free pH-monitoring technique in patients who failed standard monitoring. Patients referred for C-pH and catheter-free pH monitoring completed a tolerability questionnaire. Acid exposure in the distal oesophagus and symptom index (SI) were reviewed. Over 4 years, 883/1751 (50%) of patients with typical reflux symptoms referred for C-pH were diagnosed with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) based on a pathological percentage time acid exposure (%time pH patients failed C-pH and, of these, 129 successfully completed 2-day catheter-free pH monitoring. Ninety-eight (76%) of these patients had a pathological percentage pH patients (P patients who had previously failed C-pH; catheter-free pH monitoring assists the definitive diagnosis of GERD in this group.

  6. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    Olatunji, S. A.


    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  7. Iron deficiency in chronic systolic heart failure(indic study

    Sunil Verma


    Full Text Available Background: Chronic systolic heart failure (HF is characterized by the left ventricular dysfunction, exercise intolerance and is associated with neurohormonal activation that affects several organs such as kidney and skeletal muscle. Anemia is common in HF and may worsen symptoms. Iron deficiency (ID is also common in HF patients with or without anemia. Iron is the key cofactor in oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle and the Krebs cycle. There is a paucity of data regarding iron metabolism in chronic systolic HF in India. Methods: IroN Deficiency In CHF study (INDIC is an observational study that investigated forty chronic heart failure patients for the presence of ID. Serum ferritin (micrograms per liter, serum iron (micrograms per liter, total iron binding capacity (micrograms per liter, transferring (milligrams per deciliter, and transferrin saturation were measured to assess iron status. Results: There were 67.5% (27/40 patients who had ID with a mean serum ferritin level of 76.4 μg/L. Of the 27 iron deficient patients, 22 (55% had an absolute ID, and 5 had a functional ID. Eight out of 27 of the iron deficient patients were anemic (20% of the total cohort, 30% of the iron deficient patients. Anemia was seen in 6 other patients, which was possibly anemia of chronic disease. There was a trend for more advanced New York Heart Association (NYHA class (NYHA III and NYHA IV patients with ID (37.4% vs. 30.77%, P = 0.697. Conclusion: In our study, ID was very common, affecting more than half of the patients with systolic HF. Absolute ID was the most common cause of ID and patients with ID had a tendency to have advanced NYHA class. Our study also demonstrated that ID can occur in the absence of anemia (iron depletion.

  8. Clinical evaluation of balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa and previous cesarean section: A retrospective study on 43 cases.

    Chen, Manru; Xie, Lan


    This study investigated the efficacy of balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta in cesarean section surgery for the patients with placenta previa and previous cesarean section. The patients who had placenta previa and underwent cesarean section (CS) were evaluated. The patients treated with CS to terminate the pregnancy were used as control group (23 cases); the patients treated with the preset abdominal aorta balloon before CS was taken as study group (20 cases). The investigated indicators included the intraoperative blood loss, blood loss within postoperative 24 h, the transfusion amount of red cell suspension (RCS), hospital stay, incidence rate of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), the asphyxia, premature delivery and the mortality of the newborns. The two groups are comparable. The intraoperative blood loss, blood loss within postoperative 24 h, the transfusion amount of RCS and the percentage of uterus resection in the study group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. The percentage of uterine cavity filling with ribbon gauze in the study group was higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The balloon occlusion of lower abdominal aorta seems effective in reducing postpartum hemorrhage and the blood transfusion and decreasing the risk of hysterectomy without harming the newborns. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustainable development indicators: Case study for South Morava river basin

    Veljković Nebojša D.


    Full Text Available The subject of research is elaboration and evaluation of indicators of sustainable development in the field of river basin management. Aggregate indicator entitled Ecoregion Sustainable Development Index is identified by calculation of average value by the procedure of leveling of proportion changes of three key indicators (demographic emission index, water quality index, industrial production index. Developed aggregate indicator of sustainable development is calculated and analyzed for South Morava river basin in Serbia, for the period from 1980 to 2010. The beneficiaries of these indicators are the experts from the field of environmental protection and water management who should use it for elaboration of reports directed towards the creators of economic development policy and river basin management planning. Elaborated according to the given methodology, the indicator Ecoregion Sustainable Development Index is available for the decision makers on the national level, internationally comparative and it provides the conditions for further elaboration and application.

  10. Identifying unintended consequences of quality indicators: a qualitative study

    Lester, H.E.; Hannon, K.L.; Campbell, S.M.


    Background For the first 5 years of the UK primary care pay for performance scheme, the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), quality indicators were introduced without piloting. However, in 2009, potential new indicators were piloted in a nationally representative sample of practices. This paper de

  11. Identifying unintended consequences of quality indicators: a qualitative study

    Lester, H.E.; Hannon, K.L.; Campbell, S.M.


    Background For the first 5 years of the UK primary care pay for performance scheme, the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF), quality indicators were introduced without piloting. However, in 2009, potential new indicators were piloted in a nationally representative sample of practices. This paper

  12. Indicators of violence and asthma: An ecological study

    Fábio de Oliveira Tabalipa


    Conclusions: There was a direct correlation between indicators of violence and rates of admission due asthma, and an inverse correlation with indicators of development. These results suggest that social detriment can act as a risk factor for hospital admissions due to asthma.

  13. A cross-sectional study of personality traits in women previously treated or untreated for alcohol use disorders

    Sundh Valter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationship between treatment-seeking for alcohol problems and personality traits could give useful insight in factors promoting or hindering treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between treatment-seeking for AUD, personality traits, and psychiatric co-morbidity in women. The study was based on pooled cross-sectional data from three population based samples and one clinical sample (n = 1,339. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated women with AUD, and between those with resolved and unresolved AUD. Results A stepwise logistic regression model showed that treatment-seeking for AUD was not associated with personality traits. Among women with lifetime AUD (n = 217, those who had been treated (n = 42 had significantly higher scores than untreated women (n = 175 on three personality traits of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP; somatic anxiety, muscular tension, and guilt. Women with resolved AUD, who had received treatment (n = 23 had significantly higher scores on scales measuring somatic anxiety, psychic anxiety, muscular tension, irritability, and guilt than untreated women with resolved AUD. The latter group resembled women without AUD on most personality traits. There were no differences in occurrence of lifetime psychiatric disorders between the treated and the untreated women, whereas treated women with current AUD had increased risk of lifetime anxiety (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–8.7. Conclusion Treatment-seeking was not associated with personality traits in this study. Still, it can be concluded that women with resolved AUD who had received treatment had high scores on the KSP-scales measuring psychic and somatic anxiety, tension, irritability, and feelings of guilt. This suggests that personality assessment might be a useful tool in tailoring individual treatment programs for women with AUD. Future studies need to

  14. Exploratory study on performance measures as indicators of IS effectiveness

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy


    The Information Systems Directorate at JSC/NASA has undertaken the reevaluation of its performance measures process and measures. Under the direction of a quality approach it is essential to identify an external perspective of how well an organization is performing. This study was conducted with two major objectives: (1) survey and summarize the academic literature on performance measures as indicators of information systems (IS) effectiveness; and (2) survey organizations for their experience in measuring for IS effectiveness. Four approaches to measuring the effectiveness of IS performance were identified: (1) listen to the customer for the things they need; (2) align with corporate goals; (3) benchmark against well-respected organizations; and (4) ask yourself what critical factors lead to success. The list of known methods for soliciting customer feedback are as follows: (1) executive visit; (2) survey, interview, and focus group; (3) complaints and compliments; and (4) service level agreements. A common set of characteristics that satisfy customers was identified from the literature. The list includes elements such as the following: accuracy, timeliness, relevance, understandability, reliability, and completeness. Future research in this topic area should prove beneficial to determine the metrics for external validity.

  15. Development of sustainability indicators by communities in China: a case study of Chongming County, Shanghai.

    Yuan, W; James, P; Hodgson, K; Hutchinson, S M; Shi, C


    Public participation as a means of identifying sustainability indicators for Chongming County, Shanghai, China was evaluated by an international group drawing on established best practice. An initial 'long list' of 86 sustainability indicators, based on previous indicator systems developed in China, was identified. This 'long list' was reduced via consultations with local academics and local-government officers from Shanghai City and Chongming County to a 'short list' of 17 indicators. This short-list was subjected to further community consultation involving 159 local-government officers, teachers, students (aged 12-14 years), farmers and workers. Data from the consultations indicated differences in the understanding of sustainable development among the different sectors. By combining the data from the different sectors it was possible to identify a consensus around 4 core and 7 additional indicators. These are proposed as indicators which could be used to steer local activities directed towards sustainable development. The list of indicators produced by the people of Chongming Island was compared to local indicator systems in Europe. In comparison with European lists the Chongming list was found to have a greater emphasis on economic development but a similar level of concern for environmental matters. This study has special significance as it reports on the implementation of a process involving local resident participation in the process of sustainable development in China.

  16. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.


    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  17. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.


    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  18. Warfarin dosing after bariatric surgery: a retrospective study of 10 patients previously stable on chronic warfarin therapy.

    Schullo-Feulner, A M; Stoecker, Z; Brown, G A; Schneider, J; Jones, T A; Burnett, B


    Many changes associated with bariatric surgery have the potential to affect warfarin dosing; yet current literature includes little data describing this phenomenon. Investigating this relationship may allow for determination of post-bariatric surgery warfarin dosing using stable pre-operative dosing levels. A retrospective chart review was completed for 10 patients stabilized on chronic warfarin therapy who underwent bariatric surgery. Data collection consisted of the following: warfarin requirement in mg/week, time in target range (TTR), creatinine, liver function, diarrhoea, medication changes, diet, and signs of bleeding and/or thrombosis. Three study patients underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures and seven patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The average (standard deviation) weekly warfarin dose required in the immediate post-operative interval was 64% (25%) of baseline dosing, corresponding to a TTR of 48%. At 6 months, patients required 85% (19%) of baseline weekly dosing, with TTR of 53.4%. At 1 year, dosing was 90% (16%) of baseline with TTR of 63.5%. Patients underwent medication changes as well as transient bouts of diarrhoea. Two patients suffered unspecified haemorrhages of the gastrointestinal tract (international normalized ratio [INR] = 2.3 and 9.8). This patient set demonstrated an initial drop in warfarin requirement, followed by escalating dosing trends that became more predictable as patients were farther out from procedure.


    Alejandro \\u00C1lvarez


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to analyze the different defensive performance indicators in basketball, analyzing the difference in relation to success (efficacious or non-efficacious defenses and the game result (win or loss. All halfcourt offenses (n=1045 from the quarterfinal, semifinal, consolation game, and final of the 2008 Olympics Games were analyzed. In each defense phase, the following variables were analyzed with regard to the team on defense: (1 Type of defense used, (2 Pressure in offense transition, (3 Defensive switches, (4 Helping on defense, (5 Inside passes, (6 Degree of opposition when shooting, (7 Points allowed, (8 Final result of the game, and (9 Defensive efficacy. The most significant results show that: : a the type of defense that was most used was quarter-court an-on-man (man-on-man at 6.25m, but the one that was most efficacious was the half-court zone defense; b transition pressure was used in 23.83% of the game phases; c defensive switches were done in 7.85% of the game phases; d helping on defense was used in 60% of the game phases; e inside passes were taken in 30.9% of the game phases; f 38.9% of the shots were done with high opposition; and g points were scored in 42.28% of the game phases, such that winning teams allowed the opponent to score in 38.81% of the game phases, and losing teams in 45.77%.


    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour


    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  1. Variations of the accessory nerve: anatomical study including previously undocumented findings-expanding our misunderstanding of this nerve.

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ajayi, Olaide O; Fries, Fabian N; Spinner, Robert J; Oskouian, Rod J


    The anatomy of the accessory nerve has been well described but continued new clinical and anatomical findings exemplify our lack of a full understanding of the course of this nerve. Therefore, this study aimed to expand on our knowledge of the course of the 11th cranial nerve via anatomical dissections. Fifty-six cadavers (112 sides) underwent dissection of the accessory nerve from its cranial and spinal origins to its emergence into the posterior cervical triangle. Immunohistochemistry was performed when appropriate. Our findings included two cases (1.8%) where the nerve was duplicated, one intracranially and one extracranially. One accessory nerve (0.9%) was found to enter its own dural compartment within the jugular foramen. The majority of sides (80%) were found to have a cranial root of the accessory nerve. Thirty-one sides (28%) had connections to cervical dorsal roots medially and three sides (2.7%) laterally. Medial connections were most common with the C1 nerve. Medial components of these dorsal root connections were all sensory in nature. However, lateral components were motor on two sides (1.8%). Nerves traveled anterior to the internal jugular vein on 88% of sides. One (0.9%) left side nerve joined an interneural anastomosis between the dorsal rootlets. Macroganglia were found on the spinal part of the intracranial nerve on 13% of sides. The lesser occipital nerve arose directly from the accessory nerve on two sides (1.8%) and communicated with the accessory nerve on 5.4% of sides. One side (0.9%) was found to communicate with the facial nerve with both nerves innervating the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Additional anatomical knowledge of the variants of the accessory nerve may benefit patient care when this nerve is pathologically involved.

  2. A Retrospective Case-Control Study Evaluating the Role of Mifepristone for Induction of Labor in Women with Previous Cesarean Section.

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Soni, Anjali; Soni, Pawan K; Verma, Suresh; Verma, Ashok; Gupta, Amit


    To investigate the role of "mifepristone" for induction of labor (IOL) in pregnant women with prior cesarean section (CS). In this retrospective study, all pregnant women with prior CS who received oral mifepristone (400 mg) for IOL (as per clear obstetric indications) [group 1] were compared with pregnant women with prior CS who had spontaneous onset of labor (SOL) [group 2], with respect to incidence of vaginal delivery, CS, duration of labor, and various maternal and fetal outcomes. During the study period, 72 women received mifepristone (group 1) for IOL and 346 had SOL (group 2). In group 1 after mifepristone administration, 40 (55.6 %) women had labor onset, and 24 (33.3 %) women had cervical ripening (Bishop Score ≥ 8) within 48 h. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to duration of labor (p value: 0.681), mode of delivery (i.e., normal delivery or CS-p value: 0.076 or 0.120, respectively), or maternal (blood loss or scar dehiscence/rupture uterus), or fetal outcomes (NICU admission) compared to women with previous CS with SOL (group 2). However, the need of oxytocin (p value 0.020) and dose of oxytocin requirement (p value 0.008) were more statistically significant in group 1. Mifepristone may be considered as an agent for IOL in women with prior CS.

  3. Development and pilot study of an essential set of indicators for general surgery services.

    Soria-Aledo, Victor; Angel-Garcia, Daniel; Martinez-Nicolas, Ismael; Rebasa Cladera, Pere; Cabezali Sanchez, Roger; Pereira García, Luis Francisco


    At present there is a lack of appropriate quality measures for benchmarking in general surgery units of Spanish National Health System. The aim of this study is to present the selection, development and pilot-testing of an initial set of surgical quality indicators for this purpose. A modified Delphi was performed with experts from the Spanish Surgeons Association in order to prioritize previously selected indicators. Then, a pilot study was carried out in a public hospital encompassing qualitative analysis of feasibility for prioritized indicators and an additional qualitative and quantitative three-rater reliability assessment for medical record-based indicators. Observed inter-rater agreement, prevalence adjusted and bias adjusted kappa and non-adjusted kappa were performed, using a systematic random sample (n=30) for each of these indicators. Twelve out of 13 proposed indicators were feasible: 5 medical record-based indicators and 7 indicators based on administrative databases. From medical record-based indicators, 3 were reliable (observed agreement >95%, adjusted kappa index >0.6 or non-adjusted kappa index >0.6 for composites and its components) and 2 needed further refinement. Currently, medical record-based indicators could be used for comparison purposes, whilst further research must be done for validation and risk-adjustment of outcome indicators from administrative databases. Compliance results in the adequacy of informed consent, diagnosis-to-treatment delay in colorectal cancer, and antibiotic prophylaxis show room for improvement in the pilot-tested hospital. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys

  5. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study

    van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.


    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  6. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence : The trails study

    van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Huizink, A. C.


    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys an

  7. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Malahiyo Rajabu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  8. Socioeconomic indicators in epidemiologic research: A practical example from the LIFEPATH study.

    d'Errico, Angelo; Ricceri, Fulvio; Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Kivimaki, Mika; Bartley, Mel; McCrory, Cathal; Bochud, Murielle; Vollenweider, Peter; Tumino, Rosario; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Barros, Henrique; Giles, Graham; Severi, Gianluca; Costa, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo


    Several social indicators have been used in epidemiological research to describe socioeconomic position (SEP) of people in societies. Among SEP indicators, those more frequently used are education, occupational class and income. Differences in the incidence of several health outcomes have been reported consistently, independently from the indicator employed. Main objectives of the study were to present the socioeconomic classifications of the social indicators which will be employed throughout the LIFEPATH project and to compare social gradients in all-cause mortality observed in the participating adult cohorts using the different SEP indicators. Information on the available social indicators (education, own and father's occupational class, income) from eleven adult cohorts participating in LIFEPATH was collected and harmonized. Mortality by SEP for each indicator was estimated by Poisson regression on each cohort and then evaluated using a meta-analytical approach. In the meta-analysis, among men mortality was significantly inversely associated with both occupational class and education, but not with father's occupational class; among women, the increase in mortality in lower social strata was smaller than among men and, except for a slight increase in the lowest education category, no significant differences were found. Among men, the proposed three-level classifications of occupational class and education were found to predict differences in mortality which is consistent with previous research. Results on women suggest that classifying them through their sole SEP, without considering that of their partners, may imply a misclassification of their social position leading to attenuation of mortality differences.

  9. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail:; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.


    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  10. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Schreinemachers Dina M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher level of spring wheat farming than in counties with lower levels of this crop. Spring wheat, one of the major field crops in these four states, was treated for 85% or more of its acreage with chlorophenoxy herbicides. In the current study NHANES III data were reviewed for associations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D exposure, one of the most frequently used chlorophenoxy herbicides, with risk factors that are linked to the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes, such as dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism. Methods To investigate the toxicity pattern of chlorophenoxy herbicides, effects of a previous 2,4-D exposure were assessed by comparing levels of lipids, glucose metabolism, and thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy adult NHANES III subjects with urinary 2,4-D above and below the level of detection, using linear regression analysis. The analyses were conducted for all available subjects and for two susceptible subpopulations characterized by high glycosylated hemoglobin (upper 50th percentile and low thyroxine (lower 50th percentile. Results Presence of urinary 2,4-D was associated with a decrease of HDL levels: 8.6% in the unadjusted data (p-value = 0.006, 4.8% in the adjusted data (p-value = 0.08, and 9% in the adjusted data for the susceptible subpopulation with low thyroxine (p-value = 0.02. An effect modification of the inverse triglycerides-HDL relation was observed in association with 2,4-D. Among subjects with low HDL, urinary 2,4-D was associated with increased levels of triglycerides, insulin, C-peptide, and thyroid stimulating hormone, especially in the susceptible subpopulations. In contrast, subjects with

  11. Myocardial adaptation to high-intensity (interval) training in previously untrained men with a longitudinal cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study (Running Study and Heart Trial).

    Scharf, Michael; Schmid, Axel; Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; May, Matthias S; Wuest, Wolfgang; Achenbach, Stephan; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M


    To prospectively evaluate whether short-term high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) induces detectable morphological cardiac changes in previously untrained men in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Eighty-four untrained volunteers were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T group (n=42; 44.1±4.7 years) or an inactive control group (n=42; 42.3±5.6 years). HI(I)T focused on interval runs (intensity: 95%-105% of individually calculated heart rate at the anaerobic threshold). Before and after 16 weeks, all subjects underwent physiological examination, stepwise treadmill test with blood lactate analysis, and contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cine, tagging, and delayed enhancement). Indexed left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume (LV, 77.1±8.5-83.9±8.6; RV, 80.5±8.5-86.6±8.1) and mass (LV, 58.2±6.4-63.4±8.1; RV, 14.8±1.7-16.1±2.1) significantly increased with HI(I)T. Changes in LV and RV morphological parameters with HI(I)T were highly correlated with an increase in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and a decrease in blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold. Mean LV and RV remodeling index of HI(I)T group did not alter with training (0.76 ±0.09 and 0.24±0.10 g/mL, respectively [P=0.97 and P=0.72]), indicating balanced cardiac adaptation. Myocardial circumferential strain decreased after HI(I)T within all 6 basal segments (anteroseptal, P=0.01 and anterolateral, PHeart Association, Inc.

  12. [Broader indication for treatment with statins; the 'heart protection study'

    Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Stuyt, P.M.J.


    The introduction of statins has been a breakthrough in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Statins are safe and effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in the general population. The 'Heart protection study' has provided evidence for the benefit of statin treatment in much broad

  13. Studies of twins indicate that genetics influence dietary intake

    Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O


    Habitual dietary intake is a complex behavior that may have both biological and nonbiological bases. We estimated the contribution of genetic and environmental influences on dietary intake in a large population-based sample of healthy twins. Data originated from a cross-sectional study of 600 mal...

  14. Missing osteoconductive effect of a resorbable PEO/PBT copolymer in human bone defects: a clinically relevant pilot study with contrary results to previous animal studies.

    Roessler, M; Wilke, A; Griss, P; Kienapfel, H


    PEO/PBT 70/30 (POLYACTIVE(R) 70/30), a degradable porous copolymer with elastic properties, was found to be osteoconductive in many animal studies. The aim of this study was to determine the osteoconductive effect in a human paired control iliac defect model. In seven patients undergoing anterior spinal interbody fusion surgery, two bicortical iliac defects for autograft harvesting were created. The defect size was identical for both defects measuring about 40 x 15 mm (group I). One defect was filled with the degradable implants, whereas the remaining one was left untreated as a control. The defect site for treatment was chosen randomly. In three further patients, only one defect measuring about 40 x 35 mm was created (group II). All patients were examined clinically and radiologically by spiral-CT after 1, 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. Three-dimensional reconstructions as well as CT-volumetric measurements using 1 mm sections were used as evaluation methods. In group I, a two-tailed paired t-test showed that the treated defects had significantly less formation of new bone than the untreated ones (p < 0.05 after 12 weeks, p < 0.01 after 52 weeks). Also, in group II, not much bone ingrowth could be observed. The histological evaluation of one patient in group I revealed no bone within the pores, and a fibrous layer between bone and implant was always present. Therefore, PEO/PBT 70/30 cannot be recommended as a bone substitute for clinical use. Differences in bone regeneration between humans and certain animal species as well as inapplicable defect models in previous animal studies are discussed as possible reasons for the failure.

  15. Mesopotamian fertile crescent nearly gone, new study indicates

    Showstack, Randy

    Something is terribly amiss in the marshlands of the fertile crescent of Mesopotamia, where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flow, and where Gilgamesh, the hero of an epic that dates at least as far back as the third millennium B.C., ruled.The marshlands, which are located primarily in Iraq and once extended between 15,000 and 20,000 square kilometers, now have been reduced to less than 1,500 to 2,000 square kilometers, according to a new study issued May 18 by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The marshlands could disappear in the near future if no immediate corrective actions are taken, according to Hassan Partow, the principal author of the UNEP study and a scientist within the agency's division of early warning and assessment.

  16. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand


    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  17. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de


    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  18. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    Suenaga M


    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga,1 Nobuyuki Mizunuma,1 Satoshi Matsusaka,1 Eiji Shinozaki,1 Masato Ozaka,1 Mariko Ogura,1 Toshiharu Yamaguchi21Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods: Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77 years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0 and the response rate (complete response and partial response was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment

  19. Study of oral clefts: Indication of gene-environment interaction

    Hwang, S.J.; Beaty, T.H.; Panny, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others


    In this study of infants with isolated birth defects, 69 cleft palate-only (CPO) cases, 114 cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P), and 284 controls with non-cleft birth defects (all born in Maryland during 1984-1992) were examined to test for associations among genetic markers and different oral clefts. Modest associations were found between transforming growth factor {alpha} (TGF{alpha}) marker and CPO, as well as that between D17S579 (Mfd188) and CL/P in this study. The association between TGF{alpha} marker and CPO reflects a statistical interaction between mother`s smoking and child`s TGF{alpha} genotype. A significantly higher risk of CPO was found among those reporting maternal smoking during pregnancy and carrying less common TGF{alpha} TaqI allele (odds ratio=7.02 with 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.6). This gene-environment interaction was also found among those who reported no family history of any type of birth defect (odds ratio=5.60 with 95% confidence interval 1.4-22.9). Similar associations were seen for CL/P, but these were not statistically significant.

  20. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P


    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  1. The Best Obesity Indices to Use in a Single Factor Model Indicating Metabolic Syndrome: a Population Based Study.

    Motamed, Nima; Zamani, Farhad; Rabiee, Behnam; Saeedian, Fatemeh Sima; Maadi, Mansooreh; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Asouri, Mohsen


    Although metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major health problem worldwide, there is no universal agreement on its definition. One of the major disagreements is dealing with the issue of obesity in this definition. This study was conducted to determine a preferably better index of obesity which can be interrelated with other components of MetS in a single factor model of MetS. Out of 6140 participants of a cohort study of subjects aged 10-90 years in northern Iran, the baseline data of 5616 participants aged 18-75 was considered.  Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS software to evaluate a single factor model of MetS in which blood pressure, triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and obesity measures including waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI),  waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indicators of metabolic syndrome. Four single factor models differing from each other by obesity indices were evaluated. The models were evaluated in all 5616 subjects and 4931 subjects without diabetes mellitus according to sex separately. All single factor models had appropriate fit indices with CFI > 0.95, GFI > 0.95 and RMSEA models obtained the best values of fit indices in men and good fit indices in women. In the general population of men, the single factor models built based on WHR (Chi-square=6.9, df=2, P-value=0.031, RMSEA = 0.028, CI = 0.007-0.052, CFI = 0.994, GFI = 0.999 and AIC = 22.9)  and WHtR (Chi-square = 9.97, df = 2, P-value = 0.007, RMSEA = 0.036, CI = 0.016-0.059, CFI = 0.992, GFI = 0.998 and AIC = 25.97) were fitted properly with data while in th general population of women, the model based on WHR obtained better fit indices (Chi-square = 7.5, df = 2, P-value = 0.023, RMSEA = 0.033, CI = 0.011-0.060, CFI = 0.994, GFI = 0.998 and AIC = 23.5). Models based on WHtR obtained better regression weights than WHR. While single factor validity of MetS was confirmed in

  2. Development of key indicators of hospital resilience: a modified Delphi study.

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard


    Hospital resilience is an emerging concept, which can be defined as 'a hospital's ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining its critical health care functions, and then recover to its original state or adapt to a new one'. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive framework of key indicators of hospital resilience. A panel of 33 Chinese experts was invited to participate in a three-round, modified Delphi study to develop a set of potential measures previously derived from a literature review. In the first round, these potential measures were modified to cover the comprehensive domains of hospital resilience. The importance of proposed measures was scored by experts on a five-point Likert scale. Subsequently, the experts reconsidered their voting in light of the previous aggregated results. Agreement on measures was defined as at least 70% of the responders agreeing or strongly agreeing to the inclusion of a measure. A large proportion of preliminary measures (89.5%) were identified as having good potential for assessing hospital resilience. These measures were categorized into eight domains, 17 subdomains, and 43 indicators. The highest rated indicators (mean score) were: equipment for on-site rescue (4.7), plan initiation (4.6), equipment for referral of patients with complex care needs (4.5), the plan execution (4.4), medication management strategies (4.4), emergency medical treatment conditions (4.4), disaster committee (4.4), stock types and quantities for essential medications (4.4), surge capacity of emergency beds (4.4), and mass-casualty triage protocols (4.4). This framework identifies a comprehensive set of indicators of hospital resilience. It can be used for hospital assessment, as well as informing priority practices to address future disasters better. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  3. Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    Klement, Andreas; Bretschneider, Kristin; Lautenschläger, Christine; Stang, Andreas; Herrmann, Markus; Haerting, Johannes


    Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10) was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to p...

  4. Continous controversy about radiation oncologists' choice of treatment regimens for bone metatases: should we blame doctors, canser-related features, or design of previous clinical studies

    Nieder, Carsten; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid


    Recent studies from Italy, Japan and Norway have confirmed previous reports, which found that a large variety of palliative radiotherapy regimens are used for painful bone metastases. Routine use of single fraction treatment might or might not be the preferred institutional approach. It is not entirely clear why inter-physician and inter-institution differences continue to persist despite numerous randomized trials, meta-analyses and guidelines, which recommend against more costly and inconve...

  5. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A


    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  6. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole


    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  7. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Festa Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2 study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7% among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures.

  8. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Drapeau, Cecilia MJ; Angeletti, Claudio; Festa, Anna; Petrosillo, Nicola


    Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA) infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2) study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures. PMID:17470274

  9. Phase II study of capecitabine as palliative treatment for patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous head and neck cancer after previous platinum-based treatment

    Martinez-Trufero, J; Isla, D; Adansa, J C; Irigoyen, A; Hitt, R; Gil-Arnaiz, I; Lambea, J; Lecumberri, M J; Cruz, J J


    Background: Platinum-based therapy (PBT) is the standard therapy for recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC), but the incidence of recurrence remains high. This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine as palliative monotherapy for recurrent HNC previously treated with PBT. Methods: Patients aged 18–75 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2, squamous HNC with locoregional and/or metastatic recurrence previously treated with PBT and adequate organ functions, were included. Capecitabine (1.250 mg m−2 BID) was administered on days 1–14 every 21 days for at least two cycles. Results: A total of 40 male patients with a median age of 58 years were analysed. All patients received a median number of four cycles of capecitabine (range: 1–9) and the median relative dose intensity was 91%. Seven patients were not evaluable for response. Overall response rate was 24.2%. Median time to progression and overall survival were 4.8 and 7.3 months, respectively. Haematological adverse events (AEs) grade 3/4 were reported in six patients. Most common grade 3/4 non-haematological AEs were asthenia (12.5%), palmar-plantar eritrodisestesia (10%), mucositis (10%), dysphagia (10%) and diarrhoea (7.5%). Conclusions: Capecitabine seems to be an active, feasible and well-tolerated mode of palliative treatment for advanced HNC patients who have previously received PBT schedules. PMID:20485287

  10. ERP indices of persisting and current inhibitory control: a study of saccadic task switching.

    Mueller, S C; Swainson, R; Jackson, G M


    Previous studies have found that inhibition of a biologically dominant prepotent response tendency is required during the execution of a less familiar, non-prepotent response. However, the lasting impact of this inhibition and the cognitive mechanisms to flexibly switch between prepotent and non-prepotent responses are poorly understood. We examined the neurophysiological (ERP) correlates of switching between prosaccade and antisaccade responses in 22 healthy volunteers. The behavioural data showed significant switch costs in terms of response latency for the prosaccade task only. These costs occurred exclusively in trials when preparation for the switch was limited to 300 ms, suggesting that inhibition of the prepotent prosaccade task either passively dissipated or was actively overcome during the longer 1000 ms preparation interval. In the neurophysiological data, a late frontal negativity (LFN) was visible during preparation for a switch to the prosaccade task that was absent when switching to the antisaccade task, which may reflect the overcoming of persisting inhibition. During task implementation both saccade types were associated with a late parietal positivity (LPP) for switch relative to repetition trials, possibly indicating attentional reorienting to the switched-to task, and visible only with short preparation intervals. When the prosaccade and antisaccade task were contrasted directly during task implementation, the antisaccade task exhibited increased stimulus-locked N2 and decreased P3 amplitudes indicative of active inhibition. The present findings indicate that neurophysiological markers of persisting and current inhibition can be revealed using a prosaccade/antisaccade-switching task.

  11. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange


    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  12. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Corrard François


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  13. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R


    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  15. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing


    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  16. Biomechanical jumping differences among elite female handball players with and without previous anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a novel inertial sensor unit study.

    Setuain, Igor; Millor, Nora; González-Izal, Miriam; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Gómez, Marisol; Alfaro-Adrián, Jesús; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Izquierdo, Mikel


    Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations have been observed among female athletes who have sustained anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine if biomechanical jumping differences persist among a cohort of elite female handball players with previous ACL reconstruction several years after return to top-level competition. In order to achieve this goal, a direct mechanics simplified analysis by using a single Inertial Sensor Unit (IU) was used. Twenty-one elite female (6 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and 15 uninjured control players) handball players were recruited and evaluated 6.0 ± 3.5 years after surgical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps were performed to evaluate the functional performance and a single inertial sensor unit was employed in order to collect 3D acceleration and 3D orientation data. Previously ACL-reconstructed analysed athletes demonstrated significant (p reconstruction. Identification of the encountered deficits through the use of an IU devise could provide clinicians with a new reliable tool for movement analysis in a clinical setting.

  17. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad


    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  18. Long-term cancer risk after hysterectomy on benign indications: Population-based cohort study.

    Altman, Daniel; Yin, Li; Falconer, Henrik


    Hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for adverse health effects. However, little is known about the association between hysterectomy and subsequent cancer occurrence later in life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hysterectomy on the incidence of cancer. In this population-based cohort study, we used data on 111,595 hysterectomized and 537,9843 nonhysterectomized women from nationwide Swedish Health Care registers including the Inpatient Register, the Cancer Register and the Cause of Death Register between 1973 and 2009. Hysterectomy with or without concomitant bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy (BSO) performed on benign indications was considered as exposure and incidence of primary cancers was used as outcome measure. Rare primary cancers (cancer was observed for women with previous hysterectomy and for those with hysterectomy and concurrent BSO (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.96, respectively). Compared to nonhysterectomized women, significant risks were observed for thyroid cancer (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.45-2.14). For both hysterectomy and hysterectomy with BSO, an association with brain cancer was observed (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.32-1.65 and HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.15-1.83, respectively). Hysterectomy, with or without BSO, was not associated with breast, lung or gastrointestinal cancer. We conclude that hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for thyroid and brain cancer later in life. Further research efforts are needed to identify patient groups at risk of malignancy following hysterectomy.

  19. Study on the Properties of TiN Coatings on Previously Ion-Implanted Pure Magnesium Surface by MEVVA Ion Implantation

    ZHOU Hai; CHEN Fei; WANG Jian-ping


    A metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) is used in ion implantation for substrate preparation before the deposition process which would ensure the improvement of mechanical properties of the coating.Ti ion is implanted into pure magnesium surface by MEVVA implanter operated with a modified cathode.Implanting energy is kept at 45 keV and dose is set at 3×1017 cm-2.TiN coatings are deposited by magnetically filtered vacuum-arc plasma source on unimplanted and previously implanted substrates.Microstructure and phase composition are analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The property of corrosion resistance of TiN coatings was studied by CS300P electrochemistry-corrosion workstation,and the main impact factor of the corrosion resistance was also analyzed.

  20. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl;


    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median.......3-7.7), respectively. CONCLUSION: Three-day topotecan with cisplatin on day 3 is active and safe in extensive disease SCLC. An ongoing phase III randomized trial compares this combination to standard treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...


    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen


    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  2. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A


    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  3. A Phase III Study of Durvalumab (MEDI4736) With or Without Tremelimumab for Previously Treated Patients With Advanced NSCLC: Rationale and Protocol Design of the ARCTIC Study.

    Planchard, David; Yokoi, Takashi; McCleod, Michael J; Fischer, Jürgen R; Kim, Young-Chul; Ballas, Marc; Shi, Kelvin; Soria, Jean-Charles


    Anti-programmed cell death-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monotherapies have shown promising clinical activity in advanced, refractory non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but antitumor activity appears to be greater in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors compared with patients harboring PD-L1(-) tumors. Combining the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab and the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody tremelimumab offers the potential for antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 tumor status. ARCTIC (NCT02352948) is a global, phase III, randomized, open-label multicenter study in patients with advanced NSCLC assessing the safety and clinical activity of durvalumab versus standard of care (SoC; erlotinib, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine) in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors (≥25% of tumor cells with membrane staining using VENTANA PD-L1 [SP263] CDx Assay) (Sub-study A) and the combination of durvalumab + tremelimumab or either agent as monotherapy versus SoC in patients with PD-L1(-) tumors (Sub-study B). Eligible patients are those with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC (Stage IIIB/IV), without epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, who have received at least 2 prior systemic regimens, including 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary endpoints include the proportion of patients alive at 12 months, objective response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months, safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and quality of life. The exploratory endpoints will assess potential biomarkers of treatment response. Recruitment started in January 2015 and is ongoing.

  4. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer.

    Rao, S; Cunningham, D; Hawkins, R E; Hill, M E; Smith, D; Daniel, F; Ross, P J; Oates, J; Norman, A R


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU (ECF) improves overall survival (OS) compared to 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) in patients with previously untreated advanced biliary cancer in a prospective randomised study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU ECF or bolus 5FU etoposide and leucovorin (FELV). The primary end point was OS with secondary end points of objective response rate (ORR), failure-free survival (FFS), quality of life (QOL) and toxicity. In all, 54 patients were recruited with 27 randomly assigned to each arm. The median OS for ECF was 9.02 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.46-11.51) and FELV 12.03 months (95% CI: 9.3-14.7), P=0.2059. Objective response rates were similar for both arms: ECF 19.2% (95% CI: 6.55-39.3); FELV 15% (95% CI: 3.2-37.9), P=0.72. There was significantly increased grade 3/4 neutropenia with FELV vs ECF (53.8 vs 29.5%, respectively, P=0.020). Symptom resolution was impressive for both regimens. This is the largest reported randomised study to date in this setting. ECF did not improve OS compared to FELV, but was associated with less acute toxicity. These data suggest that chemotherapy can prolong OS and achieve good symptomatic relief in advanced biliary cancer.

  5. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Malindu Eranga Fernando

    Full Text Available AIMS: Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. METHODS: Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP and pressure time integral (PTI were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310. RESULTS: Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, p<0.001; and 0.762, 95% CI 0.303-1.221, p = 0.001, respectively. Sub-group analyses demonstrated no significant difference in MPP for those with neuropathy with active ulceration compared to those without ulcers. A significant difference in MPP was found for those with neuropathy with a past history of ulceration compared to those without ulcers; (0.467, 95% CI 0.181- 0.753, p = 0.001. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic

  6. The influence of previous infections and antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity on functional outcome in ischemic stroke patients: results from the IN2 study.

    Consoli, Domenico; Vidale, Simone; Aguglia, Umberto; Bassi, Pietro; Cavallini, Anna; Consoli, Arturo; Galati, Franco; Guidetti, Donata; Micieli, Giuseppe; Neri, Giuseppe; Rasura, Maurizia; Sterzi, Roberto; Toni, Danilo; Inzitari, Domenico


    Although a growing attention is being paid to acute ischemic stroke patients, the correlation between clinical outcome and infectious events in this population has been poorly investigated. 749 ischemic stroke (mean age 71 years old, males 56%) patients were enrolled in this prospective case-control study by 11 Italian Stroke Units. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, previous infections and post-stroke infections (PSIs) were recorded. Blood samples were collected and the enzyme-linked immunoassay was chosen to measure Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG and IgA plasma antibodies (antibody titers were classified with specific cut-off levels: IgA > 1:16 and IgG > 1:64). Early poor outcome was defined as mRS score >2 at discharge, while poor outcome at 6-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Median NIHSS was 7, IgA and IgG antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivities were observed in 308 (37.1%) and 207 (23.6%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed significant correlations between PSIs and NIHSS (RR: 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.09; p < 0.001) and PSIs and IgA antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity (RR: 3.84; 95% CI 2.53-5.84; p < 0.001). Significant disability was associated with baseline NIHSS (RR: 1.32; 95% CI 1.16-1.50; p < 0.001), IgA (RR: 2.67; 95% CI 1.06-6.70; p = 0.035) and IgG antichlamydia (RR: 5.75; 95% CI 1.83-18.03; p = 0.003) seropositivity and atrial fibrillation (RR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.81-3.67; p < 0.001). While previous infections were not associated with functional outcome, antichlamydia antibodies play a negative role in ischemic stroke patients. Preventive strategies may reduce the stroke burden and improve the clinical outcome.

  7. Geostatistical Microscale Study of Magnetic Susceptibility in Soil Profile and Magnetic Indicators of Potential Soil Pollution.

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Fabijańczyk, Piotr; Magiera, Tadeusz; Rachwał, Marzena

    Directional variograms, along the soil profile, can be useful and precise tool that can be used to increase the precision of the assessment of soil pollution. The detail analysis of spatial variability in the soil profile can be also an important part of the standardization of soil magnetometry as a screening method for an assessment of soil pollution related to the dust deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic parameters of spatial correlations of magnetic susceptibility in the soil profile, such as a range of correlation and a sill, and selected magnetometric indicators of soil pollution. Magnetic indicators were an area under the curve of magnetic susceptibility versus a depth in the soil profile, values of magnetic susceptibility at depths ranging from 1 to 10 cm, and maximum and background values of magnetic susceptibility in the soil profile. These indicators were previously analyzed in the literature. The results showed that a range of correlation of magnetic susceptibility was significantly correlated with magnetic susceptibility measured at depths 1, 2, and 3 cm. It suggests that a range of correlation is a good measure of pollutants' dispersion in the soil profile. The sill of the variogram of magnetic susceptibility was found to be significantly correlated with the area under the curve of plot of magnetic susceptibility that is related to the soil pollution. In consequence, the parameters of microscale spatial variability of magnetic susceptibility in s soil profile are important measures that take into consideration the spatial aspect of s soil pollution.

  8. Towards a standardized method of developing quality indicators for palliative care: protocol of the Quality indicators for Palliative Care (Q-PAC) study

    Leemans, Kathleen; Cohen, Joachim; Francke, Anneke L; Vander Stichele, Robert; Claessen, Susanne Jj; Van den Block, Lieve; Deliens, Luc


    .... In this Quality Indicators for Palliative Care study (Q-PAC study) we have applied a scientifically rigorous method to develop a comprehensive and valid quality indicator set which can contribute to a standardized method for use in other countries...

