Sample records for previous studies comparisons

  1. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail:; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza


    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  2. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L


    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  3. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail:; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)


    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  4. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange


    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  5. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  6. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Malahiyo Rajabu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  7. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.


    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  8. Performance of the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica: comparison with the previous criteria in a single-centre study.

    Macchioni, Pierluigi; Boiardi, Luigi; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Pazzola, Giulia; Salvarani, Carlo


    To compare the performance of published classification/diagnostic criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), including the new 2012 European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, in a single-centre study. We studied all consecutive patients with new-onset PMR seen in our centre over 6 years, whose diagnosis was confirmed during a prospective 12-month follow-up period. Subjects were classified by each of the seven different criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were compared. Control population consisted of all consecutive patients aged ≥50 years seen in a 4-year period in our early arthritis clinic who had a 12-month confirmation of a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or other inflammatory articular diseases. Data were collected from 136 cases and 149 controls, including 94 patients with RA. The most sensitive criteria were the new 2012 EULAR/ACR classification criteria (92.6%). Adding ultrasound (US) specificity increased from 81.5% to 91.3% in total cases and from 79.7% to 89.9% in RA. Bird criteria had a sensitivity of 89.2% but the lowest specificity (40.2% in total cases and 72.5% in RA). Jones and Nobunaga criteria were the most specific criteria (96.7% and 97.8% in total cases and 98.6% and 99.5% in RA) but the less sensitive (63.1% and 58.2%) ones. Overall, discriminatory ability, as reflected by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was better for the 2012 US EULAR/ACR criteria (0.920 in total cases and 0.910 in RA). The new EULAR/ACR criteria in new-onset PMR patients perform best in discriminating PMR from RA and other inflammatory articular diseases. Ultrasound further increases the specificity of the criteria.

  9. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    Ratib Osman


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT radiation therapy (RT for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Methods Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV was defined on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (DMax of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, DMax was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal DMedian was 90 parameters. Results Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV was improved with RA (V95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%, when compared to IMRT (V95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%. The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V95% 88.9 ± 10.5% and better for the PTV (V95%85.6 ± 5.0%. The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3% and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%, when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%. CI90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm3 *105 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. Conclusion RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk.

  10. A comparison between previous and present histologic assessments of chronic hepatitis C viral infections in humans


    AIM To compare the previously employed classification of liver histology (minimal, chronic persistent hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis) with a new classification recently described by Sheuer et al (activity grade and fibrosis stage) in percutaneous liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infections.METHODS Liver biopsies from 79 untreated patients were reviewed. Anti-HCV testing had been performed by ELISA and confirmed by a recombinant immunoblot assay. With respect to the new classification, all the specimens were evaluated using the Knodell score for activity.RESULTS A good correlation was revealed between the previous and more recent histologic classifications in patients with abnormal liver enzyme tests. However, in 13/ 15 (87%) of patients with normal aminotransferase values, changes were consistent with chronic persistent hepatitis whereas normal activity and no fibrosis were demonstrated by the Sheuer classification.CONCLUSION The old classification is more often misleading but correlates well with the new classification and thereby permits comparisons between historically clinical studies.

  11. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne


    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  12. Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry Part II: overview of the results at the CENICA supersite and comparison to previous studies

    Salcedo, D.; Dzepina, K.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Jimenez, J. L.


    An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study from 31 March-4 May 2003. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 µm (NR-PM1) with high time and size-resolution. Measurements of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer, and estimated soil concentrations from Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of impactor substrates are also presented and combined with the AMS in order to include refractory material and estimate the total PM2.5 mass concentration at CENICA during this campaign. In Mexico City, the organic fraction of the estimated PM2.5 at CENICA represents 54.6% of the mass, with the rest consisting of inorganic compounds (mainly ammonium nitrate and sulfate/ammonium salts), BC, and soil. Inorganic compounds represent 27.5% of PM2.5; BC mass concentration is about 11%; while soil represents about 6.9%. The NR species and BC have diurnal cycles that can be qualitatively interpreted as the interplay of direct emissions, photochemical production in the atmosphere followed by condensation and gas-to-particle partitioning, boundary layer dynamics, and/or advection. Bi- and trimodal size distributions are observed for the AMS species, with a small combustion (likely traffic) organic particle mode and an accumulation mode that contains mainly organic and secondary inorganic compounds. The AMS and BC mass concentrations, size distributions, and diurnal cycles are found to be qualitatively similar to those from most previous field measurements in Mexico City.

  13. Study of cystic artery by arteriography. Importance of previous cholecystography

    Machado, G.O.

    An oral cholecystography previously to celiac and mesenteric arteriography is performed, in order to identify the cystic artery, in 42 patients with pancreatitis, according Seldinger technique. The cystic artery was identified in all the cases, the pattern being the outlet of the cystic artery from the right hepatic artery. Infusion pump and seriography were not used.

  14. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed


    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the



    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline




    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  17. Comparison of Reduced Displacement Potentials from Spe Free Field Measurements: SPE-4PRIME Versus Previous Events

    Patton, H. J.; Rougier, E.


    Since 2010, the U. S. Department of Energy has funded a series of chemical tests at the National Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) in Climax Stock granite as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the generation and propagation of seismic energy from underground explosions in hard rock media. To date, four tests have been conducted in the same borehole with yields of 100, 1000, 900 and 100 kg at different depths of burials. The nominal scaled depths of burial are 938, 363, 376 and 1556 m/kt1/3 compared to standard containment practices of ~120 m/kt1/3. A quite dense array of free field accelerometers were installed around the borehole, both on and off shot depth. Acceleration data were corrected for shock-generated baseline-shifts, and free field ground velocity waveforms were obtained. This work concentrates on the qualitative analysis of the reduced displacement potentials and the explosion source spectra for the last shot of the series (SPE-4Prime) and the comparison of the obtained results against the previous events. Finally, the results obtained from the experimental data are compared to the Mueller-Murphy empirical explosion model both using the Heard and Ackerman and Denny and Johnson cavity radius scaling laws.

  18. Comparison between Conventional Blind Embryo Transfer and Embryo Transfer Based on Previously Measured Uterine Length

    Nasrin Saharkhiz


    Full Text Available Background: Embryo transfer (ET is one of the most important steps in assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles and affected by many factors namely the depth of embryo deposition in uterus. In this study, the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles after blind embryo transfer and embryo transfer based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal ultrasound were compared. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomised clinical trial included one hundred and forty non-donor fresh embryo transfers during January 2010 to June 2011. In group I, ET was performed using conventional (blind method at 5-6cm from the external os, and in group II, ET was done at a depth of 1-1.5 cm from the uterine fundus based on previously measured uterine length using vaginal sonography. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t test and Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. The software that we used was PASW statistics version 18. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Chemical pregnancy rate was 28.7% in group I and 42.1% in group II, while the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.105. Clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates for group I were 21.2%, 17.7%, and 12.8%, while for group II were 33.9%, 33.9%, and 22.1, respectively. In group I and group II, abortion rates were 34.7% and 0%, respectively, indicating a statistically significant difference (p<0.005. No ectopic pregnancy occurred in two groups. Conclusion: The use of uterine length measurement during treatment cycle in order to place embryos at depth of 1-1.5cm from fundus significantly increases clinical and ongoing pregnancy and implantation rates, while leads to a decrease in abortion rate (Registration Number: IRCT2014032512494N1.

  19. Priming in word stem completion tasks: comparison with previous results in word fragment completion tasks.

    Soler, María J; Dasí, Carmen; Ruiz, Juan C


    This study investigates priming in an implicit word stem completion (WSC) task by analyzing the effect of linguistic stimuli characteristics on said task. A total of 305 participants performed a WSC task in two phases (study and test). The test phase included 63 unique-solution stems and 63 multiple-solution stems. Analysis revealed that priming (mean = 0.22) was stronger in the case of multiple-solution stems, indicating that they were not a homogeneous group of stimuli. Thus, further analyses were performed only for the data of the unique-solution stems. Correlations between priming and familiarity, frequency of use, and baseline completion were significant. The less familiar words, which were less frequent, had higher priming values. At the same time, the stems with lower baseline completion generated more priming. A regression analysis showed that baseline completion was the only significant predictor of priming, suggesting that the previous processing of the stimuli had a greater impact on the stimuli with low baseline performance. At the same time, baseline completion showed significant positive correlations with familiarity and frequency of use, and a negative correlation with length. When baseline completion was the dependent variable in the regression analysis, the significant variables in the regression were familiarity and length. These results were compared with those obtained in a study using word fragment completion (WFC) by Soler et al. (2009), in which the same words and procedure were employed. Analysis showed that the variables that correlated with priming were the same as in the WSC task, and that completion baseline was the variable that showed the greatest predictive power of priming. This coincidence of results obtained with WFC and WSC tasks highlights the importance of controlling the characteristics of the stimuli used when exploring the nature of priming.

  20. Photon splitting in a strong magnetic field recalculation and comparison with previous calculations

    Adler, Stephen Louis; Adler, Stephen L; Schubert, Christian


    We recalculate the amplitude for photon splitting in a strong magnetic field below the pair production threshold, using the worldline path integral variant of the Bern--Kosower formalism. Numerical comparison (using programs that we have made available for public access on the Internet) shows that the results of the recalculation are identical to the earlier calculations of Adler and later of Stoneham, and to the recent recalculation by Baier, Milstein, and Shaisultanov.

  1. Ionospheric measurements during the CRISTA/MAHRSI campaign: their implications and comparison with previous campaigns

    J. Laštovicka

    Full Text Available The CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment on board a space shuttle was accompanied by a broad campaign of rocket, balloon and ground-based measurements. Supporting lower ionospheric ground-based measurements were run in Europe and Eastern Asia between 1 October-30 November, 1994. Results of comparisons with long ionospheric data series together with short-term comparisons inside the interval October-November, 1994, showed that the upper middle atmosphere 
    (h = 80-100 km at middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the interval of the CRISTA/MAHRSI experiment (4-12 November, 1994 was very close to its expected climatological state. In other words, the average results of the experiment can be used as climatological data, at least for the given area/altitudes. The role of solar/geomagnetic and "meteorological" control of the lower ionosphere is investigated and compared with the results of MAP/WINE, MAC/SINE and DYANA campaigns. The effects of both solar/geomagnetic and global meteorological factors on the lower ionosphere are found to be weak during autumn 1994 compared to those in MAP/WINE and DYANA winters, and they are even slightly weaker than those in MAP/SINE summer. The comparison of the four campaigns suggests the following overall pattern: in winter the lower ionosphere at northern middle latitudes appears to be fairly well "meteorologically" controlled with a very weak solar influence. In summer, solar influence is somewhat stronger and dominates the weak "meteorological" influence, but the overall solar/meteorological control is weaker than in winter. In autumn we find the weakest overall solar/meteorological control, local effects evidently dominate.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  2. Lead exposure among workers renovating a previously deleaded bridge: comparison of trades, work tasks.

    Johnson, J C; Reynolds, S J; Fuortes, L J; Clarke, W R


    Airborne and surface lead exposures were evaluated for construction trade groups at a previously deleaded bridge renovation site in the midwestern United States. Although all lead-based paint should have been removed, old layers of leaded paint were still present on some sections of the bridge. Ironworkers performing metal torch cutting had the highest exposures (188 microg/m3), followed by workers engaged in clean-up operations and paint removal (p contaminated with lead. Heavy equipment operators with low airborne lead exposure had the highest levels of surface contamination in personal vehicles (3,600 microg/m2). Laborers cleaning structural steel with compressed air and ironworkers exposed to lead fumes from cutting had the highest concentrations of lead dust on clothing (mean 4,766 microg/m2). Handwashing facilities were provided, but were infrequently used. No separate clothes changing facility was available at the site. The potential for "take-home" contamination was high, even though this site was thought to be relatively free of lead. Construction contractors and their workers need to be aware that previous deleading of a site may not preclude exposure to significant amounts of lead.

  3. Total Hip Arthroplasty after Previous Acetabular Osteotomy: Comparison of Three Types of Acetabular Osteotomy.

    Tamaki, Tatsuya; Oinuma, Kazuhiro; Miura, Yoko; Shiratsuchi, Hideaki


    To compare surgical results of total hip arthroplasty (THA) following acetabular osteotomy, operative records of 13 hips following Chiari osteotomy (Chiari group), 22 hips following rotational periacetabular osteotomy (RAO; RAO group), 16 hips following shelf acetabuloplasty (Shelf group), and 2475 hips without previous osteotomy (Control group) were retrospectively reviewed. The operative time was significantly longer in the RAO group than in the Control group. Bulk bone augmentation was required more often in the Chiari and RAO groups than in the Control group. An early migration of the acetabular cup occurred in 2 hips in the RAO group. RAO made conversion to THA more complicated than did the Chiari osteotomy or the shelf acetabuloplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Purification and characterization of hieronymain III. Comparison with other proteases previously isolated from Bromelia hieronymi Mez.

    Bruno, Mariela A; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O; López, Laura M I


    A new proteolytic enzyme, named hieronymain III, has been purified by ion-exchange chromatography from unripe fruits of Bromelia hieronymi Mez. The new peptidase belongs to the cysteine catalytic type, as well as hieronymain I and II, the other two peptidases previously isolated from this species. Hieronymain III showed optimum alkaline pH range (8.6-9.3) and the molecular mass (MALDI-TOF) was 23713 Da. The N-terminal sequence (AVPQSIDWRRYGAVTTSRNQG) exhibited a higher percentage identity with hieronymain II (93%) than with hieronymain I (71%). The three peptidases showed notable differences on synthetic substrates degradation: whereas hieronymain III was the only one able to hidrolyze Z-Arg-Arg-p-nitroanilide, hieronymain I and II could degrade Z-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide; on the other hand, PFLNA was only split by hieronymain I. Finally, the three proteases showed different preferences on N-alpha-CBZ-p-nitrophenyl aminoacid ester substrates. From a biotechnological point of view, cleavage specificity differences are significant enough to use these enzymes as potential tools in that area.

  5. Substance use among medical students in Barcelona (Spain). A comparison with previous surveys.

    Rodriguez, M E; Cami, J


    During the academic year 1983-1984, a survey on drug consumption was conducted among medical students in Barcelona. There was a high proportion of smokers in both sexes. Alcohol consumption was four times higher among men than women; high proof beverages were becoming the most common drinks. Coffee was the caffeine drink consumed by almost the whole population studied. Although cannabis derivatives had been tried at least once by almost all the students, regular consumers were almost non-existent. Amphetamine consumption was restricted to examination periods. The use of opiates, cocaine, hallucinogens, and solvents was rare for the sample. Results from this study are compared with those from similar surveys conducted 5 and 10 years ago.

  6. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.


    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  7. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D


    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  8. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L


    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; pTBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  9. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. Geology orbiter comparison study

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.


    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  11. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali


    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  12. Nonlinear Attitude Filtering: A Comparison Study

    Zamani, M.; Trumpf, J.; Mahony, R.


    This paper contains a concise comparison of a number of nonlinear attitude filtering methods that have attracted attention in the robotics and aviation literature. With the help of previously published surveys and comparison studies, the vast literature on the subject is narrowed down to a small pool of competitive attitude filters. Amongst these filters is a second-order optimal minimum-energy filter recently proposed by the authors. Easily comparable discretized unit quaternion implementati...

  13. Metacognitions and Mindful Attention Awareness in Depression: A Comparison Of Currently Depressed, Previously Depressed and Never Depressed Individuals.

    Solem, Stian; Hagen, Roger; Wang, Catharina E A; Hjemdal, Odin; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin; Halvorsen, Marianne


    The primary aim of the study was to test (1) how metacognition relates to the concept of mindful attention awareness, and (2) whether metacognitions or mindful attention awareness best predicted symptoms of depression. Data was collected from three samples: currently depressed (n = 37), previously depressed (n = 81) and never depressed controls (n = 50). There was a moderate correlation between mindful attention awareness and three of five metacognitive subscales. Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition were significantly correlated with depression severity scores after controlling for anxiety. The depressed group had significantly more dysfunctional metacognitions and less mindful attention awareness than the never depressed group. Negative beliefs about worry and mindful attention awareness were also significantly different in the previously depressed group compared with the never depressed. This suggests that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness can be vulnerability factors for depression. The results also indicated that anxiety symptoms and negative beliefs about worry were the most important factors in predicting depression. In conclusion, the study shows that metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are two related but separate constructs and that metacognitions emerged as the best predictor of depression. These results provide support for the metacognitive model of emotional disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Metacognitions and mindful attention awareness are related but separate constructs Both mindful attention awareness and metacognition are associated with depression Anxiety and negative beliefs about worry (metacognitions) are most important in predicting depression Addressing metacognitions in therapy should be considered in treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Sourcing quality-of-life weights obtained from previous studies: theory and reality in Korea.

    Bae, SeungJin; Bae, Eun Young; Lim, Sang Hee


    The quality-of-life weights obtained in previous studies are frequently used in cost-utility analyses. The purpose of this study is to describe how the values obtained in previous studies are incorporated into the industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI), focusing on the issues discussed in theoretical studies and national guidelines. The industry submissions requesting listing at the Korean NHI from January 2007 until December 2009 were evaluated by two independent researchers at the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). Specifically, we observed the methods that were used to pool, predict joint health state utilities, and retain consistency within submissions in terms of the issues discussed in methodological research papers and recommendations from national guidelines. More than half of the submissions used QALY as an outcome measure, and most of these submissions were sourced from prior studies. Heterogeneous methodologies were frequently used within a submission, with the inconsistent use of upper and lower anchors being prevalent. Assumptions behind measuring joint health state utilities or pooling multiple values for single health states were omitted in all submissions. Most national guidelines were rather vague regarding how to predict joint health states, how to select the best available value, how to maintain consistency within a submission, and how to generalize values obtained from prior studies. Previously-generated values were commonly sourced, but this practice was frequently related to inconsistencies within and among submissions. Attention should be paid to the consistency and transparency of the value, especially if the value is sourced from prior studies.

  15. Vibrations of twisted cantilevered plates - Summary of previous and current studies

    Leissa, A. W.; Macbain, J. C.; Kielb, R. E.


    This work summarizes a comprehensive study made of the free vibrations of twisted, cantilevered plates of rectangular planform. Numerous theoretical and experimental investigations previously made by others have resulted in frequency results which disagree considerably. To clarify the problem a joint industry/government/university research effort was initiated to obtain comprehensive theoretical and experimental results for models having useful ranges of aspect ratios, thickness ratios and twist angles. Theoretical data came from 19 independent computer analyses, including finite element, shell theory and beam theory idealizations. Two independent sets of experimental data were also obtained. The theoretical and experimental results are summarized and compared.

  16. Indirect treatment comparison of dabrafenib plus trametinib versus vemurafenib plus cobimetinib in previously untreated metastatic melanoma patients

    Adil Daud


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer with a high mortality rate and the fastest growing global incidence rate of all malignancies. The introduction of BRAF/MEK inhibitor combinations has yielded significant increases in PFS and OS for melanoma. However, at present, no direct comparisons between different BRAF/MEK combinations have been conducted. In light of this, an indirect treatment comparison was performed between two BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination therapies for metastatic melanoma, dabrafenib plus trametinib and vemurafenib plus cobimetinib, in order to understand the relative efficacy and toxicity profiles of these therapies. Methods A systematic literature search identified two randomized trials as suitable for indirect comparison: the coBRIM trial of vemurafenib plus cobimetinib versus vemurafenib and the COMBI-v trial of dabrafenib plus trametinib versus vemurafenib. The comparison followed the method of Bucher et al. and analyzed both efficacy (overall survival [OS], progression-free survival [PFS], and overall response rate [ORR] and safety outcomes (adverse events [AEs]. Results The indirect comparison revealed similar efficacy outcomes between both therapies, with no statistically significant difference between therapies for OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68 − 1.30, PFS (HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.79 − 1.40, or ORR (risk ratio [RR] 0.90, 95% CI 0.74 − 1.10. Dabrafenib plus trametinib differed significantly from vemurafenib plus cobimetinib with regard to the incidence of treatment-related AE (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87 − 0.97, any AE grade ≥3 (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 − 0.85 or dose interruption/modification (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.60 − 0.99. Several categories of AEs occurred significantly more frequently with vemurafenib plus cobimetinib, while some occurred significantly more frequently with dabrafenib plus trametinib. For severe AEs (grade 3 or


    Alin Sorin NICOLESCU


    Full Text Available In criminal law previous complaint has a double legal valence, material and procedural in nature, constituting a condition for criminal liability, but also a functional condition in cases expressly and limitatively provided by law, a consequence of criminal sanction condition. For certain offenses criminal law determines the initiation of the criminal complaint by the introduction of previous complaint by the injured party, without its absence being a question of removing criminal liability. From the perspective of criminal material law conditioning of the existence of previous complaint ,its lack and withdrawal, are regulated by art. 157 and 158 of the New Penal Code, with significant changes in relation to the old regulation of the institution . In terms of procedural aspect , previous complaint is regulated in art. 295-298 of the New Code of Criminal Procedure. Regarding the withdrawal of the previuos complaint, in the case of offenses for which the initiation of criminal proceedings is subject to the existence of such a complaint, we note that in the current Criminal Code this legal institution is regulated separately, representing both a cause for removal of criminal liability and a cause that preclude criminal action. This unilateral act of the will of the injured party - the withdrawal of the previous complaint, may be exercised only under certain conditions, namely: it can only be promoted in the case of the offenses for which the initiation of criminal proceedings is subject to the introduction of a previous complaint; it is made exclusively by the rightholder, by legal representatives or with the consent of the persons required by law for persons lacking legal capacity or having limited legal capacity;it must intervene until giving final judgment and it must represent an express and explicit manifestation. A novelty isrepresented by the possibility of withdrawing previous complaint if the prosecution was driven ex officio, although for


    Gurpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Previous caesarean section sparks an area of controversy in Obstetrics. The management of women with previous caesarean section regarding the mode of delivery whether to opt for repeat caesarean section or vaginal delivery, is an area of debate. Very often the decision on management is not made on Principle of sound reasoning and many who choose the elective repeat caesarean section do so to circumvent the anxious moment that arise during conduct ion of labour. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the maternal and fetal outcome in relation to type of delivery . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: A 18 month prospective observational study was conducted where in 150 patients who had a term pregnancy with a history of prior LSCS were included after obtaining their consent for participation. The obstetric and fetal outcomes of these patients in the present pregnancy were analyzed by Z test. RESULTS: Out of the 150 subjects 78 ( 52% were in age group of 26 - 30 years, 106 ( 70.67% patients belonged to the urban population, 116 ( 77.33% were booked patie nts, 107 ( 71.33% were housewives, 122 ( 81.33% belonged to middle class and 22 ( 14.67% were from high socio economic status. 67 ( 44.67% were second gravid, 112 ( 74.67% were para 1. Out of total 134 patients 29 ( 21.64% had elective caesarean section and 5 ( 3 .73% patients came as emergency admission and underwent caesarean section. Out of 134 patients, with one previous caesarean section. 32 had spontaneous onset of labour. Out of which 20 ( 68.97% had vaginal delivery and 9 ( 31.03% had repeat caesarean section. 13 patients had augmentation, 11 ( 84.62% had vaginal delivery and 2 ( 15.38% had caesarean section. In 58 patients labour was induced 29 ( 50% had section. 14 patients out of 50 who had previous 2 caesarean section only 1 ( 7.69% patient had spontane ous onset of labour and had caesarean section. 3 ( 92.86% patients had elective caesarean section. There were only 2 patients with previous 3 caesarean

  19. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Moreno Victor


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  20. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50......-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured during pregnancy, postpartum, and at follow-up 5-11 years later. At follow-up, the women were also examined with a 75-g OGTT or an intravenous glucagon test. RESULTS: Twenty-seven (30%) of the women with previous GDM had abnormal glucose tolerance...... response) at all time points investigated; this was also found when only nonobese glucose-tolerant women were examined. Low insulin secretion during pregnancy together with a high fasting plasma glucose level at the diagnostic OGTT in pregnancy and hyperglycemia during the postpartum OGTT were predictive...

  1. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.


    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  2. Religious Identity in Iranian Society: A Systematic Review of Previous Studies (2001-2013


    literature on identity, evidence suggests that the role of religion in shaping individuals' and group's identity is widely ignored. However, a growing number of studies have begun to take into consideration the key role of religion (Arweck & Nesbitt 2010, King and Boyatzis 2004, Peek 2005. This article has attempted to review systematically previous research and conceptualizations on the religious identity based on national studies and surveys and academic dissertations.     Materials and Methods   As mentioned, the purpose of this study was to review the results of some influential researches in the field of religious identity. To get this purpose, one of the best known methods for reviewing previous studies, a systematic review, was applied. Systematic review deals with establishing and synthesizing of researches and evidences with focus on a specific question. This occurs through the organized, transparent, formal, clear and flexible procedures and processes. A systematic review of research is not limited to review the history and this overview and review can be used in different levels, fields and goals. During the first phase of the study, terms of "religious identity", "Islamic identity", "Iranian identity" and "religious identity" was searched at libraries and research centers and in databases such as Center for Scientific Information Database (SID, a database of Iranian journals and magazines (Magiran, Noor specialized journals database, and Science and Information Technology Institute (IrnaDoc. After reviewing the gathered documents and specifying its relationship with the object and purpose of the study, a total of 47 documents were selected. Documents based on the five major parameter were summarized and reviewed: 1-general information, 2-goals and research questions, 3-research methodology, 4-variables, 5-findings     Discussion of Results and Conclusion   Findings show that in the highest percentage (38.2% of researches, religious identity has been

  3. Comparison of data on Early Childhood Caries (ECC) with previous data for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) in an Italian kindergarten population.

    Ferro, R; Besostri, A; Meneghetti, B; Beghetto, M


    This was to assess the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) among preschool children attending nursery schools and to compare the results with those of a previous survey where the investigators used the term and diagnosis for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) syndrome. A cross-sectional survey of 1006 children aged 1-6 years was carried out. WHO recommendations for oral health surveys were used for caries diagnosis (non cavitated lesions were excluded). In addition, a comparison was made for prevalence of ECC between immigrant and native born children. Data were compared for ECC in the present survey with BBTD data in a previous study (1994) in the same area with a sample of 401 children aged 4 years. All examinations were by one examiner (Cohen's Kappa=0.96). Of the 1006 children originally selected 52 children aged more than 71 months were excluded according to published ECC definition and diagnostic criteria. The overall sample was 29 children aged <36 months; 271 aged 3 years; 364 aged 4 years and 290 aged 5 years. ECC was diagnosed in 19.7% of the overall sample. The prevalence of ECC (and S-ECC) were respectively by age: <36 months S-ECC=17.2%; at 3 years: 13.28% (6.64%); at 4 years: 18.95% (9.34%); at 5 years: 26.9% (12.75%). In the native born children (916) the ECC was 18.34%, while in immigrants (38) it was 52.63% (p<0.001). In 1994 the prevalence of BBTD syndrome was 11.9% and in the present study 6.5%. The ECC prevalence, as, ECC and severe (S-ECC),increased with age. In immigrant children ECC was 3 times (S-ECC 6 times) more frequent than in native born. Using the BBTD diagnosis the prevalence had dropped from 11.9% in 1994 to 6.5% in the present survey.

  4. Phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus vinorelbine in breast cancer with previous anthracycline exposure.

    Martin, Miguel; García-Donas, Jesus; Casado, Antonio; de la Gándara, Isabel; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; García-Saenz, Jose-Angel; Ibáñez, Gabriel; Loboff, Belen; García-Ledo, Gemma; Moreno, Fernando; Grande, Enrique; Diaz-Rubio, Eduardo


    Thirty-five patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) entered a phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 35 mg/m2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1 plus vinorelbine 30 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 every 4 weeks. Patients were required to have measurable disease, previous chemotherapy with an anthracycline-containing regimen, and a normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Thirty-four patients were assessable for response and toxicity. The overall response rate (on an intent-to-treat basis) was 35% (12 of 34; 95% CI, 20%-54%). One complete response and 11 partial responses were noted. In addition, 14 patients (41%) had stable disease of > 4 months duration, and 7 patients (20.5%) had disease progression. The response rates to the combination when it was used as first- and second-line chemotherapy were 31% (4 of 13) and 38% (8 of 21), respectively. Median time to disease progression was 7 months (range, 1-35 months) and median overall survival was 13 months (range, 2 to > 62 months). Neutropenia was the most frequent toxicity (grade 4 in 44% of patients and 19% of cycles), but neutropenic fever was seen in only 3 cases. No septic deaths occurred. Nonhematologic grade 3 side effects included skin toxicity (palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, 6%) and mucositis (15%). Late alopecia was seen in 53% of patients (grade 1 in 41%, and grade 2 in 12%). The median LVEFs were 64% (range, 50%-81%) at baseline and 62% (range, 37%-70%) after treatment. Three patients presented an LVEF decrease to < 50%; however, no clinical heart failure was noted, and 2 of these patients recovered normal values after cessation of therapy. The combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and vinorelbine can be safely administered to patients with anthracycline-pretreated MBC and is active in this population.

  5. Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

    Cox Ronald B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This study re-analyzes the strongest causal evidence against customary spanking and uses these same methods to determine whether alternative disciplinary tactics are more effective in reducing antisocial behavior. Methods This study re-analyzed a study by Straus et al.1 on spanking and antisocial behavior using a sample of 785 children who were 6 to 9 years old in the 1988 cohort of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The comprehensiveness and reliability of the covariate measure of initial antisocial behavior were varied to test for residual confounding. All analyses were repeated for grounding, privilege removal, and sending children to their room, and for psychotherapy. To account for covarying use of disciplinary tactics, the analyses were redone first for the 73% who had reported using at least one discipline tactic and second by controlling for usage of other disciplinary tactics and psychotherapy. Results The apparently adverse effect of spanking on antisocial behavior was replicated using the original trichotomous covariate for initial antisocial behavior. A similar pattern of adverse effects was shown for grounding and psychotherapy and partially for the other two disciplinary tactics. All of these effects became non-significant after controlling for latent comprehensive measures of externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions These results are consistent with residual confounding, a statistical artifact that makes all corrective actions by

  6. The irrational beliefs inventory: cross-cultural comparisons between South African and previously published Dutch and American samples.

    du Plessis, Marilize; Möller, André T; Steel, Henry R


    The Irrational Beliefs Inventory gives a measure of irrational beliefs, as postulated by Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior therapy. Given the increasing cross-cultural use of psychometric scales, it is important to assess whether the psychometric properties of the inventory are consistent across cultures. In the present study cross-cultural applicability, in terms of internal consistency and independence of subscales, was investigated for an ad hoc sample of White (n= 100, M age = 21.3 yr., SD=4.0) and Black (n=82, M age=19.8 yr., SD=2.2) undergraduate South African university students. Cronbach coefficients alpha for the subscales and Pearson correlations between subscales for American and Dutch students, as reported by Bridges and Sanderman, were compared with those indices for the South African students. The magnitude and rank order of Cronbach alpha, as well as the correlations between subscales for the three groups showed strong similarities. Values of alpha for the Black South African students were lower in magnitude on all subscales than those for American, Dutch, and White South African samples, but intercorrelations between subscale scores were consistent. Findings in the present study are supportive of the cross-cultural applicability of the Irrational Beliefs Inventory to White South African students but not to South African Black students.

  7. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Aubourg, Santiago P.


    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  8. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats.

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto


    The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. One hundred forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis.

  9. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    Parsons, Josh D.


    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  10. Phase II study of irinotecan (CPT-11) administered every 2 weeks as treatment for patients with colorectal cancer resistant to previous treatment with 5-fluorouracil-based therapies: comparison of two different dose schedules (250 and 200 mg/m2) according to toxicity prognostic factors.

    Saigi, Eugeni; Salut, Antonieta; Campos, Juan Manuel; Losa, Ferran; Manzano, Hermini; Batiste-Alentorn, Eduard; Acusa, Angels; Vélez de Mendizabal, Edelmira; Guasch, Inmaculada; Antón, Isabel


    Our objective was to assess the antitumoral activity and toxicity of irinotecan (CPT-11) 60-min i.v. infusion every 2 weeks as second-line monotherapy of advanced colorectal cancer. Two doses were studied (250 and 200 mg/m) according to the risk of developing toxicity. Two groups of patients were studied: high-risk group (HR, 200 mg/m, n = 45; Karnofsky score 60-80% and/or the record of prior pelvic irradiation) and low-risk-group (LR, 250 mg/m, n = 51; Karnofsky score >80% and without prior pelvic irradiation). The mean number of cycles per patient was 7: 6.6 (HR group) and 8.3 (LR group). Median RDI was 0.96. The overall response rate was 8.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5-21.2%; HR group] and 15.7% (95% CI 7.0-28.5%; LR group), respectively. The LR group showed two complete responses and a higher percentage of stable disease (56.9 versus 33.3% in HR group). The median survival was 7.1 months (95% CI 5.2-8.9 months, HR group) and 11.7 months (95% CI 8.4-15.1 months, LR group). The median time to disease progression was 3.2 months (95% CI 1.0-5.4 months, HR group) and 5.3 months (95% CI 3.8-6.7 months, LR group). Both CPT-11 treatments were well tolerated. Grade 3/4 toxicity incidence was low, e.g. granulocytopenia (7% of patients in HR group and 9% in LR group) and delayed diarrhea (18% of patients in HR group and 14% in LR group). We conclude that the treatment of patients with the adjusted dose of CPT-11 according to prognostic factors for toxicity resulted in the improved toxicity profile, but showed poorer efficacy outcome. Therefore, the dose reduction in patients with low performance and treated with radiotherapy needs further investigation to provide some new insights on the benefit:risk ratio of such treatment.

  11. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert


    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  12. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P


    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at as #NCT01414205.




    Full Text Available With the world - wide rising trend of caesarean delivery (CD, modern obstetric practice deals with a new group of mothers carrying reproductive performance upon a scarred uterus with obvious risk in feto - maternal outcome. AIMS: (1 To analyse the maternal & neonatal outcome in post - caesarean pregnancy. (2 To evaluate the factors influencing outcome in such cases. Design : Observational analytical study. MATERIALS & METHODS: The present study was carried out over two years (2010 - 11 taking consecutive 100 p ost - caesarean cases as admitted on my admission days & delivered in BR Singh Hospital. Data collection was done by interview technique along with hospital records. ANALYSIS USED: Percentage analysis was most often done. Categorical variables were compared with chi - square test; P value was calculated with 2012 Graphpad Software. Relative risk (RR & Odd ratio (OR were calculated with 1993 - 2012 Medcalc Software bvba (Version 12.3.0. All statistical tests were evaluated at the 0.05 significance level. RESULT S: Post - caesarean pregnancy rate was 26.02%. Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC incidence was 22% whereas VBAC success on trial of labour was 55%. VBAC gave best morbidity outcome (18.18% & 27.27%. But failed VBAC cases result more significant maternal morbidity (RR=3.97, P=0.0037 & NICU admission was also found highest in failed VBAC cases (38.89%. Maternal and neonatal morbidity were significantly high when scar integrity was lost; also significantly co - related with elderly mothers (>35 yrs., un - boo ked cases & non - admitted cases undergone repeat CD. CONCLUSIONS: Post - caesarean cases need meticulous antenatal check - up & mandatory institutional delivery with proper selection of mode of confinement to have a better maternal & neonatal outcome

  14. A comparison of results from previous and present investigations of benthic macroinvertebrates in the small and shallow Lake Shoji, Fuji Five Lakes, Japan

    Kimio Hirabayashi


    Full Text Available In order to clarify the current status of the benthic community of Lake Shoji, and to examine the difference with the last quantitative data of the lake by Miyadi (1932 and Kitagawa (1973, the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in this lake was studied. Also, a comparison of the benthic fauna and density was made between the present and previous studies, with a discussion concerning the succession of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to changes in the lake bottom environment. On March 1, 2010, and September 7, 2011, bathymetrical sampling surveys were carried out using a standard Ekman-Birge grab at each of the 7 locations in Lake Shoji. The average densities of the benthic communities for all the stations were 4,107 inds. m-2, comprised principally of oligochaetes 50.2%, chironomids 48.6%, and chaoborid 1.2% in March 2010, whereas in September 2011 the average density was 1,185 inds. m-2, and mostly comprised of oligochaetes 86.6% and chironomids 13.4%. On the other hand, the average biomasses (wet weight of these benthic macroinvertebrates in March 2010 were composed of 33.3% oligochaetes, 62.8% chironomid larvae, and 3.9% chaoborid larvae, as opposed to 48.8% oligochaetes and 51.2% chironomid larvae, respectively, in September 2011. Propsilocerus akamusi (Tokunaga, 1938 and Procladius sp. of chironomid larvae were the dominant species, making up 10.0% and 17.6%, respectively, of the total chironomid fauna in density, and 83.2% and 9.2% in biomass in March 2010. The mean density of P. akamusi was about 2.5 times higher than that reported by Kitagawa in the 1970s. In recent years, the number of P. akamusi larvae has tended to increase; they are widely distributed, and the anoxic-layer and anaerobic-layer are thickening, especially during summer to late fall in Lake Shoji, suggesting that the lake is in the process of eutrophication.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1365.Published online: 17 October 2012

  15. Experimental bluetongue virus infection of sheep; effect of previous vaccination: clinical and immunologic studies.

    Mahrt, C R; Osburn, B I


    Clinical and immunologic responses of sheep to vaccination and subsequent bluetongue virus (BTV) challenge exposure were studied and compared with those of non-vaccinated sheep. Sheep were vaccinated with inactivated BTV administered with aluminum hydroxide and cimetidine or levamisole. After sheep were vaccinated, precipitating group-specific antibodies to BTV were detected, but serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies were not detected. Cellular immune responses (lymphocyte blastogenesis) to BTV were not detected. After virulent BTV challenge exposure, vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep developed acute clinical disease of similar severity. Clinical signs included hyperemia and petechiae of oral mucosa and coronary bands of the feet, excess salivation, nasal discharge with crusting, ulceration of the muzzle, and edema of lips and intermandibular space. Marked increases in serum creatine kinase activity were associated with stiff gait, reluctance to move, and vomiting. Fever and leukopenia were detected in most of the challenge-exposed sheep. Viremia and neutralizing antibodies were detected in vaccinated and nonvaccinated sheep after challenge exposure. Bluetongue virus-specific reaginic antibodies were not detected in sera from any of the sheep when the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test was used.

  16. Phase III Randomized Study of Bendamustine Compared With Chlorambucil in Previously Untreated Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Wolfgang U. Knauf; Toshko Lissichkov; Ali Aldaoud; Anna Liberati; Javier Loscertales; Raoul Herbrecht; Gunnar Juliusson; Gerhard Postner; Liana Gercheva; Stefan Goranov; Martin Becker; Hans-Joerg Fricke; Francoise Huguet; Ilaria Del Giudice; Peter Klein; Lothar Tremmel; Karlheinz Merkle; Marco Montillo


    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C...

  17. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    Berry, Kathryn


    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  18. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O


    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  19. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms;


    PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do not ca...... with Hazard Ratios ranging from 1.68 to 1.78 for current use compared to never use. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that it is possible to estimate the effect of never, current and previous use of HT on breast cancer using prescription data.......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  20. Marine fouling community in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt compared with four decades of previous studies



    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to compare the fouling communities between the years 1960 and 1999 in the Eastern harbour of Alexandria, Egypt and to study the main factors that may be controlling these communities. This comparison is based on monthly durations of panel immersion. By using roughened white polystyrene test panels (12.5x12.5 cm, monthly samples of marine fouling were collected from the harbour from October 1998 through September 1999. It is clear that a remarkable variation in number and diversity of fouling communities throughout the last four decades is evident. The minimum diversities were recorded during the studies of 1960 and 1970 (19 and 20 species respectively, while the maximum diversity (35 species was achieved during the 1991 study. Moreover, a small shift among the four dominant groups (Polychaeta, Cirripedia, Bryozoa and Amphipoda was noted during the four decades of the studies. The present comparison indicated that many factors may contribute to this variation, of which nutrient enrichment is the most important and the nature of the applied test panel is lees so.

  1. Comparison of scar thickness measurements using trans-vaginal sonography and MRI in cases of pregnancy with previous caesarean section. Do they correlate with actual scar thickness?

    Singh, N; Tripathi, R; Mala, Y M; Dixit, R; Tyagi, S; Batra, A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate scar thickness in cases of pregnancy with previous caesarean section, by trans-vaginal sonography (TVS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to correlate precision of radiologically-measured scar thickness with actual measurement of scar thickness. A total of 35 pregnant patients with previous caesarean section planned for elective caesarean section, were evaluated prospectively. Their scar thickness was measured by TVS and MRI on the day of elective repeat caesarean section. These measurements were correlated with each other and with scar thickness measured during elective repeat caesarean section by using a caliper. The correlation coefficients between scar thickness measured by TVS and MRI with peroperative evaluation with a caliper, were +0.72 and +0.59, respectively. The study concluded that as MRI is a costlier modality and TVS has better correlation coefficient with actual scar thickness, TVS can be considered to be the better modality for antenatal scar thickness measurement.

  2. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Else-Marie eLøberg


    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  3. Follow-up of patients with previous treatment for coarctation of the thoracic aorta: comparison between contrast-enhanced MR angiography and fast spin-echo MR imaging

    Bogaert, J.; Kuzo, R.; Dymarkowski, S.; Janssen, L.; Celis, I. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Budts, W. [Dept. of Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Gewillig, M. [Dept. of Pediatric Cardiology, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)


    Regular follow-up is required in patients with previous intervention for coarctation of the aorta to detect recoarctation or aneurysm formation. In this study we describe the findings encountered on routine follow-up exams and we compare the use of contrast-enhanced 3D MR angiography (CE MRA) with fast spin-echo MRI (FSE) to study the thoracic aorta after previous intervention. In 51 consecutive patients previously treated for aortic coarctation, 74 MR studies of the thoracic aorta were performed during a 2-year period using CE MRA and FSE MRI. The thoracic aorta was evaluated for abnormalities of course, caliber, shape, and pathology of side branches. The CE MRA and FSE MRI studies were evaluated side by side by consensus of two reviewers evaluating which MR technique depicted the abnormalities of the thoracic aorta the best. Of 74 exams, six clinically important abnormalities were found: four aneurysms and two restenoses. Two small pseudoaneurysms were missed on the FSE studies. Contrast-enhanced MRA was judged to visualize aortic abnormalities better than FSE (47 of 74 MR studies) especially for the transverse aortic arch, coarctation site, left subclavian artery, and aortic arch configuration. For the ascending aorta and distal descending aorta, CE MRA and FSE performed equally well. Aortic diameters measured at four levels in the first 18 MRI studies showed no significant differences in diameter when measured by FSE or CE MRA (p = not significant). Clinically important abnormalities, such as aneurysm formation and restenosis, can be present years after treatment for aortic coarctation. In the regular follow-up of these patients, CE MRA may provide additional diagnostic information compared with FSE and should be included as part of the routine exam. (orig.)

  4. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study.

    Jamshid Gadoev

    Full Text Available TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors.A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010.Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%, adolescents (4% and elderly patients (19%. Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure.Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and call for better TB

  5. Investigating of the Knocking Out Properties of Moulding Sands with New Inorganic Binders Used for Castings of Non-ferrous Metal Alloys in Comparison with the Previously Used

    I. Izdebska-Szanda


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of investigations, which make a fragment of the broad-scale studies carried out as a part of the projectPOIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 “Advanced materials and technologies”.One of the objectives of the introduction of new inorganic binders is to provide a good knocking out properties of moulding sands, whilemaintaining an appropriate level of strength properties.Therefore, a logical continuation of the previous studies were carried out the tests knocking out properties of moulding sands with newinorganic binders, including making moulds, pouring them by the chosen of non-ferrous metal alloys, knoking-out, and determining theknocking out work.The results of the study were related to the research results obtained by applying the moulding sand performed by existing technology.

  6. Psychotic illness in first-time mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations: a population-based study.

    Unnur Valdimarsdóttir


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychotic illness following childbirth is a relatively rare but severe condition with unexplained etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of maternal background characteristics and obstetric factors on the risk of postpartum psychosis, specifically among mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated incidence rates and potential maternal and obstetric risk factors of psychoses after childbirth in a national cohort of women who were first-time mothers from 1983 through 2000 (n = 745,596. Proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate relative risks of psychoses during and after the first 90 d postpartum, among mothers without any previous psychiatric hospitalization and among all mothers. Within 90 d after delivery, 892 women (1.2 per 1,000 births; 4.84 per 1,000 person-years were hospitalized due to psychoses and 436 of these (0.6 per 1,000 births; 2.38 per 1,000 person-years had not previously been hospitalized for any psychiatric disorder. During follow-up after the 90 d postpartum period, the corresponding incidence rates per 1,000 person-years were reduced to 0.65 for all women and 0.49 for women not previously hospitalized. During (but not after the first 90 d postpartum the risk of psychoses among women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization was independently affected by: maternal age (35 y or older versus 19 y or younger; hazard ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 4.7; high birth weight (> or = 4,500 g; hazard ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 1.0; and diabetes (hazard ratio 0. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of psychotic illness peaks immediately following a first childbirth, and almost 50% of the cases are women without any previous psychiatric hospitalization. High maternal age increases the risk while diabetes and high birth weight are associated with reduced risk of first-onset psychoses, distinctly during the postpartum period.

  7. A multicenter phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    Méndez, Miguel; Salut, Antonieta; García-Girón, Carlos; Navalon, Marta; Diz, Pilar; García López, Maria José; España, Pilar; de la Torre, Ascensión; Martínez del Prado, Purificación; Duarte, Isabel; Pujol, Eduardo; Arizcun, Alberto; Cruz, Juan Jesús


    This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) previously treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study enrolled 115 patients and a total of 558 cycles (median, 6 per patient) were administered. The overall objective response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 18% (with 1 complete response and 20 partial responses), whereas 42 patients (37%) showed stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.8 months and median survival was 13.6 months. Grade 3/4 toxicities included delayed diarrhea (19.1%), nausea/vomiting (10.4%), and neutropenia (8.7%). There were 2 toxic deaths, 1 from delayed diarrhea and 1 from hemorrhage and grade 4 mucositis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy in patients with CRC pretreated with 5-FU.

  8. Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.

    Sarah J Stock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery. However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981-2007 (n = 46,176. Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401 of women who underwent IOL 39-41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71-0.91]. There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08-1.55]. In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07-0.75] and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90-1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94-1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60-1.00]. CONCLUSIONS: A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications.

  9. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

    Kristina Dalberg


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  10. Does the previous diagnosis of arterial hypertension affect one´s daily life? Pró-Saúde Study

    Gilberto Senechal de Goffredo Filho


    Full Text Available In addition to damaging several target organs, arterial hypertension may negatively impact patients' activities of daily living. Biological and behavioral mechanisms underlying such limitations have yet to be clarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether having been previously told of a hypertension diagnosis is associated with the frequency and duration of temporary limitations in activities of daily living, and whether these relationships differ by gender, age, or socioeconomic position. We analyzed sectional data from 2,666 participants (56% women; 55% with high school or lower schooling at the baseline phase (1999 - 2001 of a longitudinal investigation of university employees in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study, asking participants whether they had ever been diagnosed with hypertension by a health professional, if they had been unable to perform any activities of daily living due to a health problem in the previous 2 weeks, and for how many days that had occurred. Multinomial logistic regression models were fitted for the overall study population and for age, gender, educational level, and per capita household income strata. Associations between hypertension diagnosis and temporary limitations were not observed in the overall study population and in gender, education and income strata. However, there were higher odds of temporary limitations among participants aged 55 years old or more with hypertension diagnosis (adjusted OR = 9.5; 95%CI 1.5 - 58.6, regardless of blood pressure levels and use of antihypertensive medication. Elderly people may keep an attitude of higher vigilance regarding conditions or events potentially worsening their health status.

  11. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K


    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving.

  12. A comparison of neurocognitive functioning in children previously randomized to dexamethasone or prednisone in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Kadan-Lottick, Nina S; Brouwers, Pim; Breiger, David; Kaleita, Thomas; Dziura, James; Liu, Haibei; Chen, Lu; Nicoletti, Megan; Stork, Linda; Bostrom, Bruce; Neglia, Joseph P


    In previous clinical trials of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), dexamethasone resulted in higher event-free survival rates than prednisone, presumably due to greater central nervous system penetration. Dexamethasone's association with long-term neurocognitive toxicity is unknown. In this multisite study, we measured neurocognitive functioning in 92 children with standard-risk ALL, 1 to 9.99 years at diagnosis, at a mean of 9.8 years after randomization to prednisone (n = 41) or dexamethasone (n = 51) on Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1922. No significant overall differences in mean neurocognitive and academic performance scores were found between the prednisone and dexamethasone groups after adjusting for age, sex, and time since diagnosis. The exception was that patients receiving dexamethasone scored one-third of a standard deviation worse on word reading (98.8 +/- 1.7 vs 104.9 +/- 1.8; P = .02). There were no group differences in the distribution of test scores or the parents' report of neurologic complications, psychotropic drug use, and special education. Further analyses suggested for the dexamethasone group, older age of diagnosis was associated with worse neurocognitive functioning; for the prednisone group, younger age at diagnosis was associated with worse functioning. In conclusion, our study did not demonstrate any meaningful differences in long-term cognitive functioning of childhood ALL patients based on corticosteroid randomization. This study is registered with under NCT00085176.

  13. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    Fricke, Bradley L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shott, Sally R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  14. A cross-sectional study of personality traits in women previously treated or untreated for alcohol use disorders

    Sundh Valter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationship between treatment-seeking for alcohol problems and personality traits could give useful insight in factors promoting or hindering treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between treatment-seeking for AUD, personality traits, and psychiatric co-morbidity in women. The study was based on pooled cross-sectional data from three population based samples and one clinical sample (n = 1,339. Comparisons were made between treated and untreated women with AUD, and between those with resolved and unresolved AUD. Results A stepwise logistic regression model showed that treatment-seeking for AUD was not associated with personality traits. Among women with lifetime AUD (n = 217, those who had been treated (n = 42 had significantly higher scores than untreated women (n = 175 on three personality traits of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP; somatic anxiety, muscular tension, and guilt. Women with resolved AUD, who had received treatment (n = 23 had significantly higher scores on scales measuring somatic anxiety, psychic anxiety, muscular tension, irritability, and guilt than untreated women with resolved AUD. The latter group resembled women without AUD on most personality traits. There were no differences in occurrence of lifetime psychiatric disorders between the treated and the untreated women, whereas treated women with current AUD had increased risk of lifetime anxiety (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1–8.7. Conclusion Treatment-seeking was not associated with personality traits in this study. Still, it can be concluded that women with resolved AUD who had received treatment had high scores on the KSP-scales measuring psychic and somatic anxiety, tension, irritability, and feelings of guilt. This suggests that personality assessment might be a useful tool in tailoring individual treatment programs for women with AUD. Future studies need to

  15. Evaluation of questionnaire-based information on previous physical work loads. Stockholm MUSIC 1 Study Group. Musculoskeletal Intervention Center.

    Torgén, M; Winkel, J; Alfredsson, L; Kilbom, A


    The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate questionnaire-based information on past physical work loads (6-year recall). Effects of memory difficulties on reproducibility were evaluated for 82 subjects by comparing previously reported results on current work loads (test-retest procedure) with the same items recalled 6 years later. Validity was assessed by comparing self-reports in 1995, regarding work loads in 1989, with worksite measurements performed in 1989. Six-year reproducibility, calculated as weighted kappa coefficients (k(w)), varied between 0.36 and 0.86, with the highest values for proportion of the workday spent sitting and for perceived general exertion and the lowest values for trunk and neck flexion. The six-year reproducibility results were similar to previously reported test-retest results for these items; this finding indicates that memory difficulties was a minor problem. The validity of the questionnaire responses, expressed as rank correlations (r(s)) between the questionnaire responses and workplace measurements, varied between -0.16 and 0.78. The highest values were obtained for the items sitting and repetitive work, and the lowest and "unacceptable" values were for head rotation and neck flexion. Misclassification of exposure did not appear to be differential with regard to musculoskeletal symptom status, as judged by the calculated risk estimates. The validity of some of these self-administered questionnaire items appears sufficient for a crude assessment of physical work loads in the past in epidemiologic studies of the general population with predominantly low levels of exposure.

  16. Alemtuzumab as rescue therapy in a cohort of 16 aggressive multiple sclerosis patients previously treated by Mitoxantrone: an observational study.

    Le Page, Emmanuelle; Deburghgraeve, Véronique; Lester, Marie-Antoinette; Cardiet, Isabelle; Leray, Emmanuelle; Edan, Gilles


    Our study aimed to describe safety and neurological impact of alemtuzumab as last-line rescue therapy in aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, previously treated by Mitoxantrone (MITOX). Between June 2004 and October 2013, 13 patients received alemtuzumab at 20 mg/day and 3 at 12 mg/day for 5 days. EDSS, relapses, secondary progression were prospectively assessed 12 and 6 months before treatment, at baseline and every 3 months. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years [1-10]. Mean age at alemtuzumab start was 40 years [26-49] for 8 Secondary Progressive (SP) and 30 years [26-35] for 8 Relapsing-Remitting (RR) patients. MS duration was 13.7 (± 3) and 8.3 (± 4) years, respectively. During the 12 months before alemtuzumab, annual relapse rate was 0.75 and 3.14, respectively and the 16 patients accumulated 2-30 new gadolinium enhancing lesions. 4 patients (suboptimal responders) received alemtuzumab during MITOX and 12 patients 1-7.8 years after MITOX. Out of 8 SPMS, 2 were disease free up to last visit (4.7 and 8 years), 5 improved or stabilized but only transiently and 1 worsened. Out of 8 RRMS, 1 remained stable up to last visit (8.7 years) despite 1 relapse and active MRI at 18 months and 7 improved (1-4 point EDSS): 4 remained disease free up to last visit (12, 24, 38 months and 7 years), 2 were successfully retreated at 25 and 33 months and 1 worsened progressively 24 months after alemtuzumab. 2 patients developed Grave's disease and 1 hypothyroidism. Alemtuzumab controls aggressive RRMS despite previous use of MITOX.

  17. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of recent and previous lineages of peste-des-petits-ruminants viruses of sheep and goats in Nigeria

    Samuel Mantip


    Full Text Available Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV is a highly contagious, fatal and economically important viral disease of small ruminants that is still endemic and militates against the production of sheep and goats in endemic areas of the world. The aim of this study was to describe the viral strains within the country. This was carried out by collecting tissue and swab samples from sheep and goats in various agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The phylogeny of archived PPRV strains or isolates and those circulating and causing recent outbreaks was determined by sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N-gene. Twenty tissue and swab samples from apparently healthy and sick sheep and goats were collected randomly from 18 states, namely 3 states in each of the 6 agro-ecological zones visited. A total of 360 samples were collected. A total of 35 samples of 360 (9.7% tested positive by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, of which 25 were from oculo-nasal swabs and 10 were from tissue samples. Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis using Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP identified four different lineages, that is, lineages I, II, III and IV. Interestingly, the Nigerian strains described in this study grouped in two separate major lineages, that is, lineages II and IV. Strains from Sokoto, Oyo, Plateau and Ondo states grouped according to the historical distribution of PPRV together with the Nigerian 75/1 strain of lineage II, while other strains from Sokoto, Oyo, Plateau, Akwa-Ibom, Adamawa, Kaduna, Lagos, Bauchi, Niger and Kano states grouped together with the East African and Asian strains of lineage IV. This finding confirms that both lineage II and IV strains of PPRV are circulating in Nigeria. Previously, only strains of lineage II were found to be present in the country.

  18. A phase I study of imatinib mesylate in combination with chlorambucil in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.

    Hebb, Jonathan; Assouline, Sarit; Rousseau, Caroline; Desjardins, Pierre; Caplan, Stephen; Egorin, Merrill J; Amrein, Lilian; Aloyz, Raquel; Panasci, Lawrence


    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib, has the potential to indirectly inhibit DNA repair. This mechanism of action has been shown to mediate sensitization to chlorambucil in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To evaluate this effect in vivo, we performed a phase I study of chlorambucil combined with imatinib in relapsed CLL patients. The three dose levels studied included imatinib at 300, 400, or 600 mg/day. Imatinib was given on days 1-10, and chlorambucil (8 mg/m(2) daily) was given on days 3-7 of a 28-day cycle (up to 6 cycles). Eleven patients participated in this study. Low-grade gastrointestinal toxicities were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Forty-five percent of patients responded (two unconfirmed CRs and three PRs). Two responding patients were fludarabine refractory. The in vitro IC(50) of chlorambucil alone or in the presence of 5 μM imatinib in CLL lymphocytes correlated with the decrease in lymphocyte counts on day 15. Imatinib plasma concentrations achieved in patients were in the range of those effective in in vitro sensitization studies. The combination of chlorambucil and imatinib in patients with previously treated CLL was well tolerated and showed evidence of clinical efficacy. Based on our results, we recommend the 400 mg daily dose of imatinib on days 1-10 with 8 mg/m(3) chlorambucil on days 3-7 every 28 days as the phase II dose. This represents the first clinical trial examining the potential synergy between a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a conventional alkylating agent for the treatment of CLL.

  19. Mirror activity in the human brain while observing hand movements: a comparison between EEG desynchronization in the mu-range and previous fMRI results.

    Perry, Anat; Bentin, Shlomo


    Mu (mu) rhythms are EEG oscillations between 8-13 Hz distinguished from alpha by having more anterior distribution and being desynchronized by motor rather than visual activity. Evidence accumulating during the last decade suggests that the desynchronization of mu rhythms (mu suppression) might be also a manifestation of a human Mirror Neuron System (MNS). To further explore this hypothesis we used a paradigm that, in a previous fMRI study, successfully activated this putative MNS in humans. Our direct goal was to provide further support for a link between modulation of mu rhythms and the MNS, by finding parallels between the reported patterns of fMRI activations and patterns of mu suppression. The EEG power in the mu range has been recorded while participants passively observed either a left or a right hand, reaching to and grasping objects, and compared it with that recorded while participants observed the movement of a ball, and while observing static grasping scenes or still objects. Mirroring fMRI results (Shmuelof, L., Zohary, E., 2005. Dissociation between ventral and dorsal fMRI activation during object and action recognition. Neuron 47, 457-470), mu suppression was larger in the hemisphere contra-lateral to the moving hand and larger when the hands grasped different objects in different ways than when the movement was repetitive. No suppression was found while participants observed still objects but mu suppression was also found while seeing static grasping postures. These data are discussed in light of similar parallels between modulations of alpha waves and fMRI while recording EEG in the magnet. The present data support a link between mu suppression and a human MNS.

  20. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Marthoenis Marthoenis


    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  1. Phase III randomized study of bendamustine compared with chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Knauf, Wolfgang U; Lissichkov, Toshko; Aldaoud, Ali; Liberati, Anna; Loscertales, Javier; Herbrecht, Raoul; Juliusson, Gunnar; Postner, Gerhard; Gercheva, Liana; Goranov, Stefan; Becker, Martin; Fricke, Hans-Joerg; Huguet, Francoise; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Klein, Peter; Tremmel, Lothar; Merkle, Karlheinz; Montillo, Marco


    This randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of bendamustine and chlorambucil in previously untreated patients with advanced (Binet stage B or C) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patients (chlorambucil 0.8 mg/kg (Broca's normal weight) orally on days 1 and 15; treatment cycles were repeated every 4 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. The response to treatment was assessed according to National Cancer Institute Working Group criteria, and the final determination of response was made by a blinded independent review committee. A total of 319 patients were randomly assigned (162 bendamustine, 157 chlorambucil). Complete or partial responses were achieved in 110 (68%) of 162 bendamustine-treated and 48 (31%) of 157 chlorambucil-treated patients (P chlorambucil (31% v 2%). Median progression-free survival was 21.6 months with bendamustine and 8.3 months with chlorambucil (P chlorambucil (median, 21.8 v 8.0 months). Hematologic National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3 to 4 adverse events were more common with bendamustine than with chlorambucil (occurring in 40% v 19% of patients). Severe infections (grade 3 to 4) occurred in 8% of bendamustine-treated patients and 3% of chlorambucil-treated patients. Bendamustine offers significantly greater efficacy than chlorambucil, and a manageable toxicity profile, when used as first-line therapy in patients with advanced CLL.

  2. Integrating Sonography Training Into Undergraduate Medical Education: A Study of the Previous Exposure of One Institution's Incoming Residents.

    Day, James; Davis, Joshua; Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Heil, Daniel; Berg, Katherine; Davis, Robyn; Berg, Dale


    Sonography is a crucial and versatile tool within the field of medicine. Recent advancements in technology have led to increased use of point-of-care sonography. We designed a survey to assess prior point-of-care sonography training among incoming interns at an academic teaching hospital. In 2012 and 2013, we surveyed incoming interns (n = 154 and 145, respectively) regarding point-of-care sonography training received during medical school. The survey questions included formal didactic sessions, bedside instruction, and the use of simulation technology. One-fourth (26.3% in 2012 and 23.4% in 2013) of responding interns reported having never done an ultrasound scan at the bedside. In 2012 and 2013, 55.0% and 55.6% of respondents reported never having done an ultrasound scan in a simulation center, respectively. Interns agreed that sonography education should be provided during medical school. On average, interns disagreed with the statement that sonography should be taught in residency only. There was no significant difference in the sex or general previous experience with sonography across both intern classes. Point-of-care sonography is inconsistently taught in medical school. The interns in our study also thought that sonography education should begin in medical school, and sonography should be taught by using simulation and at the bedside. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Harold David McIntyre


    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  4. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel


    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  5. Experimental and calculation results of the integral reflood test QUENCH-15 with ZIRLO{sup TM} cladding tubes in comparison with results of previous QUENCH tests

    Stuckert, J., E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Birchley, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Grosse, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Jaeckel, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Steinbrueck, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)


    Highlights: > Neither breakaway effect nor melt relocation was observed during a test with the ZIRLO{sup TM} bundle flooded at 2100 K. > A noticeable factor of cladding oxidation can be oxide growth at inner cladding surface. > Correlations developed for Zircaloy-4 are able to well reproduce oxidation kinetics of ZIRLO{sup TM}. - Abstract: The QUENCH-15 experiment investigated the effect of ZIRLO{sup TM} cladding material on bundle oxidation and core reflood, in comparison with tests QUENCH-06 (standard Zircaloy-4), QUENCH-12 (VVER, E110), and QUENCH-14 (M5). The QUENCH-15 bundle cross-section corresponded to a Westinghouse PWR core design and consisted of 24 heated rods (internal tungsten heaters between 0 and 1024 mm axial elevation, cladding oxidised region between -470 and 1500 mm), six corner rods made of Zircaloy-4, two corner rods made of E110, and a Zirconium 702 shroud. The test was conducted in principle with the same protocol as QUENCH-06, -12 and -14, so that the effects of the change of cladding material and bundle geometry could be more easily observed. The test protocol involved pre-oxidation to a maximum of about 150 {mu}m oxide thickness at a temperature of about 1473 K over a period of about 3000s. The power was then ramped at a rate of 0.25 W/s/rod to cause a temperature increase until the desired maximum bundle temperature of 2153 K was reached. The maximum oxide layer thickness observed was 380 {mu}m. Then reflood with 1.3 g/s/rod water at room temperature was initiated. The electrical power was reduced to 175 W/rod during the reflood phase, approximating effective decay heat level. The post-test metallography of the bundle showed neither noticeable breakaway oxidation of the cladding nor melt release into space between rods. The average outer oxide layer thickness at hottest elevation of 950 mm was 620 {mu}m (QUENCH-06: 630 {mu}m). The molten cladding metal at hottest elevation was localised between the outer and inner oxide layers. The

  6. Persistence of cardiovascular risk factors in women with previous preeclampsia: a long-term follow-up study.

    Aykas, Fatma; Solak, Yalcin; Erden, Abdulsamet; Bulut, Kadir; Dogan, Selcuk; Sarli, Bahadr; Acmaz, Gokhan; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Covic, Adrian; Sharma, Shailendra; Johnson, Richard J; Kanbay, Mehmet


    Preeclampsia is a cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factor, and lifestyle modifications are recommended. It was suggested that preeclampsia may increase the prevalence of various CV disease risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, insulin resistance, microalbuminuria, and endothelial dysfunction, among others. Here, we investigate the role of serum uric acid in preeclampsia in the development of CV complications. This was an observational case-control study that compared women with history of preeclampsia (n = 25) with age-matched controls with uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 20) who were followed for at least 5 years. Measurements included clinical and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ultrasound-measured flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), microalbuminuria, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and serum uric acid, as well as clinical and demographic features. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were compared in women with and without previous preeclampsia. At the time of index gestation, preeclamptic women had higher serum uric acid values (4.36 ± 0.61 vs 2.27 ± 0.38 mg/dL, P preeclampsia were more likely to have hypertension and had higher serum uric acid levels, higher microalbuminuria and CIMT levels, and lower FMD values than did the patients who did not have preeclampsia. The 2 groups were similar with regard to various ambulatory blood pressure parameters. Univariate associates of FMD were history of preeclampsia and the current hypertension status. Microalbuminuria correlated with gestational uric acid levels (coefficient of correlation of 0.40, P = 0.01 for FMD and coefficient of correlation of 0.37, P = 0.01 for CIMT, respectively). Preeclampsia might be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular risk factors at least 5 years after index pregnancy. Serum uric acid and microalbuminuria may be mechanistic mediators of heightened risk, along with impaired endothelial function in preeclampsia.

  7. Sitagliptin added to previously taken antidiabetic agents on insulin resistance and lipid profile: a 2-year study evaluation.

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Ragonesi, Pietro Dario; Fogari, Elena; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Bianchi, Lucio; Bonaventura, Aldo; Romano, Davide; Maffioli, Pamela


    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the positive effects of sitagliptin on glycemic control and insulin resistance were maintained also after 2 years of therapy and whether sitagliptin could be effective also in improving lipid profile. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 205 patients with type 2 diabetes in therapy with different antidiabetic drugs were randomized to add sitagliptin 100 mg once a day or placebo to their current therapy. We evaluated at the baseline and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months the following parameters: body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (Tg). Sitagliptin, added to previously taken antidiabetic agents, proved to be effective in improving glycemic profile, reducing HbA1c by -17.5%, FPG by -12.7%, PPG by -20.5%. Regarding insulin resistance, sitagliptin decreased FPI by -8.3% and HOMA-IR by -20.0%, confirming that what have been already reported in short-term studies can be applied also after 2 years of treatment. Sitagliptin also reduced body weight by -4.3%. Our study also showed the positive effect of sitagliptin on lipid profile; in particular, sitagliptin decreased TC by -13.3%, LDL-C by -20.4%, and Tg by -32.3%, and also increased HDL-C by + 13.6%. Sitagliptin proved to be effective on glycemic profile and insulin resistance even after 2 years of therapy and to be effective in improving body weight and lipid profile. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  8. Central Arctic atmospheric summer conditions during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS: contrasting to previous expeditions

    M. Tjernström


    Full Text Available Understanding the rapidly changing climate in the Arctic is limited by a lack of understanding of underlying strong feedback mechanisms that are specific to the Arctic. Progress in this field can only be obtained by process-level observations; this is the motivation for intensive ice-breaker-based campaigns such as that described in this paper: the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS. However, detailed field observations also have to be put in the context of the larger-scale meteorology, and short field campaigns have to be analysed within the context of the underlying climate state and temporal anomalies from this.

    To aid in the analysis of other parameters or processes observed during this campaign, this paper provides an overview of the synoptic-scale meteorology and its climatic anomaly during the ASCOS field deployment. It also provides a statistical analysis of key features during the campaign, such as some key meteorological variables, the vertical structure of the lower troposphere and clouds, and energy fluxes at the surface. In order to assess the representativity of the ASCOS results, we also compare these features to similar observations obtained during three earlier summer experiments in the Arctic Ocean, the AOE-96, SHEBA and AOE-2001 expeditions.

    We find that these expeditions share many key features of the summertime lower troposphere. Taking ASCOS and the previous expeditions together, a common picture emerges with a large amount of low-level cloud in a well-mixed shallow boundary layer, capped by a weak to moderately strong inversion where moisture, and sometimes also cloud top, penetrate into the lower parts of the inversion. Much of the boundary-layer mixing is due to cloud-top cooling and subsequent buoyant overturning of the cloud. The cloud layer may, or may not, be connected with surface processes depending on the depths of the cloud and surface-based boundary layers and on the relative strengths of

  9. Age Distribution of Influenza Like Illness Cases during Post-Pandemic A(H3N2): Comparison with the Twelve Previous Seasons, in France

    Turbelin, Clément; Souty, Cécile; Pelat, Camille; Hanslik, Thomas; Sarazin, Marianne; Blanchon, Thierry; Falchi, Alessandra


    In France, the 2011–2012 influenza epidemic was characterized by the circulation of antigenically drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses and by an increased disease severity and mortality among the elderly, with respect to the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks. Whether the epidemiology of influenza in France differed between the 2011–2012 epidemic and the previous outbreaks is unclear. Here, we analyse the age distribution of influenza like illness (ILI) cases attended in general practice during the 2011–2012 epidemic, and compare it with that of the twelve previous epidemic seasons. Influenza like illness data were obtained through a nationwide surveillance system based on sentinel general practitioners. Vaccine effectiveness was also estimated. The estimated number of ILI cases attended in general practice during the 2011–2012 was lower than that of the past twelve epidemics. The age distribution was characteristic of previous A(H3N2)-dominated outbreaks: school-age children were relatively spared compared to epidemics (co-)dominated by A(H1N1) and/or B viruses (including the 2009 pandemic and post-pandemic outbreaks), while the proportion of adults over 30 year-old was higher. The estimated vaccine effectiveness (54%, 95% CI (48, 60)) was in the lower range for A(H3N2) epidemics. In conclusion, the age distribution of ILI cases attended in general practice seems to be not different between the A(H3N2) pre-pandemic and post-pandemic epidemics. Future researches including a more important number of ILI epidemics and confirmed virological data of influenza and other respiratory pathogens are necessary to confirm these results. PMID:23755294

  10. New speckle-tracking algorithm for right ventricular volume analysis from three-dimensional echocardiographic data sets: validation with cardiac magnetic resonance and comparison with the previous analysis tool.

    Muraru, Denisa; Spadotto, Veronica; Cecchetto, Antonella; Romeo, Gabriella; Aruta, Patrizia; Ermacora, Davide; Jenei, Csaba; Cucchini, Umberto; Iliceto, Sabino; Badano, Luigi P


    (i) To validate a new software for right ventricular (RV) analysis by 3D echocardiography (3DE) against cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR); (ii) to assess the accuracy of different measurement approaches; and (iii) to explore any benefits vs. the previous software. We prospectively studied with 3DE and CMR 47 patients (14-82 years, 28 men) having a wide range of RV end-diastolic volumes (EDV 82-354 mL at CMR) and ejection fractions (EF 34-81%). Multi-beat RV 3DE data sets were independently analysed with the new software using both automated and manual editing options, as well as with the previous software. RV volume reproducibility was tested in 15 random patients. RV volumes and EF measurements by the new software had an excellent accuracy (bias ± SD: -15 ± 24 mL for EDV; 1.4 ± 4.9% for EF) and reproducibility compared with CMR, provided that the RV borders automatically tracked by software were systematically edited by operator. The automated analysis option underestimated the EDV, overestimated the ESV, and largely underestimated the EF (bias ± SD: -17 ± 10%). RV volumes measured with the new software using manual editing showed similar accuracy, but lower inter-observer variability and shorter analysis time (3-5') in comparison with the previous software. Novel vendor-independent 3DE software enables an accurate, reproducible and faster quantitation of RV volumes and ejection fraction. Rather than optional, systematic verification of border tracking quality and manual editing are mandatory to ensure accurate 3DE measurements. These findings are relevant for echocardiography laboratories aiming to implement 3DE for RV analysis for both research and clinical purposes. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:

  11. Discussion on further studies to measure and evaluate fitness and motor performance for preschool children; summary and previous studies in Japan and future consideratin

    Murase, Tomohiko; Demura, Shinichi


    This article discusses and summarizes previous studies dealing with fitness and motor performance in preschool children from the viewpoint of measurement and evaluation, and determines topics for further studies. The studies reviewed in this article were mainly published in the “Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences” (edited by the Japan Society of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences), and the “Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine” (edite...

  12. Randomized, multicenter, phase 2 study (EVOLUTION) of combinations of bortezomib, dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, and lenalidomide in previously untreated multiple myeloma.

    Kumar, Shaji; Flinn, Ian; Richardson, Paul G; Hari, Parameswaran; Callander, Natalie; Noga, Stephen J; Stewart, A Keith; Turturro, Francesco; Rifkin, Robert; Wolf, Jeffrey; Estevam, Jose; Mulligan, George; Shi, Hongliang; Webb, Iain J; Rajkumar, S Vincent


    Combinations of bortezomib (V) and dexamethasone (D) with either lenalidomide (R) or cyclophosphamide (C) have shown significant efficacy. This randomized phase 2 trial evaluated VDC, VDR, and VDCR in previously untreated multiple myeloma (MM). Patients received V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 4, 8, 11) and D 40 mg (days 1, 8, 15), with either C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8) and R 15 mg (days 1-14; VDCR), R 25 mg (days 1-14; VDR), C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8; VDC) or C 500 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15; VDC-mod) in 3-week cycles (maximum 8 cycles), followed by maintenance with V 1.3 mg/m2 (days 1, 8, 15, 22) for four 6-week cycles (all arms)≥very good partial response was seen in 58%, 51%, 41%, and 53% (complete response rate of 25%, 24%, 22%, and 47%) of patients (VDCR, VDR, VCD, and VCD-mod, respectively); the corresponding 1-year progression-free survival was 86%, 83%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Common adverse events included hematologic toxicities, peripheral neuropathy, fatigue, and gastrointestinal disturbances. All regimens were highly active and well tolerated in previously untreated MM, and, based on this trial, VDR and VCD-mod are preferred for clinical practice and further comparative testing. No substantial advantage was noted with VDCR over the 3-drug combinations. This trial is registered at (NCT00507442).

  13. High spectral resolution ozone absorption cross-sections – Part 1: Measurements, data analysis and comparison with previous measurements around 293 K

    V. Gorshelev


    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the methodology of taking broadband relative and absolute measurements of ozone cross-sections including uncertainty budget, experimental set-ups, and methods for data analysis. We report on new ozone absorption cross-section measurements in the solar spectral region using a combination of Fourier transform and echelle spectrometers. The new cross-sections cover the spectral range 213–1100 nm at a spectral resolution of 0.02–0.06 nm in the UV-vis and 0.12–0.24 nm in the IR at eleven temperatures from 193 to 293 K in steps of 10 K. The absolute accuracy is better than three percent for most parts of the spectral region and wavelength calibration accuracy is better than 0.005 nm. The new room temperature cross-sections data are compared in detail with previously available literature data. The temperature dependence of our cross-sections is described in a companion paper.

  14. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys.

    Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda K; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M


    The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of the present paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS rolling programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64 years and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18 years. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10 years, 11-18 years and 19-64 years). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children aged 4-10 years had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P < 0·0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children aged 4-10 years (P < 0·0001), contributing 13·7-14·6 % in 2008-09 compared with 16·8 % in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46 %) of girls aged 11-18 years and women aged 19-64 years (21 %) with mean daily Fe intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake. Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls.

  15. Patient acceptance and clinical impact of Bravo monitoring in patients with previous failed catheter-based studies.

    Sweis, R; Fox, M; Anggiansah, R; Anggiansah, A; Basavaraju, K; Canavan, R; Wong, T


    Standard pH monitoring is performed over 24 h with a naso-oesophageal catheter (C-pH). Limitations include naso-pharyngeal discomfort, nausea and social embarrassment resulting in reduced reflux-provoking activities. Recently a catheter-free pH-monitoring technique has become available. The tolerability and diagnostic yield of this system in patients who failed standard monitoring remain unknown. To examine the tolerability and diagnostic outcome of catheter-free pH-monitoring technique in patients who failed standard monitoring. Patients referred for C-pH and catheter-free pH monitoring completed a tolerability questionnaire. Acid exposure in the distal oesophagus and symptom index (SI) were reviewed. Over 4 years, 883/1751 (50%) of patients with typical reflux symptoms referred for C-pH were diagnosed with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) based on a pathological percentage time acid exposure (%time pH patients failed C-pH and, of these, 129 successfully completed 2-day catheter-free pH monitoring. Ninety-eight (76%) of these patients had a pathological percentage pH patients (P patients who had previously failed C-pH; catheter-free pH monitoring assists the definitive diagnosis of GERD in this group.

  16. A comparison of the updated very high resolution model RegCM3_10km with the previous version RegCM3_25km over the complex terrain of Greece: present and future projections

    Tolika, Konstantia; Anagnostopoulou, Christina; Velikou, Kondylia; Vagenas, Christos


    The ability of a fine resolution regional climate model (10 × 10 km) in simulating efficiently the climate characteristics (temperature, precipitation, and wind) over Greece, in comparison to the previous version of the model with a 25 × 25 km resolution, is examined and analyzed in the present study. Overall, the results showed that the finer resolution model presented a better skill in generating low winter temperatures at high altitudinal areas, the temperature difference between the islands and the surrounding sea, high rainfall totals over the mountainous areas, the thermal storms during summer, and the wind maxima over the Aegean Sea. Regarding the future projections, even though the two models agree on the climatic signal, differences are found mainly to the magnitude of change of the selected parameters. Finally, it was found that at higher pressure levels, the present day projections of the two models do not show significant differences since the topography and terrain does not play such an important role as the general atmospheric circulation.

  17. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    Olatunji, S. A.


    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  18. A randomized, controlled comparison of macroscopic conjunctival hyperemia in patients treated with bimatoprost 0.01% or vehicle who were previously controlled on latanoprost

    E Randy Craven


    Full Text Available E Randy Craven1, Ching-Chi Liu2, Amy Batoosingh2, Rhett M Schiffman2, Scott M Whitcup21Glaucoma Consultants of Colorado, Denver, CO, USA; 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; This work was presented in part at the 19th Annual Meeting of the American Glaucoma Society (AGS; March 5–8, 2009; San Diego, CA, USAPurpose: To evaluate conjunctival hyperemia associated with bimatoprost 0.01% treatment in patients who replace latanoprost 0.005% with bimatoprost 0.01%.Methods: Randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, multicenter study of patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma whose intraocular pressure (IOP was adequately controlled on latanoprost monotherapy. At baseline, patients discontinued latanoprost and were randomized to treatment with once-daily bimatoprost 0.01% (n = 151 or vehicle (n = 71. The primary endpoint was the peak change in macroscopic hyperemia (conjunctival hyperemia evaluated by gross visual inspection from baseline to month 1.Results: Bimatoprost 0.01% was noninferior to vehicle in the mean [standard deviation] peak change from baseline macroscopic hyperemia at month 1 (0.18 [0.46] in the bimatoprost 0.01% group vs 0.02 [0.32] in the vehicle group, P = 0.009. The between-group difference was 0.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04, 0.26, which was within the predefined margin for noninferiority of 0.5 on a hyperemia grading scale of 0 to +3. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the percentage of patients with a ≥1-grade increase in macroscopic hyperemia from baseline. Mean IOP was decreased from baseline (-0.7 to -1.3 mm Hg in the bimatoprost 0.01% group (P ≤ 0.002 and was increased from baseline (+3.3 to +3.6 mm Hg in the vehicle group (P < 0.001 at month 1. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in adverse events.Conclusions: Bimatoprost 0.01% was noninferior to vehicle with respect to conjunctival hyperemia in this study population. Replacement of

  19. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Huibers Marcus JH


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group, health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1, and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2. Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A

  20. ORAM and shutdown PRA comparison study

    He, W.G.; Hilsmeier, Todd; Carrier, Tom [PSE and G, Salem, NJ (United States)


    A comparison study between results obtained from an Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) model and a shutdown Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model was conducted. The purpose of the study was to provide useful risk information for better outage planning by focusing resources and contingency plans on risk significant configurations. The comparison study used selected configurations from the 8th refueling outage of the Hope Creek Generation Station (HCGS), a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A total of Eleven configurations were compared. Three configurations were selected to evaluate the impact of the Service Water System during the early stage of a refueling outage. (There are existing studies suggesting that the designed redundancy of Service Water Systems is needed during the early stage of a shutdown.) Four configurations were selected because they were deemed risk significant by the ORAM analysis. (For configurations deemed risk significant by ORAM results, compensatory actions have been taken and contingency plans have been developed to mitigate potential deviations from the configuration. The shutdown PRA was used to evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of these contingency plans and compensatory actions.) To increase the comparison population, an additional four configurations were randomly selected. Thus, a total of 15 configurations were evaluated by the shutdown PRA, and a total of 11 configurations were studied by the ORAM. (author)

  1. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever


    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  2. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.


    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  3. Warfarin dosing after bariatric surgery: a retrospective study of 10 patients previously stable on chronic warfarin therapy.

    Schullo-Feulner, A M; Stoecker, Z; Brown, G A; Schneider, J; Jones, T A; Burnett, B


    Many changes associated with bariatric surgery have the potential to affect warfarin dosing; yet current literature includes little data describing this phenomenon. Investigating this relationship may allow for determination of post-bariatric surgery warfarin dosing using stable pre-operative dosing levels. A retrospective chart review was completed for 10 patients stabilized on chronic warfarin therapy who underwent bariatric surgery. Data collection consisted of the following: warfarin requirement in mg/week, time in target range (TTR), creatinine, liver function, diarrhoea, medication changes, diet, and signs of bleeding and/or thrombosis. Three study patients underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding procedures and seven patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The average (standard deviation) weekly warfarin dose required in the immediate post-operative interval was 64% (25%) of baseline dosing, corresponding to a TTR of 48%. At 6 months, patients required 85% (19%) of baseline weekly dosing, with TTR of 53.4%. At 1 year, dosing was 90% (16%) of baseline with TTR of 63.5%. Patients underwent medication changes as well as transient bouts of diarrhoea. Two patients suffered unspecified haemorrhages of the gastrointestinal tract (international normalized ratio [INR] = 2.3 and 9.8). This patient set demonstrated an initial drop in warfarin requirement, followed by escalating dosing trends that became more predictable as patients were farther out from procedure.

  4. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)


    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.


    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour


    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  6. Variations of the accessory nerve: anatomical study including previously undocumented findings-expanding our misunderstanding of this nerve.

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ajayi, Olaide O; Fries, Fabian N; Spinner, Robert J; Oskouian, Rod J


    The anatomy of the accessory nerve has been well described but continued new clinical and anatomical findings exemplify our lack of a full understanding of the course of this nerve. Therefore, this study aimed to expand on our knowledge of the course of the 11th cranial nerve via anatomical dissections. Fifty-six cadavers (112 sides) underwent dissection of the accessory nerve from its cranial and spinal origins to its emergence into the posterior cervical triangle. Immunohistochemistry was performed when appropriate. Our findings included two cases (1.8%) where the nerve was duplicated, one intracranially and one extracranially. One accessory nerve (0.9%) was found to enter its own dural compartment within the jugular foramen. The majority of sides (80%) were found to have a cranial root of the accessory nerve. Thirty-one sides (28%) had connections to cervical dorsal roots medially and three sides (2.7%) laterally. Medial connections were most common with the C1 nerve. Medial components of these dorsal root connections were all sensory in nature. However, lateral components were motor on two sides (1.8%). Nerves traveled anterior to the internal jugular vein on 88% of sides. One (0.9%) left side nerve joined an interneural anastomosis between the dorsal rootlets. Macroganglia were found on the spinal part of the intracranial nerve on 13% of sides. The lesser occipital nerve arose directly from the accessory nerve on two sides (1.8%) and communicated with the accessory nerve on 5.4% of sides. One side (0.9%) was found to communicate with the facial nerve with both nerves innervating the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Additional anatomical knowledge of the variants of the accessory nerve may benefit patient care when this nerve is pathologically involved.

  7. Missing osteoconductive effect of a resorbable PEO/PBT copolymer in human bone defects: a clinically relevant pilot study with contrary results to previous animal studies.

    Roessler, M; Wilke, A; Griss, P; Kienapfel, H


    PEO/PBT 70/30 (POLYACTIVE(R) 70/30), a degradable porous copolymer with elastic properties, was found to be osteoconductive in many animal studies. The aim of this study was to determine the osteoconductive effect in a human paired control iliac defect model. In seven patients undergoing anterior spinal interbody fusion surgery, two bicortical iliac defects for autograft harvesting were created. The defect size was identical for both defects measuring about 40 x 15 mm (group I). One defect was filled with the degradable implants, whereas the remaining one was left untreated as a control. The defect site for treatment was chosen randomly. In three further patients, only one defect measuring about 40 x 35 mm was created (group II). All patients were examined clinically and radiologically by spiral-CT after 1, 6, 12, 24, and 52 weeks. Three-dimensional reconstructions as well as CT-volumetric measurements using 1 mm sections were used as evaluation methods. In group I, a two-tailed paired t-test showed that the treated defects had significantly less formation of new bone than the untreated ones (p < 0.05 after 12 weeks, p < 0.01 after 52 weeks). Also, in group II, not much bone ingrowth could be observed. The histological evaluation of one patient in group I revealed no bone within the pores, and a fibrous layer between bone and implant was always present. Therefore, PEO/PBT 70/30 cannot be recommended as a bone substitute for clinical use. Differences in bone regeneration between humans and certain animal species as well as inapplicable defect models in previous animal studies are discussed as possible reasons for the failure.

  8. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand


    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  9. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de


    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  10. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    Suenaga M


    Full Text Available Mitsukuni Suenaga,1 Nobuyuki Mizunuma,1 Satoshi Matsusaka,1 Eiji Shinozaki,1 Masato Ozaka,1 Mariko Ogura,1 Toshiharu Yamaguchi21Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods: Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77 years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0 and the response rate (complete response and partial response was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment

  11. Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled ...

    The draft document is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and, more importantly, what is not yet known that could be of value in assessing the broad implications of specific nanomaterials. Like previous case studies (see History/ Chronology below), this draft case study on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is based on the comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) approach, which consists of both a framework and a process. Unlike previous case studies this case study incorporates information about a traditional (i.e., “non-nano-enabled”) product, against which the MWCNT flame-retardant coating applied to upholstery textiles (i.e., the “nano-enabled” product) can be compared. The comparative element serves dual-purposes: 1) to provide a more robust database that facilitates identification of data gaps related to the nano-enabled product and 2) to provide a context for identifying key factors and data gaps for future efforts to evaluate risk-related trade-offs between a nano-enabled and non-nano-enabled product. This draft case study does not represent a completed or even a preliminary assessment of MWCNTs; rather, it uses the CEA framework to structure information from available literature and other resources (e.g., government reports) on the product life cycle, fate and transport processes in various environmental media, exposure-dose characterization, and impacts in human, ecological, and environmental receptors.

  12. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P


    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  13. Comparison of particulate verification techniques study

    Rivera, Rachel


    The efficacy of five particulate verification techniques on four types of materials was studied. Statistical Analysis Software/JMP 6.0 was used to create a statistically valid design of experiments. In doing so, 35 witness coupons consisting of the four types of materials being studied, were intentionally contaminated with particulate fallout. Image Analysis was used to characterize the extent of particulate fallout on the coupons and was used to establish a baseline, or basis of comparison, against the five techniques that were studied. The five particulate verification techniques were the Tapelift, the Particulate Solvent Rinse, the GelPak lift, an in-line vacuum filtration probe, and the Infinity Focusing Microscope (IFM). The four types of materials consisted of magnesium flouride (MgF II) coated mirrors, composite coated silver aluminum (CCAg), Z93 and NS43G coated aluminum, and silicon (si) wafers. The vacuum probe was determined to be most effective for Z93, the tapelift or vacuum probe for MgF2, and the GelPak Lift for CCAg and si substrates. A margin of error for each technique, based on experimental data from two experiments, for si wafer substrates, yielded the following: Tapelift - 67%, Solvent Rinse - 58%, GelPak- 26%, Vacuum Probe - 93%, IFM-to be determined.

  14. Social comparison affects brain responses to fairness in asset division : an ERP study with the ultimatum game

    Wu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; van Dijk, E.; Leliveld, M.C.; Zhou, X.


    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipient

  15. Prevention and health promotion in undergraduate medical education: Preferences, attitudes and previous knowledge of medical students - a cross-sectional study

    Klement, Andreas; Bretschneider, Kristin; Lautenschläger, Christine; Stang, Andreas; Herrmann, Markus; Haerting, Johannes


    Objective: The interdisciplinary topic "prevention and health promotion" (Q10) was introduced into the medical training in Germany by the new medical licensing regulations in 2004. For the conception of an effective curriculum, it is helpful to know student preferences concerning teaching-formats, attitudes and self-estimated previous knowledge. Little is known concerning student perception of “prevention and health promotion” in Germany. Thus, this explorative cross-sectional study aims to p...

  16. Continous controversy about radiation oncologists' choice of treatment regimens for bone metatases: should we blame doctors, canser-related features, or design of previous clinical studies

    Nieder, Carsten; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid


    Recent studies from Italy, Japan and Norway have confirmed previous reports, which found that a large variety of palliative radiotherapy regimens are used for painful bone metastases. Routine use of single fraction treatment might or might not be the preferred institutional approach. It is not entirely clear why inter-physician and inter-institution differences continue to persist despite numerous randomized trials, meta-analyses and guidelines, which recommend against more costly and inconve...

  17. The impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health: a retrospective study up to 7-year follow-up.

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole


    To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.

  18. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Festa Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2 study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7% among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures.

  19. Role of previous hospitalization in clinically-significant MRSA infection among HIV-infected inpatients: results of a case-control study

    Drapeau, Cecilia MJ; Angeletti, Claudio; Festa, Anna; Petrosillo, Nicola


    Background HIV-infected subjects have high incidence rates of Staphylococcus aureus infections, with both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Possible explanations could include the high burden of colonization, the behavioral risk factors, and the frequent exposures to health care facilities of HIV-infected patients. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors for clinically- significant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CS-MRSA) infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to Infectious Diseases Units. Methods From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2005, we conducted a retrospective case-control (1:2) study. We identified all the cases of CS-MRSA infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases (INMI) "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in the 4-year study period. A conditional logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for CS-MRSA infection. Results We found 27 CS-MRSA infections, i.e. 0.9 CS-MRSA infections per 100 HIV-infected individuals cared for in our Institute. At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CS-MRSA infection were cumulative hospital stay, invasive procedures in the previous year, and low CD4 cell count. Particularly, the risk for CS-MRSA increased by 14% per an increase of 5 days hospitalization in the previous year. Finally, we identified a low frequency of community-acquired MRSA infections (only 1 of 27; 3.7%) among HIV-infected patients. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of the risk for CS-MRSA infection in the clinical management of HIV-infected patients, especially in those patients with a low CD4 cell count, longer previous hospital stay, and previous invasive procedures. PMID:17470274

  20. Cerebral Aneurysms: assessment of 50 cases operated on and comparison with previous series Aneurismas cerebrais: análise de 50 casos operados e comparação com séries anteriores

    Guilherme Borges


    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of 50 patients who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH treated at UNICAMP between April 1988 and March 1992 is made, distributed as 34% in Hunt & Hess grade 1,38% in grade II, 16% in grade III, and 12% in grade IV. Males were predominant (66.6%, and patients age varied around 47± 12.13 years old. Only 13 patients (26% were admitted within the first 24 hours after bleeding, with an overall average of 20.45 days of delay. From all cases only one had a rebleeding, survived and was submitted to surgery. Four patients died after surgery (8%. Timing of operation and prognostic chances were available, being 27.30 days after SAH for Hunt & Hess group I. It is analyzed also the timing for diagnosis - which responded for the most delay, and treatment for the other groups, and a historical comparison with previous series since year 1956 of the same Hospital were documented. Good results were observed in 38 cases (76%. The overall results in terms of mortality and morbidity is, in comparison, in accordance with the literature, and is ameliorated from the past series due to technical improvement, despite worsen difficulties in managing admittance, diagnosis and treatment faster, which is required to deal with the disease.Revisão cirúrgica de 50 pacientes portadores de aneurisma cerebral é realizada. O "timing "cirúrgico e prognóstico é bem documentado e comparado com séries anteriormente publicadas . A demora em se operar os pacientes foi devida à dificuldade de se realizar o diagnóstico (CT e angiografia. Observamos bons resultados em 38 casos (76% e a taxa de mortalidade foi de 8% (4 casos. Os resultados finais estão, em comparação com a literatura, dentro do aceitável.

  1. Adjusted indirect treatment comparisons of bioequivalence studies

    Gwaza, L


    Generic medicines are approved by regulatory authorities based on demonstration of bioequivalence with the innovator, however, current regulatory systems do not require direct comparison between all available generics of the same innovator to ensure interchangeability. As such, interchangeability be

  2. Phase II study of capecitabine as palliative treatment for patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous head and neck cancer after previous platinum-based treatment

    Martinez-Trufero, J; Isla, D; Adansa, J C; Irigoyen, A; Hitt, R; Gil-Arnaiz, I; Lambea, J; Lecumberri, M J; Cruz, J J


    Background: Platinum-based therapy (PBT) is the standard therapy for recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC), but the incidence of recurrence remains high. This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine as palliative monotherapy for recurrent HNC previously treated with PBT. Methods: Patients aged 18–75 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2, squamous HNC with locoregional and/or metastatic recurrence previously treated with PBT and adequate organ functions, were included. Capecitabine (1.250 mg m−2 BID) was administered on days 1–14 every 21 days for at least two cycles. Results: A total of 40 male patients with a median age of 58 years were analysed. All patients received a median number of four cycles of capecitabine (range: 1–9) and the median relative dose intensity was 91%. Seven patients were not evaluable for response. Overall response rate was 24.2%. Median time to progression and overall survival were 4.8 and 7.3 months, respectively. Haematological adverse events (AEs) grade 3/4 were reported in six patients. Most common grade 3/4 non-haematological AEs were asthenia (12.5%), palmar-plantar eritrodisestesia (10%), mucositis (10%), dysphagia (10%) and diarrhoea (7.5%). Conclusions: Capecitabine seems to be an active, feasible and well-tolerated mode of palliative treatment for advanced HNC patients who have previously received PBT schedules. PMID:20485287

  3. Risk for High Depressive Symptoms in Diagnosed and Previously Undetected Diabetes: 5-Year Follow-Up Results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    Icks, Andrea; Albers, Bernd; Haastert, Burkhard; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Pundt, Noreen; Slomiany, Uta; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kruse, Johannes; Kulzer, Bernd; Nowotny, Bettina; Herder, Christian; Giani, Guido; Moebus, Susanne


    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. Methods We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD) 59.1 (7.6) years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes) from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. Result Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI) of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2–10.9), 4.1 (1.8–8.0), and 6.5 (5.6–7.4), respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74–2.03) in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59–1.68) after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35–1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30–1.30. Conclusion We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  4. Risk for high depressive symptoms in diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes: 5-year follow-up results of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study.

    Andrea Icks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the risk for the development of high depressive symptoms in study participants with diagnosed and previously undetected diabetes mellitus compared to those without diabetes in a prospective population-based cohort study in Germany. METHODS: We estimated the 5-year cumulative incidence of high depressive symptoms in participants without high depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 3,633, 51.4% men, mean age (SD 59.1 (7.6 years, 7.0% diagnosed diabetes, 5.3% previously undetected diabetes from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Diabetes was assessed by self-report, medication, and blood glucose. High depressive symptoms were assessed using CES-D. We calculated odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence interval, using multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULT: Cumulative 5-year incidences (95% CI of high depressive symptoms in participants with diagnosed, undetected, and without diabetes were 7.1 (4.2-10.9, 4.1 (1.8-8.0, and 6.5 (5.6-7.4, respectively. The age-sex-adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms was 1.22 (0.74-2.03 in participants with diagnosed compared to those without diabetes, and 1.00 (0.59-1.68 after adjustment for BMI, physical activity, education, stroke, and myocardial infarction. The age-sex adjusted OR for developing high depressive symptoms in participants with previously undetected diabetes compared to those without diabetes was 0.72; 0.35-1.48; and fully adjusted 0.62; 0.30-1.30. CONCLUSION: We found no significant associations, maybe due to low power. However, our results are in line with a recent meta-analysis suggesting that risk of developing high depressive symptoms in patients with diagnosed diabetes may be moderately higher than in those without diabetes, and that comorbidity may explain in part this association. In participants with previously undetected diabetes, this first longitudinal study indicates that the risk is not

  5. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    Corrard François


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding, as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI, as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds. Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders, breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI  Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study.

  6. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R


    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  7. Myocardial adaptation to high-intensity (interval) training in previously untrained men with a longitudinal cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study (Running Study and Heart Trial).

    Scharf, Michael; Schmid, Axel; Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; May, Matthias S; Wuest, Wolfgang; Achenbach, Stephan; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M


    To prospectively evaluate whether short-term high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) induces detectable morphological cardiac changes in previously untrained men in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Eighty-four untrained volunteers were randomly assigned to a HI(I)T group (n=42; 44.1±4.7 years) or an inactive control group (n=42; 42.3±5.6 years). HI(I)T focused on interval runs (intensity: 95%-105% of individually calculated heart rate at the anaerobic threshold). Before and after 16 weeks, all subjects underwent physiological examination, stepwise treadmill test with blood lactate analysis, and contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cine, tagging, and delayed enhancement). Indexed left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume (LV, 77.1±8.5-83.9±8.6; RV, 80.5±8.5-86.6±8.1) and mass (LV, 58.2±6.4-63.4±8.1; RV, 14.8±1.7-16.1±2.1) significantly increased with HI(I)T. Changes in LV and RV morphological parameters with HI(I)T were highly correlated with an increase in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and a decrease in blood lactate concentration at the anaerobic threshold. Mean LV and RV remodeling index of HI(I)T group did not alter with training (0.76 ±0.09 and 0.24±0.10 g/mL, respectively [P=0.97 and P=0.72]), indicating balanced cardiac adaptation. Myocardial circumferential strain decreased after HI(I)T within all 6 basal segments (anteroseptal, P=0.01 and anterolateral, PHeart Association, Inc.

  8. Cooperative Research Paired Trawl Sweep Comparison Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2009, Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) replaced the previous standard bottom trawl gear (Yankee 36) with a new standard survey trawl...

  9. Biomechanical jumping differences among elite female handball players with and without previous anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a novel inertial sensor unit study.

    Setuain, Igor; Millor, Nora; González-Izal, Miriam; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Gómez, Marisol; Alfaro-Adrián, Jesús; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Izquierdo, Mikel


    Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations have been observed among female athletes who have sustained anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine if biomechanical jumping differences persist among a cohort of elite female handball players with previous ACL reconstruction several years after return to top-level competition. In order to achieve this goal, a direct mechanics simplified analysis by using a single Inertial Sensor Unit (IU) was used. Twenty-one elite female (6 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed and 15 uninjured control players) handball players were recruited and evaluated 6.0 ± 3.5 years after surgical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Bilateral and unilateral vertical jumps were performed to evaluate the functional performance and a single inertial sensor unit was employed in order to collect 3D acceleration and 3D orientation data. Previously ACL-reconstructed analysed athletes demonstrated significant (p reconstruction. Identification of the encountered deficits through the use of an IU devise could provide clinicians with a new reliable tool for movement analysis in a clinical setting.