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis


    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  10. ACTG-HIV symptoms changes in patients switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to previous intolerance to CART. Interim analysis of the PRO-STR study

    Daniel Podzamczer


    Full Text Available Introduction: Tolerability and convenience are crucial aspects for the long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact in routine clinical practice of switching to the single tablet regimen (STR RPV/FTC/TDF in patients with intolerance to previous cART, in terms of patients’ well-being, assessed by several validated measures. Methods: Prospective, multicenter study. Adult HIV-infected patients with viral load under 1.000 copies/mL while receiving a stable ART for at least the last three months and switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to intolerance of previous regimen, were included. Analyses were performed by ITT. Presence/magnitude of symptoms (ACTG-HIV Symptom Index, quality of life (EQ-5D, EUROQoL & MOS-HIV, adherence (SMAQ, preference of treatment and perceived ease of medication (ESTAR through 48 weeks were performed. Results: Interim analysis of 125 patients with 16 weeks of follow up was performed. 100 (80% were male, mean age 46 years. Mean CD4 at baseline was 629.5±307.29 and 123 (98.4% had viral load <50 copies/mL; 15% were HCV co-infected. Ninety two (73.6% patients switched from a NNRTI (84.8% from EFV/FTC/TDF and 33 (26.4% from a PI/r. The most frequent reasons for switching were psychiatric disorders (51.2%, CNS adverse events (40.8%, gastrointestinal (19.2% and metabolic disorders (19.2%. At the time of this analysis (week 16, four patients (3.2% discontinued treatment: one due to adverse events, two virologic failures and one with no data. A total of 104 patients (83.2% were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL. The average degree of discomfort in the ACTG-HIV Symptom Index significantly decreased from baseline (21±15.55 to week 4 (10.89±12.36 & week 16 (10.81±12.62, p<0.001. In all the patients, quality of life tools showed a significant benefit in well-being of the patients (Table 1. Adherence to therapy significantly and progressively increased (SMAQ from

  11. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    Bidoli Ettore


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. Methods From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216. Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294, in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Results Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44 occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005. Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. Conclusions This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically

  12. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping Indicates a Disturbed Brain Iron Homeostasis in Neuromyelitis Optica – A Pilot Study

    Granado, Vanessa; Rueda, Fernanda; Deistung, Andreas; Reichenbach, Juergen R.; Tukamoto, Gustavo; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Schweser, Ferdinand


    Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and can be associated with oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate brain iron in patients with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), a quantitative iron-sensitive MRI technique. 12 clinically confirmed NMO patients (6 female and 6 male; age 35.4y±14.2y) and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (7 female and 5 male; age 33.9±11.3y) underwent MRI of the brain at 3 Tesla. Quantitative maps of the effective transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and magnetic susceptibility were calculated and a blinded ROI-based group comparison analysis was performed. Normality of the data and differences between patients and controls were tested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-test, respectively. Correlation with age was studied using Spearman’s rank correlation and an ANCOVA-like analysis. Magnetic susceptibility values were decreased in the red nucleus (p0.95; between -15 and -22 ppb depending on reference region) with a trend toward increasing differences with age. R2* revealed significantly decreased relaxation in the optic radiations of five of the 12 patients (p<0.0001; -3.136±0.567 s-1). Decreased relaxation in the optic radiation is indicative for demyelination, which is in line with previous findings. Decreased magnetic susceptibility in the red nucleus is indicative for a lower brain iron concentration, a chemical redistribution of iron into less magnetic forms, or both. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the pathological cause or consequence of this finding. PMID:27171423

  13. CEAMF study, volume 2 : cumulative effects indicators, thresholds, and case studies : final



    The four types of cumulative effects on the environment are: alteration, loss, and fragmentation of habitat; disturbance; barriers to movement; and direct and indirect mortality. Defining where and how human activities can be continued without irreversible net harm to the environment is part of cumulative effects management. Various land-use and habitat indicators were tested in the Blueberry and Sukunka study areas of British Columbia, to address the environmental effects associated with oil and gas development. As recommended, a tiered threshold approach was used to allow for flexibility in different land management regimes and ecological settings. Success will depend on defining acceptable change, threshold values, standard public database, standard processes to calculate indicator values using the database, and project-specific and cooperative management actions. A pilot study was suggested to test the candidate thresholds and implementation process. The two areas proposed for consideration were the Jedney Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort St. John Forest District, and the Etsho Enhanced Resource Development Resource Management Zone in the Fort Nelson Forest District. Both are of interest to the petroleum and forest sectors, and support the woodland caribou, a species which is extremely sensitive to cumulative effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance. 117 refs., 11 tabs., 39 figs.

  14. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on nocturia and quality of life in men with hypogonadism: a subanalysis of a previous prospective randomized controlled study in Japan.

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio


    We investigated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on nocturia and general health among men with hypogonadism and nocturia. From our previous EARTH study population, 64 patients with a clinical diagnosis of nocturia (two or more times per one night) and hypogonadism, comprising the TRT group (n = 31) and controls (n = 33), were included in this analysis. The TRT group was administered 250 mg of testosterone enanthate as an intramuscular injection every 4 weeks for 6 months. All patients responded to the following questionnaires: International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) score and Short Form-36 health survey at baseline and 6-month visit. These categories were compared based on changes from baseline to the 6-month visit between TRT and control groups. At the 6-month visit, the TRT group had a significant decrease in IPSS question no. 7 and AMS question no. 4, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Additionally, role limitation because of health program, vitality and mental health domains were significantly improved in the TRT group. Six-month TRT may improve nocturia, sleep conditions and quality of life among men with hypogonadism and nocturia.

  15. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Huibers Marcus JH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group, health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1, and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2. Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A

  16. The Study Elements and Indicators of Risk Management System for Secondary Schools in Thailand

    Wandee, Methenan; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Leamvijarn, Subunn


    The purposes of this research aimed 1) to study the elements and indicators of risk management system for secondary schools in Thailand. 2) to study suitable the elements and indicators of the risk management system for secondary schools in Thailand. 3) to study the results of CFA (Confirmatory Factors Analysis) risk management process of risk…

  17. Distribution of interferon lambda-3 gene polymorphisms in Australian patients with previously untreated genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C: Analysis from the PREDICT and CHARIOT studies.

    Roberts, Stuart K; Mitchell, Joanne; Leung, Reynold; Booth, David; Bollipo, Steven; Ostapowicz, George; Sloss, Andrew; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Dore, Gregory J; Thompson, Alexander; Crawford, Darrell Hg; Sievert, William; Weltman, Martin; Cheng, Wendy; George, Jacob


    The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of interferon lambda-3 (IFN-λ3) gene polymorphisms in previously untreated Australian patients with genotype 1 (Gt1) chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and to compare the IFN-λ3 genotype frequency among the different ethnic populations. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study undertaken by the Australian Liver Association Clinical Research Network. Eligible subjects had Gt1 CHC and were being considered for and/or undergoing treatment. IFN-λ3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by the Applied Biosystems's Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay. Between May 2012 and June 2012, 1132 patients were recruited from 38 treatment clinics across Australia. Also, 561 subjects from the CHARIOT (collaborative group hepatitis C study using high dose Pegasys RBV Induction dose in genotype one) study of high-dose interferon who had baseline serum available were retrospectively tested. The overall frequency of IFN-λ3 rs12979860 CC/CT/TT genotypes was 36%, 52%, and 12%, and that of rs8099917 TT/TG/GG genotypes was 54%, 41%, and 5%, respectively. The prevalence of the favorable IFN-λ3 rs12979860 CC and rs8099917 TT genotypes in Causcasians, Asians, Aboriginals, Maori/Pacific Islanders, and Mediterraneans was 32% and 52%, 80% and 86%, 33% and 63%, 77% and 88%, and 19% and 29%, respectively. Compared with Caucasians, the frequency of IFN-λ3 CC was significantly higher among Asians (P < 0.0001) and Maori/Pacific Islander subjects (P < 0.0001). The distribution of IFN-λ3 polymorphisms among untreated patients with Gt1 CHC in Australia appears similar to that reported from North America. The frequency of the favorable response alleles varies considerably according to ethnicity, being more common in self-reported Asians and Maori/Pacific Islanders than Caucasians, Aboriginals, and Mediterraneans. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty

  18. Social Sustainability and Its Indicators through a Disability Studies and an Ability Studies Lens

    Theresa Rybchinski


    Full Text Available The present journal recently stated in the call for a special issue on social sustainability, “[t]hough sustainable development is said to rest on ‘three pillars’, one of these—social sustainability—has received significantly less attention than its bio-physical environmental and economic counterparts”. The current issue promises to engage the concepts of “development sustainability”, “bridge sustainability” and “maintenance sustainability” and the tensions between these different aspects of social sustainability. The aim of the present study is to identify the visibility of disabled people in the academic social sustainability literature, to ascertain the impact and promises of social sustainability indicators put forward in the same literature and to engage especially with the concepts of “development sustainability”, “bridge sustainability” and “maintenance sustainability” through disability studies and ability studies lenses. We report that disabled people are barely covered in the academic social sustainability literature; of the 5165 academic articles investigated only 26 had content related to disabled people and social sustainability. We also conclude that social sustainability indicators evident in the 1909 academic articles with the phrase “social sustainability” in the abstract mostly focused on products and did not reflect yet the goals outlined in the “development sustainability” aspect of social sustainability proposed by Vallance such as basic needs, building social capital, justice and so on. We posit that if the focus within the social sustainability discourse shifts more toward the social that an active presence of disabled people in this discourse is essential to disabled people. We showcase the utility of an ability studies lens to further the development and application of the “development sustainability”, “bridge sustainability” and “maintenance sustainability

  19. Sustainability of nations by indices. Comparative study between environmental sustainability index, ecological footprint and the emergy performance indices

    Siche, J.R. [Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial, Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Trujillo (Peru); Agostinho, F.; Ortega, E. [Laboratory of Ecological Engineering, FEA (College of Food Eng), Unicamp, CP 6121, CEP 13083-862, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Romeiro, A. [Nucleo de Economia Agricola, NEA, UNICAMP, CP 6135, Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The present work makes a comparison between the two most used environmental sustainability indices of nations: 'ecological footprint' and 'environmental sustainability index', with two emergy ratios (renewability and emergy sustainability index). All of them are gaining space within the scientific community and government officials. Despite the efforts for obtaining an index that adequately represents the sustainability of a region, according to the result of this research, nowadays there is not yet a completely satisfactory index. We consider that all of them need to be improved, but the results point out the possibility of obtaining one better index of sustainability through the junction of ecological footprint with renewability emergy index. (author)

  20. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185214266; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074234692; Oudijk, Martijn A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/246958898


    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed

  1. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J; Oudijk, Martijn A


    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed a

  2. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study

    Jensen, Dorte; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;


    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators.......This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators....

  3. Phase II Study of Bortezomib as a Single Agent in Patients with Previously Untreated or Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia Ineligible for Intensive Therapy

    Chiara Sarlo


    Full Text Available We explored the safety and efficacy of bortezomib given as single agent in patients with untreated or relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML, unfit for conventional chemotherapy. Fourteen patients were treated with bortezomib 1.5 mg/m2 administered twice weekly for two weeks, every 3 weeks. Median age was 70 years (range 60–81 and the median number of cycles delivered was 2 (range 1–4. Of 13 evaluable patients, in 8 (61%, the administration of bortezomib resulted in an antileukemic effect as demonstrated by peripheral blood and/or bone marrow blast reduction. In 4 (50% of these 8, a decrease by 37% of transfusion requirement was also observed . Overall median survival was 4 months (range 0.25–10. Neurotoxicity was the most frequent adverse event with 7 of 13 (54% patients experiencing grades 3-4 peripheral neuropathy. Neurotoxicity led to treatment discontinuation in 4 (57% of 7. In conclusion, the observed anti-leukemic activity of bortezomib indicates that there is room for designing additional studies in which combination with other chemotherapeutic agents should be considered. Clinical registration no.: EUDRACT 2006-006923-38.

  4. The influence of previous and concomitant leflunomide on the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; a longitudinal observational study.

    Flendrie, M.; Creemers, M.C.W.; Welsing, P.M.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of previous and concomitant leflunomide on the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare it to infliximab in combination with other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. METHODS: RA patients starting infliximab the

  5. Erlotinib dosing-to-rash: A phase II intrapatient dose escalation and pharmacologic study of erlotinib in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    A. mita (Alain); K. Papadopoulos (K.); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); G. Schwartz (G.); J. Verweij (Jaap); A. Ricart (A.); Q.S.C. Chu (Q. S C); A.W. Tolcher (A. W.); L. Wood (Lori); S.W. McCarthy (Stanley); M. Hamilton; K.K. Iwata (Kenneth); B. Wacker; K. de Witte (Karel); E.K. Rowinsky (Eric Keith)


    textabstractBackground: To evaluate the anticancer activity of erlotinib in patients with previously treated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose dose is increased to that associated with a maximal level of tolerable skin toxicity (i.e., target rash (TR)); to characterise the pharmacok

  6. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)


    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  7. Impact of previous percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and/or stenting revascularization on outcomes after surgical revascularization : insights from the imagine study

    Chocron, Sidney; Baillot, Richard; Rouleau, Jean Lucien; Warnica, Wayne J.; Block, Pierre; Johnstone, David; Myers, Martin G.; Calciu, Cristina Dana; Nozza, Anna; Martineau, Pierre; van Gilst, Wiek H.


    Aim To determine the impact of previous coronary artery revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and/or stenting (PCI) on outcome after subsequent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and results The ischaemia management with Accupril post-bypass Graft via Inhib

  8. Lignite zone as an indicator to lost circulation belt: a case study of ...

    Lignite zone as an indicator to lost circulation belt: a case study of some locations of Anambra State, ... Eighteen (18) water boreholes were studied for lost circulation. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol.

  9. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89

    Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.


    Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

  10. Towards a standardized method of developing quality indicators for palliative care: protocol of the Quality indicators for Palliative Care (Q-PAC) study.

    Leemans, K.; Cohen, J.; Francke, A.L.; Stichele, R. Vander; Claessen, S.J.J.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.


    Background: In recent years, there have been several studies, using a wide variety of methods, aimed at developing quality indicators for palliative care. In this Quality Indicators for Palliative Care study (Q-PAC study) we have applied a scientifically rigorous method to develop a comprehensive an

  11. Towards a standardized method of developing quality indicators for palliative care: protocol of the Quality indicators for Palliative Care (Q-PAC) study.

    Leemans, K.; Cohen, J.; Francke, A.L.; Stichele, R. Vander; Claessen, S.J.J.; Block, L. van den; Deliens, L.


    Background: In recent years, there have been several studies, using a wide variety of methods, aimed at developing quality indicators for palliative care. In this Quality Indicators for Palliative Care study (Q-PAC study) we have applied a scientifically rigorous method to develop a comprehensive

  12. Indications of caesarean section in overweight and obese versus normal-weight pregnant women: a retrospective cohort study.

    Fernández Alba, Juan Jesús; Paublete Herrera, Carmen; Vilar Sanchez, Angel; Gonzalez-Macias, Carmen; Castillo Lara, Maria; Torrejón, Rafael; Moreno Corral, Luis Javier


    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that indications of c-section in overweight or obese pregnant women are different from those with normal-weight. Retrospective cohort study at University Hospital of Puerto Real (Cádiz-Spain). We compared frequency distribution of c-section indications in overweight and obese versus normal-weight. The risk of c-section by different indications was calculated as relative risk. A total of 4685 births were included in the study. There are significant differences in the frequency distribution of caesarean indications among normal weight and overweight or obese women. In overweight, we found an increased risk of c-section due to previous c-section (RR: 1.73; confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.24-2.42), obstructed/non-progressive labour (RR: 1.34; CI 95% 1.03-1.75), failed induction of labour (RR: 2.38; CI 95% 1.30-4.34) and foetal distress (RR: 1.73; CI 95% 1.21-2.49). This risk was even higher in obese women: previous c-section (RR: 3.25; CI 95% 2.24-4.71), obstructed/non-progressive labour (RR: 2; CI 95% 1.45-2.77), failed induction (RR: 2.52; CI 95% 1.15-5.51) and foetal distress (RR: 2.35; CI 95% 1.51-3.65). The risk of caesarean section due to previous caesarean section, obstructed/non-progressive labour, failed induction of labour or foetal distress is greater in overweight and obese than in normal-weight. This increase in risk also increases progressively as maternal BMI increases.

  13. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Rosanna Ghinai


    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  14. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael


    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  15. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan


    % confidence intervals): 1.32 (1.24-1.40), glibenclamide: 1.19 (1.11-1.28), glipizide: 1.27 (1.17-1.38), and tolbutamide: 1.28 (1.17-1.39) were associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients without previous MI. The corresponding results for patients with previous MI were as follows: glimepiride: 1.......30 (1.11-1.44), glibenclamide: 1.47 (1.22-1.76), glipizide: 1.53 (1.23-1.89), and tolbutamide: 1.47 (1.17-1.84). Results for gliclazide [1.05 (0.94-1.16) and 0.90 (0.68-1.20)] and repaglinide and [0.97 (0.81-1.15) and 1.29 (0.86-1.94)] were not statistically different from metformin in both patients...... without and with previous MI, respectively. Results were similar for cardiovascular mortality and for the composite endpoint. Conclusion Monotherapy with the most used ISs, including glimepiride, glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide, seems to be associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular...

  16. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients : the AGED study

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW


    Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333

  17. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients : the AGED study

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW


    Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333

  18. Development of multiple performance indices and system parameter study for the design of a MEMS accelerometer

    Kim, Yong Il; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    For the design of a MEMS accelerometer, proper performance indices should be defined and employed. Performance indices are obtained using either an experimental method or a numerical method. In the present study, a vibration analysis model of a MEMS accelerometer is introduced to calculate three performance indices: sensitivity, measurable acceleration range, and measurable frequency range. The accuracy of the vibration analysis model is first validated by comparing its modal and transient results with those of a commercial finite element code. Measurable acceleration and frequency ranges versus allowable errors for electrical and mechanical sensitivities are obtained and the effects of system parameter variations on the three performance indices are investigated.

  19. Indicators of corporate financial success: Similar studies in South Africa and the USA, different results

    JHvH de Wet


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to test whether findings by Johnson and Soenen (2003 regarding indicators of successful companies in the USA also apply to South African JSE-listed companies. Problem investigated: To date, no South African study has tried to determine the indicators of the financial success of local companies specifically along the lines of Johnson and Soenen's (2003 study. Determining whether the indicators found to be most highly significant in the US study also apply in South Africa would constitute valuable information in the South African context. Approach: The study tested the significance of the linear relationships between possible indicators of financial success and three measures of financial success for South African companies and compared them to the results of the US study. Findings: The findings revealed that the relationships are far less significant for South African companies. Value of research: The study highlighted the fact that indicators of financial success for US companies are not necessarily contributors to the success of South African listed companies and that models developed in different environments should therefore be used with caution when applied in South Africa. Conclusion: Further studies need to be undertaken in order to identify the most significant South African indicators of corporate financial success.

  20. Metadata from 12 international groundwater studies: virus and microbial indicator occurrence

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains raw data from 12 international groundwater studies that monitored for human viruses and microbial indicators. Please see the first worksheet...

  1. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism.

    Loh, Kevin D; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney


    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37 degrees C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [(14)C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA-G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively.

  2. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura


    indicators and an update on the general LCIA framework will be discussed and agreed on. With the diversity in results and the multi-tier supply chains, the rice LCA case study is well suited to test candidate recommended indicators and to ensure their applicability in common LCA case studies....... the practicality of the finally recommended impact category indicators. Results and discussion The global warming TF concludes that analysts should explore the sensitivity of LCA results to metrics other than GWP. The particulate matter TF attained initial guidance of how to include health effects from PM2...

  3. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Lopez-Saura Pedro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  4. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system

    Mazari-Hiriart Marisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones.

  5. Validation of key indicators in cattle farms at high risk of animal welfare problems: a qualitative case-control study.

    Kelly, P C; More, S J; Blake, M; Higgins, I; Clegg, T; Hanlon, A


    The objective of this study was to validate four key farmer performance indicators (KFPI), identified in a previous study, as indicators of on-farm cattle welfare incidents in Ireland, through comparison of the distribution of these KPFIs in the national herd (n=109,925) and in case herds (n=18), where welfare incidents were previously studied. The KFPIs identified were late registrations, and exits from the herd by on-farm burial, by moves to knackeries and by moves to 'herd unknown'. Data were extracted from two Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine databases for the national herd and the case herds. All four KFPIs differed significantly between the case herds and the national herd, and one further KFPI was identified, namely moves to factories. The data for these KFPIs are routinely stored on national databases, which were established in order to comply with Regulation (EC) 1760/2000. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be possible in the future to use routine data capture to improve strategy towards on-farm animal welfare. At this point, however, based on calculated specificities and sensitivities, none of these five KFPIs, at the cut-offs investigated and using several combinations, are able to distinguish herds with and without on-farm animal welfare problems at an accuracy suitable for routine national use in Ireland.

  6. Surgery of intracranial aneurysms previously treated endovascularly.

    Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Yin, Yuhua; Benes, Ludwig; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut


    To perform a retrospective study on the patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment. We performed a retrospective study on eight patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment (-attempts) with gugliemi detachable coils (GDCs). The indications for surgery, surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The indications for surgical treatment after GDC coiling of aneurysm were classified into three groups. First group: surgery of incompletely coiled aneurysms (n=4). Second group: surgery of mass effect on the neural structures due to coil compaction or rebleeding (n=2). Third group: surgery of vascular complications after endovascular procedure due to parent artery occlusion or thrombus propagation from aneurysm (n=2). Aneurysm obliterations could be performed in all cases confirmed by postoperative angiography. Six patients had an excellent outcome and returned to their profession. Patient's visual acuity was improved. One individual experienced right hemiparesis (grade IV/V) and hemihypesthesia. Microsurgical clipping is rarely necessary for previously coiled aneurysms. Surgical treatment is uncommonly required when an acute complication arises during endovascular treatment, or when there is a dynamic change of a residual aneurysm configuration over time that is considered to be insecure.

  7. Update of the pompe disease mutation database with 60 novel GAA sequence variants and additional studies on the functional effect of 34 previously reported variants.

    Kroos, Marian; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Michelakakis, Helen; Pomponio, Robert; Van der Ploeg, Ans; Halley, Dicky; Reuser, Arnold


    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal glycogen storage disorder, characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (EC; can be caused by numerous pathogenic variants in the GAA gene. The Pompe Disease Mutation Database at aims to list all variants and their effect. This update reports on 94 variants. We examined 35 novel and 34 known mutations by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression in COS-7 cells or HEK293T cells. Each of these mutations was given a severity rating using a previously published system, based on the level of acid α-glucosidase activity in medium and transfected cells and on the quantity and quality of the different molecular mass species in the posttranslational modification and transport of acid α-glucosidase. This approach enabled to classify 55 missense mutations as pathogenic and 13 as likely nonpathogenic. Based on their nature and the use of in silico analysis (Alamut® software), 12 of the additional 25 novel mutations were predicted to be pathogenic including 4 splicing mutations, 6 mutations leading to frameshift, and 2 point mutations causing stop codons. Seven of the additional mutations were considered nonpathogenic (4 silent and 3 occurring in intron regions), and 6 are still under investigation.

  8. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M


    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  9. Numerical Implementation of Indicators and Statistical Control Tools in Monitoring and Evaluating CACEI-ISO Indicators of Study Program in Industrial Process by Systematization

    Ayala, Gabriela Cota; Real, Francia Angélica Karlos; Ivan, Ramirez Alvarado Edqar


    The research was conducted to determine if the study program of the career of industrial processes Technological University of Chihuahua, 1 year after that it was certified by CACEI, continues achieving the established indicators and ISO 9001: 2008, implementing quality tools, monitoring of essential indicators are determined, flow charts are…

  10. The Prototype of Indicators of a Responsive Partner Shapes Information Processing: A False Recognition Study.

    Turan, Bulent


    When judging whether a relationship partner can be counted on to "be there" when needed, people may draw upon knowledge structures to process relevant information. We examined one such knowledge structure using the prototype methodology: indicators of a partner who is likely to be there when needed. In the first study (N = 91), the structure, content, and reliability of the prototype of indicators were examined. Then, using a false recognition study (N = 77), we demonstrated that once activated, the prototype of indicators of a partner who is likely to be there when needed affects information processing. Thus, the prototype of indicators may shape how people process support-relevant information in everyday life, affecting relationship outcomes. Using this knowledge structure may help a person process relevant information quickly and with cognitive economy. However, it may also lead to biases in judgments in certain situations.

  11. No Previous Public Services Required

    Taylor, Kelley R.


    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  12. How teams use indicators for quality improvement - a multiple-case study on the use of multiple indicators in multidisciplinary breast cancer teams.

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Regts, Gerdien


    A crucial issue in healthcare is how multidisciplinary teams can use indicators for quality improvement. Such teams have increasingly become the core component in both care delivery and in many quality improvement methods. This study aims to investigate the relationships between (1) team factors and the way multidisciplinary teams use indicators for quality improvement, and (2) both team and process factors and the intended results. An in-depth, multiple-case study was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008 involving four breast cancer teams using six structure, process and outcome indicators. The results indicated that the process of using indicators involves several stages and activities. Two teams applied a more intensive, active and interactive approach as they passed through these stages. These teams were perceived to have achieved good results through indicator use compared to the other two teams who applied a simple control approach. All teams experienced some difficulty in integrating the new formal control structure, i.e. measuring and managing performance, in their operational task, and in using their 'new' managerial task to decide as a team what and how to improve. Our findings indicate the presence of a network of relationships between team factors, the controllability and actionability of indicators, the indicator-use process, and the intended results. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A study of CALIS evaluation indicator system for digital resources and its practical application considerations

    XIAO; Long; LI; Haoling; XU; Cheng


    Based on our theoretical studies and practical experience related to the digital resource evaluation activities,which were undertaken jointly by CALIS and Peking University Library,this paper discusses the targeted object,content,the structure and the attributes of CALIS evaluation indicator system for digital resources.We also offer a detailed guideline for professional practice in terms of using this particular indicator system to evaluate the viability and the collection strength of a given digital library.

  14. Indicators of fetal growth and bipolar disorder: a Danish national register-based study

    Øgendahl, Bettina; Agerbo, Esben; Byrne, Majella


    Background. Several studies have found an association between indicators of fetal growth and/or obstetric complications and schizophrenia but only a few studies have investigated the possible association between these factors and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the results of these studies have been......, controlling for potential confounding factors such as parental age at birth, socio-economic indicators and psychiatric history. We identified 196 cases, and each case was time-, age- and sex-matched with 25 normal population-based controls. All cases were between the ages of 12 and 26 years at the time...... with receiving a diagnosis of bipolar disorder.Conclusions. None of the indicators of fetal growth under study could be identified as risk factors for bipolar disorder, suggesting that the etiologies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, at least in part, are different...

  15. Providing Visions of a Different Life: Self-study Narrative Inquiry as an Instrument for Seeing Ourselves in Previously-Unimagined Places

    Carmen Shields


    Full Text Available In this paper, we share stories of coming to narrative self-study research in graduate studies, and the impact this choice has had on personal and professional directions in ways we could not have imagined when graduate studies were initially embarked upon. Central to self-study narrative inquiry is a focus on life experience as a tool for connection with our own storied pasts. There we find the roots of our present-day perspectives and actions that we can incorporate into our everyday meaning-making, using our emergent understanding to choose present and future possibilities in our relationships.

  16. The Prediction of ADL and IADL Disability Using Six Physical Indicators of Frailty: A Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands

    Robbert J. J. Gobbens


    Full Text Available Frailty is a predictor of disability. A proper understanding of the contribution of individual indicators of frailty in the prediction of disability is a requisite for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of the individual physical frailty indicators: gait speed, physical activity, hand grip strength, Body Mass Index (BMI, fatigue, and balance, for ADL and IADL disability. The sample consisted of 505 community-dwelling persons (≥75 years, response rate 35.1%. Respondents first participated between November 2007 and June 2008, and a subset of all respondents participated again one year later (N=264, 52.3% response rate. ADL and IADL disability were assessed by the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. BMI was assessed by self-report, and the other physical frailty indicators were assessed with the TUG test (gait speed, the LAPAQ (physical activity, a hand grip strength test, the SFQ (fatigue, and the Four-test balance scale. All six physical frailty indicators were associated with ADL and IADL disability. After controlling for previous disability, sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived lifestyle, and chronic diseases, only gait speed was predictive of both ADL and IADL disability, whereas there was a small effect of fatigue on IADL disability. Hence, these physical frailty indicators should be included in frailty assessment when predicting future disability.

  17. The Prediction of ADL and IADL Disability Using Six Physical Indicators of Frailty: A Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands.

    Gobbens, Robbert J J; van Assen, Marcel A L M


    Frailty is a predictor of disability. A proper understanding of the contribution of individual indicators of frailty in the prediction of disability is a requisite for preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of the individual physical frailty indicators: gait speed, physical activity, hand grip strength, Body Mass Index (BMI), fatigue, and balance, for ADL and IADL disability. The sample consisted of 505 community-dwelling persons (≥75 years, response rate 35.1%). Respondents first participated between November 2007 and June 2008, and a subset of all respondents participated again one year later (N = 264, 52.3% response rate). ADL and IADL disability were assessed by the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. BMI was assessed by self-report, and the other physical frailty indicators were assessed with the TUG test (gait speed), the LAPAQ (physical activity), a hand grip strength test, the SFQ (fatigue), and the Four-test balance scale. All six physical frailty indicators were associated with ADL and IADL disability. After controlling for previous disability, sociodemographic characteristics, self-perceived lifestyle, and chronic diseases, only gait speed was predictive of both ADL and IADL disability, whereas there was a small effect of fatigue on IADL disability. Hence, these physical frailty indicators should be included in frailty assessment when predicting future disability.

  18. Protocol for a scoping review study to identify and classify patient-centred quality indicators

    Jolley, Rachel J; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Manalili, Kimberly; Lu, Mingshan; Santana, Maria J


    Introduction The concept of patient-centred care (PCC) is changing the way healthcare is understood, accepted and delivered. The Institute of Medicine has defined PCC as 1 of its 6 aims to improve healthcare quality. However, in Canada, there are currently no nationwide standards in place for measuring and evaluating healthcare from a patient-centred approach. In this paper, we outline our scoping review protocol to systematically review published and unpublished literature specific to patient-centred quality indicators that have been implemented and evaluated across various care settings. Methods and analysis Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review methodology framework will guide the conduct of this scoping review. We will search electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts), grey literature sources and the reference lists of key studies to identify studies appropriate for inclusion. 2 reviewers will independently screen all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion. We will include any study which focuses on quality indicators in the context of PCC. All bibliographic data, study characteristics and indicators will be collected and analysed using a tool developed through an iterative process by the research team. Indicators will be classified according to a predefined conceptual framework and categorised and described using qualitative content analysis. Ethics and dissemination The scoping review will synthesise patient-centred quality indicators and their characteristics as described in the literature. This review will be the first step to formally identify what quality indicators have been used to evaluate PCC across the healthcare continuum, and will be used to inform a stakeholder consensus process exploring the development of a generic set of patient-centred quality indicators applicable to multiple care settings. The

  19. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne


    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  20. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    O. Hellmuth


    Full Text Available In the preceding Papers I, II and III a revised columnar high-order modelling approach to model gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL was proposed, and simulation results of two synthetic nucleation scenarios (binary vs. ternary on new particle formation (NPF in the anthropogenically influenced CBL were presented and discussed. The purpose of the present finishing Paper IV is twofold: Firstly, an attempt is made to compile previous observational findings on NPF bursts in the CBL, obtained from a number of field experiments. Secondly, the scenario simulations discussed in Paper III will be evaluated with respect to the role of CBL turbulence in NPF burst evolution. It was demonstrated, that completely different nucleation mechanisms can lead to the occurrence of NPF bursts in the surface layer, but the corresponding evolution patterns strongly differ with respect to the origin, amplitude and phase of the NPF burst as well as with respect to the time-height evolution of turbulent vertical fluxes and double correlation terms of physicochemical and aerosoldynamical variables. The large differences between the binary and ternary case scenario indicate, that ammonia (NH3 can not be considered as a time-independent tuning parameter in nucleation modelling. Its contribution to the evolution of the NPF burst pattern is much more complicated and reflects the influence of CBL turbulence as well as the strong non-linearity of the ternary nucleation rate. The impact of water (H2O vapour on the nucleation rate is quite varying depending on the considered nucleation mechanism. According to the classical theory of binary nucleation involving H2O and sulphuric acid (H2SO4, H2O vapour favours NPF, according to the classical theory of ternary nuncleation involving H2O, H2SO4 and NH3 and according to organic nucleation via chemical reactions involving stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs, H2O vapour disfavours nucleation, and

  1. C-Reactive protein is an independent surgical indication marker for appendicitis: a retrospective study

    Yokoyama, Shozo; Takifuji, Katsunari; Hotta, Tsukasa; Matsuda, Kenji; Nasu, Toru; Nakamori, Mikihito; Hirabayashi, Naoki; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yamaue, Hiroki


    Background This study is an attempt to clarify the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a surgical indication marker for appendicitis. Methods One hundred and fifty patients who underwent appendectomies and had pathologically confirmed appendicitis were reviewed between May 1, 1999 and September 31, 2007. The correlation between preoperative clinical factors and the actual histological severity, and identify surgical indication markers were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Univariate analysis showed that only the CRP level significantly differ between the surgical treatment necessary group (gangrenous appendicitis) and the possible non-surgical treatment group (catarrhalis and phlegmonous appendicitis). Multivariate analysis indicated only the CRP level to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicated that the cutoff value of CRP for surgical indication of appendicitis is 4.95 mg/dl. Conclusion Only the CRP level is consistent with the severity of appendicitis, and considered to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis. PMID:19878592

  2. C-Reactive protein is an independent surgical indication marker for appendicitis: a retrospective study

    Nakamori Mikihito


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is an attempt to clarify the role of C-reactive protein (CRP as a surgical indication marker for appendicitis. Methods One hundred and fifty patients who underwent appendectomies and had pathologically confirmed appendicitis were reviewed between May 1, 1999 and September 31, 2007. The correlation between preoperative clinical factors and the actual histological severity, and identify surgical indication markers were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Univariate analysis showed that only the CRP level significantly differ between the surgical treatment necessary group (gangrenous appendicitis and the possible non-surgical treatment group (catarrhalis and phlegmonous appendicitis. Multivariate analysis indicated only the CRP level to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve indicated that the cutoff value of CRP for surgical indication of appendicitis is 4.95 mg/dl. Conclusion Only the CRP level is consistent with the severity of appendicitis, and considered to be a surgical indication marker for acute appendicitis.

  3. [Bibliometrics study on indications of acupuncture therapy based on foreign acupuncture clinical trials].

    He, Wei; Tong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Ying-Kai; Rong, Pei-Jing; Wang, Hong-Cai


    In the present paper, the authors make a bibliometrics study on clinical indications of acupuncture therapy based on the published foreign articles about acupuncture clinical trials collected from PubMed database and Excerpta Medica database (EMbase). In 1996, 64 acupuncture indications were declared by WHO in Milan conference. But in recent 15 years, clinical trials have been conducted extensively in the foreign countries. Till now, 77 new indications for acupuncture therapy have been found in the foreign journals. The authors recommended that 29 indications (knee osteoarthritis, critique age problems, muscular fasciae ache, anxiety, etc.) should be added to the first class, 4 indications (irritable bowel syndrome, malposition, backache, simple obesity) should be upgraded from the second class to the first class, and the other 3 indications (childbirth pain, male and female barren) should be upgraded from the third class to the first class due to their application frequency in clinical trials. Increase of clinical indications reflects extensive application of acupuncture therapy and may help providing a better service for people's health.

  4. Novel amino acids indices based on quantum topological molecular similarity and their application to QSAR study of peptides.

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Yousefinejad, Saeed; Mehdipour, Ahmad Reza


    A new source of amino acid (AA) indices based on quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) descriptors has been proposed for use in QSAR study of peptides. For each bond of the chemical structure of AA, eight electronic properties were calculated using the approaches of bond critical point and theory of atom in molecule. Thus, for each molecule a data matrix of QTMS descriptors (having information from both topology and electronic features) were calculated. Using four different criterion based on principal component analysis of the QTMS data matrices, four different sets of AA indices were generated. The indices were used as the input variables for QSAR study (employing genetic algorithm-partial least squares) of three peptides' data sets, namely, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, bactericidal peptides and the peptides binding to the HLA-A*0201 molecule. The obtained models had better prediction ability or a comparable one with respect to the previously reported models. In addition, by using the proposed indices and analysis of the variable important in projection, the active site of the peptides which plays a significant role in the biological activity of interest, was identified.

  5. Expert study to select indicators of the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards.

    Kandhai, M C; Booij, C J H; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J


    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the most important indicators for different chain stages (growth, transport and storage, and processing) and their relative importance. After three e-mailing rounds, the experts reached consensus on the most important indicators for each of the three stages: wheat growth, transport and storage, and processing. For wheat growth, these indicators include: relative humidity/rainfall, crop rotation, temperature, tillage practice, water activity of the kernels, and crop variety/cultivar. For the transport and storage stage, they include water activity in the kernels, relative humidity, ventilation, temperature, storage capacity, and logistics. For wheat processing, indicators include quality data, fraction of the cereal used, water activity in the kernels, quality management and traceability systems, and carryover of contamination. The indicators selected in this study can be used in an identification system for the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards in wheat supply chains. Such a system can be used by risk managers within governmental (related) organizations and/or the food and feed industry in order to react proactively to the occurrence of these emerging mycotoxins. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Studies on Tomato Seedling Quality Indices Under Simulated Shipping and Storage Conditions

    NING Wei; GE Xiao-guang; LI Tian-lai


    Indices of the tomato seedling quality maintenance level after production before field planting were studied through simulated experiments, small--scale operation, indoor analyses and measurements, and field observation. The results showed that under simulated shipping and storage conditions, seedling quality change following different durations (days) of shipping and storage was correlated significantly or even very significantly with certain physiological and morphological indices. With various measured indices following different periods of shipping and storage treatment subjected to multinomial successive regressive correlation analysis, the principal factors influencing seedling quality maintenance level are identified to be chlorophyll content→dry short weight→ leaf freshness index in order of their importance. Significance analysis with multinomial fitted equation indicated that correlations between any one of above three factors and the growth index after field planting reached very significant difference level.

  7. Donor Corneal Transplantation vs Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis in Patients with Previous Graft Failures: A Retrospective Single Center Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Akpek, Esen K; Cassard, Sandra D; Dunlap, Karen; Hahn, Sarah; Ramulu, Pradeep Y


    To compare short-term outcomes of repeat penetrating keratoplasty (PK) to those of Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (KPro). Our hypothesis was that visual outcomes were superior for KPro compared to PK. This is a retrospective, nonrandomized, intermediate-term case series. Consecutive adults with one or more failed PKs who underwent either PK or KPro between January 2008 and December 2010 were included. Demographics, indication for the initial PK, comorbidities, concomitant procedures, and complications were considered. Only one procedure in each eye was included. All KPro procedures were retained in the analyses. Fifty-three patients underwent PK and 27 received KPro. Mean follow-up was 19.5 months in the PK group and 16.5 months in the KPro group. KPro eyes had worse mean preoperative vision (hand motions vs counting fingers, P=.01) and more comorbidities. In the postoperative period, 35% of PK eyes and 45% of KPro eyes attained best-ever visual acuity of 20/70. Forty-seven percent of PK eyes vs 40% of KPro eyes were able to retain this visual acuity. Two-year rate of failure to retain visual acuity better than the baseline was higher for PK eyes, though not at a statistically significant level (hazard ratio [HR]=1.67; 95% CI, 0.78-3.60; P=.19). Two-year cumulative rate of graft failure (loss of clarity for PK and removal/replacement for KPro) was higher for PK eyes (HR=3.23; 95% CI, 1.12-9.28; P=.03). Retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, and glaucoma rates were similar (P=.6 for all). These results demonstrate less frequent graft failure, greater visual improvement, and greater likelihood of maintaining the visual improvement in KPro eyes vs PK.

  8. Development of quality indicators for monitoring outcomes of frail elderly hospitalised in acute care health settings: Study Protocol

    Travers Catherine M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frail older people admitted to acute care hospitals are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes, including geriatric syndromes, although targeted care strategies can improve health outcomes for these patients. It is therefore important to assess inter-hospital variation in performance in order to plan and resource improvement programs. Clinical quality outcome indicators provide a mechanism for identifying variation in performance over time and between hospitals, however to date there has been no routine use of such indicators in acute care settings. A barrier to using quality indicators is lack of access to routinely collected clinical data. The interRAI Acute Care (AC assessment system supports comprehensive geriatric assessment of older people within routine daily practice in hospital and includes process and outcome data pertaining to geriatric syndromes. This paper reports the study protocol for the development of aged care quality indicators for acute care hospitals. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in three phases: 1. Development of a preliminary inclusive set of quality indicators set based on a literature review and expert panel consultation, 2. A prospective field study including recruitment of 480 patients aged 70 years or older across 9 Australian hospitals. Each patient will be assessed on admission and discharge using the interRAI AC, and will undergo daily monitoring to observe outcomes. Medical records will be independently audited, and 3. Analysis and compilation of a definitive quality indicator set, including two anonymous voting rounds for quality indicator inclusion by the expert panel. Discussion The approach to quality indicators proposed in this protocol has four distinct advantages over previous efforts: the quality indicators focus on outcomes; they can be collected as part of a routinely applied clinical information and decision support system; the clinical data will be robust and will

  9. The effectiveness study of the physiotherapy techniques with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis using external respiration indicators

    Kalmykova Y.S.


    Full Text Available The results of the study of respiratory function of patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis to assess the ventilation ability of the lungs, as well as the presence and degree of ventilation violations. Indicated the need to examine the results of studies of lung function in these patients in order to timely correction of violations. It is established that therapeutic exercises with financial astrophysical exercises with elements of yoga postures, combined with yogic breathing exercises, as well as regulated breathing exercises, taking into account the tone of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and measured distance is an effective and significantly improves functional indices of external respiration.

  10. A brief review of the estimated economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: inflation-adjusted updates of previously published cost studies.

    Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Tao, Guoyu; Johnson, Ana P; Kent, Charlotte K


    We conducted a literature review of studies of the economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. The annual direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus) has been estimated to be $16.9 billion (range: $13.9-$23.0 billion) in 2010 US dollars.

  11. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack


    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  12. The safety and effectiveness of once daily detemir in patients with type 2 diabetes previously failing oral agents:the Chinese cohort from SOL-VETM observational study



    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of initiating once-daily insulin detemir(Levemir) as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) who failed treatment of oral anti-diabetic drugs(OAD).Methods The present study was derived from the data of

  13. Role of micronized progesterone in prevention of preterm labour in women with previous history of one or more preterm births: a research study at a tertiary care hospital

    Rashmi Ahuja


    Conclusions: The study concluded that progesterone use was associated with 64.2% reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (p=0.029.Antenatal administration of progesterone reduces the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks and 34 weeks as well as the risk of a newborn being born with a birth weight of less than 2500 gms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1176-1180

  14. Assessment and analysis of indices of urban sustainable development in small cities (case study of Soran

    Bahram Irandegani


    Full Text Available density and villagers migrate to the cities attention and emphasis was planning to strengthen and grow small towns. The study by researchers in different countries shows that small towns are one of the most successful examples of settlement in the area of sustainable development. Soran and the social and physical areas of urban sustainability indicators in urban areas is presented. The research method of this study is survey method and the data has been obtained from the questionnaire. The results of findings show that in terms of urban sustainability indices, the city of Soran has not a desirable situation in relation to the medium of urban system but it is in the same state in terms of more social, economic and physical indices in relation to urban system of country which it is noticeable clearly.

  15. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian


    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  16. A Retrospective Study of Capecitabine/Temozolomide (CAPTEM Regimen in the Treatment of Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (pNETs after Failing Previous Therapy

    Muhammad Wasif Saif


    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs are notoriously resistant to currently available chemotherapy agents.Preclinical data has suggested synergy between temozolomide and capecitabine. Objective To report a retrospective data on the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM regimen in patients with metastatic pancreaticneuroendocrine tumors (pNETs who have failed prior therapies. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 7 patientswith metastatic pNETs who had had progressive cancer prior to treatment despite therapy, including long-acting releaseoctreotide (60 mg/month, chemotherapy and hepatic chemoembolization. Capecitabine was administered at a flat dose of1,000 mg orally twice daily on days 1-14 and temozolomide 200 mg/m2 was given in two divided doses daily on days 10-14of a 28-day cycle. Tumor assessments were repeated every two cycles and serum tumor markers were measured every cycle. Response to treatment was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST parameters, and toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 3.0. Results Among 7 patients treated, three patients achieved a partial response, and two patients had stable disease. Totalresponse rate was 43%, and clinical benefit (responders and stable disease was 71%. Median duration of response was 8months (range: 4-12 months. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included grade 3 thrombocytopenia in one patient and grade 3 fatigue in one patient. The most common toxicities were grade 1 and 2 neutropenia, grade 1 fatigue, grade 1 and 2 hand-foot syndrome. Conclusions Our retrospective study showed that modified CAPTEM regimen was well-tolerated and produced comparable response to historical data in neuroendocrine tumors, including pNETs. Our study is unique as it only included patients with pNETs. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the combination of

  17. A gender-medicine post hoc analysis (MetaGeM project to test sex differences in previous observational studies in different diseases: methodology

    Colombo D


    Full Text Available Delia Colombo,1 Gilberto Bellia,1 Donatella Vassellatti,1 Emanuela Zagni,1 Simona Sgarbi,2 Sara Rizzoli21Novartis Farma, Origgio, 2MediData, Modena, ltaly Abstract: Only recently has medical research begun to understand the importance of taking sex into account, recognizing that symptoms and responses to medical treatment may be very different between males and females. However, the analyses provided by the pharmaceutical industry to regulatory authorities often do not present safety and efficacy data by sex. Novartis has started a gender-medicine project called MetaGeM, which includes nine observational studies sponsored by Novartis Farma, Italy; conducted in Italy between 2002 and 2013 in a range of different clinical areas. The MetaGeM project aims to analyze and describe by means of post hoc analyses and meta-analyses, clinical outcomes, therapeutic approaches, and safety data of these studies, by sex: PSYCHAE; GENDER ATTENTION in psoriasis; Synergy in psoriatic arthritis; ICEBERG in HBsAg carriers; SURF and CETRA in liver- and renal transplanted patients, respectively; DEEP in Parkinson's disease; and EVOLUTION and AXEPT in Alzheimer's disease. The present paper describes the methodology of the MetaGeM project.Keywords: gender-medicine, MetaGeM project, methodology

  18. A study of the presence of B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma (previously Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, and Babesia in Ixodes ricinus collected within the territory of Belluno, Italy.

    Piccolin, G; Benedetti, G; Doglioni, C; Lorenzato, C; Mancuso, S; Papa, N; Pitton, L; Ramon, M C; Zasio, C; Bertiato, G


    In the years 2000 and 2001, we sampled ticks in order to establish the distribution of Ixodes ricinus in the province of Belluno; 5987 tick samples from 244 sites throughout the province were gathered, by dragging for a 5-min period. In 40 sites, seasonal variations and cycle stages of the parasites were studied at monthly intervals from March to September. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to identify the tick-infected sites. Of 1931 individual ticks, 8.23% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, 4.4% were positive for Ehrlichia, 1.6% were positive for Rickettsia, and 1.6% were positive for Babesia. The co-presence of Borrelia and Ehrlichia (1.2%) and Babesia (0.5%), Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia (0.1%) was also found.

  19. Performance of the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: comparison with the previous criteria in a single-centre study.

    Macchioni, Pierluigi; Boiardi, Luigi; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Pazzola, Giulia; Salvarani, Carlo


    To compare the performance of published classification/diagnostic criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), including the new 2012 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, in a single-centre study. We studied all consecutive patients with new-onset PMR seen in our centre over 6 years, whose diagnosis was confirmed during a prospective 12-month follow-up period. Subjects were classified by each of the seven different criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were compared. Control population consisted of all consecutive patients aged ≥50 years seen in a 4-year period in our early arthritis clinic who had a 12-month confirmation of a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or other inflammatory articular diseases. Data were collected from 136 cases and 149 controls, including 94 patients with RA. The most sensitive criteria were the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria (92.6%). Adding ultrasound (US) specificity increased from 81.5% to 91.3% in total cases and from 79.7% to 89.9% in RA. Bird criteria had a sensitivity of 89.2% but the lowest specificity (40.2% in total cases and 72.5% in RA). Jones and Nobunaga criteria were the most specific criteria (96.7% and 97.8% in total cases and 98.6% and 99.5% in RA) but the less sensitive (63.1% and 58.2%) ones. Overall, discriminatory ability, as reflected by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was better for the 2012 US EULAR/ACR criteria (0.920 in total cases and 0.910 in RA). The new EULAR/ACR criteria in new-onset PMR patients perform best in discriminating PMR from RA and other inflammatory articular diseases. Ultrasound further increases the specificity of the criteria.

  20. Expert Study to Select Indicators of the Occurence of Emerging Mycotoxin Hazards

    Kandhai, M.C.; Booij, C.J.H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.


    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the

  1. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.


    Feeding difficulties are known to occur with advancing age in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the role of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) in a group of 30 DMD patients with feeding difficulties. Indications for feeding assessment were: respiratory infections potentially...

  2. Revisions and further developments of the occupational stress indicator: Lisrel results from four dutch studies.

    Evers, A.; Frese, M.; Cooper, C.L.


    The Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) is a popular instrument for the diagnosis of stress and stress-related personality and outcome variables. However, one weakness of the OSI was the low reliability of some of its scales. This paper describes in a series of 4 studies improvements of the

  3. Expert Study to Select Indicators of the Occurence of Emerging Mycotoxin Hazards

    Kandhai, M.C.; Booij, C.J.H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.


    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the mos

  4. Expert Study to Select Indicators of the Occurence of Emerging Mycotoxin Hazards

    Kandhai, M.C.; Booij, C.J.H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.


    This article describes a Delphi-based expert judgment study aimed at the selection of indicators to identify the occurrence of emerging mycotoxin hazards related to Fusarium spp. in wheat supply chains. A panel of 29 experts from 12 European countries followed a holistic approach to evaluate the mos

  5. Development of forced degradation and stability indicating studies of drugs-A review

    Blessy Mn; Ruchi D. Patel; Prajesh N. Prajapati; Y.K. Agrawal


    Forced degradation is a degradation of new drug substance and drug product at conditions more severe than accelerated conditions. It is required to demonstrate specificity of stability indicating methods and also provides an insight into degradation pathways and degradation products of the drug substance and helps in elucidation of the structure of the degradation products. Forced degradation studies show the chemical behavior of the molecule which in turn helps in the development of formulation and package. In addition, the regulatory guidance is very general and does not explain about the performance of forced degradation studies. Thus, this review discusses the current trends in performance of forced degradation studies by providing a strategy for conducting studies on degradation mechanisms and also describes the analytical methods helpful for development of stability indicating method.

  6. The Consistency of Performance Management System Based on Attributes of the Performance Indicator: An Empirical Study

    Jan Zavadsky


    Full Text Available Purpose: The performance management system (PMS is a metasystem over all business processes at the strategic and operational level. Effectiveness of the various management systems depends on many factors. One of them is the consistent definition of each system elements. The main purpose of this study is to explore if the performance management systems of the sample companies is consistent and how companies can create such a system. The consistency in this case is based on the homogenous definition of attributes relating to the performance indicator as a basic element of PMS.Methodology: At the beginning, we used an affinity diagram that helped us to clarify and to group various attributes of performance indicators. The main research results we achieved are through empirical study. The empirical study was carried out in a sample of Slovak companies. The criterion for selection was the existence of the certified management systems according to the ISO 9001. Representativeness of the sample companies was confirmed by application of Pearson´s chi-squared test (χ2 - test due to above standards. Findings: Coming from the review of various literature, we defined four groups of attributes relating to the performance indicator: formal attributes, attributes of target value, informational attributes and attributes of evaluation. The whole set contains 21 attributes. The consistency of PMS is based not on maximum or minimum number of attributes, but on the same type of attributes for each performance indicator used in PMS at both the operational and strategic level. The main findings are: companies use various financial and non-financial indicators at strategic or operational level; companies determine various attributes of performance indicator, but most of the performance indicators are otherwise determined; we identified the common attributes for the whole sample of companies. Practical implications: The research results have got an implication for

  7. Can a Repeated Sprint Ability Test Help Clear a Previously Injured Soccer Player for Fully Functional Return to Activity? A Pilot Study.

    Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Ardigò, Luca P; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Maffulli, Nicola; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dello Iacono, Antonio


    To investigate the effects of fatigue induced by a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on the neuromuscular responses of soccer players with a recent history of lower limb injuries (CH) and a matched control group in good fitness condition (GH). This was a case-control study. Nine CH and 9 GH. Allocation to CH or GH. Each player was assessed for blood lactate concentration and jumping performance [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] before/after RSA. Post-RSA rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to calculate RSA sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between CH and GH. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. No baseline differences were found for any variable. ΔSJ before/after RSA was -14 ± 2% and -5 ± 2% in CH and GH, respectively (P Repeated sprint ability is a simple, low-cost field test potentially able to assist in clinical decision making for return to sport.

  8. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren


    exposed to torture in their home country were interviewed at a Danish rehabilitation clinic on average 8 years after their final release from confinement and re-interviewed 10 years later. Interviews focused on history of exposure to physical and mental torture and on pain in the head, back and feet...... prevalent at study. RESULTS: The mean number of times imprisoned was 2.5 and the mean cumulative duration of imprisonment 19.4 months. The most frequent physical torture method reported was beating (95.0%) and the main mental torture method deprivation (88.5%). Pain reported at follow-up was strongly...... associated with pain reported at baseline, and the prevalence of pain increased considerably (pain in the head, 47.5% at baseline and 58.3% at follow-up; back, 48.2% and 75.5%; feet, 23.7% and 63.3%). Predictor patterns at baseline and at follow-up had common traits, so that pain in the head and pain...

  9. First Study of the Prosthesis Indication Deafnesses in Mureș County

    Gabriel Lostun


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to asses the frequency of the deafness pathology in the Ear, Nose and Throath Clinic of the Emergency County Hospital in Tîrgu Mureș and two other private institutions that have an ear linked profile, with a special interest on those with indication for prosthesis. This is a pilot study, being conceived as a part of a larger one used to measure the number of possible cochlear implant recipients nationwide.

  10. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen


    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia.

  11. Comparative study of Hg xCd 1-xTe films grown on CdTe thin films previously deposited from two different techniques

    Ali, A.; Abbas Shah, N.; Maqsood, A.


    High quality cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were grown on glass substrates with two different techniques, two evaporation source (TES) and closed space sublimation (CSS). Further to the above mercury telluride (HgTe) was then deposited by using single source on both CdTe thin films for obtaining Hg xCd 1-xTe samples. The crystalline structure of the Hg xCd 1-xTe sample grown from CSS-CdTe showed the preferential (1 1 1) orientation with smoother and larger grain size than those of TES-CdTe. The optical transmission for TES-CdTe sample was above 90% in the 1000-1500 nm range whereas it was significantly below 80% for CSS-CdTe sample. The optical transmission for TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe was ˜60%. The resistivity at room temperature of TES-CdTe and CSS-CdTe was ˜3.33×10 9 Ω cm and ˜2.20×10 8 Ω cm, respectively, while the resistivity of TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe samples was ˜1.73 Ω cm and ˜5.34×10 5 Ω cm, respectively. The comparative study of ternary compound prepared with the above techniques has been carried out for the first time.

  12. Stress degradation studies on citicoline sodium and development of a validated stability-indicating HPLC assay

    Jimmi A Patel


    Full Text Available Aim: High performance liquid chromatography presents a useful aspect for the development of stability indicating assays. Objective of the current study was to establish inherent stability of citicoline sodium through stress studies under a variety of international conference on harmonization recommended test conditions and to develop a stability-indicating assay. Materials and Methods: Thermal stability studies were performed in a hot air oven (Hicon and photo stability studies were carried out under the sunlight. The chromatographic separations were carried out on a reverse phase phenomenox C18 (250 mm΄4.6 mm i.d., particle size 5 ΅m column. The chromatographic method was fine tuned using the sample generated from forced degradation studies. Mobile phase consists of mixture of buffer (potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate, tetra butyl ammonium, triethyl amine; pH 5.5; 0.002M and methanol (95:5, v/v. Results: Good resolution between the peaks corresponds to degradation products and the analyte was achieved on 5 ΅, 250 mm΄4.6 mm i.d., C18 column (Luna, phenomenox, USA. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, and selectivity. Conclusion: The study shows that citicoline sodium is a labile molecule in acid, oxidative, and alkali conditions. It is stable to light and dry heat. A stability-indicating method was developed and is recommended for analysis of the drug and degradation products in stability samples.

  13. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio


    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m(2) on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Intravenous C.E.R.A. maintains stable haemoglobin levels in patients on dialysis previously treated with darbepoetin alfa: results from STRIATA, a randomized phase III study

    Canaud, Bernard; Mingardi, Giulio; Braun, Johann; Aljama, Pedro; Kerr, Peter G.; Locatelli, Francesco; Villa, Giuseppe; Van Vlem, Bruno; McMahon, Alan W.; Kerloëguen, Cécile; Beyer, Ulrich


    Background. Extending the administration interval of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) represents an opportunity to improve the efficiency of anaemia management in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, effective haemoglobin (Hb) maintenance can be challenging with epoetin alfa and epoetin beta administered at extended intervals. C.E.R.A., a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, has a unique pharmacologic profile and long half-life (∼130 h), allowing administration at extended intervals. Phase III results have demonstrated that C.E.R.A. administered once every 4 weeks effectively maintains stable Hb levels in patients with CKD on dialysis. Methods. STRIATA (Stabilizing haemoglobin TaRgets in dialysis following IV C.E.R.A. Treatment for Anaemia) was a multicentre, open-label randomized phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous C.E.R.A. administered once every 2 weeks (Q2W) for Hb maintenance following direct conversion from darbepoetin alfa (DA). Adult patients on dialysis receiving stable intravenous DA once weekly (QW) or Q2W were randomized (1:1) to continue their current DA regimen (n = 156) or receive intravenous C.E.R.A. Q2W (n = 157) for 52 weeks. Doses were adjusted to maintain Hb levels within ± 1.0 g/dl of baseline and between 10.0 and 13.5 g/dl. The primary endpoint was the mean Hb change between baseline and the evaluation period (weeks 29–36). Results. Most patients (>80%) received DA QW before randomization. The mean (95% CI) difference between C.E.R.A. and DA in the primary endpoint was 0.18 g/dl (−0.05, 0.41), within a pre-defined non-inferiority limit. C.E.R.A. was clinically non-inferior to DA (P < 0.0001) in maintaining Hb levels. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions. Stable Hb levels were successfully maintained in patients on haemodialysis directly converted to Q2W intravenous C.E.R.A. from DA. PMID:18586762

  15. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    Ratib Osman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT radiation therapy (RT for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Methods Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV was defined on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (DMax of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, DMax was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal DMedian was 90 parameters. Results Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV was improved with RA (V95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%, when compared to IMRT (V95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%. The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V95% 88.9 ± 10.5% and better for the PTV (V95%85.6 ± 5.0%. The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3% and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%, when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%. CI90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm3 *105 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. Conclusion RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk.

  16. Macroeconomic Indicators Used to Study the Efficiency of Investments in Renewable Energy Field



    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the main indicators used to express the efficiency of renewable energy investments at macroeconomic level. Based on three econometric models, we present the calculation method of these indicators, along with interpretation. In the study are included countries with very high and high human development, member states of the European Union. Results indicate that all countries have a good economic efficiency of investments in renewable energy, but low social efficiency. As for the environmental efficiency of renewable investments, the findings reveal that only six European countries manage to direct their efforts to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions and in this way to have a high environmental efficiency of investments.


    Bellad Girija


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Carefully selected cases of Vaginal Birth after Caesarean Section (VBAC is safe and successful. Even though options of elective caesarean section or a trial of labour are given to women with prior caesarean section, the risk is always present. In successful VBACs, morbidity is less compared to repeat caesarean section. That is why this study is conducted to determine the outcome of pregnancy in women with previous CS. OBJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the clinical course of labour in cases with previous caesarean section. 2. To study the perinatal outcome in cases with previous caesarean section either by vaginal delivery or repeat Caesarean section. 3. To study maternal morbidity in these cases. METHOD A retrospective analysis of medical records of 250 women with a previous caesarean section, who delivered in BIMS Hospital between May 2015 and July 2015 was carried out. Women with recurrent indications for caesarean section and those having nonrecurrent indications with any complicating factors in present pregnancy and women with previous two caesarean sections were not given trial for vaginal delivery. Those women with previous section for the non-recurrent indications were given trial for vaginal delivery. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done by Chi-square test. RESULT In 250 cases, 132 cases were given trial for vaginal delivery. In these, vaginal delivery was 61.3% and repeat section was 38%. There is an association between maternal morbidity and type of delivery. Birth weight was associated with the type of delivery. There is no association between neonatal outcome and type of delivery. CONCLUSION In carefully selected patients, appropriate timing and close supervision, trial of vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section is safe and successful. Individual approach seems to be the best.

  18. Rapidly measured indicators of recreational water quality and swimming-associated illness at marine beaches: a prospective cohort study

    Love David


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In the United States and elsewhere, recreational water quality is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria to help prevent swimming-associated illnesses. Standard methods to measure these bacteria take at least 24 hours to obtain results. Molecular approaches such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR can estimate these bacteria faster, in under 3 hours. Previously, we demonstrated that measurements of the fecal indicator bacteria Enterococcus using qPCR were associated with gastrointestinal (GI illness among swimmers at freshwater beaches. In this paper, we report on results from three marine beach sites. Methods We interviewed beach-goers and collected water samples at marine beaches affected by treated sewage discharges in Mississippi in 2005, and Rhode Island and Alabama in 2007. Ten to twelve days later, we obtained information about gastrointestinal, respiratory, eye, ear and skin symptoms by telephone. We tested water samples for fecal indicator organisms using qPCR and other methods. Results We enrolled 6,350 beach-goers. The occurrence of GI illness among swimmers was associated with a log10-increase in exposure to qPCR-determined estimates of fecal indicator organisms in the genus Enterococcus (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.1 and order Bacteroidales (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.9. Estimates of organisms related to Clostridium perfringens and a subgroup of organisms in the genus Bacteroides were also determined by qPCR in 2007, as was F+ coliphage, but relationships between these indicators and illness were not statistically significant. Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of a relationship between gastrointestinal illness and estimates of fecal indicator organisms determined by qPCR at marine beaches.

  19. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev


    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  20. Assessment of marine ecosystem services indicators: Experiences and lessons learned from 14 European case studies.

    Lillebø, Ana I; Somma, Francesca; Norén, Katja; Gonçalves, Jorge; Alves, M Fátima; Ballarini, Elisabetta; Bentes, Luis; Bielecka, Malgorzata; Chubarenko, Boris V; Heise, Susanne; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Klaoudatos, Dimitris; Lloret, Javier; Margonski, Piotr; Marín, Atucha; Matczak, Magdalena; Oen, Amy Mp; Palmieri, Maria G; Przedrzymirska, Joanna; Różyński, Grzegorz; Sousa, Ana I; Sousa, Lisa P; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Zaucha, Jacek


    This article shares the experiences, observations, and discussions that occurred during the completing of an ecosystem services (ES) indicator framework to be used at European Union (EU) and Member States' level. The experience base was drawn from 3 European research projects and 14 associated case study sites that include 13 transitional-water bodies (specifically 8 coastal lagoons, 4 riverine estuaries, and 1 fjord) and 1 coastal-water ecosystem. The ES pertinent to each case study site were identified along with indicators of these ES and data sources that could be used for mapping. During the process, several questions and uncertainties arose, followed by discussion, leading to these main lessons learned: 1) ES identification: Some ES that do not seem important at the European scale emerge as relevant at regional or local scales; 2) ES indicators: When direct indicators are not available, proxies for indicators (indirect indicators) might be used, including combined data on monitoring requirements imposed by EU legislation and international agreements; 3) ES mapping: Boundaries and appropriate data spatial resolution must be established because ES can be mapped at different temporal and spatial scales. We also acknowledge that mapping and assessment of ES supports the dialogue between human well-being and ecological status. From an evidence-based marine planning-process point of view, mapping and assessment of marine ES are of paramount importance to sustainable use of marine natural capital and to halt the loss of marine biodiversity. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:726-734. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Study on Quality Indicator System of Rhythmic Gymnasts in Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Luo, Lin


    The rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is a sport item with the direct aim of winning as well as a good ornamental value. The scientific selection by the rhythmic gymnasts is necessary for the success, and also the beginning for the scientific training of the gymnasts in their special training stage. According to RG characteristics and the physical characteristics of the gymnasts, also in combination with the investigations & interviews to the coaches who have years of training experience in RG, the experts & scholars on RG study & teaching in universities, and by referring to relevant documents, this paper established the quality indicator system in analytic hierarchy process (AHP). We summarized and selected several indicators obviously influencing the RG training and divided them into the three types of factors: physical factors, flexibility & strength factors, and speed & dexterity factors, according to which 12 specific indicators, their weights and comprehensive evaluation coefficients. Based on these indicators, we established the quality indicator system of the gymnasts, and developed corresponding software system, providing scientific theoretical basis & practical application basis for the selection & evaluation of the gymnasts.

  2. Correlation study of some solar activity indices in the cycles 21 - 23

    Bruevich, E A


    The correlation coefficients of the linear regression of six solar indices versus F10,7 were analyzed in solar cycles 21, 22 and 23. We also analyzed the interconnection between these indices and F10,7 with help of the approximation by the polynomials of second order. The indices we've studied in this paper are: Wolf numbers - W, 530,3 nm coronal line flux - F530, the total solar irradiance - TSI, Mg II UV-index 280 nm core-to-wing ratio, Flare Index - FI and Counts of flares. In the most cases the regressions of these solar indices versus F10,7 are close to linear except the moments of time near to the minimums and maximums of 11-year activity. For the linear regressions we found that the values of correlation coefficients Kcorr(t) for the indices versus F10,7 and W show the cyclic variations with periods approximately equal to the to half length of 11-year cycle - 5,5 years approximately.

  3. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Levchenko, O.V; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Rao, D; Subrahmanyam, C; Murthy, K.S.R

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women: a multi-centre cohort study

    Kjaergaard, H.; Olsen, J.; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard


    BACKGROUND: In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors...... for dystocia often do not provide diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to identify obstetric and clinical risk indicators of dystocia defined by strict and explicit criteria. METHODS: A multi-centre population based cohort study with prospectively collected data from 2810......: The following characteristics, present at admission to hospital, were associated with dystocia during labour (OR, 95% CI): dilatation of cervix

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study for Indicator Traits of Sexual Precocity in Nellore Cattle

    Irano, Natalia; de Camargo, Gregório Miguel Ferreira; Costa, Raphael Bermal; Terakado, Ana Paula Nascimento; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Dias, Marina Mortati; Bignardi, Annaiza Braga; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; de Oliveira, Henrique Nunes; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão


    The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect chromosome regions associated with indicator traits of sexual precocity in Nellore cattle. Data from Nellore animals belonging to farms which participate in the DeltaGen® and Paint® animal breeding programs, were used. The traits used in this study were the occurrence of early pregnancy (EP) and scrotal circumference (SC). Data from 72,675 females and 83,911 males with phenotypes were used; of these, 1,770 females and 1,680 males were genotyped. The SNP effects were estimated with a single-step procedure (WssGBLUP) and the observed phenotypes were used as dependent variables. All animals with available genotypes and phenotypes, in addition to those with only phenotypic information, were used. A single-trait animal model was applied to predict breeding values and the solutions of SNP effects were obtained from these breeding values. The results of GWAS are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows with 150 adjacent SNPs. The 10 windows that explained the highest proportion of variance were identified. The results of this study indicate the polygenic nature of EP and SC, demonstrating that the indicator traits of sexual precocity studied here are probably controlled by many genes, including some of moderate effect. The 10 windows with large effects obtained for EP are located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 14, 18, 21 and 27, and together explained 7.91% of the total genetic variance. For SC, these windows are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 13, 14, 19, 22 and 23, explaining 6.78% of total variance. GWAS permitted to identify chromosome regions associated with EP and SC. The identification of these regions contributes to a better understanding and evaluation of these traits, and permits to indicate candidate genes for future investigation of causal mutations. PMID:27494397

  6. Do Global Indicators of Protected Area Management Effectiveness Make Sense? A Case Study from Siberia

    Anthony, Brandon P.; Shestackova, Elena


    Driven by the underperformance of many protected areas (PAs), protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluations are increasingly being conducted to assess PAs in meeting specified objectives. A number of PAME tools have been developed, many of which are based on the IUCN-WCPA framework constituting six evaluative elements (context, planning, input, process, output, and outcomes). In a quest for a more universal tool and using this framework, Leverington et al. (Environ Manag 46(5):685-698, 2010) developed a common scale and list of 33 headline indicators, purported to be representative across a wide range of management effectiveness evaluation tools. The usefulness of such composite tools and the relative weighting of indicators are still being debated. Here, we utilize these headline indicators as a benchmark to assess PAME in 37 PAs of four types in Krasnoyarsk Kray, Russia, and compare these with global results. Moreover, we review the usefulness of these indicators in the Krasnoyarsk context based on the opinions of local PA management teams. Overall, uncorrected management scores for studied PAs were slightly better (mean = 5.66 ± 0.875) than the global average, with output and outcome elements being strongest, and planning and process scores lower. Score variability is influenced by PA size, location, and type. When scores were corrected based on indicator importance, the mean score significantly increased to 5.75 ± 0.858. We emphasize idiosyncrasies of Russian PA management, including the relative absence of formal management plans and limited efforts toward local community beneficiation, and how such contextual differences may confound PAME scores when indicator weights are treated equal.

  7. Indicators for wild animal offtake: methods and case study for African mammals and birds

    Daniel J. Ingram


    Full Text Available Unsustainable exploitation of wild animals is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity and to millions of people depending on wild meat for food and income. The international conservation and development community has committed to implementing plans for sustainable use of natural resources and has requested development of monitoring systems of bushmeat offtake and trade. Although offtake monitoring systems and indicators for marine species are more developed, information on harvesting terrestrial species is limited. Building on approaches developed to monitor exploitation of fisheries and population trends, we have proposed two novel indicators for harvested terrestrial species: the mean body mass indicator (MBMI assessing whether hunters are relying increasingly on smaller species over time, as a measure of defaunation, by tracking body mass composition of harvested species within samples across various sites and dates; and the offtake pressure indicator (OPI as a measure of harvesting pressure on groups of wild animals within a region by combining multiple time series of the number of harvested individuals across species. We applied these two indicators to recently compiled data for West and Central African mammals and birds. Our exploratory analyses show that the MBMI of harvested mammals decreased but that of birds rose between 1966/1975 and 2010. For both mammals and birds the OPI increased substantially during the observed time period. Given our results, time-series data and information collated from multiple sources are useful to investigate trends in body mass of hunted species and offtake volumes. In the absence of comprehensive monitoring systems, we suggest that the two indicators developed in our study are adequate proxies of wildlife offtake, which together with additional data can inform conservation policies and actions at regional and global scales.

  8. Research on Indicator System of Regional Eco-efficiency: A Case Study of Chengyang District

    Zhou Zhenfeng; Sun Lei; Sun Yinglan


    Eco-efficiency is a valuable tool for managing and solving issues involving resource consumption and pollution emission in current production processes. Despite the popularity of the term "eeo-efficiency" in business, limited attention has been paid to measuring and reporting regional eco-efficiency for local government policy makers. Based on the concept and method of eco-efficiency, an indicator system of regional eco-efficiency is established in this study. The indicator system comprises 22 indicators, which are divided in to three categories including socio-economic development, resources consumption,environmental pressure. As a promising statistical technique,principle component analysis is used to set the weight of indicators which attempts to calculate the eco-efficiency indices of Qingdao's Chengyang District. The results show that the eco-efficiency of Chengyang District has clearly improved 35.1% with small fluctuation from 1995 to 2003. Socio-economic development index and resources consumption index also represent obvious increasing trends. The correlation coefficient between soci-economic development index and resources consumption index is 0.979, which means the social progress and economic growth of Chengyang District depend on an extravagant consumption of resources. The environmental pressure index increased slowly before 1997 and declined gradually after 1997, due to more attention being paid to environmental protection by local government in recent years. Chengyang District still keeps the traditional economic development mode with a high consumption and high production, so the emphases of future development should put on improving the improving the efficient use of natural resources and promoting environmental management sustainability. The results show that the indicators system of regional eco-efficiency is a promising method to quantitatively evaluate resources and environmental efficiency and provide an effective decision-making support for

  9. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura


    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA...... indicators. This paper presents the progress made since 2013, preliminary results obtained for each impact category and the description of a rice life cycle assessment (LCA) case study designed to test and compare LCIA indicators. Methods The effort has been focused in a first stage on impacts of global...... warming, fine particulate matter emissions, water use and land use, plus cross-cutting issues and LCAbased footprints. The paper reports the process and progress and specific results obtained in the different task forces (TFs). Additionally, a rice LCA case study common to all TF has been developed. Three...

  10. Comparative Study between the Quality Management Indicators, Marker of Major Psychiatric Disorders in Evolution

    BONDARI, D.; Bondari, Simona; Gheonea, Ioana; ANDRONACHE, ANDREEA


    Indicators of quality management are represented by: accounting hospitalization days (duration of stay); mortality rate; the rate of nosocomial infections; patients readmitted in 30 days; the percentage patients transferred; inconsistent diagnoses. The hospitalization period is a marker of evolution. The present study reflects comparative data between duration and the number of hospitalisations in patients with major psychiatric disorders. Introduction. Medical Psychiatry as a discipline has ...

  11. An International Review of Eco-City Theory, Indicators, and Case Studies

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This report is intended to answer the question: “What international experiences with ‘eco-cities’ can help the central Chinese government evaluate the performance of Chinese cities that pursue ‘lowcarbon’ urban development?” To answer this question, we reviewed the literature on eco-cities and closely related concepts, surveyed performance indicators used to evaluate sustainable urban development around the world, and compiled case studies of exceptional eco- and sustainable cities.

  12. Studying randomness and determinism in surface temperature anomaly indices using the recurrence plot method

    Kiselev, B. V.


    Surface temperature anomalies are studied using the methods of recurrence plots and statistical R/S analysis, as well as the Higuchi method for determining fractal dimension. Anomalies of the surface temperature above continents and the temperature in the World Ocean regions and in the Northern and Southern hemispheres are considered independently. It has been indicated that anomalies are more stochastic and deterministic for land and ocean surfaces, respectively.

  13. Study of a self-adjoint operator indicating the direction of time within standard quantum mechanics

    Strauss, Y; Machnes, S; Horwitz, L P


    In [J. Math. Phys. 51 (2010) 022104] a self-adjoint operator was introduced that has the property that it indicates the direction of time within the framework of standard quantum mechanics, in the sense that as a function of time its expectation value decreases monotonically for any initial state. In this paper we study some of this operator's properties. In particular, we derive its spectrum and generalized eigenstates, and treat the example of the free particle.

  14. Geographical Indications and the Trade Related Property Rights Agreement: A Case Study of Basmati Rice Exports


    The recent controversy over the granting of patenting rights to three new strains of Basmati rice by the US Patent and Trademark Office is used as a case study to analyze the impact of incomplete protection of intellectual property. Results suggest that there is evidence that the introduction of a competing product that may infringe on India's geographical indicator has harmed Indian producers in key export markets.

  15. A Comparative Field Based Study of Katz and Barthel Indices in North Indian City of Dehradun

    Megha Luthra


    Full Text Available Background: Elderly persons are one of the most vulnerable groups of society and have more chances of disease and disabilities (restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. It reflects how well an individual is able to function in general areas of life. Magnitude of disability has become an important indicator in measuring disease burden along with morbidity and mortality rates. Katz and Barthel Indices have been largely used to assess disability in activities of daily living among elderly people.Aim & objectives: This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 60 years and above in urban field practice area of SGRRIM&HS, Dehradun, Uttarakhand with the aim of comparing these two indices in community setting. The specific objectives were to find ADL dependence by both the indices, find the factors which significantly affect ADL dependence and to find the degree of agreement which is not by chance between Katz and Barthel Indices.Material methods: An interview schedule was developed and administered to participants in Hindi, by trained investigators. Information on age, marital status, living status education, occupation and economic dependence was recorded. House-to-house visits were conducted in the selected area to collect the data. All elderly persons residing in the selected area were included in the study.Results: Prevalence of ADL dependence was 8.23% as per Katz Index and 28.45% as per Barthel Index, taking a score of less than 20 for BI and less than 6 for KI as criterion for ADL dependence. That there is a moderate degree of agreement between Katz and Barthel Scores which is not by chance was estimated by Kappa Statistic.Conclusion: Katz Index is better suited for ADL estimation in a community setting.

  16. Influence of estrogens on copper indicators: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Héctor; López, Guadalupe; Pizarro, Fernando; Ayala, Mariana; Araya, Magdalena


    Classic copper indicators are not sensitive and specific for detecting excess copper exposure when this is higher than customary but not markedly elevated. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin (Cp) are the most commonly used indicators to assess nutritional status of copper. The objective of this paper was to study the influence of estrogens on these indicators and others used to assess early effects of excess copper exposure in humans and the expression of a set of copper related proteins in a hepatic cellular model. For the studies in humans, 107 healthy participants (18-50 years) were allocated as follows: group 1 (n = 39), women assessed on day 7 of their hormonal cycle; group 2 (n = 34), women assessed on day 21 of their hormonal cycle, and group 3 (n = 34, comparison group), healthy men. Participants received 8 mg Cu/day (as copper sulfate) during 6 months. Serum Cp and Cu, Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase activity, liver function indicators [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT)], and serum Fe and Zn concentrations were measured monthly. In addition, the influence of estradiol on intracellular total copper content, hctr1, dmt1 and shbg mRNA abundance and hCTR1, and DMT1 expression was measured in HepG2 cells. Serum Cu, Fe, and Zn and liver aminotransferases but not Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase varied depending on sex. Fe nutrition indicators, GGT, and ALT activities showed significant differences between the hormonal phases. Cellular experiments showed that estradiol increased cellular Cu concentration and hCTR1 and DMT1 mRNA expression and changed these proteins expression patterns. Estradiols significantly influence the responses to copper at the whole body and the cellular levels, suggesting that they help maintaining copper availability for metabolic needs.

  17. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus by a model based on risk indicators: a prospective study.

    Jensen, Dorte M; Mølsted-Pedersen, Lars; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Westergaard, Jes G; Ovesen, Per; Damm, Peter


    This study was performed to prospectively evaluate a screening model for gestational diabetes mellitus on the basis of clinical risk indicators. In a prospective multicenter study with 5235 consecutive pregnant women, diagnostic testing with a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was routinely performed in women with risk indicators and offered to women without risk indicators as part of the study. Forty-four percent of the women underwent testing, 43% declined participation, 6% did not speak Danish, and 7% could not be contacted. By extrapolation of the results from tested women to the whole group in question, a 2.4% prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity of the model was 80.6 (73.7-87.6) and 64.8 (63.5-66.1), respectively (95% CIs). Under ideal conditions, sensitivity of the model was comparable with universal screening by fasting glucose or a 1-hour 50-g glucose challenge test. Both screening and diagnostic testing could be avoided in two thirds of all pregnant women.

  18. Obstetric risk indicators for labour dystocia in nulliparous women: A multi-centre cohort study

    Ottesen Bent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nulliparous women dystocia is the most common obstetric problem and its etiology is largely unknown. The frequency of augmentation and cesarean delivery related to dystocia is high although it is not clear if a slow progress justifies the interventions. Studies of risk factors for dystocia often do not provide diagnostic criteria for the diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to identify obstetric and clinical risk indicators of dystocia defined by strict and explicit criteria. Methods A multi-centre population based cohort study with prospectively collected data from 2810 nulliparous women in term spontaneous labour with a singleton infant in cephalic presentation. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and clinical data-records. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate adjusted Odds Ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI are given. Results The following characteristics, present at admission to hospital, were associated with dystocia during labour (OR, 95% CI: dilatation of cervix Conclusion Vaginal examinations at admission provide useful information on risk indicators for dystocia. The strongest risk indicator was use of epidural analgesia and if part of that is causal, it is of concern.

  19. Comparison of drought stress indices in beech forests: a modelling study

    Vilhar U


    Full Text Available Two drought stress indices were applied to managed as well as old-growth beech forests and gaps for the 2001 to 2013 period to aid in the development of an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis. The relative extractable soil water (REW, which was calculated from the soil water content in the root zone, and the transpiration index (TI, calculated as the ratio between the actual and potential transpiration were used. Both indices were calculated on a daily basis using the water balance model BROOK90, which was fitted and tested using measured data on throughfall and soil water content. A sensitivity analysis apportioned to the input parameters of the drought stress indices was conducted to assess uncertainty. Both drought stress indices showed the greatest drought stress in the years 2009, 2003 and 2011, as also indicated by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI at the nearest meteorological station. However, drought stress intensity and duration differed between the indices and study sites. Greater water supply stress was shown in the forests than the gaps. Furthermore, the agreement among the indices was smaller for gaps compared with forests, which implies that careful index selection is needed when comparing water supply stresses in different stages of forest stand development. Due to the low amount of input data required and the parameters that can be measured with relative ease in the field, REW might be an efficient tool for field water supply diagnosis when analyzing the drought stresses of similar forest types and at unique stages of development. REW satisfactorily indicated drought stress in forests but to a lesser extent in gaps. TI demonstrated more consistent differences in drought stress between forests and gaps and therefore proved to be the appropriate index for a detailed analysis of drought stress variation between different stages of forest stand development. However, due to a greater number of

  20. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    Wendy Si Hassen


    Full Text Available Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  1. Indicators of Psychiatric Disorders in Different Oncology Specialties: A Prevalence Study

    Manuela Polidoro Lima


    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the prevalence of various indicators of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian outpatients with cancer and assessed possible associations with sociodemographic indicators. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,385 patients were evaluated using the following instruments: Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND, and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST. Results. The sample was composed of both genders with a slight predominance of women (55.8%, subjects with incomplete/completed elementary school (59%, married (67.4%, with children (94%, not active from a labor viewpoint (61.6%, and following some type of religion (79.5%. The prevalence of anxiety for the total sample varied between 21.5 and 27.4%. The prevalence of depression was 21.1%, tobacco abuse/dependence was 40.2%, and alcohol was 20.3%. Women had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than men. Men had higher levels of substance abuse/dependence indicators than women. Conclusion. These results are consistent with the literature, which attests to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorder indicators in cancer patients, especially compared to the general population.

  2. Preparation and use of endotoxin indicators for depyrogenation process studies. LAL Users Group.


    Biological Indicators (B.I.'s) have traditionally been employed in the validation and routine monitoring of sterilization processes used for the manufacture and control of pharmaceuticals and medical devices. In this paper, the phrase "Endotoxin Indicator" has been coined to describe a tool analogous to the BI which can be used in the validation and routine control of endotoxin reduction processes. Like the BI, the Endotoxin Indicator provides the user with an in vitro biological test to complement physical measurement used to control the manufacturing process. It must be remembered that the total pyroburden in an aseptically processed drug is the sum of the pyroburden of each factor contributing to the manufacture of that product. This includes raw materials, packaging components, the environment and the manufacturing process itself. Therefore, all aspects of the process must be considered for a complete validation. This pyroburden may also change during processing of a drug. Fluctuations in pH, solvent content, and temperature may decrease pyroburden while introduction of some raw materials, especially water, may increase endotoxin content. Regularly scheduled monitoring of all aseptic processes should identify and address each step of the process considered to have potential for the possible introduction or removal of endotoxin in the final product. Most of these situations can be thoroughly studied using Endotoxin Indicators to challenge routine production conditions, thereby providing insight to the assurance of endotoxin-free final products.

  3. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline


    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  4. Kinetic study and techno-economic indicators for base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil

    Tarik M. Labib


    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel has been identified as biodiesel alternative fuel obtained from renewable sources. Efforts in Egypt are directed toward the development of new non-edible sources. At the forefront of these non-edible sources comes Jatropha curcas oil (JCO because it has been grown successfully in Egypt using primary treated municipal wastewater for irrigation. Based on previous research findings for the production of biodiesel from (JCO using heterogeneous catalyst, some kinetic data on the transesterification reaction were provided. This was achieved by conducting the reaction at various temperatures, reaction time, and dose of catalyst and reactant molar ratios. The transesterification reaction was observed with regard to the percent biodiesel yield versus time and the reaction order was found to be a first order reaction rate equation. Techno-economic indicators revealed that the price of biodiesel produced by heterogeneous base catalyzed method was $0.665/L with a gross profit per year of $37,403,643.

  5. Study on performance following Key Performance Indicators for trauma care: Khon Kaen Hospital 2000.

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Saranrittichai, Surachai; Sriwiwat, Sununta; Chumsri, Jirawadee; Kulleab, Sirikul; Jaikwang, Piyaporn


    This study was conducted in 2000-2001 in order to improve the quality of trauma care by establishing the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) as a guideline in providing trauma care service and to study the personnel's performance following 27 indexes of KPIs for trauma care in Khon Kaen Hospital. After the implementation of the KPIs by the method of participatory action research (PAR), the trauma preventable death rate was decreased to 1.3 per cent which was statistically different from the preventable death rate in 1997 (2.0%).