  10. A longitudinal study of relationships between previous academic achievement, emotional intelligence and personality traits with psychological health of medical students during stressful periods.

    Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Esa, Ab Rahman; Mat Pa, Mohamad Najib; Mey, See Ching; Aziz, Rosniza Abdul; Abdul Rahim, Ahmad Fuad


    There is considerable evidence that emotional intelligence, previous academic achievement (i.e. cumulative grade point average (GPA)) and personality are associated with success in various occupational settings. This study evaluated the relationships of these variables with psychological health of first year medical students during stressful periods. A 1-year prospective study was done with students accepted into the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Information on emotional intelligence, GPA and personality traits were obtained prior to admission. The validated Universiti Sains Malaysia Emotional Quotient Inventory and Universiti Sains Malaysia Personality Inventory were used to measure emotional intelligence and personality traits, respectively. Stress, anxiety and depression were measured by the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale during the end-of-course (time 1) and final (time 2) examinations. At the less stressful period (time 1), stress level was associated with agreeableness and the final GPA, anxiety level was associated with emotional control and emotional conscientiousness and depression level was associated with the final GPA and extraversion. At the more stressful period (time 2), neuroticism associated with stress level, anxiety level was associated with neuroticism and emotional expression, and depression level was associated with neuroticism. This study found that neuroticism was the strongest associated factor of psychological health of medical students during their most stressful testing period. Various personality traits, emotional intelligence and previous academic performance were associated factors of psychological health during a less stressful period. These data suggest that early identification of medical students who are vulnerable to the stressful environment of medical schools might help them maintain psychological well-being during medical training.

  11. Study on the Properties of TiN Coatings on Previously Ion-Implanted Pure Magnesium Surface by MEVVA Ion Implantation

    ZHOU Hai; CHEN Fei; WANG Jian-ping


    A metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) is used in ion implantation for substrate preparation before the deposition process which would ensure the improvement of mechanical properties of the coating.Ti ion is implanted into pure magnesium surface by MEVVA implanter operated with a modified cathode.Implanting energy is kept at 45 keV and dose is set at 3×1017 cm-2.TiN coatings are deposited by magnetically filtered vacuum-arc plasma source on unimplanted and previously implanted substrates.Microstructure and phase composition are analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The property of corrosion resistance of TiN coatings was studied by CS300P electrochemistry-corrosion workstation,and the main impact factor of the corrosion resistance was also analyzed.

  12. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl;


    and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC......, adequate organ functions and performance status less than 3 were eligible. Topotecan (2.0 mg/m, intravenously) was administered on days 1 to 3 with cisplatin (50 mg/m, intravenously) on day 3 every 3 weeks for a total of six cycles. RESULTS: Forty-three patients received 219 cycles of chemotherapy. Median.......3-7.7), respectively. CONCLUSION: Three-day topotecan with cisplatin on day 3 is active and safe in extensive disease SCLC. An ongoing phase III randomized trial compares this combination to standard treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...


    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen


    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  14. Clinical evaluation of balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta in patients with placenta previa and previous cesarean section: A retrospective study on 43 cases.

    Chen, Manru; Xie, Lan


    This study investigated the efficacy of balloon occlusion of the lower abdominal aorta in cesarean section surgery for the patients with placenta previa and previous cesarean section. The patients who had placenta previa and underwent cesarean section (CS) were evaluated. The patients treated with CS to terminate the pregnancy were used as control group (23 cases); the patients treated with the preset abdominal aorta balloon before CS was taken as study group (20 cases). The investigated indicators included the intraoperative blood loss, blood loss within postoperative 24 h, the transfusion amount of red cell suspension (RCS), hospital stay, incidence rate of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), the asphyxia, premature delivery and the mortality of the newborns. The two groups are comparable. The intraoperative blood loss, blood loss within postoperative 24 h, the transfusion amount of RCS and the percentage of uterus resection in the study group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that in the control group. The percentage of uterine cavity filling with ribbon gauze in the study group was higher than the control group (P < 0.05). The balloon occlusion of lower abdominal aorta seems effective in reducing postpartum hemorrhage and the blood transfusion and decreasing the risk of hysterectomy without harming the newborns. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A


    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  16. A Phase III Study of Durvalumab (MEDI4736) With or Without Tremelimumab for Previously Treated Patients With Advanced NSCLC: Rationale and Protocol Design of the ARCTIC Study.

    Planchard, David; Yokoi, Takashi; McCleod, Michael J; Fischer, Jürgen R; Kim, Young-Chul; Ballas, Marc; Shi, Kelvin; Soria, Jean-Charles


    Anti-programmed cell death-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monotherapies have shown promising clinical activity in advanced, refractory non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but antitumor activity appears to be greater in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors compared with patients harboring PD-L1(-) tumors. Combining the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab and the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody tremelimumab offers the potential for antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 tumor status. ARCTIC (NCT02352948) is a global, phase III, randomized, open-label multicenter study in patients with advanced NSCLC assessing the safety and clinical activity of durvalumab versus standard of care (SoC; erlotinib, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine) in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors (≥25% of tumor cells with membrane staining using VENTANA PD-L1 [SP263] CDx Assay) (Sub-study A) and the combination of durvalumab + tremelimumab or either agent as monotherapy versus SoC in patients with PD-L1(-) tumors (Sub-study B). Eligible patients are those with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC (Stage IIIB/IV), without epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, who have received at least 2 prior systemic regimens, including 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary endpoints include the proportion of patients alive at 12 months, objective response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months, safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and quality of life. The exploratory endpoints will assess potential biomarkers of treatment response. Recruitment started in January 2015 and is ongoing.

  17. Phase III study of 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) compared to epirubicin, cisplatin and 5FU (ECF) in previously untreated patients with advanced biliary cancer.

    Rao, S; Cunningham, D; Hawkins, R E; Hill, M E; Smith, D; Daniel, F; Ross, P J; Oates, J; Norman, A R


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU (ECF) improves overall survival (OS) compared to 5FU, etoposide and leucovorin (FELV) in patients with previously untreated advanced biliary cancer in a prospective randomised study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive epirubicin, cisplatin and infused 5FU ECF or bolus 5FU etoposide and leucovorin (FELV). The primary end point was OS with secondary end points of objective response rate (ORR), failure-free survival (FFS), quality of life (QOL) and toxicity. In all, 54 patients were recruited with 27 randomly assigned to each arm. The median OS for ECF was 9.02 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.46-11.51) and FELV 12.03 months (95% CI: 9.3-14.7), P=0.2059. Objective response rates were similar for both arms: ECF 19.2% (95% CI: 6.55-39.3); FELV 15% (95% CI: 3.2-37.9), P=0.72. There was significantly increased grade 3/4 neutropenia with FELV vs ECF (53.8 vs 29.5%, respectively, P=0.020). Symptom resolution was impressive for both regimens. This is the largest reported randomised study to date in this setting. ECF did not improve OS compared to FELV, but was associated with less acute toxicity. These data suggest that chemotherapy can prolong OS and achieve good symptomatic relief in advanced biliary cancer.

  18. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Malindu Eranga Fernando

    Full Text Available AIMS: Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. METHODS: Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP and pressure time integral (PTI were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310. RESULTS: Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, p<0.001; and 0.762, 95% CI 0.303-1.221, p = 0.001, respectively. Sub-group analyses demonstrated no significant difference in MPP for those with neuropathy with active ulceration compared to those without ulcers. A significant difference in MPP was found for those with neuropathy with a past history of ulceration compared to those without ulcers; (0.467, 95% CI 0.181- 0.753, p = 0.001. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS: Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic

  19. The influence of previous infections and antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity on functional outcome in ischemic stroke patients: results from the IN2 study.

    Consoli, Domenico; Vidale, Simone; Aguglia, Umberto; Bassi, Pietro; Cavallini, Anna; Consoli, Arturo; Galati, Franco; Guidetti, Donata; Micieli, Giuseppe; Neri, Giuseppe; Rasura, Maurizia; Sterzi, Roberto; Toni, Danilo; Inzitari, Domenico


    Although a growing attention is being paid to acute ischemic stroke patients, the correlation between clinical outcome and infectious events in this population has been poorly investigated. 749 ischemic stroke (mean age 71 years old, males 56%) patients were enrolled in this prospective case-control study by 11 Italian Stroke Units. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, previous infections and post-stroke infections (PSIs) were recorded. Blood samples were collected and the enzyme-linked immunoassay was chosen to measure Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG and IgA plasma antibodies (antibody titers were classified with specific cut-off levels: IgA > 1:16 and IgG > 1:64). Early poor outcome was defined as mRS score >2 at discharge, while poor outcome at 6-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Median NIHSS was 7, IgA and IgG antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivities were observed in 308 (37.1%) and 207 (23.6%) patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed significant correlations between PSIs and NIHSS (RR: 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.09; p < 0.001) and PSIs and IgA antichlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity (RR: 3.84; 95% CI 2.53-5.84; p < 0.001). Significant disability was associated with baseline NIHSS (RR: 1.32; 95% CI 1.16-1.50; p < 0.001), IgA (RR: 2.67; 95% CI 1.06-6.70; p = 0.035) and IgG antichlamydia (RR: 5.75; 95% CI 1.83-18.03; p = 0.003) seropositivity and atrial fibrillation (RR: 2.58; 95% CI 1.81-3.67; p < 0.001). While previous infections were not associated with functional outcome, antichlamydia antibodies play a negative role in ischemic stroke patients. Preventive strategies may reduce the stroke burden and improve the clinical outcome.

  20. A plea for neutral comparison studies in computational sciences.

    Anne-Laure Boulesteix

    Full Text Available In computational science literature including, e.g., bioinformatics, computational statistics or machine learning, most published articles are devoted to the development of "new methods", while comparison studies are generally appreciated by readers but surprisingly given poor consideration by many journals. This paper stresses the importance of neutral comparison studies for the objective evaluation of existing methods and the establishment of standards by drawing parallels with clinical research. The goal of the paper is twofold. Firstly, we present a survey of recent computational papers on supervised classification published in seven high-ranking computational science journals. The aim is to provide an up-to-date picture of current scientific practice with respect to the comparison of methods in both articles presenting new methods and articles focusing on the comparison study itself. Secondly, based on the results of our survey we critically discuss the necessity, impact and limitations of neutral comparison studies in computational sciences. We define three reasonable criteria a comparison study has to fulfill in order to be considered as neutral, and explicate general considerations on the individual components of a "tidy neutral comparison study". R codes for completely replicating our statistical analyses and figures are available from the companion website

  1. A Retrospective Case-Control Study Evaluating the Role of Mifepristone for Induction of Labor in Women with Previous Cesarean Section.

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Soni, Anjali; Soni, Pawan K; Verma, Suresh; Verma, Ashok; Gupta, Amit


    To investigate the role of "mifepristone" for induction of labor (IOL) in pregnant women with prior cesarean section (CS). In this retrospective study, all pregnant women with prior CS who received oral mifepristone (400 mg) for IOL (as per clear obstetric indications) [group 1] were compared with pregnant women with prior CS who had spontaneous onset of labor (SOL) [group 2], with respect to incidence of vaginal delivery, CS, duration of labor, and various maternal and fetal outcomes. During the study period, 72 women received mifepristone (group 1) for IOL and 346 had SOL (group 2). In group 1 after mifepristone administration, 40 (55.6 %) women had labor onset, and 24 (33.3 %) women had cervical ripening (Bishop Score ≥ 8) within 48 h. There were no statistically significant differences with respect to duration of labor (p value: 0.681), mode of delivery (i.e., normal delivery or CS-p value: 0.076 or 0.120, respectively), or maternal (blood loss or scar dehiscence/rupture uterus), or fetal outcomes (NICU admission) compared to women with previous CS with SOL (group 2). However, the need of oxytocin (p value 0.020) and dose of oxytocin requirement (p value 0.008) were more statistically significant in group 1. Mifepristone may be considered as an agent for IOL in women with prior CS.

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis


    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  3. ACTG-HIV symptoms changes in patients switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to previous intolerance to CART. Interim analysis of the PRO-STR study

    Daniel Podzamczer


    Full Text Available Introduction: Tolerability and convenience are crucial aspects for the long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact in routine clinical practice of switching to the single tablet regimen (STR RPV/FTC/TDF in patients with intolerance to previous cART, in terms of patients’ well-being, assessed by several validated measures. Methods: Prospective, multicenter study. Adult HIV-infected patients with viral load under 1.000 copies/mL while receiving a stable ART for at least the last three months and switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to intolerance of previous regimen, were included. Analyses were performed by ITT. Presence/magnitude of symptoms (ACTG-HIV Symptom Index, quality of life (EQ-5D, EUROQoL & MOS-HIV, adherence (SMAQ, preference of treatment and perceived ease of medication (ESTAR through 48 weeks were performed. Results: Interim analysis of 125 patients with 16 weeks of follow up was performed. 100 (80% were male, mean age 46 years. Mean CD4 at baseline was 629.5±307.29 and 123 (98.4% had viral load <50 copies/mL; 15% were HCV co-infected. Ninety two (73.6% patients switched from a NNRTI (84.8% from EFV/FTC/TDF and 33 (26.4% from a PI/r. The most frequent reasons for switching were psychiatric disorders (51.2%, CNS adverse events (40.8%, gastrointestinal (19.2% and metabolic disorders (19.2%. At the time of this analysis (week 16, four patients (3.2% discontinued treatment: one due to adverse events, two virologic failures and one with no data. A total of 104 patients (83.2% were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL. The average degree of discomfort in the ACTG-HIV Symptom Index significantly decreased from baseline (21±15.55 to week 4 (10.89±12.36 & week 16 (10.81±12.62, p<0.001. In all the patients, quality of life tools showed a significant benefit in well-being of the patients (Table 1. Adherence to therapy significantly and progressively increased (SMAQ from

  4. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    Schreinemachers Dina M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher level of spring wheat farming than in counties with lower levels of this crop. Spring wheat, one of the major field crops in these four states, was treated for 85% or more of its acreage with chlorophenoxy herbicides. In the current study NHANES III data were reviewed for associations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D exposure, one of the most frequently used chlorophenoxy herbicides, with risk factors that are linked to the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes, such as dyslipidemia and impaired glucose metabolism. Methods To investigate the toxicity pattern of chlorophenoxy herbicides, effects of a previous 2,4-D exposure were assessed by comparing levels of lipids, glucose metabolism, and thyroid stimulating hormone in healthy adult NHANES III subjects with urinary 2,4-D above and below the level of detection, using linear regression analysis. The analyses were conducted for all available subjects and for two susceptible subpopulations characterized by high glycosylated hemoglobin (upper 50th percentile and low thyroxine (lower 50th percentile. Results Presence of urinary 2,4-D was associated with a decrease of HDL levels: 8.6% in the unadjusted data (p-value = 0.006, 4.8% in the adjusted data (p-value = 0.08, and 9% in the adjusted data for the susceptible subpopulation with low thyroxine (p-value = 0.02. An effect modification of the inverse triglycerides-HDL relation was observed in association with 2,4-D. Among subjects with low HDL, urinary 2,4-D was associated with increased levels of triglycerides, insulin, C-peptide, and thyroid stimulating hormone, especially in the susceptible subpopulations. In contrast, subjects with

  5. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    Bidoli Ettore


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. Methods From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216. Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294, in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Results Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44 occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005. Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. Conclusions This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically

  6. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail:; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.


    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  7. Effects of testosterone replacement therapy on nocturia and quality of life in men with hypogonadism: a subanalysis of a previous prospective randomized controlled study in Japan.

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Koji; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Nakashima, Takao; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio


    We investigated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on nocturia and general health among men with hypogonadism and nocturia. From our previous EARTH study population, 64 patients with a clinical diagnosis of nocturia (two or more times per one night) and hypogonadism, comprising the TRT group (n = 31) and controls (n = 33), were included in this analysis. The TRT group was administered 250 mg of testosterone enanthate as an intramuscular injection every 4 weeks for 6 months. All patients responded to the following questionnaires: International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) score and Short Form-36 health survey at baseline and 6-month visit. These categories were compared based on changes from baseline to the 6-month visit between TRT and control groups. At the 6-month visit, the TRT group had a significant decrease in IPSS question no. 7 and AMS question no. 4, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group. Additionally, role limitation because of health program, vitality and mental health domains were significantly improved in the TRT group. Six-month TRT may improve nocturia, sleep conditions and quality of life among men with hypogonadism and nocturia.

  8. Comparison Study of Two Different Sun-Tracking Methods in Optical Efficiency of Heliostat Field

    K.-K. Chong; Tan, M.H.


    There are two sun-tracking methods widely used for the heliostat, which are conventional Azimuth-Elevation and revolutionary Spinning-Elevation methods. Following the previous study to compare the range of motion, a comparison study in optical efficiency of heliostat field for the two methods is further explored in this paper. A special algorithm using ray-tracing technique has also been developed to simulate the optical efficiency of heliostat field for both sun-tracking methods in different...

  9. Distribution of interferon lambda-3 gene polymorphisms in Australian patients with previously untreated genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C: Analysis from the PREDICT and CHARIOT studies.

    Roberts, Stuart K; Mitchell, Joanne; Leung, Reynold; Booth, David; Bollipo, Steven; Ostapowicz, George; Sloss, Andrew; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Dore, Gregory J; Thompson, Alexander; Crawford, Darrell Hg; Sievert, William; Weltman, Martin; Cheng, Wendy; George, Jacob


    The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of interferon lambda-3 (IFN-λ3) gene polymorphisms in previously untreated Australian patients with genotype 1 (Gt1) chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and to compare the IFN-λ3 genotype frequency among the different ethnic populations. This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study undertaken by the Australian Liver Association Clinical Research Network. Eligible subjects had Gt1 CHC and were being considered for and/or undergoing treatment. IFN-λ3 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by the Applied Biosystems's Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assay. Between May 2012 and June 2012, 1132 patients were recruited from 38 treatment clinics across Australia. Also, 561 subjects from the CHARIOT (collaborative group hepatitis C study using high dose Pegasys RBV Induction dose in genotype one) study of high-dose interferon who had baseline serum available were retrospectively tested. The overall frequency of IFN-λ3 rs12979860 CC/CT/TT genotypes was 36%, 52%, and 12%, and that of rs8099917 TT/TG/GG genotypes was 54%, 41%, and 5%, respectively. The prevalence of the favorable IFN-λ3 rs12979860 CC and rs8099917 TT genotypes in Causcasians, Asians, Aboriginals, Maori/Pacific Islanders, and Mediterraneans was 32% and 52%, 80% and 86%, 33% and 63%, 77% and 88%, and 19% and 29%, respectively. Compared with Caucasians, the frequency of IFN-λ3 CC was significantly higher among Asians (P < 0.0001) and Maori/Pacific Islander subjects (P < 0.0001). The distribution of IFN-λ3 polymorphisms among untreated patients with Gt1 CHC in Australia appears similar to that reported from North America. The frequency of the favorable response alleles varies considerably according to ethnicity, being more common in self-reported Asians and Maori/Pacific Islanders than Caucasians, Aboriginals, and Mediterraneans. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty

  10. The influence of previous and concomitant leflunomide on the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis; a longitudinal observational study.

    Flendrie, M.; Creemers, M.C.W.; Welsing, P.M.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of previous and concomitant leflunomide on the efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare it to infliximab in combination with other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. METHODS: RA patients starting infliximab the

  11. Erlotinib dosing-to-rash: A phase II intrapatient dose escalation and pharmacologic study of erlotinib in previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    A. mita (Alain); K. Papadopoulos (K.); M.J.A. de Jonge (Maja); G. Schwartz (G.); J. Verweij (Jaap); A. Ricart (A.); Q.S.C. Chu (Q. S C); A.W. Tolcher (A. W.); L. Wood (Lori); S.W. McCarthy (Stanley); M. Hamilton; K.K. Iwata (Kenneth); B. Wacker; K. de Witte (Karel); E.K. Rowinsky (Eric Keith)


    textabstractBackground: To evaluate the anticancer activity of erlotinib in patients with previously treated, advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose dose is increased to that associated with a maximal level of tolerable skin toxicity (i.e., target rash (TR)); to characterise the pharmacok

  12. Phase I study of cisplatin, hyperthermia, and lapatinib in patients with recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix in a previously irradiated area

    E.V. Meerten (Esther Van); M. Franckena (Martine); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); L.V. Doorn (Lena Van); J. Kraan (Jaco); A.M. Westermann (Anneke); S. Sleijfer (Stefan)


    textabstractBackground. Patients with recurrent cervical cancer in a previously irradiated area might benefit from cisplatin combined with hyperthermia. Lapatinib inhibits the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2. Overexpression of EGFR and

  13. Impact of previous percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and/or stenting revascularization on outcomes after surgical revascularization : insights from the imagine study

    Chocron, Sidney; Baillot, Richard; Rouleau, Jean Lucien; Warnica, Wayne J.; Block, Pierre; Johnstone, David; Myers, Martin G.; Calciu, Cristina Dana; Nozza, Anna; Martineau, Pierre; van Gilst, Wiek H.


    Aim To determine the impact of previous coronary artery revascularization by percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and/or stenting (PCI) on outcome after subsequent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods and results The ischaemia management with Accupril post-bypass Graft via Inhib

  14. Clinical evaluation of recombinant factor VIII preparation (Kogenate) in previously treated patients with hemophilia A: descriptive meta-analysis of post-marketing study data.

    Yoshioka, A; Fukutake, K; Takamatsu, J; Shirahata, A


    The safety and efficacy of Kogenate, a recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) preparation for the treatment of bleeding episodes, were studied in a 123-patient meta-analysis population of previously treated patients (PTPs), including 15 enrolled in the registration Phase III trial (PTP-I group), 93 from the post-marketing special investigation (PTP-II group), and 15 from short-term special investigations in surgery or tooth extraction (SI group). These patients (82 severe, 31 moderate, 9 mild, and 1 unknown), aged 11 months to 72 years, were enrolled in 28 centers in Japan. Blood samples taken at the baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after the introduction of Kogenate were evaluated for FVIII inhibitor antibodies, antibodies formed against trace proteins derived from the rFVIII production process, and for general changes in laboratory test results. Mean exposure to Kogenate was 1103 days in PTP-I, 86 days in PTP-II, 27 days in patients in surgery, and 2 days in patients with tooth extraction. Assessment of FVIII inhibitor activity was conducted in 115 of the 123 patients by means of the Bethesda assay. Twelve patients were found to have a low titer of FVIII inhibitor (0.5-3.0 BU/mL) prior to any administration of Kogenate, and 103 were inhibitor-negative at the baseline. Among this latter group, 3 patients (2.9%) tested inhibitor-positive, with titers ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 BU/mL, with 4 patients below 1.0 BU/mL. One patient in the 11 PTPs investigated (PTP-I) developed antibodies against baby hamster kidney protein and mouse immunoglobulin G, but these findings were transient and asymptomatic. Hemostasis was achieved (markedly effective or effective) in 3666 of the 3855 bleeding episodes (95.1%) observed in 108 patients. Only 1 infusion was necessary in 3790 (98.3%) of these episodes. These data indicate that Kogenate is safe and very effective for the treatment of bleeding in PTPs with hemophilia A.

  15. Comparison of buspirone in two separate studies.

    Goldberg, H L; Finnerty, R


    Two double-blind studies are described in which buspirone was compared with placebo and diazepam (Study A) or clorazepate (Study B) in outpatients with moderate to severe anxiety. Results, assessed on the Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression and Anxiety, the SCL-56, the Profile of Mood States, and the Covi and Raskin scales, indicated that buspirone consistently relieved both anxiety and associated depression. In Study B, trends in favor of buspirone were seen on several SCL-56 items and the Hamilton somatic factor; significant differences in this direction were found for several POMS items. Sedation was seen less often with buspirone than either diazepam or clorazepate.

  16. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II


    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  17. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Rosanna Ghinai


    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  18. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael


    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  19. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan


    % confidence intervals): 1.32 (1.24-1.40), glibenclamide: 1.19 (1.11-1.28), glipizide: 1.27 (1.17-1.38), and tolbutamide: 1.28 (1.17-1.39) were associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients without previous MI. The corresponding results for patients with previous MI were as follows: glimepiride: 1.......30 (1.11-1.44), glibenclamide: 1.47 (1.22-1.76), glipizide: 1.53 (1.23-1.89), and tolbutamide: 1.47 (1.17-1.84). Results for gliclazide [1.05 (0.94-1.16) and 0.90 (0.68-1.20)] and repaglinide and [0.97 (0.81-1.15) and 1.29 (0.86-1.94)] were not statistically different from metformin in both patients...... without and with previous MI, respectively. Results were similar for cardiovascular mortality and for the composite endpoint. Conclusion Monotherapy with the most used ISs, including glimepiride, glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide, seems to be associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular...

  20. Cooperative Research Twin Trawl Sweep Comparison Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Twin-Trawl Sweep Efficiency Study" was intended to compare the sweep efficiency and selectivity of the NEFSC standardized bottom trawl to that of a standardized...

  1. A Comparison of Phase II Study Strategies

    Sally Hunsberger; Yingdong Zhao; Richard Simon


    .... In this article, we compare different phase II study strategies to determine the most efficient drug development path in terms of number of patients and length of time to conclusion of drug efficacy on overall survival...

  2. Laser Welding and Syncristallization Techniques Comparison: In Vitro Study

    C. Fornaini


    Full Text Available Background. Laser welding was first reported in 1967 and for many years it has been used in dental laboratories with several advantages versus the conventional technique. Authors described, in previous works, the possibility of using also chair-side Nd : YAG laser device (Fotona Fidelis III, =1064 nm for welding metallic parts of prosthetic appliances directly in the dental office, extra- and also intra-orally. Syncristallisation is a soldering technique based on the creation of an electric arc between two electrodes and used to connect implants to bars intra-orally. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare two different laser welding devices with a soldering machine, all of these used in prosthetic dentistry. Material and Methods. In-lab Nd : YAG laser welding (group A = 12 samples, chair-side Nd : YAG laser welding (group B = 12 samples, and electrowelder (group C = 12 samples were used. The tests were performed on 36 CrCoMo plates and the analysis consisted in evaluation, by microscopic observation, of the number of fissures in welded areas of groups A and B and in measurement of the welding strength in all the groups. The results were statistically analysed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. Results. The means and standard deviations for the number of fissures in welded areas were 8.12±2.59 for group A and 5.20±1.38 for group B. The difference was statistical significant (=0.0023 at the level 95%. On the other hand, the means and standard deviations for the traction tests were 1185.50±288.56 N for group A, 896.41±120.84 N for group B, and 283.58±84.98 N for group C. The difference was statistical significant (=0.01 at the level 95%. Conclusion. The joint obtained by welding devices had a significant higher strength compared with that obtained by the electrowelder, and the comparison between the two laser devices used demonstrated that the chair-side Nd : YAG, even giving a

  3. Laser welding and syncristallization techniques comparison: in vitro study.

    Fornaini, C; Merigo, E; Vescovi, P; Meleti, M; Nammour, S


    Background. Laser welding was first reported in 1967 and for many years it has been used in dental laboratories with several advantages versus the conventional technique. Authors described, in previous works, the possibility of using also chair-side Nd : YAG laser device (Fotona Fidelis III, λ = 1064 nm) for welding metallic parts of prosthetic appliances directly in the dental office, extra- and also intra-orally. Syncristallisation is a soldering technique based on the creation of an electric arc between two electrodes and used to connect implants to bars intra-orally. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare two different laser welding devices with a soldering machine, all of these used in prosthetic dentistry. Material and Methods. In-lab Nd : YAG laser welding (group A = 12 samples), chair-side Nd : YAG laser welding (group B = 12 samples), and electrowelder (group C = 12 samples) were used. The tests were performed on 36 CrCoMo plates and the analysis consisted in evaluation, by microscopic observation, of the number of fissures in welded areas of groups A and B and in measurement of the welding strength in all the groups. The results were statistically analysed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. Results. The means and standard deviations for the number of fissures in welded areas were 8.12 ± 2.59 for group A and 5.20 ± 1.38 for group B. The difference was statistical significant (P = 0.0023 at the level 95%). On the other hand, the means and standard deviations for the traction tests were 1185.50 ± 288.56 N for group A, 896.41 ± 120.84 N for group B, and 283.58 ± 84.98 N for group C. The difference was statistical significant (P = 0.01 at the level 95%). Conclusion. The joint obtained by welding devices had a significant higher strength compared with that obtained by the electrowelder, and the comparison between the two laser devices used demonstrated that the chair-side Nd : YAG, even giving

  4. Comparison of artificial inoculation methods for studying ...



    May 1, 2013 ... Establishment of disease by artificial inoculation is essential for studies of various aspects of plant pathology. Keeping this in mind .... three to four days under cool white fluorescent light (2,000 lux) followed by 2 days ... and placed in growth chambers at 25°C and 70% relative humidity. The Petri plates were ...

  5. Mathematics Comparison Study = Etude Comporative Portant Sur les Mathematiques.

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    At the request of the Council of Ministries of Education, Canada (CMEC), Alberta Learning conducted this Mathematics Comparison Study. The focus of this study is from Kindergarten to Grade 12. All provinces and territories were invited to participate, and only the Quebec region declined. Participating regions were invited to send a representative…

  6. Comparison of Synchronization Indices: Behavioral Study

    Pierre Dugué


    Full Text Available The synchronization of a neuronal response to a given periodic stimulus is usually measured by Goldberg and Brown's vector strength metric. This index does not take omitted spikes into account. This particular limitation has motivated the development of two new indices: the corrected vector strength index and the corrected phase variance index, both including a penalty factor linked to the firing rate. In this paper, a theoretical study on the normalization of the corrected phase variance index is conducted. Both indices are compared to four existing ones using a simulated dataset which considers three desynchronizing disturbances: irregularity in firing, added spikes, and omitted spikes. In the case of unimodal responses, the two new indices are satisfying and appear the more promising in the case of real signals. In the multimodal case, the entropy-based index is better than the others even if this index is not drawback-free.

  7. Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria

    Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.


    Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

  8. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Lopez-Saura Pedro


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  9. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing


    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  10. Update of the pompe disease mutation database with 60 novel GAA sequence variants and additional studies on the functional effect of 34 previously reported variants.

    Kroos, Marian; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Michelakakis, Helen; Pomponio, Robert; Van der Ploeg, Ans; Halley, Dicky; Reuser, Arnold


    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal glycogen storage disorder, characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (EC; can be caused by numerous pathogenic variants in the GAA gene. The Pompe Disease Mutation Database at aims to list all variants and their effect. This update reports on 94 variants. We examined 35 novel and 34 known mutations by site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression in COS-7 cells or HEK293T cells. Each of these mutations was given a severity rating using a previously published system, based on the level of acid α-glucosidase activity in medium and transfected cells and on the quantity and quality of the different molecular mass species in the posttranslational modification and transport of acid α-glucosidase. This approach enabled to classify 55 missense mutations as pathogenic and 13 as likely nonpathogenic. Based on their nature and the use of in silico analysis (Alamut® software), 12 of the additional 25 novel mutations were predicted to be pathogenic including 4 splicing mutations, 6 mutations leading to frameshift, and 2 point mutations causing stop codons. Seven of the additional mutations were considered nonpathogenic (4 silent and 3 occurring in intron regions), and 6 are still under investigation.

  11. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M


    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  12. No Previous Public Services Required

    Taylor, Kelley R.


    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  13. Providing Visions of a Different Life: Self-study Narrative Inquiry as an Instrument for Seeing Ourselves in Previously-Unimagined Places

    Carmen Shields


    Full Text Available In this paper, we share stories of coming to narrative self-study research in graduate studies, and the impact this choice has had on personal and professional directions in ways we could not have imagined when graduate studies were initially embarked upon. Central to self-study narrative inquiry is a focus on life experience as a tool for connection with our own storied pasts. There we find the roots of our present-day perspectives and actions that we can incorporate into our everyday meaning-making, using our emergent understanding to choose present and future possibilities in our relationships.

  14. Substitution of arginine for glycine at position 154 of the {alpha}1 chain of type I collagen in a variant of osteogenesis imperfecta: Comparison to previous cases with the same mutation

    Zhuang, J.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Prockop, D.J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Castells, S. [Univ. Hospital of Brooklyn, NY (United States)


    A substitution of arginine for glycine at amino acid position 154 of the {alpha}1(I) collagen chain was found in a father and his three children. The phenotype of the patients includes manifestations of types I and III/IV osteogenesis imperfecta, but appears to be milder than that of the previously described two unrelated patients that had the identical mutation in the {alpha}1(I) collagen chain. The variability in the phenotype raises the possibility of epistatic loci or environmental effects on expression of the disorder. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne


    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  16. Multiple comparisons in drug efficacy studies: scientific or marketing principles?

    Leo, Jonathan


    When researchers design an experiment to compare a given medication to another medication, a behavioral therapy, or a placebo, the experiment often involves numerous comparisons. For instance, there may be several different evaluation methods, raters, and time points. Although scientifically justified, such comparisons can be abused in the interests of drug marketing. This article provides two recent examples of such questionable practices. The first involves the case of the arthritis drug celecoxib (Celebrex), where the study lasted 12 months but the authors only presented 6 months of data. The second case involves the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) study evaluating the efficacy of stimulant medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder where ratings made by several groups are reported in contradictory fashion. The MTA authors have not clarified the confusion, at least in print, suggesting that the actual findings of the study may have played little role in the authors' reported conclusions.

  17. Multiple comparisons in genetic association studies: a hierarchical modeling approach.

    Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Mallick, Himel


    Multiple comparisons or multiple testing has been viewed as a thorny issue in genetic association studies aiming to detect disease-associated genetic variants from a large number of genotyped variants. We alleviate the problem of multiple comparisons by proposing a hierarchical modeling approach that is fundamentally different from the existing methods. The proposed hierarchical models simultaneously fit as many variables as possible and shrink unimportant effects towards zero. Thus, the hierarchical models yield more efficient estimates of parameters than the traditional methods that analyze genetic variants separately, and also coherently address the multiple comparisons problem due to largely reducing the effective number of genetic effects and the number of statistically "significant" effects. We develop a method for computing the effective number of genetic effects in hierarchical generalized linear models, and propose a new adjustment for multiple comparisons, the hierarchical Bonferroni correction, based on the effective number of genetic effects. Our approach not only increases the power to detect disease-associated variants but also controls the Type I error. We illustrate and evaluate our method with real and simulated data sets from genetic association studies. The method has been implemented in our freely available R package BhGLM (

  18. A brief review of the estimated economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: inflation-adjusted updates of previously published cost studies.

    Chesson, Harrell W; Gift, Thomas L; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Tao, Guoyu; Johnson, Ana P; Kent, Charlotte K


    We conducted a literature review of studies of the economic burden of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. The annual direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases (including human immunodeficiency virus) has been estimated to be $16.9 billion (range: $13.9-$23.0 billion) in 2010 US dollars.

  19. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack


    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  20. The safety and effectiveness of once daily detemir in patients with type 2 diabetes previously failing oral agents:the Chinese cohort from SOL-VETM observational study



    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of initiating once-daily insulin detemir(Levemir) as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) who failed treatment of oral anti-diabetic drugs(OAD).Methods The present study was derived from the data of

  1. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve


    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  2. Role of micronized progesterone in prevention of preterm labour in women with previous history of one or more preterm births: a research study at a tertiary care hospital

    Rashmi Ahuja


    Conclusions: The study concluded that progesterone use was associated with 64.2% reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (p=0.029.Antenatal administration of progesterone reduces the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks and 34 weeks as well as the risk of a newborn being born with a birth weight of less than 2500 gms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1176-1180

  3. A Retrospective Study of Capecitabine/Temozolomide (CAPTEM Regimen in the Treatment of Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (pNETs after Failing Previous Therapy

    Muhammad Wasif Saif


    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs are notoriously resistant to currently available chemotherapy agents.Preclinical data has suggested synergy between temozolomide and capecitabine. Objective To report a retrospective data on the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and temozolomide (CAPTEM regimen in patients with metastatic pancreaticneuroendocrine tumors (pNETs who have failed prior therapies. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 7 patientswith metastatic pNETs who had had progressive cancer prior to treatment despite therapy, including long-acting releaseoctreotide (60 mg/month, chemotherapy and hepatic chemoembolization. Capecitabine was administered at a flat dose of1,000 mg orally twice daily on days 1-14 and temozolomide 200 mg/m2 was given in two divided doses daily on days 10-14of a 28-day cycle. Tumor assessments were repeated every two cycles and serum tumor markers were measured every cycle. Response to treatment was assessed using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST parameters, and toxicity was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 3.0. Results Among 7 patients treated, three patients achieved a partial response, and two patients had stable disease. Totalresponse rate was 43%, and clinical benefit (responders and stable disease was 71%. Median duration of response was 8months (range: 4-12 months. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included grade 3 thrombocytopenia in one patient and grade 3 fatigue in one patient. The most common toxicities were grade 1 and 2 neutropenia, grade 1 fatigue, grade 1 and 2 hand-foot syndrome. Conclusions Our retrospective study showed that modified CAPTEM regimen was well-tolerated and produced comparable response to historical data in neuroendocrine tumors, including pNETs. Our study is unique as it only included patients with pNETs. Further prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the combination of

  4. A gender-medicine post hoc analysis (MetaGeM project to test sex differences in previous observational studies in different diseases: methodology

    Colombo D


    Full Text Available Delia Colombo,1 Gilberto Bellia,1 Donatella Vassellatti,1 Emanuela Zagni,1 Simona Sgarbi,2 Sara Rizzoli21Novartis Farma, Origgio, 2MediData, Modena, ltaly Abstract: Only recently has medical research begun to understand the importance of taking sex into account, recognizing that symptoms and responses to medical treatment may be very different between males and females. However, the analyses provided by the pharmaceutical industry to regulatory authorities often do not present safety and efficacy data by sex. Novartis has started a gender-medicine project called MetaGeM, which includes nine observational studies sponsored by Novartis Farma, Italy; conducted in Italy between 2002 and 2013 in a range of different clinical areas. The MetaGeM project aims to analyze and describe by means of post hoc analyses and meta-analyses, clinical outcomes, therapeutic approaches, and safety data of these studies, by sex: PSYCHAE; GENDER ATTENTION in psoriasis; Synergy in psoriatic arthritis; ICEBERG in HBsAg carriers; SURF and CETRA in liver- and renal transplanted patients, respectively; DEEP in Parkinson's disease; and EVOLUTION and AXEPT in Alzheimer's disease. The present paper describes the methodology of the MetaGeM project.Keywords: gender-medicine, MetaGeM project, methodology

  5. A study of the presence of B. burgdorferi, Anaplasma (previously Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum, Rickettsia, and Babesia in Ixodes ricinus collected within the territory of Belluno, Italy.

    Piccolin, G; Benedetti, G; Doglioni, C; Lorenzato, C; Mancuso, S; Papa, N; Pitton, L; Ramon, M C; Zasio, C; Bertiato, G


    In the years 2000 and 2001, we sampled ticks in order to establish the distribution of Ixodes ricinus in the province of Belluno; 5987 tick samples from 244 sites throughout the province were gathered, by dragging for a 5-min period. In 40 sites, seasonal variations and cycle stages of the parasites were studied at monthly intervals from March to September. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to identify the tick-infected sites. Of 1931 individual ticks, 8.23% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, 4.4% were positive for Ehrlichia, 1.6% were positive for Rickettsia, and 1.6% were positive for Babesia. The co-presence of Borrelia and Ehrlichia (1.2%) and Babesia (0.5%), Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia (0.1%) was also found.

  6. Phase II Study of Bortezomib as a Single Agent in Patients with Previously Untreated or Relapsed/Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia Ineligible for Intensive Therapy

    Chiara Sarlo


    Full Text Available We explored the safety and efficacy of bortezomib given as single agent in patients with untreated or relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML, unfit for conventional chemotherapy. Fourteen patients were treated with bortezomib 1.5 mg/m2 administered twice weekly for two weeks, every 3 weeks. Median age was 70 years (range 60–81 and the median number of cycles delivered was 2 (range 1–4. Of 13 evaluable patients, in 8 (61%, the administration of bortezomib resulted in an antileukemic effect as demonstrated by peripheral blood and/or bone marrow blast reduction. In 4 (50% of these 8, a decrease by 37% of transfusion requirement was also observed . Overall median survival was 4 months (range 0.25–10. Neurotoxicity was the most frequent adverse event with 7 of 13 (54% patients experiencing grades 3-4 peripheral neuropathy. Neurotoxicity led to treatment discontinuation in 4 (57% of 7. In conclusion, the observed anti-leukemic activity of bortezomib indicates that there is room for designing additional studies in which combination with other chemotherapeutic agents should be considered. Clinical registration no.: EUDRACT 2006-006923-38.

  7. Can a Repeated Sprint Ability Test Help Clear a Previously Injured Soccer Player for Fully Functional Return to Activity? A Pilot Study.

    Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Ardigò, Luca P; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Maffulli, Nicola; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Dello Iacono, Antonio


    To investigate the effects of fatigue induced by a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test on the neuromuscular responses of soccer players with a recent history of lower limb injuries (CH) and a matched control group in good fitness condition (GH). This was a case-control study. Nine CH and 9 GH. Allocation to CH or GH. Each player was assessed for blood lactate concentration and jumping performance [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] before/after RSA. Post-RSA rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to calculate RSA sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing between CH and GH. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to assess reliability. No baseline differences were found for any variable. ΔSJ before/after RSA was -14 ± 2% and -5 ± 2% in CH and GH, respectively (P Repeated sprint ability is a simple, low-cost field test potentially able to assist in clinical decision making for return to sport.

  8. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren


    exposed to torture in their home country were interviewed at a Danish rehabilitation clinic on average 8 years after their final release from confinement and re-interviewed 10 years later. Interviews focused on history of exposure to physical and mental torture and on pain in the head, back and feet...... prevalent at study. RESULTS: The mean number of times imprisoned was 2.5 and the mean cumulative duration of imprisonment 19.4 months. The most frequent physical torture method reported was beating (95.0%) and the main mental torture method deprivation (88.5%). Pain reported at follow-up was strongly...... associated with pain reported at baseline, and the prevalence of pain increased considerably (pain in the head, 47.5% at baseline and 58.3% at follow-up; back, 48.2% and 75.5%; feet, 23.7% and 63.3%). Predictor patterns at baseline and at follow-up had common traits, so that pain in the head and pain...

  9. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen


    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia.

  10. Comparative study of Hg xCd 1-xTe films grown on CdTe thin films previously deposited from two different techniques

    Ali, A.; Abbas Shah, N.; Maqsood, A.


    High quality cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films were grown on glass substrates with two different techniques, two evaporation source (TES) and closed space sublimation (CSS). Further to the above mercury telluride (HgTe) was then deposited by using single source on both CdTe thin films for obtaining Hg xCd 1-xTe samples. The crystalline structure of the Hg xCd 1-xTe sample grown from CSS-CdTe showed the preferential (1 1 1) orientation with smoother and larger grain size than those of TES-CdTe. The optical transmission for TES-CdTe sample was above 90% in the 1000-1500 nm range whereas it was significantly below 80% for CSS-CdTe sample. The optical transmission for TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe was ˜60%. The resistivity at room temperature of TES-CdTe and CSS-CdTe was ˜3.33×10 9 Ω cm and ˜2.20×10 8 Ω cm, respectively, while the resistivity of TES-Hg xCd 1-xTe and CSS-Hg xCd 1-xTe samples was ˜1.73 Ω cm and ˜5.34×10 5 Ω cm, respectively. The comparative study of ternary compound prepared with the above techniques has been carried out for the first time.

  11. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio


    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m(2) on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Intravenous C.E.R.A. maintains stable haemoglobin levels in patients on dialysis previously treated with darbepoetin alfa: results from STRIATA, a randomized phase III study

    Canaud, Bernard; Mingardi, Giulio; Braun, Johann; Aljama, Pedro; Kerr, Peter G.; Locatelli, Francesco; Villa, Giuseppe; Van Vlem, Bruno; McMahon, Alan W.; Kerloëguen, Cécile; Beyer, Ulrich


    Background. Extending the administration interval of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) represents an opportunity to improve the efficiency of anaemia management in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, effective haemoglobin (Hb) maintenance can be challenging with epoetin alfa and epoetin beta administered at extended intervals. C.E.R.A., a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, has a unique pharmacologic profile and long half-life (∼130 h), allowing administration at extended intervals. Phase III results have demonstrated that C.E.R.A. administered once every 4 weeks effectively maintains stable Hb levels in patients with CKD on dialysis. Methods. STRIATA (Stabilizing haemoglobin TaRgets in dialysis following IV C.E.R.A. Treatment for Anaemia) was a multicentre, open-label randomized phase III study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous C.E.R.A. administered once every 2 weeks (Q2W) for Hb maintenance following direct conversion from darbepoetin alfa (DA). Adult patients on dialysis receiving stable intravenous DA once weekly (QW) or Q2W were randomized (1:1) to continue their current DA regimen (n = 156) or receive intravenous C.E.R.A. Q2W (n = 157) for 52 weeks. Doses were adjusted to maintain Hb levels within ± 1.0 g/dl of baseline and between 10.0 and 13.5 g/dl. The primary endpoint was the mean Hb change between baseline and the evaluation period (weeks 29–36). Results. Most patients (>80%) received DA QW before randomization. The mean (95% CI) difference between C.E.R.A. and DA in the primary endpoint was 0.18 g/dl (−0.05, 0.41), within a pre-defined non-inferiority limit. C.E.R.A. was clinically non-inferior to DA (P < 0.0001) in maintaining Hb levels. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions. Stable Hb levels were successfully maintained in patients on haemodialysis directly converted to Q2W intravenous C.E.R.A. from DA. PMID:18586762

  13. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Levchenko, O.V; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Rao, D; Subrahmanyam, C; Murthy, K.S.R

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. The false memory syndrome: experimental studies and comparison to confabulations.

    Mendez, M F; Fras, I A


    False memories, or recollections that are factually incorrect but strongly believed, remain a source of confusion for both psychiatrists and neurologists. We propose model for false memories based on recent experimental investigations, particularly when analyzed in comparison to confabulations, which are the equivalent of false memories from neurological disease. Studies using the Deese/Roedinger-McDermott experimental paradigm indicate that false memories are associated with the need for complete and integrated memories, self-relevancy, imagination and wish fulfillment, familiarity, emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. In comparison, confabulations are associated with the same factors except for emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. Both false memories and confabulations have an abnormal sense of certainty for their recollections, and neuroanatomical findings implicate decreased activity in the ventromedial frontal lobe in this certainty. In summary, recent studies of false memories in comparison to confabulations support a model of false memories as internally-generated but suggestible and emotionally-facilitated fantasies or impulses, rather than repressed memories of real events. Furthermore, like confabulations, in order for false memories to occur there must be an attenuation of the normal, nonconscious, right frontal "doubt tag" regarding their certainty.

  15. A real case study on transportation scenario comparison

    Tsoukiás A.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a real case study dealing with the comparison of transport scenarios. The study is conducted within a larger project concerning the establishment of the maritime traffic policy in Greece. The paper presents the problem situation and an appropriate problem formulation. Moreover a detailed version of the evaluation model is presented in the paper. The model consists of a complex hierarchy of evaluation models enabling us to take into account the multiple dimensions and points of view of the actors involved in the evaluations.

  16. A Comparison Between Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Detecting Mutations in Genes Associated with Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and the Identification of 9 New Mutations Previously Unidentified by DGGE

    Meldrum Cliff J


    Full Text Available Abstract Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography is a relatively new method by which heteroduplex structures formed during the PCR amplification of heterozygote samples can be rapidly identified. The use of this technology for mutation detection in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC has the potential to appreciably shorten the time it takes to analyze genes associated with this disorder. Prior to acceptance of this method for screening genes associated with HNPCC, assessment of the reliability of this method should be performed. In this report we have compared mutation and polymorphism detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC in a set of 130 families. All mutations/polymorphisms representing base substitutions, deletions, insertions and a 23 base pair inversion were detected by DHPLC whereas DGGE failed to identify four single base substitutions and a single base pair deletion. In addition, we show that DHPLC has been used for the identification of 5 different mutations in exon 7 of hMSH2 that could not be detected by DGGE. From this study we conclude that DHPLC is a more effective and rapid alternative to the detection of mutations in hMSH2 and hMLH1 with the same or better accuracy than DGGE. Furthermore, this technique offers opportunities for automation, which have not been realised for the majority of other methods of gene analysis.

  17. The 1988 Antarctic ozone depletion - Comparison with previous year depletions

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Krueger, Arlin J.


    The 1988 spring Antarctic ozone depletion was observed by TOMS to be substantially smaller than in recent years. The minimum polar total ozone values declined only 15 percent during September 1988, compared to nearly 50 percent during September 1987. At southern midlatitudes, exceptionally high total ozone values were recorded beginning in July 1988. The total integrated southern hemispheric ozone increased rapidly during the Austral spring, approaching 1980 levels during October. The high midlatitude total ozone values were associated with a substantial increase in eddy activity as indicated by the standard deviation in total ozone in the zonal band 30-60 deg S. Mechanisms through which the increased midlatitude eddy activity could disrupt the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole are briefly discussed.