  6. Current Safety of Renal Allograft Biopsy With Indication in Adult Recipients: An Observational Study.

    Tsai, Shang-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Cheng, Chi-Hung; Yu, Tung-Min; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Huang, Shih-Ting; Tsai, Jun-Li; Wu, Ming-Ju


    Renal biopsy remains the golden standard diagnosis of renal function deterioration. The safety in native kidney biopsy is well defined. However, it is a different story in allograft kidney biopsy. We conduct this retrospective study to clarify the safety of allograft kidney biopsy with indication.All variables were grouped by the year of biopsy and they were compared by Mann-Whitney U test (for continuous variables) or Chi-square test (for categorical variables). We collected possible factors associated with complications, including age, gender, body weight, renal function, cause of uremia, status of coagulation, hepatitis, size of needle, and immunosuppressants.We recruited all renal transplant recipients undergoing allograft biopsy between January of 2009 and December of 2014. This is the largest database for allograft kidney biopsy with indication. Of all the 269 biopsies, there was no difference in occurrence among the total 14 complications (5.2%) over these 6 years. There were only 3 cases of hematomas (1.11%), 6 gross hematuria (2.23%), 1 hydronephrosis (0.37%), and 2 hemoglobin decline (0.74%). The outcome of this cohort is the best compared to all other studies, and it is even better than the allograft protocol kidney biopsy. Among all possible factors, patients with pathological report containing "medullary tissue only" were susceptible to complications (P biopsy with indication. Identifying the renal capsule before biopsy to avoid puncture into medulla is the most important element to prevent complications.

  7. A study on temporal variation of elemental composition in tree barks used as air pollution indicators

    Santos, Eliane C.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The study of air pollution using biological matrices has shown that tree barks may be used as biomonitor due to accumulation of aerosol particles on its porous surface. The bark elemental composition can provide information on pollution sources as well as characterize the aerial pollutants from a wide geographical region. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation in elemental composition in barks with time of exposure. Tree barks from Tipuana (Tipuana tipu) and Sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) species were collected in February 2013 and July 2014 in the city of São Paulo. For analysis, the barks were cleaned, grated, ground and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated with thermal neutron flux at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and after a suitable decay time, the induced gamma activities were analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The elements As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn were determined and the results indicated variability in the concentrations depending on the element, sampling period and also on tree species, indicating that there are not very well defined temporal trends. The quality control of the analytical results evaluated by analyzing INCT Virginia Tobacco Leaves certified reference material (CRM) presented values of |z-score| < 2, indicating that the procedure of NAA applied is suitable for the analyses. (author)

  8. Soil health indicators: A case study with smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda

    Mentler, Axel; Pohl, Walther; Okalany, Emmanuel; Probst, Lorenz; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Schomakers, Jasmin


    The study aims to determine soil health indicators of 46 coffee smallholder farmers in the area of Mbale, Mount Elgon region (1200m ~ 1900m) in the southeast of Uganda. Forty of these farmers are working under an organic farmers association and are certified. They are compared to six conventional coffee production systems. The organic farms are agroforestry systems, whereas the conventional coffee farms have nearly no shading trees. Topsoil and subsoil samples, in a depth of 0-20 and 20-40 cm were collected from each farm and analyzed. The following parameters were determined: pH (H2O), electric conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), phosphate (PO4) , sulfate (SO4) carbonate, dissolved total nitrogen (TN), plant available phosphorus (PO4 CAL), plant available potassium (K CAL) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These parameters were used as indicators for soil health. A set of 33 quantitative and qualitative indicators was exclusively developed for coffee farmers to best describe a functioning ecosystem through social, economic and ecological indicators. These ecosystem-indicators were assessed through a questionnaire, carried out parallel to the soil sampling and further transformed into a scoring matrix where a scoring system from 0 to 100 points was used to normalize the collected data. There is a significant difference between the soil health indicators of organic and conventional coffee producers. The soil samples of conventional farms show higher pH values than those of organic farming systems referring to high turnover rates of the organic material. DOC release is on average higher in organic production systems. A major difference in the system is the higher plant available phosphate content, as well as a higher CEC in organic systems, which is due to the high organic matter input. The soil health indicator systems allowed to differentiate and to evaluate organic farms. Outlook Through the different management

  9. Predicting the Istanbul Stock Exchange Index Return using Technical Indicators: A Comparative Study

    Şenol Emir


    Full Text Available Theaim of this study to examine the performance of Support Vector Regression (SVRwhich is a novel regression method based on Support Vector Machines (SVMapproach in predicting the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE National 100 Index dailyreturns. For bechmarking, results given by SVR were compared to those given byclassical Linear Regression (LR. Dataset contains 6 technical indicators whichwere selected as model inputs for 2005-2011 period. Grid search and crossvaliadation is used for finding optimal model parameters and evaluating themodels. Comparisons were made based on Root Mean Square (RMSE, Mean AbsoluteError (MAE, Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE, Theil InequalityCoefficient (TIC and Mean Mixed Error (MME metrics. Results indicate that SVRoutperforms the LR for all metrics.


    Radu-Dan TURCU


    Full Text Available The fact that financial information alone is insufficient in assessing a company’s performance is more and more debated. . The present paper aims to analyze the relation between the changes in companies’ market value and selected financial and non-financial indicators for the airline industry. The main aim of this study is to analyze the value relevance of non-financial information in assessing a company’s performance by reference to the airline industry. The results reveal that non-financial indicators “load factor”, “available seat kilometers” and the financial measures “pretax return on assets”,“curent ratio”, ”debt-to-equity ratio” and ”sales growth” are valuable in explaining the stock price evolution.

  11. Development of indicators of urban quality of life through very high spatial resolution remote sensing: A case study of Hanoi

    Pham, Thi Thanh Hien

    dependent variable is the level of satisfaction as evaluated by the experts. The weights were then used to interpret the importance of our indicators for quality of life. Our results show that it is possible to classify land occupation types with a good accuracy: our average accuracy rate is 80.5%. As for the weight of quality of life indicators, our results allow us to make methodological and interpretative contributions. Contrary to previous work, our method allows us to evaluate the explanatory power of our model. Our regression shows that 22% of variation in . satisfaction towards commodity and nearly 54% of variation in satisfaction towards amenity can be attributed to our indicators. As for the nature of the factors playing a role in quality of life, our results show that the relation between indicators and perceived satisfaction is not linear, which had never been shown in previous studies. Satisfaction towards commodity increases when transportation and health care are both sufficient. Satisfaction towards amenity is on the other hand largely determined by residential space, while vegetation plays a minor role, contrary to what was found in the urban zones of developed countries. Key words: very high resolution image, life quality, urban area, ordinal regression.

  12. Syndrome of Galactorrhea, Amenorrhea, and Obesity as Possible Indicators of Prolactinoma: A Case Study Approach

    Shaw, Betsy; Creary, Ludlow; Rao, Vitaya


    Four female patients were found to have microadenomas and high prolactin levels, but the symptoms of the syndrome varied among the patients. Three of four patients had overt galactorrhea, obesity, and amenorrhea. One patient was postmenopausal, and another showed menstrual irregularities. Two patients sought medical attention for headaches, and one for visual disturbances. Two patients previously had used psychotropic drugs, and two patients used birth control pills. When tested, all patients had high serum prolactin levels, abnormal sellar tomograms, and the presence of microadenoma of the pituitary was confirmed by computerized tomography. Because of the high incidence of pituitary tumor among these four patients, this study suggests that a complete workup should be done for patients having galactorrhea, amenorrhea, and obesity as a syndrome or as separate entities. PMID:3806693

  13. [Fresh frozen plasma: a pilot study of the context of utilization and the indications].

    Baldi, I; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Perez, P; Chêne, G; Leconte des Floris, M F; Vicariot, M; Vignal, M; Palmer, G; Salmi, L R


    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of a tolerance study of qualified (secured by quarantine or solvent-detergent-treated) fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in real conditions of use. We included all patients receiving qualified FFP during a one-month observation period in three french hospitals (Besançon, Brest, Lyon). The 192 FFP transfusion episodes corresponded to 111 patients. Only two thirds of all prescriptions corresponded to indications mentioned in the ministerial order of december 1991. Forty-two episodes consisted of FFP only; in the 150 remaining episodes, at least one product (mostly labile blood products) had been injected within 24 hours before or after the plasma injection. The free interval between FFP transfusion and the nearest associated product was usually less than three hours. Only one side effect was notified. This pilot study points out the difficulties of a tolerance study of qualified FFP in real conditions of use. It also raises the necessity to clarify current indications of FFP.

  14. Quality indicators

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian


    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  15. Development of Behavioral Indicators of Competences for Safety Culture of Nuclear Power Plants: A Preliminary Study

    Moon, Kwangsu; Kim, Sa Kil; Oh, Yeon Ju; Shin, Youmin; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The term of safety competency in nuclear field was presented in the OECD/NEA workshop held in 1999. A model of the safety culture competencies in nuclear power plants was developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). In general, a competency (competence) is defined as 'cluster of employee's attribute, knowledge, skill, ability or other characteristic that contributes to successful job performance'. We also defined safety culture competency as 'cluster of various internal characteristics (e.g., knowledge, skill, ability, motive, attitude and etc.) of employee that contribute to perform job safely and shape a healthy and strong safety culture.' By this definition, the safety culture competency is the broader construct including job competency. An employee having high level of safety culture competency shows extra discretionary effort to improve safety of peer, team and organization in addition to the individual's successful and safe job accomplishment. The behavioral indicators for each of the competencies are focal points of conversations on progress and are monitored continuously by self-assessment and managers or supervisors' intervention. Deficiencies in any of these indicators can point to coaching, training or other learning opportunities that employees may be required in order to improve. The purpose of this study was to derive a model of safety competencies for improving safety culture of NPPs and develop a set of behavioral indicators of each competency. In addition, the method of measuring behavioral indicators was suggested. For the application of developed safety culture competences and behavioral indicators, the most suitable measuring method for behavioral indicators must be developed. In the case of behavioral observations, behavioral dimensions (frequency, persistence and latency), observation possibility, occurrence basis of behavior (daily job performance, situational dependent) are considered to

  16. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX326, a novel recombinant factor IX: a prospective, controlled, multicentre phase I/III study in previously treated patients with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level ≤2%) haemophilia B.

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Rusen, L; Lamas, J L; Oh, M-S; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Pavlova, B G; Wong, W-Y; Abbuehl, B E


    BAX326 is a recombinant factor IX (rFIX; nonacog gamma) manufactured without the addition of any materials of human or animal origin, and with two viral inactivation steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 15 nm nanofiltration). The aim of this prospective trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, haemostatic efficacy and safety of BAX326 in previously treated patients aged 12-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B. BAX326 was safe and well tolerated in all 73 treated subjects; adverse events considered related to treatment (2.7% incidence, all non-serious) were transient and mild, and no hypersensitivity reactions, inhibitor formation or thrombotic events were observed. Pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence (n = 28) between BAX326 and a licensed rFIX was confirmed in terms of the ratio of geometric mean AUC(0-72) h per dose. Twice-weekly prophylaxis [mean duration 6.2 (±0.7) months; 1.8 (±0.1) infusions per week, 49.5 (±4.8) IU kg(-1) per infusion] was effective in preventing bleeding episodes, with a significantly lower (79%, P < 0.001) annualized bleed rate (4.2) compared to an on-demand treatment in a historical control group (20.0); 24 of 56 subjects on prophylaxis (43%) did not bleed throughout the study observation period. Of 249 total acute bleeds, 211 (84.7%) were controlled with one to two infusions of BAX326. Haemostatic efficacy at resolution of bleed was rated excellent or good in 96.0% of all treated bleeding episodes. The results of this study indicate that BAX326 is safe and efficacious in treating bleeds and routine prophylaxis in patients aged 12 years and older with haemophilia B.

  17. Biogeochemical indicators of peatland degradation – a case study of a temperate bog in northern Germany

    J. P. Krüger


    Full Text Available Peatlands store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and can loose carbon via the atmosphere due to degradation. In Germany, most of the greenhouse gas emissions from organic soils are attributed to sites managed as grassland. Here we investigated a land-use gradient from near-natural wetland (NW to an extensively managed (GE to an intensively managed grassland site (GI, all formed in the same bog complex in northern Germany. Vertical depth profiles of δ13C, δ15N, ash content, C/N ratio, bulk density, as well as radiocarbon ages were studied to identify peat degradation and to calculate carbon loss. At all sites, including the near-natural site, δ13C depth profiles indicate aerobic decomposition in the upper horizons. Depth profiles of δ15Ndiffered significantly between sites with increasing δ15N values in the top layers with increasing intensity of use, indicating that the peat is more decomposed. At both grassland sites, the ash content peaked within the first centimeter. In the near-natural site, ash contents were highest in 10–60 cm depth. This indicates that not only the managed grasslands, but also the near-natural site, is influenced by anthropogenic activities, most likely due to the drainage of the surrounding area. However, we found very young peat material in the first centimeter of the NW, indicating recent peat growth. The NW site accumulates carbon today even though it is and probably was influenced by anthropogenic activities in the past indicated by δ13C and ash content depth profiles. Based on the enrichment of ash content and changes in bulk density, we calculated carbon loss from these sites in retrograde. As expected land use intensification leads to a higher carbon loss which is supported by the higher peat ages at the intensive managed grassland site. All investigated biogeochemical parameters together indicate degradation of peat due to (i conversion to grassland, (ii historical drainage as well as

  18. Comparison of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices in children and reference data from the First Zurich Longitudinal Study

    Martin, David D.; Heckmann, Conrad; Neuhof, Julia; Ranke, Michael B.; Binder, Gerhard [University Children' s Hospital Tuebingen, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Tuebingen (Germany); Jenni, Oskar G. [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Centre, Zurich (Switzerland)


    A number of radiogrammetrical metacarpal indices are in use, some of which have been adapted for children. The purpose of this study was to compare four known indices - bone mineral density (BMD), relative cortical area, Exton-Smith index, bending breaking resistance index - and the more recently defined pediatric bone index (PBI) according to the two criteria of minimum height dependence and minimum variability in children of equal bone age. A total of 3,121 left-hand radiographs from 231 healthy Caucasian children ranging in age from 3 to 19 years old were analysed using BoneXpert {sup registered}, a programme for automatic analysis of hand radiographs and assessment of bone age. Dependence on height for chronological age or bone age and the mean relative standard deviation were lowest in the PBI for both genders pooled. The differences in height dependence were statistically significant and are shown to be clinically relevant. Reference data for PBI are presented. PBI may be a better indicator than BMD for bone health in children; however, verification in a clinical group is needed. (orig.)

  19. Plant communities as indicators of salt marsh hydrology A study at Goose Fare Brook, Saco, Maine

    Millette, P.M. (Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)


    Salt marsh stratigraphy often relies on vegetation fragment distribution as an indicator of paleo-sea level. This study is attempting to validate the use of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens at Goose Fare Brook in Saco, Maine as paleo-sea level indicators. Plant zones were mapped and each zone boundary was surveyed to describe the relationship between sea level and plant species zonation. Data showing the contact elevations between S. patens and S. alterniflora were examined, and contacts from different environments in the marsh were compared. Differences in contact elevations ranged from only a few centimeters to more than eighty centimeters. Three series of groundwater monitoring wells were installed along transects. Within a single transect, one well was placed in the creek bottom, measuring the free water surface, and one was placed at each of several plant zone boundaries. Strip chart recordings from one series of monitoring wells show the flood dominated patterns of tidally influenced groundwater fluctuations in the wells. Root depths of 100 plugs each of S. alterniflora and S. patens were also measured. A comparison of these measurements and those from monitoring wells will assist in the determination of the average length of submergence time for each species. Preliminary findings suggest that sea level is not the only force affecting the modern zonation of these two indicator plants in Goose Fare Brook.

  20. Ultrasound measurements of the masseter muscle as predictors of cephalometric indices in orthodontics: a pilot study.

    Naser-Ud-Din, S; Sampson, W J; Dreyer, C W; Thoirs, K


    This study investigated the potential of ultrasound measurements of the masseter muscle to accurately predict indices normally derived from cephalograms. Masseter muscle measurements on 11 adults (22 to 30 y) were made using lateral cephalometrics and extended field-of-view ultrasound. The ultrasound technique was validated in a simulation pilot study using 12 dry skulls and raw chicken breasts. Twenty cephalometric variables were analyzed against four ultrasound measurements of the masseter muscle. Highly significant correlations (r = 0.81-0.85, p = 0.001-0.002) between ultrasound measurements of the masseter muscle and cephalometric measurements representing the length of the superficial masseter muscle, the length and shape of the mandible and vertical facial proportions were demonstrated. Predictive equations from regression analyses were constructed to deduce ramus length and shape from the ultrasound measurements. The results provide pilot data suggesting that ultrasound is a potential clinical tool for sequential evaluation of masseter muscle length in orthodontics and facial muscle growth studies.

  1. Soil pollution indices conditioned by medieval metallurgical activity - A case study from Krakow (Poland).

    Kowalska, Joanna; Mazurek, Ryszard; Gąsiorek, Michał; Setlak, Marcin; Zaleski, Tomasz; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw


    The studied soil profile under the Main Market Square (MMS) in Krakow was characterised by the influence of medieval metallurgical activity. In the presented soil section lithological discontinuity (LD) was found, which manifests itself in the form of cultural layers (CLs). Moreover, in this paper LD detection methods based on soil texture are presented. For the first time, three different ways to identify the presence of LD in the urban soils are suggested. The presence of LD had an influence on the content and distribution of heavy metals within the soil profile. The content of heavy metals in the CLs under the MMS in Krakow was significantly higher than the content in natural horizons. In addition, there were distinct differences in the content of heavy metals within CLs. Profile variability and differences in the content of heavy metals and phosphorus within the CLs under the MMS were activity indicators of Krakow inhabitants in the past. This paper presents alternative methods for the assessment of the degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils using selected pollution indices. On the basis of the studied total concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, Ni, Sn, Ag) and total phosphorus content, the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Enrichment Factor (EF), Sum of Pollution Index (PIsum), Single Pollution Index (PI), Nemerow Pollution Index (PINemerow) and Potential Ecological Risk (RI) were calculated using different local and reference geochemical backgrounds. The use of various geochemical backgrounds is helpful to evaluate the assessment of soil pollution. The individual CLs differed from each other according to the degree of pollution. The different values of pollution indices within the studied soil profile showed that LDS should not be evaluated in terms of contamination as one, homogeneous soil profile but each separate CL should be treated individually.

  2. Comparison study of the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in human blood and urine

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Loewenson, R. (Univ. of Zimbabwe (South Africa))


    Although exposure to DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl1)1,1,1,-trichloroethane) is not normally associated with fatality or chronic adverse effects to human life, it is a known hazard to the ecosystem. Blood levels of DDT and some of its derivatives have been used to assess extent of exposure or the body load of DDT in humans. In experimental studies, ingestion of DDT has been associated with reduced liver stores of vitamin A, and increased serum levels of vitamin A. The same study also revealed a significant correlation of vitamin A and DDE serum levels. Generally an increase in excreted 17-B-hydroxycortisone has been associated with DDT exposure. Increased excretion of 6-B-hydroxycortisol has been noted in workers who were involved in the formulation of DDT. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in humans. The indices which were compared are serum vitamin A and DDE levels and urinary 17-B-hydroxycortisol.

  3. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies.

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Senthilkumar, P; Gayathri, K; Shyamsundar, G; Jacob, K S


    While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  4. Cesarean section rates and indications in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-country study from Medecins sans Frontieres.

    Kathryn Chu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The World Health Organization considers Cesarean section rates of 5-15% to be the optimal range for targeted provision of this life saving intervention. However, access to safe Cesarean section in resource-limited settings is much lower, estimated at 1-2% reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study reports Cesarean sections rates and indications in Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, and Sierra Leone, and describe the main parameters associated with maternal and early neonatal mortality. METHODS: Women undergoing Cesarean section from August 1 2010 to January 31 2011 were included in this prospective study. Logistic regression was used to model determinants of maternal and early neonatal mortality. RESULTS: 1276 women underwent a Cesarean section, giving a frequency of 6.2% (range 4.1-16.8%. The most common indications were obstructed labor (399, 31%, poor presentation (233, 18%, previous Cesarean section (184, 14%, and fetal distress (128, 10%, uterine rupture (117, 9% and antepartum hemorrhage (101, 8%. Parity >6 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.6, P = 0.015, uterine rupture (aOR = 20.5; P = .010, antepartum hemorrhage (aOR = 13.1; P = .045, and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (aOR = 42.9; P = .017 were associated with maternal death. Uterine rupture (aOR = 6.6, P<0.001, anterpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 3.6, P<0.001, and cord prolapse (aOR = 2.7, P = 0.017 were associated with early neonatal death. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that target Cesarean section rates can be achieved in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the common indications for Cesarean section and associations with mortality can target improvements in antenatal services and emergency obstetric care.

  5. Sex differences and heritability of two indices of heart rate dynamics: a twin study.

    Snieder, Harold; van Doornen, Lorenz J P; Boomsma, Dorret I; Thayer, Julian F


    We investigated whether women show larger heart rate variability (HRV) than men after controlling for a large number of health-related covariates, using two indices of HRV, namely respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and approximate entropy (ApEn). In a twin design, the heritability of both indices was examined. The covariation between RSA and ApEn, a measure of heart rate dynamics derived from nonlinear dynamical systems theory, was decomposed into genetic and environmental components. Subjects were 196 male and 210 female middle-aged twins. Females showed larger HRV than men before (ApEn: p RSA: p = .052) and after adjustment for covariates (ApEn: p RSA: p = .015). This sex difference was confirmed by significant intrapair differences in the opposite-sex twin pairs for both ApEn (p RSA (p = .03). In addition to sex, only heart period and age (both p RSA was also influenced by respiration rate and smoking (both p RSA and ApEn, respectively. Oral contraceptive use and menopausal status had no effect on HRV. Genetic model fitting yielded moderate heritability estimates for RSA (30%) and ApEn (40%) for both males and females. The correlation between RSA and ApEn (r = .60) could be attributed to genetic factors (48%), environmental factors (36%) and age (16%). The present study found support for a gender difference in HRV with women having greater HRV than men even after controlling for a large number of potential confounders. Indices of heart rate dynamics derived from nonlinear dynamical systems theory are moderately heritable and may be more sensitive than traditional indices of HRV to reveal subtle sex differences with important implications for health and disease.

  6. [Study on three-dimension spatial variability of regional soil salinity based on spectral indices].

    Liu, Guang-Ming; Wu, Ya-Kun; Yang, Jin-Song; Yu, Shi-Peng


    In order to illustrate the three-dimension spatial variability of soil salinity in central China flood area of the Yellow river, integrated soil sampling data and remote sensing data, spectral indices and inverse distance weighting (IDW) method were applied to the estimation and simulation of three-dimension spatial distribution of soil salinity. The study was carried out in typical central China flood area of the Yellow river in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, China. The electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (EC1: 5) of 505 soil samples collected at 101 points was measured. The results indicated that the coefficient of variation of soil salinity at each soil layer is from 0.218 to 0.324 and exhibited the moderate spatial variability. The average of soil electrical conductivity is from 0.121 to 0.154 ds x m(-1). The 2 820 three-dimension spatial scattered data for soil electrical conductivity were taken at soil salinity mapping interpreted by spectral indices and soil electrical conductivity. Three-dimension IDW interpolation showed that a large area of high soil salinity mainly located in the region of Tianran canal and the along of the Yellow river. The shape of the soil salinity profile was downward flowed, revealing soil salinity increasing with depth in whole soil profile and soil salinity accumulated in the subsoil. The accuracy of the predictions was tested using 20 soil sampled points. The root mean square error (RMSE) of calibration for three-dimension distribution of soil salinity showed that the IDW method based on spectral indices was ideal. The research results can provide theoretical foundations to the management and utilization of salt-affected land in China flood area, especially in the Yellow river zone.

  7. [Study of IUD side-effects indicated in hysteroscopic and pathologic examinations].

    Jin, E Q


    The IUD is the most extensively used method of contraception among Chinese women. 7-15% of IUD users stopped using the method because of side effects such as irregular menstrual bleeding, spotting, and cramps. This study of the causes of IUD side effects examined 80 women who had had an IUD for over 6 months and experienced side effects for over 3 months and 40 women requesting IUD removal for nonmedical reasons were chosen as the controls. The conditions of the IUDs and their positions inside the uterine cavity were observed. Endometrial tissue structure was also taken. The differences in age, parity, occupation, number of previous IUD insertions, previous experience of abortion, and duration of use of the current IUD between the case and the control groups were not statistically significant. 49% of cases had irregular menstruation 6 months prior to IUD insertion compared with 2.5% among the controls. 38% of cases had size and position of IUD that were incompatible with the shape of the uterine cavity while 10% of the controls had the same situation. Pathological changes of endometria were observed in 52 cases and 8 controls. It is concluded that women with a history of anemia, heart condition, irregular menstruation, and abdominal surgery as well as those with uterine polyps or cysts are more likely to experience side effects. Screening for these contraindications should be conducted before IUD insertion. Patients who experienced IUD side effects persistently after treatment might have a dislocated IUD or an IUD incompatible with the uterine cavity. Pathological changes of endometria might be associated with the mechanic compression of an IUD or because of the operator's skill of insertion. Stereoscopic examinations also discovered cases with gynecological problems that were unrelated to the presence of an IUD.

  8. Urinary, circulating, and tissue biomonitoring studies indicate widespread exposure to bisphenol A.

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Heindel, Jerrold J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other fluids, along with two toxicokinetic studies of human BPA metabolism were examined. Unconjugated BPA was routinely detected in blood (in the nanograms per milliliter range), and conjugated BPA was routinely detected in the vast majority of urine samples (also in the nanograms per milliliter range). In stark contrast, toxicokinetic studies proposed that humans are not internally exposed to BPA. Available data from biomonitoring studies clearly indicate that the general population is exposed to BPA and is at risk from internal exposure to unconjugated BPA. The two toxicokinetic studies that suggested human BPA exposure is negligible have significant deficiencies, are directly contradicted by hypothesis-driven studies, and are therefore not reliable for risk assessment purposes.

  9. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther


    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  10. Suicidality and divalproex sodium: analysis of controlled studies in multiple indications

    Kovacs Xenia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses of antiepileptic drugs have indicated an increase in the risk of suicidality. The objective of this report was to provide clinical information and an independent meta-analysis of divalproex sodium and suicidality events by analyzing data from 13 placebo-controlled studies and 1 low-dose controlled study. Methods Adverse events considered to be possibly suicide related were identified using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA methodology. Indications included epilepsy, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis, impulsive aggression, and dementia. Narratives were produced for every event, and suicidality event ratings were performed by a third party blinded to treatment assignment. Statistical analyses were conducted using methodology similar to that reported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Results Suicidality events were identified in 5 of the 13 placebo-controlled studies. Of the 1,327 (0.83% subjects taking divalproex sodium, 11 had suicidality events: 2 suicide attempts and 9 suicidal ideation. Of 992 (0.91% subjects taking placebo, 9 had suicidality events: 1 preparatory act toward suicide, 2 suicide attempts, and 6 suicidal ideation. Across placebo-controlled studies, the overall estimated odds ratio (OR of suicidal behavior or ideation was 0.72 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.84. The OR for suicidal behavior was 0.37 (95% CI 0.04 to 2.58, and the OR for suicidal ideation was 0.90 (95% CI 0.31 to 2.79. Conclusions In this meta-analysis, divalproex sodium does not appear to increase the risk of suicide-related adverse events relative to placebo in the populations studied. Clinicians should nonetheless remain vigilant in assessing suicidality, not only in patients treated for mental disorders with inherently high suicide risk, but also in patients taking antiepileptic medications.

  11. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    Esperanza Gil-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2 ≥ 0.89. It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results. Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat

  12. A comparative study of neonatal outcomes in placenta previa versus cesarean for other indication at term.

    Schneiderman, Megan; Balayla, Jacques


    Currently, no ACOG guidelines address the issue of the optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa. Though there is an increased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality when electively delivered preterm, it is unclear whether adverse neonatal outcomes exist when these pregnancies make it beyond term. By comparing neonatal outcomes amongst pregnancies with placenta previa versus those from cesarean for another indication at term, the objective of this study was to determine whether placenta previa is an independent risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes at term. We conducted a population-based cohort-study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States. The effect of placenta previa on the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes was estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Our cohort consisted of 3,550,842 deliveries meeting inclusion criteria. The incidence of placenta previa at term was 1.3/1000 (n = 4,492), accounting for 40.6% of all previa cases. Relative to cesareans for other indications, pregnancies with placenta previa had an increased risk of IUGR 3.20 [2.50-4.10], SGA 2.70 [2.45-2.97], respiratory distress 3.82 [2.91-5.00], prolonged ventilation 3.41 [2.70-4.32] and neonatal anemia 6.87 [4.43-10.65]. Rates of meconium aspiration syndrome, seizures, birth injury and overall infant mortality do not appear to be affected by this condition. Relative to cesareans for other indications, placenta previa is associated with increased morbidity, but not mortality, at term. This information might be helpful in the development of future guidelines, which are currently needed to guide and standardize clinical practice regarding the optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa.

  13. Study of GRB light curve decay indices in the afterglow phase

    Del Vecchio, Roberta; Ostrowski, Michał


    In this work we study the distribution of temporal power-law decay indices, $\\alpha$, in the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow phase, fitted for $176$ GRBs (139 long GRBs, 12 short GRBs {\\it with extended emission} and 25 X-Ray Flashes (XRFs)) with known redshifts. These indices are compared to the values of characteristic afterglow luminosity, $L_a$, the time, $T_a^*$, and the decay index, $\\alpha_W$, derived with global light curve fitting using the \\cite{willingale07} model. This model fitting yields similar distributions of $\\alpha_W$ to the fitted $\\alpha$, but for individual bursts a difference can be significant. Analysis of the ($\\alpha$, $L_a$) distribution reveals only a weak correlation of these quantities. However, we discovered a significant regular trend when studying GRB $\\alpha$ values along the $L_a$ versus $T_a^*$ (LT) distribution, with systematic variation of $\\alpha$ parameter distribution with luminosity for any selected $T_a^*$. We analyze this systematics with respect to the fitted LT co...

  14. Study and evaluation of indicators of relationships motor analyzer sportsmen of armsport

    Podrigalo L.V.


    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to study and evaluate the relationship indicators of the functional state of the brush armsport athletes and those working at the amateur level. The results of measuring of tremor and assess the accuracy of the efforts of athletes. The study involved 29 people (20,79 + 0,77 years, divided into experimental and control groups. The fine coordination of hand muscles on the run-time test, the number of touches and squeezing on the wrist dynamometer given effort. Affirmed a lower level of physiological tremor in athletes. The data are interpreted as evidence of the importance of the functional state of the brush for effectiveness in armsport. It is shown that changes in physiological tremor can be used in the assessment of athletes. Application of the correlation matrix established affinity states surveyed.

  15. Cesarean Section Rates and Indications in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Multi-Country Study from Medecins sans Frontieres

    Chu, Kathryn; Cortier, Hilde; Maldonado, Fernando; Mashant, Tshiteng; Ford, Nathan; Trelles, Miguel


    Objectives The World Health Organization considers Cesarean section rates of 5–15% to be the optimal range for targeted provision of this life saving intervention. However, access to safe Cesarean section in resource-limited settings is much lower, estimated at 1–2% reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This study reports Cesarean sections rates and indications in Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, and Sierra Leone, and describe the main parameters associated with maternal and early neonatal mortality. Methods Women undergoing Cesarean section from August 1 2010 to January 31 2011 were included in this prospective study. Logistic regression was used to model determinants of maternal and early neonatal mortality. Results 1276 women underwent a Cesarean section, giving a frequency of 6.2% (range 4.1–16.8%). The most common indications were obstructed labor (399, 31%), poor presentation (233, 18%), previous Cesarean section (184, 14%), and fetal distress (128, 10%), uterine rupture (117, 9%) and antepartum hemorrhage (101, 8%). Parity >6 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.6, P = 0.015), uterine rupture (aOR = 20.5; P = .010), antepartum hemorrhage (aOR = 13.1; P = .045), and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (aOR = 42.9; P = .017) were associated with maternal death. Uterine rupture (aOR = 6.6, PCesarean section rates can be achieved in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the common indications for Cesarean section and associations with mortality can target improvements in antenatal services and emergency obstetric care. PMID:22962616

  16. Variability of indication criteria in knee and hip replacement: an observational study

    Sarasqueta Cristina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total knee (TKR and hip (THR replacement (arthroplasty are effective surgical procedures that relieve pain, improve patients' quality of life and increase functional capacity. Studies on variations in medical practice usually place the indications for performing these procedures to be highly variable, because surgeons appear to follow different criteria when recommending surgery in patients with different severity levels. We therefore proposed a study to evaluate inter-hospital variability in arthroplasty indication. Methods The pre-surgical condition of 1603 patients included was compared by their personal characteristics, clinical situation and self-perceived health status. Patients were asked to complete two health-related quality of life questionnaires: the generic SF-12 (Short Form and the specific WOMAC (Western Ontario and Mcmaster Universities scale. The type of patient undergoing primary arthroplasty was similar in the 15 different hospitals evaluated. The variability in baseline WOMAC score between hospitals in THR and TKR indication was described by range, mean and standard deviation (SD, mean and standard deviation weighted by the number of procedures at each hospital, high/low ratio or extremal quotient (EQ5-95, variation coefficient (CV5-95 and weighted variation coefficient (WCV5-95 for 5-95 percentile range. The variability in subjective and objective signs was evaluated using median, range and WCV5-95. The appropriateness of the procedures performed was calculated using a specific threshold proposed by Quintana et al for assessing pain and functional capacity. Results The variability expressed as WCV5-95 was very low, between 0.05 and 0.11 for all three dimensions on WOMAC scale for both types of procedure in all participating hospitals. The variability in the physical and mental SF-12 components was very low for both types of procedure (0.08 and 0.07 for hip and 0.03 and 0.07 for knee surgery patients

  17. Do daily ward interviews improve measurement of hospital quality and safety indicators? A prospective observational study.

    Sarkies, Mitchell N; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haas, Romi; Mitchell, Deb; O'Brien, Lisa; May, Kerry; Ghaly, Marcelle; Ho, Melissa; Haines, Terry P


    The aim of this study was to determine if the addition of daily ward interview data improves the capture of hospital quality and safety indicators compared with incident reporting systems alone. An additional aim was to determine the potential characteristics influencing under-reporting of hospital quality and safety indicators in incident reporting systems. A prospective, observational study was performed at two tertiary metropolitan public hospitals. Research assistants from allied health backgrounds met daily with the nurse in charge of the ward and discussed the occurrence of any falls, pressure injuries and rapid response medical team calls. Data were collected from four general medical wards, four surgical wards, an orthopaedic, neurosciences, plastics, respiratory, renal, sub-acute and acute medical assessment unit. An estimated total of 303 falls, 221 pressure injuries and 884 rapid response medical team calls occurred between 15 wards across two hospitals, over a period of 6 months. Hospital incident reporting systems underestimated falls by 30.0%, pressure injuries by 59.3% and rapid response medical team calls by 17.0%. The use of ward interview data collection in addition to hospital incident reporting systems improved data capture of falls by 23.8% (n = 72), pressure injuries by 21.7% (n = 48) and rapid response medical team calls by 12.7% (n = 112). Falls events were significantly less likely to be reported if they occurred on a Monday (P = 0.04) and pressure injuries significantly more likely to be reported if they occurred on a Wednesday (P = 0.01). Hospital quality and safety indicators (falls, pressure injuries and rapid response medical team calls) were under-reported in incident reporting systems, with variability in under-reporting between wards and the day of event occurrence. The use of ward interview data collection in addition to hospital incident reporting systems improved reporting of hospital quality and safety

  18. Study of water quality using benthic biological indicators in rural and urban streams

    Sandro Morais Pimenta


    Full Text Available Methods other than physical-chemical and geochemical analyses can be used to assess water quality in surface drainage. This study used intolerant, tolerant and resistant benthic species as bioindicators of changes in water quality of two streams, taking in account particle size of sediments and volatile solids. Eight points were sampled in the stream Bandeirinha and four points in the stream Josefa Gomes in January and September 2013 in the municipality of Formosa-GO. The two streams were chosen in order to study two different environments. The study used the diversity indexes of Shannon (H, Equitability (E and Bray-Curtis Similarity and the grouping analysis method UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean. The results of particle size and volatile solids study of Bandeirinha stream located in rural areas showed bioindicator species intolerant of changes in water quality. The stream Josefa Gomes, completely inserted in an urban environment, showed alteration identified by tolerant and resistant species. The results demonstrate differences in water quality in the rural and urban environments and the relationship of bioindicators with sediments. The study aids the interpretation of changes in the water quality of the two drainages areas. Analysis of water quality based upon benthic biological indicators associated with physical-chemical and geochemical analyses of water and sediments provide a better interpretation of the results.

  19. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    H. Balali


    Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, subsidies are the amounts of government payments in order to provide all society members with minimum well-being. In several countries such as Iran, the agriculture sector is supported by different methods to achieve goals such as increasing farmers' income, supporting domestic producers and eliminating dependence on imports, preserving employment and reducing poverty. A significant part of agriculture subsidies has been allocated to energy resources, chemical fertilizers, seeds, agriculture machines, vaccines, animal toxins, the interest on bank loans, insurance fees, certain airplane services, distributing young saplings, and government guaranteed purchase of products. However, examining the subsidies system in Iran reveals that most government payments are in the agriculture sector and more specifically on energy resources. Recently, the extra low cost of energy in the agriculture sector, which has had certain government supports, has resulted in low productivity and environmental damage, and has resulted in increased demand for agricultural products due to population growth, changes in life pattern, deviation in energy cost in agricultural sector, environment destruction and influences on sustainable agriculture indicators. Moreover, among different production units, agriculture has the closest relationship with the environment. This relationship is a mutual.On the one hand, erosion and destruction of the environment along with pollution growth and shortage of water resources negatively influences the production and efficiency of agricultural products, and on the other hand, agricultural pollutants and irregular use of chemical fertilizers in this sector impose indispensable damages to the environment.This study aims to apply a partial equilibrium model in order to examine direct and indirect effects of reduction of energy subsidies on economic and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Qorveh

  20. Health evaluation indicator system for urban landscape rivers, case study of the Bailianjing River in Shanghai

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Yue; Yang, Haizhen; Lu, Zhibo; Xu, Xiaotian


    The River Bailianjing is an iconic landscape feature known to all residents in Pudong area and running through the Shanghai Expo 2010 Park. The river and its basin was a complex living ecosystem which supports a unique variety of flora and fauna several decades ago. However, as a result of unsuccessful pollution source control, sewage and first flow of the storm water is directly coming into the river in some catchment. The water quality of the river is seriously organically polluted now. The typical organic pollutants are COD, NH3-N, TN and TP, which cause the extinction of the water plants and aquatic. Furthermore, the artificial hard river banks isolate the river course and the land, which damaged the whole ecological system totally. The nature of the River Bailianjing and its history has resulted in many government departments and authorities and non government organizations having jurisdiction and/or an interest in the river's management. As a new tool to improve river management, the river health assessment has become the major focus of ecological and environmental science. Consequently, research on river health evaluation and its development on river management are of great theoretical and practical significance. In order to evaluate the healthy status of the River Bailianjing and prepare comprehensive scientific background data for the integrated river ecological rehabilitation planning, the health evaluation indicator system for River Bailianjing is brought forward. The indicator system has three levels: the first is target layer; the second is criteria layer, including five fields: water quality characteristics, hydrology characteristics, river morphology, biological characteristics and river scenic beauty; the third is an index layer, a total of 15 specific indicators included. Fuzzy AHP method is used to evaluate the target river's health status, and five grades are set up to describe it: healthy, sub health, marginal, unhealthy and pathological. The

  1. The association between placenta previa and leukocyte and platelet indices - a case control study.

    Ersoy, Ali O; Ozler, Sibel; Oztas, Efser; Ersoy, Ebru; Kirbas, Ayse; Danisman, Nuri


    Despite medical advances, rising awareness, and satisfactory care facilities, placenta previa (PP) remains a challenging clinical entity due to the risk of excessive obstetric hemorrhage. Etiological concerns gave way to life-saving concerns about the prediction of maternal outcomes due to hemorrhage. Our study aimed to detect an early predictive marker of placenta previa. Ninety-three pregnant patients diagnosed with PP and 247 controls were recruited for this retro-spective study. Platelet and leukocyte indices were compared between the two groups. The groups were similar with regard to age distribution (31.2 ± 5.1 years [mean ± SD] in the PP group and 31.7 ± 4.2 years in controls), body mass index (BMI) (27.7 ± 3.6 kg/m2 in the PP group and 27.4 ± 4.6 kg/m2 in controls), and most characteristics of the obstetric history. Total leukocyte count, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in the PP group. Mean platelet volume (MPV) and large platelet cell ratio (P-LCR) values were significantly lower in the PP group as compared to controls, with regard to third trimester values. However, patients who were diagnosed postnatally with placenta percreta had lower MPV and P-LCR values than other patients with PP. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups as far as first trimester values were concerned. Platelet and leukocyte indices in the third trimester of pregnancy may be valuable predictors of placenta previa and placenta percreta. More comprehensive studies are needed to address this issue.

  2. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.


    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  3. Stress degradation studies and stability-indicating TLC-densitometric method of glycyrrhetic acid.

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Kanwal, Nayab; Arfeen, Qamar Ul


    Glycyrrhetic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid, possesses a broad range of pharmacological activities and serves as template to synthesize many bioactive drugs. This paper describes a simple, accurate, and sensitive stability-indicating TLC densitometric method for the determination of glycyrrhetic acid and its degradation product as per the ICH guidelines. Separation was carried out on TLC aluminium sheet pre-coated with silica gel 60F254 using chloroform, methanol and formic acid (9:0.9:0.1, v/v). Compact spot for glycyrrhetic acid was found at Rf value of 0.42 ± 0.03. Densitometric analysis was carried out in the absorbance mode at λmax 254 nm. Glycyrrhetic acid was found to be stable to the exposure of base, neutral, oxidation, dry heating treatment and wet heating treatment, but showed degradation under acidic and photochemical conditions. Moreover, fragmentation pattern of glycyrrhetic acid was developed by using a positive ion electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS) hybrid instrument. A photo-degraded product was characterized through comparison of mass spectrometric studies with glycyrrhetic acid. The developed stability-indicating TLC-densitometric method can be applied for routine analysis of glycyrrhetic acid in the presence of its degradation products.

  4. Calcium Signaling throughout the Toxoplasma gondii Lytic Cycle: A STUDY USING GENETICALLY ENCODED CALCIUM INDICATORS.

    Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Budu, Alexandre; McKnight, Ciara A; Moore, Christina A; Vella, Stephen A; Hortua Triana, Miryam A; Liu, Jing; Garcia, Celia R S; Pace, Douglas A; Moreno, Silvia N J


    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that invades host cells, creating a parasitophorous vacuole where it communicates with the host cell cytosol through the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. The lytic cycle of the parasite starts with its exit from the host cell followed by gliding motility, conoid extrusion, attachment, and invasion of another host cell. Here, we report that Ca(2+) oscillations occur in the cytosol of the parasite during egress, gliding, and invasion, which are critical steps of the lytic cycle. Extracellular Ca(2+) enhances each one of these processes. We used tachyzoite clonal lines expressing genetically encoded calcium indicators combined with host cells expressing transiently expressed calcium indicators of different colors, and we measured Ca(2+) changes in both parasites and host simultaneously during egress. We demonstrated a link between cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations in the host and in the parasite. Our approach also allowed us to measure two new features of motile parasites, which were enhanced by Ca(2+) influx. This is the first study showing, in real time, Ca(2+) signals preceding egress and their direct link with motility, an essential virulence trait.

  5. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

    Qing Huang


    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  6. Complex refractive indices of Saharan dust samples at visible and near UV wavelengths: a laboratory study

    R. Wagner


    Full Text Available We have retrieved the wavelength-dependent imaginary parts of the complex refractive index for five different Saharan dust aerosol particles of variable mineralogical composition at wavelengths between 305 and 955 nm. The dust particles were generated by re-dispersing soil samples into a laboratory aerosol chamber, typically yielding particle sizes with mean diameters ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 μm and maximum diameters from 2 to 4 μm. The extinction and absorption coefficients as well as the number size distribution of the dust particles were simultaneously measured by various established techniques. An inversion scheme based on a spheroidal dust model was employed to deduce the refractive indices. The retrieved imaginary parts of the complex refractive index were in the range from 0.003 to 0.005, 0.005 to 0.011, and 0.016 to 0.050 at the wavelengths 955, 505, and 305 nm. The hematite content of the dust particles was determined by electron-microscopical single particle analysis. Hematite volume fractions in the range from 1.1 to 2.7 % were found for the different dusts, a range typical for atmospheric mineral dust. We have performed a sensitivity study to assess how accurately the retrieved imaginary refractive indices could be reproduced by calculations with mixing rule approximations using the experimentally determined hematite contents as input.

  7. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    Annika Clamor


    Full Text Available Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N=104; Mage=27.7 years, SD=11.2, range 18–70. Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses.

  8. Usage of neck circumference as novel indicator of erectile dysfunction: a pilot study in Turkish population.

    Akin, Y; Gulmez, H; Bozkurt, A; Nuhoglu, B; Usta, M F


    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual problem worldwide. The association between ED and components of metabolic syndrome (MtS) is well established. This study examined neck circumference (NC) as a possible indicator of MtS and also of ED. Ninety-two patients were included and divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 47 patients with ED and Group 2 consisted of 45 healthy volunteers. Questionnaires, differences in anthropometric and laboratory measurements between patients with ED and the control group, and a cut-off value for NC were investigated. The mean NC in ED patients was higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P = 0.001), and Group 1 also demonstrated more MtS criteria than Group 2 (P circumference for ED and MtS were 105.5 and 102.5 cm respectively. In the light of these findings, NC may be a new component of MtS in ED patients. Additionally, NC may be a novel indicator of central obesity and ED. We suggest that NC values of 35 cm and over may predict ED in patients with MtS.

  9. Field Scale Studies on the Spatial Variability of Soil Quality Indicators in Washington State, USA

    Jeffrey L. Smith


    Full Text Available Arable lands are needed for sustainable agricultural systems to support an ever-growing human population. Soil quality needs to be defined to assure that new land brought into crop production is sustainable. To evaluate soil quality, a number of soil attributes will need to be measured, evaluated, and integrated into a soil-quality index using the multivariable indicator kriging (MVIK procedure. This study was conducted to determine the spatial variability and correlation of indicator parameters on a field scale with respect to soil quality and suitability for use with MVIK. The variability of the biological parameters decreased in the order of respiration > enzyme assays and qCO2 > microbial biomass C. The distribution frequency of all parameters except respiration were normal although the spatial distribution across the landscape was highly variable. The biological parameters showed little correlation with each other when all data points were considered; however, when grouped in smaller sections, the correlations were more consistent with observed patterns across the field. To accurately assess soil quality, and arable land use, consideration of spatial and temporal variability, soil conditions, and other controlling factors must be taken into account.

  10. Environmental indicators for epidemiological studies on populations at risk after the Chernobyl accident

    Gheorghe, R.; Tulbure, R.; Barbu, R.; Dumitrescu, A. [Institute of Public Health Bucharest (Romania); Toro, L. [Institute of Public Health Timisoara, (Romania); Gheorghe, D.; Ciupagea, F. [Public Health Inspectorate of Bucharest (Romania); Galeriu, D. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Bucharest (Romania)


    The dose is the basic information asked by the physician in the context of a dose effect analysis. Several studies ( in countries of former Soviet Union) on population health revealed an increase in the incidence of some diseases specific to radioactivity ( childhood thyroid cancer)ich could be explained by the actual dose estimates. The present paper will focus on the assessment of the effect of 131 iodine contamination in Romania. In conclusion, deposition densities could be proportionally associated with the dose in dry deposition may be considered an adequate environmental indicator. The deposition-dose relationship in an area with a variable rainfall can only be inferred through a radioecological transfer model; such model should be able to translate the particularities of the deposition-dose relationship, and to take into account the dependence of foliar interception and retention on rainfall intensities. Even with these issues of deposition-dose relationship, the assessment of preliminary dose values from deposition patterns is financially quite effortless. Moreover, preliminary doses assessed from regional deposition patterns are very useful for detecting the possible health effects. Thus, the density of deposition should be a good environmental indicator. At the same time, we believe that in the monitoring programmes of the environmental factors much more attention should be given to the wet fraction of the deposition. (N.C.)

  11. Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators.

    De Santis, Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean-Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean-Paul; van Dijk, Jeroen; Kok, Esther; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; van der Meulen, Jan; Gijs, Kleter


    Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts. No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Study of the radiological doses and hazard indices in soil samples from Karbala city, Iraq

    Al-Kaabi, Mohammed Abdulhussain


    The radiological doses and hazard indices of natural radionuclides $^{238}$U,$^{232}$Th and $^{40} $K in soil samples from Kerbala city were evaluated using gamma-ray spectroscopy system using NaI(Tl) ${"1.5\\times 2"}$ detector in low-background with 24 hour. The average values of absorbed gamma-ray dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent and annual gonadal dose equivalent were found to be 90.83$\\pm$2.00 nGy/h, 111.89$\\pm$2.46 $\\mu$Sv/y and 640.85$\\pm$15.44 $\\mu$Sv/y respectively. The average values of gamma representative level index and external hazard index resulting from natural radionuclides for all samples in the study area were 1.43$\\pm$0.031 and 0.53$\\pm$0.011 respectively. The obtained results in current work were compared with other results for different countries.

  13. Land Use Effects on Soil Quality Indicators: A Case Study of Abo-Wonsho Southern Ethiopia

    Awdenegest Moges


    Full Text Available Soil quality assessment is valuable for evaluating agroecosystem sustainability, soil degradation, and identifying sustainable land management practices. This study compared soil quality within culturally protected forest areas and adjacent grassland, grazing land, and farmland in Abo-Wonsho, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 40 soil samples (4 land uses × 5 replications × 2 soil depth layers: 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm were collected for analysis. Soil textural fractions (i.e., sand, silt, and clay percentage varied with land use and soil depths even though the textural class across all land use types was sandy loam. Bulk density, soil organic carbon (SOC, and available potassium (K varied significantly: , , and , respectively, with land use and soil depth, but other indicators showed no significant difference. We conclude soil quality can be protected and maintained by improving existing land use practices within both agricultural and modern forest management areas.

  14. [Circadian rhythm and stress in the elderly: a study using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator].

    Fujibayashi, S; Koizumi, A


    Biological response to stress was studied in the healthy elderly by fluctuations of their circadian rhythms using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator. Social activities per se may not be stressors, but may serve as a "eustress" to the elderly when they are in good health because their rhythm is maintained. Concerning the occupations of the subjects, the rhythms of elderly watchmen showed no disturbance when they slept for three hours between 23:00 and 2:00. However, those who were unable to sleep showed disturbed rhythms. We concluded that disturbance of a rhythm that has been established on the basis of being active during the day time and sleeping at night could be a stressor to the elderly rather than stress due to working as a guard.




    Full Text Available Our analysis relies on the 2011 integrated report published by SAP, a European IT company included in the International Integrated Reporting Committee (IIRC Pilot Programme Business Network. The research methodology used is the analysis of the content as we search for a number of selected characteristics in the report and also for a set of key performance indicators (KPI. We use as references the guide provided by DVFA (Society of Investment Professionals in Germany and EFFAS (European Federation of Financial Analysts Societies – EFFAS (2010 for the software industry. The aim of our study is to analyse the way in which an IT company applies the guidelines recognised by the European Commission to identify and communicate the material nonfinancial information, in order to assess the organization’s abilities to create value on a short, medium and long term.

  16. How much do different ways of calculating percentiles influence the derived performance indicators? - A case study

    Schreiber, Michael


    Bibliometric indicators can be determined by comparing specific citation records with the percentiles of a reference set. However, there exists an ambiguity in the computation of percentiles because usually a significant number of papers with the same citation count are found at the border between percentile rank classes. The present case study of the citations to the journal Europhysics Letters (EPL) in comparison with all physics papers from the Web of Science shows the deviations which occur due to the different ways of treating the tied papers in the evaluation of the percentage of highly cited publications. A strong bias can occur, if the papers tied at the threshold number of citations are all considered as highly cited or all considered as not highly cited.

  17. Study of GRB Light-curve Decay Indices in the Afterglow Phase

    Del Vecchio, Roberta; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Ostrowski, Michał


    In this work, we study the distribution of temporal power-law decay indices, α, in the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow phase, fitted for 176 GRBs (139 long GRBs, 12 short GRBs with extended emission, and 25 X-ray flashes) with known redshifts. These indices are compared with the temporal decay index, α W , derived with the light-curve fitting using the Willingale et al. model. This model fitting yields similar distributions of α W to the fitted α, but for individual bursts a difference can be significant. Analysis of (α, L a ) distribution, where L a is the characteristic luminosity at the end of the plateau, reveals only a weak correlation of these quantities. However, we discovered a significant regular trend when studying GRB α values along the Dainotti et al. correlation between L a and the end time of the plateau emission in the rest frame, {T}a* , hereafter LT correlation. We note a systematic variation of the α parameter distribution with luminosity for any selected {T}a* . We analyze this systematics with respect to the fitted LT correlation line, expecting that the presented trend may allow us to constrain the GRB physical models. We also attempted to use the derived correlation of α ({T}a) versus {L}a({T}a) to diminish the luminosity scatter related to the variations of α along the LT distribution, a step forward in the effort of standardizing GRBs. A proposed toy model accounting for this systematics applied to the analyzed GRB distribution results in a slight increase of the LT correlation coefficient.

  18. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  19. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios


    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  20. Delta Procalcitonin Is a Better Indicator of Infection Than Absolute Procalcitonin Values in Critically Ill Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

    Domonkos Trásy


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate whether absolute value of procalcitonin (PCT or the change (delta-PCT is better indicator of infection in intensive care patients. Materials and Methods. Post hoc analysis of a prospective observational study. Patients with suspected new-onset infection were included in whom PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP, temperature, and leukocyte (WBC values were measured on inclusion (t0 and data were also available from the previous day (t-1. Based on clinical and microbiological data, patients were grouped post hoc into infection- (I- and noninfection- (NI- groups. Results. Of the 114 patients, 85 (75% had proven infection. PCT levels were similar at t-1: I-group (median [interquartile range]: 1.04 [0.40–3.57] versus NI-group: 0.53 [0.16–1.68], p=0.444. By t0 PCT levels were significantly higher in the I-group: 4.62 [1.91–12.62] versus 1.12 [0.30–1.66], p=0.018. The area under the curve to predict infection for absolute values of PCT was 0.64 [95% CI = 0.52–0.76], p=0.022; for percentage change: 0.77 [0.66–0.87], p<0.001; and for delta-PCT: 0.85 [0.78–0.92], p<0.001. The optimal cut-off value for delta-PCT to indicate infection was 0.76 ng/mL (sensitivity 80 [70–88]%, specificity 86 [68-96]%. Neither absolute values nor changes in CRP, temperature, or WBC could predict infection. Conclusions. Our results suggest that delta-PCT values are superior to absolute values in indicating infection in intensive care patients. This trial is registered with identifier: NCT02311816.

  1. Drought Index Analizes With Rainfall Patern Indicators Use SPI Method (Case Study Bangga Watershed

    Beti Mayasari


    Full Text Available Irregular weather and climate changes caused by El – Nino effect drought in some areas, including in Indonesia. The location of this study lies in the Bangga watershed. The purpose of this study was to determine rainfall patterns, drought level, the worst drought that occurred and the prediction for the future. One method for analysis of drought is using SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index. This method aims to calculate the value of a drought index that would indicate the level of the existing drought in a region. Data used are monthly rainfall from two station for 23 years (year 1993-2015. After analyzing the drought, the projection made with software Makesens 1.0. The study results showed that the worst drought in Bangga watershed occurred in April 2015 with drought index -3516 for one monthly SPI, -2815 for three monthly SPI, -3254 for six monthly SPI, -2171 for nine monthly SPI, and - 2922 for twelve 12 monthly SPI. Once projected until 2050, generally Bangga watershed experiencing dry conditions with the worst drought in July with a value of -3.83 for one monthly SPI, -3.65 for three monthly SPI, -3.44 for six monthly SPI, -2.6 for nine monthly SPI and -2.32 for twelve monthly SPI.

  2. Stability Study of Darunavir Ethanolate Tablets Applying a New Stability-Indicating HPLC Method

    Josilene Chaves Ruela Corrêa


    Full Text Available Chemical and physical degradation of drugs may result in altered therapeutic efficacy and even toxic effects. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the stability of darunavir and to develop and validate a liquid chromatography (LC method to determine darunavir in raw material and tablets in the presence of degradation products. The novel method showed to be linear from 6.0 to 21.0 μg/mL, with high precision (CV < 2% and accuracy (recuperation of 99.64%. It is simple and reliable, free of placebo interferences. The robustness of the method was evaluated by a factorial design using seven different parameters. Forced degradation study was done under alkaline, acidic, and oxidative stress at ambient temperature and by heating. The LC method was able to quantify and separate darunavir and its degradation products. Darunavir showed to be unstable under alkaline, acid, and oxidative conditions. The novelty of this study is understanding the factors that affect darunavir ethanolate stability in tablets, which is the first step to unravel the path to know the degradation products. The novel stability-indicating method can be used to monitor the drug and the main degradation products in low concentrations in which there is linearity.

  3. The psychosocial indicators related to neuroticism in both sexes: A study of incoming university students

    Wei-Hung Chang


    Full Text Available Neuroticism may have great impact on mental and physical health in both sexes. The aims of this study were to explore whether relationships between neuroticism scores and psychosocial indicators as well as metabolic syndrome in a population of incoming university students existed in the different sexes. In total, 4266 incoming students were included in this study. The test battery comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including the neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the measurement of support functions, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate logistic regression showed that higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision scores, and higher 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated with neuroticism in both sexes, but lower perceived routine support: measurement of support functions scores were associated only with the male participants. No significant differences were found in terms of body mass index or other metabolic profiles. Individuals with poorer mental health and a poorer personal lifestyle had higher neuroticism scores, and sex effects may influence the scale of perceived social support in the neuroticism group. However, the lack of an association between neuroticism score and metabolic syndrome may be due to the recruitment of younger participants in this study.

  4. The psychosocial indicators related to neuroticism in both sexes: A study of incoming university students.

    Chang, Wei-Hung; Cheng, Shu-Hui; Sun, Zih-Jie; Lee, I-Hui; Lee, Chih-Ting; Chen, Kao-Chin; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Yang, Yen-Kuang; Yang, Yi-Ching


    Neuroticism may have great impact on mental and physical health in both sexes. The aims of this study were to explore whether relationships between neuroticism scores and psychosocial indicators as well as metabolic syndrome in a population of incoming university students existed in the different sexes. In total, 4266 incoming students were included in this study. The test battery comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including the neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory, the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision, the measurement of support functions, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate logistic regression showed that higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores, higher Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision scores, and higher 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire scores were significantly correlated with neuroticism in both sexes, but lower perceived routine support: measurement of support functions scores were associated only with the male participants. No significant differences were found in terms of body mass index or other metabolic profiles. Individuals with poorer mental health and a poorer personal lifestyle had higher neuroticism scores, and sex effects may influence the scale of perceived social support in the neuroticism group. However, the lack of an association between neuroticism score and metabolic syndrome may be due to the recruitment of younger participants in this study.

  5. [Indications and prognosis of dacryocystorhinostomy in childhood. A clinical study 1970-2000].

    Struck, H G; Weidlich, R


    Dacryocystitis in infants is a serious complication of congenital, but seldom of acquired nasolacrimal duct obstructions. If conservative treatment fails, dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) appears to be effective. The indications, special clinical history and results will be reviewed. From 1/1970 to 2/2000, a total of 72 children (56 male, 16 female) with persistent dacryocystitis (18 bilateral) were treated surgically by DCR and were continuously documented. The patients ranged in age from 10 months to 14 years old (mean age 4.9 years). Included in our study were 66 children (52 male, 14 female) with 84 surgically treated lacrimal ducts (46 right eyes, 38 left eyes) who underwent control examinations. The cause of dacryocystitis was congenital obstruction in 63 children and trauma (maxillary fracture) in 3 children, respectively. Of these, 20 children (30.3%) had additional anomalies of the lacrimal system, 21 (31.8%) systemic malformations and 8 out of the 66 children (12.1%) had a family history of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Since 1985 the surgical procedures have been performed under microsurgery conditions and since 1998 sometimes with a transcanalicular laser-assisted technique. We found a functional success rate (with complete resolution of symptoms) of 90.4% (76 out of 84 lacrimal ducts) over follow-up periods ranging from 1 month to 12 years (average 1.6 years). Patients with persistent dacryocystitis due to congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction have a prevalence of further nasolacrimal abnormalities and a family history. The dacryocystorhinostomy of infants requires minimal invasive (sometimes laser-assisted) techniques. In the case of persistent dacryocystitis, DCR is indicated after the age of 1 year and has the same success rate in infants as in adults (90-95%).

  6. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake


    Every third child and many adults in Sweden have allergic reactions caused by indoor environmental problems. A lot of buildings constructed during the building-boom period of 1950 - 1990 expose the sick-house-syndrome, due to built-in moisture problems and poor ventilation performance of the building. Leaky building construction, transport of humid air condensing on thermal bridges within the construction gives rise to a humid environment, and forms a base for a microbial deterioration process of organic materials, with emissions hazardous for human health. So far there are no universal and cost efficient techniques or methods developed which could be used to reveal the sick-house-syndrome. In this paper we present the results of a case-study of the sick-house-syndrome, and an investigation concept with a combination of different techniques and methods to detect and to map underlying factors that form the base for microbial activities. The concept includes mobile and indoor thermography, functional control of ventilation systems, tracer gas techniques for measurement of air flow exchange rate in different rooms, microbial investigation of emissions, field inspections within the building construction and the building envelope, and medical investigation of the health status of the people working in the building. Mobile thermography of the exterior facades has been performed with a longwave AGEMA THV 900, respectively THV 1000 infrared system, during the period December 1994 - June 1995, at different and similar weather and radiation conditions, and with the building pressurized at one accession. Indoor thermography has been performed with a shortwave AGEMA THV 470 system, for a selection of objects/surfaces with thermal deviations, indicated in thermograms from the different mobile thermographic surveys. Functional control was performed for the ventilation systems, and air flow rates were measured using tracer gas technique for a selection of rooms with different

  7. Forward versus inverse planning in oropharyngeal cancer: A comparative study using physical and biological indices

    T Sundaram


    Full Text Available Context: Possible benefits of inverse planning. Aims: To analyze possible benefits of inverse planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT over field-in-field 3D conformal radiation therapy (FIF-3DCRT and to evaluate the differences if any, between low (6 Million Volts and high energy (15 Million Volts IMRT plans. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx, previously treated with 6 MV step and shoot IMRT were studied. V 100 , V 33 , V 66 , mean dose and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP were evaluated for parotid glands. Maximum dose and NTCP were the parameters for spinal cord. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-tailed t-test was applied to analyze statistical significance between the different techniques. Results: For combined parotid gland, a reduction of 4.374 Gy, 9.343 Gy and 7.883 Gy were achieved for D 100 , D 66 and D 33 , respectively in 6 MV-IMRT when compared with FIF-3DCRT. Spinal cord sparing was better in 6 MV-IMRT (40.963 ± 2.650, with an average reduction of maximum spinal cord dose by 7.355 Gy from that using the FIF-3DCRT technique. The uncomplicated tumor control probabilities values were higher in IMRT plans thus leading to a possibility of dose escalation. Conclusions: Though low-energy IMRT is the preferred choice for treatment of oropharyngeal cancers, FIF-3DCRT must be given due consideration as a second choice for its well established advantages over traditional conventioan technique.


    Valéria Michielin VIEIRA


    Full Text Available In the design of biological research laboratories that deal with pathogens, the architect must incorporate aspects related to other disciplines, considering that the quality of those environments is related to biosafety concept. In order to meet the biosafety guidelines, the project coordinator must attempt to the compatibility among different requirements which are associated to the performance level expected in this kind of facility. Aiming to examine how biosafety guidelines have been incorporated in the design of laboratories that require biosafety level three (BSL3 it was developed a study of cases of facilities using post-occupancy evaluation methods. Through the post-occupancy evaluation it was possible to establish the state of the art of BSL3 laboratories in use in Brazil. The search for indicators of laboratories design proved that some architecture decisions are not constrained by biosafety guidelines. The study was conducted with the intention to contribute for the development of future projects. Key words: biosafety, post-occupancy evaluation, laboratories design.

  9. Monitoring and Predicting Wildfire Using Fire Indices and CIMP5 Data (Case study: Golestan National Park)

    Mirzadeh, S. J.; Salehnia, N.; Banezhad, B.; Bannayan, M.


    Fire occurrence in fields and forest, is quite high in Iran which has intensified recently and it may be due to climate changes. Golestan National Park, is the first national park in Iran which is registered in the list of UNESCO World Heritage as one of the 50 Earth ecological reserves. In 2014, a number of fire occurred in this park. In this study, attempt to monitor Angstrom and Nestrov indexes in order to forecast future fire in the study area. For this purpose, Atmosphere General Circulation model data; Miroc4h, in 0.562*0.562 scale in CIMP5, are used for fire occurred during 4 days in this area. Calculations show that these indicators provide suitable results in fire forecasting, generally. Angstrom index, decreases to 1 or lower almost in 3 fire, in the starting day or one day before; while critical index values is lower than 2. In recent days before first fire, Nestrov index increases above 10000, which is the critical value. It also increases to 25000 during the other fires. Nestrov index increases during the happening of 4 fire without any decrease. The results show that Angstrom index can forecast the day of starting fires better than Nestrov. Conclusively, the results showed that outputs of CIMP5 can be used in forecasting fire, well. It seems that the value index better not to be dependent on daily precipitation but on consecutive and continues precipitations during serial days.

  10. Types of ectomycorrhiza as pollution stress indicators: case studies in Slovenia.

    Kraigher, Hojka; Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar; Grebenc, Tine; Simoncic, Primoz


    Mycorrhiza is the main spatial and temporal linkage between different constituents in a forest ecosystem. The functional compatibility and stress tolerance of ectomycorrhizal types is species specific, and therefore the information on the ectomycorrhizal community structure can add to the understanding of processes in forest ecosystems and can also be applied as tools for bioindication of pollution stress in forest soils. We have studied the effects of pollution (N and S) on trees and forest soils by: (1) quantification of ECM types diversity as in situ indicators in forest stands, (2) determination and quantification of pollution-sensitive or -insensitive ECM types as passive monitors, (3) root growth and development of ECM on nonmycorrhizal spruce seedlings, planted at the studied sites (active monitors), and (4) ECM infection (a bioassay based on mycorrhizal inoculum potential) of seedlings in an experimental set-up as ex situ testers. ECM species richness for Norway spruce trees (Picea abies) showed higher values in unpolluted sites than in polluted ones, while the differences were not significant for European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica). As pollution-sensitive or -insensitive ECM species in spruce forests, we suggest Hydnum rufescens (sensitive) and Paxillus involutus (unsensitive). Mycorrhizal potential in Norway spruce seedlings as a bioassay for soil N and S pollution was effective, and is suggested as an additional, standardized and widely comparable system in bioindication of soil pollution.

  11. Chironomid mouthpart deformities as indicator of environmental quality: a case study in Lake Trasimeno (Italy).

    Di Veroli, Alessandra; Selvaggi, Roberta; Goretti, Enzo


    The aim of the present study was to monitor mouthpart deformities of Chironomus plumosus (Insecta-Diptera) in Lake Trasimeno (2000-2010) in relation with sediment contamination by heavy metals, which is one of the main causes of deformity induction. In Lake Trasimeno, concentrations of heavy metals in the investigated littoral zone were low, in comparison with those of the central area. By contrast, the incidence of deformities was much higher in the littoral station (2006-2009) than in the central area. In the littoral zone, the deformities progressively decreased and by 2010 reached values similar to those observed in the central area (2000-2002, 2010). This decrease was mainly due to the reduction of severe deformities, thus indicating an environmental quality recovery of this littoral sector. Chemical analysis revealed that the higher incidence of deformities in the littoral zone was not caused by heavy metal contamination, unless they may have contributed to a joint action with other toxicants. The present study on Lake Trasimeno provided additional evidence that chironomid mouthpart deformities can be used in biomonitoring programs to evaluate sediment contamination by toxicants. Since mouthpart deformities may also be induced by compounds not included in routine chemical analyses, they may better reflect sediment quality than chemical analysis alone.

  12. Hydrogeochemical processes as environmental indicators in drip water: Study of the Cueva del Agua (Southern Spain

    Francisco Sanchez-Martos


    Full Text Available Karst caves exhibit a wide range of hydrological and hydrochemical responses to infiltration events, due to their physical heterogeneity space and dynamic variability over time, and due to non-Gaussian inputs (rain and outputs (discharge. This paper reviews different approaches of studying seepage water in caves, in order to understand the infiltration regimen in the non-saturated zone of karst areas. As an illustration, we describe a four-year study of the active carbonate-water system the Cueva del Agua (Granada, southern Spain that automatically logs the discharge from a stalactite. The results indicate that: (1 the drip water regime is not seasonal, but is linked instead to slow infiltration. Sudden changes in drip water regime occur due to infiltration along preferential flow paths and the draining of water of supersaturated water from reserves in the microfissure and pore system; (2 the drip rate is not linear over time. When dripping is constant, barometric oscillation of the air is the principal factor causing a chaotic a drip flow regime. Over a short period of two to three days, a mean variation in air pressure inside the cave of 10 (±3.7 mbar causes a oscillation the drip rate of 0.5 (±0.2 mm/h. The increase air translates into an the relative thickness of the gaseous phase of the drip water at the cost of the aqueous phase, so leading to a reduction the drip rate from the stalactite.

  13. Variability in the concentration of indicator bacteria in landfill leachate--a comparative study.

    Umar, Muhammad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian


    Leachate collected from the collection ponds of four landfill sites was investigated and compared for total coliforms and E. coli concentration as representatives of fecal pollution. Concentration of total coliforms and E. coli was comparable for leachate obtained from Kulim Landfill Site (KLS) and Ampang Landfill Site (ALS) with little variations. However, the level of indicator bacteria was significantly lower for Kuala Sepetang Landfill Site (KSLS), whereas Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS) had the lowest concentration for both total coliforms and E. coli. Considering the landfills are currently operational, with the exception of ALS, the presence of indicator bacteria implies their inactivation prior to discharge. High concentration of indicator bacteria in ALS is attributed to the run-off entering the leachate pond. Greater concentration of ammonia and salinity level were partly responsible for lower concentration of indicator bacteria in leachate from KSLS and PBLS, indicating that salinty and ammonia could significantly affect the survival of indicator bacteria.

  14. [Study on the optimization of monitoring indicators of drinking water quality during health supervision].

    Ye, Bixiong; E, Xueli; Zhang, Lan


    To optimize non-regular drinking water quality indices (except Giardia and Cryptosporidium) of urban drinking water. Several methods including drinking water quality exceed the standard, the risk of exceeding standard, the frequency of detecting concentrations below the detection limit, water quality comprehensive index evaluation method, and attribute reduction algorithm of rough set theory were applied, redundancy factor of water quality indicators were eliminated, control factors that play a leading role in drinking water safety were found. Optimization results showed in 62 unconventional water quality monitoring indicators of urban drinking water, 42 water quality indicators could be optimized reduction by comprehensively evaluation combined with attribute reduction of rough set. Optimization of the water quality monitoring indicators and reduction of monitoring indicators and monitoring frequency could ensure the safety of drinking water quality while lowering monitoring costs and reducing monitoring pressure of the sanitation supervision departments.

  15. Intangible Cultural Heritage and Geographical Indication of Specialty Resources: A Case Study of Shiyan City

    Zai; HU; Wanzhen; XIONG; Zhiguo; SUN; Shuting; WANG; Limin; HUANG


    The protection of intangible cultural heritage and geographical indications of the specialty in Shiyan City was analyzed,and then related suggestions were proposed,for example,to collect and organize the intangible cultural heritage related to traditional specialty;to enhance the application of those intangible cultural heritage projects related to traditional industry and agriculture;to establish some demonstration bases for the productive protection of intangible cultural heritages;to strengthen the application of geographical indications of traditional specialty;to build national quality standards for various specialty with geographical indications;to integrate and cultivate the famous specialty brands with geographical indication;to implement the double protection of the geographical indications and intangible cultural heritages;to improve the poverty alleviation through developing the specialty industry with geographical indications.

  16. A Proposal to Classify Latinamerican Scientific Journals using Citation Indicators: Case Study in Colombia

    Romero-Torres, Mauricio; Acosta, Alberto


    Colombian scientific journals are poorly represented in international digital libraries; however, through Google Scholar (GS) it is possible to determine their use by the community. Between the years of 2003 and 2007 a classification of 185 Colombian journals indexed in the Colombian National Bibliographical Index (IBNP) was performed using the information provided by GS, basing categorization on size indicators, indexation and citation. The indicators were analyzed by grouping the journals in two general areas: sciences and social sciences. In each area, the indicators provided by the digital libraries Scopus, Redalyc and Scielo were compared. Additionally, the indicators provided by IBNP journals categories (A1, A2, B and C) were also compared. The sciences and social sciences had a similar pattern in their indicators. The existence of positive correlations was established between some indicators and they predicted that the number of citations per journal in GS and the h index depends on its visibility in G...

  17. Handbook of bibliometric indicators quantitative tools for studying and evaluating research

    Todeschini, Roberto


    At last, the first systematic guide to the growing jungle of citation indices and other bibliometric indicators. Written with the aim of providing a complete and unbiased overview of all available statistical measures for scientific productivity, the core of this reference is an alphabetical dictionary of indices and other algorithms used to evaluate the importance and impact of researchers and their institutions. In 150 major articles, the authors describe all indices in strictly mathematical terms without passing judgement on their relative merit. From widely used measures, such as the journal impact factor or the h-index, to highly specialized indices, all indicators currently in use in the sciences and humanities are described, and their application explained. The introductory section and the appendix contain a wealth of valuable supporting information on data sources, tools and techniques for bibliometric and scientometric analysis - for individual researchers as well as their funders and publishers.

  18. Rethinking indicators of microbial drinking water quality for health studies in tropical developing countries: case study in northern coastal Ecuador.

    Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N S


    To address the problem of the health impacts of unsafe drinking water, methods are needed to assess microbiologic contamination in water. However, indicators of water quality have provided mixed results. We evaluate five assays (three for Escherichia coli and one each for enterococci and somatic coliphage) of microbial contamination in villages in rural Ecuador that rely mostly on untreated drinking water. Only membrane filtration for E. coli using mI agar detected a significant association with household diarrheal disease outcome (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.65 in household containers and odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.37) in source samples. Our analysis and other published research points to the need for further consideration of study design factors, such as sample size and variability in measurements, when using indicator organisms, especially when relating water quality exposure to health outcomes. Although indicator organisms are used extensively in health studies, we argue that their use requires a full understanding of their purposes and limitations.

  19. Laterality and reproductive indices.

    Kalichman, Leonid; Kobyliansky, Eugene


    Several previous studies support the association between manual dominance and age at menarche or age at menopause. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between indices of laterality and reproductive indices. The studied sample comprised 650 Chuvashian women aged 18 to 80 years (mean, 46.9; SD = 16.2). The independent-sample t test was used to compare the age at menarche or age at menopause between individuals with right or left dominance of handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding. No significant differences in age at menarche or age at menopause between women with right and left dominance in any of the studied laterality indices were found. This is the first study that simultaneously evaluates the association between dominance in four laterality indices (handedness, dominant eye, hand clasping, and arm folding) and two reproductive indices (age at menarche and age at menopause). Result of our study do not support the hypothesis of a possible association between handedness (and other indices of laterality) and an early age at menarche or age at natural menopause.

  20. Resolution Enhancement of MODIS-Derived Water Indices for Studying Persistent Flooding

    Underwood, L. W.; Kalcic, Maria; Fletcher, Rose


    Monitoring coastal marshes for persistent flooding and salinity stress is a high priority issue in Louisiana. Remote sensing can identify environmental variables that can be indicators of marsh habitat conditions, and offer timely and relatively accurate information for aiding wetland vegetation management. Monitoring activity accuracy is often limited by mixed pixels which occur when areas represented by the pixel encompasses more than one cover type. Mixtures of marsh grasses and open water in 250m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data can impede flood area estimation. Flood mapping of such mixtures requires finer spatial resolution data to better represent the cover type composition within 250m MODIS pixel. Fusion of MODIS and Landsat can improve both spectral and temporal resolution of time series products to resolve rapid changes from forcing mechanisms like hurricane winds and storm surge. For this study, using a method for estimating sub-pixel values from a MODIS time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), using temporal weighting, was implemented to map persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes. Ordinarily NDWI computed from daily 250m MODIS pixels represents a mixture of fragmented marshes and water. Here, sub-pixel NDWI values were derived for MODIS data using Landsat 30-m data. Each MODIS pixel was disaggregated into a mixture of the eight cover types according to the classified image pixels falling inside the MODIS pixel. The Landsat pixel means for each cover type inside a MODIS pixel were computed for the Landsat data preceding the MODIS image in time and for the Landsat data succeeding the MODIS image. The Landsat data were then weighted exponentially according to closeness in date to the MODIS data. The reconstructed MODIS data were produced by summing the product of fractional cover type with estimated NDWI values within each cover type. A new daily time series was produced using both the reconstructed 250

  1. Sex differences and heritability of two indices of heart rate dynamics : A twin study

    Snieder, Harold; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Thayer, Julian F.


    We investigated whether women show larger heart rate variability (HRV) than men after controlling for a large number of health-related covariates, using two indices of HRV, namely respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and approximate entropy (ApEn). In a twin design, the heritability of both indices wa

  2. A Financial Condition Indicator System for School Districts: A Case Study of New York

    Ammar, Salwa; Duncombe, William; Jump, Bernard; Wright, Ronald


    State governments are in the midst of one of the most severe fiscal crises of the last half century. The magnitude of the fiscal challenges facing state and local governments highlights the importance of sound fiscal planning and access to key financial indicators. The objective of this article is to develop a financial condition indicator system…

  3. Indicator organisms for environmental radioactivity. Studies in the Faroe Islands[Radioecology

    Joensen, H.P. [Univ. of the Faroe Island, Faculty of Science and Technology, Torshavn (Denmark)


    The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration has been measured in selected indicator organisms from the terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments in the years 2002-2004. Results from earlier measurements during the last four decades are also presented. The indicator value of the organisms is discussed, and a ranking list is suggested in some cases. Hylocomium splendens and Calluna vulgaris are found to be good indicator organisms. Racomitrium lanuginosum and Parmelia saxatilis are also found to be suitable indicator organisms. The results indicate, however, that mixed grass is one of the best terrestrial indicators. The highest transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs was found for mixed grass. Salmo trutta is a suitable indicator organism for the freshwater environment. It showed a {sup 137}Cs signal soon after the Chernobyl accident. Fucus vesiculosus is a good indicator organism for the marine environment. It showed a soon reaction to {sup 137}Cs input from the Chernobyl accident. It was observed that the half-life for {sup 137}Cs in Fucus vesiculosus was shorter after the Chernobyl accident as compared to the situation in the early 1960's. (LN)

  4. Study on the Reliability Evaluation of Qualitative Indices in Multi-Objective Decision


    Qualitative indices in multi-objective decision can usually be evaluated and measured by mathematical methods or models, but the obtained results are sometimes inaccurate because of fuzziness of indices. To improve the accuracy and reliability of the evaluation results, set-value statistic principle is applied, and accordingly four evaluation methods are obtained. Meanwhile, these methods are compared briefly.

  5. Testing congruence among multiple grazing indicators: a multi-site study across the Tibetan plateau

    Wang, Yun; Lehnert, Lukas; Holzapfel, Maika; Schultz, Roland; Heberling, Gwendolyn; Görzen, Eugen; Meyer, Hanna; Seeber, Elke; Pinkert, Stefan; Ritz, Markus; Ansorge, Hermann; Bendix, Jörg; Seifert, Bernhard; Miehe, Georg; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Yongping; Wesche, Karsten


    Aim Animal husbandry is one of the most widespread land use types, and grazing is a key topic in grassland management. A wide range of indicators are employed in grazing assessments and they often yield widely differing estimates on the associated level of degradation threat. Covering Tibet as a large grassland region with long history of pastoralism, we selected representative indicators to test: (1) how grazing responses change along large-scale climatic gradients, and (2) whether their responses to both grazing intensities and local abiotic conditions are congruent. Location Tibetan Plateau Methods Biotic indicators including species and growth form compositions of vascular plants, richness and abundance of small mammals and ants, together with soil nutrients and field spectra were compared in pairs of high and low grazing intensity at 18 sites across large climatic gradients. Altitude, temperature, and precipitation were considered as potentially influential abiotic factors. Responses of indicators to grazing intensity and environmental gradients were explored by multivariate and univariate analyses. Results All indicators responded strongly to environmental changes, but the response patterns and the most influential abiotic factors varied among indicators. Grazing responses showed low overall congruence. Only vegetation cover, soil nutrient concentrations, and spectral indices were sensitive to grazing across large spatial scales. Grazing effects were significant only when local abiotic factors were taken into account. Main conclusions The results imply that grazing assessments require both appropriate indicators and local calibration. Overall, the threat of grassland degradation across the Tibetan Plateau is not as severe as is commonly assumed.

  6. Comparative QSAR studies on toxicity of phenol derivatives using quantum topological molecular similarity indices.

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Mehdipour, Ahmad R; Miri, Ramin; Shamsipur, Mojtaba


    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analyses using a novel type of electronic descriptors called quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) indices were operated to describe and compare the mechanisms of toxicity of phenols toward five different strains (i.e., Tetrahymena pyriformis, L1210 Leukemia, Pseudomonas putida, Raja japonica and Cucumis sativus). The appropriate QSAR models for the toxicity data were obtained separately employing partial least squares (PLS) regression combined with genetic algorithms (GA), as a variable selection method. The resulting QSAR models were used to identify molecular fragments of phenol derivatives whose electronic properties contribute significantly to the observed toxicities. Using this information, it was feasible to discriminate between the mechanisms of action of phenol toxicity to the studied strains. It was found that toxicities of phenols to all strains, except with L1210 Leukemia, are significantly affected by electronic features of the phenolic hydroxyl group (C-O-H). Meanwhile, the resulting models can describe the inductive and resonance effects of substituents on various toxicities.

  7. [Health information on the Internet and trust marks as quality indicators: vaccines case study].

    Mayer, Miguel Angel; Leis, Angela; Sanz, Ferran


    To find out the prevalence of quality trust marks present in websites and to analyse the quality of these websites displaying trust marks compared with those that do not display them, in order to put forward these trust marks as a quality indicator. Cross-sectional study. Internet. Websites on vaccines. Using "vacunas OR vaccines" as key words, the features of 40 web pages were analysed. These web pages were selected from the page results of two search engines, Google and Yahoo! Based on a total of 9 criteria, the average score of criteria fulfilled was 7 (95% CI 3.96-10.04) points for the web pages offered by Yahoo! and 7.3 (95% CI 3.86-10.74) offered by Google. Amongst web pages offered by Yahoo!, there were three with clearly inaccurate information, while there were four in the pages offered by Google. Trust marks were displayed in 20% and 30% medical web pages, respectively, and their presence reached statistical significance (P=0.033) when fulfilling the quality criteria compared with web pages where trust marks were not displayed. A wide variety of web pages was obtained by search engines and a large number of them with useless information. Although the websites analysed had a good quality, between 15% and 20% showed inaccurate information. Websites where trust marks were displayed had more quality than those that did not display one and none of them were included amongst those where inaccurate information was found.

  8. [A comparative study of immune and clinical indicators in radicular and myofascial back pain].

    Levashova, A I; Morozova, V S; Petrochenko, S N; Myagkova, М А; Moseikin, I A

    To compare immunochemical and clinical parameters in patients with chronic radicular and myofascial back pain. A study included 92 patients (55 men and 37 women) with radicular pain syndrome and 97 patients (33 men and 64 women) with myofascial pain syndrome. Pain status was assessed with the differential visual analogous scale (at rest, on movement, at night and during spontaneous pain). Tensor algometry was used to measure pain intolerance thresholds at day and night. Levels of natural antibodies (nAB) to endogenous pain regulators (β-endorphin, orphanin, serotonin, dopamine, histamine and angiotensin) were determined in the blood serum by ELISA. Patients were examined at admission to the hospital, on 10th and 21st days of treatment. There was a significant decrease in pain syndrome in all patients to the 21st day. Pain intensity was higher in patients with radicular pain syndrome (р<0.05) in all functional states. Pain intolerance thresholds were initially reduced in both groups. No significant between-group differences in the dynamics were not found either in men or women. Women had lower pain intolerance thresholds compared to men. An analysis of nAB profiles to pain regulators showed that they were correlated with higher and high indices, with the predominance of nAB to β-endorphin, orphanin and histamine in both groups. The increased levels of antibodies circulate in the blood serum of patients with dorsalgia for a long time can further be a factor of pain chronification.

  9. Study on Equity and Efficiency of Health Resources and Services Based on Key Indicators in China.

    Xinyu Zhang

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the dialectical relationship between equity and efficiency of health resource allocation and health service utilization in China.We analyzed the inequity of health resource allocation and health service utilization based on concentration index (CI and Gini coefficient. Data envelopment analysis (DEA was used to evaluate the inefficiency of resource allocation and service utilization. Factor Analysis (FA was used to determine input/output indicators.The CI of Health Institutions, Beds in Health Institutions, Health Professionals and Outpatient Visits were -0.116, -0.012, 0.038, and 0.111, respectively. Gini coefficient for the 31 provinces varied between 0.05 and 0.43; out of these 23 (742% were observed to be technically efficient constituting the "best practice frontier". The other 8 (25.8% provinces were technically inefficient.Health professionals and outpatient services are focused on higher income levels, while the Health Institutions and Beds in Health Institutions were concentrated on lower income levels. In China, a few provinces attained a basic balance in both equity and efficiency in terms of current health resource and service utilization, thus serving as a reference standard for other provinces.