  18. A comparison of somatic mutational spectra in healthy study populations from Russia, Sweden and USA

    Noori, P; Hou, S; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Lambert, B


    Comparison of mutation spectra at the hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene of peripheral blood T lymphocytes may provide insight into the aetiology of somatic mutation contributing to carcinogenesis and other diseases. To increase knowledge of mutation spectra in healthy people, we have analyzed HPRT mutant T-cells of 50 healthy Russians originally recruited as controls for a study of Chernobyl clean-up workers (Jones et al. Radiation Res. 158, 2002, 424). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions and DNA sequencing identified 161 independent mutations among 176 thioguanine resistant mutants. Forty (40) mutations affected splicing mechanisms and 27 deletions or insertions of 1 to 60 nucleotides were identified. Ninety four (94) single base substitutions were identified, including 62 different mutations at 55 different nucleotide positions, of which 19 had not previously been reported in human T-cells. Comparison of this base substitution spectrum with mutation spectra in a USA (Burkhart-Schultz et al. Carcinogenesis 17, 1996, 1871) and two Swedish populations (Podlutsky et al, Carcinogenesis 19, 1998, 557, Podlutsky et al. Mutation Res. 431, 1999, 325) revealed similarity in the type, frequency and distribution of mutations in the four spectra, consistent with aetiologies inherent in human metabolism. There were 15-19 identical mutations in the three pair-wise comparisons of Russian with USA and Swedish spectra. Intriguingly, there were 21 mutations unique to the Russian spectrum, and comparison by the Monte Carlo method of Adams and Skopek (J. Mol. Biol. 194, 1987, 391) indicated that the Russian spectrum was different from both Swedish spectra (P=0.007, 0.002) but not different from the USA spectrum (P=0.07), when Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was made (p < 0.008 required for significance). Age and smoking did not account for these differences. Other factors causing mutational differences need to be explored.

  19. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.


    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  20. The comparison of current and previous (2002) editions of American clinical practice guideline: diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome%美国新版《儿童睡眠呼吸暂停综合征诊治指南》与2002版指南的比较

    邓力; 印根权


    2012年8月27日,美国儿科学会杂志在线发布了新版,意在指导初级保健医师对儿童青少年OSAS的诊断与治疗.自从前一版 (2002版) 指南发表后,有关OSAS研究的文献质量有明显提高.新版指南是在参考1999至2010年间发表的3 166篇文献中的350篇文献相关数据基础上所制定的.本文主要比较新版指南与2002版的不同,以及十年间对儿童OSAS认识的变化.%The current clinical practice guideline, diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), was issued in Pediatrics on line by American academy of pediatrics on August 27th, 2012. This revised guideline, intended for use by primary earc clinicians, provides recommesdations for the diagnosis and management of OSAS in children and adolescents. Since the previous guideline (version 2002) was published, studies of OSAS have bees improved significantly. The current guideline was formulated according to the relevant data from 350 of 3166 articles published from 1999 to 2010. What are the differences between the two guidelines? What are the greatest changes in cbildhood OSAS in the past 10 years? This article will focus on the comparison between these two guidelines.

  1. Comparison of two LES codes for wind turbine wake studies

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Pierella, F.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming


    are compared in terms of velocity deficit, turbulence kinetic energy and eddy viscosity. It is seen that both codes predict similar near-wake flow structures with the exception of OpenFoam's simulations without the subgrid-scale model. The differences begin to increase with increasing the distance from......For the third time a blind test comparison in Norway 2013, was conducted comparing numerical simulations for the rotor Cp and Ct and wake profiles with the experimental results. As the only large eddy simulation study among participants, results of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) using...... their in-house CFD solver, EllipSys3D, proved to be more reliable among the other models for capturing the wake profiles and the turbulence intensities downstream the turbine. It was therefore remarked in the workshop to investigate other LES codes to compare their performance with EllipSys3D. The aim...

  2. The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air

    HAO; Zuoqiang; ZHANG; Jie; YU; Jin; ZHENG; Zhiyuan; YUAN; Xiaohui; ZHANG; Zhe; LI; Yutong; WANG; Zhaohua; LING; Weijun; WEI; Zhiyi


    Long plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses are investigated using three different methods, including the cross-section imaging, resistivity measuring and acoustic diagnostics. These methods are based on different properties of the light filaments. A comparison of the three diagnostics shows that the imaging method is the most precise one in studying the filaments distribution and evolution, that the sonographic method is the most convenient approach to detecting long plasma channels by detecting the acoustic wave generation, and that the resistivity measurement can only be applied for giving a rough estimate. The diagnostics of filaments allow us to choose appropriate detecting methods and provide further insight into the dynamic evolution of the light filaments in air.

  3. Biomedical ontology improves biomedical literature clustering performance: a comparison study.

    Yoo, Illhoi; Hu, Xiaohua; Song, Il-Yeol


    Document clustering has been used for better document retrieval and text mining. In this paper, we investigate if a biomedical ontology improves biomedical literature clustering performance in terms of the effectiveness and the scalability. For this investigation, we perform a comprehensive comparison study of various document clustering approaches such as hierarchical clustering methods, Bisecting K-means, K-means and Suffix Tree Clustering (STC). According to our experiment results, a biomedical ontology significantly enhances clustering quality on biomedical documents. In addition, our results show that decent document clustering approaches, such as Bisecting K-means, K-means and STC, gains some benefit from the ontology while hierarchical algorithms showing the poorest clustering quality do not reap the benefit of the biomedical ontology.

  4. MidIR and LWIR polarimetric sensor comparison study

    Gurton, Kristan; Felton, Melvin; Mack, Robert; LeMaster, Daniel; Farlow, Craig; Kudenov, Michael; Pezzaniti, Larry


    We present a comparative study involving five distinctly different polarimetric imaging platforms that are designed to record calibrated Stokes images (and associated polarimetric products) in either the MidIR or LWIR spectral regions. The data set used in this study was recorded during April 14-18, 2008, at the Russell Tower Measurement Facility, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL. Four of the five camera systems were designed to operate in the LWIR (approx. 8-12μm), and used either cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal-plane-arrays (FPA), or a near-room temperature microbolometer. The lone MidIR polarimetric sensor was based on a liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled indium antimonide (InSb) FPA, resulting in an approximate wavelength response of 3-5μm. The selection of cameras was comprised of the following optical designs: a LWIR "super-pixel," or division-of-focal plane (DoFP) sensor; two LWIR spinning-achromatic-retarder (SAR) based sensors; one LWIR division-of-amplitude (DoAM) sensor; and one MidIR division-of-aperture (DoA) sensor. Cross-sensor comparisons were conducted by examining calibrated Stokes images (e.g., S0, S1, S2, and degree-of-linear polarization (DOLP)) recorded by each sensor for a given target at approximately the same test periods to ensure that data sets were recorded under similar atmospheric conditions. Target detections are applied to the image set for each polarimetric sensor for further comparison, i.e., conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and an effective contrast ratio are considered.

  5. Comparison Study of Two Different Sun-Tracking Methods in Optical Efficiency of Heliostat Field

    K.-K. Chong


    Full Text Available There are two sun-tracking methods widely used for the heliostat, which are conventional Azimuth-Elevation and revolutionary Spinning-Elevation methods. Following the previous study to compare the range of motion, a comparison study in optical efficiency of heliostat field for the two methods is further explored in this paper. A special algorithm using ray-tracing technique has also been developed to simulate the optical efficiency of heliostat field for both sun-tracking methods in different latitudes. With the new algorithm, comprehensive analysis to compare the optical efficiency of individual heliostat and the overall heliostat field for the two sun-tracking methods has been carried out.

  6. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva


    Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...

  7. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    O. Hellmuth


    according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996, H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyytiälä (Southern Finland or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany, can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not correspond to the scenarios are discussed with respect to possible reasons for the differences between model and observation. The model simulations support some state-of-the-art hypotheses on the contribution of CBL turbulence to NPF. Considering the application of box models, the present study shows, that CBL turbulence, not explicitly considered in such models, can strongly affect the spatio-temporal NPF burst evolution. The columnar high-order model presented here is a helpful tool to elucidate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions, especially the genesis of NPF bursts in the CBL. An advanced description of the cluster formation and condensation growth is required as well as a comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments. Further scenario simulations remain to be performed.

  8. Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre

    Hassan S.


    Full Text Available In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons were made with others common insulating materials, and it was found that the experimental k values for oil palm waste insulation was lower by between 4 to 56 times for rockwool and between 7 to 57 times for glass fiber at low temperatures. The value k of oil palm fiber however showed an increase at higher temperatures and was lower at lower packing densities. Although not being able to match the k values of common insulators at higher temperatures, other factors such as cost and environmental benefits of using waste material should be taken into consideration and hence encouraging its use as at least a supplement to existing insulation materials

  9. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Singh RP


    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  10. How to use linear regression and correlation in quantitative method comparison studies.

    Twomey, P J; Kroll, M H


    Linear regression methods try to determine the best linear relationship between data points while correlation coefficients assess the association (as opposed to agreement) between the two methods. Linear regression and correlation play an important part in the interpretation of quantitative method comparison studies. Their major strength is that they are widely known and as a result both are employed in the vast majority of method comparison studies. While previously performed by hand, the availability of statistical packages means that regression analysis is usually performed by software packages including MS Excel, with or without the software programe Analyze-it as well as by other software packages. Such techniques need to be employed in a way that compares the agreement between the two methods examined and more importantly, because we are dealing with individual patients, whether the degree of agreement is clinically acceptable. Despite their use for many years, there is a lot of ignorance about the validity as well as the pros and cons of linear regression and correlation techniques. This review article describes the types of linear regression and regression (parametric and non-parametric methods) and the necessary general and specific requirements. The selection of the type of regression depends on where one has been trained, the tradition of the laboratory and the availability of adequate software.

  11. Comparison of Swedish and Norwegian Use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: a Questionnaire Study

    Jerker Edén Strindberg


    Full Text Available Objectives: Cone-beam computed tomography in dentistry can be used in some countries by other dentists than specialists in radiology. The frequency of buying cone-beam computed tomography to examine patients is rapidly growing, thus knowledge of how to use it is very important. The aim was to compare the outcome of an investigation on the use of cone-beam computed tomography in Sweden with a previous Norwegian study, regarding specifically technical aspects. Material and Methods: The questionnaire contained 45 questions, including 35 comparable questions to Norwegian clinics one year previous. Results were based on inter-comparison of the outcome from each of the two questionnaire studies. Results: Responses rate was 71% in Sweden. There, most of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT examinations performed by dental nurses, while in Norway by specialists. More than two-thirds of the CBCT units had a scout image function, regularly used in both Sweden (79% and Norway (75%. In Sweden 4% and in Norway 41% of the respondents did not wait for the report from the radiographic specialist before initiating treatment. Conclusions: The bilateral comparison showed an overall similarity between the two countries. The survey gave explicit and important knowledge of the need for education and training of the whole team, since radiation dose to the patient could vary a lot for the same kind of radiographic examination. It is essential to establish quality assurance protocols with defined responsibilities in the team in order to maintain high diagnostic accuracy for all examinations when using cone-beam computed tomography for patient examinations.

  12. Tip studies using CFD and comparison with tip loss models

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Johansen, J.


    The flow past a rotating LM8.2 blade equipped with two different tips are computed using CFD. The different tip flows are analysed and a comparison with two different tip loss models is made. Keywords: tip flow, aerodynamics, CFD......The flow past a rotating LM8.2 blade equipped with two different tips are computed using CFD. The different tip flows are analysed and a comparison with two different tip loss models is made. Keywords: tip flow, aerodynamics, CFD...

  13. Patient preference with respect to QoL and reduction in opioid-induced constipation (OIC) after treatment with prolonged-release (PR) oxycodone/naloxone compared with previous analgesic therapy [PREFER study].

    van Dongen, V C P C; Vanelderen, P J L; Koopmans-Klein, G; van Megen, Y J B; Van Zundert, J; Huygen, F J P M


    The aim of this study was to assess patient preference in terms of quality of life (QoL), analgesia and bowel function for patients with moderate to severe chronic non-malignant pain, when treated with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR compared with the previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesic treatment . This was a 3-week open-label phase 3b study conducted in Belgium and the Netherlands, after 3 weeks patients could enter an extension phase. Patient preference with respect to QoL for oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment compared with previous WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics was assessed. A patient was considered a responder with respect to QoL if this assessment was 'better' or 'much better' compared with previous WHO-step I or II analgesics at any time point. Response rate with respect to QoL was 59.2% (95% CI: 51.7-66.8%) for the Full Analysis (FA)-population, for the Per Protocol-population response rate was 71.7% (95% CI: 63.1-80.3%). Explorative analysis showed that response rate with respect to QoL was highest in constipated patients pretreated with WHO-step II analgesics (73.8%). Mean ± SD pain score in the FA-population at start was 74.7 ± 16.6 decreasing to 53.9 ± 24.3 after a median (range) treatment period of 173.5 (31-771) days. For constipated subjects the significant reduction in constipation [improvement of the Bowel Function Index (BFI)], was -24.8 points (95% CI: -17.1 to -32.5). BFI for non-constipated subjects remained well below 28.8. Adverse events with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR treatment were well-known opioid-related adverse events. This study shows that the studied patients previously treated with WHO-step I and/or WHO-step II analgesics prefer treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR with respect to QoL. Moreover, the study shows that treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR significantly reduces OIC in constipated patients and that non-constipated patients do not develop OIC during treatment with oxycodone PR/naloxone PR.

  14. A comparison study between two discharge planning tools.

    Tseng, Jui-Hui; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Chen, Shu-Ming; Chen, Ching-Huey


    The objective was to compare the effectiveness between a systematic assessment tool and a traditional assessment tool for discharge planning. This research adopted a two-group comparison study design, and convenience sampling was adopted to recruit patients requiring discharge-planning services at eight wards in a regional teaching hospital in Southern Taiwan. The postdischarge care requirements of two groups of patients were evaluated using a traditional assessment tool and a systematic assessment tool in different implementation periods, respectively. Sixty-eight patients were matched with similar age and with similar activity in daily living index scores to compare the effectiveness of the tools. The systematic assessment tool exhibited higher assessment integrity and placement appropriateness, as well as lower rates of rehospitalization or mortality within discharge 14 days. The two groups exhibited no significant difference in inappropriate hospital days, primary decision-makers' satisfaction, and proportion of referral professionals who meet patient care requirements. However, the differences in three items of satisfaction exhibited moderate-to-large effect sizes, which may be of clinical importance. To meet the needs of primary decision-makers in a family, enhance their satisfaction, and provide effective discharge-planning services, clinicians should adopt the systematic assessment tool to assess the postdischarge care requirements of a patient, and the hospital should provide relevant facilities to assist in implementing all plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1


    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  16. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3


    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  17. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2


    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  18. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan


    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  19. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

    Sachin A Narvekar


    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  20. Benchmark Problems of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    White, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Podgorney, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelkar, Sharad M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McClure, Mark W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Danko, George [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghassemi, Ahmad [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fu, Pengcheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bahrami, Davood [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barbier, Charlotte [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cheng, Qinglu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chiu, Kit-Kwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detournay, Christine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elsworth, Derek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fang, Yi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Furtney, Jason K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gan, Quan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gao, Qian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Guo, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, Yue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horne, Roland N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Kai [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Im, Kyungjae [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Norbeck, Jack [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Safari, M. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sesetty, Varahanaresh [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sonnenthal, Eric [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tao, Qingfeng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); White, Signe K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wong, Yang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xia, Yidong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    A diverse suite of numerical simulators is currently being applied to predict or understand the performance of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). To build confidence and identify critical development needs for these analytical tools, the United States Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office has sponsored a Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS), with participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories. A principal objective for the study was to create a community forum for improvement and verification of numerical simulators for EGS modeling. Teams participating in the study were those representing U.S. national laboratories, universities, and industries, and each team brought unique numerical simulation capabilities to bear on the problems. Two classes of problems were developed during the study, benchmark problems and challenge problems. The benchmark problems were structured to test the ability of the collection of numerical simulators to solve various combinations of coupled thermal, hydrologic, geomechanical, and geochemical processes. This class of problems was strictly defined in terms of properties, driving forces, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. Study participants submitted solutions to problems for which their simulation tools were deemed capable or nearly capable. Some participating codes were originally developed for EGS applications whereas some others were designed for different applications but can simulate processes similar to those in EGS. Solution submissions from both were encouraged. In some cases, participants made small incremental changes to their numerical simulation codes to address specific elements of the problem, and in other cases participants submitted solutions with existing simulation tools, acknowledging the limitations of the code. The challenge problems were based on the enhanced geothermal systems research conducted at Fenton Hill, near Los Alamos, New Mexico, between 1974 and 1995. The problems

  1. Cataract surgery in previously vitrectomized eyes.

    Akinci, A; Batman, C; Zilelioglu, O


    To evaluate the results of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and phacoemulsification (PHACO) performed in previously vitrectomized eyes. In this retrospective study, 56 vitrectomized eyes that had ECCE and 60 vitrectomized eyes that had PHACO were included in the study group while 65 eyes that had PHACO in the control group. The evaluated parameters were the incidence of intra-operative and postoperative complications (IPC) and visual outcomes. Chi-squared, independent samples and paired samples tests were used for comparing the results. Deep anterior chamber (AC) was significantly more common in the PHACO group of vitrectomized eyes (PGVE) and observed in eyes that had undergone extensive vitreous removal (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Some of the intra-operative conditions such as posterior synechiae, primary posterior capsular opacification (PCO) and postoperative complications such as retinal detachment (RD), PCO were significantly more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls (p ECCE group and the PGVE (p > 0.05). Deep AC is more common in eyes with extensive vitreous removal during PHACO than ECCE. Decreasing the bottle height is advised in this case. Except for this, the results of ECCE and PHACO are similar in previously vitrectomized eyes. Posterior synechiaes, primary and postoperative PCO and RD are more common in vitrectomized eyes than the controls.

  2. A comparison study of commercially-available column flotation technologies

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Paul, B.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)


    A direct comparison of three commercially-available column flotation technologies, i.e., Jameson Cell, Microcel, and Packed-Column, has been conducted using a {minus}100 mesh Illinois No. 5 flotation feed coal sample. The separation performance of each flotation technology was optimized and their performance levels compared on the basis of both ash rejection, sulfur rejection, and throughput capacities. A parametric study using a statistically-designed experimental program was conducted to optimize the critical operating parameter values of each column. The ultimate performance curves for each column were generated by conducting additional tests using the optimized operating parameter values. The throughput capacity of each flotation cell was determined by conducting tests over a range of feed rates at the maximum superficial gas rate while maintaining the other parameters at their optimum values. The separation performance achieved by each of the three flotation cells was found to be comparable to the idealistic flotation performance predicted by release analysis. However, the fraction of wash water reporting to tailings (bias factor) was found to be critical in achieving the near idealistic performance. The bias factor required for the Packed-Column was found to be less than that required by the other two flotation cells. The sulfur rejection achieved by the Microcel and the Packed-Column were found to be greater than that achieved by the Jameson Cell and all three produced sulfur rejections exceeding the values obtained from release analysis. The throughput capacity, on the other hand, differed among the three flotation columns. The Jameson Cell and the Microcel were found to have comparable throughput capacities while the Packed-Column was found to have a lower capacity.

  3. Como novos conhecimentos podem ser construídos a partir dos conhecimentos prévios: um estudo de caso How new knowledge can be constructed from previous knowledge: a case study

    Francimar Martins Teixeira


    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata sobre o estudo de caso de como uma professora utiliza os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes durante a abordagem de um novo conceito científico. Para tanto, foram realizadas filmagens de aulas de ciências durante a execução de uma sequência didática, a fim de investigar de que maneira os conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes eram tratados em sala de aula ao longo da abordagem do tema. A partir dos resultados encontrados, percebemos nas aulas observadas como a professora lidava com os conhecimentos dos estudantes. Identificamos que houve ocasiões em que ela os considerou e outras em que os desconsiderou. Apesar de ações antagônicas, tanto o fato de considerar quanto de desconsiderar parecem ter em comum a busca de manutenção de foco sob os conceitos, entendidos pela professora, como sendo os que devem ser objeto de atenção dos alunos.This article deals with a case study about how a teacher uses previous knowledge of students to approach a new concept. To this end, sciences classes were filmed during the execution of a didactic sequence, in order to investigate how previous knowledge of the students was treated in the classroom along the approach of the theme. From these results, we saw how the teacher dealt with previous knowledge of their students. We identified that there were occasions when she considered them and others in which she disregarded them. Although they are antagonistic actions, both the facts, to consider or to dismiss, have in common the search for keeping the focus on the concepts, defined by the teacher as those that should be the object of attention for the students.

  4. Immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq(®) (human-cl rhFVIII) in previously untreated patients with severe haemophilia A-Interim results from the NuProtect Study.

    Liesner, R J; Abashidze, M; Aleinikova, O; Altisent, C; Belletrutti, M J; Borel-Derlon, A; Carcao, M; Chambost, H; Chan, A K C; Dubey, L; Ducore, J; Fouzia, N A; Gattens, M; Gruel, Y; Guillet, B; Kavardakova, N; El Khorassani, M; Klukowska, A; Lambert, T; Lohade, S; Sigaud, M; Turea, V; Wu, J K M; Vdovin, V; Pavlova, A; Jansen, M; Belyanskaya, L; Walter, O; Knaub, S; Neufeld, E J


    Nuwiq(®) (Human-cl rhFVIII) is a fourth generation recombinant FVIII, produced in a human cell line, without chemical modification or protein fusion. No inhibitors developed in studies with Nuwiq(®) in 201 previously treated patients with haemophilia A (HA). The immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of Nuwiq(®) in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe HA are being assessed in the ongoing NuProtect study. The study, conducted across 38 centres worldwide, is evaluating 110 true PUPs of all ages and ethnicities enrolled for study up to 100 exposure days (EDs) or 5 years maximum. The primary objective is to assess the immunogenicity of Nuwiq(®) (inhibitor activity ≥0.6 BU) using the Nijmegen-modified Bethesda assay at a central laboratory. Data for 66 PUPs with ≥20 EDs from a preplanned interim analysis were analysed. High-titre (HT) inhibitors developed in 8 of 66 patients after a median of 11.5 EDs (range 6-24). Five patients developed low-titre inhibitors (4 transient). The cumulative incidence (95% confidence interval) was 12.8% (4.5%, 21.2%) for HT inhibitors and 20.8% (10.7%, 31.0%) for all inhibitors. During inhibitor-free periods, median annualized bleeding rates during prophylaxis were 0 for spontaneous bleeds and 2.40 for all bleeds. Efficacy was rated as "excellent" or "good" in treating 91.8% of bleeds. Efficacy of surgical prophylaxis was "excellent" or "good" for 8 (89%) procedures and "moderate" for 1 (11%). No tolerability concerns were evident. These interim data show a cumulative incidence of 12.8% for HT inhibitors and convincing efficacy and tolerability in PUPs treated with Nuwiq(®) . © 2017 The Authors. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Can previous learning alter future plasticity mechanisms?

    Crestani, Ana Paula; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto


    The dynamic processes related to mnemonic plasticity have been extensively researched in the last decades. More recently, studies have attracted attention because they show an unusual plasticity mechanism that is independent of the receptor most usually related to first-time learning--that is, memory acquisition-the NMDA receptor. An interesting feature of this type of learning is that a previous experience may cause modifications in the plasticity mechanism of a subsequent learning, suggesting that prior experience in a very similar task triggers a memory acquisition process that does not depend on NMDARs. The intracellular molecular cascades necessary to assist the learning process seem to depend on the activation of hippocampal CP-AMPARs. Moreover, most of these studies were performed on hippocampus-dependent tasks, even though other brain areas, such as the basolateral amygdala, also display NMDAR-independent learning.

  6. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... digital submission of all data and certifications is available via HUD's secure Internet systems. However...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  7. Comparison studies of ozone precursors in Phoenix, Arizona

    Fernandez, C.; Guyton, J.; Lee, C.P. [Arizona Dept. of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Parmar, S. [Atmospheric Analysis and Consulting Co., Ventura, CA (United States)


    This paper will present the comparison of the ozone precursors monitoring program for Phoenix, Arizona during 1992 and 1993. Specific details and methodologies will be presented involving collection of air samples and analysis of speciated measurements for reactive VOC and carbonyl precursors responsible for ozone formation. Quality control and quality assurance techniques will also be discussed.

  8. Tip Studies using CFD and Comparison with Tip Loss Models

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    of the averaged axial induction factor and the normal and tangential loads are compared with those of a standard blade element momentum code using 2D calibrated airfoil data for a wind speed of 9 m s(-1), where the agreement in computed power is good. Further, a comparison with a new tip loss model proposed...

  9. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian


    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  10. Social Comparison Affects Brain Responses to Fairness in Asset Division: An ERP Study with the Ultimatum Game.

    Wu, Yin; Zhou, Yuqin; van Dijk, Eric; Leliveld, Marijke C; Zhou, Xiaolin


    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipients in the ultimatum game, were informed not only of offers to themselves but also of the average amount of offers in other allocator-recipient dyads. Behavioral results showed that the participants were more likely to reject division schemes when they were offered less than the other recipients, especially when the offers were highly unequal. Event-related brain potentials recorded from the participants showed that highly unequal offers elicited more negative-going medial frontal negativity than moderately unequal offers in an early time window (270-360 ms) and this effect was not significantly modulated by social comparison. In a later time window (450-650 ms), however, the late positive potential (LPP) was more positive for moderately unequal offers than for highly unequal offers when the other recipients were offered less than the participants, whereas this distinction disappeared when the other recipients were offered the same as or more than the participants. These findings suggest that the brain activity in evaluating fairness in asset division entails both an earlier (semi-) automatic process in which the brain responds to fairness at an abstract level and a later appraisal process in which factors related to social comparison and fairness norms come into play.

  11. Study on the Application of Previously Fermented Juice in the Forage Silage%绿汁发酵液在饲草青贮中的应用研究



    绿汁发酵液作为一种天然、无毒的青贮添加剂加工简单,经济环保。本文根据近几年的研究,对绿汁发酵液的制作方法、作用机理以及应用进展等进行了综述。%This paper is about the previously fermented juice(PFJ) which has many advantages such as uncomplicated handing, economy and environmental protection as a natural and poisonless additive. Accord-ing to recent studies, this paper summarized the manufacturing methods, mechanism and application progress of PFJ.

  12. Comparison of five bacteriophages as models for viral aerosol studies.

    Turgeon, Nathalie; Toulouse, Marie-Josée; Martel, Bruno; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline


    Bacteriophages are perceived to be good models for the study of airborne viruses because they are safe to use, some of them display structural features similar to those of human and animal viruses, and they are relatively easy to produce in large quantities. Yet, only a few studies have investigated them as models. It has previously been demonstrated that aerosolization, environmental conditions, and sampling conditions affect viral infectivity, but viral infectivity is virus dependent. Thus, several virus models are likely needed to study their general behavior in aerosols. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerosolization and sampling on the infectivity of five tail-less bacteriophages and two pathogenic viruses: MS2 (a single-stranded RNA [ssRNA] phage of the Leviviridae family), Φ6 (a segmented double-stranded RNA [dsRNA] phage of the Cystoviridae family), ΦX174 (a single-stranded DNA [ssDNA] phage of the Microviridae family), PM2 (a double-stranded DNA [dsDNA] phage of the Corticoviridae family), PR772 (a dsDNA phage of the Tectiviridae family), human influenza A virus H1N1 (an ssRNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family), and the poultry virus Newcastle disease virus (NDV; an ssRNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family). Three nebulizers and two nebulization salt buffers (with or without organic fluid) were tested, as were two aerosol sampling devices, a liquid cyclone (SKC BioSampler) and a dry cyclone (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health two-stage cyclone bioaerosol sampler). The presence of viruses in collected air samples was detected by culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Our results showed that these selected five phages behave differently when aerosolized and sampled. RNA phage MS2 and ssDNA phage ΦX174 were the most resistant to aerosolization and sampling. The presence of organic fluid in the nebulization buffer protected phages PR772 and Φ6 throughout the aerosolization and sampling with dry cyclones. In this

  13. 中原地区某村既往有偿献血人群艾滋病发病和死亡规律%Study on AIDS incidence and death in previous paid blood-donated population, central China

    朱新义; 崔兆麟; 黄祚军; 朱伯健; 汪宁


    Objective To study incidence and death among previous paid blood-donated AIDS sufferers.Methods A retrospective cohort study was adopted to study incidence and death of 373 previous paid blood-donated HIV sufferers and its effect factors.Results Previous paid blood-donated HIV infection was serious and the infection rate in blood-donated crowd was 35.87%(373/1040);the mean incubation period of AIDS was 8.87 years(95%CI:8.76-8.99,Kaplan-Meier method):the cumulative incidence of AIDS(10 years)was 92.23%(344/373),and the incidence of total sufferers was 11.64/100 person-year;the cumulative probability of survival of one-year,three-year,five-year AIDS sufferers was separately 94.48% (325/344),85.76%(295/344)and 83.14%(286/344),median survival time was over 5 years;the anti-virotic treatment days(960.29±486.38),infection age(33.39±9.08)disease age(41.98±8.88)had significant effects on AIDS sufferers' survival time/survival rate(x2=61.355,P=0.000;x2=6.555,P=0.010;x2=3.969,P=0.046).Conclusion The survival time of previous paid blood-donated HIV cases was longer,and their survival rate was hisher,remarkably higher than the UNAIDS'research findings.%目的 研究既往有偿献血人群获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,AIDS)发病和死亡规律.方法 采用回顾性队列研究方法,对373例既往有偿献血感染人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)者的发病、死亡规律及其影响因素进行研究.结果 既往有偿献血人群HIV感染率为35.87%(373/1040),AIDS平均潜伏期为8.87年(95%CI:8.76~8.99,Kaplan-Meier法);感染后10年累计发病率为92.23%(344/373),总人时发病率为11.64/100人年;艾滋病患者1年、3年、5年累计生存率分别为94.48%(325/344)、85.76%(295/344)和83.14%(286/344),中位生存时间超过5年;抗病毒治疗天数[(960.29±486.38)d]、感染年龄[(33.39±9.08)岁]和发病年龄[(41.98±8.88)岁]对艾滋病患者生存时间

  14. Phase I/II study of docetaxel combined with resminostat, an oral hydroxamic acid HDAC inhibitor, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.

    Tambo, Yuichi; Hosomi, Yukio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Nogami, Naoyuki; Atagi, Shinji; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Kato, Terufumi; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Seto, Takashi; Maemondo, Makoto; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Koyama, Ryo; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Okamura, Yuta; Nakamura, Osamu; Nishio, Makoto; Tamura, Tomohide


    Objectives To determine the recommended dose and efficacy/safety of docetaxel combined with resminostat (DR) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy. Materials and Methods A multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study was performed in Japanese patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent NSCLC and prior platinum-based chemotherapy. The recommended phase II dose was determined using a standard 3 + 3 dose design in phase I part. Resminostat was escalated from 400 to 600 mg/day and docetaxel fixed at 75 mg/m(2). In phase II part, the patients were randomly assigned to docetaxel alone (75 mg/m(2)) or DR therapy. Docetaxel was administered on day 1 and resminostat on days 1-5 in the DR group. Treatment was repeated every 21 days until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results A total of 117 patients (phase I part, 9; phase II part, 108) were enrolled. There was no dose-limiting toxicity in phase I part; the recommended dose for resminostat was 600 mg/day with 75 mg/m(2) of docetaxel. In phase II part, median PFS (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 4.2 (2.8-5.7) months with docetaxel group and 4.1 (1.5-5.4) months with DR group (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.354, 95% CI: 0.835-2.195; p = 0.209). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events significantly more common with DR group than docetaxel group were leukopenia, febrile neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anorexia. Conclusion In Japanese NSCLC patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, DR therapy did not improve PFS compared with docetaxel alone and increased toxicity.

  15. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev


    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  16. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R


    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Comparison of two photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy using light pulses in femtosecond regime: an animal study

    Grecco, Clóvis; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei; Kurachi, Cristina


    Photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality for cancer treatment based on the interaction of light with a sensitizer agent and molecular oxygen present into the target cells. The aim of this study is the evaluation of photodynamic therapy using pulsed light source in the femtosecond regime through necrosis induced in healthy rat liver. The induced necrosis profile with CW laser and pulsed laser were evaluated in animal model, which received Photodithazine (chlorine e6 derivative). The light sources used in these studies were a 660 nm CW diode laser and a Ti:Sapphire Regenerative Amplifier laser (1 kHz repetition rate and 100 fs pulse width) associated with an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) to convert to 660 nm. The results were compared with a previous study when was used a hematoporphyrin derivative (Photogem) as a sensitizer. The induced necrosis with Photogen was greater with pulsed laser (2.0 +/- 0.2 mm) in comparison with CW laser (1.0 ± 0.2 mm), while in Photodithazine the induced necrosis with was greater with CW laser (2.9 +/- 0.2 mm) comparing the pulsed laser (2.0 +/- 0.2 mm). These results indicate dependence of PDT mechanisms with photosensitizer and the light regime applied.

  18. The characteristics of serious suicide attempters in Japanese adolescents- comparison study between adolescents and adults

    Kawashima Yoshitaka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial

  19. Surgery of intracranial aneurysms previously treated endovascularly.

    Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Yin, Yuhua; Benes, Ludwig; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut


    To perform a retrospective study on the patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment. We performed a retrospective study on eight patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment (-attempts) with gugliemi detachable coils (GDCs). The indications for surgery, surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The indications for surgical treatment after GDC coiling of aneurysm were classified into three groups. First group: surgery of incompletely coiled aneurysms (n=4). Second group: surgery of mass effect on the neural structures due to coil compaction or rebleeding (n=2). Third group: surgery of vascular complications after endovascular procedure due to parent artery occlusion or thrombus propagation from aneurysm (n=2). Aneurysm obliterations could be performed in all cases confirmed by postoperative angiography. Six patients had an excellent outcome and returned to their profession. Patient's visual acuity was improved. One individual experienced right hemiparesis (grade IV/V) and hemihypesthesia. Microsurgical clipping is rarely necessary for previously coiled aneurysms. Surgical treatment is uncommonly required when an acute complication arises during endovascular treatment, or when there is a dynamic change of a residual aneurysm configuration over time that is considered to be insecure.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of recurrence risk guided care versus care as usual in women who suffered from early-onset preeclampsia including HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy (the PreCare study

    de Wit-Zuurendonk Laura D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome may have serious consequences for both mother and fetus. Women who have suffered from preeclampsia or the HELLP syndrome, have an increased risk of developing preeclampsia in a subsequent pregnancy. However, most women will develop no or only minor complications. In this study, we intend to determine cost-effectiveness of recurrence risk guided care versus care as usual in pregnant women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia. Methods/design We developed a prediction model to estimate the individual risk of recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia and the HELLP syndrome. In a before-after study, pregnant women with preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in their previous pregnancy receiving care as usual (before introduction of the prediction model will be compared with women receiving recurrence risk guided care (after introduction of the prediction model. Eligible and pregnant women will be recruited at six university hospitals and seven large non-university tertiary referral hospitals in the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure is the recurrence of early-onset preeclampsia or HELLP syndrome in women allocated to the regular monitoring group. For the economic evaluation, a modelling approach will be used. Costs and effects of recurrence risk guided care with those of care as usual will be compared by means of a decision model. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated: 1 cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (mother unit of analysis and 2 cost per live born child (child unit of analysis. Discussion This is, to our knowledge, the first study that evaluates prospectively the efficacy of a multivariable prediction rule for recurrent hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Results of this study could either be integrated into the current guideline on Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy, or be used to develop a new guideline.

  1. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen


    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.




    Full Text Available In this study, it was intended to introduce Social Studies Curriculum of Ontario Province of Canada which was implemented in 2004, then its comparison with The Turkish Social Studies Curriculum which was implemented in 2005 in terms of structures, approaches, contents, purposes, learning-teaching processes and assessment-evaluation approaches. Ontario Social Studies Curriculum was examined from its historical roots until the current status; however Turkish Social Studies Curriculum is not examined in detail but examined in a comparative way. Document analysis, which is one of Qualitative research methods, was conducted in the research. In conclusion, it has been found that there are differences in class levels covered by the curricula, distribution of learning strands and units in grades, purposes, number of expectations and their classifications.

  3. Comparison study of sub-trajectory clustering in data mining

    Yang, Guodong; Huang, Zhitao; Wang, Xiang


    Trajectory clustering is an important method to achieve moving object data mining, multi-sensor information fusion and trajectory knowledge discovery. Sub-trajectory clustering is an important method to extract useful information from a large number of trajectory data in trajectory analysis. In this paper, comparative experiments are made on the time consumption, similarity measure and clustering performance based on the existing sub-trajectory clustering methods. Based on the comparisons, the advantages and disadvantages of different methods are presented and an improved method is proposed for dealing with trajectories with low positioning accuracy and correlating tracklets from asynchronous sensors. Besides, a general framework of trajectory data mining is discussed.

  4. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol.

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther


    The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy

  5. 机采血小板检测前过程质量控制的研究%A study on quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection

    杨图深; 朱业华; 陈亦明


    目的:探讨机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制。方法留取机采单份血小板、机采双份血小板样本各100份,以1∶1、1∶3及1∶7稀释度进行稀释,采用全自动血液细胞计数仪检测血小板计数。另采集机采血小板样本100份,室温下静置0、30、60、90、120 min ,以1∶3稀释后,检测其血小板计数。结果机采单份或双份血小板样本以1∶1与1∶3稀释后检测血小板计数的差异及1∶3与1∶7稀释后检测的差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。静置0、30 min检测的血小板计数与静置60、90、120 min的检测值的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论机采血小板检测前过程的质量控制对采集后的血小板计数十分重要。%Objective To study the quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection .Methods Single and double apheresis platelets each of 100 samples were collected and were diluted 1∶1 ,1∶3 and 1∶7 .Aautomatic Blood Cell Count-er was employed to detect the platelet count .Another 100 samples of apheresis platelets were collected and stand at room tempera-ture for 0 ,30 ,60 ,90 ,120 min ,After 1∶3 dilution ,the platelet counts were detected .Results Differences of platelet counts be-tween 1∶1 and 1∶3 dilution ,1∶3 and 1∶7 dilution of single or double apheresis platelets showed statistically significant differ-ences(P<0 .05) .Differences of platelet counts between standing for 0 ,30 min and standing for 60 ,90 ,120 min were found statis-tically significant(P<0 .05) .Conclusion Quality control of previous process of apheresis platelets detection is very important for platelet count after collection .

  6. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk


    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  7. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    Michael Weiss

    Full Text Available Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae, which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems.

  8. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism.

    Loh, Kevin D; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney


    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37 degrees C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [(14)C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA-G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively.


    S. Yu. Martsevich


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.


    S. Yu. Martsevich


    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  11. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX326, a novel recombinant factor IX: a prospective, controlled, multicentre phase I/III study in previously treated patients with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level ≤2%) haemophilia B.

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Rusen, L; Lamas, J L; Oh, M-S; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Pavlova, B G; Wong, W-Y; Abbuehl, B E


    BAX326 is a recombinant factor IX (rFIX; nonacog gamma) manufactured without the addition of any materials of human or animal origin, and with two viral inactivation steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 15 nm nanofiltration). The aim of this prospective trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, haemostatic efficacy and safety of BAX326 in previously treated patients aged 12-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B. BAX326 was safe and well tolerated in all 73 treated subjects; adverse events considered related to treatment (2.7% incidence, all non-serious) were transient and mild, and no hypersensitivity reactions, inhibitor formation or thrombotic events were observed. Pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence (n = 28) between BAX326 and a licensed rFIX was confirmed in terms of the ratio of geometric mean AUC(0-72) h per dose. Twice-weekly prophylaxis [mean duration 6.2 (±0.7) months; 1.8 (±0.1) infusions per week, 49.5 (±4.8) IU kg(-1) per infusion] was effective in preventing bleeding episodes, with a significantly lower (79%, P < 0.001) annualized bleed rate (4.2) compared to an on-demand treatment in a historical control group (20.0); 24 of 56 subjects on prophylaxis (43%) did not bleed throughout the study observation period. Of 249 total acute bleeds, 211 (84.7%) were controlled with one to two infusions of BAX326. Haemostatic efficacy at resolution of bleed was rated excellent or good in 96.0% of all treated bleeding episodes. The results of this study indicate that BAX326 is safe and efficacious in treating bleeds and routine prophylaxis in patients aged 12 years and older with haemophilia B.

  12. Studies on tautomerism in tetrazole: comparison of Hartree Fock and density functional theory quantum chemical methods

    Mazurek, A. P.; Sadlej-Sosnowska, N.


    A comparison of the ab initio quantum chemical methods: Hartree-Fock (HF) and hybrid density functional theory (DFT)/B3LYP for the treatment of tautomeric equilibria both in the gas phase and in the solution is made. The solvent effects were investigated in terms of the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF). Ionization potentials (IP), calculated by DFT/B3LYP, are also compared with those calculated previously within the HF frame.

  13. Comparison between electron and neutron Compton scattering studies

    Moreh Raymond


    Full Text Available We compare two techniques: Electron Compton Scattering (ECS and neutron Compton scattering (NCS and show that using certain incident energies, both can measure the atomic kinetic energy of atoms in molecules and solids. The information obtained is related to the Doppler broadening of nuclear levels and is very useful for deducing the widths of excited levels in many nuclei in self absorption measurements. A comparison between the atomic kinetic energies measured by the two methods on the same samples is made. Some results are also compared with calculated atomic kinetic energies obtained using the harmonic approximation where the vibrational frequencies were taken from IR/Raman optical measurements. The advantages of the ECS method are emphasized.

  14. EUS needle identification comparison and evaluation (NICE) study (with videos)

    Tang, Shou-jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S.; Saftoiu, Adrian; Wang, Wanmei; Streba, Costin; Fink, Peter P.; Griswold, Michael; Wu, Ruonan; Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Hocke, Michael; Kantowski, Marcus; Pohl, Jürgen; Fockens, Paul; Annema, Jouke T.; van der Heijden, Erik H.F.M.; Havre, Roald Flesland; Pham, Khanh Do-Cong; Kunda, Rastislav; Deprez, Pierre H.; Mariana, Jinga; Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Larghi, Alberto; Buscarini, Elisabetta; Fusaroli, Pietro; Lahav, Maor; Puri, Rajesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Malay; Maluf-Filho, Fauze; Sahai, Anand; Brugge, William R.; Lee, Linda S.; Aslanian, Harry R.; Wang, Andrew Y.; Shami, Vanessa M.; Markowitz, Arnold; Siddiqui, Ali A.; Mishra, Girish; Scheiman, James M.; Isenberg, Gerard; Siddiqui, Uzma D.; Shah, Raj J.; Buxbaum, James; Watson, Rabindra R.; Willingham, Field F.; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Levy, Michael J.; Harris, Cynthia; Wallace, Michael B.; Nolsøe, Christian Pállson; Lorentzen, Torben; Bang, Niels; Sørensen, Sten Mellerup; Gilja, Odd Helge; D’Onofrio, Mirko; Piscaglia, Fabio; Gritzmann, Norbert; Radzina, Maija; Sparchez, Zeno Adrian; Sidhu, Paul S.; Freeman, Simon; McCowan, Timothy C.; de Araujo, Cyrillo Rodrigues; Patel, Akash; del Ali, Mohammad A; Campbell, Garth; Chen, Edward; Vilmann, Peter


    Background and Aims Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) or biopsy is widely practiced. Optimal sonographic visualization of the needle is critical for image guided interventions. There are several commercially available needles but no bench-top testing and direct comparison of these needles to reveal their inherent echogenicity. The aims are to provide bench-top data that can be used to guide clinical applications and to promote future device research and development. Methods Descriptive bench-top testing and comparison. Bench-top testing of 8 commonly used EUS-FNA needles (all of 22 gauge in size): SonoTip Pro Control (Medi-Globe); Expect Slimline (Boston Scientific); EchoTip, EchoTip Ultra, EchoTip ProCore High Definition, (Cook Medical); ClearView (Conmed); EZ Shot2 (Olympus); BNX (Beacon Endoscopic); and 2 new prototype needles that are coated by echogenic polymers by Medi-Globe. Blinded evaluation of standardized and unedited videos by 43 EUS endoscopists and 17 radiologists specialized in gastrointestinal ultrasound examination that is unfamiliar with EUS needle devices. Results There was no significant difference in the ratings and rankings of these needles between endosonographers and radiologists. Overall, one prototype needle was rated as the best, ranking 10% to 40% higher than all other needles (pneedles, the EchoTip Ultra needle and the ClearView needle were top choices. The EZ Shot 2 needle was ranked statistically lower than other needles (30%–75% worse, pneedles have their inherent and different echogenicity, and these differences are similarly recognized by EUS endoscopists and radiologists. Needles with polymeric coating from the entire shaft to the needle tip may offer better echogenicity. PMID:26873530

  15. A randomized comparison of balloon angioplasty versus rotational atherectomy in complex coronary lesions (COBRA study)

    Dill, T; Dietz, U; Hamm, C W; Küchler, R; Rupprecht, H J; Haude, M; Cyran, J; Ozbek, C; Kuck, K H; Berger, J; Erbel, R


    .... The Comparison of Balloon-Angioplasty versus Rotational Atherectomy study (COBRA) is a multicentre, prospective, randomized trial to compare short- and long-term effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA...

  16. Efficacy and safety of the combination paclitaxel/carboplatin in patients with previously treated advanced ovarian carcinoma: a multicenter French Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens phase II study.

    Pujade-Lauraine, E; Guastalla, J P; Weber, B; Curé, H; Orfeuvre, H; Mousseau, M; Vincent, P; Diéras, V; Tubiana-Mathieu, N; Jacquin, J P; Mignot, L; Leduc, B; Paraïso, D; Viens, P


    The French Groupe des Investigateurs Nationaux pour l'Etude des Cancers Ovariens (GINECO) conducted a multicenter phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of this combination in pretreated advanced ovarian cancer. Patients with progressive ovarian carcinoma during or after platinum-based chemotherapy received paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 intravenously over 3 hours followed by intravenous carboplatin over 30 minutes every 4 weeks. The dose of carboplatin was calculated using a projected area under the concentration-time curve of 5 mg/mL x min. Of the 50 patients entered, 50 were evaluable for toxicity and 42 for response. There were eight complete and 10 partial responses, for an overall response rate of 43% (95% confidence interval, 28% to 56%). Overall response rates in platinum refractory patients and in those with early (> or = 3 and or = 12 months) relapse was 28%, 33%, and 71%, respectively. Median response duration, progression-free survival, and overall survivals were 8, 6, and 14 months, respectively. The most frequent and severe toxicity was myelosuppression. Grades 3 and 4 neutropenia occurred in 30% and 23% of cycles, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered in 6%. Only one case of neutropenic fever was observed. Grades 3 and 4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 3% and 1% of cycles, respectively. Alopecia and moderate nausea or vomiting were frequent. Transitory peripheral neuropathy was present in 45% of patients but was severe in only one patient. One early death was observed due to progressive disease and possibly to therapy. The combination of paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 as a 3-hour infusion and carboplatin dosed to an area under the concentration-time curve of 5 is an effective therapy in patients previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and may be administered safely to outpatients who relapse after one or two lines of chemotherapy.

  17. The relationship between social comparison processes and personality

    VanderZee, K; Buunk, B; Sanderman, R


    The relationship between social comparison processes and personality was examined in a sample of cancer patients (Study 1) and in a random population sample (Study 2). Previous studies showed that the need for comparison, its affective consequences and the tendency to make self-enhancing comparisons

  18. Birth Weight, Physical Morbidity, and Mortality: A Population-based Sibling-Comparison Study

    Class, Quetzal A.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M.


    Associations between low birth weight (≤2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the “developmental origins of health and disease” hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity. PMID:24355331

  19. A comparison study of two Tricept units for reconfigurable parallel kinematic machines

    Shi Junshan; Tang Xiaoqiang; Lin Chunshen; Wang Liping


    This paper presents a comparison study of workspace and dexterity of two Tricept units for Reconfigurable Parallel Kinematic Machines (RPKMs). The modular leg of RPKMs is designed and the RPKMs can be built by changing the setting of modules. A compositive kinematic model is developed accordingly. The inverse kinematics and Jacobian of these two Tricept units are analyzed. Considering workspace volume and dexterity, the effects of geometric size of some modules on the two Tricept units are discussed. In the end, comparison results of these two Tricept units are given. The comparison of two kinds of Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKMs) can be of help in the design and configuration planning of the RPKMs.


    D.R.Merlin Shalini


    Full Text Available The massive amounts of data collected today by software in fields varying from academia to business and many other fields, is increasingly becoming a huge problem due to storage technologies not advancing fast enough to provide the performance scalability needed. This is even truer for data which are highly organized and require analysis while being stored in databases and being accessed by various applications simultaneously. As database vendors struggle to gain more market share new technologies emerge attempting to overcome the disadvantages of previous designs while providing more features. Two popular database types, the Relational Database Management Systems and NoSQL databases are examined. The aim of this paper was to examine and compare two databases from these two database models and answer the question of whether one performs and scales better than the other.

  1. Comparison of clinical features of left-sided infective endocarditis involving previously normal versus previously abnormal valves.

    Olmos, Carmen; Vilacosta, Isidre; Fernández, Cristina; Sarriá, Cristina; López, Javier; Del Trigo, María; Ferrera, Carlos; Vivas, David; Maroto, Luis; Hernández, Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; San Román, José Alberto


    Native valve infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with normal valves has increased in the last decades. Whether patients with normal valves present a similar prognosis to those with pathologic valves is unresolved. Our aim is to describe epidemiologic and clinical differences between patients with left-sided IE and normal valves and those with native pathologic valves. We analyzed 945 consecutive episodes of IE, 435 of which involved left-sided nonprosthetic IE. They were classified into 2 groups: episodes in normal valves (normal group, n=173) and episodes in pathologic valves (abnormal group, n=262). Patients in the normal group were younger, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus bovis were more frequently isolated, and vegetations were more frequently found. Heart failure, septic shock, and the need for surgery or death were more common. Multivariate analysis identified the following as factors independently associated with normal valve IE: agevalve IE, patients with IE on normal valves were younger, had a more virulent microbiological profile, developed heart failure and septic shock more frequently, needed more surgical procedures, and had worse prognosis.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TB282 and TB284, a Widespread and a Unique Strain, Respectively, Identified in a Previous Study of Tuberculosis Transmission in Central Los Angeles, California, USA

    Yang, Zhenhua


    ABSTRACT We report here the genome sequences of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates previously identified in central Los Angeles, CA, in the 1990s using a PacBio platform. Isolate TB282 represents a large-cluster strain that caused 27% of the tuberculosis cases, while TB284 represents a strain that caused disease in only one patient. PMID:28082486

  3. Randomized Phase II Study of R-CHOP With or Without Bortezomib in Previously Untreated Patients With Non-Germinal Center B-Cell-Like Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Leonard, John P; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Reeves, James A; Tulpule, Anil; Flinn, Ian W; Kolevska, Tatjana; Robles, Robert; Flowers, Christopher R; Collins, Robert; DiBella, Nicholas J; Papish, Steven W; Venugopal, Parameswaran; Horodner, Andrew; Tabatabai, Amir; Hajdenberg, Julio; Park, Jaehong; Neuwirth, Rachel; Mulligan, George; Suryanarayan, Kaveri; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; de Vos, Sven


    Purpose To evaluate the impact of the addition of bortezomib to rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) on outcomes in previously untreated patients with non-germinal center B-cell-like (non-GCB) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Patients and Methods After real-time determination of non-GCB DLBCL using the Hans immunohistochemistry algorithm, 206 patients were randomly assigned (1:1; stratified by International Prognostic Index [IPI] score) to six 21-day cycles of standard R-CHOP alone or R-CHOP plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1 and 4 (VR-CHOP). The primary end point, progression-free survival (PFS), was evaluated in 183 patients with centrally confirmed non-GCB DLBCL who received one or more doses of study drug (91 R-CHOP, 92 VR-CHOP). Results After a median follow-up of 34 months, with 25% (R-CHOP) and 18% (VR-CHOP) of patients having had PFS events, the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS was 0.73 (90% CI, 0.43 to 1.24) with VR-CHOP ( P = .611). Two-year PFS rates were 77.6% with R-CHOP and 82.0% with VR-CHOP; they were 65.1% versus 72.4% in patients with high-intermediate/high IPI (HR, 0.67; 90% CI, 0.34 to 1.29), and 90.0% versus 88.9% (HR, 0.85; 90% CI, 0.35 to 2.10) in patients with low/low-intermediate IPI. Overall response rate with R-CHOP and VR-CHOP was 98% and 96%, respectively. The overall survival HR was 0.75 (90% CI, 0.38 to 1.45); 2-year survival rates were 88.4% and 93.0%, respectively. In the safety population (100 R-CHOP and 101 VR-CHOP patients), grade ≥ 3 adverse events included neutropenia (53% v 49%), thrombocytopenia (13% v 29%), anemia (7% v 15%), leukopenia (26% v 25%), and neuropathy (1% v 5%). Conclusion Outcomes for newly diagnosed, prospectively enrolled patients with non-GCB DLBCL were more favorable than expected with R-CHOP and were not significantly improved by adding bortezomib.

  4. Hotel Classification Systems: A Comparison of International Case Studies

    Roberta Minazzi,


    Full Text Available Over the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing interest of scholars andespecially operators in service quality in the lodging business. Firstly, it is important to observe thatthe diverseness of the hospitality industry also affects the classification of hotel quality. We canactually find many programmes, classifications and seals of quality promoted by public authoritiesand private companies that create confusion in the consumer perceptions of hotel quality. Moreover,new electronic distribution channels and their ratings are becoming a new way to gather informationabout a hotel and its quality. Secondly, a point that can cause complications is that different countriesand regions can choose differing approaches depending on the features of the classification (numberof levels, symbols used, etc. and the nature of the programme (public, private. Considering theseassumptions and the recent changes in the Italian hotel classification system, this paper aims toanalyse the situation in Italy, underlining both its positive and negative aspects and comparing it withother European and North American cases. Based on a review of literature and tourism laws as wellas personal interviews with public authorities and exponents of the private sectors, we were able toidentify critical issues and trends in hotel classification systems. The comparison of case studiesshows a heterogeneous situation. Points in common are the scale and the symbol used but, if weanalyse the requirements of each category, we discover very different circumstances, also sometimesin the same country. A future European classification system could be possible only after astandardization of minimum requirements and criteria at a national level. In this situation brands andonline consumers’ feedbacks become even more considered by the customers in the hospitalityindustry.

  5. A study of characteristics of intercity transportation systems. Phase 1: Definition of transportation comparison methodology

    English, J. M.; Smith, J. L.; Lifson, M. W.


    The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine a unified methodological framework for the comparison of intercity passenger and freight transportation systems; (2) to review the attributes of existing and future transportation systems for the purpose of establishing measures of comparison. These objectives were made more specific to include: (1) development of a methodology for comparing long term transportation trends arising from implementation of various R&D programs; (2) definition of value functions and attribute weightings needed for further transportation goals.

  6. A European-wide 222Radon and 222Radon progeny comparison study

    Schmithüsen, Dominik; Chambers, Scott; Fischer, Bernd; Gilge, Stefan; Hatakka, Juha; Kazan, Victor; Neubert, Rolf; Paatero, Jussi; Ramonet, Michel; Schlosser, Clemens; Schmid, Sabine; Vermeulen, Alex; Levin, Ingeborg


    A European-wide 222Radon/222Radon progeny comparison study has been conducted in order to determine correction factors that could be applied to existing atmospheric 222Radon data sets for quantitative use of this tracer in atmospheric transport model validation. Two compact and easy-to-transport Heidelberg Radon Monitors (HRM) were moved around to run for at least one month at each of the nine European measurement stations that were included in the comparison. Linear regressions between paral...

  7. What constitutes a nesting attempt? Variation in criteria causes bias and hinders comparisons across studies

    Garcia, V.; Conway, C.J.


    Because reliable estimates of nesting success are very important to avian studies, the definition of a "successful nest" and the use of different analytical methods to estimate success have received much attention. By contrast, variation in the criteria used to determine whether an occupied site that did not produce offspring contained a nesting attempt is a source of bias that has been largely ignored. This problem is especially severe in studies that deal with species whose nest contents are relatively inaccessible because observers cannot determine whether or not an egg was laid for a large proportion of occupied sites. Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) often lay their eggs ???3 m below ground, so past Burrowing Owl studies have used a variety of criteria to determine whether a nesting attempt was initiated. We searched the literature to document the extent of that variation and examined how that variation influenced estimates of daily nest survival. We found 13 different sets of criteria used by previous authors and applied each criterion to our data set of 1,300 occupied burrows. We found significant variation in estimates of daily nest survival depending on the criteria used. Moreover, differences in daily nest survival among populations were apparent using some sets of criteria but not others. These inconsistencies may lead to incorrect conclusions and invalidate comparisons of the productivity and relative site quality among populations. We encourage future authors working on cavity-, canopy-, or burrow-nesting birds to provide specific details on the criteria they used to identify a nesting attempt. ?? 2009 by The American Ornithologists' Union. All rights reserved.


    Gibbs, K; Carol Kestin, C


    digital imaging technology to replace the current method. The purpose of this report is to provide a description of the current method, a description of the equipment for the new digital method and its capabilities, and a direct comparison of the results between the existing and proposed techniques. The advantages of the digital method is the reduced time of exposure (from 24 hours to around 10 minutes), increased sample throughput, reduced rework of samples, and the elimination of chemical processing.

  9. Study of the Geometric Stiffening Effect: Comparison of Different Formulations

    Mayo, Juana M., E-mail:; Garcia-Vallejo, Daniel; Dominguez, Jaime [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y de los Materiales (Spain)


    This paper reviews different formulations to account for the stress stiffening or geometric stiffening effect arising from deflections large enough to cause significant changes in the configuration of the system The importance of such effect on many engineering applications, such as the dynamic behavior of helicopter blades, flexible rotor arms, turbine blades, etc., is well known. The analysis is carried out only for one-dimensional elements in 2D.Formulations based on the floating frame of reference approach are computationally very efficient, as the use of the component synthesis method allows for a reduced number of coordinates. However, something must be done for them to account for the geometric stiffening effect. The easiest method is the application of the substructuring technique, because the formulation is not modified. This, however, is not the most efficient approach. In problems where deformation is moderated, the simple inclusion of the geometric stiffness matrix is enough. On the other hand, if the deformation is large, higher-order terms must be included in the strain energy. In order to achieve an efficient and stable formulation, an explicit geometrically nonlinear beam element was developed. The formulations that use absolute coordinates are, generally, computationally more costly than the previous ones, as they must use a large number of degrees of freedom. However, the geometric stiffening effect can be automatically accounted for with these formulations. The aim of this work is to investigate the applicability of the different existing formulations in order to help the user select the right one for his particular application.

  10. Height, social comparison, and paranoia: an immersive virtual reality experimental study.

    Freeman, Daniel; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Dunn, Graham; Slater, Mel


    Mistrust of others may build upon perceptions of the self as vulnerable, consistent with an association of paranoia with perceived lower social rank. Height is a marker of social status and authority. Therefore we tested the effect of manipulating height, as a proxy for social rank, on paranoia. Height was manipulated within an immersive virtual reality simulation. Sixty females who reported paranoia experienced a virtual reality train ride twice: at their normal and reduced height. Paranoia and social comparison were assessed. Reducing a person's height resulted in more negative views of the self in comparison with other people and increased levels of paranoia. The increase in paranoia was fully mediated by changes in social comparison. The study provides the first demonstration that reducing height in a social situation increases the occurrence of paranoia. The findings indicate that negative social comparison is a cause of mistrust.

  11. A Comparison Study on the Chinese and Western Music Aesthetics


    <正>Specialty:Literary Theory Music Aesthetics is a basic and theoretical subject,which studies the basic rules of music,and especially regards the study of the particularity of music and aesthetics as its general goal.Belonging to liberal arts,music aesthetics is the same as other

  12. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  13. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  14. Comparison of the i-gel and other supraglottic airways in adult manikin studies

    An, Jiwon; Nam, Sang Beom; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Jinae; Yoo, Hanna; Lee, Hye Mi; Kim, Min-Soo


    Abstract Background: The i-gel has a gel-like cuff composed of thermoplastic elastomer that does not require cuff inflation. As the elimination of cuff inflation may shorten insertion time, the i-gel might be a useful tool in emergency situations requiring prompt airway care. This systematic review and meta-analysis of previous adult manikin studies for inexperienced personnel was performed to compare the i-gel with other supraglottic airways. Methods: We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before June 2015, including with a crossover design, using the following search terms: “i-gel,” “igel,” “simulation,” “manikin,” “manikins,” “mannequin,” and “mannequins.” The primary outcomes of this review were device insertion time and the first-attempt success rate of insertion. Results: A total of 14 RCTs were included. At the initial assessment without difficult circumstances, the i-gel had a significantly shorter insertion time than the LMA Classic, LMA Fastrach, LMA Proseal, LMA Unique, laryngeal tube, Combitube, and EasyTube. However, a faster insertion time of the i-gel was not observed in comparisons with the LMA Supreme, aura-i, and air-Q. In addition, the i-gel did not show the better results for the insertion success rate when compared to other devices. Conclusion: The findings of this meta-analysis indicated that inexperienced volunteers placed the i-gel more rapidly than other supraglottic airways with the exception of the LMA Supreme, aura-i, and air-Q in manikin studies. However, the quicker insertion time is clinically not relevant. The unapparent advantage regarding the insertion success rate and the inherent limitations of the simulation setting indicated that additional evidence is necessary to confirm these advantages of the i-gel in an emergency setting. PMID:28072732

  15. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.


    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  16. Study Strategies Comparison and Self-Regulationin University Students

    Irma Rosa Alvarado Guerrero


    Full Text Available The main factors associated with academic performance are study strategies and self-regulation in university students, thus the objective of this paper is to compare two sample groups: those in a regular status and others under certain academic lag. The Study Strategies Inventory and Self-Regulation (IEEA BY Castaneda was applied to 41 learners. It was observed that both groups need support to develop strategies for the four scales of the instrument: Information acquisition, memory resource management, information processing and self-regulation in all three dimensions: people, tasks and materials. In conclusion there is a need to develop programs to help the consolidation of study strategies and self-regulation and highlights the importance of analyzing the factors in teacher’s education and development of programs and curricula, to improve academic performance in higher educationinstitutions.

  17. Engaging in Upward and Downward Comparisons as a Determinant of Relative Deprivation at Work: A Longitudinal Study.

    Buunk, Bram P.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez-Roma, Vicente; Subirats, Monserrat


    A longitudinal study of 93 nurses showed that those who initially derived both positive and negative feelings from upward comparisons (with colleagues who perform better) and negative feelings from downward comparisons increased relative deprivation at work after one year. Downward comparison also increased relative deprivation after a year.…

  18. Engaging in Upward and Downward Comparisons as a Determinant of Relative Deprivation at Work: A Longitudinal Study.

    Buunk, Bram P.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez-Roma, Vicente; Subirats, Monserrat


    A longitudinal study of 93 nurses showed that those who initially derived both positive and negative feelings from upward comparisons (with colleagues who perform better) and negative feelings from downward comparisons increased relative deprivation at work after one year. Downward comparison also increased relative deprivation after a year.…

  19. Pharmacological studies on synthetic flavonoids: comparison with diazepam.

    Griebel, G; Perrault, G; Tan, S; Schoemaker, H; Sanger, D J


    were confronted with a natural threat (a rat), 6-bromoflavone and 6-bromo-3'-nitroflavone failed to decrease flight reactions after the rat was introduced into the test area and risk assessment behavior displayed when subjects were constrained in a straight alley, and only weakly affected risk assessment of mice chased by the rat and defensive biting upon forced contact with the threat stimulus. In a drug discrimination experiment 6-bromoflavone and 6-bromo-3'-nitroflavone up to 30 and 3 mg/kg, respectively, did not substitute for the BZ chlordiazepoxide. Taken together, these results failed to demonstrate that the synthetic flavonoids 6-bromoflavone and 6-bromo-3'-nitroflavone possess anxiolytic-like properties similar or superior to that of diazepam, as was suggested previously. Furthermore, they question the contribution of BZ-omega receptors to the behavioral effects of 6-bromoflavone and 6-bromo-3'-nitroflavone.

  20. Self-Actualizing Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    Hall, Eleanor G.; Hansen, Jan B.


    The self-actualization of 167 women who lived in the Martha Cook (MC) dormitory of the University of Michigan (1950-1970) was compared to that of a group of Ivy League men researched in another study. In addition, two groups of MC women were compared to each other to identify differences which might explain why some self-actualized while other did…

  1. Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl levels across studies of human neurodevelopment

    Longnecker, MP; Gladen, BC; Brock, JW; Grandjean, P; Jacobson, JL; Korrick, SA; Rogan, WJ; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Hertz-Picciotto, [No Value; Ayotte, P; Stewart, P; Winneke, G; Charles, MJ; Jacobson, SW; Dewailly, E; Boersma, ER; Altshul, LM; Heinzow, B; Pagano, JJ; Jensen, AA


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are ubiquitous in the food chain, and detectable amounts are in the blood of almost every person in most populations that have been examined. Extensive evidence from animal studies shows that PCBs are neurotoxins, even at low doses. Int

  2. Application of Interactive Classification System in University Study Course Comparison

    Birzniece, Ilze; Rudzajs, Peteris; Kalibatiene, Diana; Vasilecas, Olegas; Rencis, Edgars


    The growing amount of information in the world has increased the need for computerized classification of different objects. This situation is present in higher education as well where the possibility of effortless detection of similarity between different study courses would give the opportunity to organize student exchange programmes effectively…

  3. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    Bjørkmann, Anders


    from the sapwood with equal dimensions (7x9x152 mm) were measured "raw", then dried, extracted and (again) dried, In addition, changes of extract-free wood by treatment with alkali and with DMA/LiCl and also by substitution with succinic acid, were studied. Several expected and some unexpected results...

  4. Soybean allergen detection methods--a comparison study

    Pedersen, M. Højgaard; Holzhauser, T.; Bisson, C.


    Soybean containing products are widely consumed, thus reliable methods for detection of soy in foods are needed in order to make appropriate risk assessment studies to adequately protect soy allergic patients. Six methods were compared using eight food products with a declared content of soy...


    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  6. Studying Communication Style: Comparison of Three Methods for Gathering Data.

    Geddes, Doreen

    A study examined the effects of three presentational modes--transcription, audiotape, and videotape--on raters' evaluations of male and female speakers using a powerless, powerful, or mixed speech style. A powerless speech style was characterized by the use of message elements such as qualifiers, tag questions, polite forms, and disclaimers. A…

  7. Comparison study of selected geophysical and geotechnical parameters

    Nissen, Randi Warncke; Poulsen, Søren Erbs


    Successful foundation of constructions relies on accurate characterization of the geotechnical properties of the subsurface. By implementing data from geophysical surveys, the placement of geotechnical drillings can be significantly improved, potentially reducing the number of required drillings....... This case study is mainly to compare geophysical investigations (MEP/IP) with existing PACES data and information from geotechnical drillings....

  8. Comparison of the learning of two notations: A pilot study



    Introduction: MICAP is a new notation in which the teeth are indicated by letters (I-incisor, C-canine, P-premolar, M-molar) and numbers [1,2,3] which are written superscript and subscript on the relevant letters. FDI tooth notation is a two digit system where one digit shows quadrant and the second one shows the tooth of the quadrant. This study aimed to compare the short term retention of knowledge of two notation systems (FDI two digit system and MICAP notation) by lecture method. Methods: Undergraduate students [N=80] of three schools participated in a cross-over study. Two theory-driven classroom based lectures on MICAP notation and FDI notation were delivered separately. Data were collected using eight randomly selected permanent teeth to be written in MICAP format and FDI format at pretest (before the lecture), post-test I (immediately after lecture) and post-test II (one week after the lecture). Analysis was done by SPSS version 20.0 using repeated measures ANCOVA and independent t-test. Results: The results of pre-test and post-test I were similar for FDI education. Similar results were found between post-test I and post-test II for MICAP and FDI notations. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the two notations (FDI and MICAP) were equally mind cognitive. However, the sample size used in this study may not reflect the global scenario. Therefore, we suggest more studies to be performed for prospective adaptation of MICAP in dental curriculum. PMID:28367462

  9. Comparison of the learning of two notations: A pilot study



    Full Text Available Introduction: MICAP is a new notation in which the teeth are indicated by letters (I-incisor, C-canine, P-premolar, M-molar and numbers [1,2,3] which are written superscript and subscript on the relevant letters. FDI tooth notation is a two digit system where one digit shows quadrant and the second one shows the tooth of the quadrant. This study aimed to compare the short term retention of knowledge of two notation systems (FDI two digit system and MICAP notation by lecture method. Methods: Undergraduate students [N=80] of three schools participated in a cross-over study. Two theory-driven classroom based lectures on MICAP notation and FDI notation were delivered separately. Data were collected using eight randomly selected permanent teeth to be written in MICAP format and FDI format at pretest (before the lecture, post-test I (immediately after lecture and post-test II (one week after the lecture. Analysis was done by SPSS version 20.0 using repeated measures ANCOVA and independent t-test. Results: The results of pre-test and post-test I were similar for FDI education. Similar results were found between post-test I and post-test II for MICAP and FDI notations. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the two notations (FDI and MICAP were equally mind cognitive. However, the sample size used in this study may not reflect the global scenario. Therefore, we suggest more studies to be performed for prospective adaptation of MICAP in dental curriculum.

  10. Phantom behavioral assimilation effects: systematic biases in social comparison choice studies.

    Marsh, Herbert W; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Régner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X


    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on subsequent performance--a behavioral assimilation effect (BAE). We show (Studies 1 and 2) that this apparent BAE is due, in part, to uncontrolled measurement error in pretest achievement. However, using simulated data (Study 3), these phantom BAEs were eliminated with latent-variable models with multiple indicators. In Studies 4 and 5, latent-variable models were applied to the Blanton et al. and Huguet et al. data, resulting in substantially smaller but still significantly positive BAEs. More generally in personality research based on correlational data, failure to control measurement error in pretest/background variables will positively bias the apparent effects of personality variables of interest, but widely applicable approaches demonstrated here can correct for these biases.

  11. Comparison of Recruitment Strategy Outcomes in the National Children's Study.

    Park, Christina H; Winglee, Marianne; Kwan, Jennifer; Andrews, Linda; Hudak, Mark L


    In 2000, the US Congress authorized the National Institutes of Health to conduct a prospective national longitudinal study of environmental influences on children's health and development from birth through 21 years. Several recruitment methodologies were piloted to determine the optimal strategy for a main National Children's Study. After an initial pilot recruitment that used a household enumeration strategy performed poorly, the National Children's Study Vanguard Study developed and evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of 4 alternate strategies to recruit a large prospective national probability sample of pregnant women and their newborn children. We compare household-based recruitment, provider-based recruitment, direct outreach, and provider-based sampling (PBS) strategies with respect to overall recruitment success, efficiency, cost, and fulfillment of scientific requirements. Although all 5 strategies achieved similar enrollment rates (63%-81%) among eligible women, PBS achieved the highest recruitment success as measured by the ratio of observed-to-expected newborn enrollees per year of 0.99, exceeding those of the other strategies (range: 0.35-0.48). Because PBS could reach the enrollment target through sampling of high volume obstetric provider offices and birth hospitals, it achieved the lowest ratio of women screened to women enrolled and was also the least costly strategy. With the exception of direct outreach, all strategies enrolled a cohort of women whose demographics were similar to county natality data. PBS demonstrated the optimal combination of recruitment success, efficiency, cost, and population representativeness and serves as a model for the assembly of future prospective probability-based birth cohorts. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Comparison of three peripherally-inserted central catheters: pilot study.

    Di Giacomo, Michele

    Peripherally-inserted central catheters (PICCS) are non-tunnelled, central catheters inserted through a peripheral vein of the arm. They are 50-60 cm long and are usually made of either silicone or second-third generation polyurethane. PICCs can be used for prolonged, continuous or intermittent infusion therapies (up to 3 months) both in hospitalized patients and in patients treated as outpatients, in a hospice, or at home. When establishing a vascular service it is key to select a PICC that meets the requirements of safety, cost-effectiveness, high resistance (ability to take increasing fluid volumes with high pressure devices) and durability, and low complications rate. The complications and dwell times of three different PICCs were studied: coated polyurethane, valved silicone and power-injectable. The study was conducted at the chemotherapy suite at the author's hospital with the aim of selecting the right PICC based on low incidence of complications, resistance and enhanced dwell time. Results show a low incidence of complications and long dwell time among patients with the power-injectable PICC. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a reduction on the rate of occlusion and rupture with power-injectable PICCs, which makes them safer to use for administration of chemotherapy and other vesicant agents, as well as for the management of patients in critical care.

  13. Dosimetric measurements and comparison studies in digital imaging system

    Jung, Ji-Young; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Chang-Lae; Cho, Hyo-Min; Nam, Sora


    Number of radiologic exams using digital imaging systems has rapidly increased with advanced imaging technologies. However, it has not been paid attention to the radiation dose in clinical situations. It was the motivation to study radiation dosimetry in the DR system. The objective of this study was to measure beam quality and patient's dose using DR system and to compare them to both IEC standard and IAEA guidelines. The measured average dose for chest and abdomen was 1.376 mGy and 9.501 mGy, respectively, compared to 0.4 mGy and 10.0 mGy in IAEA guidelines. The results also indicated that the DR system has a lower radiation beam quality than that of the IEC standard. The results showed that the patients may be exposed higher radiation for chest exams and lower radiation for abdomen exams using DR system. IAEA Guidelines were prepared based on western people which may be different weight and height for patients compared them to Korean. In conclusion, a new guideline for acceptable DR dosimetry for Korean patients may need to be developed with further studies for large populations. We believe that this research greatly help to introduce the importance of the dosimetry in diagnostic radiology in Korea. And, a development of database for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology will become an opportunity of making aware of radiation safety of medical examination to patient.

  14. Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann


    The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

  15. Comparison of conventional and digital cephalometric analysis: A pilot study

    Hemlata Bhagwan Tanwani


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the manual cephalometric tracings with computerized cephalometric tracings using Burstone hard tissue analysis and McNamara analysis. Materials and Methods: Conventional lateral cephalograms of 20 subjects were obtained and manually traced. The radiographs were subsequently scanned and digitized using Dolphin Imaging software version 11.7. McNamara analysis and Burstone hard tissue analysis were performed by both conventional and digital method. No differentiations were made for age or gender. Data were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was undertaken using SPSS 17.0 version (Chicago, Illinois, USA statistical software program. A paired t-test was used to detect differences between the manual and digital methods. Statistical significance was set at the P < 0.05 level of confidence. Results: (A From Burstone analysis variables N-Pg II Hp show statistically very significant difference, and ANS-N, U1-NF, N-B II Hp, L1-Mp, and Go-Pg shows the statistically significant difference. (B From McNamara analysis variables Nasolabial angle and L1-APog show statistically significant differences and the Mandibular length shows the statistically very significant difference. Conclusion: According to this study, is reasonable to conclude that the manual and digital tracings show the statistically significant difference.

  16. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  17. Obinutuzumab for previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Abraham, Jame; Stegner, Mark


    Obinutuzumab was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in late 2013 for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The approval was based on results of an open-label phase 3 trial that showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) with the combination of obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil compared with chlorambucil alone. Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre B- and mature B-lymphocytes. After binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis by engaging immune effector cells, directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways, and activating the complement cascade. Immune effector cell activities include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

  18. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios


    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  19. 3-D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: comparison with observations

    S. Davies


    Full Text Available Simulations of Arctic denitrification using a 3-D chemistry-microphysics transport model are compared with observations for the winters 1994/1995, 1996/1997 and 1999/2000. The model of Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation (DLAPSE couples the full chemical scheme of the 3-D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT, with a nitric acid trihydrate (NAT growth and sedimentation scheme. We use observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and Improved Limb Atmospheric Sounder (ILAS satellite instruments, the balloon-borne Michelsen Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B, and the in situ NOy instrument on-board the ER-2. As well as directly comparing model results with observations, we also assess the extent to which these observations are able to validate the modelling approach taken. For instance, in 1999/2000 the model captures the temporal development of denitrification observed by the ER-2 from late January into March. However, in this winter the vortex was already highly denitrified by late January so the observations do not provide a strong constraint on the modelled rate of denitrification. The model also reproduces the MLS observations of denitrification in early February 2000. In 1996/1997 the model captures the timing and magnitude of denitrification as observed by ILAS, although the lack of observations north of ~67° N make it difficult to constrain the actual timing of onset. The comparison for this winter does not support previous conclusions that denitrification must be caused by an ice-mediated process. In 1994/1995 the model notably underestimates the magnitude of denitrification observed during a single balloon flight of the MIPAS-B instrument. Agreement between model and MLS HNO3 at 68 hPa in mid-February 1995 was significantly better. Sensitivity tests show that a 1.5 K overall decrease in vortex temperatures or a factor 4 increase in assumed NAT nucleation rates produce the best

  20. 3-D microphysical model studies of Arctic denitrification: comparison with observations

    S. Davies


    Full Text Available Simulations of Arctic denitrification using a 3-D chemistry-microphysics transport model are compared with observations for the winters 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1999/2000. The model of Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation (DLAPSE couples the full chemical scheme of the 3-D chemical transport model, SLIMCAT, with a nitric acid trihydrate (NAT growth and sedimentation scheme. We use observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and Improved Limb Atmospheric Sounder (ILAS satellite instruments, the balloon-borne Michelsen Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS-B, and the in situ NOy instrument on-board the ER-2. As well as directly comparing model results with observations, we also assess the extent to which these observations are able to validate the modelling approach taken. For instance, in 1999/2000 the model captures the temporal development of denitrification observed by the ER-2 from late January into March. However, in this winter the vortex was already highly denitrified by late January so the observations do not provide a strong constraint on the modelled rate of denitrification. The model also reproduces the MLS observations of denitrification in early February 2000. In 1996/97 the model captures the timing and magnitude of denitrification as observed by ILAS, although the lack of observations north of ~67° N in the beginning of February make it difficult to constrain the actual timing of onset. The comparison for this winter does not support previous conclusions that denitrification must be caused by an ice-mediated process. In 1994/95 the model notably underestimates the magnitude of denitrification observed during a single balloon flight of the MIPAS-B instrument. Agreement between model and MLS HNO3 at 68 hPa in mid-February 1995 is significantly better. Sensitivity tests show that a 1.5 K overall decrease in vortex temperatures, or a factor 4 increase in assumed NAT nucleation rates, produce the best

  1. Clarifying the role of social comparison in the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE): an integrative study.

    Huguet, Pascal; Dumas, Florence; Marsh, Herbert; Wheeler, Ladd; Seaton, Marjorie; Nezlek, John; Suls, Jerry; Régner, Isabelle


    It has been speculated that the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE; the negative impact of highly selective academic settings on academic self-concept) is a consequence of invidious social comparisons experienced in higher ability schools. However, the direct role of such comparisons for the BFLPE has not heretofore been documented. The present study comprises the first evidence that the BFLPE (a) is eliminated after controlling for students' invidious comparisons with their class and (b) coexists with the assimilative and contrastive effects of upward social comparison choices on academic self-concept. These results increase understanding of the BFLPE and offer support for integrative approaches of social comparison (selective accessibility and interpretation comparison models) in a natural setting. They also lend support for the distinction between forced and deliberate social comparisons and the usefulness of distinguishing between absolute and relative comparison-level choice in self-assessment.

  2. Early caries detection: comparison of two procedures. A pilot study

    Fabrizio Guerra


    Full Text Available Caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and the main cause of tooth loss. Early detection provides a better evaluation of the disease and improves the chances to succeed of prevention strategies. This pilot study aims to compare the effectiveness of ICDAS-II system (International Caries Detection and Assessment System and the fluorescence terminal (Proof of VistaCam iX intraoral camera, in the early diagnosis and assessment of caries in permanent teeth. Results shows a fair correlation between ICDAS II and VistaCam iX Proof; intraoral camera proved to be a useful support to the ICDAS II visual / tactile monitoring of carious lesions in occlusal surfaces.

  3. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.


    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  4. Evaluation of Brazilian Sugarcane Bagasse Characterization: An Interlaboratory Comparison Study

    Sluiter, Justin B.; Chum, Helena; Gomes, Absai C.; Tavares, Renata P.A.; Azevedo, Vinicius; Pimenta, Maria T.B.; Rabelo, Sarita C.; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.; Alves, Aparecido R.; Garcia, Wokimar T.; Carvalho, Walter; Esteves, Paula J.; Mendonca, Simone; Oliveira, Patricia A.; Ribeiro, Jose A.A.; Mendes, Thais D.; Vicentin, Marcos P.; Duarte, Celina L.; Mori, Manoel N.


    This paper describes a study of the variability of measured composition for a single bulk sugarcane bagasse conducted across eight laboratories using similar analytical methods, with the purpose of determining the expected variation for compositional analysis performed by different laboratories. The results show good agreement of measured composition within a single laboratory, but greater variability when results are compared among laboratories. These interlaboratory variabilities do not seem to be associated with a specific method or technique or any single piece of instrumentation. The summary censored statistics provide mean values and pooled standard deviations as follows: total extractives 6.7% (0.6%), whole ash 1.5% (0.2%), glucan 42.3% (1.2%), xylan 22.3% (0.5%), total lignin 21.3% (0.4%), and total mass closure 99.4% (2.9%).

  5. Study and Comparison of Various Techniques of Image Edge Detection

    Gurjeet Singh


    Full Text Available An edge may be defined as a set of connected pixels that forms a boundary between two disjoints regions. Image Edge detection reduces the amount of data and filters out useless information, while preserving the important structural properties in an image. Edge detection plays an important role in digital image processing and practical aspects of our daily life. In this paper we studied various edge detection techniques as Prewitt, Robert, Sobel, LoG and Canny operators. On comparing them we conclude that canny edge detector performs better than all other edge detectors on various aspects such as it is adaptive in nature, performs better for noisy image, gives sharp edges, low probability of detecting false edges.

  6. Software development practices in academia: a case study comparison

    Groen, Derek; Grogan, James A; Schiller, Ulf D; Osborne, James M


    Academic software development practices often differ from those of commercial development settings, yet only limited research has been conducted on assessing software development practises in academia. Here we present a case study of software development practices in four open-source scientific codes over a period of nine years, characterizing the evolution of their respective development teams, their scientific productivity, and the adoption (or discontinuation) of specific software engineering practises as the team size changes. We show that the transient nature of the development team results in the adoption of different development strategies. We relate measures of publication output to accumulated numbers of developers and find that for the projects considered the time-scale for returns on expended development effort is approximately three years. We discuss the implications of our findings for evaluating the performance of research software development, and in general any computationally oriented scienti...

  7. Multiple comparison procedures for neuroimaging genomewide association studies.

    Hua, Wen-Yu; Nichols, Thomas E; Ghosh, Debashis


    Recent research in neuroimaging has focused on assessing associations between genetic variants that are measured on a genomewide scale and brain imaging phenotypes. A large number of works in the area apply massively univariate analyses on a genomewide basis to find single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence brain structure. In this paper, we propose using various dimensionality reduction methods on both brain structural MRI scans and genomic data, motivated by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. We also consider a new multiple testing adjustment method and compare it with two existing false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment methods. The simulation results suggest an increase in power for the proposed method. The real-data analysis suggests that the proposed procedure is able to find associations between genetic variants and brain volume differences that offer potentially new biological insights. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Comparisons of treatment means when factors do not interact in two-factorial studies

    Wei, Jiawei


    Scientists in the fields of nutrition and other biological sciences often design factorial studies to test the hypotheses of interest and importance. In the case of two-factorial studies, it is widely recognized that the analysis of factor effects is generally based on treatment means when the interaction of the factors is statistically significant, and involves multiple comparisons of treatment means. However, when the two factors do not interact, a common understanding among biologists is that comparisons among treatment means cannot or should not be made. Here, we bring this misconception into the attention of researchers. Additionally, we indicate what kind of comparisons among the treatment means can be performed when there is a nonsignificant interaction among two factors. Such information should be useful in analyzing the experimental data and drawing meaningful conclusions.

  9. Laser welding and syncristallization techniques comparison: "Ex vivo" study.

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Rocca, Jean-Paul


    Stabilization of implant abutments through electric impulses at high voltage for a very short time (electrowelding) was developed in the Eighties. In 2009, the same procedure was performed through the use of laser (laser welding) The aim of this study is to compare electrowelding and laser welding for intra-oral implant abutments stabilization on "ex vivo models" (pig jaws). Six bars were welded with two different devices (Nd:YAG laser and Electrowelder) to eighteen titanium implant abutment inserted in three pig jaws. During the welding process, thermal increase was recorded, through the use of k-thermocouples, in the bone close to the implants. The strength of the welded joints was evaluated by a traction test after the removal of the implants. For temperature measurements a descriptive analysis and for traction test "values unpaired t test with Welch's correction" were performed: the significance level was set at PLaser welding gives a lower thermal increase than Electrowelding at the bone close to implants (Mean: 1.97 and 5.27); the strength of laser welded joints was higher than that of Electrowelding even if nor statistically significant. (Mean: 184.75 and 168.29) CONCLUSION: Electrowelding seems to have no advantages, in term of thermal elevation and strength, while laser welding may be employed to connect titanium implants for immediate load without risks of thermal damage at surrounding tissues.

  10. Comparison of two impression techniques for auricular prosthesis: pilot study.

    Mohamed, Kasim; Mani, U M; Seenivasan, M K; Vaidhyanathan, A K; Veeravalli, P T


    The purpose of this article was to compare the accuracy of a new impression technique, the triple-layer impression technique (TLIT), with the conventional impression technique (CIT) to fabricate an auricular prosthesis. Fifteen male subjects (aged 22-45 yr) were selected. Ten markings were made on the subject's ear (super aurale [sa], sub aurale [sba], pre aurale [pra], post aurale [poa], A, A1, B, B1, C, and C1) and five measurements (sa-sba, pra-poa, A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1) were made. Custom-made trays were used to record impression in CIT and TLIT. Impressions were made using alginate, and models were cast with type IV gypsum product. Markings were transferred on the cast. Measurements were rechecked on the models. Distribution analysis of difference in measurements between the two impression techniques and the subject's actual values was evaluated. Sign test was used to analyze the statistical significance. Statistically significant differences were found in measurements A-A1, B-B1, and C-C1 between the two techniques when compared with the subject's actual dimensions (p < 0.01). TLIT was found to produce accurate models when compared with CIT. The TLIT used in the study was cost effective, less technique sensitive, and tailor made to reduce chairside orientation time during wax try-in appointments for rehabilitating patients, especially those with unilateral auricular defects.

  11. Comparison of protein A affinity sorbents III. Life time study.

    Hahn, Rainer; Shimahara, Kazumichi; Steindl, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois


    Protein A affinity chromatography is a popular purification method for immunoglobulins applied at various scales, ranging from micro-tube up to 1000l column format. Three novel high capacity protein A affinity chromatography media have been subjected to a lifetime study using 50 consecutive purification cycles of a cell culture supernatant (CCS) containing a monoclonal antibody. Chromatographic conditions followed protocols used in industrial antibody processing, including stripping and cleaning-in-place of the resins. For all three media, no significant loss of purification performance (measured by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and analytical size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)) could be observed over 50 cycles. Eluate samples were analyzed for leaked protein A and host cell protein (HCP) content. MabSelect SuRe, the first protein A affinity medium compatible with alkaline regeneration conditions, exhibited the lowest leakage levels, in the range of 1-3 ppm. For the media MabSelect Xtra and ProSep-vA Ultra, leakage levels were in the range of 30-40 ppm. Host cell protein content of eluates from MabSelect Xtra and SuRe were between 300 and 700 ppm, whereas for ProSep-vA Ultra 3000-4000 ppm was achieved.

  12. Alabaster and Selenite Gypsum:I-Dehydration-Rehydration Comparison Studies


    Two types of gypsum raw materials, selenite and alabaster, were used to prepare dental stone (α-hemihydrate).Gypsum lumps (0.8~2.5 cm) were hydrothermally treated at 135, 160 and 180°C for 6, 2 and 1 h respectively.The physicochemical properties and composition characteristics of the α-hemihydrates prepared from selenite and alabaster raw gypsum were determined. The results indicated that both the selenite and alabaster raw gypsum show the same chemical and mineralogical composition of calcium sulphate dihydrate. They differs only in their microstructure, selenite raw gypsum exhibits perfect regular crystals while alabaster gypsum, on the other hand,exhibits irregular, large size and interlocked crystals. Selenite is more accessible to dehydration than alabaster raw gypsum. The α-hemihydrate samples prepared from alabaster raw gypsum showed a very short setting time and a lower compressive strength values in relation to that prepared from selenite gypsum. The compressive strength values of the all prepared samples were higher than that specified by A.D.A specification for dental use. To optimize the setting time of both products further studies are needed.

  13. Comparison of Mycotic Keratitis with Nonmycotic Keratitis: An Epidemiological Study

    Mohammad M. Khater


    Full Text Available Purpose. This work aims to study the problems encountered with and the different epidemiological features of patients with fungal keratitis. Patients and Methods. All cases with keratitis attending the Outpatient Clinic of Ophthalmology Department at Tanta University Hospital during three years from the first of January 2011 to the end of December 2013 were selected and carefully examined and cases with mycotic keratitis were further examined and investigated. Results. From 66303 attendants during this period with different complaints, there were 361 cases (0.54% with mycotic keratitis and 473 cases (0.71% of nonmycotic origin. Mycotic keratitis is common between 40 and 60 years, more in farmers (64%, families with large number and large crowding index, rural than urban residence, and patients with outdoor water sources and insanitary sewage disposal. Positive fungal cultures were obtained in 84.5% and were negative in 15.5% of cases in spite of their typical clinical findings for diagnosis and their improvement with antifungal therapy. Conclusion. Mycotic keratitis is more frequent in farmers, rural areas, outdoor water supply, insanitary sewage disposal, and patients preceded with organic trauma. Atypical clinical findings were found in some cases and not all cases improved with specific antifungal therapy.

  14. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisher, Jeremy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO2e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a project’s success.

  15. Quality-of-life and performance status results from the phase III RAINBOW study of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma†

    Al-Batran, S.-E.; Van Cutsem, E.; Oh, S. C.; Bodoky, G.; Shimada, Y.; Hironaka, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Lipatov, O. N.; Kim, T.-Y.; Cunningham, D.; Rougier, P.; Muro, K.; Liepa, A. M.; Chandrawansa, K.; Emig, M.; Ohtsu, A.; Wilke, H.


    Background The phase III RAINBOW trial demonstrated that the addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rate in fluoropyrimidine–platinum previously treated patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Here, we present results from quality-of-life (QoL) and performance status (PS) analyses. Patients and methods Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0/1 were randomized to receive ramucirumab (8 mg/kg i.v.) or placebo on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle, with both arms receiving paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the QoL/health status questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D at baseline and 6-week intervals. PS was assessed at baseline and day 1 of every cycle. Time to deterioration (TtD) in each QLQ-C30 scale was defined as randomization to first worsening of ≥10 points (on 100-point scale) and TtD in PS was defined as first worsening to ≥2. Hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment effect were estimated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of the 665 patients randomized, 650 (98%) provided baseline QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D data, and 560 (84%) also provided data from ≥1 postbaseline time point. Baseline scores for both instruments were similar between arms. Of the 15 QLQ-C30 scales, 14 had HR < 1, indicating similar or longer TtD in QoL for ramucirumab + paclitaxel. Treatment with ramucirumab + paclitaxel was also associated with a delay in TtD in PS to ≥2 (HR = 0.798, P = 0.0941). Alternate definitions of PS deterioration yielded similar results: PS ≥ 3 (HR = 0.656, P = 0.0508), deterioration by ≥1 PS level (HR = 0.802, P = 0.0444), and deterioration by ≥2 PS levels (HR = 0.608, P = 0.0063). EQ-5D scores were comparable between treatment arms, stable during treatment, and worsened at discontinuation. Conclusion In patients with previously treated advanced gastric

  16. Comparison of storage conditions for human vaginal microbiome studies.

    Guoyun Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (1H-NMR analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at -80°C for 4 weeks or at -20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to -80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. (1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota.

  17. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon


    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  18. Concordance analysis of microarray studies identifies representative gene expression changes in Parkinson's disease: a comparison of 33 human and animal studies.

    Oerton, Erin; Bender, Andreas


    As the popularity of transcriptomic analysis has grown, the reported lack of concordance between different studies of the same condition has become a growing concern, raising questions as to the representativeness of different study types, such as non-human disease models or studies of surrogate tissues, to gene expression in the human condition. In a comparison of 33 microarray studies of Parkinson's disease, correlation and clustering analyses were used to determine the factors influencing concordance between studies, including agreement between different tissue types, different microarray platforms, and between neurotoxic and genetic disease models and human Parkinson's disease. Concordance over all studies is low, with correlation of only 0.05 between differential gene expression signatures on average, but increases within human patients and studies of the same tissue type, rising to 0.38 for studies of human substantia nigra. Agreement of animal models, however, is dependent on model type. Studies of brain tissue from Parkinson's disease patients (specifically the substantia nigra) form a distinct group, showing patterns of differential gene expression noticeably different from that in non-brain tissues and animal models of Parkinson's disease; while comparison with other brain diseases (Alzheimer's disease and brain cancer) suggests that the mixed study types display a general signal of neurodegenerative disease. A meta-analysis of these 33 microarray studies demonstrates the greater ability of studies in humans and highly-affected tissues to identify genes previously known to be associated with Parkinson's disease. The observed clustering and concordance results suggest the existence of a 'characteristic' signal of Parkinson's disease found in significantly affected human tissues in humans. These results help to account for the consistency (or lack thereof) so far observed in microarray studies of Parkinson's disease, and act as a guide to the selection of

  19. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A


    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended.

  20. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa


    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  1. The Performance versus Ability Distinction Following Social Comparison Feedback

    Buckingham, Justin T.; LeBeau, Lavonia Smith; Klein, William M. P.


    Previous research suggests that self-evaluations can be influenced by social comparison feedback. The present study tested whether social comparison feedback has stronger effects on self-evaluations of performance than ability. Participants received social comparison feedback indicating that they had performed above or below average. In addition…

  2. Raw data from orientation studies in crystalline rock areas of the southeastern United States. [Maps, tables of field data and analytical data for sections of North and South Carolina and Georgia, previously reported sites of uranium mineralization

    Price, V.


    Raw data are presented on orientation studies conducted in crystalline rock areas of the Southeast which were chosen because of published references to uranium mineralization. Preliminary data for four orientation study areas are included. These areas are Lamar County, Georgia; Oconee County, South Carolina; Brush Creek, North Carolina; and North Harper, North Carolina. Sample locality maps, tables of field data, and tables of analytical data are included for each study area. (JGB)

  3. Efficacy and safety of a recombinant factor IX (Bax326) in previously treated patients with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B undergoing surgical or other invasive procedures: a prospective, open-label, uncontrolled, multicentre, phase III study.

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Ghandehari, H; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Wong, W-Y; Pavlova, B G; Abbuehl, B E


    Haemostatic management of haemophilia B patients undergoing surgery is critical to patient safety. The aim of this ongoing prospective trial was to investigate the haemostatic efficacy and safety of a recombinant factor IX (rFIX) (Bax326) in previously treated subjects (12-65 years, without history of FIX inhibitors) with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B, undergoing surgical, dental or other invasive procedures. Haemostatic efficacy was assessed according to a predefined scale. Blood loss was compared to the average and maximum blood loss predicted preoperatively. Haemostatic FIX levels were achieved peri- and postoperatively in 100% of subjects (n = 14). Haemostasis was 'excellent' intraoperatively in all patients and postoperatively in those without a drain, and 'excellent' or 'good' at the time of drain removal and day of discharge in those with a drain employed. Following the initial dose, the mean FIX activity level rose from 6.55% to 107.58% for major surgeries and from 3.60% to 81.4% for minor surgeries. Actual vs. predicted blood loss matched predicted intraoperative blood loss but was equal to or higher than (but less than 150%) the maximum predicted postoperative blood loss reflecting the severity of procedure and FIX requirements. There were no related adverse events, severe allergic reactions or thrombotic events. There was no evidence that BAX326 increased the risk of inhibitor or binding antibody development to FIX. BAX326 was safe and effective for peri-operative management of 14 subjects with severe and moderately severe haemophilia B.

  4. Measurement errors in polymerase chain reaction are a confounding factor for a correct interpretation of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism effects on lifelong premature ejaculation: a critical analysis of a previously published meta-analysis of six studies.

    Paddy K C Janssen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze a recently published meta-analysis of six studies on 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (PE. METHODS: Calculation of fraction observed and expected genotype frequencies and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (HWE of cases and controls. LL,SL and SS genotype frequencies of patients were subtracted from genotype frequencies of an ideal population (LL25%, SL50%, SS25%, p = 1 for HWE. Analysis of PCRs of six studies and re-analysis of the analysis and Odds ratios (ORs reported in the recently published meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three studies deviated from HWE in patients and one study deviated from HWE in controls. In three studies in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies from a theoretical population not-deviating from HWE was small: LL(1.7%, SL(-2.3%, SS(0.6%. In three studies not-in-HWE the mean deviation of genotype frequencies was high: LL(-3.3%, SL(-18.5% and SS(21.8% with very low percentage SL genotype concurrent with very high percentage SS genotype. The most serious PCR deviations were reported in the three not-in-HWE studies. The three in-HWE studies had normal OR. In contrast, the three not-in-HWE studies had a low OR. CONCLUSIONS: In three studies not-in-HWE and with very low OR, inadequate PCR analysis and/or inadequate interpretation of its gel electrophoresis resulted in very low SL and a resulting shift to very high SS genotype frequency outcome. Consequently, PCRs of these three studies are not reliable. Failure to note the inadequacy of PCR tests makes such PCRs a confounding factor in clinical interpretation of genetic studies. Currently, a meta-analysis can only be performed on three studies-in-HWE. However, based on the three studies-in-HWE with OR of about 1 there is not any indication that in men with lifelong PE the frequency of LL,SL and SS genotype deviates from the general male population and/or that the SL or SS genotype is in any way associated with lifelong PE.

  5. Inter-laboratory comparison study for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal feed using spiked and incurred material

    Nijs, de W.C.M.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Mulder, P.P.J.


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by plants. PAs in animal feed can cause acute or chronic intoxications in animals and can be transferred to milk. An inter-laboratory comparison study among 12 laboratories, using their own methods of analysis, was conducted for the

  6. EU Interlaboratory comparison study IX on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    Berk PA; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB


    In 2005 the ninth interlaboratory comparison study on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp. was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member State

  7. Ninth CRL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study on typing of Salmonella spp

    Korver H; Maas HME; Ward LR; Mevius DJ; Wannet WJB; Mooijman KA; MGB; LIS; HPA (London); CIDC


    The ninth interlaboratory comparison study on the typing of Salmonella was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands) in collaboration with the Health Protection Agency (HPA, London, United Kingdom) and the Central Institute for Animal

  8. EU Interlaboratory comparison study VIII on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp.

    Korver H; Heisterkamp SH; Veenman C; Mooijman KA; MGB


    In 2004 the eighth interlaboratory comparison study on bacteriological detection of Salmonella spp. was organized by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member Stat

  9. 76 FR 21383 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and Eating...


    ... Dietary Recall Method Comparison and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Observational Feeding Studies... Automated Self- Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) approach to collecting 24 hour recall (24HR) data with... collection period with a total cost to the respondents of $54,293. There are no Capital costs,...

  10. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir


    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  11. A pilot study on acoustic regulations for schools – Comparison between selected countries in Europe

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Guigou-Carter, Catherine


    Acoustic regulations for schools exist in most countries in Europe, the main reasons being improving learning conditions for pupils and work conditions for teachers. As a pilot study, comparison between requirements in selected countries in Europe has been carried out. The findings show a diversi...