  10. A study of assessment indicators for environmental sustainable development of science parks in Taiwan.

    Chen, Han-Shen; Chien, Li-Hsien; Hsieh, Tsuifang


    This study adopted the ecological footprint calculation structure to calculate the ecological footprints of the three major science parks in Taiwan from 2008 to 2010. The result shows that the ecological footprints of the Hsinchu Science Park, the Central Taiwan Science Park, and the Southern Taiwan Science Park were about 3.964, 2.970, and 4.165 ha per capita. The ecological footprint (EF) of the Central Taiwan Science Park was the lowest, meaning that the influence of the daily operations in the Central Taiwan Science Park on the environment was rather low. Secondly, the population density was relatively high, and the EF was not the highest of the Hsinchu Science Park, meaning that, while consuming ecological resources, the environmental management done was effective. In addition, the population density in Southern Taiwan Science Park is 82.8 units, lower than that of Hsinchu Science Park, but its ecological footprint per capita is 0.201 units, higher than Hsinchu, implying its indicator management has space for improvement. According to the analysis result above, in the science parks, the percentages of high-energy-consuming industries were rather high. It was necessary to encourage development of green industries with low energy consumption and low pollution through industry transformation.

  11. Surface soil phytoliths as vegetation and altitude indicators: a study from the southern Himalaya

    An, Xiaohong; Lu, Houyuan; Chu, Guoqiang


    Phytoliths represent one of the few available altitudinal vegetation proxies for mountain ecosystems. This study analyzed 41 topsoil phytolith samples collected from five altitudinal zones in the southern Himalaya as far as, and beyond, the timberline, from tropical forest (up to 1,000 m a.s.l.) to subtropical forest (1,000-2,000 m a.s.l.), to temperate forest (2,000-3,000 m a.s.l.), to subalpine forest (3,000-4,100 m a.s.l.) and finally to alpine scrub (4,100-5,200 m a.s.l.). The statistical results show a good correlation between phytolith assemblages and these five altitudinal vegetation zones: the five phytolith assemblages identified effectively differentiated these five altitudinal vegetation zones. In particular, coniferous phytoliths accurately indicated the timberline. Additionally, we tested the phytolith index Ic (a proxy for estimating the percentage of Pooideae vis-à-vis the total grass content) as a quantifier of phytolith variety versus altitude. Ic increased along altitude, as expected. An investigation of phytoliths provided an initial basis for the analysis of the composition of gramineous vegetation. Furthermore, redundancy analysis and discriminant analysis also suggested a significant correlation between phytolith assemblages and altitude. Our research therefore provides an up-to-date analogue for the reconstruction of changes to palaeovegetation and palaeoaltitude in mountainous areas.

  12. Energy performance indicators of wastewater treatment: a field study with 17 Portuguese plants.

    Silva, Catarina; Rosa, Maria João


    The energy costs usually represent the second largest part of the running costs of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). It is therefore crucial to increase the energy efficiency of these infrastructures and to implement energy management systems, where quantitative performance metrics, such as performance indicators (PIs), play a key role. This paper presents energy PIs which cover the unit energy consumption, production, net use from external sources and costs, and the results used to validate them and derive their reference values. The results of a field study with 17 Portuguese WWTPs (5-year period) were consistent with the results obtained through an international literature survey on the two key parcels of the energy balance--consumption and production. The unit energy consumption showed an overall inverse relation with the volume treated, and the reference values reflect this relation for trickling filters and for activated sludge systems (conventional, with coagulation/filtration (C/F) and with nitrification and C/F). The reference values of electrical energy production were derived from the methane generation potential (converted to electrical energy) and literature data, whereas those of energy net use were obtained by the difference between the energy consumption and production.

  13. Comparative Study of Vibration Condition Indicators for Detecting Cracks in Spur Gears

    Nanadic, Nenad; Ardis, Paul; Hood, Adrian; Thurston, Michael; Ghoshal, Anindya; Lewicki, David


    This paper reports the results of an empirical study on the tooth breakage failure mode in spur gears. Of four dominant gear failure modes (breakage, wear, pitting, and scoring), tooth breakage is the most precipitous and often leads to catastrophic failures. The cracks were initiated using a fatigue tester and a custom-designed single-tooth bending fixture to simulate over-load conditions, instead of traditional notching using wire electrical discharge machining (EDM). The cracks were then propagated on a dynamometer. The ground truth of damage level during crack propagation was monitored with crack-propagation sensors. Ten crack propagations have been performed to compare the existing condition indicators (CIs) with respect to their: ability to detect a crack, ability to assess the damage, and sensitivity to sensor placement. Of more than thirty computed CIs, this paper compares five commonly used: raw RMS, FM0, NA4, raw kurtosis, and NP4. The performance of combined CIs was also investigated, using linear, logistic, and boosted regression trees based feature fusion.

  14. Stress degradation studies on varenicline tartrate and development of a validated stability-indicating HPLC method.

    Pujeri, Sudhakar S; Khader, Addagadde M A; Seetharamappa, Jaldappagari


    A simple, rapid and stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the assay of varenicline tartrate (VRT) in the presence of its degradation products generated from forced decomposition studies. The HPLC separation was achieved on a C18 Inertsil column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. particle size is 5 μm) employing a mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate buffer containing trifluoroacetic acid (0.02M; pH 4) and acetonitrile in gradient program mode with a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The UV detector was operated at 237 nm while column temperature was maintained at 40 °C. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and limit of quantification. The method was found to be simple, specific, precise and accurate. Selectivity of the proposed method was validated by subjecting the stock solution of VRT to acidic, basic, photolysis, oxidative and thermal degradation. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the concentration range of 0.1-192 μg mL(-1) (R(2) = 0.9994). The peaks of degradation products did not interfere with that of pure VRT. The utility of the developed method was examined by analyzing the tablets containing VRT. The results of analysis were subjected to statistical analysis.

  15. Geomathematical characterisation of the mineralization indicators: a case study from Tincova magmatic intrusion (Romania

    George Tudor


    Full Text Available Indicators of the hydrothermal mineralization in the Tincova Laramian intrusion were tested at the contact zone between the intrusive body and the metamorphic host rocks. The mineralization consists of Cu, Pb and Zn sulfides, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite and pyrite in gangue of quartz, carbonates, feldspar, sericite or clay minerals, and includes areas of hydrothermal alteration or oxidation. Seventy-nine samples were analyzed and processed as two distinct populations. Geomathematical methods highlight the importance of factors such as the shape, sizes of the mineralized zones and geological processes involved in the ore genesis. Trend maps for Cu, Pb + Zn, and Ag interpolated by kriging method, show anomalous values of Cu along the edge of the intrusive body with the metamorphic country rocks, and Pb + Zn in a marginal area. Departing from the study of correlations between different variables, the factor analysis (R-mode highlights five factors that represent a sequence of geological processes: pneumatolytic phase (Sn, deposition of the association with arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, molybdenite (Ni, Co, Mo, formation of the Cu ± Ag + Bi sulfide mineralization, galena mineralization ± Au, hydrothermal alteration processes (addition of Ba, Sr, V. The dependence of Cu on other elements is performed by multiple linear regression, resulting an equation statistically tested by F-test, and interpreted as originating in a phase of the metallogenetic processes. The shape of the Cu-Mo mineralized stockwork from Vălişor Valley area has been studied on the basis of samples from drillings, Cu trend maps at three depth levels, and a three-dimensional model.

  16. NDVI from Landsat 8 Vegetation Indices to Study Movement Dynamics of Capra Ibex in Mountain Areas

    Pirotti, F.; Parraga, M. A.; Stuaro, E.; Dubbini, M.; Masiero, A.; Ramanzin, M.


    In this study we analyse the correlation between the spatial positions of Capra ibex (mountain goat) on an hourly basis and the information obtained from vegetation indices extracted from Landsat 8 datasets. Eight individuals were tagged with a collar with a GNSS receiver and their position was recorded every hour since the beginning of 2013 till 2014 (still ongoing); a total of 16 Landsat 8 cloud-free datasets overlapped that area during that time period. All images were brought to a reference radiometric level and NDVI was calculated. To assess behaviour of animal movement, NDVI values were extracted at each position (i.e. every hour). A daily "area of influence" was calculated by spatially creating a convex hull perimeter around the 24 points relative to each day, and then applying a 120 m buffer (figure 4). In each buffer a set of 24 points was randomly chosen and NDVI values again extracted. Statistical analysis and significance testing supported the hypothesis of the pseudo-random NDVI values to be have, in average, lower values than the real NDVI values, with a p value of 0.129 for not paired t test and p value of < 0.001 for pairwise t test. This is still a first study which will go more in depth in near future by testing models to see if the animal movements in different periods of the year follow in some way the phenological stage of vegetation. Different aspects have to be accounted for, such as the behaviour of animals when not feeding (e.g. resting) and the statistical significance of daily distributions, which might be improved by analysing broader gaps of time.

  17. Hospital food waste and environmental and economic indicators--A Portuguese case study.

    Dias-Ferreira, C; Santos, T; Oliveira, V


    This study presents a comprehensive characterization of plate waste (food served but not eaten) at an acute care hospital in Portugal and elaborates on possible waste reduction measures. Even though waste prevention is a priority in Europe, large amounts of food are still being wasted every day, with hospitals giving rise to two to three times more food waste than other foodservice sectors. For this work the plate waste arising at the ward level was audited during 8 weeks, covering almost 8000 meals, using a general hospital as case study. Weighing the food served to patients and that returned after the meal allowed calculating plate waste for the average meal, as well as for individual meal items. Comparison of food waste arising showed that differences exist among wards, with some generating more waste than others. On average each patient throws away 953 g of food each day, representing 35% of the food served. This equates to 8.7 thousand tonnes of food waste being thrown away each year at hospitals across Portugal. These tonnes of food transformed into waste represent economic losses and environmental impacts, being estimated that 16.4 thousand tonnes of CO2 (equivalent) and 35.3 million euros are the annual national indicators in Portugal. This means that 0.5% of the Portuguese National Health budget gets thrown away as food waste. Given the magnitude of the food problem five measures were suggested to reduce food waste, and their potential impact and ease of implementation were discussed. Even though food waste is unavoidable the results obtained in this work highlight the potential financial and environmental savings for Portuguese hospitals, providing a basis to establish future strategies to tackle food waste.

  18. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva


    Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...

  19. Study on The Blood Physiological Indices of Wild Yak, Domestic Yak and Their Crossbreeds

    胡江; 陆仲璘


    Some blood physiological indices were determined in wild yak,Datong yak(the crossbreeds of the wild and domestic yak)and Tianzhu Black yak in a year. The red blood cell amount(RBC)and packed cell volume (PCV)of the wild yak and Datong yak were similar but differed largely from that of the Tianzhu Black yak. RBC of the wild yak and Datong yak were larger than that of the Tianzhu Black yak and their RBC varied seasonally.The results indicated that wild yak and Datong yak could effectively adapt to changes in environment by adjusting their physiological indices.

  20. Key performance indicators in intensive care medicine. A retrospective matched cohort study.

    Kastrup, M; von Dossow, V; Seeling, M; Ahlborn, R; Tamarkin, A; Conroy, P; Boemke, W; Wernecke, K-D; Spies, Claudia


    Expert panel consensus was used to develop evidence-based process indicators that were independent risk factors for the main clinical outcome parameters of length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality. In a retrospective, matched data analysis of patients from five ICUs at a tertiary university hospital, agreed process indicators (sedation monitoring, pain monitoring, mean arterial pressure [MAP] >or= 60 mmHg, tidal volume [TV] or= 80 and or= 60 mmHg and BG >or= 80 mg/dl were relevant for survival. Linear regression of the 634 patients showed that analgesia monitoring, PIP or= 60 mmHg, BG >or= 80 mg/dl and indicating that adherence to evidence-based key process indicators may reduce mortality and length of ICU stay.

  1. Indicators of gender violence in romantic relationships. Case study in chilean adolescents

    Maria Cruz Sánchez Gómez; Beatriz Palacios Vicario; Antonio Victor Martín García


    .... The data indicate that the origin of much of this type of behaviour has its roots in early adolescent relationships, in which the presence and repetition of chauvinist patterns and models has been verified...

  2. Indicators of gender violence in romantic relationships. Case study in chilean adolescents

    Maria Cruz Sánchez Gómez


    Full Text Available The presence of gender violence is increasing alarmingly in our society and has become one of our most serious social problems. The data indicate that the origin of much of this type of behaviour has its roots in early adolescent relationships, in which the presence and repetition of chauvinist patterns and models has been verified. In this paper we assume that this kind of conduct is related to socially accepted behaviours that form part of the normative patterns typical of socialization processes. To analyse this thesis, an interdisciplinary group of researchers from Spanish and Chilean universities    carried out a qualitative study on behaviours associated with gender violence in groups of adolescents and young people from different economic, geographic, social and ethnic contexts in order to gather evidence about the ways adolescents establish romantic or intimate relationships and to determine whether there are any indications of male chauvinist violence against adolescent women. The research design proposed takes as a reference the principles of Grounded Theory and employs the constant comparative method, that is, the information is collected, coded and analysed simultaneously, with theoretical sampling that involves selecting new cases as a function of their potential to help refine or expand the concepts and theories already developed. Thus, the coding of the discourse was carried out using open coding, axial coding and selective coding, and finally grouping the relevant categories or ideas into meta-categories to build the theoretical schema. Participating in the study were 156 adolescents (77 girls and 79 boys residing in the urban area of the Arica region in Chile, having been selected according to the variables “academic year” and “age”. Seventeen discussion groups were formed until data saturation was attained. The findings show that in these first adolescent dating relationships there is an important number of negative

  3. A Delphi Study to Identify Indicators of Poorly Managed Pain for Pediatric Postoperative and Procedural Pain

    Alison M Twycross


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse health care events are injuries occurring as a result of patient care. Significant acute pain is often caused by medical and surgical procedures in children, and it has been argued that undermanaged pain should be considered to be an adverse event. Indicators are often used to identify other potential adverse events. There are currently no validated indicators for undertreated pediatric pain.

  4. Study on the Linezolid Prescription According to the Approval of Indication in a University Hospital

    Pérez-Cebrián, Manuela; Suárez-Varela, María M. Morales; Font-Noguera, Isabel; Monte-Boquet, Emilio; Poveda-Andrés, Jose Luís; Martín-Moreno, Jose María; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; Ruiz-Rojo, Elias; Llopis-González, Agustín


    Indications for linezolid use are nosocomial or community-acquired pneumonia and skin infections or soft tissue infection caused by gram-positive microorganisms, but new recommendations may emerge. It is important to balance benefits with risks because severe adverse events have been described in patients taking linezolid treatment. Accordingly, we evaluated the suitability of linezolid prescription according to approval of indication by evaluating the presence of drug-related problems (DRP) ...

  5. Study on monitoring achievement of performance indicators in the subordinate local companies in Romania

    Gheorghe Neamţiu


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the pursuit of economic indicators which are calculated in local subordinate companies. These indicators are imposed by the Board employee manager contract term. Accounting provides enough information to calculate them but we put the issue of prevention of the ability to stay within budget, projected revenues and expenses, before closing operations of an accounting period (month, quarter, semester, year.

  6. Stress degradation studies on betahistine and development of a validated stability-indicating assay method.

    Khedr, Alaa; Sheha, Mahmoud


    The purpose of this work was to study the stability of betahistine (BET) at different stress conditions and to develop a sensitive stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method. The stress conditions applied were including the effect of heat, moisture, acid-base, and ultra-violet (UV) light. Betahistine and its decomposition products were derivatized by reaction with dansyl chloride (Dan-Cl) and analyzed by HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector (FL) set at 336 and 531 nm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The drug was particularly labile at UV light and oxygen rich media. Two potential degradation products could be separated and identified by spectral methods. The chromatographic method involved Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C(18) column kept at 30+/-2 degrees C and a gradient elution with mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and 0.02 mol L(-1) sodium acetate. The response factor of dansylated BET monitored by fluorescence detection was 32 times more than its UV response. The calibration curve of BET in bulk form was linear from 0.005 to 4.2 ng microL(-1). Intraday and interday precision were less than 0.04% (CV), and accuracy was between 99.2% and 100.9% over 2.0 ng microL(-1). The limit of detection was 0.002 ng microL(-1). The method was also validated for sample stability during reaction, robustness and selectivity. The method was applied for purity testing of betahistine in tablet form.

  7. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Singh RP


    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  8. Kinetic study and techno-economic indicators for base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil

    Tarik M. Labib; S.I. Hawash; K.M. El-Khatib; Abbas M. Sharaky; G.I. El Diwani; E. Abdel Kader


    Fatty acid methyl ester (biodiesel) has been identified as biodiesel alternative fuel obtained from renewable sources. Efforts in Egypt are directed toward the development of new non-edible sources. At the forefront of these non-edible sources comes Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) because it has been grown successfully in Egypt using primary treated municipal wastewater for irrigation. Based on previous research findings for the production of biodiesel from (JCO) using heterogeneous catalyst, some ...

  9. Selecting indicator portfolios for marine species and food webs: a Puget sound case study.

    Kershner, Jessi; Samhouri, Jameal F; James, C Andrew; Levin, Phillip S


    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as a promising approach for maintaining the benefits humans want and need from the ocean, yet concrete approaches for implementing EBM remain scarce. A key challenge lies in the development of indicators that can provide useful information on ecosystem status and trends, and assess progress towards management goals. In this paper, we describe a generalized framework for the methodical and transparent selection of ecosystem indicators. We apply the framework to the second largest estuary in the United States - Puget Sound, Washington - where one of the most advanced EBM processes is currently underway. Rather than introduce a new method, this paper integrates a variety of familiar approaches into one step-by-step approach that will lead to more consistent and reliable reporting on ecosystem condition. Importantly, we demonstrate how a framework linking indicators to policy goals, as well as a clearly defined indicator evaluation and scoring process, can result in a portfolio of useful and complementary indicators based on the needs of different users (e.g., policy makers and scientists). Although the set of indicators described in this paper is specific to marine species and food webs, we provide a general approach that could be applied to any set of management objectives or ecological system.

  10. Selecting indicator portfolios for marine species and food webs: a Puget sound case study.

    Jessi Kershner

    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based management (EBM has emerged as a promising approach for maintaining the benefits humans want and need from the ocean, yet concrete approaches for implementing EBM remain scarce. A key challenge lies in the development of indicators that can provide useful information on ecosystem status and trends, and assess progress towards management goals. In this paper, we describe a generalized framework for the methodical and transparent selection of ecosystem indicators. We apply the framework to the second largest estuary in the United States - Puget Sound, Washington - where one of the most advanced EBM processes is currently underway. Rather than introduce a new method, this paper integrates a variety of familiar approaches into one step-by-step approach that will lead to more consistent and reliable reporting on ecosystem condition. Importantly, we demonstrate how a framework linking indicators to policy goals, as well as a clearly defined indicator evaluation and scoring process, can result in a portfolio of useful and complementary indicators based on the needs of different users (e.g., policy makers and scientists. Although the set of indicators described in this paper is specific to marine species and food webs, we provide a general approach that could be applied to any set of management objectives or ecological system.

  11. Assessing research impact in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot impact indicators

    Ovseiko Pavel V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research assessment, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic impact. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic impact of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine impact indicators and criteria. Methods The impact indicators proposed in the 2010 REF impact pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate. Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research impact in clinical medicine in a given university are assessed. Twenty impact indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research impact across different cases in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing

  12. Special software for aridity indices calculation (AICS; Vojvodina, Serbia case study

    Hrnjak Ivana


    Full Text Available Knowledge of aridity is necessary to explain the characteristics of the geographical landscape. Increasing aridity due to global warming can be a real hazard, with the threat of desertification. The main aim of this paper is to introduce special software for aridity indices calculation (AICS, and on the basis of those data to peruse aridity as a natural hazard. These indices were calculated from data obtained from 10 meteorological stations in the Vojvodina region for the period from 1949 to 2006. In order to calculate the De Martonne aridity index, IDM, and the Pinna combinative index, IP, software was created using C# programming language. Not only that this software shows the values of indices, but also it shows to which class it belongs according to the De Martonne climate classification. Graphical presentation of both calculated indices is also enabled. Further development of AICS is planned. As additional software package here was used ArcMap 10.1 for the spatial representation and visualization of the aridity indices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176020 i br. 176013

  13. Cross-country Analysis of ICT and Education Indicators: An Exploratory Study

    Pratama, Ahmad R.


    This paper explores the relationship between world ICT and education indicators by using the latest available data from World Bank and UNESCO in range of 2011-2014 with the help of different exploratory methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis, and ordinary least square (OLS) regression. After dealing with all missing values, 119 countries were included in the final dataset. The findings show that most ICT and education indicators are highly associated with income of the respective country and therefore confirm the existence of digital divide in ICT utilization and participation gap in education between rich and poor countries. It also indicates that digital divide and participation gap is highly associated with each other. Finally, the findings also confirm reverse causality in ICT and education; higher participation rate in education increases technology utilization, which in turn helps promote better outcomes of education.

  14. A study on regional comprehensive performance evaluation indicator system of rational use of drugs

    Sun Tongda


    Full Text Available The current research presents the design of a 4-degree-3-level performance evaluation indicator system of rational use of drugs for health care institutions accord with the Balanced Score Card (BSC method. Financial index, patient index, professional process index, and development and blazing new trials index are adopted in the light of scientific, guiding, operable and generalizable principles. The index weight is based on the analytic hierarchy process, and comprehensive performance evaluation indicators are calculated by a linear integrated weighting method. Its practical application in 21 state-run health care institutions in Ningbo, from 2008 to 2012, has arrived at the finding that the comprehensive performance evaluation indicator system offers a scientific, practical and effective performance management quantification and is thus worth popularizing.

  15. Study on chemical control indicators for circulating cooling systems water chemistry at power plants

    Кишневский, Виктор Афанасьевич; Чиченин, Вадим Валентинович


    An analysis of applied stability indices, used for water chemistry control of circulating cooling systems at TPP and NPP is given in the paper.The spectrum of controlled indicators of circulating and make-up water during long-term operation of various water chemistries on scale models of circulating cooling systems at TPP and NPP is investigated.The results of chemical control of water chemistry with dosing mineral acid to make-up water and acrylic water chemistry without dosing mineral acid ...

  16. Patient preference with respect to QoL and reduction in opioid-induced constipation (OIC) after treatment with prolonged-release (PR) oxycodone/naloxone compared with previous analgesic therapy [PREFER study].

    van Dongen, V C P C; Vanelderen, P J L; Koopmans-Klein, G; van Megen, Y J B; Van Zundert, J; Huygen, F J P M


    The aim of this study was to assess patient preference in terms of quality of life (QoL), analgesia and bowel function for patients with moderate to severe chronic non-malignant pain, when treated with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR compared with the previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesic treatment . This was a 3-week open-label phase 3b study conducted in Belgium and the Netherlands, after 3 weeks patients could enter an extension phase. Patient preference with respect to QoL for oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment compared with previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics was assessed. A patient was considered a responder with respect to QoL if this assessment was 'better' or 'much better' compared with previous WHO-step I or II analgesics at any time point. Response rate with respect to QoL was 59.2% (95% CI: 51.7-66.8%) for the Full Analysis (FA)-population, for the Per Protocol-population response rate was 71.7% (95% CI: 63.1-80.3%). Explorative analysis showed that response rate with respect to QoL was highest in constipated patients pretreated with WHO-step II analgesics (73.8%). Mean ± SD pain score in the FA-population at start was 74.7 ± 16.6 decreasing to 53.9 ± 24.3 after a median (range) treatment period of 173.5 (31-771) days. For constipated subjects the significant reduction in constipation [improvement of the Bowel Function Index (BFI)], was -24.8 points (95% CI: -17.1 to -32.5). BFI for non-constipated subjects remained well below 28.8. Adverse events with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment were well-known opioid-related adverse events. This study shows that the studied patients previously treated with WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics prefer treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR with respect to QoL. Moreover, the study shows that treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR significantly reduces OIC in constipated patients and that non-constipated patients do not develop OIC during treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR.

  17. Risk indicators for referral during labor from community midwife to gynecologist : a prospective cohort study

    Schuit, Ewoud; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W P M; van der Goes, Birgit Y; Overbeeke, Ilanit; Moons, Karel G M; Mol, Ben W J; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Kwee, Anneke


    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk indicators for referral during labor from community midwife to a gynecologist in a prospective cohort of women with a singleton term pregnancy, starting labor with a community midwife between 2000 and 2007, registered in the Dutch national perinatal registry. MAIN OUTCOME

  18. Delta and fan morphologies on Mars as climate indicators (Utrecht Studies in Geosciences 042)

    de Villiers, G.


    The presence, duration and quantity of water on Mars remains an important research topic in planetary science. Large valley networks, regional outflow channels, and small-scale gullies indicate the presence of water on the surface at certain points in the past. However, the climatic history and evol

  19. Middle School Predictors of High School Performance: A Case Study of Dropout Risk Indicators

    McKee, M. Todd; Caldarella, Paul


    Dropping out of high school has negative results and implications for individuals and society. The likelihood of dropping out is attributed to both social and academic risk factors. Poor high school attendance, low course completion, and low grade-point-average (GPA) have been identified as three leading indicators that students are at risk for…

  20. Studying Children in Armed Conflict: Data Production, Social Indicators and Analysis

    Pedersen, Jon; Sommerfelt, Tone


    The authors seek to give an overview of ways in which social indicators relevant to research on children affected by armed conflict can be developed, and how such research can be carried out. Technical and methodological challenges involved in this pursuit are discussed. It is argued that data production must consider issues of definition and…

  1. Delta and fan morphologies on Mars as climate indicators (Utrecht Studies in Geosciences 042)

    de Villiers, G.


    The presence, duration and quantity of water on Mars remains an important research topic in planetary science. Large valley networks, regional outflow channels, and small-scale gullies indicate the presence of water on the surface at certain points in the past. However, the climatic history and evol

  2. Aggregation of ecological indicators for mapping aquatic nature quality : overview of existing methods and case studies

    Knotters, M.; Lahr, J.; Oosten-Siedlecka, van A.M.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.


    Indicators for aquatic nature quality are calculated using ecological monitoring data from individual sampling stations. For reporting purposes, these results need to be aggregated and scaled up to higher levels (catchment area, country). This report provides an overview of different existing spatia


    Chopа, Dmytry A.; Moskalenko, Denys R.


    The analysis of existing methods of estimating the level of development of educational material for military-technical disciplines students who are trained on the training program for reserve officers. Based on this analysis, an approach to the definition of indicators military training specialists stock. Provide recommendations for improving the level of training of reserve officers.

  4. Comparing Two Non-Compensatory Composite Indices to Measure Changes over Time: a Case Study

    Matteo Mazziotta


    Full Text Available Composite indices are increasingly recognized as a useful tool to measure socio-economic phenomena such as quality of life, competitiveness, development, and poverty. Considerable attention has been devoted in recent years to the methodological issues associated with composite index construction, particularly non-compensability and comparability of the data over time. In this paper, we compare two non-compensatory composite indices for measuring multidimensional phenomena and monitoring their changes over time: the Adjusted Mazziotta-Pareto Index (AMPI and the Mean-Min Function (MMF. The AMPI is a non-linear composite index that rewards the units with balanced values of the individual indicators. The MMF is a two-parameter function that allows compensability among dimensions with a cost that increases with unbalance and can be seen as an intermediate case between a compensatory and a full non-compensatory index. An application to a set of individual indicators of development in the Italian regions is also presented.

  5. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability across Studies: A Meta-Analytic Reliability.

    Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret


    Submitted the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to a descriptive reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MBTI scores across administrations. In general the MBTI and its scales yielded scores with strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. (SLD)

  6. Elevated osteoprotegerin is associated with abnormal ankle brachial indices in patients infected with HIV: a cross-sectional study

    Jang James J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients infected with HIV have an increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis. Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin, an inflammatory cytokine receptor, have been associated with a high incidence of cardiovascular disease (including peripheral arterial disease, or PAD, acute coronary syndrome, and cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to determine whether PAD is prevalent in an HIV-infected population, and to identify an association with HIV-specific and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, as well as levels of osteoprotegerin. Methods One hundred and two patients infected with HIV were recruited in a cross-sectional study. To identify the prevalence of PAD, ankle-brachial indices (ABIs were measured. Four standard ABI categories were utilized: ≤ 0.90 (definite PAD; 0.91-0.99 (borderline; 1.00-1.30 (normal; and >1.30 (high. Medical history and laboratory measurements were obtained to determine possible risk factors associated with PAD in HIV-infected patients. Results The prevalence of PAD (ABI ≤ 0.90 in a young HIV-infected population (mean age: 48 years was 11%. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including advanced age and previous cardiovascular history, as well as elevated C-reactive protein levels, were associated with PAD. Compared with patients with normal ABIs, patients with high ABIs had significantly elevated levels of osteoprotegerin [1428.9 (713.1 pg/ml vs. 3088.6 (3565.9 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.03]. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of PAD in young HIV-infected patients. A number of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and increased osteoprotegerin concentrations are associated with abnormal ABIs. Thus, early screening and aggressive medical management for PAD may be warranted in HIV-infected patients.

  7. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle


    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  8. Soil Line Influences on Two-Band Vegetation Indices and Vegetation Isolines: A Numerical Study

    Alfredo R. Huete


    Full Text Available Influences of soil line variations on two-band vegetation indices (VIs and their vegetation isolines in red and near-infrared (NIR reflectance space are investigated based on recently derived relationships between the relative variations of VIs with variations of the soil line parameters in the accompanying paper by Yoshioka et al. [1]. The soil line influences are first demonstrated numerically in terms of variations of vegetation isolines and VI values along with the isolines. A hypothetical case is then analyzed by assuming the discrepancies between the general and regional soil lines for a Southern Brazil area reported elsewhere. The results indicate the validity of our analytical approach for the evaluation of soil line influences and the applicability for adjustment of VI errors using external data sources of soil reflectance spectra.

  9. Large-scale population study of human cell lines indicates that dosage compensation is virtually complete.

    Colette M Johnston


    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation in female mammals results in dosage compensation of X-linked gene products between the sexes. In humans there is evidence that a substantial proportion of genes escape from silencing. We have carried out a large-scale analysis of gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from four human populations to determine the extent to which escape from X chromosome inactivation disrupts dosage compensation. We conclude that dosage compensation is virtually complete. Overall expression from the X chromosome is only slightly higher in females and can largely be accounted for by elevated female expression of approximately 5% of X-linked genes. We suggest that the potential contribution of escape from X chromosome inactivation to phenotypic differences between the sexes is more limited than previously believed.

  10. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan


    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  11. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Sachin A Narvekar


    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  12. Rocky-shore communities as indicators of water quality: a case study in the Northwestern Mediterranean.

    Pinedo, Susana; García, María; Satta, Maria Paola; de Torres, Mariona; Ballesteros, Enric


    The collection of 152 samples from the upper sublittoral zone along the rocky coasts of Catalonia (Northwestern Mediterranean) was carried out in 1999 in order to test the suitability of littoral communities to be used as indicators of water quality in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive. Detrended correspondence analysis were performed to distinguish between different communities and to relate communities composition to water quality. Samples collected in reference sites were included in the analysis. Mediterranean rocky shore communities situated in the upper sublittoral zone can be used as indicators of the water quality: there is a gradient from high to bad status that comprises from dense Cystoseira mediterranea forests to green algae dominated communities. The geographical patterns in the distribution of these communities show that the best areas are situated in the Northern coast, where tourism is the main economic resource of the area, and the worst area is situated close to the metropolitan zone of Barcelona with high population and industrial development. Thus, Mediterranean sublittoral rocky shore communities are useful indicators of water quality and multivariate analysis are a suitable statistical tool for the assessment of the ecological status.

  13. Flood monitoring and damage assessment using water indices: A case study of Pakistan flood-2012

    Akhtar Ali Memon


    Full Text Available This paper uses Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI of McFeeters (1996, Water Index (WI introduced by Rogers and Kearney (2004, referred to as Red and Short Wave Infra-Red (RSWIR and WI suggested as the best by Ji et al. (2009, referred to as Green and Short Wave Infra-Red (GSWIR for delineating and mapping of surface water using MODIS (Terra near real time images during 2012 floods in Pakistan. The results from above indices have been compared with Landsat ETM+ classified images aiming to assess the accuracy of the indices. Accuracy assessment has been performed using spatial statistical techniques and found NDWI, RSWIR and GSWIR with kappa coefficient (κ of 46.66%, 70.80% and 60.61% respectively. It has been observed using statistical analysis and visual interpretation (expert knowledge gained by past experience that the NDWI and GSWIR have tendencies to underestimate and overestimate respectively the inundated area. Keeping in view the above facts, RSWIR has proved to be the best of the three indices. In addition, assessment of the damages has been carried out considering accumulated flood extent obtained from RSWIR. The information derived proved to be essential and valuable for disaster management plan and rehabilitation.

  14. Rock Cracking Indices for Improved Tunnel Support Design: A Case Study for Columnar Jointed Rock Masses

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Hao, Xian-Jie; Jiang, Quan; Li, Shao-jun; Hudson, John A.


    Measurements indicate that the development of cracking is a key feature relating to the strength and collapse of a columnar jointed rock mass. In this context, a new support design method utilising rock cracking indices for columnar jointed rock mass under high stress is proposed to restrain the development of cracking in the surrounding rock mass. The method involves limiting the cracking evolution of the surrounding rock mass by designing the appropriate parameters and time of installation of the support system. Two indices are suggested: the allowable depth of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ); and the allowable damage extent of the rock mass in the EDZ. The method involves limiting the evolution of cracking in the surrounding rock mass by designing the parameters and time of installation of the support system. The support system should have a suitable stiffness and installation time so as to restrain the evolution of the depth and damage extent of the EDZ within the surrounding rock. Therefore, the depth and damage extent of the EDZ, as well as the axial stress in the anchor bolts, are calculated at different distances between the support location and the tunnel working face to find the appropriate stiffness and installation time of the support system. The method has been successfully adopted to determine the thickness of shotcrete, the arrangement and installation time of rockbolts, and other parameters, for five large diversion tunnels at the Baihetan hydropower station, China, which were excavated in columnar jointed rock masses.

  15. Environmental Indicators in the Newspaper Industry

    Maria Enroth; Martin Johansson; Asa Moberg


    Environmental indicators promote the eco-efficient development of companies, as demonstrated in earlier study. This study builds on a previously developed model and inventory tools for industryspecific environmental indicators for the graphic arts industry. This study is based on case studies from 14 newspaper companies with experience of the use of these industry-specific environmental indicators in actual production.This paper presents data on industry-specific environmental indicators for ...

  16. Human virus and microbial indicator occurrence in public-supply groundwater systems: meta-analysis of 12 international studies

    Fout, G. Shay; Borchardt, Mark A.; Kieke, Burney A.; Karim, Mohammad R.


    Groundwater quality is often evaluated using microbial indicators. This study examines data from 12 international groundwater studies (conducted 1992-2013) of 718 public drinking-water systems located in a range of hydrogeological settings. Focus was on testing the value of indicator organisms for identifying virus-contaminated wells. One or more indicators and viruses were present in 37 and 15% of 2,273 samples and 44 and 27% of 746 wells, respectively. Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and somatic coliphage are 7-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive samples when the indicator is present versus when it is absent, while F-specific and somatic coliphages are 8-9 times more likely to be associated with culturable virus-positive wells. However, single indicators are only marginally associated with viruses detected by molecular methods, and all microbial indicators have low sensitivity and positive predictive values for virus occurrence, whether by culturable or molecular assays, i.e., indicators are often absent when viruses are present and the indicators have a high false-positive rate. Wells were divided into three susceptibility subsets based on presence of (1) total coliform bacteria or (2) multiple indicators, or (3) location of wells in karst, fractured bedrock, or gravel/cobble settings. Better associations of some indicators with viruses were observed for (1) and (3). Findings indicate the best indicators are E. coli or somatic coliphage, although both indicators may underestimate virus occurrence. Repeat sampling for indicators improves evaluation of the potential for viral contamination in a well.

  17. Multi-level significance of vulnerability indicators. Case study: Eastern Romania

    Stanga, I. C.; Grozavu, A.


    Vulnerability assessment aims, most frequently, to emphasize internal fragility of a system comparing to a reference standard, to similar systems or in relation to a given hazard. Internal fragility, either biophysical or structural, may affect the capacity to predict, to prepare for, to cope with or to recover from a disaster. Thus, vulnerability is linked to resilience and adaptive capacity. From local level to global one, vulnerability factors and corresponding indicators are different and their significance must be tested and validated in a well-structured conceptual and methodological framework. In this paper, the authors aim to show the real vulnerability of rural settlements in Eastern Romania in a multi-level approach. The research area, Tutova Hills, counts about 3421 and more than 200.000 inhabitants in 421 villages characterized by deficient accessibility, lack of endowments, subsistential agriculture, high pressure on natural environment (especially on forest and soil resources), poverty and aging process of population. Factors that could influence the vulnerability of these rural settlements have been inventoried and assigned into groups through a cluster analysis: habitat and technical urban facilities, infrastructure, economical, social and demographical indicators, environment quality, management of emergency situations etc. Firstly, the main difficulty was to convert qualitative variable in quantitative indicators and to standardize all values to make possible mathematical and statistical processing of data. Secondly, the great variability of vulnerability factors, their different measuring units and their high amplitude of variation require different method of standardization in order to obtain values between zero (minimum vulnerability) and one (maximum vulnerability). Final vulnerability indicators were selected and integrated in a general scheme, according to their significance resulted from an appropriate factor analysis: linear and

  18. Predictive value of clinical risk indicators in child development: final results of a study based on psychoanalytic theory

    Maria Cristina Machado Kupfer; Alfredo Nestor Jerusalinsky; Leda Mariza Fischer Bernardino; Daniele Wanderley; Paulina Schmidtbauer Barbosa Rocha; Silvia Eugenia Molina; Léa Martins Sales; Regina Stellin; M. Eugênia Pesaro; Rogerio Lerner


    We present the final results of a study using the IRDI (Clinical Risk Indicators in Child Development). Based on a psychoanalytic approach, 31 risk signs for child development were constructed and applied to 726 children between the ages of 0 and 18 months. One sub-sample was evaluated at the age of three. The results showed a predictive capacity of IRDIs to indicate developmental problems; 15 indicators for the IRDI were also highlighted that predict psychic risk for the constitution of the ...

  19. Cataract surgery in previously vitrectomized eyes.

    Akinci, A; Batman, C; Zilelioglu, O


    To evaluate the results of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and phacoemulsification (PHACO) performed in previously vitrectomized eyes. In this retrospective study, 56 vitrectomized eyes that had ECCE and 60 vitrectomized eyes that had PHACO were included in the study group while 65 eyes that had PHACO in the control group. The evaluated parameters were the incidence of intra-operative and postoperative complications (IPC) and visual outcomes. Chi-squared, independent samples and paired samples tests were used for comparing the results. Deep anterior chamber (AC) was significantly more common in the PHACO group of vitrectomized eyes (PGVE) and observed in eyes that had undergone extensive vitreous removal (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Some of the intra-operative conditions such as posterior synechiae, primary posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and postoperative complications such as retinal detachment (RD), PCO were significantly more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Deep AC is more common in eyes with extensive vitreous removal during PHACO than ECCE. Decreasing the bottle height is advised in this case. Except for this, the results of ECCE and PHACO are similar in previously vitrectomized eyes. Posterior synechiaes, primary and postoperative PCO and RD are more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls.

  20. Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study

    Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique


    In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita-1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita-1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita-1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

  1. Benthic foraminifera as indicators of habitat in a Mediterranean delta: implications for ecological and palaeoenvironmental studies

    Benito, Xavier; Trobajo, Rosa; Cearreta, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Carles


    The ecology and modern distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages were analysed in the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean Sea). Foraminiferal distributions were from 191 sediment surface samples covering a wide range of deltaic habitats and adjacent open sea areas. According to similarity in species composition, cluster analysis identified four habitat types: (1) offshore habitat, (2) nearshore and outer bays, (3) salt and brackish marshes and (4) coastal lagoons and inner bays. Canonical Correspondence Analysis identified water depth, salinity and sand content as the main environmental factors structuring living foraminiferal assemblages. Partial Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed water depth as the most statistically significant associated with the distribution of modern foraminifera in the Ebro Delta. Thus, a transfer function for water depth using Weighted Average Partial Least Squares regression was successfully developed. Although depth per se is unlikely to affect the foraminifera directly but will exert its effects via various environmental variables that co-vary with depth in the deltaic habitats (e.g. hydrodynamics, oxygen, food availability, etc), the resulting model (r2 = 0.89; RMSEP = 0.32 log10 m) suggested a strong correlation between observed and foraminifera-predicted water depths, and therefore provided a potentially useful tool for water-depth reconstructions in the Ebro Delta. This work indicated the potential role of modern foraminifera as quantitative indicators of water depth and habitat types in the Ebro Delta. This complementary approach (transfer function and indicator species) will allow reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes that have occurred in the Ebro Delta based on the benthic foraminiferal record.

  2. [Preliminary study on bacteroides as the potential fecal contamination indicator bacteria].

    Yang, Jing-yan; Chen, Zhi-jin; Ding, Xiao-bei; Huang, Wei; Yang, Rui-jia; Pei, Xiao-fang


    To explore the possibility of Bacteroides spp. as fecal contamination indicator bacteria with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) assay through analyzing the correlation between Bacteroides spp. and coliform group in external environment. Quantity of coliform group and Bacteroides in water samples were detected by most-probable-number method (MPN) and RT-PCR, respectively, and their detection correlation was evaluated with linear correlation analysis. Both methods were also applied to detect the contaminated time limits and river water samples collected at four sampling sites in three different times. Seventy two hours were needed for the numeration of coliform group with MPN method, while RT-PCR could detect Bacteroides within 3 hours. The contaminated time limit of indoor and outdoor water samples of coliform group was more than 40 days and 9 days, and Bacteroides 13 days and 5 days, respectively. Also, the positive correlation between the quantity of Bacteroides and coliform group in outdoor water samples was obtained, the quantity of Bacteroides was from 8.3 × 10(6) copies/ml to less than 10(4) copies/ml during the first day to the fifth day, while coliform group was 4.3 × 10(6) MPN/100 ml to 2.4 × 10(3) MPN/100 ml. A 100% coincidence rate of the detection results with both methods was also observed. These results indicated that the detection results of both methods had perfect consistency. Bacteroides spp. can be potentially used as fecal contamination indicator bacteria with RT-PCR rapid detection.