  12. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    Erna Kinsey

    A literature study, including an internet-based search, and empirical ... provided and educational policy implications highlighted for implementation of empowerment ... of educational managers themselves; empowerment of teachers and staff, ...

  13. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin;


    A significant unmet medical need exists in patients with uncontrolled asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate/formoterol (MF/F) 400/10 microg versus MF 400 microg administered twice-daily (b.i.d.) via metered-dose inhaler in patients...

  14. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.


    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  15. Comparison of Injuries in American Collegiate Football and Club Rugby: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; Borchers, James R; Quincy, Richard; Kaeding, Christopher C; Hewett, Timothy E


    American football and rugby players are at substantial risk of injury because of the full-contact nature of these sports. Methodological differences between previous epidemiological studies hamper an accurate comparison of injury rates between American football and rugby. To directly compare injury rates in American collegiate football and rugby, specified by location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, as reported by licensed medical professionals. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Licensed medical professionals (athletic trainer or physician) associated with the football and rugby teams of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university reported attendance and injury details over 3 autumn seasons. Injuries were categorized by the location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, and the injury rate was calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare overall, game, and practice injury rates within and between sports. The overall injury rate was 4.9/1000 AEs in football versus 15.2/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 3.1 (95% CI, 2.3-4.2). Game injury rates were higher than practice injury rates: IRR = 6.5 (95% CI, 4.5-9.3) in football and IRR = 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0-8.6) in rugby. Injury rates for the shoulder, wrist/hand, and lower leg and for sprains, fractures, and contusions in rugby were >4 times as high as those in football (all P ≤ 0.006). Concussion rates were 1.0/1000 AEs in football versus 2.5/1000 AEs in rugby. Most injuries occurred via direct player contact, especially during games. The rate of season-ending injuries (>3 months of time loss) was 0.8/1000 AEs in football versus 1.0/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-3.4). Overall injury rates were substantially higher in collegiate rugby compared with football. Similarities between sports were observed in the most common injury types (sprains and concussions), locations (lower extremity and head), and mechanisms (direct player contact

  16. Study on the Effects of Diverting Water into Upper Burnt Pocket, Navigation Pool Number 18, Illinois and A Field Test of the Regression Simulation Model Previously Developed on Navigation Pool Number 8.


    concentrations generally accepted as levels which, when combined with specific morphological , hydrological ani climatic factors, can lead to excessive...River Basin Commission from The River Studies Center, Univ. Wisconsin-La Crosse. 114 pp. Simons, D. B. 1979. River and canal morphology . Chapter 5 in...subintegerrima (Vahi) Fern. PHYTOLACCACEAE Phytolacca americana L. Pokeweed PLATANACEAE Platanus occidentalis L. Sycamore POACEAE Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw

  17. Twelve-week efficacy and safety study of mometasone furoate/formoterol 200/10 microg and 400/10 microg combination treatments in patients with persistent asthma previously receiving high-dose inhaled corticosteroids

    Weinstein, Steven F; Corren, Jonathan; Murphy, Kevin


    with asthma uncontrolled on high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). In a 12-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group study, patients (>or=12 years of age) were randomized to MF/F 200/10 microg, MF/F 400/10 microg, or MF 400 microg, b.i.d. after a 2- to 3-week open-label run in with MF 400...

  18. A case-comparison study of automatic document classification utilizing both serial and parallel approaches

    Wilges, B.; Bastos, R. C.; Mateus, G. P.; Dantas, M. A. R.


    A well-known problem faced by any organization nowadays is the high volume of data that is available and the required process to transform this volume into differential information. In this study, a case-comparison study of automatic document classification (ADC) approach is presented, utilizing both serial and parallel paradigms. The serial approach was implemented by adopting the RapidMiner software tool, which is recognized as the worldleading open-source system for data mining. On the other hand, considering the MapReduce programming model, the Hadoop software environment has been used. The main goal of this case-comparison study is to exploit differences between these two paradigms, especially when large volumes of data such as Web text documents are utilized to build a category database. In the literature, many studies point out that distributed processing in unstructured documents have been yielding efficient results in utilizing Hadoop. Results from our research indicate a threshold to such efficiency.

  19. The OptiMUM-study: EMDR therapy in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder after previous childbirth and pregnant women with fear of childbirth: design of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Baas, M. A. M.; Stramrood, C. A. I.; Dijksman, L. M.; de Jongh, A.; van Pampus, M. G.


    ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 3% of women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after giving birth, and 7.5% of pregnant women show a pathological fear of childbirth (FoC). FoC or childbirth-related PTSD during (a subsequent) pregnancy can lead to a request for an elective caesarean section as well as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. For PTSD in general, and several subtypes of specific phobia, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven effective, but little is known about the effects of applying EMDR during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the protocol of the OptiMUM-study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether EMDR therapy is an effective and safe treatment for pregnant women with childbirth-related PTSD or FoC. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of this approach will be analysed. Method: The single-blind OptiMUM-study consists of two two-armed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with overlapping design. In several hospitals and community midwifery practices in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, all eligible pregnant women with a gestational age between eight and 20 weeks will be administered the Wijma delivery expectations questionnaire (WDEQ) to asses FoC. Multiparous women will also receive the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to screen for possible PTSD. The clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS-5) will be used for assessing PTSD according to DSM-5 in women scoring above the PCL-5 cut-off value. Fifty women with childbirth-related PTSD and 120 women with FoC will be randomly allocated to either EMDR therapy carried out by a psychologist or care-as-usual. Women currently undergoing psychological treatment or women younger than 18 years will not be included. Primary outcome measures are severity of childbirth-related PTSD or FoC symptoms. Secondary outcomes are percentage of PTSD diagnoses, percentage caesarean sections, subjective childbirth experience, obstetrical and neonatal complications

  20. Time to pregnancy after a previous miscarriage in subfertile couples

    T. Cox; J.W. van der Steeg; P. Steures; P.G.A. Hompes; F. van der Veen; M.J.C. Eijkemans; J.H. Schagen van Leeuwen; C. Renckens; P.M.M. Bossuyt; B.W.J. Mol


    Objective: To assess the time to spontaneous ongoing pregnancy after a previous miscarriage in subfertile couples. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted in 38 fertility centers in the Netherlands. Patient(s): Subfertile couples who miscarried after completing their bas

  1. 76 FR 38669 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Food Reporting Comparison Study (FORCS) and Food and...


    ... previously, ``24-Hour Dietary Recall Method Comparison and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Observational... computerized Automated Self- Administered 24-Hour Recall (ASA24) approach to collecting 24-hour recall (24HR... data collection period with a total cost to the respondents $54,293. There are no Capital...

  2. Analysis of Previous Studies on African Nobel Prize Winner Wole Soyinka in China%非裔诺贝尔文学奖得主沃勒·索因卡在中国的研究

    江玉娇; 盛钰


    作为首位黑人诺贝尔文学奖得主,沃勒·索因卡(1934-)在其作品中融入了古老的神话、悠久的传统以及欧洲文化的文学遗产。为了深入考察和分析索因卡在中国的研究现状,文章首先梳理索因卡作品在中国的译介和引入,然后将其文学作品按照诗歌、小说、戏剧3个题材在中国的研究现状进行综述,以期探讨国内在接受非洲异质文化时的规律与特征;最后,反思目前对该作家的研究中尚存的缺失与不足,并指出今后发展的研究方向和设想,希望以此为推进国内非洲本土文学和文化研究提供借鉴。%As the first Nobel Prize winner in Africa,Wole Soyinka integrates his works with ancient Afri-can myths,a long tradition and the literary heritages of European cultures. In order to make an in-depth re-view and analysis of studies of Wole Soyinka in China,this paper,firstly,analyzes the introduction and trans-lations of his works,and then,makes a review of the present researches of his poems,novels and dramas re-spectively so as to find out the rules of how Chinese scholars have accepted the heterogeneous African cultures. At last,this paper analyzes the problems in the study of Soyinka and points out new directions and perspectives of further studies in the hope of providing reference for promoting the domestic studies on African literature and culture.

  3. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm;


    Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development...... and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical...

  4. Comparison of single-marker and multi-marker tests in rare variant association studies of quantitative traits.

    Konigorski, Stefan; Yilmaz, Yildiz E; Pischon, Tobias


    In genetic association studies of rare variants, low statistical power and potential violations of established estimator properties are among the main challenges of association tests. Multi-marker tests (MMTs) have been proposed to target these challenges, but any comparison with single-marker tests (SMTs) has to consider that their aim is to identify causal genomic regions instead of variants. Valid power comparisons have been performed for the analysis of binary traits indicating that MMTs have higher power, but there is a lack of conclusive studies for quantitative traits. The aim of our study was therefore to fairly compare SMTs and MMTs in their empirical power to identify the same causal loci associated with a quantitative trait. The results of extensive simulation studies indicate that previous results for binary traits cannot be generalized. First, we show that for the analysis of quantitative traits, conventional estimation methods and test statistics of single-marker approaches have valid properties yielding association tests with valid type I error, even when investigating singletons or doubletons. Furthermore, SMTs lead to more powerful association tests for identifying causal genes than MMTs when the effect sizes of causal variants are large, and less powerful tests when causal variants have small effect sizes. For moderate effect sizes, whether SMTs or MMTs have higher power depends on the sample size and percentage of causal SNVs. For a more complete picture, we also compare the power in studies of quantitative and binary traits, and the power to identify causal genes with the power to identify causal rare variants. In a genetic association analysis of systolic blood pressure in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 data, SMTs yielded smaller p-values compared to MMTs for most of the investigated blood pressure genes, and were least influenced by the definition of gene regions.

  5. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone


    .3/100,000 deliveries. Multiparity (RR 8.99 (95% CI 1.86-43.29)), induction of labour (RR 3.26 (95% CI 1.24-8.57)), epidural analgesia (RR 10.78 (95% CI 4.25-27.39)), and augmentation by oxytocin (RR 9.50 (95% CI 3.15-28.63)) were associated with uterine rupture. Induction of labour was not significantly related...... to uterine rupture when adjusted for parity, epidural analgesia and augmentation by oxytocin. CONCLUSION: Although uterine rupture is rare, its association with epidural analgesia and augmentation of labour with oxytocin in multipara should be considered. Thus, vigilance should be exercised when labour...... is obstructed and there is need for epidural analgesia and/or augmentation by oxytocin in multiparous women. Due to the rare occurrence of uterine rupture caution should be exerted when interpreting the findings of this study....


    Bellad Girija


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Carefully selected cases of Vaginal Birth after Caesarean Section (VBAC is safe and successful. Even though options of elective caesarean section or a trial of labour are given to women with prior caesarean section, the risk is always present. In successful VBACs, morbidity is less compared to repeat caesarean section. That is why this study is conducted to determine the outcome of pregnancy in women with previous CS. OBJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the clinical course of labour in cases with previous caesarean section. 2. To study the perinatal outcome in cases with previous caesarean section either by vaginal delivery or repeat Caesarean section. 3. To study maternal morbidity in these cases. METHOD A retrospective analysis of medical records of 250 women with a previous caesarean section, who delivered in BIMS Hospital between May 2015 and July 2015 was carried out. Women with recurrent indications for caesarean section and those having nonrecurrent indications with any complicating factors in present pregnancy and women with previous two caesarean sections were not given trial for vaginal delivery. Those women with previous section for the non-recurrent indications were given trial for vaginal delivery. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Was done by Chi-square test. RESULT In 250 cases, 132 cases were given trial for vaginal delivery. In these, vaginal delivery was 61.3% and repeat section was 38%. There is an association between maternal morbidity and type of delivery. Birth weight was associated with the type of delivery. There is no association between neonatal outcome and type of delivery. CONCLUSION In carefully selected patients, appropriate timing and close supervision, trial of vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section is safe and successful. Individual approach seems to be the best.

  7. Effectiveness and tolerability of treatment intensification to basal–bolus therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes on previous basal insulin-supported oral therapy with insulin glargine or supplementary insulin therapy with insulin glulisine: the PARTNER observational study

    Pfohl M


    Full Text Available Martin Pfohl,1 Thorsten Siegmund,2 Stefan Pscherer,3 Katrin Pegelow,4 Jochen Seufert5 1Medizinische Klinik I, Evangelisches Bethesda-Klinikum GmbH, Duisburg, Germany; 2Städtisches Klinikum München GmbH, Klinikum Bogenhausen, III. Medizinische Abteilung, München, Germany; 3Klinisches Diabeteszentrum Südostbayern, Innere Medizin – Diabetologie, Traunstein, Germany; 4Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Berlin, Germany; 5Medizinische Universitätsklinik, Klinik für Innere Medizin II, Abteilung für Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Freiburg, Germany Background: Due to the progressive nature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, antidiabetic treatment needs to be continuously intensified to avoid long-term complications. In T2DM patients on either basal insulin-supported oral therapy (BOT or supplementary insulin therapy (SIT presenting with HbA1c values above individual targets for 3–6 months, therapy should be intensified. This study investigated effectiveness and tolerability of an intensification of BOT or SIT to a basal–bolus therapy (BBT regimen in T2DM patients in daily clinical practice. Methods: This noninterventional, 8-month, prospective, multicenter study evaluated parameters of glucose control, occurrence of adverse events (eg, hypoglycemia, and acceptance of devices in daily clinical practice routine after 12 and 24 weeks of intensifying insulin therapy to a BBT regimen starting from either preexisting BOT with insulin glargine (pre-BOT or preexisting SIT with ≥3 daily injections of insulin glulisine (pre-SIT. Results: A total of 1,530 patients were documented in 258 German medical practices. A total of 1,301 patients were included in the full analysis set (55% male, 45% female; age median 64 years; body mass index median 30.8 kg/m2; pre-BOT: n=1,072; pre-SIT: n=229, and 1,515 patients were evaluated for safety. After 12 weeks, HbA1c decreased versus baseline (pre-BOT 8.67%; pre-SIT 8.46% to 7.73% and 7.66%, respectively (Δ mean

  8. Two-stage replication of previous genome-wide association studies of AS3MT-CNNM2-NT5C2 gene cluster region in a large schizophrenia case-control sample from Han Chinese population.

    Guan, Fanglin; Zhang, Tianxiao; Li, Lu; Fu, Dongke; Lin, Huali; Chen, Gang; Chen, Teng


    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric condition with high heritability. Replicating the specific genetic variants that increase susceptibility to schizophrenia in different populations is critical to better understand schizophrenia. CNNM2 and NT5C2 are genes recently identified as susceptibility genes for schizophrenia in Europeans, but the exact mechanism by which these genes confer risk for schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, we examined the potential for genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia of a three-gene cluster region, AS3MT-CNNM2-NT5C2. We implemented a two-stage strategy to conduct association analyses of the targeted regions with schizophrenia. A total of 8218 individuals were recruited, and 45 pre-selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. Both single-marker and haplotype-based analyses were conducted in addition to imputation analysis to increase the coverage of our genetic markers. Two SNPs, rs11191419 (OR=1.24, P=7.28×10(-5)) and rs11191514 (OR=1.24, P=0.0003), with significant independent effects were identified. These results were supported by the data from both the discovery and validation stages. Further haplotype and imputation analyses also validated these results, and bioinformatics analyses indicated that CALHM1, which is located approximately 630kb away from CNNM2, might be a susceptible gene for schizophrenia. Our results provide further support that AS3MT, CNNM2 and CALHM1 are involved with the etiology and pathogenesis of schizophrenia, suggesting these genes are potential targets of interest for the improvement of disease management and the development of novel pharmacological strategies.

  9. A multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II controlled study of rh-endostatin (Endostar) in combination with chemotherapy in previously untreated extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    Lu, Shun; Li, Lu; Luo, Yi; Zhang, Li; Wu, Gang; Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Cheng; Guo, Shuliang; Zhang, Yiping; Song, Xiangqun; Yu, Yongfeng; Zhou, Caicun; Li, Wei; Liao, Meilin; Li, Baolan; Xu, Liyan; Chen, Ping; Hu, Chunhong; Hu, Chengping


    Based on promising efficacy in a single-arm study, a randomized phase II trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of adding rh-endostatin (Endostar) to first-line standard etoposide and carboplatin (EC) chemotherapy for treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. One hundred forty Chinese patients with pathologically confirmed, extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer were randomly assigned to EC alone or rh-endostatin + EC for 4-6 cycles, followed by single-agent rh-endostatin until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints included overall survival, Objective response rate (ORR), and quality of life. Median PFS was 6.4 months with rh-endostatin + EC (n = 69) and 5.9 months with EC (n = 69) (hazard ratio 0.8 [95% confidence interval 0.6-1.1]). PFS was significantly higher with rh-endostatin + EC than with EC (hazard ratio 0.4 [0.2-0.9; p = 0.020]) in female. Median overall survival was similar in both groups (12.1 versus 12.4 months, respectively [p = 0.82]). ORR was higher in the rh-endostatin + EC group (75.4%) than in the EC group (66.7%) (p = 0.348). The efficacy of rh-endostatin + EC relative to that of EC was reflected by greater improvements in patient-assessed quality of life scores after 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. There was no difference between each regimen in the incidence of nonhematological or Grade III-IV hematological toxicities. Addition of rh-endostatin to EC for the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer had an acceptable toxicity profile, but did not improve overall survival, PFS, and ORR.

  10. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Eva Brichtova


    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  11. Analysis on productivity of clinical studies across -- Asian countries a case comparison.

    Takahashi, K; Sengoku, S; Kimura, H


    In an era of increasing global competition and an increased interest in global clinical studies Japan has been concerned with the risk of losing its attractiveness due to perceived longer execution times and higher cost structure. In contrast, other Asian countries particularly China and Singapore are widely recognized as potential key centers for fast conduction of global clinical studies. We conducted a case comparison based on two clinical studies performed by a multinational pharmaceutical company in order to measure the productivity of clinical studies by region and country. We focused on the site-related study cost which constituted the largest portion of the cost breakdown and also impacted both time and quality management. For investigation of the productivity we propose a breakdown model with two Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), enrollment efficiency and site-related cost efficiency, for the comparison of the number of enrolled subject per site and cost, respectively. Through the comparative analysis we found that the Asian countries (excluding Japan) on average achieved higher efficiency than Japan in both indicators. In the Asian group, China and Singapore stood out as the most efficient on both speed and site-related cost. However, when the site-related cost efficiency was adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) the cost advantage in China disappeared, implying the price level was critical for productivity management. Although quality aspects remain to be investigated we postulate that introducing a comparative approach based on a productivity framework would be useful for an accurate productivity comparison.

  12. Mechanisms of virologic failure in previously untreated HIV-infected patients from a trial of induction-maintenance therapy. Trilège (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA 072) Study Team).

    Descamps, D; Flandre, P; Calvez, V; Peytavin, G; Meiffredy, V; Collin, G; Delaugerre, C; Robert-Delmas, S; Bazin, B; Aboulker, J P; Pialoux, G; Raffi, F; Brun-Vézinet, F


    In the Trilège trial, following induction with a zidovudine, lamivudine, and indinavir regimen, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication was less suppressed by 2-drug maintenance therapy than by triple-drug therapy. To identify mechanisms of virologic failure in the 3 arms of the Trilège trial. Case-control study conducted from February to October 1998. Three urban hospitals in Paris, France. Fifty-eight case patients with virologic failure (HIV RNA rebound to >500 copies/mL in 2 consecutive samples) randomized to 3 therapy groups: triple drug (zidovudine, lamivudine, and indinavir), 8; zidovudine-lamivudine, 29; and zidovudine-indinavir, 21; the case patients were randomly matched with 58 control patients with sustained viral suppression. At virologic failure (S1 sample) and 6 weeks later (S2 sample), assessment of protease and reverse transcriptase gene mutations, plasma indinavir level, and degree of viral load rebound; pill count during induction and maintenance periods. Only 1 primary resistance mutation, M184V, was detected in S1 plasma samples from 4 of 6 patients in the triple-drug and in all 22 in the zidovudine-lamivudine therapy groups and in S2 plasma samples from 3 of 6 in the triple-drug and 20 of 21 in the zidovudine-lamivudine groups. Of controls, M184V was detected in 11 of 13 S1 plasma samples and in 10 of 11 S2 plasma samples. Indinavir levels were undetectable in all S1 samples but 2 in 7 triple-drug cases tested and in the expected range in 11 of 18 S1 and 5 of 12 S2 zidovudine-indinavir case plasma samples tested. Maintenance adherence rates were lower for cases vs controls for zidovudine (P = .05) and indinavir (P = .05). Low indinavir levels, lower adherence rates for zidovudine (P = .04) and lamivudine (P = .03), and rebound to near-baseline values suggested adherence as cause of early failure for 4 of 8 triple-drug cases. In the zidovudine-lamivudine arm, for which case and control adherence rates did not differ significantly (P

  13. The DCA:SOMe Comparison A comparative study between two biologically-inspired algorithms

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe


    The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is an immune-inspired algorithm, developed for the purpose of anomaly detection. The algorithm performs multi-sensor data fusion and correlation which results in a 'context aware' detection system. Previous applications of the DCA have included the detection of potentially malicious port scanning activity, where it has produced high rates of true positives and low rates of false positives. In this work we aim to compare the performance of the DCA and of a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) when applied to the detection of SYN port scans, through experimental analysis. A SOM is an ideal candidate for comparison as it shares similarities with the DCA in terms of the data fusion method employed. It is shown that the results of the two systems are comparable, and both produce false positives for the same processes. This shows that the DCA can produce anomaly detection results to the same standard as an established technique.

  14. A Comparison Study of Psychiatric and Behavior Disorders and Cognitive Ability Among Homeless and Housed Children

    Yu, ManSoo; North, Carol S.; LaVesser, Patricia D.; Osborne, Victoria A.; Spitznagel, Edward L.


    This study examined the association of homelessness and related factors with child psychiatric and behavior disorders (diagnosed with structured diagnostic interviews) and child cognitive ability (on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) in a randomly selected sample of 157 homeless children and their mothers and a comparison of 61 housed children and their mothers. Homeless children had more disruptive behavior disorders and lower cognitive scores than housed children. In multivariate analyse...

  15. A Comparison between Neural Networks and Traditional Forecasting Methods: A Case Study

    C. A. Mitrea


    Full Text Available Forecasting accuracy drives the performance of inventory management. This study is to investigate and compare different forecasting methods like Moving Average (MA and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA with Neural Networks (NN models as Feed-forward NN and Nonlinear Autoregressive network with eXogenous inputs (NARX. Data used to forecast is acquired from inventory database of Panasonic Refrigeration Devices Company located in Singapore. Results have shown that forecasting with NN offers better performance in comparison with traditional methods.

  16. Comparison Study on Teachers’ and Parents’ Assessment of Public Participation in Basic Educational Programs Development

    Vachkov I.V.; Vachkova S.N.; Remorenko I.M.; Voropaev M.V.; Zadadaev S.A.,


    Psychological Science and Education 2016. Vol. 21, no. 4, 19–31 doi:10.17759/pse.2016210403 ISSN: 1814-2052 / 2311-7273 (online) Comparison Study on Teachers’ and Parents’ Assessment of Public Participation in Basic Educational Programs Development Vachkov I.V., Doctor in Psychology, Doctor in Psychology, professor, Institute of Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Ru...

  17. Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study


    Comparison of Nitinol Stapes Pistons with Conventional Stapes Pistons: A Cadaver Study Samuel A. Spear1 and James V. Crawford2 1 48th Medical Group, ENT...cited. Objective. To visually compare the Nitinol “smart” stapes prosthesis to conventional manual crimping stapes pistons in temporal bone cadaver...answer questions about each stapes piston. The answers to the survey were then recorded for analysis. Results. 8 of 9 Nitinol pistons were described as

  18. A Comparison of Comorbidity Measurements to Control for Confounding in Health Outcomes Studies


    OF PHARMACY [ 006 A Comparison of Comorbidity Measurements to Control for Confounding in Health Outcomes Studies JOEL F. FARLEY, B.S. PHARMACYA D•.;h... Joel F. Farley, R.Ph., University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy, 7-174 Weaver-Densford Hall, 308 Harvard St. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 Email...Hall RE, Rosen AK, Ash AS, Moskowitz MA. Searching for an improved clinical comorbidity index for use with ICD-9-CM administrative data. J Clin Epidemiol

  19. Abiraterone in metastatic prostate cancer without previous chemotherapy

    Ryan, C.J.; Smith, M.R.; Bono, J. De; Molina, A.; Logothetis, C.J.; Souza, P. de; Fizazi, K.; Mainwaring, P.; Piulats, J.M.; Ng, S.; Carles, J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Basch, E.; Small, E.J.; Saad, F.; Schrijvers, D.; Poppel, H. van; Mukherjee, S.D.; Suttmann, H.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Flaig, T.W.; George, D.J.; Yu, E.Y.; Efstathiou, E.; Pantuck, A.; Winquist, E.; Higano, C.S.; Taplin, M.E.; Park, Y.; Kheoh, T.; Griffin, T.; Scher, H.I.; Rathkopf, D.E.


    BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. METHODS: In this double-blind study, we

  20. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  1. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  2. Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy

    Patton, J. T.; Sommerville, S. M. M.; Grimer, R. J.


    Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1) patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%); (2) patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%); (3) patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%). The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality. PMID:18414590

  3. Primary Malignant Tumours of Bone Following Previous Malignancy

    R. J. Grimer


    Full Text Available Destructive bone lesions occurring in patients who have previously had a malignancy are generally assumed to be a metastasis from that malignancy. We reviewed 60 patients with a previous history of malignancy, who presented with a solitary bone lesion that was subsequently found to be a new and different primary sarcoma of bone. These second malignancies occurred in three distinct groups of patients: (1 patients with original tumours well known to be associated with second malignancies (5%; (2 patients whose second malignancies were likely to be due to the previous treatment of their primary malignancy (40%; (3 patients in whom there was no clearly defined association between malignancies (55%. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the necessity for caution in assuming the diagnosis of a metastasis when a solitary bone lesion is identified following a prior malignancy. Inappropriate biopsy and treatment of primary bone sarcomas compromises limb salvage surgery and can affect patient mortality.

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study of Psychological Comparison Processes That May Underlie the Acceptance of Chronic Pain

    Orfgen, Harald; Dijkstra, Arie


    Acceptance of chronic pain varies between patients but may also be expected to develop and change within patients. In this latter framework, the present study explored three psychological processes that may contribute to changes in acceptance: social comparisons, temporal comparisons and

  5. Comparison Study of Three Common Technologies for Freezing-Thawing Measurement

    Xinbao Yu


    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison study on three different technologies (i.e., thermocouple, electrical resistivity probe and Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR that are commonly used for frost measurement. Specially, the paper developed an analyses procedure to estimate the freezing-thawing status based on the dielectric properties of freezing soil. Experiments were conducted where the data of temperature, electrical resistivity, and dielectric constant were simultaneously monitored during the freezing/thawing process. The comparison uncovered the advantages and limitations of these technologies for frost measurement. The experimental results indicated that TDR measured soil dielectric constant clearly indicates the different stages of the freezing/thawing process. Analyses method was developed to determine not only the onset of freezing or thawing, but also the extent of their development. This is a major advantage of TDR over other technologies.

  6. Empirical comparison of maximal voxel and non-isotropic adjusted cluster extent results in a voxel-based morphometry study of comorbid learning disability with schizophrenia.

    Moorhead, T William J; Job, Dominic E; Spencer, Michael D; Whalley, Heather C; Johnstone, Eve C; Lawrie, Stephen M


    We present an empirical comparison of cluster extent and maximal voxel results in a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study of brain structure. The cluster extents are adjusted for underlying deviation from uniform smoothness. We implement this comparison on a four-group cohort that has previously shown evidence of a neuro-developmental component in schizophrenia (Moorhead, T.W.J., Job, D.E., Whalley, H.C., Sanderson, T.L., Johnstone, E.C. and Lawrie, S.M. 2004. Voxel-based morphometry of comorbid schizophrenia and learning disability: analyses in normalized and native spaces using parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. NeuroImage 22: 188-202.). We find that adjusted cluster extent results provide information on the nature of deficits that occur in the schizophrenia affected groups, and these important structural differences are not all shown in maximal voxel results. The maximal voxel and cluster extent results are corrected for multiple comparisons using Random Fields (RF) methods. In order to apply the cluster extent measures, we propose a post-hoc method for determining the primary threshold in the analysis. Unadjusted cluster extent results are reported, for these, no allowance is made for non-isotropic smoothness, and comparison with the adjusted extent results shows that the unadjusted results can be either conservative or anti-conservative depending upon the underlying tissue distributions.

  7. A comparison between powders and thin films of single-walled carbon nanotubes for the adsorption behaviors of phenylalanine and glycine by XANES study

    IBRAHIM; Kurash


    We have compared the adsorption behaviors between single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) powders and thin films with amino acids such as phenylalanine and glycine by using the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. On SWCNT powders very weak adsorption occurs as confirmed also by studies at high solution concentrations. The comparison of the adsorption behaviors with previous reports for thin films of SWCNTs shows that, due to their compact structure, thin films favor the adsorption of amino acids and represent themselves good candidate for a reliable evaluation of the interaction among amino acids and SWCNTs.

  8. Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons.

    Panchin, Alexander Y; Tuzhikov, Alexander I


    A number of widely debated research articles claiming possible technology-related health concerns have influenced the public opinion on genetically modified food safety. We performed a statistical reanalysis and review of experimental data presented in some of these studies and found that quite often in contradiction with the authors' conclusions the data actually provides weak evidence of harm that cannot be differentiated from chance. In our opinion the problem of statistically unaccounted multiple comparisons has led to some of the most cited anti-genetically modified organism health claims in history. We hope this analysis puts the original results of these studies into proper context.

  9. "How Long Was Your Poem?" Social Comparison among Junior High School Students

    Tholander, Michael


    The present article focuses on in situ social comparison among junior high school students. Rather than studying social comparison as an individual phenomenon in experimental situations, which has been common in previous research, the study analyzes social comparison as a real-life social practice. The results show that the practice of social…

  10. In vitro culture of previously uncultured oral bacterial phylotypes.

    Thompson, Hayley; Rybalka, Alexandra; Moazzez, Rebecca; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Wade, William G


    Around a third of oral bacteria cannot be grown using conventional bacteriological culture media. Community profiling targeting 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomics methods have proved valuable in revealing the complexity of the oral bacterial community. Studies investigating the role of oral bacteria in health and disease require phenotypic characterizations that are possible only with live cultures. The aim of this study was to develop novel culture media and use an in vitro biofilm model to culture previously uncultured oral bacteria. Subgingival plaque samples collected from subjects with periodontitis were cultured on complex mucin-containing agar plates supplemented with proteose peptone (PPA), beef extract (BEA), or Gelysate (GA) as well as on fastidious anaerobe agar plus 5% horse blood (FAA). In vitro biofilms inoculated with the subgingival plaque samples and proteose peptone broth (PPB) as the growth medium were established using the Calgary biofilm device. Specific PCR primers were designed and validated for the previously uncultivated oral taxa Bacteroidetes bacteria HOT 365 and HOT 281, Lachnospiraceae bacteria HOT 100 and HOT 500, and Clostridiales bacterium HOT 093. All agar media were able to support the growth of 10 reference strains of oral bacteria. One previously uncultivated phylotype, Actinomyces sp. HOT 525, was cultivated on FAA. Of 93 previously uncultivated phylotypes found in the inocula, 26 were detected in in vitro-cultivated biofilms. Lachnospiraceae bacterium HOT 500 was successfully cultured from biofilm material harvested from PPA plates in coculture with Parvimonas micra or Veillonella dispar/parvula after colony hybridization-directed enrichment. The establishment of in vitro biofilms from oral inocula enables the cultivation of previously uncultured oral bacteria and provides source material for isolation in coculture.

  11. The role of noise sensitivity in the noise-response relation: A comparison of three international airport studies

    van Kamp, Irene; Job, R. F. Soames; Hatfield, Julie; Haines, Mary; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Stansfeld, Stephen A.


    In order to examine the role of noise sensitivity in response to environmental noise, this paper presents detailed comparisons of socio-acoustic studies conducted around international airports in Amsterdam, Sydney, and London. Earlier findings that noise sensitivity moderates the effect of noise on annoyance were examined to see if they could be replicated in each of the datasets, independent of the technique of measuring noise sensitivity. The relation between exposure to aircraft noise and noise annoyance was studied separately for groups of individuals with low, medium, and high noise sensitivity, with statistical adjustment for relevant confounders. Results support the previous findings that noise sensitivity is an independent predictor of annoyance and adds to the prediction of noise annoyance afforded by noise exposure level by up to 26% of explained variance. There is no evidence of a moderating effect, whereby the covariation between noise exposure level and annoyance is weak for people who score at the extreme high or low end of the sensitivity scale, and strong for people who score in the middle of the sensitivity scale. Generally, noise sensitivity appears to increase annoyance independently of the level of noise exposure after adjustment for relevant confounders. These findings were consistent across the three datasets. .

  12. Association between previous enterobiasis and current wheezing: evaluation of 1018 children.

    Bahceciler, Nerin N; Ozdemir, Cevdet; Kucukosmanoglu, Ercan; Arikan, Cigdem; Over, Ufuk; Karavelioglu, Salim; Akkoc, Tunc; Yazi, Didem; Yesil, Ozlem; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa; Barlan, Isil B


    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between parasitosis and allergy. We surveyed all children aged 4-12 years living in poor hygienic conditions in a shantytown of Istanbul. After obtaining data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and an additional questionnaire, performing a skin-prick test (SPT), and determining total IgE, stool and perianal tape specimens were obtained from 1018 participating children. The prevalence of past episodes of wheezing, current wheezing, asthma, and rhinitis was 31, 14.6, 10.7, and 26.2%, respectively. Parasitosis was present in 49.1%, Enterobius vermicularis (23.3%), being the most common. A history of treatment for enterobiasis was present in 37%. Comparison of children with and without current enterobiasis revealed no significant difference in allergic manifestations and SPT results, except for serum total IgE level (p = 0.018), whereas children with previous enterobiasis were more likely to have current wheezing (p = 0.012). Current wheezers were more likely to have previous enterobiasis (p = 0.01) and a higher maternal employment level (p = 0.036) when compared with those without. According to logistic regression analysis, covariables significantly positively related with current wheezing were previous enterobiasis (p = 0.003) and being < or =5 years of age (p = 0.043), whereas being the first child of the family (p = 0.043) was negatively related. A previous infection with E. vermicularis was found to potentiate current wheezing in a population living in a shantytown in Istanbul.

  13. Birth after previous cesarean delivery: short-term maternal outcomes.

    Lydon-Rochelle, Mona T; Cahill, Alison G; Spong, Catherine Y


    An estimated 40% of the 1.3 million cesarean deliveries performed each year in the United States are repeat procedures. The appropriate clinical management approach for women with previous cesarean delivery remains challenging because options are limited. The risks and benefits of clinical management choices in the woman's health need to be quantified. Thus, we discuss the available published scientific data on (1) the short-term maternal outcomes of trial of labor after cesarean and elective repeat cesarean delivery, (2) the differences between outcomes for both, (3) the important factors that influence these outcomes, and (4) successful vs. unsuccessful vaginal birth after cesarean. For women with a previous cesarean delivery, a successful trial of labor offers several distinct, consistently reproducible advantages compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, including fewer hysterectomies, fewer thromboembolic events, lower blood transfusion rates, and shorter hospital stay. However, when trial of labor after cesarean fails, emergency cesarean is associated with increased uterine rupture, hysterectomy, operative injury, blood transfusion, endometritis, and longer hospital stay. Care of women with a history of previous cesarean delivery involves a confluence of interactions between medical and nonmedical factors; however, the most important determinants of the short-term outcomes among these women are likely individualized counseling, accurate clinical diagnoses, and careful management during a trial of labor. We recommend a randomized controlled trial among women undergoing a TOLAC and a longitudinal cohort study among women with previous cesarean to evaluate adverse outcomes, with focused attention on both mother and the infant.

  14. A Comparison Study on the Assessment of Ride Comfort for LRT Passengers

    Tengku Munawir, Tengku Imran; Abqari Abu Samah, Ahmad; Afiq Akmal Rosle, Muhammad; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Hasnan, Khalid; Sabri, S. M.; Ismail, S. M.; Yunos, Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd; Yen Bin, Teo


    Ride comfort in railway transportation is very mind boggling and it relies on different dynamic performance criteria as well as subjective observation from the train passengers. Vibration discomfort from different elements such as vehicle condition, track area condition and working condition can prompt poor ride comfort. However, there are no universal applicable standards to analyse the ride comfort. There are several factors including local condition, vehicle condition and the track condition. In this current work, level of ride comfort by previous Adtranz-Walker light rapid transit (LRT) passengers at Ampang line were analysed. A comparison was done via two possible methods which are BS EN 12299 (2009) and Sperling’s Ride Index equation. BS EN 12299 standard is used to measure and evaluate the ride comfort of seating (Nvd) and standing (Nva) of train passenger in three different routes. Next, Sperling’s ride comfort equation is used to conduct validation and comparison between the obtained data. The result indicates a higher extent of vibration in the vertical axis which impacts the overall result. The standing position demonstrates a higher exposure of vibration in all the three tested routes. Comparison of the ride comfort assessment of passenger in sitting and standing position for both methods indicates that all the track sections exceeds “pronounced but not unpleasant (medium)” limit range. Nevertheless, the seating position at track section AU did not exceed the limit and stayed at the comfortable zone. The highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for seating position are 3.34 m/s2 for Nva and 2.63 m/s2 respectively, which is at route C uptrack that is from Chan Sow Lin station to Sri Petaling station. Meanwhile, the highest discomfort level achieved for both methods for standing are 3.80 m/s2 for Nvd and 2.88 m/s2 for Wz respectively, at uptrack section which is from Sri Petaling station to Chan Sow Lin station. Thus, the highest

  15. A Study of Gelug pa sect with comparison to Nyingma pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet


    Short synopsis and layout of Chapters of the thesis entitled, “A study of Gelugpa sect with comparison to Nyingma Pa sect of Buddhism in Tibet”Around 2500 years ago, a prince of Sākya clan rose against the anguish of life & death and determined to find out the way through which these torments end. That prince was Siddhartha; and whole world came to know him by his enlightened name; Buddha; his path became famous after his name Buddhism. Centuries gone, millennium changed its numbers; still th...

  16. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of metabolic profiles between vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects: a matched cohort study.

    Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Chuang, Su-Chun; Hsiung, Chao A


    Several previous cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians have a better metabolic profile than non-vegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian dietary pattern may help prevent chronic degenerative diseases. However, longitudinal studies on the impact of vegetarian diets on metabolic traits are scarce. We studied how several sub-types of vegetarian diets affect metabolic traits, including waist circumference, BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL, TAG and TC:HDL ratio, through both cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs. The study used the MJ Health Screening database, with data collected from 1994 to 2008 in Taiwan, which included 4415 lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 1855 lacto-vegetarians and 1913 vegans; each vegetarian was matched with five non-vegetarians based on age, sex and study site. In the longitudinal follow-up, each additional year of vegan diet lowered the risk of obesity by 7 % (95 % CI 0·88, 0·99), whereas each additional year of lacto-vegetarian diet lowered the risk of elevated SBP by 8 % (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99) and elevated glucose by 7 % (95 % CI 0·87, 0·99), and each additional year of ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet increased abnormal HDL by 7 % (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12), compared with non-vegetarians. In the cross-sectional comparisons, all sub-types of vegetarians had lower likelihoods of abnormalities compared with non-vegetarians on all metabolic traits (Pvegetarians is partially attributable to lower BMI. With proper management of TAG and HDL, along with caution about the intake of refined carbohydrates and fructose, a plant-based diet may benefit all aspects of the metabolic profile.

  17. Performance comparison of breast imaging modalities using a 4AFC human observer study

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Mackenzie, Alistair; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Bosmans, Hilde; Segars, William P.; Wells, Kevin


    This work compares the visibility of spheres and simulated masses in 2D-mammography and tomosynthesis systems using human observer studies. Performing comparison studies between breast imaging systems poses a number of practical challenges within a clinical environment. We therefore adopted a simulation approach which included synthetic breast blocks, a validated lesion simulation model and a set of validated image modelling tools as a viable alternative to clinical trials. A series of 4-alternative forced choice (4AFC) human observer experiments has been conducted for signal detection tasks using masses and spheres as targets. Five physicists participated in the study viewing images with a 5mm target at a range of contrast levels and 60 trials per experimental condition. The results showed that tomosynthesis has a lower threshold contrast than 2D-mammography for masses and spheres, and that detection studies using spheres may produce overly-optimistic threshold contrast values.

  18. Subtalar Fusion Rate in Patients With Previous Ipsilateral Ankle Arthrodesis.

    Zanolli, Diego H; Nunley, James A; Easley, Mark E


    Isolated subtalar arthrodesis is generally successful, with reported fusion rates of 84% to 100%. However, alteration of subtalar joint mechanics and talar body vasculature after ankle fusion may negatively influence subsequent ipsilateral subtalar joint fusion. Because there is very limited information on the subtalar fusion rate in patients with previous ipsilateral ankle fusion, the purpose of this study was to describe fusion rates in subtalar joint arthrodesis with and without preexisting ankle fusion in a large consecutive series of primary subtalar arthrodesis cases. All primary subtalar fusions performed between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Thirteen of 151 consecutive cases were in patients with existing ipsilateral ankle fusions. All patients were evaluated for clinical and radiographic evidence of nonunion at follow-up, and fusion rates in the groups with and without previous ipsilateral ankle fusion were compared. Five nonunions occurred in the 13 cases with prior ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis, a 61.5% fusion rate. Twelve nonunions were identified in the 138 cases without prior ankle arthrodesis, a significantly higher fusion rate of 91.3% (P = .007). In our series, the subtalar fusion rate in patients with previous ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis was significantly lower than that for subtalar arthrodesis in the absence of ipsilateral ankle arthrodesis. Level III, retrospective comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Consensus building for interlaboratory studies, key comparisons, and meta-analysis

    Koepke, Amanda; Lafarge, Thomas; Possolo, Antonio; Toman, Blaza


    Interlaboratory studies in measurement science, including key comparisons, and meta-analyses in several fields, including medicine, serve to intercompare measurement results obtained independently, and typically produce a consensus value for the common measurand that blends the values measured by the participants. Since interlaboratory studies and meta-analyses reveal and quantify differences between measured values, regardless of the underlying causes for such differences, they also provide so-called ‘top-down’ evaluations of measurement uncertainty. Measured values are often substantially over-dispersed by comparison with their individual, stated uncertainties, thus suggesting the existence of yet unrecognized sources of uncertainty (dark uncertainty). We contrast two different approaches to take dark uncertainty into account both in the computation of consensus values and in the evaluation of the associated uncertainty, which have traditionally been preferred by different scientific communities. One inflates the stated uncertainties by a multiplicative factor. The other adds laboratory-specific ‘effects’ to the value of the measurand. After distinguishing what we call recipe-based and model-based approaches to data reductions in interlaboratory studies, we state six guiding principles that should inform such reductions. These principles favor model-based approaches that expose and facilitate the critical assessment of validating assumptions, and give preeminence to substantive criteria to determine which measurement results to include, and which to exclude, as opposed to purely statistical considerations, and also how to weigh them. Following an overview of maximum likelihood methods, three general purpose procedures for data reduction are described in detail, including explanations of how the consensus value and degrees of equivalence are computed, and the associated uncertainty evaluated: the DerSimonian-Laird procedure; a hierarchical Bayesian

  20. Comparison study on qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network.

    Han, Z Y; Weng, W G


    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative risk assessment methods for urban natural gas pipeline network are proposed. The qualitative method is comprised of an index system, which includes a causation index, an inherent risk index, a consequence index and their corresponding weights. The quantitative method consists of a probability assessment, a consequences analysis and a risk evaluation. The outcome of the qualitative method is a qualitative risk value, and for quantitative method the outcomes are individual risk and social risk. In comparison with previous research, the qualitative method proposed in this paper is particularly suitable for urban natural gas pipeline network, and the quantitative method takes different consequences of accidents into consideration, such as toxic gas diffusion, jet flame, fire ball combustion and UVCE. Two sample urban natural gas pipeline networks are used to demonstrate these two methods. It is indicated that both of the two methods can be applied to practical application, and the choice of the methods depends on the actual basic data of the gas pipelines and the precision requirements of risk assessment.

  1. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit


    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  2. Comparison of bioequivalence study regulatory requirements for human and veterinary drugs.

    Grabowski, Tomasz; Marczak, Monika; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Jan; Whitmire, Monica


    Guidelines published by the European Union Regulatory Authority, regarding the planning of bioequivalence studies, are the primary source of knowledge about the study design optimization. The goal of this paper is to compare the key elements (27 points) of bioequivalence study optimization based on a comparison of the two European Medicines Agency guidelines relating to medicines used for humans (HB) and to veterinary drugs (AB). In case of the latter, one can get the impression that the issues of species differences in relation to the physiology and anatomy have been completely ignored. Many details that the AB guideline omits are included in the new HB guideline and were present in many other guidelines from the last 20 years. Most have not been adopted by the AB document, even though they are the product of many years of work of many teams and specialists from various agencies in the regulatory affairs field.

  3. Phantom Behavioral Assimilation Effects : Systematic Biases in Social Comparison Choice Studies

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Regner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P.; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X.


    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on su

  4. Pudendal and median nerve sensory perception threshold: a comparison between normative studies.

    Quaghebeur, Jörgen; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques


    For the evaluation of sensory innervation, normative data are necessary as a comparison. To compare our current perception thresholds (CPTs) with normative data from other research. Healthy volunteers were assessed for 2000, 250, and 5 Hz CPTs of the median and pudendal nerve and data were compared with other studies. Normative data in the studied group n = 41 (male: 21; female: 20) for the median nerve, 2 kHz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz were respectively: 241.85 ± 67.72 (140-444); 106.27 ± 39.12 (45-229); 82.05 ± 43.40 (13-271). Pudendal nerve CPTs 250 Hz were: 126.44 ± 69.46 (6-333). For men 2 kHz: 349.95 ± 125.76 (100-588); 5 Hz: 132.67 ± 51.81 (59-249) and women 2 kHz:226.20 ± 119.65 (64-528); 5 Hz: 92.45 ± 44.66 (35-215). For the median nerve no statistical differences for gender were shown. For the pudendal nerve, only 250 Hz showed no difference for gender (t-test: 0.516). Comparison of our data with CPTs of other normative data showed no agreement for the pudendal nerve. For the median nerve only 2 kHz showed agreement in three studies and for 5 Hz with one study. Comparing normative data of multiple studies shows a variety of results and poor agreement. Therefore, referring to normative data of other studies should be handled with caution.

  5. Validation of turbulence and convective schemes on western Africa; comparison of LAM and CRM simulations on an AMMA case study.

    Pollack, David; Gueremy, Jean-Francois; Beau, Isabelle


    The aim of this work is to analyse the behaviour of turbulence and convective parameterizations included in the Météo-France ALADIN-CLIMAT Limited Area Model in the frame of a 48 hour simulation of an AMMA case study, in comparison to observations and to a CRM (Méso-NH, with a 5 km horizontal grid-mesh) simulation carried out under the same boundary forcings. This framework provides an intermediate step of parameterization validation between the Single Column Model and Global Climate Model simulation studies. The chosen case study is the 26-27th July 2006 over a 43° x 40° region centred over Burkina Faso, in continuation to a previous work done with a HAPEX-Sahel case-study. During this 2 day period, two successive mesoscale convective systems are located ahead and in phase with the trough of an African easterly Wave (AEW). Both LAM and CRM simulations have been performed over the same considered domain, using the same ECMWF boundary forcings. Sensitivity tests to resolution (both horizontal and vertical) have been first carried out with ALADIN-CLIMAT. Second, the two different convection schemes used in ALADIN-CLIMAT show two kinds of response mainly due to their different formulations of triggering (no constraints in the dry layer under the convective cloud versus continuous treatment of convection including this dry layer) and closure (moisture convergence versus CAPE). Third, the impact of convective downdrafts will be shown. Fourth, the impact of different boundary forcing fields will also be presented.

  6. A Comparison of ASCE and FAO56 Reference Evapotranspiration at Different Subdaily Timescales: a Numerical Study

    Farzin Parchami-Araghi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Subdaily estimates of reference evapotranspiration (ETo are needed in many applications such as dynamic agro-hydrological modeling. The ASCE and FAO56 Penman–Monteith models (ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM, respectively has received favorable acceptance and application over much of the world, including the United States, for establishing a reference evapotranspiration (ETo index as a function of weather parameters. In the past several years various studies have evaluated ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models for calculating the commonest hourly or 15-min ETo either by comparing them with lysimetric measurements or by comparison with one another (2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19. In this study, sub-daily ET o estimates made by the ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models at different timescales (1-360 min were compared through conduction of a computational experiment, using a daily to sub-daily disaggregation framework developed by Parchami-Araghi et al. (14. Materials and Methods: Daily and sub-daily weather data at different timescales (1-360 min were generated via a daily-to-sub-daily weather data disaggregation framework developed by Parchami-Araghi et al. (14, using long-term (59 years daily weather data obtained from Abadan synoptic weather station. Daily/sub-daily net long wave radiation (Rnl was estimated through 6 different approaches, including using two different criteria for identifying the daytime/nighttime periods : 1 the standard criteria implemented in both ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models and 2 criterion of actual time of sunset and sunrise in combination with 1 estimation of clear-sky radiation (Rso based on the standard approach implemented in both ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models (1st and 2nd Rnl estimation approaches, respectively, 2 integral of the Rso estimates derived via a physically based solar radiation model developed by Yang et al. (25, YNG model, for one-second time-steps (3rd and 4th Rnl estimation approaches, respectively, and 3 integral of

  7. Comparison study of fast responses in confined plasmas with diffusivity models

    Iwasaki, Takuya [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)


    An equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is introduced to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the fast responses in the transition from Low confinement mode (L-mode) to High confinement mode (H-mode) and in the heating power switching. Examples of diffusivity models are chosen, i.e., constant, Bohm and Rebut-Lallia-Watkins (RLW) model and the comparison study is done. A small reaction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in reducing the response time. Independent of the diffusivity models, the fast transient transport in the heat pulse propagation is reproduced based on this non-local model. (author)

  8. Comparison on the Developmental Trends between Chinese Students Studying Abroad and Foreign Students Studying in China

    Liu, Xuezhi


    China has been undergoing a new period of political stability, cultural prosperity, and social harmony since its reform and opening-up in the late 1970s. At the same time, the number of Chinese students studying abroad (CSSA) and foreign students studying in China (FSSC) has grown rapidly and steadily in the past three decades. With China's…

  9. Is gynaecological laparoscopic surgery safe for elderly women? A comparison study.

    Cengiz, H; Dagdeviren, H; Kanawati, A; Kaya, C; Ekin, M


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gynaecological laparoscopic surgery in an elderly group, by comparing the operative outcomes of the elderly group with those of the younger group. We analysed retrospective data of 121 women who underwent laparoscopic surgery for benign gynaecological disease. Women aged > 60 years were compared with women aged between 30 and 50 years who had the same operation. We evaluated body mass index, comorbidities, number of previous abdominal surgeries, operating time, haemoglobin change, postoperative complications, hospital stay and return of bowel activity. There were no significant differences between the elderly and a matched younger group in number of previous abdominal surgeries, operating time, ASA score distribution, changes in haemoglobin level, hospital stay and postoperative complications (p > 0.05). Laparoscopic surgery can be safely performed in elderly patients with benign gynaecological disease, and surgeons should not hesitate to perform laparoscopic surgery in elderly patients.

  10. A Study on Visibility Estimation of Web-Safe Colors using Paired Comparison and Discriminant Analysis

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Notomi, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao

    This paper presents the visibility ordering of several web safe colors. The research of web page visibility is important because of the rapid dissemination of the World Wide Web. The combination of a foreground color and a background color is an important factor in providing sufficient visibility. Therefore, the rating of color combination visibility is necessary when developing accessible web sites. In this study, the visibility of several web-safe color combinations was examined using psychological methodology, i.e., paired comparison. Eighteen chromatic and 3 achromatic web-safe colors were employed for visual stimuli. Twenty-eight subjects ranging from ages 21 to 75 were recruited, and all were with normal color sensation. They looked at two different colored characters simultaneously on the white background and were instructed to identify which one enabled them to see more clearly. In examining the relationship between the psychological rankings of the color combinations and the visual sensations, each color combination was first scored as to the visibility by Thurstone's paired comparison technique. Secondly, the visual sensation was deduced by applying Weber-Fechner's law to the luminance of the foreground colors. As results, the luminance of a foreground color influenced the visibility; however the visibility rating is difficult only using the luminance of web-safe colors. These indicate that the chromaticity and chroma saturation are necessary in rating of chromatic web-safe color visibility.

  11. PSD Methods Comparison and Discrimination Efficiency Study for LaBr3:Ce Detector

    Cang, Jirong; Zeng, Zhi; Cheng, Jianping; Liu, Yinong; Li, Junli


    LaBr3:Ce scintillator has been widely studied for nuclear spectroscopy because of its optimal energy resolution (<3% @ 662keV) and time resolution (~300ps). Despite these promising properties, intrinsic radiation background of LaBr3:Ce is a critical issue, and the Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) is proved to be efficient and a potential method to suppress the alpha background from the 227Ac. In this paper, a detailed comparison of 3 digital PSD algorithms, the Charge Comparison Method, the Mean Time Method and the Gamma-Alpha Model Analysis Method, for alpha and gamma discrimination in LaBr3:Ce was done. The algorithm parameters and discrimination efficiency were analyzed and optimized for each method. Moreover, for the CCM, the correlation between the CCM feature value distribution and the total charge (energy) was quantitatively analyzed, and a fitting equation of the correlation is inferred and verified with experiment. With the equation, an energy-dependent threshold was chosen to optimize the discrim...

  12. Comparisons of numerical magnitudes in children with different levels of mathematical achievement. An ERP study.

    Gómez-Velázquez, Fabiola Reveca; Berumen, Gustavo; González-Garrido, Andrés Antonio


    The ability to map between non-symbolic and symbolic magnitude representations is crucial in the development of mathematics and this map is disturbed in children with math difficulties. In addition, positive parietal ERPs have been found to be sensitive to the number distance effect and skills solving arithmetic problems. Therefore we aimed to contrast the behavioral and ERP responses in children with different levels of mathematical achievement: low (LA), average (AA) and high (HA), while comparing symbolic and non-symbolic magnitudes. The results showed that LA children repeatedly failed when comparing magnitudes, particularly the symbolic ones. In addition, a positive correlation between correct responses while analyzing symbolic quantities and WRAT-4 scores emerged. The amplitude of N200 was significantly larger during non-symbolic comparisons. In addition, P2P amplitude was consistently smaller in LA children while comparing both symbolic and non-symbolic quantities, and correlated positively with the WRAT-4 scores. The latency of P3 seemed to be sensitive to the type of numerical comparison. The results suggest that math difficulties might be related to a more general magnitude representation problem, and that ERP are useful to study its timecourse in children with different mathematical skills.

  13. Wind-induced transmission tower foundation loads. A field study-design code comparison

    Savory, E. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont. (Canada); Parke, G.A.R.; Disney, P.; Toy, N. [School of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)


    This paper presents a comparison between the wind-induced foundation loads measured on a type L6 transmission line tower during a field study in the UK and those computed using the UK Code of Practice for lattice tower and transmission line design (BS8100). In this work, the Code provisions have been generalised to give the wind-induced strain in each of the tower legs immediately above the foundation as a function of wind direction and wind speed at the top of the tower. The complete data set from the field monitoring has been decomposed to provide a similar formulation for comparison purposes. The analysis shows excellent agreement between the Code calculations and the measured results, within the overall accuracy of the field data. This indicates that, at least for the tower type examined here, the existing design Code provides a reliable transformation of the local wind speed at the top of the tower into tension and compression loads on the foundations. (author)

  14. Comparison study of catalyst nanoparticle formation and carbon nanotube growth: Support effect

    Wang, Yunyu; Luo, Zhiquan; Li, Bin; Ho, Paul S.; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li; Bryan, Eugene N.; Nemanich, Robert J.


    A comparison study has been conducted on the formation of catalyst nanoparticles on a high surface tension metal and low surface tension oxide for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth via catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and tantalum have been deposited as supporting layers before deposition of a thin layer of iron catalyst. Iron nanoparticles were formed after thermal annealing. It was found that densities, size distributions, and morphologies of iron nanoparticles were distinctly different on the two supporting layers. In particular, iron nanoparticles revealed a Volmer-Weber growth mode on SiO2 and a Stranski-Krastanov mode on tantalum. CCVD growth of CNTs was conducted on iron/tantalum and iron/SiO2. CNT growth on SiO2 exhibited a tip growth mode with a slow growth rate of less than 100nm /min. In contrast, the growth on tantalum followed a base growth mode with a fast growth rate exceeding 1μm/min. For comparison, plasma enhanced CVD was also employed for CNT growth on SiO2 and showed a base growth mode with a growth rate greater than 2μm /min. The enhanced CNT growth rate on tantalum was attributed to the morphologies of iron nanoparticles in combination with the presence of an iron wetting layer. The CNT growth mode was affected by the adhesion between the catalyst and support as well as CVD process.

  15. Statistical learning techniques applied to epidemiology: a simulated case-control comparison study with logistic regression

    Land Walker H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When investigating covariate interactions and group associations with standard regression analyses, the relationship between the response variable and exposure may be difficult to characterize. When the relationship is nonlinear, linear modeling techniques do not capture the nonlinear information content. Statistical learning (SL techniques with kernels are capable of addressing nonlinear problems without making parametric assumptions. However, these techniques do not produce findings relevant for epidemiologic interpretations. A simulated case-control study was used to contrast the information embedding characteristics and separation boundaries produced by a specific SL technique with logistic regression (LR modeling representing a parametric approach. The SL technique was comprised of a kernel mapping in combination with a perceptron neural network. Because the LR model has an important epidemiologic interpretation, the SL method was modified to produce the analogous interpretation and generate odds ratios for comparison. Results The SL approach is capable of generating odds ratios for main effects and risk factor interactions that better capture nonlinear relationships between exposure variables and outcome in comparison with LR. Conclusions The integration of SL methods in epidemiology may improve both the understanding and interpretation of complex exposure/disease relationships.

  16. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    C. J. Luis


    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  17. Replication Validity of Initial Association Studies: A Comparison between Psychiatry, Neurology and Four Somatic Diseases

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine; Boraud, Thomas; Munafo, Marcus; Gonon, François


    Context There are growing concerns about effect size inflation and replication validity of association studies, but few observational investigations have explored the extent of these problems. Objective Using meta-analyses to measure the reliability of initial studies and explore whether this varies across biomedical domains and study types (cognitive/behavioral, brain imaging, genetic and “others”). Methods We analyzed 663 meta-analyses describing associations between markers or risk factors and 12 pathologies within three biomedical domains (psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases). We collected the effect size, sample size, publication year and Impact Factor of initial studies, largest studies (i.e., with the largest sample size) and the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial studies were considered as replicated if they were in nominal agreement with meta-analyses and if their effect size inflation was below 100%. Results Nominal agreement between initial studies and meta-analyses regarding the presence of a significant effect was not better than chance in psychiatry, whereas it was somewhat better in neurology and somatic diseases. Whereas effect sizes reported by largest studies and meta-analyses were similar, most of those reported by initial studies were inflated. Among the 256 initial studies reporting a significant effect (p<0.05) and paired with significant meta-analyses, 97 effect sizes were inflated by more than 100%. Nominal agreement and effect size inflation varied with the biomedical domain and study type. Indeed, the replication rate of initial studies reporting a significant effect ranged from 6.3% for genetic studies in psychiatry to 86.4% for cognitive/behavioral studies. Comparison between eight subgroups shows that replication rate decreases with sample size and “true” effect size. We observed no evidence of association between replication rate and publication year or Impact Factor. Conclusion The differences in reliability


    R. Sh. Saitgareev


    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  19. Looking beyond general metrics for model comparison - lessons from an international model intercomparison study

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; Bouaziz, Laurène; De Niel, Jan; Brauer, Claudia; Dewals, Benjamin; Drogue, Gilles; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Grelier, Benjamin; Nossent, Jiri; Pereira, Fernando; Savenije, Hubert; Thirel, Guillaume; Willems, Patrick


    International collaboration between research institutes and universities is a promising way to reach consensus on hydrological model development. Although model comparison studies are very valuable for international cooperation, they do often not lead to very clear new insights regarding the relevance of the modelled processes. We hypothesise that this is partly caused by model complexity and the comparison methods used, which focus too much on a good overall performance instead of focusing on a variety of specific events. In this study, we use an approach that focuses on the evaluation of specific events and characteristics. Eight international research groups calibrated their hourly model on the Ourthe catchment in Belgium and carried out a validation in time for the Ourthe catchment and a validation in space for nested and neighbouring catchments. The same protocol was followed for each model and an ensemble of best-performing parameter sets was selected. Although the models showed similar performances based on general metrics (i.e. the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency), clear differences could be observed for specific events. We analysed the hydrographs of these specific events and conducted three types of statistical analyses on the entire time series: cumulative discharges, empirical extreme value distribution of the peak flows and flow duration curves for low flows. The results illustrate the relevance of including a very quick flow reservoir preceding the root zone storage to model peaks during low flows and including a slow reservoir in parallel with the fast reservoir to model the recession for the studied catchments. This intercomparison enhanced the understanding of the hydrological functioning of the catchment, in particular for low flows, and enabled to identify present knowledge gaps for other parts of the hydrograph. Above all, it helped to evaluate each model against a set of alternative models.

  20. Comparison study between the effects of different terms contributing to viscous dissipation in saturated porous media

    Salama, Amgad


    Some sort of controversy is associated with the problem of viscous dissipation in saturated porous media for which we try to present a comparison study between the influences of the different terms contributing to this phenomenon. We consider viscous dissipation by studying the case of semi-infinite flat plate embedded in saturated porous medium and is kept at constant, higher temperature compared with the surrounding fluid. The fluid is induced to move upwards by natural convection during which viscous dissipation is considered. The boundary layer assumptions are considered to simplify the treatment and to highlight the influencing parameters. The behavior of temperature, and velocity fields in the neighborhood of the vertical flat plate were used to highlight the effects of these parameters. Three terms were considered to contribute to viscous dissipation, namely Darcy\\'s term, the Forchheimer term and Al-Hadharami\\'s term. Although there are no unanimous agreements between researchers to include the Forchhemier term in the dissipation function, some researchers argued it might have an indirect effect and hence for this sake and for completion purposes, we include it in this comparison study. Dimensional considerations reveal that Darcy\\'s term is influenced by Gebhart number, the Forchheimer term is controlled by the non-Darcy parameter and Al-Hadharami\\'s term is influenced by Darcy\\'s number. The governing, non-dimensional set of equations together with the imposed boundary conditions is numerically investigated by finite element method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e., viscous dissipation) is very much influenced by the relative magnitude of these dimensionless parameters. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. RDV77 VLBA Hardware/Software Correlator Comparisons

    Gordon, David


    Results of a hardware vs. software correlation of the RDV77 session are presented. Group delays are found to agree (WRMS differences) at an average level of 4.2 psec and with a noise floor of 2.5 psec. These RDV77 comparisons agree well with several previous correlator comparison studies.

  2. Comparison of population-based association study methods correcting for population stratification.

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available Population stratification can cause spurious associations in population-based association studies. Several statistical methods have been proposed to reduce the impact of population stratification on population-based association studies. We simulated a set of stratified populations based on the real haplotype data from the HapMap ENCODE project, and compared the relative power, type I error rates, accuracy and positive prediction value of four prevailing population-based association study methods: traditional case-control tests, structured association (SA, genomic control (GC and principal components analysis (PCA under various population stratification levels. Additionally, we evaluated the effects of sample sizes and frequencies of disease susceptible allele on the performance of the four analytical methods in the presence of population stratification. We found that the performance of PCA was very stable under various scenarios. Our comparison results suggest that SA and PCA have comparable performance, if sufficient ancestral informative markers are used in SA analysis. GC appeared to be strongly conservative in significantly stratified populations. It may be better to apply GC in the stratified populations with low stratification level. Our study intends to provide a practical guideline for researchers to select proper study methods and make appropriate inference of the results in population-based association studies.

  3. U(VI) extraction by 8-hydroxyquinoline. A comparison study in ionic liquid and in dichloromethane

    Yuan, Li-Yong; Shi, Wei-Qun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; Liao, Xiang-Hong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China). School of Nuclear Engineering and Geophysics; Liu, Zhi-Rong [East China Institute of Technology, Nanchang (China). School of Nuclear Engineering and Geophysics; Chai, Zhi-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Lab. of Nuclear Energy Chemistry; Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine


    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) represent a recent new class of solvents with potential application in liquid/liquid extraction based nuclear fuel reprocessing due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The work herein provides a comparison of U(VI) extraction by 8-hydroxyquinoline (HOX) in a commonly used RTIL, i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]) and in conventional solvent, i.e. dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The effect of HOX concentration, solution acidity and nitrate ions on the extraction were discussed in detail, and the speciation analyses of the extracted U(VI) were performed. One of the main emphasis of this work is the extraction mechanism of U(VI) extracted from aqueous phase into RTILs and conventional solvent. In CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, the extraction occurs through a combination of ion change and neutral complexation, and the extracted complex is proposed as UO{sub 2}(OX){sub 2}HOX. In [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}], although a cation-change mechanism as previously reported for RTILs-based system was involved, the extracted complex of UO{sub 2}(OX){sub 1.5}(HOX){sub 1.5}(PF6){sub 0.5} gave a clear indication that the usage of HOX as an acidic extractant markedly inhibited the solubility loss of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] during the extraction by leaching H{sup +} to aqueous phase. Moreover, the extracted U(VI) in [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] can be easily stripped by using 0.01 M nitric acid, which provides a simple way of the ionic liquid recycling.




    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to see the fetomaternal outcome of pregnancy with previous cesarean section. METHODS: This study was conducted in the department of OBGYN, BARC Hospital, Mumbai from October 2011 to September 2012, a period of one year. All the pregnant women with previous one cesarean section attending ANC clinic for confinement were included in the study group after giving consent. RESULTS: Out of total75 cases, a total of 23 patients (30.67% were given trial of labor. Out of 23 patients given trial of labor, 12 patients (52.17% had successful VBAC. Commonest indication for unsuccessful trial of labor undergoing repeat cesarean section was non-progress of labor (54.55% and failed IOL (36.67%. Out of 12 patients who had successful VBAC, 3 patients (25% had complication like episiotomy hematoma, perineal tear and cervical tear. No patients had major complications. In present study no baby had apgar score <7 at 1min and 5 min in VBAC group and elective LSCS group. CONCLUSION: The current study concludes that women with a prior cesarean are at increased risk for repeat cesarean section. Vigilance with respect to indication at primary cesarean delivery, proper counseling for trial of labor and proper antepartum and intrapartum monitoring of patients, are key to reducing the cesarean section rates. The antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications are more in repeat cesarean section cases. There is no doubt that a trial of labor is a relatively safe procedure, but it is not risk free. Therefore, patient evaluation prior to TOLAC, careful observation throughout labor in a well-equipped unit with around the clock services for emergency surgery and availability of expertise is the backbone for successful VBAC.

  5. Data-driven intensity normalization of PET group comparison studies is superior to global mean normalization

    Borghammer, Per; Aanerud, Joel; Gjedde, Albert


    BACKGROUND: Global mean (GM) normalization is one of the most commonly used methods of normalization in PET and SPECT group comparison studies of neurodegenerative disorders. It requires that no between-group GM difference is present, which may be strongly violated in neurodegenerative disorders....... Importantly, such GM differences often elude detection due to the large intrinsic variance in absolute values of cerebral blood flow or glucose consumption. Alternative methods of normalization are needed for this type of data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of simulation were performed using CBF images...... from 49 controls. Two homogeneous groups of 20 subjects were sampled repeatedly. In one group, cortical CBF was artificially decreased moderately (simulation I) or slightly (simulation II). The other group served as controls. Ratio normalization was performed using five reference regions: (1) Global...

  6. Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Volterra Integral Equations by RDTM and Comparison with DTM

    Reza Abazari


    Full Text Available The two-dimensional Volterra integral equations are solved using more recent semianalytic method, the reduced differential transform method (the so-called RDTM, and compared with the differential transform method (DTM. The concepts of DTM and RDTM are briefly explained, and their application to the two-dimensional Volterra integral equations is studied. The results obtained by DTM and RDTM together are compared with exact solution. As an important result, it is depicted that the RDTM results are more accurate in comparison with those obtained by DTM applied to the same Volterra integral equations. The numerical results reveal that the RDTM is very effective, convenient, and quite accurate compared to the other kind of nonlinear integral equations. It is predicted that the RDTM can be found widely applicable in engineering sciences.

  7. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    Garavini, G; Nobili, S; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Antilogus, P; Astier, Pierre; Blanc, G; Bronder, J; Burns, M S; Conley, A; Deustua, S E; Doi, M; Fabbro, S; Fadeev, V; Gibbons, R; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Groom, D E; Hook, I; Howell, D A; Kashikawa, N; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Kuznetsova, N; Lee, B C; Lidman, C; Méndez, J; Morokuma, T; Motohara, K; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Perlmutter, S; Quimby, R; Raux, J; Regnault, N; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Sainton, G; Schahmaneche, K; Smith, E; Spadafora, A L; Stanishev, V; Thomas, R C; Walton, N A; Wang, L; Wood-Vasey, W M; Project, N Y T S C


    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparison between the spectra of Type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 < z < 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project . Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of the absorption minimum in Ca II H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z < 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z=0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  8. Cold welding of copper nanowires with single-crystalline and twinned structures: A comparison study

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Wen, Yu-Hua


    In this article, molecular simulations were adopted to explore the cold welding processes of copper nanowires with both single-crystalline and fivefold twinned structures. It was verified that the twinned nanowires exhibited enhanced strength but lowered elastic limit and ductility. Both nanowires could be successfully welded through rather small loadings, although their stress-strain responses toward compression were different. Meanwhile, more stress was accumulated in the twinned nanowire due to repulsive force of the twin boundaries against the nucleation and motions of dislocations. Moreover, by characterizing the structure evolutions in the welding process, it can be ascertained that perfect atomic order was finally built at the weld region in both nanowires. This comparison study will be of great importance to future mechanical processing of metallic nanowires.

  9. A comparison study on Raman scattering properties of alpha- and beta-MnO2

    Gao, Tao; Fjellväg, Helmer; Norby, Poul


    In this comment to a recent paper [Anal. Chim. Acta 585 (2007) 241–245], we report a comparison study on Mn oxide-related compounds with different crystallographic forms, which distinguish between β-MnO2 and α-MnO2 type materials via Raman scattering (RS) spectroscopy. The tetragonal rutile-type β-Mn......O2 is characterized by a RS band at 667 cm−1 of symmetry A1g, whereas the α-MnO2 type materials feature two main RS contributions at about 574 and 634 cm−1, belonging to Ag spectroscopic species of a tetragonal hollandite-type framework. These data represent a clear signature for identifying β-MnO2...... and α-MnO2 type materials via RS spectroscopy....

  10. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    Supernova Cosmology Project; Nugent, Peter E; Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Bronder, J.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R. C.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.


    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  11. When is a metric not a metric? Remarks on direct curve comparison in bioequivalence studies.

    Jawień, Wojciech


    The majority of measures proposed to date for direct curve comparison in bioequivalence studies were investigated. These measures have often been called metrics, but in most cases this was incorrect in the mathematical sense. It was demonstrated, with a set of counter-examples, that the axioms of a metric are fulfilled only for the integral p-metric and some of its transforms. The Rescigno index and two other measures devised by Polli and McLean are the semi-metrics, lacking the triangle inequality, while others also lack symmetry. The use of the p-metric is therefore recommended, and statistical analysis is suggested as a point at which the scaling of differences might be carried out.

  12. A Comparison of Tourist Expectations and Satisfaction: A Case Study from Antalya Region of Turkey

    Akın Aksu


    Full Text Available For several years the number of tourists visiting Antalya Region has been increasing. It could be argued that Antalya is comparable with a capital city in terms of tourist numbers. Antalya Region hosted over 9 million tourists in 2008. To sustain demand and increase competition of operators in Antalya, it is necessary to create a powerful brand image. This will require a combination effort from all tourism stakeholders. Consequently, it is important to define the current tourist profile visiting Antalya Region, evaluate tourists’ expectations and satisfaction, and identify future tourism related research. These outcomes are all important in developing regional tourism. The aim of this study is comparison of expectation-levels and satisfaction-levels of a selected sample of tourists. The findings culminate from research conducted in Antalya Region from a sample of 10.393 tourists during 2008.

  13. A comparison of instrumentation methods to estimate thoracolumbar motion in field-based occupational studies.

    Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard; Gerr, Fred


    The performance of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) system for directly measuring thoracolumbar trunk motion was compared to that of the Lumbar Motion Monitor (LMM). Thirty-six male participants completed a simulated material handling task with both systems deployed simultaneously. Estimates of thoracolumbar trunk motion obtained with the IMU system were processed using five common methods for estimating trunk motion characteristics. Results of measurements obtained from IMUs secured to the sternum and pelvis had smaller root-mean-square differences and mean bias estimates in comparison to results obtained with the LMM than results of measurements obtained solely from a sternum mounted IMU. Fusion of IMU accelerometer measurements with IMU gyroscope and/or magnetometer measurements was observed to increase comparability to the LMM. Results suggest investigators should consider computing thoracolumbar trunk motion as a function of estimates from multiple IMUs using fusion algorithms rather than using a single accelerometer secured to the sternum in field-based studies.

  14. Comparison of coaxial higher order mode couplers for the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac study

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085329; Gerigk, Frank; Van Rienen, Ursula


    Higher order modes (HOMs) may affect beam stability and refrigeration requirements of superconducting proton linacs such as the Superconducting Proton Linac, which is studied at CERN. Under certain conditions beam-induced HOMs can accumulate sufficient energy to destabilize the beam or quench the superconducting cavities. In order to limit these effects, CERN considers the use of coaxial HOM couplers on the cutoff tubes of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. These couplers consist of resonant antennas shaped as loops or probes, which are designed to couple to potentially dangerous modes while sufficiently rejecting the fundamental mode. In this paper, the design process is presented and a comparison is made between various designs for the high-beta SPL cavities, which operate at 704.4 MHz. The rf and thermal behavior as well as mechanical aspects are discussed. In order to verify the designs, a rapid prototype for the favored coupler was fabricated and characterized on a low-power test-stand.

  15. The UK Smoke Constituents Testing Study. Summary of Results and Comparison with Other Studies

    Gregg E


    Full Text Available At the request of the UK Department of Health, samples of 25 commercial UK cigarette brands were provided to LGC Ltd a for smoke analysis. The brands reflected a high market share (58% in July 2001 and included a wide range of blend and product styles manufactured and imported into the UK.= 0.76, suggesting a minor role of other design features on constituents yield variability. This was confirmed by the application of multiple regression analysis to the data. A subset of five brands, retested at another laboratory, gave between-laboratory differences in mean constituent yields of as much as 2.5-fold. Consideration of these results, other likely sources of analytical variation in this study and a review of other studies, clearly indicates that any tolerance values to be associated with individual smoke constituent measurements will be greater than those for NFDPM, and in some cases, much greater. Consistent with the reported results from other large studies it is concluded that, under ISO smoking conditions, smoke constituent yields are largely predictable, if NFDPM and CO yields are known, for a standard cigarette. Given these observations and the likely limitations of analytical determination, the need for routine measurement of smoke constituent yields, other than NFDPM, nicotine or CO, on standard cigarettes, is questionable.

  16. The COLOFOL trial: study design and comparison of the study population with the source cancer population

    Hansdotter Andersson P


    Full Text Available Pernilla Hansdotter Andersson,1 Peer Wille-Jørgensen,2 Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó,3 Sune Høirup Petersen,2 Anna Martling,4 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Ingvar Syk1 On behalf of the COLOFOL Study Group 1Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 2Abdominal Disease Center K, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden Introduction: The COLOFOL trial, a prospective randomized multicenter trial comparing two follow-up regimes after curative surgical treatment for colorectal cancer, focuses on detection of asymptomatic recurrences. This paper aims to describe the design and recruitment procedure in the COLOFOL trial, comparing demographic characteristics between randomized patients and eligible patients not included in the study. Materials and methods: COLOFOL was designed as a pragmatic trial with wide inclusion criteria and few exclusion criteria, in order to obtain a sample reflecting the general patient population. To be eligible, patients had to be 75 years or younger and curatively resected for stage II or III colorectal cancer. Exclusion criteria were hereditary colorectal cancer, no signed consent, other malignancy, and life expectancy less than 2 years due to concomitant disease. In four of the 24 participating centers, we scrutinized hospital inpatient data to identify all colorectal cancer patients who underwent surgery, in order to ascertain all eligible patients who were not included in the study and to compare them with enrolled patients. Results: Of a total of 4,445 eligible patients, 2,509 patients were randomized (56.4% inclusion rate. A total of 1,221 eligible patients were identified in the scrutinized hospitals, of which 684 (56% were randomized. No difference in age or sex distribution was observed between randomized and nonrandomized

  17. Vascular trauma in Western Australia: a comparison of two study periods over 15 years.

    Friend, Jikol; Rao, Sudhakar; Sieunarine, Kishore; Woodroof, Paul


    Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) has become Western Australia's only designated adult major trauma facility since a previous study of vascular trauma was conducted in 2001 at the same facility. The aim of this study is to identify changes in vascular trauma patterns over the two study periods and compare these changes with international literature. All individuals presenting to RPH between January 2000 and December 2010 with vascular injury were identified from a prospective trauma database for this descriptive study. Injuries were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). The incidence of vascular trauma as a percentage of total trauma increased over the two study periods. The current 10-year study included 45 164 patients on the trauma database, of which 1205 patients (2.6%) sustained 1335 vascular injuries, an increase from 1% in the previous 5-year study at the same facility. Males aged 20-29 years were more frequently injured. Blunt trauma occurred more frequently than penetrating. The extremities, particularly the upper limbs were most commonly injured. The most common causes of injury for each region were as follows; motorbike crash (MBC), motor vehicle crash (MVC) and stabbing (neck, thorax and abdomen), MBC and MVC (lower limb) and piercing injuries (upper limb). Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality 43% (32 of 75) were highest for thoracic injuries, particularly thoracic aorta injury. Mortality rate has decreased. Vascular injuries in Western Australia are increasing. MVC are the most common cause of life threatening injury. Road safety interventions targeting young males are likely to reduce trauma. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY TO PRIMARY EDUCATION FACILITIES (A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Developed Countries

    Lucy Yosita


    Full Text Available This writing is a preliminary study to condition of primary education facilities in Indonesia, and then comparing these with theories as well as various relevant cases aimed to know the problem more obviously. Basically, there is difference between primary education facilities in Indonesia with those in developed countries. Meanwhile on the other hand, the condition as well as the completion of education facility is actually as the main factor contributes to address the purpose of learning process. If building design, interior and also site plan were dynamic in form, space, colour and tools, those would be probably more stimulate activity and influence into the growth of students. However, lastly, it is still required further analysis, as an example analysis to student's behaviour in spaces of learning environment, more detail and within enough time, not only at indoor but also at outdoor.

  20. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    María Aranguren


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  1. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels


    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  2. Examining Neurocognitive Function in Previously Concussed Interscholastic Female Soccer Players.

    Forbes, Cameron R; Glutting, Joseph J; Kaminski, Thomas W


    Awareness of sport-related concussions in soccer has gained recent attention in the medical community. Interestingly, purposeful heading-a unique yet strategic and inherent part of soccer-involves repeated subconcussive blows to the head. We divided 210 female interscholastic soccer players into control (CON [never concussed]) and experimental (EXP [previously concussed]) groups. We assessed neurocognitive performance using the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics computer program before and after the players' competitive season. Headers were recorded at all sanctioned matches. Data were analyzed using a series of one-way analyses of covariance and t tests. Both groups essentially played in the same number of games (EXP = 16.1 vs. CON = 16.1) and had an equal number of total headers (EXP = 24.9 vs. CON = 24.3). Additionally, headers per game were surprisingly low in both groups (1.4 in EXP vs. 1.3 in CON). Unexpectedly, there were no significant differences between the EXP and CON groups across all dependent variables measured (p > .05). This study suggests that although previously concussed players involve themselves in purposeful heading (i.e., subconcussive insults) throughout a competitive season, there appear to be no negative consequences on neuropsychological test performance or concussion-related symptoms. Additional research is needed to determine what may result during the course of a playing career.

  3. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Child Formula Dentifrices at different Concentrations: An in vitro Study

    Singla, Shilpy; Shashikiran, ND


    Aim The aim of the present in vitro study is to evaluate and compare antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available child’s dental formulas in reduced concentrations containing different forms of fluoride against Streptococcus mutans activity. Materials and methods The selected dentifrices were prepared in dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, and 1:16 using sterile pyrogen-free distilled water. Various dilutions of the selected toothpaste slurries were incubated in the agar plate containing pure strains of S. mutans, and antimicrobial activity of each was assessed by measuring the diameter of zones of inhibition (in mm). Agar well plate diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination were the methods used in this study. The inhibitory circle of each dentifrice was measured and MIC was achieved by considering the value of diameter of the circle. Results The results of the study showed that even at a lower concentration of fluoride, inhibition halos were obtained for all the formulations at different dilutions. Conclusion The kid’s formulations having lower fluoride concentration show antimicrobial activity even after dilutions. Thus, commercially, the fluoride concentrations can be further lowered down in the dentifrices, thereby reducing the risk associated with fluoride. How to cite this article Malhotra R, Singla S, Shashikiran ND. Comparison ofAntimicrobial Activity of Child Formula Dentifrices at different Concentrations: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):131-135. PMID:28890611

  4. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Halevy, I. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Yavne (Israel)


    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  5. Possible Detection of Perchlorates by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument: Comparison with Previous Missions

    Navarro-Gonzalex, Rafael; Sutter, Brad; Archer, Doug; Ming, Doug; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Franz, Heather; Glavin, Daniel; McAdam, Amy; Stern, Jennifer; McKay, Christopher; Coll, Patrice; Cabane, Michel; Mahaffy, Paul; Conrad, Pamela; Martin-Torres, Francisco; Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Grotzinger, John


    The first chemical analysis of soluble salts in the soil was carried out by the Phoenix Lander in the Martian Arctic [1]. Surprisingly, chlorine was present as magnesium or calcium perchlorate at 0.4 to 0.6 percent. Additional support for the identification of perchlorate came from the evolved gas analysis which detected the release of molecular oxygen at 350-550C [1]. When Mars-like soils from the Atacama Desert were spiked with magnesium perchlorate (1 percent) and heated using the Viking GC-MS protocol, nearly all the organics were combusted but a small amount was chlorinated, forming chloromethane and dichloromethane [2]. These chlorohydrocarbons were detected by the Viking GC-MS experiments when the Martian soil was analyzed but they were considered to be terrestrial contaminants [3]. Reinterpretation of the Viking results suggests trichloromethane, and chloromethylpropene) detected both by SAM QMS and GC-MS derived from known Earth organic contaminants in the instrument [6]. Calcium perchlorate appears to be the best candidate for evolved O2 in the Rocknest samples at this time but other Cl species (e.g., chlorates) are possible and must be evaluated. The potential detection of perchlorates in Rocknest material adds weight to the argument that both Viking Landers measured signatures of perchlorates. Even if the source of the organic carbon detected is still unknown, the chlorine source was likely Martian. Two mechanisms have been hypothesized for the formation of soil perchlorate: (1) Atmospheric oxidation of chlorine; and (2) UV photooxidation of chlorides catalyzed by mineral catalysts [7]. The presence of soil perchlorates in the Martian surface has important implications for the detection of organics [2], carbonates [8] and nitrates [9] by SAM.

  6. Approximation of lateral distribution of atmospheric Cherenkov light at different observation levels. Comparison with previous results

    Mishev, A; Stamenov, J


    This work summarizes the results presented at 29th International Cosmic Ray Conference in Pune India. Generally the aim of this work is to obtain the lateral distribution of the atmospheric Cherenkov light in extensive air showers produced by different primary particles in wide energy range and at several observation levels and to fit the obtained lateral distributions. Using one large detector and partially modified CORSIKA code version are obtained the lateral distributions of Cherenkov light flux densities at several observation levels for different particle primaries precisely at 536 g/cm2 Chacaltaya, 700 g/cm2 Moussala and 875 g/cm2 Kartalska field observation levels for hadronic primaries and gamma quanta in the energy range 1011 eV-1016 eV. On the basis of the solution of over-determined inverse problem the approximation of these distributions is obtained. The same model function for all the primaries is used and for the different observation levels. The different model parameters for the different pri...

  7. Single antiplatelet therapy for patients with previous gastrointestinal bleeds.

    Gellatly, Rochelle M; Ackman, Margaret L


    To determine whether aspirin plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is preferable, from a gastrointestinal bleed (GIB) risk perspective, to clopidogrel in patients who have experienced a GIB while on aspirin and who require single antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. A literature search was conducted using EMBASE (1980-January 2008), PubMed (1966-January 2008), Google, and a manual search of the reference lists using the search terms gastrointestinal bleed, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, peptic ulcer hemorrhage, ASA, aspirin, Plavix, clopidogrel, and PPI. The search, limited to human and English studies, yielded 110 returns. Randomized trials that compared aspirin with clopidogrel, involved patients who had previously experienced a GIB, and provided detailed information on the type and dose of drugs used were included. Studies were required to provide information on the recurrence of GIB. Two randomized trials were reviewed to assess the safety of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease with respect to previous GIB. These noninferiority trials compared aspirin plus a PPI with clopidogrel over 12 months following confirmed healing of an aspirin-induced ulcer. In both trials, the majority of the GIB recurrences were in the clopidogrel group (8.6% vs 0.7%; difference 7.9%; 95% CI 3.4 to 12.4; p = 0.001 and 13.6% vs 0%; difference 13.6%; 95% CI 6.3 to 20.9; p = 0.0019) and the difference in recurrence rates exceeded the a priori selected upper boundary. Findings reported in the limited literature available support that clopidogrel is not equivalent to the combination of aspirin plus a PPI in the patient population studied. Aspirin plus a PPI would be considered clinically superior and should be used in medically managed patients who require single antiplatelet therapy but have had a prior GIB while on aspirin. Further research regarding dual antiplatelet therapy and a PPI is required.

  8. Comparison and Parametric Study of Flameless Oxidation in a Gas Turbine Using Two Kinetics Mechanisms

    Mohamed Hamdi


    Full Text Available The so-called “Flameless Oxidation” is a novel combustion mode, in which combustion products are re-circulated and mixed into the fresh incoming fuel and air streams. This reduces the concentration of the reactants and thereby reducing the reaction rate through avoiding the formation of sharp high temperature zones in the combustion chamber. Flameless combustion has been acknowledged as one of the most interesting combustion technologies to meet both the targets of high energy efficiency and low pollutant emissions. This technology has already been successfully applied and exploited in industrial burners. The present investigation is concerned with the application of the flameless combustion mode to an adiabatic combustor, typically used in gas turbine engines. Detailed chemical kinetics calculations, by means of a specific zero-dimensional loop reactor model, have been performed to analyze its chemical aspects. The model simulates the combustor by a number of reactors that represent different zones in the combustion chamber. The main objective of this study is to increase the understanding of NOx formation from flameless mode, where currently very few experimental data are available. The investigation is focused on a comparison of the influence of pressure, residence time and temperature on the NOx and CO emissions, using two reaction mechanisms of the C/H/O/N system: the Miller-Bowman mechanism and the GRI_MECH3.0 mechanism. Simulation results clearly illustrate that even at high operating temperatures and pressures, NOx emissions could be reduced by flameless combustion to very low levels. A comparison between the predictions obtained by using the two chemical kinetics mechanisms is presented and discussed. It is shown that the predictions of the Miller-Bowman mechanism deviate from the predictions of the GRI3.0 mechanism in many aspects, especially as related to NOx emission results.

  9. [Neurophysiological studies in autism spectrum disorders--comparison with those in schizophrenia].

    Fukushima, Junko


    There have been reports that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) share common symptoms with schizophrenia. Several imaging studies showed the overlap of the impaired brain circuit in ASD and schizophrenia. Accordingly, differential diagnoses between adult ASD and schizophrenia without positive symptoms are sometimes difficult. We examined whether they show common results in functional MRI studies involving viewing photos of different facial expressions, such as angry, happy, sad, and neutral faces. We also examined oculomotor tasks that consist of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements in the two groups of patients. In fMRI studies, 15 schizophrenia patients (8 females) and 15 ASD patients (9 females) who met the criteria for DSM-IV participated. For the typically developed (TD) control group, 15 subjects (6 females) with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders were recruited from the community. There was no significant difference in ages and sex ratios among these three groups. ANOVA comparison indicated that the ASD group showed significantly reduced activity in the right fusiform gyrus (FG) on viewing sad, happy, and neutral expressions but higher activity in the right mirror neuron system in the frontal cortex during viewing an angry expression. These results suggest a disturbance of the FG for face recognition and an excessive reaction to angry faces in ASD subjects. On the other hand, schizophrenics showed significantly reduced activation in widespread cortical areas, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortex, in comparison with TD and ASD individuals. We also examined voluntary control of saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements in 13 adult subjects aged 20-35 with ASD (5 females) and compared the results with the performance of 13 TDs. Saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements were recorded using an infrared system. Compared with TDs, 38% of the ASD subjects showed higher error rates in the anti-saccade task. However, in


    Kallappa C. Herkal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata is a unique, idiopathic disease in which there is patchy hair loss. The variable and uncertain natural history of alopecia areata is accounting for the multiplicity of uncritical claims for a large variety of therapeutic procedures. Aim: to find the therapeutic comparison between tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and minoxidil 2% solution. Material and Methods: Patients attending skin out patient department in Navodaya medical college hospital and research centre, Raichur were screened and the consenting consecutive cases of Aopecia Areata (AA from December 2010 to November 2011 were chosen for study. There were 75 patients in the study. It is a randomized, single blind, intension to treat study. The eligible patients for the study were randomly allocated into two groups-Group A and Group B (38 in Group A and 37 in Group B. Patients in Group A were treated with 2% Minoxidi solution to be applied twice daily over the alopecia patch, where as Patients in Group B were treated with Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment applied twice daily. Patients were followed up at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks. Alopecia Grading Score (AGS was calculated at baseline and 12 weeks. Regrowth Score (RGS was calculated at 12 weeks. Results: Total 69 patients completed the study (35 in Group A and 34 in Group B. In our study RGS ≥ 3 was observed in 65.71% of patients treated with Tinoxidil 2% solution and 44.12% of patients treated with Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. Conclusion: In our study Minoxidil 2% solution had better stimulatory effect on hair growth compared to Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment in the treatment of mild to moderate patchy alopecia areata. The combination treatment may yield a better clinical response than either of the agents used singly.

  11. Comparisons and Uncertainty in Fat and Adipose Tissue Estimation Techniques: The Northern Elephant Seal as a Case Study.

    Lisa K Schwarz

    Full Text Available Fat mass and body condition are important metrics in bioenergetics and physiological studies. They can also link foraging success with demographic rates, making them key components of models that predict population-level outcomes of environmental change. Therefore, it is important to incorporate uncertainty in physiological indicators if results will lead to species management decisions. Maternal fat mass in elephant seals (Mirounga spp can predict reproductive rate and pup survival, but no one has quantified or identified the sources of uncertainty for the two fat mass estimation techniques (labeled-water and truncated cones. The current cones method can provide estimates of proportion adipose tissue in adult females and proportion fat of juveniles in northern elephant seals (M. angustirostris comparable to labeled-water methods, but it does not work for all cases or species. We reviewed components and assumptions of the technique via measurements of seven early-molt and seven late-molt adult females. We show that seals are elliptical on land, rather than the assumed circular shape, and skin may account for a high proportion of what is often defined as blubber. Also, blubber extends past the neck-to-pelvis region, and comparisons of new and old ultrasound instrumentation indicate previous measurements of sculp thickness may be biased low. Accounting for such differences, and incorporating new measurements of blubber density and proportion of fat in blubber, we propose a modified cones method that can isolate blubber from non-blubber adipose tissue and separate fat into skin, blubber, and core compartments. Lastly, we found that adipose tissue and fat estimates using tritiated water may be biased high during the early molt. Both the tritiated water and modified cones methods had high, but reducible, uncertainty. The improved cones method for estimating body condition allows for more accurate quantification of the various tissue masses and may

  12. Comparison of treatment plans: a retrospective study by the method of radiobiological evaluation

    Puzhakkal, Niyas; Kallikuzhiyil Kochunny, Abdullah; Manthala Padannayil, Noufal; Singh, Navin; Elavan Chalil, Jumanath; Kulangarakath Umer, Jamshad


    There are many situations in radiotherapy where multiple treatment plans need to be compared for selection of an optimal plan. In this study we performed the radiobiological method of plan evaluation to verify the treatment plan comparison procedure of our clinical practice. We estimated and correlated various radiobiological dose indices with physical dose metrics for a total of 30 patients representing typical cases of head and neck, prostate and brain tumors. Three sets of plans along with a clinically approved plan (final plan) treated by either Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) or Rapid Arc (RA) techniques were considered. The study yielded improved target coverage for final plans, however, no appreciable differences in doses and the complication probabilities of organs at risk were noticed. Even though all four plans showed adequate dose distributions, from dosimetric point of view, the final plan had more acceptable dose distribution. The estimated biological outcome and dose volume histogram data showed least differences between plans for IMRT when compared to RA. Our retrospective study based on 120 plans, validated the radiobiological method of plan evaluation. The tumor cure or normal tissue complication probabilities were found to be correlated with the corresponding physical dose indices.

  13. A comparison of energy use and productivity of wheat and barley (case study

    S.M. Ziaei


    Full Text Available Comparison of energy productivity of different crops can be used as an effective tool to prioritize crops planting in each area. This study was conducted in order to compare wheat and barley farms of Sistan and Baluchestan province in Iran in relation to various aspects of energy consumption at 2009. 100 wheat and 100 barley fields were selected randomly from main 11 cities in the studied region. Input data and yield of wheat and barley fields were collected in the form of questionnaires in a face-to-face interview. Results showed that total energy inputs of wheat and barley fields were 32492.97 and 25655.81 MJ ha−1, respectively. Total energy outputs for wheat and barley fields were 48517.24 and 49800.87 MJ ha−1, respectively. Based on these results the amount of energy use efficiency for wheat and barley fields were 1.49 and 1.94, respectively, and the amount of energy productivity for mentioned fields were 0.056 and 0.066. The share of renewable energy as one of the sustainability indexes of agricultural systems was 19.60 for wheat and 14.60 for barley fields. Therefore, it seems that barley production is more efficient from various aspects of energy consumption rather than wheat in the studied region.

  14. A Comparison Study on Selective Traffic Models with Handoff Management Scheme for Wireless Mobile Network Infrastructure

    Biswajit Bhowmik


    Full Text Available Wireless and Mobile Network Infrastructure services generally examine how different infrastructure providers are positioning themselves to compete in wireless services. These services analyze the opportunities and challenges facing by the infrastructure providers selling to wireless and mobile network operators worldwide. The opportunities and challenges are the review of strategies, market positioning, and future direction in the market for wireless and mobile network infrastructure. The service covers all generations of wireless and mobile network infrastructure: 2G, 2.5G, 3G, and 4G so on global in scope. Majority of the users are mobile while availing these services. Mobility is the most important feature of any wireless and mobile network. Usually, continuous service is achieved by supporting handoff from one cell to another. Poorly designed handoff schemes tend to generate very heavy signaling traffic and, thereby, lead to a dramatic decrease in quality of service. In this paper we make a comparison study on some selective traffic models with priority handoff scheme. The study shows how a handoff procedure has a significant impact on wireless mobile network performance on the basis of two primary criteria – Blocking probability of originating calls and the forced termination probability of ongoing calls. In addition to this the study shows arrival rate of handoff calls, and approximate number of mobile users that get serviced by underlying base station.

  15. Twelve previously unknown phage genera are ubiquitous in global oceans.

    Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B


    Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.

  16. Farmers' mental health: A longitudinal sibling comparison - the HUNT study, Norway.

    Torske, Magnhild Oust; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Krokstad, Steinar


    Studies of the mental health of farmers have been largely cross-sectional and possibly confounded. We performed a prospective cohort study as well as a sibling comparison to control for unmeasured confounding. Our study included 76 583 participants aged ≥19 years from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study [HUNT1 (1984-1986), HUNT2 (1995-1997) and HUNT3 (2006-2008)]. We used the Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure symptoms of mental distress. We used logistic regression to investigate the association between occupation at baseline and symptoms of mental distress 11 years later and fixed effects conditional logistic regression to compare farmers with their siblings working in other occupations. In the prospective cohort study, farmers had similar odds of having symptoms of psychological distress and anxiety as other manual occupational groups. Among all the occupational groups in the study, farmers had the highest odds of having symptoms of depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-2.55, reference group: higher grade professionals]. Compared with their farming brothers and sisters, siblings in other occupations had lower odds of having high depression (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.89) and anxiety (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-1.00) scores in 2006-2008. Farmers had higher odds of having high depression scores compared to both other occupational groups and their siblings who were not working as farmers, suggesting that working in agriculture may impact mental health.

  17. Biocompatibility assessment of modified Portland cement in comparison with MTA® : In vivo and in vitro studies

    I Khalil


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study is to elaborate a new cement based on Portland cement (PC, Modified Portland Cement (MPC with modified chemical and physical properties that allow easier clinical manipulation and faster setting time than MTA® and then to evaluate its cytotoxicity in vitro and its biocompatibility in vivo in comparison with MTA® . Materials and Methods: Elaboration of MPC: Portland cement powder slenderly grinded to homogenize the particles, mixed with a radiopaque element and a setting time accelerator. A comparative in vitro study (MTS test of the toxic effect of MTA® and MPC with culture isolated from the calvaria of 18-day-old fetal Swiss OF1 mice are done. A comparative in vivo study of the biocompatibility of MTA® and MPC: Under general anaesthesia, three holes (2.5 mm were made in both the left and right femurs of six White New Zealand rabbits. In the first hole MPC is placed, in the second MTA® and the third one is left empty (negative control group. Three weeks after implantation, two rabbits are sacrificed, then two other rabbits over six weeks and the last two after twelve weeks. The neck of the femur is trimmed and prepared for undecalcified histological studies. Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results. Results: The cell viability test according to the morphological observations suggested the biocompatibility of the two biomaterials tested. The in vivo test showed similar biocompatibility between MTA® and MPC. Bone healing and minimal inflammatory response adjacent to MTA® and MPC implants were observed at all experimental periods (3, 6 and 12 weeks, suggesting that both materials are well tolerated. Conclusion: This pilot comparative study of MTA® and MPC showed no or very limited toxic effects of both cements in vitro and similar biocompatibility in vivo. However, additional in vivo and clinical studies should be done on MPC before it can be introduced in our clinical practice.

  18. Mapping biomass with remote sensing: a comparison of methods for the case study of Uganda

    Henry Matieu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing biomass is gaining increasing interest mainly for bioenergy, climate change research and mitigation activities, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+. In response to these needs, a number of biomass/carbon maps have been recently produced using different approaches but the lack of comparable reference data limits their proper validation. The objectives of this study are to compare the available maps for Uganda and to understand the sources of variability in the estimation. Uganda was chosen as a case-study because it presents a reliable national biomass reference dataset. Results The comparison of the biomass/carbon maps show strong disagreement between the products, with estimates of total aboveground biomass of Uganda ranging from 343 to 2201 Tg and different spatial distribution patterns. Compared to the reference map based on country-specific field data and a national Land Cover (LC dataset (estimating 468 Tg, maps based on biome-average biomass values, such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC default values, and global LC datasets tend to strongly overestimate biomass availability of Uganda (ranging from 578 to 2201 Tg, while maps based on satellite data and regression models provide conservative estimates (ranging from 343 to 443 Tg. The comparison of the maps predictions with field data, upscaled to map resolution using LC data, is in accordance with the above findings. This study also demonstrates that the biomass estimates are primarily driven by the biomass reference data while the type of spatial maps used for their stratification has a smaller, but not negligible, impact. The differences in format, resolution and biomass definition used by the maps, as well as the fact that some datasets are not independent from the

  19. A comprehensive comparison of RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis from reads to differential gene expression and cross-comparison with microarrays: a case study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Nookaew, Intawat; Papini, Marta; Pornputtapong, Natapol


    RNA-seq, has recently become an attractive method of choice in the studies of transcriptomes, promising several advantages compared with microarrays. In this study, we sought to assess the contribution of the different analytical steps involved in the analysis of RNA-seq data generated...... the consistency between RNA-seq analysis using reference genome and de novo assembly approach. High reproducibility among biological replicates (correlation ≥0.99) and high consistency between the two platforms for analysis of gene expression levels (correlation ≥0.91) are reported. The results from differential...... gene expression identification derived from the different statistical methods, as well as their integrated analysis results based on gene ontology annotation are in good agreement. Overall, our study provides a useful and comprehensive comparison between the two platforms (RNA-seq and microrrays...

  20. Conducting Indirect-Treatment-Comparison and Network-Meta-Analysis Studies : Report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: Part 2

    Hoaglin, David C.; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P.; Scott, David A.; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C.; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M.; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel

    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for

  1. Conducting Indirect-Treatment-Comparison and Network-Meta-Analysis Studies : Report of the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Treatment Comparisons Good Research Practices: Part 2

    Hoaglin, David C.; Hawkins, Neil; Jansen, Jeroen P.; Scott, David A.; Itzler, Robbin; Cappelleri, Joseph C.; Boersma, Cornelis; Thompson, David; Larholt, Kay M.; Diaz, Mireya; Barrett, Annabel


    Evidence-based health care decision making requires comparison of all relevant competing interventions. In the absence of randomized controlled trials involving a direct comparison of all treatments of interest, indirect treatment comparisons and network meta-analysis provide useful evidence for jud

  2. Normalization in PET group comparison studies - The importance of a valid reference region

    Borghammer, Per; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Cumming, Paul;


    INTRODUCTION: In positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism, the large interindividual variation commonly is minimized by normalization to the global mean prior to statistical analysis. This approach requires that no between-group or between-state diffe......INTRODUCTION: In positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism, the large interindividual variation commonly is minimized by normalization to the global mean prior to statistical analysis. This approach requires that no between-group or between......-state differences exist in the normalization region. Given the variability typical of global CBF and the practical limit on sample size, small group differences in global mean easily elude detection, but still bias the comparison, with profound consequences for the physiological interpretation of the results....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative [15O]H2O PET recordings of CBF were obtained in 45 healthy subjects (21-81 years) and 14 patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). With volume-of-interest (VOI) and voxel-based statistics, we conducted regression analyses of CBF as function of age in the healthy group...

  3. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of a photosynthetic microbial mat and comparison with Archean cherts.

    Bourbin, M; Derenne, S; Gourier, D; Rouzaud, J-N; Gautret, P; Westall, F


    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts.

  4. Comparison between ability and performance: a study on the functionality of dependent elderly individuals

    Flávia Nunes Machado


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the ability and performance of Basic Activities of Daily Living of dependent elderly individuals cared for in a geriatric healthcare center. METHOD: cross-sectional, observational study with quantitative approach. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM was applied in 109 elderly individuals cared for in a geriatric healthcare center. Of these, 60 individuals were classified as dependent in the case of basic activities of daily living described according to the International Classification of Functionality, Disability and Health (ICF. The process of triangulation reinforced reliability of data, which included information provided by patients and caregivers and that contained in medical files and objective assessment. RESULTS: the average age was 81.0±7.1 with a predominance of women. The difference between ability and performance was statistically significant (p<0.05 in most daily tasks. CONCLUSION: the contribution of this study in using ICF was semi-quantitatively interpreting its qualifiers, which enabled more objective comparisons and inferences, and revealed a clear distance between the performance and ability of these individuals in most of the assessed activities.

  5. Histopathological Comparison of Mosquito Net with Polypropylene Mesh for Hernia Repair: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Sharma, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepti Bala; Chandrakar, Shiv Kumar; Sharma, Dhananjaya


    Use of mosquito net, in place of polypropylene mesh, had been reported for tension-free hernia repair, as a better cost-effective option. This experimental histopathological study was performed in rats to find out the tissue response and the foreign body reaction and its comparison between commercial polypropylene mesh and the sterilized mosquito net. This experimental study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Government NSCB, Medical College, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), India. It was carried out in 40 albino rats. A 1.5 × 0.5-cm hernial defect was created by excising full-thickness abdominal wall muscle. All rats underwent on-lay mesh repair of hernial defect (polypropylene mesh, n = 20; mosquito net, n = 20). Half of rats in each group were sacrificed on day 14, and the other half, on day 90. Sections of containing mesh were examined histopathologically for inflammatory infiltrate, giant cells, and collagen deposition. Mosquito net group showed significantly greater number of giant cells and inflammatory cells at 14 and 90 days (p  0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively). Results of mosquito net are comparable to conventional polypropylene mesh. In a setup, where cost-effectiveness is of primary importance, use of mosquito net for tension-free hernia repair can be an acceptable alternative as proven histologically, to commercially available polypropylene mesh.

  6. Hypothesis support measured by likelihood in the presence of nuisance parameters, multiple studies, and multiple comparisons

    Bickel, David R


    By leveraging recent advances in J. Rissanen's information-theoretic approach to model selection that has historical roots in the minimum description length (MDL) of a message, the Bayes-compatibility criterion of A. W. F. Edwards is recast in terms of predictive distributions to make the measure of support robust not only in the presence of nuisance parameters but also in the presence of multiple studies and multiple comparisons within each study. To qualify as a measure of support, a statistic must asymptotically approach the difference between the posterior and prior log-odds, where the parameter distributions considered are physical in the empirical Bayes or random effects sense that they correspond to real frequencies or proportions, e.g., of hypotheses, whether or not the distributions can be estimated and even whether or not data pertaining to the hypotheses are available. Because that Bayes-compatibility condition is weak, an optimality criterion is needed to uniquely specify a measure of support. Two...

  7. Independent comparison study of six different electronic tongues applied for pharmaceutical analysis.

    Pein, Miriam; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Ciosek, Patrycja; del Valle, Manel; Yaroshenko, Irina; Wesoły, Małgorzata; Zabadaj, Marcin; Gonzalez-Calabuig, Andreu; Wróblewski, Wojciech; Legin, Andrey


    Electronic tongue technology based on arrays of cross-sensitive chemical sensors and chemometric data processing has attracted a lot of researchers' attention through the last years. Several so far reported applications dealing with pharmaceutical related tasks employed different e-tongue systems to address different objectives. In this situation, it is hard to judge on the benefits and drawbacks of particular e-tongue implementations for R&D in pharmaceutics. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of six different e-tongues applied to the same set of pharmaceutical samples. For this purpose, two commercially available systems (from Insent and AlphaMOS) and four laboratory prototype systems (two potentiometric systems from Warsaw operating in flow and static modes, one potentiometric system from St. Petersburg, one voltammetric system from Barcelona) were employed. The sample set addressed in the study comprised nine different formulations based on caffeine citrate, lactose monohydrate, maltodextrine, saccharin sodium and citric acid in various combinations. To provide for the fair and unbiased comparison, samples were evaluated under blind conditions and data processing from all the systems was performed in a uniform way. Different mathematical methods were applied to judge on similarity of the e-tongues response from the samples. These were principal component analysis (PCA), RV' matrix correlation coefficients and Tuckeŕs congruency coefficients.

  8. Explanation of Loneliness in the Elderly and Comparison With Psychosocial Development Theory: A Quantitative Study

    Farshid Shamsaei


    Full Text Available Introduction: Loneliness is universal, still very subjective feeling, natural to all human beings and a subjective experience of isolation. Many people may be ashamed of talking about it or admitting they feel lonely, because they are afraid of being stigmatized. The purpose of this study was to explore elderly experiences of loneliness and comparison with the Erikson’s theory. Materials and Methods: this study was a qualitative research with content analysis approach. The research population was twelve elderly, aged 68-85 years who lived in Hamadan city. Sampling began purposefully and continued until data saturation. To collect data, interview was used. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed immediately. Data was analyzed using content analysis method. Results: In total, 187 primary codes, 7 subcategories and 3 main categories were obtained in which, the 3 main categories were feelings of alienation, separation of favorite activities, and fatigue and sadness. Core category or shared meaning was regret with heavy. Conclusion: Loneliness is common in elderly and associated with adverse health consequences both from a mental and physical health points of view. Therefore, appropriate intervention strategies to reduce isolation using the Erikson’s psychosocial theory can improve elderly quality of life to achieve Ego integrity throughout the life.

  9. The role of predictability and structure in word stress processing: an ERP study on Cairene Arabic and a cross-linguistic comparison.

    Domahs, Ulrike; Knaus, Johannes A; El Shanawany, Heba; Wiese, Richard


    This article presents neurolinguistic data on word stress perception in Cairene Arabic, in comparison to previous results on German and Turkish. The main goal is to investigate how central properties of stress systems such as predictability of stress and metrical structure are reflected in the prosodic processing of words. Cairene Arabic is a language with a regular foot-based word stress system, leading to highly predictable placement of word stress. An ERP study on Cairene Arabic is reported, in which a stress violation paradigm is used to investigate the factors predictability of stress and foot structure. The results of the experiment show that for Cairene Arabic the internal structure of prosodic words in terms of feet determines prosodic processing. This structure effect is complemented by a frequency effect for stress patterns.

  10. The role of predictability and structure in word stress processing: An ERP study on Cairene Arabic and a cross-linguistic comparison

    Ulrike eDomahs


    Full Text Available This article presents neurolinguistic data on word stress perception in Cairene Arabic, in comparison to previous results on German and Turkish. The main goal is to investigate how central properties of stress systems such as predictability of stress and metrical structure are reflected in the prosodic processing of words. Cairene Arabic is a language with a regular foot-based word stress system, leading to highly predictable placement of word stress.An ERP study on Cairene Arabic is reported, in which a stress violation paradigm is used to investigate the factors predictability of stress and foot structure. The results of the experiment show that for Cairene Arabic the internal structure of prosodic words in terms of feet determines prosodic processing. This structure effect is complemented by a frequency effect for stress patterns.

  11. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W


    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  12. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    S. Schulze


    Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT. Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.

  13. Sensitivity study of voxel-based PET image comparison to image registration algorithms

    Yip, Stephen, E-mail:; Chen, Aileen B.; Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Aerts, Hugo J. W. L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)


    Purpose: Accurate deformable registration is essential for voxel-based comparison of sequential positron emission tomography (PET) images for proper adaptation of treatment plan and treatment response assessment. The comparison may be sensitive to the method of deformable registration as the optimal algorithm is unknown. This study investigated the impact of registration algorithm choice on therapy response evaluation. Methods: Sixteen patients with 20 lung tumors underwent a pre- and post-treatment computed tomography (CT) and 4D FDG-PET scans before and after chemoradiotherapy. All CT images were coregistered using a rigid and ten deformable registration algorithms. The resulting transformations were then applied to the respective PET images. Moreover, the tumor region defined by a physician on the registered PET images was classified into progressor, stable-disease, and responder subvolumes. Particularly, voxels with standardized uptake value (SUV) decreases >30% were classified as responder, while voxels with SUV increases >30% were progressor. All other voxels were considered stable-disease. The agreement of the subvolumes resulting from difference registration algorithms was assessed by Dice similarity index (DSI). Coefficient of variation (CV) was computed to assess variability of DSI between individual tumors. Root mean square difference (RMS{sub rigid}) of the rigidly registered CT images was used to measure the degree of tumor deformation. RMS{sub rigid} and DSI were correlated by Spearman correlation coefficient (R) to investigate the effect of tumor deformation on DSI. Results: Median DSI{sub rigid} was found to be 72%, 66%, and 80%, for progressor, stable-disease, and responder, respectively. Median DSI{sub deformable} was 63%–84%, 65%–81%, and 82%–89%. Variability of DSI was substantial and similar for both rigid and deformable algorithms with CV > 10% for all subvolumes. Tumor deformation had moderate to significant impact on DSI for progressor

  14. Comparison between direct and reverse electroporation of cells in situ: a simulation study.

    Towhidi, Leila; Khodadadi, Delaram; Maimari, Nataly; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Ip, Henry; Kis, Zoltan; Kwak, Brenda R; Petrova, Tatiana W; Delorenzi, Mauro; Krams, Rob


    The discovery of the human genome has unveiled new fields of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, which has produced paradigm shifts on how to study disease mechanisms, wherein a current central focus is the understanding of how gene signatures and gene networks interact within cells. These gene function studies require manipulating genes either through activation or inhibition, which can be achieved by temporarily permeabilizing the cell membrane through transfection to delivercDNAorRNAi. An efficient transfection technique is electroporation, which applies an optimized electric pulse to permeabilize the cells of interest. When the molecules are applied on top of seeded cells, it is called "direct" transfection and when the nucleic acids are printed on the substrate and the cells are seeded on top of them, it is termed "reverse" transfection. Direct transfection has been successfully applied in previous studies, whereas reverse transfection has recently gained more attention in the context of high-throughput experiments. Despite the emerging importance, studies comparing the efficiency of the two methods are lacking. In this study, a model for electroporation of cells in situ is developed to address this deficiency. The results indicate that reverse transfection is less efficient than direct transfection. However, the model also predicts that by increasing the concentration of deliverable molecules by a factor of 2 or increasing the applied voltage by 20%, reverse transfection can be approximately as efficient as direct transfection.

  15. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of metabolic profiles between vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects: a matched cohort study

    Chiu, Yen-Feng; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Tina H T; Lee, Chun-Yi; Liu, Ting-Ting; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Chuang, Su-Chun; Hsiung, Chao A


    Several previous cross-sectional studies have shown that vegetarians have a better metabolic profile than non-vegetarians, suggesting that a vegetarian dietary pattern may help prevent chronic degenerative diseases...

  16. Premorbid adjustment and previous personality in schizophrenic patients

    José Juan Rodríguez Solano


    Full Text Available Psychosocial adjustment and premorbid personality are two factors that are frequently studied in order to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Premorbid adjustment alterations and personality disorders (principally those of the schizophrenia spectrum have been considered vulnerability elements or have been linked with the early manifestations of a disease that is still underdeveloped (hypothesis of neurodevelopment. In this paper we review the literature. We also studied the relationship between premorbid adjustment (PAS scale and previous personality disorders (SCID-II in a sample of 40 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, CIE-10, and statistically correlated them. The results show that premorbid adjustment correlates with avoidant, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders: the more personality pathology found, the poorer is the premorbid psychosocial adjustment. Premorbid adjustment positively correlates with histrionic personality traits. The pathological traits of schizotypal and schizoid personalities account for up to 77% of the variance of the total premorbid adjustment in schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The degrees of premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia are related to the different premorbid personality disorders of schizophrenic patients, which are mainly those most genetically related with schizophrenia, that is, the spectrum of the schizophrenia.

  17. Over 400 previously undocumented Svalbard surge-type glaciers identified

    Farnsworth, Wesley R.; Ingólfsson, Ólafur; Retelle, Michael; Schomacker, Anders


    Identifying glaciers that exhibit surge-type behavior is important when using evidence of ice front fluctuations as a proxy for reconstructing past climate oscillations. This study identifies previously undocumented surge-type glaciers in Svalbard, based on the presence of crevasse squeeze ridges in glacier forelands. Crevasse squeeze ridges are landforms suggested to be unique to surging glacier land systems. Estimates vary greatly as to the actual percentage of surge-type glaciers in Svalbard, and consequently their distribution pattern is poorly understood. A detailed survey of recent (2008-2012), high-resolution aerial imagery from TopoSvalbard, provided by the Norwegian Polar Institute, allowed for a survey of all the glacier forelands in Svalbard. Before our study, 277 individual glaciers in Svalbard have been documented to exhibit surge behavior. By using crevasse squeeze ridges as indicators of surge behavior, we have identified 431 additional glaciers that have surged. We suggest that this is a modest value as the unique surge landforms were not visible in approximately one-third of the forelands with documented surge histories. Limits to the crevasse squeeze ridge technique are presented and potential controlling factors for crevasse squeeze ridge formation/preservation are discussed.

  18. An Experimental Study of Upward Burning Over Long Solid Fuels: Facility Development and Comparison

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Yuan, Zeng-Guang


    As NASA's mission evolves, new spacecraft and habitat environments necessitate expanded study of materials flammability. Most of the upward burning tests to date, including the NASA standard material screening method NASA-STD-6001, have been conducted in small chambers where the flame often terminates before a steady state flame is established. In real environments, the same limitations may not be present. The use of long fuel samples would allow the flames to proceed in an unhindered manner. In order to explore sample size and chamber size effects, two large chambers were developed at NASA GRC under the Flame Prevention, Detection and Suppression (FPDS) project. The first was an existing vacuum facility, VF-13, located at NASA John Glenn Research Center. This 6350 liter chamber could accommodate fuels sample lengths up to 2 m. However, operational costs and restricted accessibility limited the test program, so a second laboratory scale facility was developed in parallel. By stacking additional two chambers on top of an existing combustion chamber facility, this 81 liter Stacked-chamber facility could accommodate a 1.5 m sample length. The larger volume, more ideal environment of VF-13 was used to obtain baseline data for comparison with the stacked chamber facility. In this way, the stacked chamber facility was intended for long term testing, with VF-13 as the proving ground. Four different solid fuels (adding machine paper, poster paper, PMMA plates, and Nomex fabric) were tested with fuel sample lengths up to 2 m. For thin samples (papers) with widths up to 5 cm, the flame reached a steady state length, which demonstrates that flame length may be stabilized even when the edge effects are reduced. For the thick PMMA plates, flames reached lengths up to 70 cm but were highly energetic and restricted by oxygen depletion. Tests with the Nomex fabric confirmed that the cyclic flame phenomena, observed in small facility tests, continued over longer sample. New

  19. 28 CFR 10.5 - Incorporation of papers previously filed.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incorporation of papers previously filed... CARRYING ON ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Registration Statement § 10.5 Incorporation of papers previously filed. Papers and documents already filed with the Attorney General pursuant to the said act...

  20. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  1. 49 CFR 236.1031 - Previously approved PTC systems.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously approved PTC systems. 236.1031 Section... Train Control Systems § 236.1031 Previously approved PTC systems. (a) Any PTC system fully implemented and operational prior to March 16, 2010, may receive PTC System Certification if the applicable PTC...

  2. Hyperactive night and day? Actigraphy studies in adult ADHD: a baseline comparison and the effect of methylphenidate.

    Boonstra, A.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Someren, E.J. Van


    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate parameters of sleep, activity, and circadian rhythm, as well as the effects of methylphenidate on these variables, in adults with ADHD. DESIGN: 1) Baseline group comparison; 2) Double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over medication trial. SETTING: Data collection to

  3. Science Teachers' Perceptions of and Approaches towards Students' Misconceptions on Photosynthesis: A Comparison Study between US and Korea

    Seo, Kyungwoon; Park, Soonhye; Choi, Aeran


    A critical component of teacher effectiveness is how teachers notice students' misconceptions and adjust the instructional approach accordingly. Taking a stance that the teachers' instructional quality is crucial to students' learning, a qualitative international comparison study was performed to examine science teachers' perceptions of and their…

  4. Mathematics Comparison Study Companion Database = Base de Donnees Accompagnant L'Etude Comparative Portant sur les Mathematiques.

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This companion database to the Mathematics Comparison Study consists of the entire set of all the general and specific outcomes that were referenced in the report. The database is being released in response to requests made during the review of the draft document in June, 1999, for more information. In the main report, only codings for the general…

  5. Peer influence in clinical workplace learning : A study of medical students’ use of social comparison in clinical practice

    Raat, Adriana


    Undergraduate students in clinical workplace frequently compare their own experiences with those of peers. The research reported in this thesis shows that these so called social comparisons are vital to the process of learning in clinical practice. The first study confirms students’ tendency to comp

  6. Comparison of Three Modelling Approaches to Simulate Regional Crop Yield: A Case Study of Winter Wheat Yield in Western Germany

    Soltani Largani, Afsaneh; Bakker, M.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Stoorvogel, J.J.


    The need for more comparisons among models is widely recognized. This study aimed to compare three different modelling approaches for their capability to simulate and predict trends and patterns of winter wheat yield in Western Germany. The three modelling approaches included an empirical model, a p

  7. Comparison of coaxial higher order mode couplers for the CERN Superconducting Proton Linac study

    K. Papke


    Full Text Available Higher order modes (HOMs may affect beam stability and refrigeration requirements of superconducting proton linacs such as the Superconducting Proton Linac, which is studied at CERN. Under certain conditions beam-induced HOMs can accumulate sufficient energy to destabilize the beam or quench the superconducting cavities. In order to limit these effects, CERN considers the use of coaxial HOM couplers on the cutoff tubes of the 5-cell superconducting cavities. These couplers consist of resonant antennas shaped as loops or probes, which are designed to couple to potentially dangerous modes while sufficiently rejecting the fundamental mode. In this paper, the design process is presented and a comparison is made between various designs for the high-beta SPL cavities, which operate at 704.4 MHz. The rf and thermal behavior as well as mechanical aspects are discussed. In order to verify the designs, a rapid prototype for the favored coupler was fabricated and characterized on a low-power test-stand.

  8. Dosimetric comparison of tools for intensity modulated radiation therapy with gamma analysis: a phantom study

    Akbas Ugur


    Full Text Available Dosimetry of the Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT is very important because of the complex dose distributions. Diode arrays are the most common and practical measurement tools for clinical usage for IMRT. Phantom selection is critical for QA process. IMRT treatment plans are recalculated for the phantom irradiation in QA. Phantoms are made in different geometrical shapes to measure the doses of different types of irradiation techniques. Comparison of measured and calculated dose distributions for IMRT can be made by using gamma analysis. In this study, 10 head-and-neck IMRT QA plans were created with Varian Eclipse 8.9 treatment planning system. Water equivalent RW3-slab phantoms, Octavius-2 phantom and PTW Seven29 2D-array were used for QA measurements. Gantry, collimator and couch positions set to 00 and QA plans were delivered to RW3 and Octavius phantoms. Then the positions set to original angles and QA plans irradiated again. Measured and calculated fluence maps were evaluated with gamma analysis for different DD and DTA criteria. The effect of different set-up conditions for RW3 and Octavius phantoms in QA plan delivery evaluated by gamma analysis. Results of gamma analysis show that using RW3-slab phantoms with setting parameters to 00 is more appropriate for IMRT QA.

  9. Dosimetric comparison of tools for intensity modulated radiation therapy with gamma analysis: a phantom study

    Akbas, Ugur; Okutan, Murat; Demir, Bayram; Koksal, Canan


    Dosimetry of the Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is very important because of the complex dose distributions. Diode arrays are the most common and practical measurement tools for clinical usage for IMRT. Phantom selection is critical for QA process. IMRT treatment plans are recalculated for the phantom irradiation in QA. Phantoms are made in different geometrical shapes to measure the doses of different types of irradiation techniques. Comparison of measured and calculated dose distributions for IMRT can be made by using gamma analysis. In this study, 10 head-and-neck IMRT QA plans were created with Varian Eclipse 8.9 treatment planning system. Water equivalent RW3-slab phantoms, Octavius-2 phantom and PTW Seven29 2D-array were used for QA measurements. Gantry, collimator and couch positions set to 00 and QA plans were delivered to RW3 and Octavius phantoms. Then the positions set to original angles and QA plans irradiated again. Measured and calculated fluence maps were evaluated with gamma analysis for different DD and DTA criteria. The effect of different set-up conditions for RW3 and Octavius phantoms in QA plan delivery evaluated by gamma analysis. Results of gamma analysis show that using RW3-slab phantoms with setting parameters to 00 is more appropriate for IMRT QA.

  10. Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.


    The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

  11. The role of ultrasonography in the imaging of body packers comparison with CT: a prospective study.

    Cengel, Ferhat; Bulakci, Mesut; Selcuk, Tuba; Savas, Yildiray; Ceyhan, Muhammet; Kocak, Ayhan; Bilgili, Cigdem Ozkara


    This study investigated the sonographic properties of drug packets containing narcotic drugs and the diagnostic role of ultrasonography in detecting body packing in comparison with CT. Forty-five suspects admitted to our hospital for diagnosis and management were routinely evaluated by non-contrast CT for the presence of drug packets. A single radiologist blind to CT data independently performed the abdominal ultrasonographic scans. Thirty-five of 45 suspects were carrying packets. In positive cases, two types of packets with different properties were noted. Twenty-eight cases had type 1 packets (solid form drug) and 7 had type 2 packets (liquid form cocaine). The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of ultrasonography for detecting drug packets were 91%, 70%, 91%, and 70%, respectively. Ultrasonography accurately determined the presence or absence of packs in 39 of 45 suspects. Ultrasonography was found to have a high sensitivity but a low specificity in suspected cases. A negative ultrasonography cannot rule out the diagnosis of body packing. However, it may be preferred as the initial imaging method or for follow-up of suspected cases as a radiation-free, easy-to-use, and inexpensive technique.

  12. A comparison study between MLP and convolutional neural network models for character recognition

    Ben Driss, S.; Soua, M.; Kachouri, R.; Akil, M.


    Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems have been designed to operate on text contained in scanned documents and images. They include text detection and character recognition in which characters are described then classified. In the classification step, characters are identified according to their features or template descriptions. Then, a given classifier is employed to identify characters. In this context, we have proposed the unified character descriptor (UCD) to represent characters based on their features. Then, matching was employed to ensure the classification. This recognition scheme performs a good OCR Accuracy on homogeneous scanned documents, however it cannot discriminate characters with high font variation and distortion.3 To improve recognition, classifiers based on neural networks can be used. The multilayer perceptron (MLP) ensures high recognition accuracy when performing a robust training. Moreover, the convolutional neural network (CNN), is gaining nowadays a lot of popularity for its high performance. Furthermore, both CNN and MLP may suffer from the large amount of computation in the training phase. In this paper, we establish a comparison between MLP and CNN. We provide MLP with the UCD descriptor and the appropriate network configuration. For CNN, we employ the convolutional network designed for handwritten and machine-printed character recognition (Lenet-5) and we adapt it to support 62 classes, including both digits and characters. In addition, GPU parallelization is studied to speed up both of MLP and CNN classifiers. Based on our experimentations, we demonstrate that the used real-time CNN is 2x more relevant than MLP when classifying characters.

  13. Comparison of outcomes between surgically placed and percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis catheters: A retrospective study

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Gupta, S.; Agarwal, S. K.; Bhowmik, D.; Mahajan, S.


    There is lack of adequate data on comparison of outcomes between percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters inserted by nephrologists and PD catheters placed by surgeons. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of PD catheters inserted by surgeons (by open surgical or laparoscopic technique) and compare them with those inserted by nephrologists among ESRD patients who underwent elective PD catheter insertions between January 2009 and December 2012. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of catheters removed because of primary nonfunction. The secondary outcome measures were catheter survival, patient survival, and incidence of complications of catheter insertion. A total of 143 PD catheter insertions (88 by surgeons and 55 by nephrologists) performed in 132 patients were considered for the analysis. The primary nonfunction rate of PD catheter insertions in both groups was comparable (18.2% and 7.3%, P = 0.08). Break-in period was shorter in Group N (p = <0.001). No differences were noted in patient or catheter survival. Percutaneously placed PD catheters performed by nephrologists have comparable outcomes with surgically placed PD catheters among selected cases and have the advantage of lower costs, avoidance of operation theater scheduling issues, smaller incision length, and shorter break-in period. Therefore, more nephrologists should acquire the expertise on percutaneous PD catheter placement as it leads to lesser waiting times and better utilization of PD. PMID:27512299

  14. Comparison of Plaque Inhibiting Efficacies of Aloe Vera and Propolis Tooth Gels: A Randomized PCR Study

    Sunkara, Musalaiah Svv; Pantareddy, Indeevar; Sudhakar, Sankaran


    Backgound and Aim Allopathic medications used for periodontal disease are known to be associated with various side effects. Hence a search for naturotherapies are on the rise. Among the natural pharmacons available aloevera and propolis are considered to be effective and free from adverse effects. Taking this into account, the present study was done to compare the plaque inhibiting efficacies of Aloe vera and Propolis tooth gels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to groups A and B containing 20 patients each. Patients in group A were advised to use Aloe vera tooth gel while those in group B were advised to use Propolis tooth gel. Clinical and microbiologic parameters using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results Student t-test was performed for all the obtained results. In the Aloe vera group, comparison of baseline PCR and after 3 month results showed reduction only in P. gingivalis (p=0.001), where as statistically significant reduction in all the three red complex microorganisms was seen in propolis group. All the clinical parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing, Probing pocket Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level) in both the groups showed statistically significant reductions after 3 months. Conclusion Propolis showed a statistically significant reduction in plaque, microbiologic and clinical parameters. However, clinical trials of longer durations with larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the efficacy. PMID:26501001

  15. IASI spectral radiance validation inter-comparisons: case study assessment from the JAIVEx field campaign

    A. M. Larar


    Full Text Available Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global-scale measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environmental change detection. Measurement system validation is crucial to achieving this goal and maximizing research and operational utility of resultant data. Field campaigns employing satellite under-flights with well-calibrated Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft are an essential part of this validation task. The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I has been a fundamental contributor in this area by providing coincident high spectral and spatial resolution observations of infrared spectral radiances along with independently-retrieved geophysical products for comparison with like products from satellite sensors being validated. This manuscript focuses on validating infrared spectral radiance from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI through a case study analysis using data obtained during the recent Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx field campaign. Emphasis is placed upon the benefits achievable from employing airborne interferometers such as the NAST-I since, in addition to IASI radiance calibration performance assessments, cross-validation with other advanced sounders such as the AQUA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS is enabled.

  16. Self-reported fears: a comparison study of youths with and without an intellectual disability.

    Gullone, E; Cummins, R A; King, N J


    Normal fear plays an essential role in human development and experience, and much research attention has been devoted to its study in the general population. In contrast, the normal fears of youths with intellectual disabilities have largely been ignored. The present paper reports the normative fears of 187 youths with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. Data were also gathered from 372 youths of average intelligence for comparison purposes. All respondents were aged between 7 and 18 years. Fear was assessed using the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II (FSSC-II), an instrument which has been psychometrically validated in samples with and without disabilities. The youths with disabilities reported significantly higher levels of fearfulness and a greater range of fears than youths without disabilities. The content of their fears was also more likely to resemble those of younger children without disabilities. The fears that best discriminated between the two samples were those related to supernatural phenomena or animals. Included were fears of bees, lizards, ghosts or similar eerie things, and cemeteries. Nevertheless, there was considerable similarity between the two samples. For both samples, females reported a higher level of fearfulness and a greater range of fear than males, and fears of death and danger were endorsed as arousing the strongest fear for all respondents. The theoretical and applied implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Preoperative screening strategies for bacterial vaginosis prior to elective hysterectomy: a cost comparison study.

    McElligott, Kara A; Havrilesky, Laura J; Myers, Evan R


    The purpose of this study is to compare costs of 3 strategies for women undergoing hysterectomy: (1) test all patients for bacterial vaginosis; treat if positive; (2) treat all patients for bacterial vaginosis; (3) neither test nor treat patients for bacterial vaginosis. For comparison purposes, a fourth strategy is examined: (4) no surgical site infection prophylaxis or bacterial vaginosis treatment. A cost minimization model was created using estimates obtained from the published literature, Medicare reimbursement data, and wholesale drug costs. In the base case, the optimal strategy was to treat all patients for bacterial vaginosis, with a cuff infection rate of 4.0% and mean cost of $593. The "test all patients for bacterial vaginosis; treat if positive" strategy was also inexpensive, with a mean cost of $623 and 4.2% cuff infection rate. "Neither test nor treat patients for bacterial vaginosis" and "no surgical site infection prophylaxis or bacterial vaginosis treatment" were more expensive and less effective than other strategies. This model suggests that consideration should be given to adding metronidazole to standard surgical site infection prophylaxis before hysterectomy. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Retracted: Multilevel Predictors of Math Classroom Climate: A Comparison Study of Student and Teacher Perceptions.

    Wang, Ming-Te; Eccles, Jacquelynne S


    The above article, published online on June 23, 2014 in Wiley Online Library (, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Nancy Guerra, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed upon following the discovery that this article contained inaccurate data. It came to the author's attention that the names of some of the items reported in the Measures section of the paper could not be correct because such items did not exist in the surveys. The authors tried to identify exactly which items had been used in the data analyses but they could not establish without some doubt exactly which items had actually been used. Reference Wang, M.-T. and Eccles, J. S. (2014), Multilevel Predictors of Math Classroom Climate: A Comparison Study of Student and Teacher Perceptions. Journal of Research on Adolescence. doi: 10.1111/jora.12153. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2014 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  19. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    Kyoung-Woo KIM


    Full Text Available Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acoustical performances of glass wool that was actually installed for a long time to the outer wall of a building as an insulation material through a comparison with recently produced glass wool. The results showed that the measured thermal conductivities of the old and the new specimens both rise with an increase of temperature, showing quite similar results in both specimens over temperature ranges of (0 – 20 ºC. The noise reduction coefficient decreased by 0.1 in the old specimen and the difference of the compressibilities in both specimens was shown to be 7.32 mm. The dynamic stiffness of the old specimen was found to be 1.28 MN/m3 higher than that of the new specimen.DOI:

  20. A cross-cultural comparison of biology lessons between China and Germany: a video study

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit Jana


    Given the globalization of science education and the different cultures between China and Germany, we tried to compare and explain the differences on teacher questions and real life instances in biology lessons between the two countries from a culture-related perspective. 22 biology teachers from China and 21 biology teachers from Germany participated in this study. Each teacher was videotaped for one lesson on the unit blood and circulatory system. Before the teaching unit, students' prior knowledge was tested with a pretest. After the teaching unit, students' content knowledge was tested with a posttest. The aim of the knowledge tests here was for the better selection of the four samples for qualitative comparison in the two countries. The quantitative analysis showed that more lower-order teacher questions and more real life instances that were introduced after learning relevant concepts were in Chinese lessons than in German lessons. There were no significant differences in the frequency of higher-order questions or real life instances that were introduced before learning concepts. Qualitative analysis showed that both German teachers guided students to analyze the reasoning process of Landsteiner experiment, but nor Chinese teachers did that. The findings reflected the subtle influence of culture on classroom teaching. Relatively, Chinese biology teachers focused more on learning content and the application of the content in real life; German biology teachers emphasized more on invoking students' reasoning and divergent thinking.

  1. Comparison of Plaque Inhibiting Efficacies of Aloe Vera and Propolis Tooth Gels: A Randomized PCR Study.

    Kumar, Aravind; Sunkara, Musalaiah Svv; Pantareddy, Indeevar; Sudhakar, Sankaran


    Allopathic medications used for periodontal disease are known to be associated with various side effects. Hence a search for naturotherapies are on the rise. Among the natural pharmacons available aloevera and propolis are considered to be effective and free from adverse effects. Taking this into account, the present study was done to compare the plaque inhibiting efficacies of Aloe vera and Propolis tooth gels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to groups A and B containing 20 patients each. Patients in group A were advised to use Aloe vera tooth gel while those in group B were advised to use Propolis tooth gel. Clinical and microbiologic parameters using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Student t-test was performed for all the obtained results. In the Aloe vera group, comparison of baseline PCR and after 3 month results showed reduction only in P. gingivalis (p=0.001), where as statistically significant reduction in all the three red complex microorganisms was seen in propolis group. All the clinical parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing, Probing pocket Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level) in both the groups showed statistically significant reductions after 3 months. Propolis showed a statistically significant reduction in plaque, microbiologic and clinical parameters. However, clinical trials of longer durations with larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the efficacy.

  2. Resolving the physiological conditions in bioavailability and bioequivalence studies: Comparison of fasted and fed state.

    Schneider, Felix; Grimm, Michael; Koziolek, Mirko; Modeß, Christiane; Dokter, Anne; Roustom, Tarek; Siegmund, Werner; Weitschies, Werner


    In the present study temperature, pH and pressure profiles of nine healthy human volunteers were investigated after ingestion of the SmartPill® under conditions simulating the fasted state treatment in bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. In a previously published study the same subjects received the SmartPill® under fed conditions as recommended by the FDA. Since large non-digestible objects are mainly emptied during phase III of the interdigestive migrating motor complex, the gastric residence time of the SmartPill® was found to be clearly shorter under fasting conditions. Intragastric pH values during the initial 5min were similar with an identical median value of pH 4.6. Interestingly, the median lowest observed intragastric pH value in fasted state was about one pH unit higher than that under fed conditions. Highest pressure activity was observed within the stomach, in relation to gastric emptying. In fasted state, pressure values upon gastric emptying varied strongly between 30mbar and 304mbar, whereas after fed state ingestion values of at least 240mbar could always be observed. The data showed highly variable gastrointestinal parameters even under fasting conditions which must be considered when evaluating clinical studies and developing biorelevant in vitro test methods especially for large non-disintegrating dosage forms.

  3. Comparison for Chinese subordinates as a motivation approach: Scale Development and Psychometric Properties

    Jingjing Ge


    Full Text Available Purpose: Chinese people are motivated by social comparison and temporal comparison. Based on this finding, we conceptualized lateral comparison and vertical comparison as two distinct constructs that represent individual self-enhancement toward the nature of social comparison with others and temporal comparison with self over time. We hypothesized that as stable individual psychological difference, lateral comparison and vertical comparison would have differential effects on people’s working behavior in the Chinese organizational context. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a conceptualization approach to Chinese management research, we conducted three studies to develop and validate a two-factor comparison scale which includes three-item lateral comparison and a three-item vertical comparison. Findings: Results from qualitative data in Study 1 provide evidence of convergent and discriminate validity of the scale, while Study 2 demonstrates the scale’s predictive validity. Furthermore, in Study two, a field survey in multiple Chinese organizations showed that lateral comparison and vertical comparison had differential effects on employee task performance and organizational citizenship behavior. Research implications: The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed in the working context in Chinese organizations and beyond. Originality/value: This finding integrates insights from previous research in social comparison and temporal comparison into a motivation approach that supervisors use toward subordinates in the Chinese organizational context.

  4. Comparison of UMAT scores and GPA in prediction of performance in medical school: a national study.

    Poole, Phillippa; Shulruf, Boaz; Rudland, Joy; Wilkinson, Tim


    Medical schools continue to seek robust ways to select students with the greatest aptitude for medical education, training and practice. Tests of general cognition are used in combination with markers of prior academic achievement and other tools, although their predictive validity is unknown. This study compared the predictive validity of the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT), the admission grade point average (GPA), and a combination of both, on outcomes in all years of two medical programmes. Subjects were students (n = 1346) selected since 2003 using UMAT scores and attending either of New Zealand's two medical schools. Regression models incorporated demographic data, UMAT scores, admission GPA and performance on routine assessments. Despite the different weightings of UMAT used in selection at the two institutions and minor variations in student demographics and programmes, results across institutions were similar. The net predictive power of admission GPA was highest for outcomes in Years 2 and 5 of the 6-year programme, accounting for 17-35% of the variance; UMAT score accounted for GPA improved predictive power slightly across all outcomes. Neither UMAT score nor admission GPA predicted outcomes in the final trainee intern year well, although grading bands for this year were broad and numbers smaller. The ability of the general cognitive test UMAT to predict outcomes in major assessments within medical programmes is relatively minor in comparison with that of the admission GPA, but the UMAT score adds a small amount of predictive power when it is used in combination with the GPA. However, UMAT scores may predict outcomes not studied here, which underscores the need for further validation studies in a range of settings. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  5. Chinese students' science-related experiences: Comparison of the ROSE study in Xinjiang and Shanghai

    Yeung, Yau-yuen; Li, Yufeng


    Background: Students' daily-life experiences may render favorable effects on the students' affective domain like interest, enthusiasm, motivation, joy, curiosity, awareness, and eagerness to learn science as not commonly found in the classroom environment. However, no rigorous research has been reported on those aspects in Mainland China despite many recent studies done in various Western countries. Purpose: This paper aims to report and compare the science-related experiences of ninth-graders from two places (in Urumqi City of Xinjiang province and Shanghai) in China through a large-scale survey of their junior secondary three students. Sample: The sample consists of 4115 students in Urumqi City (from 28 schools) and Shanghai (from 25 schools). Design and methods: This study adopted a Likert scale questionnaire instrument, as translated from the international Relevance Of Science Education (ROSE) Project. From a confirmatory factor analysis of the data, we identify and focus on six factors which are directly correlated with students' science-related experiences outside school environment in Xinjiang and Shanghai and employ relevant factor scores to compare the gender, regional, and socioeconomic effects. Results: As revealed by the t-test, gender and regional differences were statistically significant in affecting (1) students' outdoor living experience, (2) hands-on experience of transportation, and (3) their daily-life experience with do-it-yourself tools and models. In all three aspects, boys and Xinjiang students possessed richer experiences than girls and Shanghai students, respectively. Conclusions: Based on ANOVA tests, Shanghai students' out-of-school science-related experiences were more often significantly affected by various socioeconomic variables (including their parents' education and occupation and their family income) than Xinjiang students. From cross-regional comparison, Chinese students had much fewer science-related experiences than those of

  6. Comparison of conventional and low dose steroid in the treatment of PFAPA syndrome: preliminary study.

    Yazgan, Hamza; Gültekin, Erhan; Yazıcılar, Osman; Sagun, Ömer Faruk; Uzun, Lokman


    Steroids have been widely used to relief symptoms in the patients with PFAPA syndrome. This study was constructed to show the effectiveness of low-dose steroid therapy in patients diagnosed with PFAPA syndrome. 41 patients (86 febrile attacks) who were diagnosed using the criteria suggested by Thomas et al. were involved in the study. The cases were classified into two groups and the selection of patients in groups was made randomly. Twenty patients received prednisolone at a dose of 2 mg/kg/day (first group: 40 attacks) and 21 patients received a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day (second group: 46 attacks). The effectiveness of the treatment was especially determined by the time needed to reduce the fever and the effect on the duration between the two attacks. The patients were re-examined 24 hours later, after a steroid treatment. The patients who were in the first group received 2mg/kg/day dose of prednisolone and their fever was dramatically decreased in 6-8 hours (7.6 ± 0.9 hours). The second group received 0.5mg/kg/day dose and 19 of these patients' fever was decreased in 8-12 hours. Two patients whose temperature did not decrease, received another dose of prednisolone 24 hours after the first dose and their fever was reduced 12 hours after the second dose (11.3 ± 6.4 hours). A comparison of the rate of fever reduction and the interval between the attacks (Group I: 5.11 ± 1.01 week and Group II: 5.2 ± 1.13 week) in the two groups did not show any statistical significance (p=0.104). Low-dose steroid treatment is as effective as normal dose in PFAPA syndrome but there is need to study with a larger group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inter-laboratory comparison study for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in animal feed using spiked and incurred material.

    de Nijs, Monique; Elbers, Ingrid J W; Mulder, Patrick P J


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are hepatotoxic metabolites produced by plants. PAs in animal feed can cause acute or chronic intoxications in animals and can be transferred to milk. An inter-laboratory comparison study among 12 laboratories, using their own methods of analysis, was conducted for the detection and quantification of PAs in animal feed. The participants were asked to quantify PAs in a blank test sample, a blank test sample to be spiked with a provided spiking mixture of seven PA standards, and a test sample contaminated with common groundsel (Senecio vulgaris). Ten of the participating laboratories used an LC-MS/MS method, one used an LC-ToF-MS method, and one used a GC-MS method. None of the laboratories reported false-negative samples, while two laboratories reported false-positive results in the blank sample. z-scores were calculated for each laboratory for seven PAs in test samples B and C. z-scores varied considerably between laboratories for the concentrations of the free bases and less for the N-oxides, probably due to the lower levels of the free bases as compared with the N-oxides in the contaminated feed. Questionable or unsatisfactory results for the z-scores were obtained for 8% of the cases for the spiked sample and for 12% of the incurred sample. Three laboratories scored consequently positive or negative results. No preferred method for quantification of PAs in feed could be identified within the methods used for this study due to the relatively small number of participants. It was concluded that this inter-laboratory study shows that the methods used for PA detection need further development for accurate estimation of PAs in contaminated feed.

  8. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and chlorhexidine on Streptococcus mutans: An in vivo study

    Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Remy, Vimal; John, Seena; Chandru, T. P.; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Bijapur, Gufran Ahmed


    Aims: Streptococcus mutans is the most common organism causing dental caries. Various chemotherapeutic agents are available that help in treating the bacteria, with each having their own merits and demerits. Recent research has shown that coconut oil has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action. Therefore, the present was conducted to determine the antibacterial efficacy of coconut oil and to compare it with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty female children aged 8–12 years were included in the study. Twenty five children were randomly distributed to each group, i.e., the study group (coconut oil) and the control group (chlorhexidine). The participants were asked to routinely perform oil swishing with coconut oil and chlorhexidine and rinse every day in the morning after brushing for 2–3 minutes. S. mutans in saliva and plaque were determined using a chairside method, i.e., the Dentocult SM Strip Mutans test. Patients were instructed to continue oil swishing for 30 days. S. mutans. counts in plaque and saliva on day 1, day 15, and day 30 were recorded and the results were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test. Results: The results showed that there is a statistically significant decrease in S. mutans. count from coconut oil as well as chlorhexidine group from baseline to 30 days. The study also showed that in comparison of coconut oil and chlorhexidine there is no statistically significant change regarding the antibacterial efficacy. Conclusion: Coconut oil is as effective as chlorhexidine in the reduction of S. mutans. PMID:27891311

  9. Elimination of HIV in South Africa through expanded access to antiretroviral therapy: a model comparison study.

    Jan A C Hontelez


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART using universal test and treat (UTT has been suggested as a strategy to eliminate HIV in South Africa within 7 y based on an influential mathematical modeling study. However, the underlying deterministic model was criticized widely, and other modeling studies did not always confirm the study's finding. The objective of our study is to better understand the implications of different model structures and assumptions, so as to arrive at the best possible predictions of the long-term impact of UTT and the possibility of elimination of HIV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed nine structurally different mathematical models of the South African HIV epidemic in a stepwise approach of increasing complexity and realism. The simplest model resembles the initial deterministic model, while the most comprehensive model is the stochastic microsimulation model STDSIM, which includes sexual networks and HIV stages with different degrees of infectiousness. We defined UTT as annual screening and immediate ART for all HIV-infected adults, starting at 13% in January 2012 and scaled up to 90% coverage by January 2019. All models predict elimination, yet those that capture more processes underlying the HIV transmission dynamics predict elimination at a later point in time, after 20 to 25 y. Importantly, the most comprehensive model predicts that the current strategy of ART at CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl will also lead to elimination, albeit 10 y later compared to UTT. Still, UTT remains cost-effective, as many additional life-years would be saved. The study's major limitations are that elimination was defined as incidence below 1/1,000 person-years rather than 0% prevalence, and drug resistance was not modeled. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous predictions that the HIV epidemic in South Africa can be eliminated through universal testing and immediate treatment at 90% coverage. However, more realistic

  10. Previous Heart Disease Complications And Hypertension In Pregnancy

    Nayer Pishnamaz


    Full Text Available Objective(sHypertensive disorders in pregnancy with incidence of 3/7% are one of the most severe complications. Cardiovascular diseases are apparent in 2% of the pregnancies. Physiologic changes during pregnancy intensify the underlying disorders and the severity of this problem. Researches indicate that pregnant women with heart disease greatly confront unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes with increased risk of abortion, intra uterine fetal death, preterm labor and intra uterine growth retardation. This study aim was to magnify the outcomes of pregnancy accompaniment with cardiovascular diseases and hypertension.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study in which patient records of 2500 pregnant women referring to Alzahra hospital from 2006 to 2008 were assessed. Data was gatherated by medical files and analyzed by SPSS soft ware.Results: In this study incidence of moderate Aorta Stenosis (AS was about 45.5 % (10cases, Mitral valvuloplasty (MVP was about 22/73% (5cases and Mitral stenosis (MS was 18/18% (4 cases; two patient with MR(mitral regurgitation+MS had underwent valvuloplasty. 72/7% (16 of the mothers were hospitalized due to hypertension, 9/1% due to tachycardia and dyspnea and 18/2% showed mixed form of theses complains. They were using hydralazine and methyldopa as anti hypertensive drugs. Only 10% of the patients had history of anticoagulant using during pregnancy. We found only one patient with pulmonary stenosis (PS in these patients.Conclusion: Women with hypertension and previous heart disease showed many serious complications and high fetal mortality during pregnancy. Proper and on time care giving and support during pregnancy is dependent on the accurate diagnosis of the heart disease; any health problem should be seriously noted.

  11. Comparison of minimalist footwear strategies for simulating barefoot running: a randomized crossover study.

    Karsten Hollander

    Full Text Available Possible benefits of baref