  3. Static vs stochastic optimization: A case study of FTSE Bursa Malaysia sectorial indices

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Traditional portfolio optimization methods in the likes of Markowitz' mean-variance model and semi-variance model utilize static expected return and volatility risk from historical data to generate an optimal portfolio. The optimal portfolio may not truly be optimal in reality due to the fact that maximum and minimum values from the data may largely influence the expected return and volatility risk values. This paper considers distributions of assets' return and volatility risk to determine a more realistic optimized portfolio. For illustration purposes, the sectorial indices data in FTSE Bursa Malaysia is employed. The results show that stochastic optimization provides more stable information ratio.

  4. Static vs stochastic optimization: A case study of FTSE Bursa Malaysia sectorial indices

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah@Rozita


    Traditional portfolio optimization methods in the likes of Markowitz' mean-variance model and semi-variance model utilize static expected return and volatility risk from historical data to generate an optimal portfolio. The optimal portfolio may not truly be optimal in reality due to the fact that maximum and minimum values from the data may largely influence the expected return and volatility risk values. This paper considers distributions of assets' return and volatility risk to determine a more realistic optimized portfolio. For illustration purposes, the sectorial indices data in FTSE Bursa Malaysia is employed. The results show that stochastic optimization provides more stable information ratio.

  5. Studies on the applicability of enterococci and coli-form groups as indicators of water pollution

    国府島, 泉; 金谷, 誠久; 口分田,晃; 野田,泰子; 福原, 明宏; 森,徳子; 金政, 泰弘


    The applicability of using enterococci and coli-form groups as indicators of water pollution was assessed. In human feces, enterococci were 10 times more numerous than coli-forms. Suspension of feces in sterile 0.85% NaCl solution at 25℃ did not result in enterococci growth. Coli-form groups, however, grew remarkably well. Enterococci were incapable of growth and died in filtration-sterilized river water. On the contrary, coli-form groups demonstrated significant growth. Tre pathogeneic enter...

  6. Study of the radiological doses and hazard indices in soil samples from Karbala city, Iraq

    Al-Kaabi, Mohammed Abdulhussain; Al-Shimary, Ahmed


    The radiological doses and hazard indices of natural radionuclides $^{238}$U,$^{232}$Th and $^{40} $K in soil samples from Kerbala city were evaluated using gamma-ray spectroscopy system using NaI(Tl) ${"1.5\\times 2"}$ detector in low-background with 24 hour. The average values of absorbed gamma-ray dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent and annual gonadal dose equivalent were found to be 90.83$\\pm$2.00 nGy/h, 111.89$\\pm$2.46 $\\mu$Sv/y and 640.85$\\pm$15.44 $\\mu$Sv/y respectively. The ave...

  7. Comparing Civic Competence among European Youth: Composite and Domain-Specific Indicators Using IEA Civic Education Study Data

    Hoskins, Bryony Louise; Barber, Carolyn; Van Nijlen, Daniel; Villalba, Ernesto


    Addressing the European Union monitoring of civic competence, this article presents a composite indicator of civic competence and four domain indicators. The data used are from the 1999 IEA Civic Education study of 14-year-olds in school. The results demonstrate the complexity of the various influences on the development of civic competencies…

  8. Como novos conhecimentos podem ser construídos a partir dos conhecimentos prévios: um estudo de caso How new knowledge can be constructed from previous knowledge: a case study

    Francimar Martins Teixeira


    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata sobre o estudo de caso de como uma professora utiliza os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes durante a abordagem de um novo conceito científico. Para tanto, foram realizadas filmagens de aulas de ciências durante a execução de uma sequência didática, a fim de investigar de que maneira os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes eram tratados em sala de aula ao longo da abordagem do tema. A partir dos resultados encontrados, percebemos nas aulas observadas como a professora lidava com os conhecimentos dos estudantes. Identificamos que houve ocasiões em que ela os considerou e outras em que os desconsiderou. Apesar de ações antagônicas, tanto o fato de considerar quanto de desconsiderar parecem ter em comum a busca de manutenção de foco sob os conceitos, entendidos pela professora, como sendo os que devem ser objeto de atenção dos alunos.This article deals with a case study about how a teacher uses previous knowledge of students to approach a new concept. To this end, sciences classes were filmed during the execution of a didactic sequence, in order to investigate how previous knowledge of the students was treated in the classroom along the approach of the theme. From these results, we saw how the teacher dealt with previous knowledge of their students. We identified that there were occasions when she considered them and others in which she disregarded them. Although they are antagonistic actions, both the facts, to consider or to dismiss, have in common the search for keeping the focus on the concepts, defined by the teacher as those that should be the object of attention for the students.

  9. Comparative Study of Sustainable Development Indicators in CEE Countries (2000 – 2010

    Mara Ursache


    Full Text Available Environment is the basic factor to continue human survival and long-term prosperity of mankind is unthinkable if we are not able to ensure that future generations can enjoy the full benefits of nature. At the same time, development is needed to tackle poverty in developing countries and to empower people everywhere to live in a civilized manner in a more favorable environment. The aim of this article is to examine if the sustainable development indicators (greenhouse gas emissions, resource productivity and people at risk of poverty or social exclusion have an impact on the economic growth and if there are significant discrepancies between countries in 2010 compared to the base year of analysis (2000, using this indicators. The analysis focuses particularly on the countries situated in Central and Eastern Europe (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia. Based on the result obtained, the author shall try to trace, in the conclusion, a few guiding lines which could be of strategic importance for stimulating action and awareness that environmental protection and economic development must be contemporary concerns.

  10. A business model for managing system change through strategic financing and performance indicators: a case study.

    Armstrong, Mary I; Milch, Heidi; Curtis, Peter; Endress, Phillip


    This article describes how a system of care operated by a county government agency used a fiscal crisis as the opportunity to reform its children's system. A cross-system response to the crisis is outlined that includes a system of care framework coupled with a business model, inter-departmental collaboration and leadership, the use of strategic reinvestment strategies, and a quality improvement system that focuses on key indicators. Implementation of the system change is described with a specific focus on cross-system entry points, financing strategies that re-allocate funds from deep-end programs to community-based services, and management oversight through the use of performance indicators to monitor and support effectiveness. This article examines the results of the system change, including the diversion of youth from system penetration, the reduction in residential treatment bed days, the re-allocation of these savings to community-based services, and the outcomes of children who were diverted from residential care and served in the community. The article offers a number of recommendations for other communities contemplating system change.

  11. Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq(®) (human-cl rhFVIII) in previously untreated patients with severe haemophilia A-Interim results from the NuProtect Study.

    Liesner, R J; Abashidze, M; Aleinikova, O; Altisent, C; Belletrutti, M J; Borel-Derlon, A; Carcao, M; Chambost, H; Chan, A K C; Dubey, L; Ducore, J; Fouzia, N A; Gattens, M; Gruel, Y; Guillet, B; Kavardakova, N; El Khorassani, M; Klukowska, A; Lambert, T; Lohade, S; Sigaud, M; Turea, V; Wu, J K M; Vdovin, V; Pavlova, A; Jansen, M; Belyanskaya, L; Walter, O; Knaub, S; Neufeld, E J


    Nuwiq(®) (Human-cl rhFVIII) is a fourth generation recombinant FVIII, produced in a human cell line, without chemical modification or protein fusion. No inhibitors developed in studies with Nuwiq(®) in 201 previously treated patients with haemophilia A (HA). The immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq(®) in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe HA are being assessed in the ongoing NuProtect study. The study, conducted across 38 centres worldwide, is evaluating 110 true PUPs of all ages and ethnicities enrolled for study up to 100 exposure days (EDs) or 5 years maximum. The primary objective is to assess the immunogenicity of Nuwiq(®) (inhibitor activity ≥0.6 BU) using the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay at a central laboratory. Data for 66 PUPs with ≥20 EDs from a preplanned interim analysis were analysed. High-titre (HT) inhibitors developed in 8 of 66 patients after a median of 11.5 EDs (range 6-24). Five patients developed low-titre inhibitors (4 transient). The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval) was 12.8% (4.5%, 21.2%) for HT inhibitors and 20.8% (10.7%, 31.0%) for all inhibitors. During inhibitor-free periods, median annualized bleeding rates during prophylaxis were 0 for spontaneous bleeds and 2.40 for all bleeds. Efficacy was rated as "excellent" or "good" in treating 91.8% of bleeds. Efficacy of surgical prophylaxis was "excellent" or "good" for 8 (89%) procedures and "moderate" for 1 (11%). No tolerability concerns were evident. These interim data show a cumulative incidence of 12.8% for HT inhibitors and convincing efficacy and tolerability in PUPs treated with Nuwiq(®) . © 2017 The Authors. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Can previous learning alter future plasticity mechanisms?

    Crestani, Ana Paula; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto


    The dynamic processes related to mnemonic plasticity have been extensively researched in the last decades. More recently, studies have attracted attention because they show an unusual plasticity mechanism that is independent of the receptor most usually related to first-time learning--that is, memory acquisition-the NMDA receptor. An interesting feature of this type of learning is that a previous experience may cause modifications in the plasticity mechanism of a subsequent learning, suggesting that prior experience in a very similar task triggers a memory acquisition process that does not depend on NMDARs. The intracellular molecular cascades necessary to assist the learning process seem to depend on the activation of hippocampal CP-AMPARs. Moreover, most of these studies were performed on hippocampus-dependent tasks, even though other brain areas, such as the basolateral amygdala, also display NMDAR-independent learning.

  13. Registration practices for observational studies on indicated low adherence.

    Boccia, Stefania; Rothman, Kenneth J; Panic, Nikola; Flacco, Maria Elena; Rosso, Annalisa; Pastorino, Roberta; Manzoli, Lamberto; La Vecchia, Carlo; Villari, Paolo; Boffetta, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter; Ioannidis, John P A


    The study aims to assess the status of registration of observational studies. We identified studies on cancer research with prospective recruitment of participants that were registered from February 2000 to December 2011 in We recorded the dates of registration and start of recruitment, outcomes, and description of statistical method. We searched for publications corresponding to the registered studies through May 31, 2014. One thousand one hundred nine registered studies were eligible. Primary and secondary outcomes were reported in 809 (73.0%) and 464 (41.8%) of them. The date of registration preceded the month of the study start in 145 (13.8%) and coincided in 205 (19.5%). A total of 151 publications from 120 (10.8%) registered studies were identified. In 2 (33.3%) of the 6 publications where reported that the study started recruitment after registration, and in 9 (50.0%) of 18 publications where reported the same date for registration and start of recruitment, the articles showed that the study had actually started recruiting before registration. During the period reviewed, few observational studies have been registered. Registration usually occurred after the study started, and prespecification of outcomes and statistical analysis rarely occurred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... digital submission of all data and certifications is available via HUD's secure Internet systems. However...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  15. Improvement of clinical quality indicators through reorganization of the acute care by establishing an emergency department-a register study based on data from national indicators

    Mattsson, Maria Søe; Mattsson, N.; Jørsboe, H. B.


    -square test was used for analysing significant differences from pre-and post intervention and Z-test to compare the experimental groups to the control group (HOL). P ... significantly improved after the reorganization in NFS and HOL (p ...-intervention data were compared for both NFS and HOL (p = 0.024). Conclusions: During the organisation of the new EDs, several of the indicators improved and the overall 30 days mortality decreased in the five diseases. The development of a common set of indicators for monitoring acute treatment at EDs in Denmark...

  16. Study of Radiographic Linear Indications and Subsequent Microstructural Features in Gas Tungsten Arc Welds of Inconel 718

    Walley, J. L.; Nunes, A. C.; Clounch, J. L.; Russell, C. K.


    This study presents examples and considerations for differentiating linear radiographic indications produced by gas tungsten arc welds in a 0.05-in-thick sheet of Inconel 718. A series of welds with different structural features, including the enigma indications and other defect indications such as lack of fusion and penetration, were produced, radiographed, and examined metallographically. The enigma indications were produced by a large columnar grain running along the center of the weld nugget occurring when the weld speed was reduced sufficiently below nominal. Examples of respective indications, including the effect of changing the x-ray source location, are presented as an aid to differentiation. Enigma, nominal, and hot-weld specimens were tensile tested to demonstrate the harmlessness of the enigma indication. Statistical analysis showed that there is no difference between the strengths of these three weld conditions.

  17. Quality indicators for in-hospital management of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results of an international Delphi study.

    Lodewijckx, Cathy; Sermeus, Walter; Panella, Massimiliano; Deneckere, Svin; Leigheb, Fabrizio; Troosters, Thierry; Boto, Paulo Alexandre; Mendes, Rita Veloso; Decramer, Marc; Vanhaecht, Kris


    To report a Delphi study that was conducted to select process and outcome indicators that are relevant to study quality of care and impact of care pathways for patients hospitalized with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Management of patients hospitalized with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is suboptimal and outcomes are poor. To evaluate the impact of care pathways properly, relevant indicators need to be selected. Delphi study. The study was conducted over 4 months in 2008, with 35 experts out of 15 countries, including 19 medical doctors, 8 nurses and 8 physiotherapists. Participants were asked to rate, for 72 process and 21 outcome indicators, the relevance for follow-up in care pathways for in-hospital management of exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Consensus (agreement by at least 75% of the participants) that an indicator is relevant for follow-up was sought in two rounds. Consensus was reached for 26 of 72 process indicators (36·1%) and 10 of 21 outcome indicators (47·6%). Highest consensus levels were found for the process indicators regarding oxygen therapy (100%), pulmonary rehabilitation (100%) and patient education (94·5-88·6%) and for the outcome indicators concerning understanding of therapy (91·4-85·7%) and self-management (88·6-88·2%). The selected indicators appear to be sensitive for improvement. Therefore, researchers and clinicians that want to study and improve the care for patients hospitalized with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should primarily focus on these indicators. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88

    Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.


    Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

  19. Fiber Optic Tamper Indicating Enclosure (TIE); A Case Study in Authentication

    Anheier, Norman C.; Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Westman, Matthew P.


    A robust fiber optic-based tamper-indicating enclosure (TIE) has been developed by PNNL through funding by the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nuclear Verification over the past few years. The objective of this work is to allow monitors to have confidence in both the authenticity and integrity of the TIE and the monitoring equipment inside, throughout the time it may be located at a host facility. Incorporating authentication features into the design were the focus of fiscal year 2014 development efforts. Throughout the development process, modifications have been made to the physical TIE design based on lessons learned via exercises and expert elicitation. The end result is a robust and passive TIE which can be utilized to protect monitoring party equipment left in a host facility.

  20. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa


    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  1. Foraminiferal assemblages and their use as indicators of sediments movement: a study in the shelf region off Navapur, India

    Nigam, R.

    water runoff and organic matter content in the sediments. A comparison of living and dead tests distribution of important assemblages indicates movement of sediment towards east southeast and thus a current. The study is particularly important...

  2. Geneesmiddelengebruik als indicator voor de effecten van milieuverontreiniging ; een studie in de regio Schiphol

    Willigenburg APP van; Franssen EAM; Lebret E; Herings RMC; Universiteit Utrecht; CCM; UU/sectie Farmaco-epidemiologie en


    Within the framework of the Health Impact Assessment Schiphol Airport a feasibility study on using computerised drug dispensing pharmacy data for environmental epidemiology was performed. The study was conducted by the Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and the National Institute of Public

  3. Texas School Communications Study: Training for Frontline School Practitioners Is Indicated.

    Calvin, Christopher; Stark, Stephen

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of 81 teachers and 43 site administrators about the classroom instructors public relations role. This research was completed in two school districts in Texas during the spring semester of 2000 using an instrument developed for the study. Findings show that: (1) classroom instructors and…

  4. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Linden M


    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  5. Inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules as indicators of severity of atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study

    M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); M.L. Bots (Michiel); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); J. Meijer (John); A.J. Kiliaan (Amanda); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)


    textabstractInflammatory mediators and soluble cell adhesion molecules predict cardiovascular events. It is not clear whether they reflect the severity of underlying atherosclerotic disease. Within the Rotterdam Study, we investigated the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), i

  6. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Field Monitoring,Treatment Facility Monitoring and Treatment Studies

    This presentation is a compilation of harmful algal bloom (HAB) related field monitoring data from the 2015 bloom season, treatment plant monitoring data from the 2013 and 2014 bloom seasons, and bench-scale treatment study data from 2015.

  7. Observation of Autoregulation Indices During Ventricular CSF Drainage After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : A Pilot Study

    Aries, Marcel J. H.; de Jong, Sytse F.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Regtien, Joost; Depreitere, Bart; Czosnyka, Marek; Smielewski, Peter; Elting, Jan Willem J.


    Cerebral autoregulation is increasingly recognized as a factor that requires evaluation when managing poor grade aneurysmal subarachno study, we investigated whether intraventricular intracranial pressure (ICP) derived when

  8. The association of cancer survival with four socioeconomic indicators: a longitudinal study of the older population of England and Wales 1981–2000

    Young Harriet


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found socioeconomic differentials in cancer survival. Previous studies have generally demonstrated poorer cancer survival with decreasing socioeconomic status but mostly used only ecological measures of status and analytical methods estimating simple survival. This study investigate socio-economic differentials in cancer survival using four indicators of socioeconomic status; three individual and one ecological. It uses a relative survival method which gives a measure of excess mortality due to cancer. Methods This study uses prospective record linkage data from The Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study for England and Wales. The participants are Longitudinal Study members, recorded at census in 1971 and 1981 and with a primary malignant cancer diagnosed at age 45 or above, between 1981 and 1997, with follow-up until end 2000. The outcome measure is relative survival/excess mortality, compared with age and sex adjusted survival of the general population. Relative survival and Poisson regression analyses are presented, giving models of relative excess mortality, adjusted for covariates. Results Different socioeconomic indicators detect survival differentials of varying magnitude and definition. For all cancers combined, the four indicators show similar effects. For individual cancers there are differences between indicators. Where there is an association, all indicators show poorer survival with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Cancer survival differs markedly by socio-economic status. The commonly used ecological measure, the Carstairs Index, is adequate at demonstrating socioeconomic differentials in survival for combined cancers and some individual cancers. A combination of car access and housing tenure is more sensitive than the ecological Carstairs measure at detecting socioeconomic effects on survival – confirming Carstairs effects where they occur but additionally identifying

  9. Urinary, Circulating, and Tissue Biomonitoring Studies Indicate Widespread Exposure to Bisphenol A

    Laura N Vandenberg; Ibrahim Chahoud; Heindel, Jerrold J.; Vasantha Padmanabhan; Paumgartten, Francisco J. R.; Gilbert Schoenfelder


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other f...

  10. Study on the Application of Previously Fermented Juice in the Forage Silage%绿汁发酵液在饲草青贮中的应用研究



    绿汁发酵液作为一种天然、无毒的青贮添加剂加工简单,经济环保。本文根据近几年的研究,对绿汁发酵液的制作方法、作用机理以及应用进展等进行了综述。%This paper is about the previously fermented juice(PFJ) which has many advantages such as uncomplicated handing, economy and environmental protection as a natural and poisonless additive. Accord-ing to recent studies, this paper summarized the manufacturing methods, mechanism and application progress of PFJ.

  11. Energy efficiency indicators. Case study, Liguria; Indicatori di efficienza energetica. Il caso Liguria

    Ciarallo, M.A. [ENEA, Divisione Promozione degli Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria Galeria, RM (Italy)


    The report examines the trend in the Liguria Region's energy requirements over the period 1988-1996. The trend was analysed using the regional energy balances and energy efficiency indicators, both in aggregate form and on a single sector basis. The residential sector, in particular, was singled out for an in-depth analysis using publishing and processed data. [Italian] Il presente rapporto esamina l'evoluzione delle caratteristiche energetiche della Regione Liguria attraverso l'analisi degli indicatori di efficienza energetica. Tale analisi e' stata svolta sia a livello aggregato che con riferimento ai singoli settori di attivita'. Particolare attenzione e' stata dedicata al settore residenziale, per il quale e' stato svolto un esame piu' approfondito attraverso un lavoro di raccolta e di elaborazione dati. Il periodo di riferimento va dal 1988 al 1966 dal momento che questo e' l'ultimo anno per il quale sono disponibili i dati economici Istat utilizzati per il calcolo degli indicatori.

  12. Study of efficiency indicators of urban public transportation systems. Final report

    Tomazinis, A.R.


    This report presents the efforts of a research project on efficiency problems of urban public transportation systems (UPTS). Three test regions were selected in an effort to discover, clarify, and understand the efficiency relationships within UPTS. The test regions vary from a small one-mode region to a large multi-mode region. The UPTS are first divided into three major system components, i.e., primary services, support functions, and the network. Then each system is divided by mode, and each component by each distinct function carried within the system component. The inputs to the system are also divided by type, i.e., labor, capital, and energy, and according to the contributor, i.e., the operator, the direct user, the society at large, and the government at all levels. Input units are also traced in terms of money costs (Fiscal Inputs Matrix) and physical units (Physical Inputs Matrix). System outputs are also separated by the receiver and the nature of the outputs. Efficiency analysis is then explored in a hierarchical manner exploring three types of relationships, i.e., system inputs vs. system outputs; component inputs vs. component inputs; and component outputs vs. component outputs. Efficiency indicators are then discussed as to the type of useful service they may offer in various types of efficiency analysis problems.

  13. Comparison of two drought indices in studying regional meteorological drought events in China

    Wang, Yongmei; Ren, Fumin; Zhao, Yilei; Li, Yunjie


    The composite-drought index (CI), improved weighted average of precipitation index (IWAP), and the objective identification technique for regional extreme events (OITREE) were employed to detect China's regional meteorological drought events (CRMDEs) during 1961-2010. Compared with existing references, CI and IWAP both showed strong ability in identifying CRMDEs. Generally, the results of CI and IWAP were consistent, especially for extreme and severe CRMDEs. During 1961-2010, although the frequencies of extreme and severe CRMDEs based on CI and IWAP both showed weak decreasing trends, the two mean-integrated indices both showed increasing but not significant trends. However, the results of IWAP were more reasonable than CI's in two aspects. Firstly, the monthly frequency of extreme and severe CRMDEs based on IWAP showed a clear seasonal variation, which coincided with the seasonal variation of the East Asian monsoon over central-eastern China, whereas the frequency based on CI presented a much weaker seasonal variation. Secondly, the two sets of results were sometimes inconsistent with respect to the start and end times of a CRMDE, and CRMDEs based on CI generally showed two unreasonable phenomena: (1) under non-drought conditions, a severe drought stage could suddenly occur in a large area; and (2) during the following period, drought could alleviate gradually in cases of non-precipitation. Comparative analysis suggested that the IWAP drought index possesses obvious advantages in detecting and monitoring regional drought events.

  14. Assessment of "corticophobia" as an indicator of non-adherence to topical corticosteroids: A pilot study.

    Mueller, Simon M; Itin, Peter; Vogt, Deborah R; Walter, Marc; Lang, Undine; Griffin, Liezel L; Euler, Sebastian


    Concerns regarding topical corticosteroid (TCS) use, broadly known as "corticophobia", are highly prevalent among dermatology patients and often result in non-adherence to TCS. This non-adherence contributes to poor disease control and increased health care costs. However, it is unknown if assessment of these concerns might help to identify patients at risk of TCS-non-adherence. Clinical tools indicating non-adherence could be helpful to improve management of this patient group. To assess whether the available tools for measuring concerns regarding corticosteroids, the TOPICOP scale and the 0-10 Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), could help to detect non-adherence to TCS. In 75 patients with concerns regarding TCS use both the TOPICOP scale and VAS were anonymously assessed. A comparison was made between TCS-adherent and non-adherent patients regarding the intensity and characteristics of their concerns. The intensity and quality of the concerns varied broadly among the patients. When using the VAS, a score of ≥5 detected 87% of non-adherent patients. The answers to the TOPICOP scale did not discriminate non-adherent from adherent patients. Using the VAS to assess concerns to use TCS could help identify patients at risk of TCS-non-adherence and facilitate discussion with the patient about potential non-adherence in a more substantiated, non-judgemental way.

  15. A cluster analysis study based on profitability and financial indicators in the Italian gas retail market

    Capece, Guendalina; Di Pillo, Francesca; Levialdi, Nathan [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Impresa, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cricelli, Livio [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio, Universita di Cassino, Via G. Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino (Italy)


    In the European Union, the natural gas market is increasingly being liberalized. The liberalization process is aimed at leading to lower prices and higher volumes, and hence higher consumer welfare. This paper focuses on the changes in performance in the natural gas retail market by analyzing the profit and financial position of the companies concerned over the first three years following the market liberalization. The balance sheets of 105 Italian companies in this sector are analyzed, after which a cluster analysis is performed employing the most significant performance indexes. The companies are then analyzed within each cluster with respect to age, size, geographical location and business diversification. The results of our analysis show that the majority of companies attained a high level of performance, although this positive outcome was mitigated by the gradual decrease of the average values of performance indicators during the period concerned. The companies that achieve the best performances belong to longstanding business groups, are medium-large sized and are located in the north of the country. Regarding business diversification, in the first two years, the specialised companies outperformed the diversified companies. (author)

  16. Quality-of-life and performance status results from the phase III RAINBOW study of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma†

    Al-Batran, S.-E.; Van Cutsem, E.; Oh, S. C.; Bodoky, G.; Shimada, Y.; Hironaka, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Lipatov, O. N.; Kim, T.-Y.; Cunningham, D.; Rougier, P.; Muro, K.; Liepa, A. M.; Chandrawansa, K.; Emig, M.; Ohtsu, A.; Wilke, H.


    Background The phase III RAINBOW trial demonstrated that the addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rate in fluoropyrimidine–platinum previously treated patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Here, we present results from quality-of-life (QoL) and performance status (PS) analyses. Patients and methods Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0/1 were randomized to receive ramucirumab (8 mg/kg i.v.) or placebo on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle, with both arms receiving paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the QoL/health status questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D at baseline and 6-week intervals. PS was assessed at baseline and day 1 of every cycle. Time to deterioration (TtD) in each QLQ-C30 scale was defined as randomization to first worsening of ≥10 points (on 100-point scale) and TtD in PS was defined as first worsening to ≥2. Hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment effect were estimated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of the 665 patients randomized, 650 (98%) provided baseline QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D data, and 560 (84%) also provided data from ≥1 postbaseline time point. Baseline scores for both instruments were similar between arms. Of the 15 QLQ-C30 scales, 14 had HR < 1, indicating similar or longer TtD in QoL for ramucirumab + paclitaxel. Treatment with ramucirumab + paclitaxel was also associated with a delay in TtD in PS to ≥2 (HR = 0.798, P = 0.0941). Alternate definitions of PS deterioration yielded similar results: PS ≥ 3 (HR = 0.656, P = 0.0508), deterioration by ≥1 PS level (HR = 0.802, P = 0.0444), and deterioration by ≥2 PS levels (HR = 0.608, P = 0.0063). EQ-5D scores were comparable between treatment arms, stable during treatment, and worsened at discontinuation. Conclusion In patients with previously treated advanced gastric

  17. Prognostic indices for cerebral venous thrombosis on CT perfusion: A prospective study

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, E-mail: [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, MMIMSR, Mullana, Ambala (India); Bapuraj, J.R., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University Hospital, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Khandelwal, N. [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India); Khurana, Dheeraj [Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India)


    Purpose: We determined the prognostic significance of CT perfusion characteristics of patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) and assessed the change in perfusion parameters following anticoagulation therapy. Materials and methods: 20 patients with CVST diagnosed on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) were included in this study. The initial CT perfusion study was performed at the time of admission. The following perfusion parameters: relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative mean transit time (rMTT) were calculated in the core and periphery of the affected area of the brain. Follow-up CT perfusion studies were performed at 1 month following anticoagulation therapy and the perfusion parameters thus obtained were compared with pre-treatment results. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the prognostic significance of perfusion parameters. Results: All patients in this study showed areas of hypoperfusion on CT perfusion. To determine the favorable clinical outcome on basis of perfusion parameters, ROC curve analysis was performed which showed that the optimal threshold for rCBF > 60.5%, rCBV > 75.5%, and rMTT < 148.5% correlated with better clinical outcomes. Post treatment perfusion parameters showed significant correlation in core of the lesion (p < 0.05) than in the periphery. Conclusion: CT perfusion studies in CVST are a good prognostic tool and yield valuable information regarding clinical outcome.

  18. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in policemen: A systematic review of observational studies

    Franciele Cascaes Da Silva


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to summarize scientific literature on obesity in policemen through a systematic review of observational studies. For this purpose the following electronic databases were selected: Medline by Pubmed, CINAHL, and Scopus; and a manual search of the referenced studies concerning this topic was performed. There were no restrictions with respect to the year or language of the publication. Twenty-three studies were identified and 9 articles, considered as potentially relevant, were included. The labor time, shift and career progression promoted changes in body composition. Most of the policemen taking part in the studies included in this paper were overweight (BMI: 25.2–29.3, obese (body fat ≥ 25%, had increased waist (90.4–102 cm and abdominal perimeters (18.9–90.5 cm, and had a higher risk of chronic disease, which is associated with depression and stress development. Interventional studies are needed for the purpose of proposing preventive and rehabilitation programs, which would result in providing physical and mental well-being, improvement of life quality and, especially, prevention of obesity related to police work.

  19. Anthropometric indicators of obesity in policemen: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Da Silva, Franciele Cascaes; Hernandez, Salma Stéphany Soleman; Gonçalves, Elizandra; Arancibia, Beatriz Angélica Valdivia; Da Silva Castro, Thiago Luis; Da Silva, Rudney


    The aim of this paper was to summarize scientific literature on obesity in policemen through a systematic review of observational studies. For this purpose the following electronic databases were selected: Medline by Pubmed, CINAHL, and Scopus; and a manual search of the referenced studies concerning this topic was performed. There were no restrictions with respect to the year or language of the publication. Twenty-three studies were identified and 9 articles, considered as potentially relevant, were included. The labor time, shift and career progression promoted changes in body composition. Most of the policemen taking part in the studies included in this paper were overweight (BMI: 25.2-29.3), obese (body fat ≥ 25%), had increased waist (90.4-102 cm) and abdominal perimeters (18.9-90.5 cm), and had a higher risk of chronic disease, which is associated with depression and stress development. Interventional studies are needed for the purpose of proposing preventive and rehabilitation programs, which would result in providing physical and mental well-being, improvement of life quality and, especially, prevention of obesity related to police work.

  20. Calculating Pollution Indices by Heavy Metals in Ecological Geochemistry Assessment and a Case Study in Parks of Beijing

    Gong Qingjie; Deng Jun; Xiang Yunchuan; Wang Qingfei; Yang Liqiang


    Pollution index is a powerful tool for ecological geochemistry assessment. The commonly used pollution indices by heavy metals in soils and sediments were classified as two types of single index and integrated index in an algorithm point of view. Four single indices of contamination factor (or concentration factor), ecological risk factor, enrichment factor, and index of geo-accumulation were illustrated, and the reference values for calculating single indices were distinguished into background levels and threshold pollution values. Eight integrated indices were divided into two groups. One group is suitable for the normal distribution single indices including the sum, average, weighted average,vector modulus, and Nemerow pollution indices, and the other for log-normal distribution including the product, root of product, and weighted power product pollution indices. Using background levels as reference values, five contamination classes were divided, and the terminologies are suggested for the single and integrated indices to unify the assessment results. Software of EGAPI was developed in a single document interface to calculate the four single and eight integrated indices by heavy metals to assess the quality of soil and sediment ecological geochemistry. Pollution indices by heavy metals of Cu,Pb, and Zn in soils in parks of Beijing were calculated using EGAPI software, and these five contamination classes and terminologies suggested in this study were evaluated and used. Results ofintegrated indices of Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils indicated that the soil qualities are unpolluted as a whole and varied from low polluted to unpolluted status from the center to the outskirts of Beijing City.

  1. Study of recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion

    Hui-Qin Meng


    Objective:To analyze the recurrence and serum indicator change after levetiracetam treatment of children febrile convulsion.Methods:A total of 92 cases of children with febrile convulsion who received treatment in our hospital from March 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to different treatment methods, each group with 46 cases. Control group received conventional therapy, observation group received levetiracetam combined with conventional therapy, and then differences in recurrence of febrile convulsion, cranial nerve-related factors, contents of trace elements and iron as well as humoral and cellular immune function of two groups were compared.Results:Average number of fever, frequency of recurrence of convulsion and the proportion of developing to epilepsy of observation group after treatment were less than those of control group, and the time from the end of treatment to the first convulsive seizure was longer than that of control group; serum NSE, S-100β and BDNF levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; serum Ca2+, P, SI and SF levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and ALP level was lower than that of control group; serum IgA, IgM, IgG and CD8+ levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and levels of CD4+ and CD4+/ CD8+ were higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Levetiracetam therapy for children with febrile convulsion reduces convulsive seizure and meantime can optimize children’s microenvironment and enhance immune function.

  2. 中原地区某村既往有偿献血人群艾滋病发病和死亡规律%Study on AIDS incidence and death in previous paid blood-donated population, central China

    朱新义; 崔兆麟; 黄祚军; 朱伯健; 汪宁


    Objective To study incidence and death among previous paid blood-donated AIDS sufferers.Methods A retrospective cohort study was adopted to study incidence and death of 373 previous paid blood-donated HIV sufferers and its effect factors.Results Previous paid blood-donated HIV infection was serious and the infection rate in blood-donated crowd was 35.87%(373/1040);the mean incubation period of AIDS was 8.87 years(95%CI:8.76-8.99,Kaplan-Meier method):the cumulative incidence of AIDS(10 years)was 92.23%(344/373),and the incidence of total sufferers was 11.64/100 person-year;the cumulative probability of survival of one-year,three-year,five-year AIDS sufferers was separately 94.48% (325/344),85.76%(295/344)and 83.14%(286/344),median survival time was over 5 years;the anti-virotic treatment days(960.29±486.38),infection age(33.39±9.08)disease age(41.98±8.88)had significant effects on AIDS sufferers' survival time/survival rate(x2=61.355,P=0.000;x2=6.555,P=0.010;x2=3.969,P=0.046).Conclusion The survival time of previous paid blood-donated HIV cases was longer,and their survival rate was hisher,remarkably higher than the UNAIDS'research findings.%目的 研究既往有偿献血人群获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)发病和死亡规律.方法 采用回顾性队列研究方法,对373例既往有偿献血感染人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)者的发病、死亡规律及其影响因素进行研究.结果 既往有偿献血人群HIV感染率为35.87%(373/1040),AIDS平均潜伏期为8.87年(95%CI:8.76~8.99,Kaplan-Meier法);感染后10年累计发病率为92.23%(344/373),总人时发病率为11.64/100人年;艾滋病患者1年、3年、5年累计生存率分别为94.48%(325/344)、85.76%(295/344)和83.14%(286/344),中位生存时间超过5年;抗病毒治疗天数[(960.29±486.38)d]、感染年龄[(33.39±9.08)岁]和发病年龄[(41.98±8.88)岁]对艾滋病患者生存时间

  3. Diversity Indices as Measures of Functional Annotation Methods in Metagenomics Studies

    Jankovic, Boris R.


    Applications of high-throughput techniques in metagenomics studies produce massive amounts of data. Fragments of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic molecules are all found in metagenomics samples. Laborious and meticulous effort in sequencing and functional annotation are then required to, amongst other objectives, reconstruct a taxonomic map of the environment that metagenomics samples were taken from. In addition to computational challenges faced by metagenomics studies, the analysis is further complicated by the presence of contaminants in the samples, potentially resulting in skewed taxonomic analysis. The functional annotation in metagenomics can utilize all available omics data and therefore different methods that are associated with a particular type of data. For example, protein-coding DNA, non-coding RNA or ribosomal RNA data can be used in such an analysis. These methods would have their advantages and disadvantages and the question of comparison among them naturally arises. There are several criteria that can be used when performing such a comparison. Loosely speaking, methods can be evaluated in terms of computational complexity or in terms of the expected biological accuracy. We propose that the concept of diversity that is used in the ecosystems and species diversity studies can be successfully used in evaluating certain aspects of the methods employed in metagenomics studies. We show that when applying the concept of Hill’s diversity, the analysis of variations in the diversity order provides valuable clues into the robustness of methods used in the taxonomical analysis.


    Marius Stefan; Octavita Ailiesei; Eugen Ungureanu; Simona Dunca; Erica Nimitan; Vasile Artenie


    The study of the complex interaction between rhizospheric bacteria and plant roots represents a very important and actual problem in microbiology. The use of bacteria that stimulate plant growth – PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) – as biofertilizers is one of the most promising biotechnologies used for the increase of the primary production with reduced amounts of chemical fertilizers (Lemanceau, Alabouvette, 1993).

  5. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Noh, Younghee


    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  6. Changes in autistic trait indicators in parents and their children with ASD: A preliminary longitudinal study.

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Higashida, Haruhiro; Oi, Manabu; Minabe, Yoshio; Asada, Minoru


    This study investigated whether the longitudinal changes in symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with changes in the parents׳ autistic traits. The results demonstrated two significant correlations between the changes in children׳s Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) score changes in either the father or both parents. Autistic symptom mitigation in ASD children was associated with increased empathy levels in their parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Gustavo Piva GUAZZELLI; Zilli, Julcemar Bruno


    The pursuit of happiness is a desire that everyone has in life. The behavioral economics can help to identify constraints to achieve the true happiness. This study made an attempt to identify some possible determinants to explain the happiness of university professors in higher education institutions in the city of Passo Fundo/RS. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression models in seven different groups, classified into happiness by sex; happiness by m...

  8. Initial evaluation of posterior cruciate ligament injuries: history, physical examination, imaging studies, surgical and nonsurgical indications.

    Lopez-Vidriero, Emilio; Simon, David A; Johnson, Donald H


    Compared with anterior cruciate ligament injuries, posterior cruciate ligament injuries are a rare event. The mechanisms are predictable and a thorough physical examination is mandatory to rule out or define combined injury patterns. Stress radiography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are very helpful adjuncts. Acute and chronic injuries require slightly different approaches. As our understanding of normal and pathologic knee joint kinematics develops, nonoperative rehabilitation goals and operative techniques continue to evolve.


    Marius Stefan


    Full Text Available The study of the complex interaction between rhizospheric bacteria and plant roots represents a very important and actual problem in microbiology. The use of bacteria that stimulate plant growth – PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria – as biofertilizers is one of the most promising biotechnologies used for the increase of the primary production with reduced amounts of chemical fertilizers (Lemanceau, Alabouvette, 1993.

  10. A Qualitative Study Revealing the Relationship Between Cultural Indicators and Attitudes Toward the Ads

    Emine Sahin


    Full Text Available The companies, in International markets, are required to examine the attitudes and the behaviours to recognize the consumer to be able to make their products preferable under constantly growing competitive conditions. Therefore, it is of great importance to know cultural values of the customers in the country's where global brands compete and to shape ads which is one of the marketing communication tools in this direction. In this respect, knowing the cultural similarities or differences of the countries where the ads are used (such as that country's religion, language, norms and cultural values gains importance. The consumer attitudes towards the ads change in accordance with their cultural similarities or dissimilarities and this attitude change determines the tendency of shopping. According to Geert Hofstede, social anthropologist who analyzes the cultural levels and the relationships among them the basic elements of the culture consists of symbols, heroes, rituals and values underlying them. Thorough symbols, a number of cultural values are conveyed to ads. The problem of this study which was carried out in order to determine attitude change towards the ads including cultural differences is “Is there a difference in the attitudes towards the ads including different cultural symbols? How it is distributed according to gender differences?" In this study, a qualitative research method was applied and interviewed with 20 test subject. 20 students studying in one of the universities in Turkey were selected with formal sampling, they were asked questions, and it was tried to determine the difference between the ad of Doğuş Çay-a tea brand which uses the symbols and local accent of Black sea region in Turkey in its ads- and the ad of Lipton which is an international British tea brand. At the end of the study, it was found out that sample’s the attitude was positive towards ad of Doğuş Çay, not Lipton.


    Gustavo Piva GUAZZELLI; Zilli, Julcemar Bruno


    The pursuit of happiness is a desire that everyone has in life. The behavioral economics can help to identify constraints to achieve the true happiness. This study made an attempt to identify some possible determinants to explain the happiness of university professors in higher education institutions in the city of Passo Fundo/RS. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression models in seven different groups, classified into happiness by sex; happiness by m...

  12. Phase I/II study of docetaxel combined with resminostat, an oral hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitor, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Tambo, Yuichi; Hosomi, Yukio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Nogami, Naoyuki; Atagi, Shinji; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Kato, Terufumi; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Seto, Takashi; Maemondo, Makoto; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Koyama, Ryo; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Okamura, Yuta; Nakamura, Osamu; Nishio, Makoto; Tamura, Tomohide


    Objectives To determine the recommended dose and efficacy/safety of docetaxel combined with resminostat (DR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods A multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study was performed in Japanese patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent NSCLC and prior platinum-based chemotherapy. The recommended phase II dose was determined using a standard 3 + 3 dose design in phase I part. Resminostat was escalated from 400 to 600 mg/day and docetaxel fixed at 75 mg/m(2). In phase II part, the patients were randomly assigned to docetaxel alone (75 mg/m(2)) or DR therapy. Docetaxel was administered on day 1 and resminostat on days 1-5 in the DR group. Treatment was repeated every 21 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results A total of 117 patients (phase I part, 9; phase II part, 108) were enrolled. There was no dose-limiting toxicity in phase I part; the recommended dose for resminostat was 600 mg/day with 75 mg/m(2) of docetaxel. In phase II part, median PFS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 4.2 (2.8-5.7) months with docetaxel group and 4.1 (1.5-5.4) months with DR group (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.354, 95% CI: 0.835-2.195; p = 0.209). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events significantly more common with DR group than docetaxel group were leukopenia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anorexia. Conclusion In Japanese NSCLC patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, DR therapy did not improve PFS compared with docetaxel alone and increased toxicity.

  13. Prognostic indicators for no light perception after open-globe injury: eye injury vitrectomy study.

    Feng, Kang; Hu, Yun Tao; Ma, Zhizhong


    To describe ocular characteristics, surgical interventions, and anatomic and visual outcomes of traumatized eyes with no light perception (NLP) following open-globe injury and to investigate prognostic predictors for NLP cases after open-globe injury. Interventional case series study. Thirty-three traumatized eyes with NLP were selected from the Eye Injury Vitrectomy Study database, a hospital-based multicenter prospective cohort study. Inclusion criteria were NLP cases following open-globe injury with outcomes of anatomic restoration, phthisis bulbi, or enucleation. Exclusion criteria were cases with missing records, undergoing vitrectomy after injury at nonparticipating hospitals, direct optic head injury, endophthalmitis, and hypotonous or silicone oil-sustained eyes. All cases underwent vitreoretinal surgery or enucleation after exploratory surgery and were followed up for at least 6 months. Two outcomes were assessed: favorable outcome (anatomically restored eye globes with light perception [LP] or better vision) and unfavorable outcome (NLP, phthisis bulbi, or enucleation). The following 7 risk factors were significant between the 2 groups: rupture (P = .021); open globe III (P = .046); scleral wound ≥10 mm (P = .001); ciliary body damage (P < .001); severe intraocular hemorrhage (P = .005); closed funnel retinal detachment or retinal prolapse (P = .005); and choroidal damage (P = .001). These 7 risk factors are possible predictors of poor prognosis. Traumatized eyes with NLP can be anatomically restored with LP or better vision if vitreoretinal surgery is attempted, and a favorable anatomic and visual outcome is increased by having a decreased number of these risk factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pain as an indication for rib fixation: a bi-institutional pilot study.

    de Moya, Marc; Bramos, Thanos; Agarwal, Suresh; Fikry, Karim; Janjua, Sumbal; King, David R; Alam, Hasan B; Velmahos, George C; Burke, Peter; Tobler, William


    In trauma patients, open reduction and internal fixation of rib fractures remain controversial. We hypothesized that patients who have open reduction and internal fixation of rib fractures would experience less pain compared with controls and thus require fewer opiates. Further, we hypothesized that improved pain control would result in fewer pulmonary complications and decreased length of stay. This is a retrospective bi-institutional matched case-control study. Cases were matched 1:2 by age, injury severity Score, chest abbreviated injury severity score, head abbreviated injury severity score, pulmonary contusion score, and number of fractured ribs. The daily total doses of analgesic drugs were converted to equianalgesic intravenous morphine doses, and the primary outcome was inpatient narcotic administration. Sixteen patients between July 2005 and June 2009 underwent rib fixation in 5 ± 3 days after injury using an average of 3 (1-5) metallic plates. Morphine requirements decreased from 110 mg ± 98 mg preoperatively to 63 ± 57 mg postoperatively (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences between cases and controls in the mean morphine dose (79 ± 63 vs. 76 ± 55 mg, p = 0.65), hospital stay (18 ± 12 vs. 16 ± 11 days, p = 0.67), intensive care unit stay (9 ± 8 vs. 7 ± 10 days, p = 0.75), ventilation days (7 ± 8 vs. 6 ± 10, p = 0.44), and pneumonia rates (31% vs. 38%, p = 0.76). The need for analgesia was significantly reduced after rib fixation in patients with multiple rib fractures. However, no difference in outcomes was observed when these patients were compared with matched controls in this pilot study. Further study is required to investigate these preliminary findings.

  15. Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    Rochais, C; Henry, S; Sankey, C; Nassur, F; Góracka-Bruzda, A; Hausberger, M


    As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers' grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR) as positive reinforcement increased horses' selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR) expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of "agitated" behavior. However, individual plotting of attention vs. rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a "window" of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses' pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e., highest and lowest attention) had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debate on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and opens new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is), attentional processes and learning.

  16. Visual attention, an indicator of human-animal relationships? A study of domestic horses (Equus caballus

    Céline eRochais


    Full Text Available As visual attention is an intrinsic part of social relationships, and because relationships are built on a succession of interactions, their establishment involves learning and attention. The emotional, rewarding or punishing, content can modulate selective attention. In horses, the use of positive/negative reinforcement during training determines short and long-term human-horse relationships. In a recent study in horses, where either food or withers’ grooming were used as a reward, it appeared that only the food-rewarded horses learned the task and show better relationship with humans. In the present study, we hypothesized that this differential effect of grooming/food rewards on learning performances could be due to attentional processes. Monitoring, gazes and behaviors directed towards the trainer revealed that the use of a food reward (FR as positive reinforcement increased horses’ selective attention towards their trainer. Conversely, horses trained with grooming reward (GR expressed more inattentive responses and did not show a decrease of agitated behavior. However, individual plotting of attention versus rate of learning performances revealed a complex pattern. Thus, while all FR horses showed a window of attention related to faster learning performances, GR horses’ pattern followed an almost normal curve where the extreme animals (i.e. highest and lowest attention had the slowest learning performances. On the other hand, learning was influenced by attention: at the end of training, the more attentive horses had also better learning performances. This study, based on horses, contributes to the general debates on the place of attentional processes at the interface of emotion and cognition and open new lines of thought about individual sensitivities (only individuals can tell what an appropriate reward is, attentional processes and learning.

  17. [Successful aging and indicators of frailty in the elderly. Octabaix Study].

    Ferrer, Assumpta; Formiga, Francesc; Sanz, Héctor; Monserrate, Elena; Verges, Dolors


    Successful aging as a process of adaptation to the optimal state is little known in older people. To describe successful aging and to analyze the factors associated with frailty in people aged 86 years. A cross-sectional study of a clinical trial at the second year of follow-up (Octabaix Study). Seven Primary Care Centers. Non-institutionalized subjects born in 1924. Data on sociodemographic, comorbidity and geriatric assessment scales were collected. Frailty was defined by the presence of 3 or more of the following criteria: muscle weakness, slow walking, weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity. Successful aging was defined as: Barthel index >90/100 and Lobo test ≥ 24/35. Multiple regression analysis was performed. A total of 273 patients were evaluated, 39.2% men. The prevalence of successful aging was 47.2% (129). In the unsuccessful aging, the frailty prevalence was 34.7% (50). The frailty factors associated with unsuccessful aging were low activity (OR: 7.56; 95%CI: 3.8 -14.9), weakness (OR: 6.08; 95%CI: 2.5-14.7), slowness (OR: 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.5), and exhaustion (OR: 3.6; 95%CI: 1.6-8.3). The prevalence of successful aging is high in 86-year-old community-dwelling subjects. The low physical activity multiplied by seven, and muscle weakness by 6, were the factors most associated with unsuccessful aging. Therefore, incorporating screening designed to detect these two factors could improve future interventions towards more optimal aging in the community, if these results are confirmed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Stability study of darunavir ethanolate tablets applying a new stability-indicating HPLC method

    Josilene Chaves Ruela Corrêa; Cristina Helena dos Reis Serra; Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado


    Chemical and physical degradation of drugs may result in altered therapeutic efficacy and even toxic effects. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the stability of darunavir and to develop and validate a liquid chromatography (LC) method to determine darunavir in raw material and tablets in the presence of degradation products. The novel method showed to be linear from 6.0 to 21.0 μg/mL, with high precision (CV < 2%) and accuracy (recuperation of 99.64%). It is simple and reliable, fr...

  19. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and indicators of early immune stimulation: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.

    Rudant, Jérémie; Lightfoot, Tracy; Urayama, Kevin Y; Petridou, Eleni; Dockerty, John D; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Spector, Logan G; Ashton, Lesley J; Dessypris, Nikolaos; Kang, Alice Y; Miller, Margaret; Rondelli, Roberto; Simpson, Jill; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Orsi, Laurent; Roman, Eve; Metayer, Catherine; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline


    The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several proxies of early stimulation of the immune system, that is, day-care center attendance, birth order, maternally reported common infections in infancy, and breastfeeding, were investigated by using data from 11 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2010). The sample included 7,399 ALL cases and 11,181 controls aged 2-14 years. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to the parents. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Day-care center attendance in the first year of life was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.84), with a marked inverse trend with earlier age at start (P < 0.0001). An inverse association was also observed with breastfeeding duration of 6 months or more (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.94). No significant relationship with a history of common infections in infancy was observed even though the odds ratio was less than 1 for more than 3 infections. The findings of this large pooled analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL.

  20. Kinetic studies of yeast polyA polymerase indicate an induced fit mechanism for nucleotide specificity.

    Balbo, Paul B; Meinke, Gretchen; Bohm, Andrew


    Polyadenylate polymerase (PAP) catalyzes the synthesis of 3'-polyadenylate tails onto mRNA. A comprehensive steady-state kinetic analysis of PAP was conducted which included initial velocity studies of the forward and reverse reactions, inhibition studies, and the use of alternative substrates. The reaction (A(n) + ATP A(n+1) + PP(i)) is adequately described by a rapid equilibrium random mechanism. Several thermodynamic parameters for the reaction were determined or calculated, including the overall equilibrium constant (K(eq) = 84) and the apparent equilibrium constant of the internal step (K(int) = 4) which involves the rate-determining interconversion of central complexes. A large (100-fold) difference in Vmax accounts for nucleotide specificity (ATP vs CTP), despite an only 3-fold difference in Km. Comparison of the sulfur elemental effect on Vmax for ATP and CTP suggests that the chemical step is rate-determining for both reactions. Comparison of the sulfur elemental effect on Vmax/Km revealed differences in the mechanism by which either nucleotide is incorporated. Consistent with these data, an induced fit mechanism for nucleotide specificity is proposed whereby PAP couples a uniform binding mechanism, which selects for ATP, with a ground-state destabilization mechanism, which serves to accelerate the velocity for the correct substrate.


    Gustavo Piva GUAZZELLI


    Full Text Available The pursuit of happiness is a desire that everyone has in life. The behavioral economics can help to identify constraints to achieve the true happiness. This study made an attempt to identify some possible determinants to explain the happiness of university professors in higher education institutions in the city of Passo Fundo/RS. Data were collected through questionnaires and analyzed using multiple regression models in seven different groups, classified into happiness by sex; happiness by marital status; happiness by age; happiness and money; happiness, sports and health; happiness, friendship, love relationships and sex life; and happiness, creativity and organization. The results show that money is not one of the major constraints to achieve happiness in this analysis group, that love relationships significantly increase the happiness of this study group, once sexual relationships don’t represent happiness increasing. It was also found that emotional / mental health of the participants has significance to turn them happier as creative tasks and planning actions to the future to reach the dreams and goals demonstrate to increase the happiness of this sample of university teachers.

  2. Electrocardiographic Indices in Clinically Healthy Iranian Najdi Goats in Different Ages: A Reference Study

    Aliasghar CHALMEH


    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system develops along with growing the animals. Information regarding the alterations of electrocardiographic parameters during aging can provide the basis to evaluate the development of cardiovascular system. Hence, the present study was performed to clarify the effect of aging on electrocardiographic alterations in Iranian Najdi goats. The electrocardiograms were recorded on a bipolar base apex lead from 172 clinically healthy Iranian Najdi does into 9 age groups, including 15-day-old (n=18, 2 (n=18, 6 (n=19, 9-month-old (n=21, 1 (n=20, 2 (n=22, 3 (n=19, 5 (n=18 and 7-year-old (n=17. All electrocardiograms were examined to evaluate normal electrocardiographic parameters and cardiac arrhythmias. Finally changing of the electrocardiographic parameters during aging was statistically determined. P, S and T durations were increased significantly during aging. Furthermore, the significant increases were seen in RR, QT and ST intervals. Sinus tachycardia and sinus arrhythmia were the most common cardiac arrhythmias in studied animals. The proportion of cardiac arrhythmias in under 1-year-old kids was significantly higher than other groups. It may be concluded that aging can affect electrocardiographic parameters in Iranian Najdi goats.

  3. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R


    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Evidencing the association between swimming capacities and performance indicators in water polo: a multiple regression study.

    Kontic, Dean; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Sekulic, Damir; Lesnik, Blaz


    Swimming capacities are hypothesized to be important determinants of water polo performance but there is an evident lack of studies examining different swimming capacities in relation to specific offensive and defensive performance variables in this sport. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between five swimming capacities and six performance determinants in water polo. The sample comprised 79 high-level youth water polo players (all males, 17-18 years of age). The variables included six performance-related variables (agility in offence and defense, efficacy in offence and defense, polyvalence in offence and defense), and five swimming-capacity tests (water polo sprint test [15 m], swimming sprint test [25 m], short-distance [100 m], aerobic endurance [400 m] and an anaerobic lactate endurance test [4× 50 m]). First, multiple regressions were calculated for one-half of the sample of subjects which were then validated with the remaining half of the sample. The 25-m swim was not included in the regression analyses due to the multicollinearity with other predictors. The originally calculated regression models were validated for defensive agility (R=0.67 and R=0.55 for the original regression calculation and validation subsample, respectively) offensive agility (R=0.59 and R=0.61), and offensive efficacy (R=0.64 and R=0.58). Anaerobic lactate endurance is a significant predictor of offensive and defensive agility, while 15 m sprint significantly contributes to offensive efficacy. Swimming capacities are not found to be related to the polyvalence of the players. The most superior offensive performance can be expected from those players with a high level of anaerobic lactate endurance and advanced sprinting capacity, while anaerobic lactate endurance is recognized as most important quality in defensive duties. Future studies should observe players' polyvalence in relation to (theoretical) knowledge of technical and tactical tasks. Results reinforce




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to see the fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with previous cesarean section. METHODS: This study was conducted in the department of OBGYN, BARC Hospital, Mumbai from October 2011 to September 2012, a period of one year. All the pregnant women with previous one cesarean section attending ANC clinic for confinement were included in the study group after giving consent. RESULTS: Out of total75 cases, a total of 23 patients (30.67% were given trial of labor. Out of 23 patients given trial of labor, 12 patients (52.17% had successful VBAC. Commonest indication for unsuccessful trial of labor undergoing repeat cesarean section was non-progress of labor (54.55% and failed IOL (36.67%. Out of 12 patients who had successful VBAC, 3 patients (25% had complication like episiotomy hematoma, perineal tear and cervical tear. No patients had major complications. In present study no baby had apgar score <7 at 1min and 5 min in VBAC group and elective LSCS group. CONCLUSION: The current study concludes that women with a prior cesarean are at increased risk for repeat cesarean section. Vigilance with respect to indication at primary cesarean delivery, proper counseling for trial of labor and proper antepartum and intrapartum monitoring of patients, are key to reducing the cesarean section rates. The antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications are more in repeat cesarean section cases. There is no doubt that a trial of labor is a relatively safe procedure, but it is not risk free. Therefore, patient evaluation prior to TOLAC, careful observation throughout labor in a well-equipped unit with around the clock services for emergency surgery and availability of expertise is the backbone for successful VBAC.

  6. Genetics studies indicate that neural induction and early neuronal maturation are disturbed in autism.

    Emily L. Casanova


    Full Text Available Postmortem neuropathological studies of autism consistently reveal distinctive types of malformations, including cortical dysplasias, heterotopias, and various neuronomorphometric abnormalities. In keeping with these observations, we review here that 88% of high-risk genes for autism influence neural induction and early maturation of the neuroblast. In addition, 80% of these same genes influence later stages of differentiation, including neurite and synapse development, suggesting that these gene products exhibit long-lasting developmental effects on cell development as well as extensive functional redundancy in processes of neural proliferation, growth, and maturation. We also address the putative genetic overlap of autism with conditions like epilepsy and schizophrenia, with implications to shared and divergent etiologies. This review imports the necessity of a frameshift in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental basis of autism to include all stages of neuronal maturation, ranging from neural induction to synaptogenesis.

  7. [The effect of prostatilen on the hemostatic indices in chronic prostatitis (a clinical and experimental study)].

    al-Shukri, S Kh; Petrishchev, N N; Gorbachev, A G; Mikhaĭlova, I A; Bobkov, Iu A; Kuz'min, I V; Borovets, S Iu; Savel'eva, I B; Korokhodkina, M V


    Prostatilen effects on hemostasis were studied in 120 intact and 240 chronic prostatitis rats, 34 patients with chronic prostatitis. Intact rats responded to prostatilen by inhibition of platelet-vascular and coagulation hemostatic mechanisms and activation of fibrinolysis. Experimental chronic prostatitis in rats induced hemostatic shifts to hypercoagulation. These parameters returned to normal after 5- and 10-day course of prostatilen administration. A single prostatilen dose was unable to produce the above action. As to patients with chronic prostatitis, there were also prostatilen-induced platelet-vascular hemostatic normalization and fibrinolysis activation. Hemocoagulation was affected in a less degree. Prostatilen effects were unrelated to the disease stage. Normalization of hemostasis seems to be one of the factors of prostatilen therapeutic efficacy in chronic prostatitis. This peptide is found effective as a pathogenetic treatment of chronic prostatitis.

  8. Study of sequential disinfection for the inactivation of protozoa and indicator microorganisms in wastewater

    Raphael Corrêa Medeiros


    Full Text Available Sewage disinfection has the primary objective of inactivating pathogenic organisms to prevent the dissemination of waterborne diseases. This study analyzed individual disinfection, with chlorine and ultraviolet radiation, and sequential disinfection (chlorine-UV radiation. The tests were conducted with anaerobic effluent in batch, in laboratory scale, with two dosages of chlorine (10 and 20 mg L-1 and UV (2.5 and 6.1 Wh m-3. In addition, to guarantee the presence of cysts in the tests, 104 cysts per liter of Giardia spp. were inoculated. The resistance order was as follows: E. coli = Total Coliforms < Clostridium perfringens < Giardia spp.. Furthermore, synergistic effects reached 0.06 to 1.42 log of inactivation in sequential disinfection for both the most resistant microorganisms.

  9. Younger age as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer: A cohort study

    Dooley Cara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Methods Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. Results The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044 and stage (p = 0.046, a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002; there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477. There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026, invasion (p = 0.026 and histological type (p = 0.027, PR (p = 0.031 and HER2 (p = 0.002 status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Conclusion Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population.

  10. Generic substitution of lamotrigine among medicaid patients with diverse indications: a cohort-crossover study.

    Hartung, Daniel M; Middleton, Luke; Svoboda, Leanne; McGregor, Jessina C


    Controversy exists about the safety of substituting generic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Lamotrigine, the prototypical newer AED, is often used for psychiatric and neurological conditions other than epilepsy. The safety of generic substitution of lamotrigine in diverse populations of AED users is unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between generic substitution of lamotrigine and adverse consequences in a population of diverse users of this drug. This study was a retrospective cohort-crossover design using state Medicaid claims data from July 2006 through June 2009. Subjects were included in the cohort if they converted from brand to generic lamotrigine and had 2 years of lamotrigine use prior to conversion. The frequency of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and condition-specific ED visits or hospitalizations were recorded in the 60 days immediately following the conversion to generic lamotrigine, then compared with the incidence of the same events during a randomly selected time period indexed to one of the patient's past refills of branded lamotrigine. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to quantify the association between generic conversion and health services utilization while controlling for changes in lamotrigine dose and concurrent drug use. Of the 616 unique subjects included in this analysis, epilepsy was the most common diagnosis (41%), followed by bipolar disorder (32%), pain (30%) and migraine (18%). Conversion to generic lamotrigine was not associated with a statistically significant increase in the odds of an ED visit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92, 1.97), hospitalization (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 0.60, 2.50) or condition-specific encounter (AOR 1.75; 95 CI 0.87, 3.51). A statistically significant increase in ED visits, hospitalizations or condition-specific encounters was not observed following the switch from brand to generic lamotrigine

  11. Sedimentary Sulphur:Iron Ratio Indicates Vivianite Occurrence: A Study from Two Contrasting Freshwater Systems.

    Matthias Rothe

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies constrain the importance of iron for the long-term retention of phosphorus (P under anoxic conditions, i.e. the formation of reduced iron phosphate minerals such as vivianite (Fe3(PO42⋅8H2O. Much remains unknown about vivianite formation, the factors controlling its occurrence, and its relevance for P burial during early sediment diagenesis. To study the occurrence of vivianite and to assess its relevance for P binding, surface sediments of two hydrologically contrasting waters were analysed by heavy-liquid separation and subsequent powder X-ray diffraction. In Lake Arendsee, vivianite was present in deeper sediment horizons and not in the uppermost layers with a sharp transition between vivianite and non-vivianite bearing layers. In contrast, in lowland river Lower Havel vivianite was present in the upper sediment layers and not in deeper horizons with a gradual transition between non-vivianite and vivianite bearing layers. In both waters, vivianite occurrence was accompanied by the presence of pyrite (FeS2. Vivianite formation was favoured by an elevated iron availability through a lower degree of sulphidisation and was present at a molar ratio of total sulphur to reactive iron smaller than 1.1, only. A longer lasting burden of sediments by organic matter, i.e. due to eutrophication, favours the release of sulphides, and the formation of insoluble iron sulphides leading to a lack of available iron and to less or no vivianite formation. This weakening in sedimentary P retention, representing a negative feedback mechanism (P release in terms of water quality, could be partly compensated by harmless Fe amendments.

  12. Changes in Skin Surface Temperature during Muscular Endurance indicated Strain – An Explorative Study

    Michael Fröhlich


    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-contact thermography enables the diagnosis of the distribution of skin surface temperature during athletic movement. Resistance exercise results in stress of required musculature, which is supposed to be measurable thermographically in terms of skin surface temperature change. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the application of thermography to analyze changes in skin temperature, representing specific muscle groups, during and after resistance exercise. Method: Thirteen male participants (age: 27.1 ± 4.9 years, height: 181.5 ± 5.7 cm, mass: 74.8 ± 7.4 kg completed the study. On 5 separate visits to the laboratory, participants performed one of 5 resistance exercise to target specific muscles (M. pectoralis major, M. rectus abdominis, M. trapezius, M. erector spinae, M. quadriceps femoris. The exercise protocol consisted of 3 sets of 20 repetitions, with 1 minute rest between exercise sets. The average skin surface temperature above the muscle groups used was thermographically determined using standard methods at 7 time points; pre-exercise, immediately following each exercise set, and post exercise (2, 3, and 6 minutes after the finale exercise set. The measurement areas were standardized using anatomic reference points. Results: From an inferential statistical point of view, no significant change in the average temperature caused by the applied resistance training was found for the individual muscle groups over time at the individual measurement times (all P>0.08. However, thermography showed a characteristic chronological temperature curve for the five body areas between measurement times, as well as a distinctive spatial temperature distribution over the measurement areas. Discussion: Based on the thermographic image data and the characteristic temperature curve, it is possible to identify the primarily used functional musculature after device-controlled resistance training. Therefore, thermography seems to be

  13. Younger age as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer: A cohort study

    Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A.H.


    Abstract Background The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Methods Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. Results The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Conclusion Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population.

  14. Deriving persistence indicators from regulatory water-sediment studies – opportunities and limitations in OECD 308 data.

    Honti, Mark; Fenner, Kathrin


    The OECD guideline 308 describes a laboratory test method to assess aerobic and anaerobic transformation of organic chemicals in aquatic sediment systems and is an integral part of tiered testing strategies in different legislative frameworks for the environmental risk assessment of chemicals. The results from experiments carried out according to OECD 308 are generally used to derive persistence indicators for hazard assessment or half-lives for exposure assessment. We used Bayesian parameter estimation and system representations of various complexities to systematically assess opportunities and limitations for estimating these indicators from existing data generated according to OECD 308 for 23 pesticides and pharmaceuticals. We found that there is a disparity between the uncertainty and the conceptual robustness of persistence indicators. Disappearance half-lives are directly extractable with limited uncertainty, but they lump degradation and phase transfer information and are not robust against changes in system geometry. Transformation half-lives are less system-specific but require inverse modeling to extract, resulting in considerable uncertainty. Available data were thus insufficient to derive indicators that had both acceptable robustness and uncertainty, which further supports previously voiced concerns about the usability and efficiency of these costly experiments. Despite the limitations of existing data, we suggest the time until 50% of the parent compound has been transformed in the entire system (DegT(50,system)) could still be a useful indicator of persistence in the upper, partially aerobic sediment layer in the context of PBT assessment. This should, however, be accompanied by a mandatory reporting or full standardization of the geometry of the experimental system. We recommend transformation half-lives determined by inverse modeling to be used as input parameters into fate models for exposure assessment, if due consideration is given to their

  15. Developing Comparative Bibliometric Indicators for Evaluating the Research Performance of Four Academic Nutrition Departments, 1992-1996: An Exploratory Study.

    Ackermann, Eric George

    This study develops a set of empirically and theoretically sound citation-based bibliometric indicators of scientific research performance and applies them in an exploratory comparative study of the University of Tennessee-Knoxville's (UTK's) Nutrition Department with three of its peer programs at the University of Florida, the University of…

  16. Caffeine as an indicator of human fecal contamination in the Sinos River: a preliminary study

    R Linden

    Full Text Available The preservation of hydric resources is directly related to fecal contamination monitoring, in order to allow the development of strategies for the management of polluting sources. In the present study, twenty-five water samples from six water public supply collection sites were used for the evaluation of the presence of caffeine, total and fecal coliforms. Caffeine was detected in all samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.15 ng mL–1 to 16.72 ng mL–1. Total coliforms were detected in all samples, with concentrations in the range of 52 NMP/100 mL to higher than 24196 NMP/100 mL, whether the concentration range for fecal coliforms was in the range of below 1 NMP/100 mL to 7800 NMP/100 mL. No significant correlation was found between total coliforms and caffeine concentrations (rs = 0.35, p = 0.09. However, a moderate correlation between fecal coliforms and caffeine concentrations was found (rs = 0.412, p

  17. Seroepidemiological studies indicate frequent and repeated exposure to Campylobacter spp. during childhood.

    Ang, C W; Teunis, P F M; Herbrink, P; Keijser, J; Van Duynhoven, Y H T P; Visser, C E; Van Pelt, W


    The annual number of episodes of clinical gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter spp. in The Netherlands is estimated to be 75 000, i.e. once per 200 person life-years. This number is based on extrapolation of culture results from population-based studies. The number of culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection peaks in the first 3 years of life and again between the ages of 20 and 25 years. The seroepidemiology of Campylobacter describes the relationship between age and exposure to Campylobacter and reflects both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Using a validated ELISA system, antibodies to Campylobacter were measured in an age-stratified sample (n=456) of the PIENTER serum collection of the Dutch general population. The seroprevalence of Campylobacter IgG antibodies increased with age, reaching almost 100% at age 20 years. Antibody levels steadily increased with age until young adulthood, suggesting repeated exposure to Campylobacter. In conclusion, seroepidemiological data demonstrated repeated exposures to Campylobacter throughout life, most of which do not lead to clinical symptoms. From young adulthood, >95% of the population in The Netherlands had serological evidence for exposure to Campylobacter.

  18. Liver hydatidosis: reasoned indications of surgical treatment. Comparison between conservative and radical techniques Retrospective study.

    Salamone, Giuseppe; Tutino, Roberta; Atzeni, Jenny; Licari, Leo; Falco, Nicola; Orlando, Giuseppina; Gulotta, Gaspare


    Liver hydatidosis is a focal benign parasitic disease that still cause high rate of morbidity particularly in the Mediterranean area. A retrospective study comparing conservative and radical techniques in a General and Urgent Surgery operative unit was carried out in order to find signs of its surgical treatment. A total of 50 patients, 24 men and 26 women, who experienced a surgical treatment from 2000 to 2011, participated, and through the Fisher's Exact Test characteristics of the cysts, post-operative complications and relapse were compared. As a result, 29 patients undertook conservative surgery, while 21 radical surgery. There was a relationship between characteristics of the cysts and the technique chosen, (pcase (p<0.14). In conclusion, in a non hepato-bilio-pancreatic center a radical surgery including liver resection is suggested for left lobe's cysts, while a conservative technique tends to be more effective for right lobe's cysts mainly if complex. Consequently, patients with complicated presentation could explain why conservative treatment causes higher rate of morbidity.

  19. Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Indications from a qualitative study.

    Dieudonné, Maël


    Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) is a condition in which symptoms are attributed to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. As electro-hypersensitive (EHS) people have repeatedly been observed, during provocation trials, to report symptoms following perceived rather than actual exposure, the hypothesis has been put forward that IEI-EMF originates from psychological mechanisms, especially nocebo responses. This paper examines this hypothesis, using data from a qualitative study aimed at understanding how EHS people come to regard themselves as such. Forty self-diagnosed EHS people were interviewed. A typified model of their attribution process was then elaborated, inductively, from their narratives. This model is linear and composed of seven stages: (1) onset of symptoms; (2) failure to find a solution; (3) discovery of EHS; (4) gathering of information about EHS; (5) implicit appearance of conviction; (6) experimentation; (7) conscious acceptance of conviction. Overall, symptoms appear before subjects start questioning effects of EMF on their health, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that IEI-EMF originates from nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure. However, such responses might occur at the sixth stage of the process, potentially reinforcing the attribution. It remains possible that some cases of IEI-EMF originate from other psychological mechanisms.

  20. The study of indicators of the economic growth at the level of romanian economy

    Stelian Stancu


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study the aspects of economic growth - as development support for a country, and to present the causes which generate the cycles in the evolution of the economic growth rhythm. The theoretical analysis is supported with examples of the classic models, the data thereof being offered by the National Bank of Romania, the National Commission of Statistics, Reports of international structures concerning Romania, i.e.Furthermore, there is an analysis of the monetary mass depending on the GDP and the interest rate as well as a description of the monetary policy the National Bank of Romania has chosen to pursue.The new monetary policy the National Bank has adopted aims directly at inflation which implies the recognition of the importance of the inflationist phenomenon in modern economies and, implicitly, that the most efficient way for the monetary policy to sustain the general desire of a long-term economic growth is to secure price stability.

  1. Designing a socio-spatial need indicator for urban social services analysis and decision making. A case study

    Antonio Morenos Jiménez


    Full Text Available Decision taking on social services requires, as a previous step, to appraise the human needs and their spatial distribution, a key issue particularly sensitive in less developed zones or during economic crisis periods, as far as socio-spatial cohesion is then strongly challenged. Vari-ous methods have been used for measuring social needs, provided that these are diverse in nature and sometimes elusive. Incorporating the spatial dimension in this task involves an additional challenge, but the results add meaningful value for socio-spatial planning. Along this concern, in this work it is tackled the problema of estimating the needs typically met by local social service centers (SSC. To this end, it is designed a novel statistical indicator for intra-urban zones, incorporating in the formula the main components of the actual observed de-mand as well as the per capita income, to take into account the relevant spatial equity principle. Using a geographical information systems (GIS, the indicator for estimating SSC need has been experimentally obtained for two types of spatial units in the city of Madrid: municipal districts and small statistical areas, looking for complementary applied uses. The results reveal the intra-urban inequalities for these types of needs and may support public decision making on spatial provision and location of this kind of social resources. In addition, a preliminary and statistically based exam of the indicator potentialities and limitations is carried out for both types of spatial units.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of recurrence risk guided care versus care as usual in women who suffered from early-onset preeclampsia including HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy (the PreCare study

    de Wit-Zuurendonk Laura D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome may have serious consequences for both mother and fetus. Women who have suffered from preeclampsia or the HELLP syndrome, have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy. However, most women will develop no or only minor complications. In this study, we intend to determine cost-effectiveness of recurrence risk guided care versus care as usual in pregnant women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia. Methods/design We developed a prediction model to estimate the individual risk of recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome. In a before-after study, pregnant women with preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy receiving care as usual (before introduction of the prediction model will be compared with women receiving recurrence risk guided care (after introduction of the prediction model. Eligible and pregnant women will be recruited at six university hospitals and seven large non-university tertiary referral hospitals in the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure is the recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in women allocated to the regular monitoring group. For the economic evaluation, a modelling approach will be used. Costs and effects of recurrence risk guided care with those of care as usual will be compared by means of a decision model. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated: 1 cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (mother unit of analysis and 2 cost per live born child (child unit of analysis. Discussion This is, to our knowledge, the first study that evaluates prospectively the efficacy of a multivariable prediction rule for recurrent hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Results of this study could either be integrated into the current guideline on Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy, or be used to develop a new guideline.

  3. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen


    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  4. Stress Degradation Studies of Tebipenem and a Validated Stability-Indicating LC Method.

    Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta; Zalewski, Przemysław; Barszcz, Bolesław; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Paczkowska, Magdalena


    A inexpensive and rapid isocratic LC method has been developed for the quantitative determination of tebipenem-a new β-lactam antibiotic. Stress degradation studies were performed on tebipenem in acidic (0.2 N hydrochloric acid) and basic (0.02 N sodium hydroxide) solutions, in a solution with oxidizing agent (3 % hydrogen peroxide), and in the solid state, during thermolysis and photolysis. For a chromatographic separation of tebipenem and its degradation products, a C-18 stationary phase and 12 mM ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (96:4 v/v) were used. A quantitative determination of tebipenem was carried out by using a PDA detector at 298 nm, with a flow rate of 1.2 mL min(-1). The linear regression analysis for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship (r = 0.999) in the concentration range 0.041-0.240 mg mL(-1). The method demonstrated good precision (1.14-1.96 % RSD) and recovery (99.60-101.90 %). The limits of detection and quantitation were 9.69 and 29.36 μg mL(-1), respectively. The analysis of tebipenem reactivity was supported by quantum chemical calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). The analysis of the electron density of the HOMO and LUMO of tebipenem suggested the possibility of electron transport in the molecule during the degradation of bi-cyclic 4:5 fused penem rings.

  5. Studies on prevalence, risk indicators and control options for tick infestation in ruminants

    Nady M. Asmaa


    Full Text Available An epidemiological study was conducted at Benisuef district to determine the current situation and associated determinants of tick infestations in ruminants and to assess the efficacy of three different types of insecticides against tick infestation under field conditions. Total of (1082 animals of different species (540 cattle, 230 buffaloes, 108 of each sheep & goats and 96 camels were selected randomly and examined carefully for tick infestation. About (30.1% of total observed animals were found tick infested with highest rate in cattle (60.5% followed by goats (25.9%, buffaloes (17.8%, sheep (14.8% while no tick infestation recorded in camels. The most prevalent tick's species affecting ruminants was Boophilus annulatus (26.5% followed by Hyalomma anatolicum (6.1% then Rhipicephalus turanicus (3.4%. Regarding the associated risk factors, tick infestation was found statistically significant (P 3 years (78.8% followed by at age, ≤2 months (57.8% and during summer months were found highly significant (P < 0.01 in cattle ( 76.5% followed by goats and sheep (33.3% & 22.9% resp., comparing with results in winter. The preferred sites of ticks' attachment to infested animals were udders and external genitalia (70.7% of each then Neck & chest (63.0% of each, inner thighs (61.1%, perineum (41.7%, ears (14.6%, around eyes (11.7%. The obtained results revealed that poor husbandry practices of small holder farmers be a determinant making the animals more prone to tick infestation in this district. Improving the hygienic conditions associated with treatment of infested cattle with Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.wt, S/C and spraying of Deltamethrin (1% for surrounding environment twice every 14 days are recommended for control of tick infestation under field condition.

  6. Nipple eczema, an indicative manifestation of atopic dermatitis? A clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical study.

    Song, Hyo Sang; Jung, Soo-Eun; Kim, You Chan; Lee, Eun-So


    Nipple eczema exhibits as a minor manifestation of atopic dermatitis (AD) or occurs as a single skin symptom on the nipple. To characterize the relationship between nipple eczema and AD, a clinical evaluation and an immunohistochemical study were performed. All cases of nipple eczema were confirmed histopathologically. We divided the patients with nipple eczema into 2 groups, namely, those with AD and those without AD, and compared several clinical features. Upon histological examination, the degree of inflammation was subjectively graded as mild, moderate, or severe by 2 separate investigators. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed by using antiinterleukin (IL)-4, anti-IL-13, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 antibodies, and the results were scored semiquantitatively. In 43 cases evaluated, 12 were nipple eczema with AD. The clinical analysis and histological examination showed no significant differences between the groups. There were consistent findings of IL-4 expressions throughout the epidermis and IL-13 expression mainly in the perivascular area of the dermis. Although CD4 and CD8 were expressed in the cells in the dermis, CD8 expression was detected in the serocrusts of the epidermis. Expression levels of IL-4, IL-13, CD4, and CD8 exhibited no significant differences between the nipple eczema group with AD and the nipple eczema group without AD. Although nipple eczema may accompany AD, we found no definite differences in the degree or pattern of inflammation and cytokine expression level regardless of whether AD was present or not. Serocrust formation seemed to be mainly a collection of CD8-positive cells.

  7. Target for improvement: a cluster randomised trial of public involvement in quality-indicator prioritisation (intervention development and study protocol

    Burgers Jako


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public priorities for improvement often differ from those of clinicians and managers. Public involvement has been proposed as a way to bridge the gap between professional and public clinical care priorities but has not been studied in the context of quality-indicator choice. Our objective is to assess the feasibility and impact of public involvement on quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities. Methods We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial comparing quality-indicator prioritisation with and without public involvement. In preparation for the trial, we developed a 'menu' of quality indicators, based on a systematic review of existing validated indicator sets. Participants (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will be recruited from six participating sites. In intervention sites, public representatives will be involved through direct participation (public representatives, clinicians, and managers will deliberate together to agree on quality-indicator choice and use and consultation (individual public recommendations for improvement will be collected and presented to decision makers. In control sites, only clinicians and managers will take part in the prioritisation process. Data on quality-indicator choice and intended use will be collected. Our primary outcome will compare quality-indicator choice and agreement with public priorities between intervention and control groups. A process evaluation based on direct observation, videorecording, and participants' assessment will be conducted to help explain the study's results. The marginal cost of public involvement will also be assessed. Discussion We identified 801 quality indicators that met our inclusion criteria. An expert panel agreed on a final set of 37 items containing validated quality indicators relevant for chronic disease prevention and management in primary care. We pilot tested our public-involvement intervention with 27

  8. A comparative immunohistochemical study of aplastic thymuses for lymphocytic, epithelial, proliferative and apoptotic indices

    Mahjoub F.


    Full Text Available Background: Immune deficiency is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Primary immunodeficiency comprises a wide range of disorders that mainly manifest in early childhood as devastating infections with opportunistic organisms. Thymic aplasia is found on autopsy of some patients afflicted with immune deficiency disorders, such as DiGeorge syndrome and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. After a thorough search of the literature, we found little information on the cellular characteristics of these thymuses. Our study aims to elucidate role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of thymic aplasia and compare various lymphocytic and epithelial markers in normal and aplastic thymuses. Methods: We selected 12 subjects who died of severe infections with aplastic thymus found on autopsy, and 11 control subjects who died of unrelated causes, such as congenital heart disease. The presence of several markers, including Bcl2, P53, lymphocytic markers, and CD68, was examined using immunohistochemical methods on paraffin-embedded thymus sections. Positively-stained cells were counted per 1000 cells and the results stated as percentage of positive cells.                        Results: The mean age of the control group was between 7 days to 18 months (mean: 4.5 months. Parental consanguinity was present in 45.5% and 9.1% of the control and case groups, respectively; however, this was not statistically significant. We found significantly lower expression of Bcl2 in the case group (p value: 0.038. Furthermore, expression of CD68 was significantly higher in the case group. Epithelial markers were significantly higher in case subjects, although CD8 expression was higher in the control group. The presence of other markers was not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusions: Increase in apoptosis has a role in aplastic thymuses and prevention of apoptosis may halt this process. Also high CD68

  9. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    Paddy K C Janssen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE. METHODS: Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE. Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs reported in the recently published meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%, SL(-2.3%, SS(0.6%. In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%, SL(-18.5% and SS(21.8% with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. CONCLUSIONS: In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  10. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R


    Background: Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Aims: Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Methods: Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Results: Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). Conclusion: There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and

  11. Waste indicators

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)


    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  12. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: the Brighouse Bay study, Scotland.

    Kay, D; Aitken, M; Crowther, J; Dickson, I; Edwards, A C; Francis, C; Hopkins, M; Jeffrey, W; Kay, C; McDonald, A T; McDonald, D; Stapleton, C M; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J; Wyer, M D


    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission.

  13. Dynamic of girl students’ psycho-physiological indicators in process of their study at pedagogical higher educational establishment

    Kolumbet A.N.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to study dynamic of psycho-physiological indicators of pedagogic higher educational establishments’ girl students. Material: in the research 510 girl students participated. We assessed: responsive abilities, static and dynamic balance, orientation in space, quickness of operational thinking, volume of rote memorization, distribution of attention, accuracy level, quickness and re-switching of attention, accuracy of fulfillment of task. Results: we have found weakening of accuracy of movement’s amplitude and pre-set value of force reproduction; reduction of indicators of response to vertically falling object, static and dynamic balance. We also registered improvement of indicators of nervous processes’ dynamic and ability to constructive praxis. Conclusions: uneven reduction of most of psycho-physiological indicators negatively reflects in girl students’ motor fitness level and professional abilities.

  14. Daily extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on rice yield—A case study over the tropical island in China

    Li, Mao-Fen; Luo, Wei; Li, Hailiang; Liu, Enping; Li, Yuping


    Frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation events have significant impacts on agricultural production. Tropical agriculture has been playing an important role in national economy in China. A precise understanding of variability in extreme precipitation indices and their impacts on crop yields are of great value for farmers and policy makers at county level, particularly in tropical China where almost all agriculture is rainfed. This research has studied observed trends in extreme precipitation indices (a total of 10) during 1988-2013 over Hainan island, tropical China. Mann-Kendall nonparametric test was adopted for trend detection and the results showed that most of precipitation indices showed increasing trend. Since rice is the most important staple food in Hainan island, the impacts of extreme precipitation indices on rice yields were also analyzed through simple correlations. In general, the rainy days and rain intensity in late rice growing season showed increasing trend over Hainan island. The rice yield presented ninth-degree polynomial technological trend at all stations and increasing trend for early rice yield. Late rice yield showed a decreasing trend in some parts of Hainan island. Spearman rank correlation coefficient indicated that the correlation was more pronounced between extreme precipitation indices and yields at Haikou site for early rice, and Haikou, Sanya, and Qionghai stations for late rice, respectively. Further results also indicated that there were statistically significant positive trends of R10 and R20 (number of days with precipitation ≥10 mm and precipitation ≥20 mm, respectively) from July to November at Haikou (located in north of Hainan island), and this positive trend may be a disadvantage for late rice yield. The cut-off value of extreme precipitation indices and its correlation with rice yield anomaly indices for Hainan island provided a foundation for vulnerability assessment as well as a contribution to set up

  15. 机采血小板检测前过程质量控制的研究%A study on quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection

    杨图深; 朱业华; 陈亦明


    目的:探讨机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制。方法留取机采单份血小板、机采双份血小板样本各100份,以1∶1、1∶3及1∶7稀释度进行稀释,采用全自动血液细胞计数仪检测血小板计数。另采集机采血小板样本100份,室温下静置0、30、60、90、120 min ,以1∶3稀释后,检测其血小板计数。结果机采单份或双份血小板样本以1∶1与1∶3稀释后检测血小板计数的差异及1∶3与1∶7稀释后检测的差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。静置0、30 min检测的血小板计数与静置60、90、120 min的检测值的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制对采集后的血小板计数十分重要。%Objective To study the quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection .Methods Single and double apheresis platelets each of 100 samples were collected and were diluted 1∶1 ,1∶3 and 1∶7 .Aautomatic Blood Cell Count-er was employed to detect the platelet count .Another 100 samples of apheresis platelets were collected and stand at room tempera-ture for 0 ,30 ,60 ,90 ,120 min ,After 1∶3 dilution ,the platelet counts were detected .Results Differences of platelet counts be-tween 1∶1 and 1∶3 dilution ,1∶3 and 1∶7 dilution of single or double apheresis platelets showed statistically significant differ-ences(P<0 .05) .Differences of platelet counts between standing for 0 ,30 min and standing for 60 ,90 ,120 min were found statis-tically significant(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection is very important for platelet count after collection .

  16. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk


    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest b