WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous research children

  1. Understanding Infants' and Children's Social Learning about Foods: Previous Research and New Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the…

  2. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  3. Development of an Internet-Administered Cognitive Behavior Therapy Program (ENGAGE) for Parents of Children Previously Treated for Cancer: Participatory Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikman, Anna; Kukkola, Laura; Börjesson, Helene; Cernvall, Martin; Woodford, Joanne; Grönqvist, Helena; von Essen, Louise

    2018-04-18

    Parenting a child through cancer is a distressing experience, and a subgroup of parents report negative long-term psychological consequences years after treatment completion. However, there is a lack of evidence-based psychological interventions for parents who experience distress in relation to a child's cancer disease after end of treatment. One aim of this study was to develop an internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) for parents of children previously treated for cancer. Another aim was to identify acceptable procedures for future feasibility and efficacy studies testing and evaluating the intervention. Participatory action research methodology was used. The study included face-to-face workshops and related Web-based exercises. A total of 6 parents (4 mothers, 2 fathers) of children previously treated for cancer were involved as parent research partners. Moreover, 2 clinical psychologists were involved as expert research partners. Research partners and research group members worked collaboratively throughout the study. Data were analyzed iteratively using written summaries of the workshops and Web-based exercises parallel to data collection. A 10-week, internet-administered, cognitive behavior therapy-based, psychological, guided, self-help intervention (ENGAGE) was developed in collaboration with parent research partners and expert research partners. The content of the intervention, mode and frequency of e-therapist support, and the individualized approach for feedback were modified based on the research partner input. Shared solutions were reached regarding the type and timing of support from an e-therapist (eg, initial video or telephone call, multiple methods of e-therapist contact), duration and timing of intervention (eg, 10 weeks, 30-min assessments), and the removal of unnecessary support functions (eg, removal of chat and forum functions). Preferences for study procedures in

  4. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  5. Successive Research: A Strategy for Building on Previous Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Mary Anne

    1979-01-01

    Describes an approach to clinical research used by the author in teaching graduate nursing students, involving replication and expansion of a primary study of hospital intensive care units. This approach provided valuable experience as well as validated data about clinical practice. Discusses advantages and disadvantages in the approach. (MF)

  6. Parental anxiety associated with Kawasaki disease in previously healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Nita; Clarizia, Nadia A; McCrindle, Brian W; Boydell, Katherine M; Obadia, Maya; Manlhiot, Cedric; Dillenburg, Rejane; Yeung, Rae S M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the lived experience of parents of children diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (KD) and to identify factors associated with increased levels of parental anxiety. Three focus groups were conducted including 25 parents of 17 patients with KD, seven (41%) of whom had coronary artery complications. A conceptual model was developed to depict parental experiences and illustrate the key issues related to heightened anxiety. Themes identified included anxiety related to the child's sudden illness and delay in obtaining a correct diagnosis because of the lack of health care providers' awareness and knowledge regarding KD. Parents were frustrated by the lack of information available in lay language and the limited scientific knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of the disease. Parents also reported positive transformations and different perspective toward challenges in life. However, the parents of children with coronary artery complications expressed persistent anxiety even years after the acute phase of the illness due to the uncertainty of the long-term prognosis. There remains a critical need for richly textured research data on the perspective and experience of families of children with KD. Copyright 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Social communication difficulties and autism in previously institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, April R; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    To determine the risk of difficulties with social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors as well as the rate of autism in children institutionalized in early infancy and to assess the impact of a foster care intervention on ameliorating this risk. Children abandoned at birth and raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania were randomly assigned to a care-as-usual group (institutional care, CAUG), or placed in family-centered foster care (FCG) as part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). At approximately 10 years of age, the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) was administered to caregivers of children in both groups as well as to parents of a typically developing community sample (Never-Institutionalized group [NIG]) residing in Bucharest, Romania. Children scoring ≥12 on the SCQ underwent clinical evaluation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers of children with a history of institutionalization reported that these children had significantly more deviant behavior than never-institutionalized children on all subdomains of the SCQ (all p communication. Three of 60 CAUG children, 2 of 57 FCG children, and none of the NIG children received a formal ASD diagnosis. Early institutional rearing was associated with an increased risk of social communication difficulties and ASD. A family-centered foster care intervention improved social communication skills. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  9. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  10. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  11. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  12. AbobotulinumtoxinA Efficacy and Safety in Children With Equinus Foot Previously Treated With Botulinum Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Edward; Bonikowski, Marcin; Gormley, Mark; Volteau, Magali; Picaut, Philippe; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2018-05-01

    The effects of botulinum toxin are transient, and repeat injections are required in children with lower-limb spasticity. However, the efficacy of botulinum toxin in patients who have received previous injections has remained largely unexplored. We present subgroup analyses of a phase III study conducted in ambulatory children (aged two to 17) with spastic equinus foot. Patients were randomized to single doses of abobotulinumtoxinA 10 U/kg/leg, 15 U/kg/leg, or placebo injected into the gastrocnemius-soleus complex (one or both legs). The first analysis was prespecified to review the effect of abobotulinumtoxinA in children previously treated with botulinum toxin versus those children new to the treatment; a second post hoc analysis evaluated the effect of abobotulinumtoxinA in children who changed botulinum toxin formulation. Of the 241 randomized patients, 113 had previously received botulinum toxin, including 86 who had been treated with another formulation. In both analyses, muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale) and the Physicians Global Assessment, at week 4, improved with abobotulinumtoxinA treatment versus placebo, regardless of baseline botulinum toxin status. Placebo responses in patients new to treatment were consistently higher than in the previously treated group. These results demonstrate similar abobotulinumtoxinA efficacy and safety profiles in children with spasticity who are new to botulinum toxin treatment and those children who were previously treated. The efficacy and safety of abobotulinumtoxinA treatment in these previously treated patients were comparable with the overall trial population, indicating that doses of 10 and 15 U/kg/leg are suitable starting doses for children with spasticity regardless of the previous botulinum toxin preparation used. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Previous medical history of diseases in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The etiology of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is complex and most likely includes genetic and environmental factors. This study was conducted to evaluatethe role of previous medical history of diseases in ADHD children and their parents during theearlier years of the ADHD children's lives. Methods: In this case-control study, 164 ADHD children attending to Child and AdolescentPsychiatric Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, compared with 166 normal children selected in a random-cluster method from primary and guidance schools. ADHDrating scale (Parents version and clinical interview based on schedule for Schedule forAffective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version(K-SADS were used to diagnose ADHD cases and to select the control group. Two groupswere compared for the existence of previous medical history of diseases in children andparents. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression model were used for data analysis. Results: The frequency of maternal history of medical disorders (28.7% vs. 12.0%; P = 0.001was significantly higher in children with ADHD compared with the control group. The frequency of jaundice, dysentery, epilepsy, asthma, allergy, and head trauma in the medicalhistory of children were not significantly differed between the two groups. Conclusion: According to this preliminary study, it may be concluded that the maternal historyof medical disorders is one of contributing risk factors for ADHD.

  14. The Role of Birth/Previously Adopted Children in Families Choosing to Adopt Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Ellen Steele; Johnson, LeAnne

    1999-01-01

    Notes that successful child placement depends on engaging birth or previously adopted children during the adoption process, yet other children are often overlooked when parents are adopting a special-needs child. Presents a model which recognizes dynamics of strength and vulnerability and applies that model to preparing and supporting the adoptive…

  15. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  16. Do attitudes of families concerned influence features of children who claim to remember previous lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Satwant K

    2011-01-01

    Reported cases of nearly 2600 children (subjects) who claim to remember previous lives have been investigated in cultures with and without belief in reincarnation. The authenticity in most cases has been established. To study the influence of attitudes of parents of the subjects, families of the deceased person with whom they are identified and attention paid by others on the features of the cases. The study is based on field investigations. Data is derived from analysis of a larger series of an ongoing project. Information on initial and subsequent attitudes of subjects' mothers was available for 292 and 136 cases, respectively; attitudes of 227 families of deceased person (previous personality) with whom he is identified, and the extent of attention received from outsiders for 252 cases. Observations and interviews with multiple firsthand informants on both sides of the case as well as some neutral informants supplemented by examination of objective data were the chief methods of investigation. The initial attitude of mothers varied from encouragement (21%) to neutral or tolerance (51%) to discouragement (28%). However, it changed significantly from neutrality to taking measures to induce amnesia in their children for previous life memories due to various psychosocial pressures and prevalent beliefs. Families of the previous personalities, once convinced, showed complete acceptance in a majority of cases. Outside attention was received in 58% cases. The positive attitude of parents might facilitate expression of memories but subsequently attitudes of persons concerned do not seem to alter features of the cases.

  17. Total brain, cortical and white matter volumes in children previously treated with glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sara K; Madsen, Kathrine S; Vestergaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal exposure to glucocorticoids and elevated endogenous glucocorticoid-levels during childhood can have detrimental effects on the developing brain. Here, we examined the impact of glucocorticoid-treatment during childhood on brain volumes. METHODS: Thirty children and adolescents...... with rheumatic or nephrotic disease previously treated with glucocorticoids and 30 controls matched on age, sex, and parent education underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Total cortical grey and white matter, brain, and intracranial volume, and total cortical thickness and surface area were...... were mainly driven by the children with rheumatic disease. Total cortical thickness and cortical surface area did not significantly differ between groups. We found no significant associations between glucocorticoid-treatment variables and volumetric measures. CONCLUSION: Observed smaller total brain...

  18. Children's participation in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström professor m.so., Stig

    2012-01-01

    In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the 10 planning of/and participation in both education...

  19. Directed Research in Bone Discipline: Refining Previous Research Observations for Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mass density, as a sole index, is an insufficient surrogate for fracture; Clinical Practice Guidelines using bone mass density (both World Health Organization and FRAX) are not specific for complicated subjects such as young, healthy persons following prolonged exposure to skeletal unloading (i.e. an attribute of spaceflight); Research data suggest that spaceflight induces changes to astronaut bones that could be profound, possibly irreversible and unlike age-related bone loss on Earth.; There is a need to objectively assess factors across human physiology that are also influenced by spaceflight (e.g., muscle) that contribute to fracture risk. Some of these objective assessments may require innovative technologies, analyses and modeling.; Astronauts are also exposed to novel situations that may overload their bones highlighting a need integrate biomechanics of physical activities into risk assessments.; As we accumulate data, which reflects the biomechanical competence of bone under specific mechanically-loaded scenarios (even activities of daily living), BONE expects Bone Fracture Module to be more sensitive and/or have less uncertainty in its assessments of fracture probability.; Fracture probability drives the requirement for countermeasures. Level of evidence will unlikely be obtained; hence, the Bone Research and Clinical Advisory Panel (like a Data Safety Monitoring Board) will provide the recommendations.

  20. Natural course of sensitization to hen's egg in children not previously exposed to egg ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boissieu, D; Dupont, C

    2006-04-01

    Clinical adverse reactions to egg may occur in infants or children who have never eaten egg. They may be sensitized or even react at first egg ingestion. Few studies are available concerning the reality of egg white allergy in such sensitized children, the natural evolution of this condition and the appropriate decisions to make. To analyze the actuality and natural course of egg allergy in children sensitized without previous of hen's egg ingestion. We set up a clinical decision tree based on clinical history and specific egg white IgE to manage patients who had never ingested egg but were sensitized as demonstrated by a positive SPT and report a cohort of 30 such children The mean level of egg white specific IgE at first analysis, i.e. before 12 months, was high, 28.3 KU(A) /L, with a large range, from 0.6 to >100 KU(A) /L, below 6 KU(A) /L in only 8 patients. In 6 children ("no challenge" group), IgE values remained >8 KU(A) /L by the end of the survey and the oral challenge with egg was always denied. Their mean + SD IgE level was at 51.7 + 38 KU(A) /L at 1 year and 19.7 + 13 KU(A) /L at a mean age of 34 + 5 months. All had an associated anaphylactic reaction with milk and 5 were still allergic to milk by the end of the survey. In the remaining 24 infants, egg was given for the first time at a mean age of 30 + 9 months, by error in 4 cases, all exhibiting an immediate reaction, and in a hospital setting in 20, among whom 14 reacted. Among those 18, with a specific IgE level at 9.1 + 10 KU(A) /L at 28 + 9 months, 4 became tolerant between 3 and 4 years, with specific IgE levels below 1.3 KU(A) /L and a 5th one with specific IgE >100 KU(A) /L at 6 months tolerated scrambled eggs at age 7 year, with specific IgE at 2.6 KU(A) /L. In the 6 others, labeled "non allergic", egg white specific IgE levels were significantly lower, whatever the age, than in the "no challenge" group. The age at challenge was 35 + 8 months, with a mean specific IgE level at 1.0 + 0.9 KU

  1. Insiders' Perspectives: A Children's Rights Approach to Involving Children in Advising on Adult-Initiated Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Consulting with children is widely recognised as an essential element in building understanding about children's lives. From a children's rights perspective, it is also a legal requirement on professionals working with children. However, translating the rhetoric into research and practice is still evolving. Previous studies report on working with…

  2. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    S. Schulze

    2010-01-01

    The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET) – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT). Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basi...

  3. FEEDING DIFFICULTIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, PREVIOUS FEEDING PRACTICES, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Hélcio de Sousa; Aguiar, Renata Cunha de; Lira, Débora Teixeira Jales de; Sales, Mônica Úrsula Figuerêdo; Nóbrega, Nathalia Ávila do Nascimento

    2018-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of feeding difficulties in preschoolers, its association with epidemiological factors and previous eating habits, and repercussion on nutritional status. Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire given to the mothers of 301 children aged 2-6 years enrolled in public and private kindergartens in Natal, Northeast Brazil, conducted in 2014-2015. Feeding difficulty was assessed according to Kerzner's criteria, resulting in the profiles "highly selective intake", "active child with small appetite", "fear of feeding", and "child with psychological disorder or neglected". Association with the following independent variables was analyzed by logistic regression: breastfeeding time, age of cows' milk and complementary feeding introduction, age range, family income, type of school, mothers' profile (responsive or nonresponsive), and body mass index (BMI). Feeding difficulty was found in 37.2% of cases, with predominance of "highly selective intake" (25.4%). It was not associated with infancy feeding practices, family income or type of school. There were no differences between the BMI Z score means for the groups with and without feeding difficulty (1.0±1.5 SD and 1.1±1.4 SD, respectively). The five-to-six age range had more occurrences (OR 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-2.9). Children of responsive mothers were less likely to have feeding difficulties (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.2-0.8). Feeding difficulties were very frequent. Nutritional status was not impacted by it, and infancy eating habits were not associated with it. Responsive mothers' profile is a protective factor against eating difficulties and reinforces the importance of behavioral factors and mother-child interaction.

  4. Sex ratio at birth in India, its relation to birth order, sex of previous children and use of indigenous medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiksha Manchanda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sex-ratio at birth in families with previous girls is worse than those with a boy. Our aim was to prospectively study in a large maternal and child unit sex-ratio against previous birth sex and use of traditional medicines for sex selection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sex-ratio among mothers in families with a previous girl and in those with a previous boy, prevalence of indigenous medicine use and sex-ratio in those using medicines for sex selection. RESULTS: Overall there were 806 girls to 1000 boys. The sex-ratio was 720:1000 if there was one previous girl and 178:1000 if there were two previous girls. In second children of families with a previous boy 1017 girls were born per 1000 boys. Sex-ratio in those with one previous girl, who were taking traditional medicines for sex selection, was 928:1000. CONCLUSION: Evidence from the second children clearly shows the sex-ratio is being manipulated by human interventions. More mothers with previous girls tend to use traditional medicines for sex selection, in their subsequent pregnancies. Those taking such medication do not seem to be helped according to expectations. They seem to rely on this method and so are less likely use more definitive methods like sex selective abortions. This is the first such prospective investigation of sex ratio in second children looked at against the sex of previous children. More studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  5. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulze

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT. Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.

  6. Collaborative research with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    The chapter addresses the methodological challenge of how to develop knowledge about the often unattended processes of persons conducting their everyday life in a complex and contradictory world. Examples from research processes that follow children’s lives and transitions across their different...

  7. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  8. Do family physicians retrieve synopses of clinical research previously read as email alerts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique; Granikov, Vera; Shulha, Michael; Bartlett, Gillian; Marlow, Bernard

    2011-11-30

    A synopsis of new clinical research highlights important aspects of one study in a brief structured format. When delivered as email alerts, synopses enable clinicians to become aware of new developments relevant for practice. Once read, a synopsis can become a known item of clinical information. In time-pressured situations, remembering a known item may facilitate information retrieval by the clinician. However, exactly how synopses first delivered as email alerts influence retrieval at some later time is not known. We examined searches for clinical information in which a synopsis previously read as an email alert was retrieved (defined as a dyad). Our study objectives were to (1) examine whether family physicians retrieved synopses they previously read as email alerts and then to (2) explore whether family physicians purposefully retrieved these synopses. We conducted a mixed-methods study in which a qualitative multiple case study explored the retrieval of email alerts within a prospective longitudinal cohort of practicing family physicians. Reading of research-based synopses was tracked in two contexts: (1) push, meaning to read on email and (2) pull, meaning to read after retrieval from one electronic knowledge resource. Dyads, defined as synopses first read as email alerts and subsequently retrieved in a search of a knowledge resource, were prospectively identified. Participants were interviewed about all of their dyads. Outcomes were the total number of dyads and their type. Over a period of 341 days, 194 unique synopses delivered to 41 participants resulted in 4937 synopsis readings. In all, 1205 synopses were retrieved over an average of 320 days. Of the 1205 retrieved synopses, 21 (1.7%) were dyads made by 17 family physicians. Of the 1205 retrieved synopses, 6 (0.5%) were known item type dyads. However, dyads also occurred serendipitously. In the single knowledge resource we studied, email alerts containing research-based synopses were rarely retrieved

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of 2010-2011 H1N12009-containing trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children 12-59 months of age previously given AS03-adjuvanted H1N12009 pandemic vaccine: a PHAC/CIHR Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Joanne M; Scheifele, David W; Quach, Caroline; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Ward, Brian; McNeil, Shelly; Dobson, Simon; Kellner, James D; Kuhn, Susan; Kollman, Tobias; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Smith, Bruce; Li, Yan; Halperin, Scott A

    2012-05-14

    Concern arose in 2010 that reactogenicity, particularly febrile seizures, to influenza A/H1N1-containing 2010-2011 trivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) could occur in young children who had been previously immunized and/or infected with the pandemic strain. We conducted a pre-season study of 2010-2011 TIV safety and immunogenicity in children 12-59 months of age to inform public health decision making. Children immunized with 1 or 2 doses of the pandemic vaccine, with or without the 2009-10 TIV, received 1 or 2 doses of 2010-11 TIV in an observational, multicentre Canadian study. Standard safety monitoring was enhanced by a telephone call at ~24 h post-TIV when adverse events were expected to peak. Summary safety reports were rapidly reported to public health before the launch of public programs. TIV immunogenicity was assessed day 0, and 21 days after final vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01180621. Among 207 children, a general adverse event was reported by 60.9% of children post-dose one and by 58.3% post-dose two. Only severe fever (>38.5°C) was more common in two-dose compared to one dose recipients (16.7%, n=4 v. 1.0%, n=2). At baseline 99.0% of participants had A/H1N1 hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers ≥10, and 85.5% had a protective titer of ≥40 (95% CI 80.0, 90.0). Baseline geometric mean titers (GMT) were higher in recipients of a 2-dose schedule of pandemic vaccine compared to one-dose recipients: 153.1 (95% CI 126.2, 185.7) v. 78.8 ((58.1, 106.8, pvaccine immunogenicity were exceeded for A/H1N1 and H3N2, but responses to the B antigen were poor. No correlations between reactogenicity and either baseline high influenza titers or serologic response to revaccination were evident. Infants and toddlers who received AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 2009 vaccine up to 11 months earlier retained high titers in the subsequent season but re-exposure to A/H1N1 2009 antigen in TIV resulted in no unusual adverse effects and 100% were sero

  10. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  11. Patch tests in children: a review of 13 years of experience in comparison with previous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milingou, Maria; Tagka, Anna; Armenaka, Melina; Kimpouri, Konstantina; Kouimintzis, Dimitris; Katsarou, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The true prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children remains unknown. Our aim was to compare the results of patch tests in children with suspected ACD between two different periods of time and identify possible changes in emerging allergens. We compared contact allergens, gender, age distribution, and personal history of atopic dermatitis (AD), in correlation with the positivity of patch tests, between two equal periods of time (232 children tested during 1980-1993, period A, and 255 children during 1994-2007, period B) in the same region and in the same institution. Patch test positivity was 47.8% in period A, and 60% in period B (p = 0.083). The most common allergens in period A were: nickel sulfate (16.3%), cobalt chloride (8.6%), fragrance mix (7.3%), potassium dichromate (4.3%), and thimerosal only (1.7%). In period B, the allergen distribution was as follows: nickel sulfate (21.56%), thimerosal (18.03%), cobalt chloride (12.9%), potassium dichromate (9.4%), and fragrance mix (4.7%). Girls were more likely to have a positive patch test compared with boys, with reactions in 53% of girls and 39% of boys in period A (p = 0.003), and 61% of girls and 58% of boys in period B (p = 0.691). Twenty-nine per cent of patients with positive results had a personal history of AD in period A and 44% in period B (p = 0.015). Differences in the positivity of allergens between different time periods reflect changes in habits, of allergens exposure or preventive measures.

  12. Subject Positions of Children in Information Behaviour Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Anna Hampson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper problematises how children are categorised as a specific user group within information behaviour research and discusses the implications of this categorisation. Methods: Two edited collections of papers on children's information behaviour are analysed. Analysis: The analysis is influenced by previous discourse analytic…

  13. [Comparison of the present and previously used protocol of risk stratification in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodkowska, Eliza; Bialas, Agnieszka; Jackowska, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is one of the most common cancers in children. In Poland, since November 2002 a new protocol of risk stratification has been recommended for assessment of risk factors and for choosing therapy regimens. assessment of accuracy of protocol ALL-IC 2002 in comparison to previously used risk stratification protocols. ALL was diagnosed in 100 children (44 girls, 56 boys; 1-18 years of age) in the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Warsaw Medical University, over the period from November 2002 to November 2006. According to the ALL-IC 2002 protocol the patients were divided into three risk groups: SR-standard, IR-intermediate and HR-high. The stratification was by age, leukocyte count, cytogenetic changes, early response to prednisone therapy and bone marrow remission. In the previously used risk stratification protocols-BFM-90, only hepatosplenomegaly and the number of blasts in peripheral blood (PB) were considered, and the patients were divided into three risk groups: low (LRG1.2). out of the 100 patients qualified for treatment regimens according to the ALL-IC 2002 protocol, 97 entered remission, 11 died and 3 had a relapse. Under the ALL-IC 2002 protocol these children were stratified into the following groups: SR-31%, IR-44% and HR-25%. In the previously used stratification, there would be 26% children in low, 46% in the medium and 28% in the high risk group. According to the BFM-90 protocol 18/31 (58%) and 16/44 (36%) patients from the SR and IR groups respectively would be given more intensive treatment. On the other hand 11/44 (25%) and 14/25 (56%) patients from the IR and HR groups respectively would be given less intensive treatment. 1. ALL-IC 2002 protocol in comparison with the previously used protocol BFM-90, changes the qualification of children with ALL for the SR, IR and HR risk groups. This is linked to basic change of treatment protocol, adequate to severity of disease. 2. Children with ALL qualified

  14. "Living" Ethical Dilemmas for Researchers When Researching with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Luigina; Harcourt, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore some of the ethical dilemmas that confront researchers when they seek to invite children's participation in research. It firstly tracks the historical landscape of ethical research and will examine the influence of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on participatory research with children.…

  15. Progress in indoor radon measurement. Review of previous research (July 1981-February 1985)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Research progress in the following areas is reported: (1) scintillation cell development and applications, (2) charcoal adsorption development and applications; (3) surveys with Terradex detectors; (4) radon carcinogenesis epidemiology; (5) large scale surveys of radon concentrations in randomly selected houses; (6) ventilation rate studies; (7) soil studies; (8) diffusion of radon through materials other than soil; and (9) test house studies

  16. Attachment security as a mechanism linking foster care placement to improved mental health outcomes in previously institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Children reared in institutions experience elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Inability to form a secure attachment relationship to a primary caregiver is posited to be a central mechanism in this association. We determined whether the ameliorative effect of a foster care (FC) intervention on internalizing disorders in previously institutionalized children was explained by the development of secure attachment among children placed in FC. Second we evaluated the role of lack of attachment in an institutionalized sample on the etiology of internalizing disorders within the context of a randomized trial. A sample of 136 children (aged 6-30 months) residing in institutions was recruited in Bucharest, Romania. Children were randomized to FC (n = 68) or to care as usual (CAU; n = 68). Foster parents were recruited, trained, and overseen by the investigative team. Attachment security at 42 months was assessed using the Strange Situation Procedure, and internalizing disorders at 54 months were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Girls in FC had fewer internalizing disorders than girls in CAU (OR = 0.17, p = .006). The intervention had no effect on internalizing disorders in boys (OR = 0.47, p = .150). At 42 months, girls in FC were more likely to have secure attachment than girls in CAU (OR = 12.5, p security predicted lower rates of internalizing disorders in both sexes. Development of attachment security fully mediated intervention effects on internalizing disorders in girls. Placement into FC facilitated the development of secure attachment and prevented the onset of internalizing disorders in institutionalized girls. The differential effects of FC on attachment security in boys and girls explained gender differences in the intervention effects on psychopathology. Findings provide evidence for the critical role of disrupted attachment in the etiology of internalizing disorders in children exposed to institutionalization. © 2011 The Authors

  17. Children in Medical Research : Ethical challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Bos (Wendy)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPaediatric research ethics evolves around a central dilemma. Either one has to accept that many childhood diseases cannot be (properly) treated and that many children receive treatments that are not (properly) tested in children, or one has to accept that children, i.e. vulnerable

  18. A Review of Previous Research in Direct Energy Conversion Fission Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUONG, HENRY; POLANSKY, GARY F.; SANDERS, THOMAS L.; SIEGEL, MALCOLM D.

    1999-01-01

    From the earliest days of power reactor development, direct energy conversion was an obvious choice to produce high efficiency electric power generation. Directly capturing the energy of the fission fragments produced during nuclear fission avoids the intermediate conversion to thermal energy and the efficiency limitations of classical thermodynamics. Efficiencies of more than 80% are possible, independent of operational temperature. Direct energy conversion fission reactors would possess a number of unique characteristics that would make them very attractive for commercial power generation. These reactors would be modular in design with integral power conversion and operate at low pressures and temperatures. They would operate at high efficiency and produce power well suited for long distance transmission. They would feature large safety margins and passively safe design. Ideally suited to production by advanced manufacturing techniques, direct energy conversion fission reactors could be produced more economically than conventional reactor designs. The history of direct energy conversion can be considered as dating back to 1913 when Moseleyl demonstrated that charged particle emission could be used to buildup a voltage. Soon after the successful operation of a nuclear reactor, E.P. Wigner suggested the use of fission fragments for direct energy conversion. Over a decade after Wigner's suggestion, the first theoretical treatment of the conversion of fission fragment kinetic energy into electrical potential appeared in the literature. Over the ten years that followed, a number of researchers investigated various aspects of fission fragment direct energy conversion. Experiments were performed that validated the basic physics of the concept, but a variety of technical challenges limited the efficiencies that were achieved. Most research in direct energy conversion ceased in the US by the late 1960s. Sporadic interest in the concept appears in the literature until this

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in developmental stuttering: Relations with previous neurophysiological research and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, P; Battaglini, P P; Sommer, M

    2017-06-01

    Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography. Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in DS have been uncommon until recently. This is surprising considering the relationship between the functionality of the motor system and DS, and the wide use of TMS in motor-related disturbances such as Parkinson's Disease, Tourette's Syndrome, and dystonia. Consequently, TMS could shed further light on motor aspects of DS. The present work aims to investigate the use of TMS for understanding DS neural mechanisms by reviewing TMS papers in the DS field. Until now, TMS has contributed to the understanding of the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of DS motor functioning, also helping to better understand and critically review evidence about stuttering mechanisms obtained from different techniques, which allowed the investigation of cortico-basal-thalamo-cortical and white matter/connection dysfunctions. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Research in Review. Malnutrition and Children's Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Baxter, Delia H.

    1981-01-01

    Indicates how various degrees of malnutrition affect children's development. Reviews research conducted in several developing countries and the United States, and describes the nutritional status of children in the United States. Implications for nutrition programs, research and policy formation are pointed out. (Author/RH)

  1. Ethical issues in research on children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Slađana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethical issues that appear in researching children are the subject matter of relatively rich scientific literature, as well as a multitude of national and professional ethical codices. The broad thematization of ethical principles is indeed instigated by the rise of awareness of the seriousness of this problem, as well as by growing fears of potential abuse of children in contemporary research projects. General assertion that children are a vulnerable category of subjects that require special attention and protection from misuse in research projects prevails in literature. The main objective of this paper is to present general ethical issues that various areas of expertise researchers face when children and youth are the subjects of their studies. The principle of voluntary participation, the principle of balanced researcher - respondent relationship, and the principles of privacy, confidentiality and anonymity in studies of children are particularly presented.

  2. Traumatic dental injury research: on children or with children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann; Rogers, Helen J; Zaitoun, Halla; Rodd, Helen D; Gilchrist, Fiona; Marshman, Zoe

    2017-06-01

    It is widely acknowledged that children should participate in healthcare decisions, service development and even setting research agendas. Dental traumatology is a major component of paediatric dentistry practice and research. However, little is known about young patients' contribution to new knowledge in this field. The aim of the study was to establish the extent to which children are involved in contemporary dental trauma research and to evaluate the quality of the related literature. A systematic review of the dental trauma literature was conducted from 2006 to 2014. The electronic databases, MEDLINE and Scopus, were used to identify relevant studies. The selected papers were independently examined by five calibrated reviewers. Studies were categorized by the degree of children's involvement and appraised using a validated quality assessment tool. The initial search yielded 4374 papers. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 96 studies remained. Research on children accounted for 87.5% of papers, and a proxy was involved in 4.2%. Children were engaged to some degree in only 8.3% of studies, and there were no studies where children were active research participants. In the quality assessment exercise, papers scored, on average, 57% (range = 14-86%). There is scope to encourage more active participation of children in dental trauma research in the future. Furthermore, there are some areas where the quality of research could be improved overall. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Qualitative Research Methods to Advance Research on Health Inequities among Previously Incarcerated Women Living with HIV in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Courtenay; Scanlon, Michael L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Justice-involved HIV-positive women have poor health outcomes that constitute health inequities. Researchers have yet to embrace the range of qualitative methods to elucidate how psychosocial histories are connected to pathways of vulnerability to HIV and incarceration for this key population. We used life course narratives and…

  4. Research of Fears of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkabayeva, Aiman E.; Dakhbay, Beybitkhan D.; Oleksyuk, Z?ryana Ya.; Tykezhanova, Gulmira M.; Alshynbekova, Gulnaziya K.; Starikova, Anna Ye.

    2016-01-01

    One of the symptoms of neurosis at preschool age children is fear. In our opinion, research in this area will help to solve a number of problems of children of preschool age, including difficulties of acceptance on themselves in the new social roles in relation from kindergarten transition to school adjustment problems and a number of other…

  5. Research You Can Use: Marketing to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines marketing literature for profit-oriented organizations and discusses how those principles can be applied to public library services for children. Topics addressed include children as a source of revenue; market research; product development; promotion; retailing; and implications for public libraries, including population trends and…

  6. The Role of Research in Children's Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P. J.; Aston, F. M.

    1990-01-01

    Presents four educational experiments reflecting Jerome Bruner's theories on iconic and enactive representation to emphasize the need for more research on how children learn. Advocates greater institutional cooperation among schools, teachers, and researchers to improve research implementation and reduce problems of school disruption and…

  7. Estimation of Resting Energy Expenditure: Validation of Previous and New Predictive Equations in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar-Tek, Nilüfer; Ağagündüz, Duygu; Çelik, Bülent; Bozbulut, Rukiye

    2017-08-01

    Accurate estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) in childrenand adolescents is important to establish estimated energy requirements. The aim of the present study was to measure REE in obese children and adolescents by indirect calorimetry method, compare these values with REE values estimated by equations, and develop the most appropriate equation for this group. One hundred and three obese children and adolescents (57 males, 46 females) between 7 and 17 years (10.6 ± 2.19 years) were recruited for the study. REE measurements of subjects were made with indirect calorimetry (COSMED, FitMatePro, Rome, Italy) and body compositions were analyzed. In females, the percentage of accurate prediction varied from 32.6 (World Health Organization [WHO]) to 43.5 (Molnar and Lazzer). The bias for equations was -0.2% (Kim), 3.7% (Molnar), and 22.6% (Derumeaux-Burel). Kim's (266 kcal/d), Schmelzle's (267 kcal/d), and Henry's equations (268 kcal/d) had the lowest root mean square error (RMSE; respectively 266, 267, 268 kcal/d). The equation that has the highest RMSE values among female subjects was the Derumeaux-Burel equation (394 kcal/d). In males, when the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had the lowest accurate prediction value (12.3%), the highest values were found using Schmelzle's (42.1%), Henry's (43.9%), and Müller's equations (fat-free mass, FFM; 45.6%). When Kim and Müller had the smallest bias (-0.6%, 9.9%), Schmelzle's equation had the smallest RMSE (331 kcal/d). The new specific equation based on FFM was generated as follows: REE = 451.722 + (23.202 * FFM). According to Bland-Altman plots, it has been found out that the new equations are distributed randomly in both males and females. Previously developed predictive equations mostly provided unaccurate and biased estimates of REE. However, the new predictive equations allow clinicians to estimate REE in an obese children and adolescents with sufficient and acceptable accuracy.

  8. Physical education teachers' attitudes towards children with intellectual disability: the impact of time in service, gender, and previous acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, D; Nalbant, S; Aǧlamıș, E; Baran, F; Kaya Samut, P; Aktop, A; Hutzler, Y

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated attitudes towards teaching students with intellectual disability (ID) within a representative sample of secondary school physical education (PE) teachers, and to determine the effects of age, gender, teaching experience, and having acquaintance with ID and students with ID on their attitudes. Participants were 729 secondary school PE teachers who worked in 81 major cities of Turkey. The Teachers Attitudes towards Children with Intellectual Disability Scale was administered. The statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant effect on factors and total attitudes scores of gender and having students with ID. Significant effects on factors and total attitudes score were found in teaching experiences and having acquaintance with ID. It is encouraged to maintain and further develop in-service education programmes of adapted physical activity for PE teachers. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  9. Cognitive functioning in children and adolescents in their first episode of psychosis: differences between previous cannabis users and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Serna, Elena; Mayoral, María; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso; Andrés, Patricia; Bombin, Igor; González, Cristina; Rapado, Marta; Robles, Olalla; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose Manuel; Zabala, Arantzazu; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between cognition and prior cannabis use in children and adolescents presenting a first episode of psychosis. A total of 107 patients with first episode of psychosis and 96 healthy controls, aged 9 to 17 years, were interviewed about their previous substance use and to assess their cognitive functions. Patients were assessed while not using cannabis by means of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. They were divided into 2 groups depending on the history of prior cannabis use: cannabis users (CU) and cannabis nonusers (CNU). Significant differences were found in all areas evaluated between the 3 groups. Both CU and CNU patients obtained lower scores than controls on verbal learning and memory and working memory. Patients with prior cannabis use performed better on some tests of attention (Continuous performance test (CPT) number of correct responses, p = 0.002; CPT average reaction time, p < 0.001) and executive functions (Trail Making Test, part B (TMT-B) number of mistakes, p < 0.001; Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) number of categories completed, p < 0.001) than CNU patients. CU patients performed better than CNU subjects on some cognitive measures. This may indicate lower individual vulnerability for psychosis in CU patients in whom cannabis use can be a precipitating factor of psychotic episodes.

  10. Situated ethics in collaborative research with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    an epistemological as well as an ontological necessity. The paper discusses how a renegotiation of ethics is particularly difficult whilst engaging in a project investigating everyday media experiences of young children (aged 3-6) at a German day care centre. Albeit the children were explicitly considered co......-researchers to the research questions, the most visible negotiations of enacted ethics took place among the participating adults: researcher, parents, and pedagogues – thereby potentially shunning the children’s perspectives on the research process. Nevertheless does the paper argue that an iterative renegotiation of ethics...... took place also with the children, and that the principle challenge lies in rendering these renegotiations visible in academic publications. It proposes conceptual developments that draw on both New Materialism and the Psychology from the Standpoint of the Subject in order to tackle this challenge....

  11. Therapeutic research on children in low–income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2015-01-01

    -established institutions in Africa show that parents eagerly have their children ‘join’ such projects. They assess benefits and risks less in research terms and more through overall trust in care provided previously by such institutions in the community. Bioethics should go beyond concern with protecting individual......Social scientists undertaking studies in developing countries focus on ‘trial communities’: networks of funders, institutions, researchers, clinical staff, fieldworkers, and study participants. Whereas bioethicists consider universal ethical requirements, social scientists examine ethical practices...... subjects from research risks and should view clinical care and research functions as indistinguishable for many who seek sustained support for the children’s health....

  12. Qualitative research with children : the perspectives of elite researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Carmel A.

    2011-01-01

    This quantative study investigates the ways in which leading children’s researchers position themselves in their research relationships with children in qualitative research within psychology and the broader ‘childhood studies’ paradigm. Against the backdrop of the continuing prevalence of a positivist-empiricist approach within psychology, the conceptual focus of the present study is rooted in the multiple challenges to developmental psychology in recent decades, from within and outside the ...

  13. ELSA for Children Legal Research Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    In order to support the Council of Europe ONE in FIVE Campaign to stop sexual violence against children, to contribute to the protection of children’s rights in Europe and to increase the awareness of law students on the subject, ELSA created a network-wide Legal Research Group (LRG) called ‘ELSA...... for Children’. Throughout 2012, 250 students from 23 countries carried out research on the implementation of European and international instruments protecting children against violence and sexual abuse. The project resulted in a final report compiling national data on the different definitions and legal...

  14. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  15. Traffic education for children 4-12 years old. [Previously known as: Traffic education of children 4-12 years old.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Traffic education for children is of the utmost importance as a basis for safe traffic participation; not only formal education at schools, but especially continuous education of children by parents. Since the brains of children have not yet developed completely, there is a limit to what children

  16. Research utilization among children's mental health providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson H Bruce

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. Results There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use – access, assess, adapt, and apply – research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. Conclusion These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.

  17. Research utilization among children's mental health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Melanie A; Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Ferguson, H Bruce; Blase, Karen; Fixsen, Dean

    2008-04-09

    Children with emotional and behavioural disorders should be able to count on receiving care that meets their needs and is based on the best scientific evidence available, however, many do not receive these services. Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) relies, in part, on the research utilization practices of mental health care providers. This study reports on a survey of research utilization practices among 80 children's mental health (CMH) service provider organizations in Ontario, Canada. A web-based survey was distributed to 80 CMH service provider organizations, to which 51 executive directors and 483 children's mental health practitioners responded. Research utilization was assessed using questions with Likert-type responses based on the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's Four-A's approach: access, assess, adapt, apply. There was general agreement among executive directors and practitioners regarding the capacity of their organizations to use - access, assess, adapt, and apply - research evidence. Overall, both groups rated their organizations as using research information 'somewhat well.' The low response rate to the practitioner survey should be noted. These findings provide a useful benchmark from which changes in reported research utilization in the Ontario CMH sector can be tracked over time, as a function of EBP training and implementation initiatives, for instance. The need to improve access to research evidence should be addressed because it relates to the eventual implementation and uptake of evidence-based practices. Communities of practice are recommended as a strategy that would enable practitioners to build capacity in their adaptation and application of research evidence.

  18. One month after diagnosis: quality of life, coping and previous functioning in siblings of children with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Houtzager, BA; Grootenhuis, MA; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Last, BF

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the quality of life (QoL) of siblings of children with cancer and to predict it according to their health before the diagnosis of cancer in the ill child and their ways of coping with the illness. Methods Participants were 83 siblings from 56 families - 46 girls and 37 boys, aged 7-18. The assessment took place 1 month to 8 weeks after the diagnosis of cancer in the ill child. The siblings' QoL was assessed with the TNO-AZL children's qua...

  19. One month after diagnosis: quality of life, coping and previous functioning in siblings of children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, B. A.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J. E. H. M.; Last, B. F.

    2005-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the quality of life (QoL) of siblings of children with cancer and to predict it according to their health before the diagnosis of cancer in the ill child and their ways of coping with the illness. Methods Participants were 83 siblings from 56

  20. One month after diagnosis : quality of life, coping and previous functioning in siblings of children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtzager, BA; Grootenhuis, MA; Hoekstra-Weebers, JEHM; Last, BF

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the quality of life (QoL) of siblings of children with cancer and to predict it according to their health before the diagnosis of cancer in the ill child and their ways of coping with the illness. Methods Participants were 83 siblings from 56

  1. Previous Gardening Experience and Gardening Enjoyment Is Related to Vegetable Preferences and Consumption Among Low-Income Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Fair, Cori N; Jennings, Rose; Warren, Judith L

    2016-10-01

    To examine if gardening experience and enjoyment are associated with vegetable exposure, preferences, and consumption of vegetables among low-income third-grade children. Cross-sectional study design, using baseline data from the Texas! Grow! Eat! Go! Twenty-eight Title I elementary schools located in different counties in Texas. Third-grade students (n = 1,326, 42% Hispanic) MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gardening experience, gardening enjoyment, vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Random-effects regression models, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and body mass index percentile of child, estimated means and standard errors of vegetable consumption, exposure, and preference by levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Wald χ 2 tests evaluated the significance of differences in means of outcomes across levels of gardening experience and enjoyment. Children with more gardening experience had greater vegetable exposure and higher vegetable preference and consumed more vegetables compared with children who reported less gardening experience. Those who reported that they enjoyed gardening had the highest levels of vegetable exposure, preference, and consumption. Garden-based interventions can have an important and positive effect on children's vegetable consumption by increasing exposure to fun gardening experiences. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fear and anxiety previous to dental treatment in children from Acaraú-CE - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2010.p358

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Barreto Gonçalves Marques

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the main causing factors of fear and anxiety of children previously to dental treatment. Methods: A descriptive and qualitative study held in the municipal district of Acaraú - CE with 10 children aged 4 to 6 years old, who did not present strong pain between August and September, 2006. At first, we applied the modified VPT (Venham Picture Test, an instrument containing a set of figures of children in different emotional states, which were presented to each child so that he pointed to what he considered to be further identified at the time. The second test, held before the consultation, consisted in asking to the children to free-hand draw the dental office, the dentist and auxiliary personnel asking to each child: what do you think about the dental office and the dentist? The drawings were submitted to idiographic analysis and categorized in units of significance for interpretation. Results: Three children on VPT and nine children on the drawings presented an increased level of anxiety. Causing factors such as the motor (high speed rotation, tooth extraction and white clothes could be found. Final considerations: By means of drawing we were able to efficiently obtain results in identifying some factors that cause fear and anxiety to the child patient. The modified VPT showed to be quick, easy to apply and acceptable to children, but sometimes was contradictory with the drawings.

  3. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's self reported discomforts as participants in clinical research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staphorst, M.S.; Hunfeld, J.A.M.; van de Vathorst, S.; Passchier, J.; van Goudoever, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is little empirical evidence on children's subjective experiences of discomfort during clinical research procedures. Therefore, Institutional Review Boards have limited empirical information to guide their decision-making on discomforts for children in clinical research. To get

  5. Children's self reported discomforts as participants in clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staphorst, Mira S.; Hunfeld, Joke A. M.; van de Vathorst, Suzanne; Passchier, Jan; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2015-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence on children's subjective experiences of discomfort during clinical research procedures. Therefore, Institutional Review Boards have limited empirical information to guide their decision-making on discomforts for children in clinical research. To get more insight

  6. Consent to research by mentally ill children and adolescents: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the Act's statutory requirements relating to the informed consent to participation in clinical research by mentally ill children and adolescents in South Africa are examined. The necessity of doing clinical research in mentally ill children and ...

  7. Efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder previously treated with methylphenidate: a post hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Rakesh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurobehavioral psychiatric disorder that afflicts children, with a reported prevalence of 2.4% to 19.8% worldwide. Stimulants (methylphenidate [MPH] and amphetamine are considered first-line ADHD pharmacotherapy. MPH is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor, whereas amphetamines have additional presynaptic activity. Although MPH and amphetamine can effectively manage ADHD symptoms in most pediatric patients, many still fail to respond optimally to either. After administration, the prodrug stimulant lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX is converted to l-lysine and therapeutically active d-amphetamine in the blood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of LDX in children with ADHD who remained symptomatic (ie, nonremitters; ADHD Rating Scale IV [ADHD-RS-IV] total score > 18 on MPH therapy prior to enrollment in a 4-week placebo-controlled LDX trial, compared with the overall population. Methods In this post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, forced-dose titration study, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of LDX in children aged 6-12 years with and without prior MPH treatment at screening. ADHD symptoms were assessed using the ADHD-RS-IV scale, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised short form (CPRS-R, and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale, at screening, baseline, and endpoint. ADHD-RS-IV total and CPRS-R ADHD Index scores were summarized as mean (SD. Clinical response for the subgroup analysis was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction from baseline in ADHD-RS-IV score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2. Dunnett test was used to compare change from baseline in all groups. Number needed to treat to achieve one clinical responder or one symptomatic remitter was calculated as the reciprocal of the difference in their proportions on active treatment and placebo at endpoint. Results Of 290 randomized participants enrolled, 28

  8. Research on the Boost of Development on Young Children's Fine Motor by Folk Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia

    2016-01-01

    As Chinese traditional folk culture, folk games have unique educational value which can boost the development of young children's fine motor. Based on previous investigation of fine motor skill of children in Nanchong, Sichuan Province, the researcher chose a middle class in public city kindergarten A with lower survey score as the study object.…

  9. Children as Researchers in Primary Schools: Choice, Voice and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucknall, Sue

    2012-01-01

    "Children as Researchers in Primary Schools" is an innovative and unique resource for practitioners supporting children to become "real world" researchers in the primary classroom. It will supply you with the skills and ideas you need to implement a "children as researchers" framework in your school that can be adapted for different ages and…

  10. Chiropractic and children: Is more research enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leboeuf-Yde Charlotte

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many health science research and review articles end with the words: "More research is needed". However, when it comes to research, it is not as much a question of quantity as of quality. There are a number of important prerequisites before research should be initiated. The three pillars, relevance, quality and ethics should be respected but for a project to be meaningful, it must also be based on plausible rationale. In evidence-based (informed practice, one takes into account not only research-based evidence but also clinical expertise and the patients' perspectives. In this paper, we briefly discuss how this should be handled in clinical practice is briefly discussed, using the concept of "traffic lights" (red, yellow, green. We explain how the combination of evidence and plausibility can be used to reach a decision as to whether a treatment or diagnostic procedure is suitable, possible, or unsuitable. In this thematic series of Chiropractic & Osteopathy a number of reviews are presented, in which the research status of pediatric chiropractic is scrutinized and found wanting. Two important aspects were studied in these reviews: the effect of treatment and safety issues. Two types of problems were identified: the lack of research in general and the lack of research using the appropriate study designs and methodology in particular. Therefore, we discuss the meager research noted in the areas of chiropractic care in children and the clinical consequences this should have. The prerequisites for "more research" are scrutinized and an example given of suitable research programs. Finally, the important issue of implementation of research findings is covered, emphasizing the responsibility of all stakeholders involved at both the undergraduate and the postgraduate level, within professional associations, and on an individual level.

  11. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Bradley L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Donnelly, Lane F. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shott, Sally R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of lingual tonsil size as depicted on MR imaging between children with obstructive sleep apnea despite previous tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and normal controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Bradley L.; Donnelly, Lane F.; Shott, Sally R.; Kalra, Maninder; Poe, Stacy A.; Chini, Barbara A.; Amin, Raouf S.

    2006-01-01

    Cine MRI has become a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with persistent obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) despite previous surgical intervention and in patients with underlying conditions that render them susceptible to multilevel airway obstruction. Findings on cine MRI studies have also increased our understanding of the mechanisms and anatomic causes of OSA in children. To compare lingual tonsil size between children with OSA and a group of normal controls. In addition, a subanalysis was made of the group of children with OSA comparing lingual tonsils between children with and without underlying Down syndrome. Children with persistent OSA despite previous palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy and controls without OSA underwent MR imaging with sagittal fast spin echo inversion-recovery images, and lingual tonsils were categorized as nonperceptible at imaging or present and measurable. When present, lingual tonsils were measured in the maximum anterior-posterior diameter. If lingual tonsils were greater than 10 mm in diameter and abutting both the posterior border of the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall, they were considered markedly enlarged. There were statistically significant differences between the OSA and control groups for the presence vs. nonvisualization of lingual tonsils (OSA 33% vs. control 0%, P=0.0001) and mean diameter of the lingual tonsils (OSA 9.50 mm vs. control 0.0 mm, P=0.00001). Within the OSA group, there were statistically significant differences between children with and without Down syndrome for the three lingual tonsil width categories (P=0.0070) and occurrence of markedly enlarged lingual tonsils (with Down syndrome 35% vs. without Down syndrome 3%, P=0.0035). Enlargement of the lingual tonsils is relatively common in children with persistent obstructive sleep apnea after palatine tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. This is particularly true in patients with Down syndrome. (orig.)

  13. Art experience in research with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Maj

    In art and drawing children can visually articulate pre-reflexive phenomena such as feelings, emotions, experiences, intentions and engagement. Research can include children’s art and drawings to study such phenomena and how they can be articulated and thematized in non-verbal/visual articulation...... and discuss how the construct ‘aesthetic object’ may offer researchers an approach to non-verbal/visual articulation that can explicitly include the researcher’s sensory and aesthetic experiences as knowledge. Examples from studies including children’s art and drawings are part of the presentation. The paper....... The researcher’s pre-reflexive sensory and aesthetic experiences often contribute to the immediate interpretations of such data. It is a challenge to make the ways in which art and drawings in specific ways contribute to interpretation and knowledge transparent in research. The aim of this paper is to describe...

  14. Student Teachers' Distinctive Contributions to Research on Primary School Children's Beliefs about Knowledge and Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Ruth; Hargreaves, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Student teachers' research is usually valued more for its contribution to their professional learning than for its contribution to the research topic itself. This paper reports on a research collaboration with eight student primary teachers in England, intended to build on a previously established project investigating young children's…

  15. 78 FR 8490 - Notice of Intent To Request Revision of the Previously Requested Experimental Economic Research-A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... techniques, including laboratory and field techniques, exploratory interviews, pilot experiments and... be managed for research purposes only. Specific details regarding information handling will be...

  16. Children's Rights and Research Processes: Assisting Children to (In)formed Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Laura; McEvoy, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Acknowledging children as rights-holders has significant implications for research processes. What is distinctive about a children's rights informed approach to research is a focus not only on safe, inclusive and engaging opportunities for children to express their views but also on deliberate strategies to assist children in the formation of…

  17. Children's nursing research: toward development, drudgery or demise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tony

    This paper, based on a presentation to the UK Association of Chief Children's Nurses, is the author's personal reflection on the nature and future of children's nursing research. Key constitutive elements of this concept are considered to arrive at the conclusion that children's nursing research is research undertaken by children's nurses into questions of relevance to children's nursing practice and services, or wider issues in which children's nursing has a vital role. Three possible futures are presented, of which only the last is positive and desirable: development in line with the reality of practice and population needs. An integrated approach is necessary, with responsibilities both for those in positions of authority in the service and for researchers themselves. In particular, this partnership is essential for children's nursing to evidence the impact of research and for children and young people to reap the greatest benefit from evidence-based practice.

  18. Reasons for placement of restorations on previously unrestored tooth surfaces by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nascimento, Marcelle M; Gordan, Valeria V; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a study to identify and quantify the reasons used by dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials they used in doing so....

  19. Exploring the New Paradigm for Researching with Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Dianne; Ellis, Julia

    2006-01-01

    Understanding children's experience is increasingly a key purpose of much educational research. In contrast to traditional approaches to the study of children that emphasized the socialization of children through various stages of development, researchers within the social constructionism perspective begin with an insistence that childhood is a…

  20. Researching children's perspectives in pediatric palliative care: A systematic review and meta-summary of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirotto, Luca; Busani, Elena; Salvati, Michela; Di Marco, Valeria; Caldarelli, Valeria; Artioli, Giovanna

    2018-05-29

    Qualitative research is pivotal in gaining understanding of individuals' experiences in pediatric palliative care. In the past few decades, the number of qualitative studies on pediatric palliative care has increased slightly, as has interest in qualitative research in this area. Nonetheless, a limited number of such studies have included the first-person perspective of children. The aim of this article is to understand the contribution of previous qualitative research on pediatric palliative care that included the voices of children. A systematic review of qualitative studies and a meta-summary were conducted. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and ERIC were searched without limitations on publication date or language. Eligible articles were qualitative research articles in which the participants were children ranging in age from 3 to 18 years.ResultWe retrieved 16 qualitative research articles reporting on 12 unique studies, and we selected two mixed-method articles. The meta-summary shows eight themes: the relationship with professional caregivers, pain and its management, "living beyond pain," the relationship between pediatric patients and their families, children's view on their treatment and service provision, meanings children give to their end-of-life situation, consequences of clinical decisions, and the relationships among children in pediatric palliative care and their peers.Significance of resultsThis meta-summary presents the "state of the art" of pediatric palliative care qualitative research on children and highlights additional research areas that warrant qualitative study.

  1. Using a research framework to identify knowledge gaps in research on food marketing to children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley

    2009-06-01

    Research in the field of food marketing to children requires a better understanding of the research gaps in order to inform policy development. The purpose of this paper was to propose a framework for classifying food marketing research, using Australian research on food marketing to children to demonstrate how this framework can be used to determine knowledge gaps. A literature review of research databases and 'grey' material was conducted to identify research from the previous 10 years. Studies were classified according to their research focus, and media type, as either: exposure, including content analyses; effects of exposure, including opinions, attitudes and actions resulting from food marketing exposure; regulations, including the type and level of regulation that applies to food marketing; or breaches of regulations, including instances where marketing regulations have been violated. The majority of Australian research on food marketing to children has focused on television advertising and exposure research. Research has consistently shown that the content of food marketing directed at children is predominately for unhealthy foods. There is a lack of research on the effects of food marketing, which would be valuable to inform policy. The development of a logical framework for food marketing research allows for the identification of research gaps and enables research priorities to be identified.

  2. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahiyo Rajabu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  3. Comparison of Updated Weight and Height Percentiles with Previous References in 6-17-Year-Old Children in Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zararsız, Gökmen; Çiçek, Betül; Kondolot, Meda; Mazıcıoğlu, M Mümtaz; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-03-01

    To compare updated weight and height percentiles of 6-17-year-old children from all socio-economic levels in Kayseri with previous local references and other national/international data. The second study "Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study (DAMTCA II)" was conducted in Kayseri, between October 2007 and April 2008. Weight and height measurements from 4321 (1926 boys, 2395 girls) school children aged between 6 to 17 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Using these data, weight and height percentile curves were produced with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and compared with the most recent references. Smoothed percentile curves including the 3 rd , 5 th , 10 th , 15 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th , 85 th , 90 th , 95 th , and 97 th percentiles were obtained for boys and girls. These results were compared with DAMTCA I study and with two national (İstanbul and Ankara) and international data from Asia and from Europe. This study provides updated weight and height references for Turkish school children aged between 6 and 17 years residing in Kayseri.

  4. Colon cleansing protocol in children: research conditions vs. clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitsur, Yoram; Balfaqih, Yaslam; Preston, Deborah

    2018-04-01

     Colon preparation rates are the limiting factor for a successful diagnostic colonoscopy in children. Different colon cleansing protocols have been published for use in children. Unfortunately, the applicability of those published research protocols has not been formally evaluated in routine clinical practice. We investigated the success rate of our previously published colon cleansing protocol as utilized in our clinical practice.  This was a retrospective study. In the clinical practice, the colon cleansing protocol included PEG-3350 at a dose of 2 g/kg/day plus Dulcolax (Bisacodyl, Boehringer Ingelheim, TX USA) 5 mg/day for 2 days. Adequate colon preparation was graded between 1 - 5, as previously described, and grade ≥ 4.0 was considered an adequate preparation. Patients were instructed to complete a questionnaire that included PEG-3350 dose, number of stools per day, consistency of each stool, and side effects (vomiting, abdominal pain). Clinical and endoscopic results were compared between the protocol under research conditions and routine practice.  The success rate of the colon preparation in our clinical practice was similar to the results observed under our research protocol (75 % vs. 73.6 %). Moreover, the total number of stools, stool consistency, and the intubation rate of the terminal ileum were also similar. We concluded, that in our experience, the colon cleansing protocol used under research conditions was effective and appropriate for use in routine clinical practice.  We recommend testing each new protocol under the routine conditions of clinical practice to confirm its applicability for general practitioners.

  5. Children's Rights in Education Research: From Aims to Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hilary A.; Haslett, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    One approach to children's rights in research is to adopt a methodology that focuses on eliciting children's perspectives. Ensuring representative participation from all children allows a diversity of contexts to be reflected in the results, and points to ways in which improvements can be made in specific settings. In cultural contexts where…

  6. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  7. Heart rate, salivary α-amylase activity, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhakis, Aristidis; Menexes, George; Coolidge, Trilby; Kalfas, Sotirios

    2012-01-01

    Psychosomatic indicators, such as heart rate (HR), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) activity, and behavior, can be used to determine stress. This study's aim was to assess the pattern of changes of salivary alpha amylase, heart rate, and cooperative behavior in previously naïve children receiving dental treatment under local anesthesia. Included were 30 children with no prior dental experience who needed 4 or more sessions of dental treatment involving local anesthesia. In each session, sAA, HR, and behavior were assessed before and during the application of local anesthesia and at the end of the treatment. The highest sAA value was always observed at the end of each session; overall, the value was lower in the fourth session. HR always increased during the local anesthesia, and did not vary across sessions. No significant relationship was found between child cooperation and either sAA or HR. In this sample, child cooperation may not be an accurate indicator of stress. Based on salivary alpha amylase activity changes, dental treatment involving local anesthesia in naïve children appeared to be less stressful after 3 sessions.

  8. Ethics in Researching Young Children's Play in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne Værum

    2014-01-01

    uncomfortable in the situation? How does the researcher know if a child wants to withdraw from the research? The permission has to be negotiated in relation to the specific child and in the specific situation. Examples from a study of children's physical activities in sprots preschool are applied to illustrate......This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done......, but there is a lack of understanding methodological reflections and knowledge of guidelines in research of the topic. Researchers can get permission from parents and pedagogues to film children, but how can a researcher get an informed permission from the children? And how can a researcher detect if a child feel...

  9. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, J.; Jorna, M.; Hume, C.; Arundell, L.; Chahine, N.; Tienstra, M.L.; Crawford, D.

    2011-01-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered

  10. Children's Literature in the Undergraduate Course on Communication Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Students will develop positive attitudes toward communication research by linking new values and principles with the familiar values and principles contained in children's literature. Course: Communication Research Methods.

  11. Functional MRI in children: clinical and research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, James L.; Holland, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI has become a critical research tool for evaluating brain function and developmental trajectories in children. Its clinical use in children is becoming more common. This presentation will review the basic underlying physiologic and technical aspects of fMRI, review research applications that have direct clinical relevance, and outline the current clinical uses of this technology. (orig.)

  12. Teaching and Learning Children's Human Rights: A Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantefors, Lotta; Quennerstedt, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The study presented in this paper is a research synthesis examining how issues relating to the teaching and learning of children's human rights have been approached in educational research. Drawing theoretically on the European Didaktik tradition, the purpose of the paper is to map and synthesise the educational interest in children's rights…

  13. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  14. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  15. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

    2013-04-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning.

  16. Children in Single-Parent Families Living in Poverty Have Fewer Supports after Welfare Reform. IWPR Research in Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyter, Deanna M.; Sills, Melissa; Oh, Gi-Taik

    Since the 1996 passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (welfare reform), impoverished children in single-parent families receive less aid than under the previous system, and the most disadvantaged of these children have slipped deeper into poverty. This research brief summarizes a study that explored the economic well-being…

  17. Young Children Learning for the Environment: Researching a Forest Adventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Agatha; Davis, Julie; Rowntree, Noeleen

    2009-01-01

    Field experiences for young children are an ideal medium for environmental education/education for sustainability because of opportunities for direct experience in nature, integrated learning, and high community involvement. This research documented the development--in 4-5 year old Prep children--of knowledge, attitudes and actions/advocacy in…

  18. Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both…

  19. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  20. Comic strips help children understand medical research: targeting the informed consent procedure to children's needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootens-Wiegers, Petronella; de Vries, Martine C; van Beusekom, Mara M; van Dijck, Laura; van den Broek, Jos M

    2015-04-01

    Children involved in medical research often fail to comprehend essential research aspects. In order to improve information provision, a participatory approach was used to develop new information material explaining essential concepts of medical research. A draft of a comic strip was developed by a science communicator in collaboration with pediatricians. The draft was presented to children participating in a clinical trial and to two school classes. Children were consulted for further development in surveys and interviews. Subsequently, the material was revised and re-evaluated in four school classes with children of varying ages and educational levels. In the first evaluation, children provided feedback on the storyline, wording and layout. Children thought the comic strip was 'fun' and 'informative'. Understanding of 8 basic research aspects was on average 83% and all above 65%, illustrating that children understood and remembered key messages. A comic strip was developed to support the informed consent process. Children were consulted and provided feedback. The resulting material was well understood and accepted. Involving children in the development of information material can substantially contribute to the quality of the material. Children were excited to participate and to 'be a part of science'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sibling relationships of anxiety disordered children--a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Boer, Frits; Markus, Monica T.; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Maingay, Ragna; Borst, Sophie R.

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the role of sibling relationships in internalizing disorders. Research in nonclinical populations suggests an association between internalizing problems in children and negative sibling interactions. Further, an association is reported between internalizing

  2. Legibility in Children's Books: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Lynne; Nisbet, John

    This book reviews the research in the field of typography as it affects children's books and sets it in the context of research on reading. The contents include five chapters: "Problems of Definition and Measurement" discusses the various measures of legibility used in research studies. "The Reading Process" examines three…

  3. Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Michelann

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

  4. Children, health and gender: recognition in nursing research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Green, Lorraine

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the hitherto mostly unrecognised relationship between gender, health and children; its significance for nursing practice and how it has been considered in nursing research. Holistic nursing practice with children requires adequate assessment and consideration of all potential influences on children's lives. Socioeconomic disparities have received widespread attention and gender inequalities in adult health have been studied in some depth. The links between gender, health and children, however, have received little consideration. The paper first considers this context in depth; it then applies the context to research in practice. Systematic review. A systematic literature search was undertaken on four mainstream nursing research journals over 38 months up to February 2007. A total of 567 articles met the key word searches. Duplicates, opinion pieces and articles not focusing on children were removed. The remaining 23 nursing studies relevant to child health were examined for their gender sensitivity. Full consideration of gender issues was found largely to be absent in nursing research on children. Eight studies gave specific consideration to gender relevance, where boys and girls may have responded differently to care. Only six studies specifically addressed gender sensitivity. Allowing children a voice, however, was a strength in these studies, with 18 reflecting children's views directly. Major gaps still exist in research and theorisation relating to children, health and gender. These need to be acknowledged and investigated, particularly in relation to how they might impact on nursing care. Nursing practice and research needs to account for all potential health issues, of which gender may often be important.

  5. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...... for using these methods together for NM: ‘‘LC-based RA’’ (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and ‘‘RA-complemented LCA’’ (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods......While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...

  6. When all children comprehend: increasing the external validity of narrative comprehension development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Silas E.; Brown, Danielle D.

    2014-01-01

    Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children's play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation) proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children's later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives) with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability of narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives. PMID:24659973

  7. Research with Children: Challenges and Dilemmas as an Insider Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Won

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas raised by my own experience of researching an immigrant Korean child at an ethnic Sunday School where I taught. I review the ethical and methodological challenges raised in my interactions with the child as an insider researcher from the ways I approached consent forms through to interview…

  8. Recent Brain Research on Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Provides information about current brain research. Explains that some of the basic tenets that have guided research are outlined in R. Shore's "Rethinking the Brain: New Insights into Early Development." Offers five hypotheses: (1) nature/nurture; (2) effects of nurture; (3) optimal music learning; (4) minimal disadvantages; and (5) early music…

  9. Listening to Children's Voices: Children as Participants in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Marianne; Streelasky, Jodi; Coles, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the ways contemporary childhoods are being shaped by a range of multimodal communicative practices (Kress, "Literacy in the new media age," Routledge, New York, 2003; Lankshear and Knobel, "New literacies: Changing knowledge and classroom learning," Open University Press, Milton…

  10. Children Writing Ethnography: Children's Perspectives and Nomadic Thinking in Researching School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohti, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    This article makes a connection between narrative ethnography, childhood studies and new materialist theories in studying children's perspective on school. It presents "children writing ethnography" as an approach based on complexity and involving participatory research. The question of "what is happening in the classroom" is…

  11. Young Children's Research Behaviour? Children Aged Four to Eight Years Finding Solutions at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Children's research abilities have become increasingly recognised by adults, yet children remain excluded from the academy. This restricts children's freedom to make choices in matters affecting them, underestimates their capabilities and denies children particular rights. The present paper reports on young children's problem-solving as part of a…

  12. Research on Hippotherapy Effects in Children whith Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamfir MARCHIS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the interaction of children with special needs and horses, which attempts to demonstrate the effects of hipoterapy in helping children with disabilities. The research was conducted on a group of 20 children with disabilities who participated in this type of therapy for 8 months (January-August 2015 in Leorinţ Leisure Center and Riding Therapy, which owns 6 horses. This study was conducted by a psychologist pre- and post-evaluation and there were followed skills and cognitive function, motor skills, spatial-temporal orientation skills, sensory-perceptual organization, examining language and personality of children. In the first stage an initial assessment of children was made representing the starting point to see to what extent children are, what special needs they have and what gaps need to be recovered or what skills and qualities may be based in therapy. After 3 months of hippotherapy, in April 2015, there was made intermediar evaluation of beneficiaries to see if the intended results were achieved and where to optimise the therapy. The final evaluation was conducted in August 2015, after four months from the intermediar evaluation. Applying hippotherapy for children with various disabilities, it was found that children moving better, move better, speak more easily, communicate and become more careful. Besides outcomes of hippotherapy and results are measurable and easily to observe such as satisfaction to participate in hippotherapy sessions and getting  into contact with the horses.

  13. Research Institute for the Education of Exceptional Children. Research Report 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokyo Gakugei Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for the Education of Exceptional Children.

    This Japanese research report, with English abstracts, presents the following papers: "The Deterioration of the Intelligence with Age in Mental Retardation" (Atsushi Kanno and Souichi Hasimoto); "Development of Janken Skills in Autistic Children--Additional Data on Janken Echolalia in Normal Children" (Tohsuke Nomura);…

  14. Overcoming Limitations in Previous Research on Exercise as a Smoking Cessation Treatment: Rationale and Design of the “Quit for Health” Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Ussher, Michael; Dunsiger, Shira; Miranda, Robert; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Monti, Peter M.; Emerson, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been proposed as a stand-alone or adjunct smoking cessation treatment, but findings have been mixed. Laboratory studies have shown that individual exercise sessions lead to decreases in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings, but findings are limited by lack of follow-up and artificial settings. On the other hand, smoking cessation treatment RCTs have generally failed to show positive effects of exercise on smoking cessation, but have been plagued by poor and/or unverified compliance with exercise programs. This paper describes the rationale and design for Quit for Health (QFH)—an RCT designed to determine the efficacy of aerobic exercise as an adjunct smoking cessation treatment among women. To overcome limitations of previous research, compliance with the exercise (and wellness contact control) program is incentivized and directly observed, and ecological momentary assessment is used to examine change over time in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings in participants’ natural environments. PMID:24246818

  15. Next steps in research on children exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Ronald J; Feerick, Margaret M

    2003-09-01

    The papers in this special issue of Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review provided an overview of what is known about children's exposure to domestic violence, and include indications of gaps in extant research. These gaps and research needs are summarized in this conclusion. Specifically, there is need for further research in several broad areas: definition and measurement of children's exposure to domestic violence; development of research methods and statistical designs that provide detailed information and provide for evidence of intervention effectiveness; impact of domestic violence on parenting and family functioning; the role of child factors and exposure to violence factors in predicting developmental risk and resilience; medical and health consequences of exposure to violence; and the nature of child-system interaction in response to domestic violence. Research needs in these areas are discussed in greater detail, and specific questions are raised for further development.

  16. Informed consent instead of assent is appropriate in children from the age of twelve: Policy implications of new findings on children's competence to consent to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Irma M; De Vries, Martine C; Troost, Pieter W; Meynen, Gerben; Van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-11-09

    For many decades, the debate on children's competence to give informed consent in medical settings concentrated on ethical and legal aspects, with little empirical underpinnings. Recently, data from empirical research became available to advance the discussion. It was shown that children's competence to consent to clinical research could be accurately assessed by the modified MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research. Age limits for children to be deemed competent to decide on research participation have been studied: generally children of 11.2 years and above were decision-making competent, while children of 9.6 years and younger were not. Age was pointed out to be the key determining factor in children's competence. In this article we reflect on policy implications of these findings, considering legal, ethical, developmental and clinical perspectives. Although assessment of children's competence has a normative character, ethics, law and clinical practice can benefit from research data. The findings may help to do justice to the capacities children possess and challenges they may face when deciding about treatment and research options. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of standardized competence assessment in children on a case-by-case basis compared to application of a fixed age limit, and conclude that a selective implementation of case-by-case competence assessment in specific populations is preferable. We recommend the implementation of age limits based on empirical evidence. Furthermore, we elaborate on a suitable model for informed consent involving children and parents that would do justice to developmental aspects of children and the specific characteristics of the parent-child dyad. Previous research outcomes showed that children's medical decision-making capacities could be operationalized into a standardized assessment instrument. Recommendations for policies include a dual consent procedure, including both child as well as parents

  17. Children stories about primary schools: sceneries and (autobiographic research challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Passeggi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with 4-10 year-old children stories and analyses how they portrait their experiences at school. It is the outcome of an inter-institutional research project performed at schools in Natal, São Paulo, Recife, Niterói and Boa Vista. To collect data, we opted for conversations of children in groups of five, who would share a conversation with a little alien whose planet lacked schools. The analyses revealed consensus and tensions between scholar cultu - re and childhood cultures, which affect the way children play and learn, make friends or not, remain children or not. When narrating, the child redefines his/her experience and contributes to seize the primary school as a place where he/she becomes (or not a citizen.

  18. Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Chimere C; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D; Zeldin, Leslie P; Divaris, Kimon

    2016-01-01

    Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community. This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software. Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources. Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are pervasive, but parents

  19. Children's Career Development: A Research Review from a Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in career theory have resulted in widespread acceptance of the lifespan perspective on development. However, a review of research and practice conducted during 2001 revealed that little attention has been paid to the career development of children (Whiston & Brecheisen, 2002). In response to calls for a greater concentration on…

  20. Central Processing Dysfunctions in Children: A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfant, James C.; Scheffelin, Margaret A.

    Research on central processing dysfunctions in children is reviewed in three major areas. The first, dysfunctions in the analysis of sensory information, includes auditory, visual, and haptic processing. The second, dysfunction in the synthesis of sensory information, covers multiple stimulus integration and short-term memory. The third area of…

  1. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  2. PERCEIVED DISCOMFORT LEVELS IN HEALTHY CHILDREN PARTICIPATING IN VACCINE RESEARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Anna E.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Aarts, Fenne; Rodenburg, Gerwin D.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Hak, Eelko; Scharloo, Margreet; Sukhai, Ram N.; Wit, Jan M.; de Beaufort, Inez; Sanders, Elisabeth (Lieke) A. M.

    WHEN ASSESSING THE RISKS OF A research protocol, review boards need to consider not only the possible harms but also the expected discomfort levels caused by the various study procedures. However, data on how children experience various study procedures are scarce. This study assessed perceived

  3. Key factors in children's competence to consent to clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Irma M.; Troost, Pieter W.; Lindeboom, Robert; Benninga, Marc A.; Zwaan, C. Michel; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Although law is established on a strong presumption that persons younger than a certain age are not competent to consent, statutory age limits for asking children's consent to clinical research differ widely internationally. From a clinical perspective, competence is assumed to involve many factors

  4. Research improves hospitals' approach to children's pain in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research that has enabled hospitals in Thailand to better treat children's pain ... requires nurses and doctors to have specialized training and more time to assess a ... having to stay longer in the hospital, or creating problems for their parents. ... pain numerically — on a scale of 1 to 10 — as is standard practice for adults.

  5. Multimodality and Children's Participation in Classrooms: Instances of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newfield, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how language and literacy classrooms became more participatory, agentive spaces through addressing a central issue in teaching and learning: the forms of representation through which children make their meanings. It reconsiders pedagogic research in under-resourced Gauteng classrooms during the period 1994-2005, during the…

  6. A meta-study of qualitative research examining determinants of children's independent active free play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Homan; Tamminen, Katherine A; Clark, Alexander M; Slater, Linda; Spence, John C; Holt, Nicholas L

    2015-01-24

    To produce a meta-study by completing a systematic review of qualitative research examining determinants of independent active free play in children. Following systematic electronic and manual searches and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 46 studies were retained and subjected to meta-method, meta-theory, and meta-data analyses, followed by a final meta-synthesis. Identified determinants of independent active free play were child characteristics (age, competence, and gender), parental restrictions (safety concerns and surveillance), neighborhood and physical environment (fewer children to play with, differences in preferences for play spaces between parents and children, accessibility and proximity, and maintenance), societal changes (reduced sense of community, good parenting ideal, changing roles of parents, privatization of playtime and play spaces), and policy issues (need to give children voice). An ecological model depicting these factors, and the relationships therein, was created. This comprehensive meta-study helps establish a knowledge base for children's independent active free play research by synthesizing a previously fragmented set of studies. Parents' perceived safety concerns are the primary barrier to children's active free play. These safety concerns are moderated by child-level factors (age, competence, gender) and broader social issues. Interventions should focus on community-level solutions that include children's perspectives. From a methods perspective, the reviewed studies used a range of data collection techniques, but methodological details were often inadequately reported. The theoretical sophistication of research in this area could be improved. To this end, the synthesis reported in this study provides a framework for guiding future research.

  7. Children's Privacy in the Big Data Era: Research Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff; Milosevic, Tijana

    2017-11-01

    This article focuses on the privacy implications of advertising on social media, mobile apps, and games directed at children. Academic research on children's privacy has primarily focused on the safety risks involved in sharing personal information on the Internet, leaving market forces (such as commercial data collection) as a less discussed aspect of children's privacy. Yet, children's privacy in the digital era cannot be fully understood without examining marketing practices, especially in the context of "big data." As children increasingly consume content on an ever-expanding variety of digital devices, media and advertising industries are creating new ways to track their behaviors and target them with personalized content and marketing messages based on individual profiles. The advent of the so-called Internet of Things, with its ubiquitous sensors, is expanding these data collection and profiling practices. These trends raise serious concerns about digital dossiers that could follow young people into adulthood, affecting their access to education, employment, health care, and financial services. Although US privacy law provides some safeguards for children younger than 13 years old online, adolescents are afforded no such protections. Moreover, scholarship on children and privacy continues to lag behind the changes taking place in global media, advertising, and technology. This article proposes collaboration among researchers from a range of fields that will enable cross-disciplinary studies addressing not only the developmental issues related to different age groups but also the design of digital media platforms and the strategies used to influence young people. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Overcoming limitations in previous research on exercise as a smoking cessation treatment: rationale and design of the "Quit for Health" trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M; Ussher, Michael; Dunsiger, Shira; Miranda, Robert; Gwaltney, Chad J; Monti, Peter M; Emerson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been proposed as a stand-alone or adjunct smoking cessation treatment, but findings have been mixed. Laboratory studies have shown that individual exercise sessions lead to decreases in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings, but findings are limited by lack of follow-up and artificial settings. On the other hand, smoking cessation treatment RCTs have generally failed to show positive effects of exercise on smoking cessation, but have been plagued by poor and/or unverified compliance with exercise programs. This paper describes the rationale and design for Quit for Health (QFH)--an RCT designed to determine the efficacy of aerobic exercise as an adjunct smoking cessation treatment among women. To overcome limitations of previous research, compliance with the exercise (and wellness contact control) program is incentivized and directly observed, and ecological momentary assessment is used to examine change over time in withdrawal symptoms and cigarette cravings in participants' natural environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety of a new recombinant asparaginase preparation in children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A randomized phase 2 clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pieters (Rob); I.M. Appel (Inge); H.J. Kuehnel; I. Tetzlaff-Fohr (Iris); U. Pichlmeier (Uwe); I. van der Vaart (Inekee); E. Visser (Eline); R.L. Stigter

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynam-ics, efficacy, and safety of a new recom-binant Escherichia coli - asparaginase preparation was compared withAsparagi-nase medac. Thirty-two children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were randomized to receive one of both agents at a dose of 5000

  10. Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

  11. High Incidence of Recurrent Wheeze in Children With Down Syndrome With and Without Previous Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, B.; van Furth, A.M.; Weijerman, M.E.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.; Broers, C.J.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bont, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is associated with the subsequent development of recurrent wheeze. In a recent study, we found a high incidence (9.9%) of hospitalization for RSV-induced LRTI among children with Down syndrome (DS),

  12. Researchers' perceptions of the ethical implications of pharmacogenomics research with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avard, D; Silverstein, T; Sillon, G; Joly, Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory qualitative study that assesses Canadian pediatric researchers' perceptions of a pre-selected group of ethical issues raised by pharmacogenomics research with children. As a pilot study, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with Canadian pediatric pharmacogenomic researchers. The interviews were guided by the following themes: (1) benefits and risks of inclusion, (2) the consent/assent process, and (3) the return of research results. Issues about assent, consent, risks and benefits, as well as the communication of results were addressed by the respondents. Some issues, such as the unique vulnerability of children, the long term privacy concerns associated with biobanking, additional core elements that need to be discussed and included in the consent/assent forms, as well as the challenges of communicating research results in a pediatric research were not explicitly identified by the respondents. Further consideration should be given to address the ethical challenges of including children in pharmacogenomics research. This exploratory study indicates that further guidance is needed if children are to be protected and yet benefit from such research. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Ethical issues in research involving children and young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scally, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies the key ethical issues that need to be addressed in any research study involving children and young people, accessed through the NHS. It makes specific reference to the Declaration of Helsinki and to additional guidance developed for researchers from a variety of disciplines, both within healthcare and in other fields of study. The focus of the paper is on defining the key ethical issues, identifying the complexities in the legislative framework underpinning research involving this patient group and offering practical advice on when, and how, ethical approval needs to be sought

  14. Naturally occurring tolerance acquisition to foods in previously allergic children is characterized by antigen specificity and associated with increased subsets of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, N; Fishbein, A B; Erickson, K A; Cai, M; Szychlinski, C; Bryce, P J; Schleimer, R P; Fuleihan, R L; Singh, A M

    2015-11-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 6-8% of children, and increasing in prevalence. Some children naturally outgrow their food allergy without intervention, but the mechanisms by which this occurs remain poorly understood. We sought to investigate the role of regulatory T cells in the development of naturally acquired tolerance. Fifty-eight children (1-18 years) with either egg or peanut allergy, recent acquisition of natural tolerance to egg or peanut, or no food allergy were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these groups were stimulated with relevant antigen for 48 h and flow cytometry performed to characterize both surface (CD3, CD4, CD25, CD14, CD19, and CD127) and intracellular markers (IL-10, Foxp3, and IL-5). Resting PBMC from naturally tolerant patients had significantly increased CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127loFoxp3+ cells, when compared to allergic or control patients (mean 6.36 vs. 2.37 vs. 2.62%, respectively, P naturally tolerant patients also had increased IL-10-expressing CD25+CD127lo cells (6.33 vs. 1.65 vs. 0.7, P naturally tolerant patients suggests an important role for regulatory T cell subsets in the acquisition of natural tolerance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Epidemiological research of violence against children in families in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanak Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results of an epidemiological study conducted in 2010-2011 as a part of the regional project Balkan Epidemiological Study on Child Abuse and Neglect (BECAN are presented. The goal of the research was to estimate the prevalence of physical, psychological and sexual violence against children in the family as well as prevalence of feeling of neglect in children. Gender and age differences in the prevalence of violence, as well as differences with respect to geographic region and urbanicity of place of the children’s’ residence were also examined. The stratified cluster sample consisted of 4027 children attending the fifth and seventh grades of the primary school and the second grade of the high school. Data was collected by an adapted version of the questionnaire ICAST-C (ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Chidren Version - ICAST-C. At least one experience of psychological violence in the lifetime was reported by 68,4% of children, whereas at least one experience of physical violence was reported by 69,2% of children. Feeling of neglect was experienced by 28.8% of children at least once in their lifetime. At least one experience of sexual violence was reported by 8.5% children, whereas 3,7% of them reported the experience of contact sexual violence in the past year. The results indicate that girls are more exposed to psychological violence and report more feeling of neglect. Conversely, boys report more exposure to sexual violence. The rate of severe forms of physical, psychological and sexual violence is about 0.5 to 1%. [Projekat je realizovan kroz Sedmi okvirni program Evropske Komisije(FP7, pod oznakom HEALTH-F2-2009-223478

  16. When All Children Comprehend: Increasing the External Validity of Narrative Comprehension Development Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas E. Burris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Narratives, also called stories, can be found in conversations, children’s play interactions, reading material, and television programs. From infancy to adulthood, narrative comprehension processes interpret events and inform our understanding of physical and social environments. These processes have been extensively studied to ascertain the multifaceted nature of narrative comprehension. From this research we know that three overlapping processes (i.e., knowledge integration, goal structure understanding, and causal inference generation proposed by the constructionist paradigm are necessary for narrative comprehension, narrative comprehension has a predictive relationship with children’s later reading performance, and comprehension processes are generalizable to other contexts. Much of the previous research has emphasized internal and predictive validity; thus, limiting the generalizability of previous findings. We are concerned these limitations may be excluding underrepresented populations from benefits and implications identified by early comprehension processes research. This review identifies gaps in extant literature regarding external validity and argues for increased emphasis on externally valid research. We highlight limited research on narrative comprehension processes in children from low-income and minority populations, and argue for changes in comprehension assessments. Specifically, we argue both on- and off-line assessments should be used across various narrative types (e.g., picture books, televised narratives with traditionally underserved and underrepresented populations. We propose increasing the generalizability narrative comprehension processes research can inform persistent reading achievement gaps, and have practical implications for how children learn from narratives.

  17. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCosta, Patricia; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years. This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Have their effects been experimentally demonstrated? And, are the effects transient or enduring? Medline and Cab abstract (Ovid) and Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) were used to identify the experimental studies. A total of 120 experimental studies were identified and they are presented grouped within these 11 topics; parental control, reward, social facilitation, cooking programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating behaviour. The authors recommend future research to examine how taste and palatability can positively affect children's attitudes and eating behaviour. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. No long-term evidence of hyporesponsiveness after use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children previously immunized with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardi, Paul V; Toh, Zheng Quan; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Balloch, Anne; Marimla, Rachel A; Tikkanen, Leena; Lamb, Karen E; Bright, Kathryn J; Rabuatoka, Uraia; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Boelsen, Laura K; Dunne, Eileen M; Satzke, Catherine; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pollard, Andrew J; Russell, Fiona M; Mulholland, Edward K

    2016-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial in Fiji examined the immunogenicity and effect on nasopharyngeal carriage after 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar) in infancy followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV; Pneumovax) at 12 months of age. At 18 months of age, children given 23vPPV exhibited immune hyporesponsiveness to a micro-23vPPV (20%) challenge dose in terms of serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytosis, while 23vPPV had no effect on vaccine-type carriage. This follow-up study examined the long-term effect of the 12-month 23vPPV dose by evaluating the immune response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) administration 4 to 5 years later. Blood samples from 194 children (now 5-7 years old) were taken before and 28 days after PCV13 booster immunization. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken before PCV13 immunization. We measured levels of serotype-specific IgG to all 13 vaccine serotypes, opsonophagocytosis for 8 vaccine serotypes, and memory B-cell responses for 18 serotypes before and after PCV13 immunization. Paired samples were obtained from 185 children. There were no significant differences in the serotype-specific IgG, opsonophagocytosis, or memory B-cell response at either time point between children who did or did not receive 23vPPV at 12 months of age. Nasopharyngeal carriage of PCV7 and 23vPPV serotypes was similar among the groups. Priming with 1, 2, or 3 PCV7 doses during infancy did not affect serotype-specific immunity or carriage. Immune hyporesponsiveness induced by 23vPPV in toddlers does not appear to be sustained among preschool children in this context and does not affect the pneumococcal carriage rate in this age group. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Framing Young Childrens Oral Health: A Participatory Action Research Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimere C Collins

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community.This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software.Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources.Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are

  1. Improving children's oral health: an interdisciplinary research framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamassimo, P S; Lee, J Y; Marazita, M L; Milgrom, P; Chi, D L; Divaris, K

    2014-10-01

    Despite the concerted efforts of research and professional and advocacy stakeholders, recent evidence suggests that improvements in the oral health of young children in the United States has not followed the prevailing trend of oral health improvement in other age groups. In fact, oral health disparities in the youngest children may be widening, yet efforts to translate advances in science and technology into meaningful improvements in populations' health have had limited success. Nevertheless, the great strides in genomics, biological, behavioral, social, and health services research in the past decade have strengthened the evidence base available to support initiatives and translational efforts. Concerted actions to accelerate this translation and implementation process are warranted; at the same time, policies that can help tackle the upstream determinants of oral health disparities are imperative. This article summarizes the proceedings from the symposium on the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health that was held during the 43rd annual meeting of the American Association for Dental Research, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. This report showcases the latest contributions across the interdisciplinary continuum of pediatric oral health research and provides insights into future research priorities and necessary intersectoral synergies. Issues are discussed as related to the overwhelming dominance of social determinants on oral disease and the difficulty of translating science into action. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  2. Elementary School Children Contribute to Environmental Research as Citizen Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Miczajka, Victoria L.; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Pufal, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    Research benefits increasingly from valuable contributions by citizen scientists. Mostly, participating adults investigate specific species, ecosystems or phenology to address conservation issues, but ecosystem functions supporting ecosystem health are rarely addressed and other demographic groups rarely involved. As part of a project investigating seed predation and dispersal as ecosystem functions along an urban-rural gradient, we tested whether elementary school children can contribute to ...

  3. INVOLVING CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS IN RESEARCH DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Suzannah

    2016-09-01

    Article 12 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, states that children should be involved in decisions that directly affect them.1 Research involving children should ensure that the opinions and assistance of children and young people is sought at the beginning of the project as their perspectives may influence all aspects of the research design. To describe the challenges recruiting paediatric patients and members of the public to consult on the design of a research project. Posters were put up around the Children's Hospital including pharmacy to recruit paediatric patients and parents to review a research proposal involving children with long-term conditions. There were two responses to the poster, a father and his 15 year old daughter, and a father with a 2 year old child. The father of the 15 year old attended the initial planning meeting, unfortunately the 15 year old and the father of the 2 year old were unable to attend on the day although both agreed to participate in the project. The meeting gave the opportunity to explain the research proposal and answer questions. It was established that the lay team would review the lay summary, participant information leaflet (PIL), and questionnaires that would be sent to the participants. It was arranged that all further contact would be via email due to travel constraints.Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research requires the individuals to be reimbursed for their time. The National Institute for Health Research rate is £18.75 per hour. The lay team members were informed of this and were reimbursed for attending the planning meeting. The use of posters to recruit PPI into the research design had limited success. Since recruitment, the Children's Hospital has launched a youth partnership which may be able to assist in recruitment of lay team members in the future.The logistics of how to pay the lay team members needed to be resolved before their recruitment to ensure timely payment. A form has been

  4. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamis, Alan S; Alonzo, Todd A; Perentesis, John P; Meshinchi, Soheil

    2013-06-01

    For the 365 children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia in the US annually, 5-year survival for patients on COG trials with low, intermediate, and high risk disease is 83%, 62%, and 23%, respectively. Recent advances include improved therapeutic stratification, improved survival with dose intensification, and further elucidation of the heterogeneity specific to childhood AML. These discoveries now guide current strategy incorporating targeted agents to pathways specific to childhood AML as well as evaluating methods to increase the sensitivity of the leukemic stem cell, first in Phase II feasibility trials followed by Phase III efficacy trials of the most promising agents. Acute myeloid leukemia in children, though with similar subgroups to adults, remains uniquely different based upon quite different prevalence of subtypes as well as overall response to therapy. The Children's Oncology Group's research agenda builds upon earlier efforts to better elucidate the leukemogenic steps distinct to childhood AML in order to more scientifically develop and test novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment and ultimate cure for children with this disorder. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 964-971. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Metal loading in Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park, Montana and Wyoming; a retrospective analysis of previous research; and quantification of metal loading, August 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acid drainage from historic mining activities has affected the water quality and aquatic biota of Soda Butte Creek upstream of Yellowstone National Park. Numerous investigations focusing on metals contamination have been conducted in the Soda Butte Creek basin, but interpretations of how metals contamination is currently impacting Soda Butte Creek differ greatly. A retrospective analysis of previous research on metal loading in Soda Butte Creek was completed to provide summaries of studies pertinent to metal loading in Soda Butte Creek and to identify data gaps warranting further investigation. Identification and quantification of the sources of metal loading to Soda Butte Creek was recognized as a significant data gap. The McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site has long been identified as a source of metals but its contribution relative to the total metal load entering Yellowstone National Park was unknown. A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was designed to determine metal loads upstream of Yellowstone National Park.A tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was conducted on an 8,511-meter reach of Soda Butte Creek from upstream of the McLaren Mine tailings impoundment and mill site downstream to the Yellowstone National Park boundary in August 1999. Synoptic-sampling sites were selected to divide the creek into discrete segments. A lithium bromide tracer was injected continuously into Soda Butte Creek for 24.5 hours. Downstream dilution of the tracer and current-meter measurements were used to calculate the stream discharge. Stream discharge values, combined with constituent concentrations obtained by synoptic sampling, were used to quantify constituent loading in each segment of Soda Butte Creek.Loads were calculated for dissolved calcium, silica, and sulfate, as well as for dissolved and total-recoverable iron, aluminum, and manganese. Loads were not calculated for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc because these elements were infrequently

  6. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  7. Taxonomies in L1 and L2 Reading Strategies: A Critical Review of Issues Surrounding Strategy-Use Definitions and Classifications in Previous Think-Aloud Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaleefah, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the various classifications of L1 and L2 reading strategies in previous think-aloud studies, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive look into those various taxonomies reported in major L1 and L2 reading studies. The rationale for this review is not only to offer a comprehensive overview of the different classifications in…

  8. The Weird World of Cross-Cultural False-Belief Research: A True- and False-Belief Study among Samoan Children Based on Commands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andreas; Träuble, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-cultural research using false-belief tasks has explored whether children's theory of mind develops synchronously across cultures. Success on false-belief tasks is usually interpreted as an important indicator of children's mental state understanding, but inconsistent findings have led to questions regarding the interpretation of…

  9. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  10. Key factors in children's competence to consent to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Irma M; Troost, Pieter W; Lindeboom, Robert; Benninga, Marc A; Zwaan, C Michel; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-10-24

    Although law is established on a strong presumption that persons younger than a certain age are not competent to consent, statutory age limits for asking children's consent to clinical research differ widely internationally. From a clinical perspective, competence is assumed to involve many factors including the developmental stage, the influence of parents and peers, and life experience. We examined potential determining factors for children's competence to consent to clinical research and to what extent they explain the variation in competence judgments. From January 1, 2012 through January 1, 2014, pediatric patients aged 6 to 18 years, eligible for clinical research studies were enrolled prospectively at various in- and outpatient pediatric departments. Children's competence to consent was assessed by MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research. Potential determining child variables included age, gender, intelligence, disease experience, ethnicity and socio-economic status (SES). We used logistic regression analysis and change in explained variance in competence judgments to quantify the contribution of a child variable to the total explained variance. Contextual factors included risk and complexity of the decision to participate, parental competence judgment and the child's or parents decision to participate. Out of 209 eligible patients, 161 were included (mean age, 10.6 years, 47.2 % male). Age, SES, intelligence, ethnicity, complexity, parental competence judgment and trial participation were univariately associated with competence (P competence judgments was 71.5 %. Only age and intelligence significantly and independently explained the variance in competence judgments, explaining 56.6 % and 12.7 % of the total variance respectively. SES, male gender, disease experience and ethnicity each explained less than 1 % of the variance in competence judgments. Contextual factors together explained an extra 2.8 % (P > 0.05). Age is the factor that

  11. [Children of mentally ill parents. Research perspectives exemplified by children of depressed parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattejat, F; Wüthrich, C; Remschmidt, H

    2000-03-01

    Children of psychiatrically ill parents represent a risk group that has received growing attention during the last years. The risk for this group to develop a psychiatric illness is markedly increased due to genetic and psychosocial factors. The development of effective preventive concepts requires a thorough knowledge of the psychosocial factors. In this paper, deficits and problems of research in psychosocial transmission mechanism are discussed taking the example of children of depressive parents. Conclusions from this exemplary considerations may serve as guidelines for future research. The authors suggest that the focus be rather placed on coping strategies and developmental psychopathology. Further, research criteria are formulated that refer to theoretical models as well as to study design.

  12. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  13. Research Paper Psychosocial adjustment of children affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was conducted to assess the psychosocial adjustment of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the eastern part of Ghana. Method: Four groups of children (children who lost their parents to AIDS, children who lost their parents through other causes, children living with HIV infected, alive parents and the ...

  14. Arrhythmias and sudden death among older children and young adults following tetralogy of Fallot repair in the current era: are previously reported risk factors still applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Swati; Kovach, Julie; Singh, Harinder; Karpawich, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    Young adult patients (pts) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) remain at risk for arrhythmias (Ar) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Based on past studies with earlier pt subsets, Ar/SCD events were associated with right ventricular (RV) systolic pressures >60 mm Hg, outflow tract gradients >20 mm Hg, and QRS duration >180 ms. However, there are limited recent studies to evaluate these risk factors in the current patient generation. Patients with TOF followed over the past 50 years were grouped by presence of any arrhythmias (group 1), absence of arrhythmias (group 2), and presence of SCD or significant ventricular arrhythmias (group 3) and correlated with current pt age, gender, age at repair, repair types, echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, electrocardiogram/Holter, hemodynamics, and electrophysiology findings. Of 109 pts, 52 were male aged 17-58 years. Of these, 59 (54%) had Ar, two of whom had SCD. These 59 pts were chronologically older at the time of analysis, with repair at an older age and wider QRS duration (78-240, mean 158 ms) when compared with those without Ar. However, there was no correlation with surgical era, surgical repair, gender, RV pressure >60 mm Hg, right ventricular outflow tract gradient >20 mm Hg, or RV end-diastolic volume on CMRI. Ar/SCD risk continues to correlate with repair age and advancing pt age. QRS duration is longer in these patients but at a shorter interval (mean 158 ms) and less RV pressure (mean 43 mm Hg) than previously reported. In the current TOF patient generation, neither surgical era, type of repair, RV outflow gradient nor RV volume correlate with Ar/SCD. Electrophysiologic testing to verify and identify arrhythmias remains clinically effective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Factor VIII brand and the incidence of factor VIII inhibitors in previously untreated UK children with severe hemophilia A, 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Benedict P.; Chalmers, Elizabeth A.; Hart, Daniel P.; Liesner, Ri; Rangarajan, Savita; Talks, Katherine; Williams, Michael; Hay, Charles R. M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) brand on inhibitor development was investigated in all 407 severe hemophilia A previously untreated patients born in the United Kingdom (UK) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2011. Eighty-eight (22%) had been in the RODIN study. Information was extracted from the National Haemophilia Database. Because exposure days (EDs) were not known for some patients, time from first treatment was used as a surrogate for rFVIII exposure. An inhibitor developed in 118 (29%) patients, 60 high and 58 low titer, after a median (interquartile range) of 7.8 (3.3-13.5) months from first exposure and 16 (9-30) EDs. Of 128 patients treated with Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen, 45 (35.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.4-43.8) developed an inhibitor compared with 42/172 (24.4%, 95% CI 18.6% to 31.4%) with Advate (P = .04). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen compared with Advate was 2.14 (1.12-4.10) (P = .02) for high titer and 1.75 (1.11-2.76) (P = .02) for all inhibitors. When excluding UK-RODIN patients, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for high-titer inhibitors was 2.00 (0.93-4.34) (P = .08). ReFacto AF was associated with a higher incidence of all, but not high-titer, inhibitors than Advate. These results will help inform debate around the relative immunogenicity and use of rFVIII brands. PMID:25339360

  16. Children staying in hospital: a research on psychological stress of caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Commodari Elena

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a child hospitalized is a stressful event for parents. Previous studies have found increased stress in families with children affected by different kinds of pathologies, and analyzed disease related objective variables producing stress. However, most of these studies recruited caregivers of children with chronic or serious illnesses, and focused on evaluation of objective environmental stressors and did not consider subjective "perception" of stress. The aim of this study was to investigate perception of acute stress in caregivers taking care of children without serious physical damage that were hospitalized for short periods. Moreover, some variables, such as recreational and school services offered to children, influencing perception of cognitive, physiological and behavioral state relating to the sensation of "being stressed" were analyzed. Methods This study was realized with a sample of caregivers of children hospitalized for mild acute diseases. Research was conducted using two standardized tests, PSM (Psychological Stress Measure and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory, whose characteristics of reliability and validity had been successfully established. Results Present data showed that caregivers of hospitalized children perceived high levels of stress and anxiety. Perception of stress was influenced by the degree of kindred with patients, length of hospitalization, and, notably, participation in some of the activities offered to children, mainly school services. Discussion Findings showed that child hospitalization is a stressful event for caregivers, even if hospitalization is for middle and transient pathologies. Perception of stress was influenced by length of hospitalization, and by degree of kindred. Findings even suggest that some services offered to children can modulate caregivers' perception of stress and impact of hospitalization. Caregivers whose children used school services describe themselves as

  17. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  18. Children's Rights, Educational Research and the UNCRC: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett-Swan, Jenna, Ed.; Coppock, Vicki, ED.

    2016-01-01

    "Children's Rights, Educational Research, and the UNCRC" provides international perspectives on contemporary issues pertaining to children's rights in education. The global context, relevance and implications of children's rights, educational research and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) are explored from…

  19. Assessment of children's capacity to consent for research: a descriptive qualitative study of researchers' practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Barbara E; Stasiulis, Elaine; Gutfreund, Shawna; McDonald, Maria; Dade, Lauren

    2011-08-01

    In Canadian jurisdictions without specific legislation pertaining to research consent, the onus is placed on researchers to determine whether a child is capable of independently consenting to participate in a research study. Little, however, is known about how child health researchers are approaching consent and capacity assessment in practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe researchers' current practices. The study used a qualitative descriptive design consisting of 14 face-to-face interviews with child health researchers and research assistants in Southern Ontario. Transcribed interviews were analysed for common themes. Procedures for assessing capacity varied considerably from the use of age cutoffs to in-depth engagement with each child. Three key issues emerged from the accounts: (1) requirements that consent be provided by a single person thwarted researchers' abilities to support family decision-making; (2) little practical distinction was made between assessing if a child was capable, versus determining if study information had been adequately explained by the researcher; and (3) participants' perceived that review boards' requirements may conflict with what they considered ethical consent practices. The results suggest that researchers' consent and capacity knowledge and skills vary considerably. Perceived discrepancies between ethical practice and ethics boards' requirements suggest the need for dialogue, education and possibly ethics board reforms. Furthermore we propose, where appropriate, a 'family decision-making' model that allows parents and their children to consent together, thereby shifting the focus from separate assent and consent procedures to approaches that appropriately engage the child and family.

  20. Towards beneficence for young children in research: challenges for bioethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ann

    2010-09-01

    Bioethics committees are the focus of international scrutiny, particularly in relation to their application of the principle of beneficence, ensuring that risks incurred in research are outweighed by benefits to those involved directly and to the broader society. Beneficence, in turn, has become an international focus in research with young children, who hitherto had been rarely seen or heard in their own right in research. Twenty years ago, The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 raised global awareness of children's human rights to both participation and protection, and articulation of children's rights came to inform understandings of young children's rights in research. In the intervening period, countries such as Australia came to favour child protection and risk minimisation in research over the notion of children's bone fide participation in research. A key element of the protection regime was the theoretical understanding of young children as developmentally unable and, therefore, unfit to understand, consent to and fully participate as research participants. This understanding has been challenged in recent decades by new theoretical understandings of children's competence, where children can be seen to demonstrate competence, even at an early age, in consenting to, participating in and withdrawing from research. The paper draws on these understandings to provide insights for human research gatekeepers, such as bioethics committees, to deal with the challenges of research with young children and to realize the benefits that may accrue to children in research.

  1. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  2. Children's Contact with Their Incarcerated Parents: Research Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children,…

  3. Social participation: redesign of education, research, and practice in occupational therapy. Previously published in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2013; 20: 2-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piškur, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    There is growing attention to participation and social participation in literature and policy reports. Occupational therapists strongly believe that creating coherence between the person's occupations and environment will facilitate participation of each individual. Nowadays, societal developments such as "health literacy and self-management", "Web 2.0 social media", "empowering communities", and "Nothing About Us Without Us" increase opportunities for people to interact on different levels of social participation. Social participation can be used as an outcome, though it can also be seen as a means to change society and to develop solutions for barriers experienced by people with chronic diseases or disabilities. Societal developments will have an impact on social participation in terms of supporting each other and contributing to society. Additionally, these changes will have a major influence on the way we educate, conduct research, and deliver occupational therapy practice.

  4. Lessons from previous 'coal Transitions'. High-level summary for decision-makers, Part of 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal' Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldecott, Ben; Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The need for a so-called 'just transition' is acknowledged, away from carbon intensive activities, such as coal production and use. But what might a just transition look like in practice? What specific risks need to be managed and what are the best approaches to managing them? There is an urgent need to develop a deeper understanding of these issues. It is to this need that this report tries to respond. It provides a summary of lessons from six historical case studies of regional coal mining transitions that have occurred or are ongoing in Europe and the United States in recent decades. These case studies and this report were developed as part of a broader project led by IDDRI and Climate Strategies, entitled 'Coal Transitions: Research and Dialogue on the Future of Coal'. This project seeks to utilise these historical lessons to facilitate the development of feasible coal transition scenarios in large coal producing countries today'

  5. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  6. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children 6 Months to 17 Years of Age, Previously Vaccinated with an AS03-Adjuvanted A(H1N1)Pdm09 Vaccine: Two Open-label, Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Berglund, Johan; Korhonen, Tiina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Lindstrand, Ann; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Bambure, Vinod; Caplanusi, Adrian; Dieussaert, Ilse; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W

    2015-07-01

    During the influenza pandemic 2009-2010, an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine was used extensively in children 6 months of age and older, and during the 2010-2011 influenza season, the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain was included in the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) without adjuvant. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of TIV in children previously vaccinated with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Healthy children were randomized (1:1) to receive TIV or a control vaccine. Children were aged 6 months to 9 years (n = 154) and adolescents 10-17 years (n = 77) when they received AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at least 6 months before study enrolment. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibody responses against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain were evaluated before (day 0) and at day 28 and month 6 after study vaccination. Reactogenicity was assessed during the 7 day postvaccination period, and safety was assessed for 6 months. At day 0, >93.9% of all children had HI titers ≥1:40 for the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain, which increased to 100% at both day 28 and month 6 in the TIV group. Between days 0 and 28, HI antibody geometric mean titers against A(H1N1)pdm09 increased by 9-fold and 4-fold in children 6 months to 9 years of age and 10-17 years of age, respectively. AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine-induced robust immune responses in children that persisted into the next season, yet were still boosted by TIV containing A(H1N1)pdm09. The reactogenicity and safety profile of TIV did not appear compromised by prior receipt of AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.

  7. When Children Face Divorce: Issues and Implications of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Evelyn B.

    1985-01-01

    Identifies how divorce affect's children's classroom performance and offers suggestions and resource list for teachers. Particulary discussed are four most common characteristics of children experiencing divorce and teacher's role in promoting an empathetic teacher-student relationship. (DST)

  8. So Round the Spiral Again: A Reflective Participatory Research Project with Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Niamh; Moules, Tina

    2007-01-01

    Historically the voices of children in research have been silent. They are often seen as victims or beneficiaries of research rather than co-researchers or partners. This is beginning to change with growing awareness that involving children in the design, delivery and evaluation of services can make services more accessible to them and their…

  9. Using a Picture Book to Gain Assent in Research with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Angela; Danniels, Erica

    2016-01-01

    There has been a shift in perspective from viewing children as adults-in-the-making to individual agents, possessing the right and the competence to meaningfully participate in research. Many researchers are striving to obtain informed assent from young children prior to their participation in research. Methodological concerns have been presented…

  10. Hearing Voices: Participatory Research with Preschool Children with and without Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Colette; Winter, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    The present study seeks to extend current thinking on participatory research by actively engaging 36 young children with and without a known disability in all aspects of a research project. Matched according to age and gender, six dyads of children attending four early years settings in Northern Ireland chose the research question, selected the…

  11. Attitudes of stakeholders in psychiatry towards the inclusion of children in genomic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundby, Anna; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic sequencing of children in research raises complex ethical issues. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes towards the inclusion of children as research subjects in genomic research and towards the disclosure of pertinent and incidental findings to the parents a...

  12. Research Note: Young Children's Resolution of Distress Through Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lynn A.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that highly anxious preschool children reduced anxiety levels through play. Compared with low-anxious subjects, highly anxious children engaged in more dramatic/fantasy play forms. Imaginative qualities which children introduce in their play are more essential to the resolution of the conflict than social forms of play.(Author)

  13. Children without Permanent Parents: Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Bos, Karen; Bunkers, Kelley McCreery; Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; Engle, Patrice L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Gamer, Gary N.; Goldman, Philip; Groark, Christina J.; Greenberg, Aaron; Grotevant, Harold D.; Groza, Victor K.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Johnson, Dana E.; Juffer, Femmie; Kreppner, Jana M.; Le Mare, Lucy; McCall, Robert B.; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Palacios, Jesus; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam; Tieman, Wendy; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vorria, Panayiota; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph reviews literature pertaining to children without permanent parents. Chapters review (1) the development of children while institutional residents; (2) the development of postinstitutionalized children transitioned to family environments (i.e., adoption); the effects of institutionalization on (3) attachment behaviors, (4) physical…

  14. Attention Mechanisms in Children with Anxiety Disorders and in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Adam S.; Chu, Brian C.; Reddy, Linda A.; Mohlman, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Inattention is among the most commonly referred problems for school-aged youth. Research suggests distinct mechanisms may contribute to attention problems in youth with anxiety disorders versus youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study compared children (8-17 years) with anxiety disorders (n = 24) and children (8-16…

  15. Consensus Statement on Research Definitions for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, James A; Perez-Velez, Carlos M; Schaaf, H Simon; Furin, Jennifer J; Marais, Ben J; Tebruegge, Marc; Detjen, Anne; Hesseling, Anneke C; Shah, Sarita; Adams, Lisa V; Starke, Jeffrey R; Swaminathan, Soumya; Becerra, Mercedes C

    2013-06-01

    Few children with drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) are identified, diagnosed, and given an appropriate treatment. The few studies that have described this vulnerable population have used inconsistent definitions. The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions used for adults with DR-TB and for children with drug-susceptible TB are not always appropriate for children with DR-TB. The Sentinel Project on Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis was formed in 2011 as a network of experts and stakeholders in childhood DR-TB. An early priority was to establish standardized definitions for key parameters in order to facilitate study comparisons and the development of an evidence base to guide future clinical management. This consensus statement proposes standardized definitions to be used in research. In particular, it suggests consistent terminology, as well as definitions for measures of exposure, drug resistance testing, previous episodes and treatment, certainty of diagnosis, site and severity of disease, adverse events, and treatment outcome. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society.

  16. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Previous Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    through his Nobel Lecture in 1961, about unraveling the secrets of photosynthesis -- the process by which . March 10, 2015 Twenty years ago, the top quark was first observed in experiments at the Tevatron proton sophisticated detectors, the top was hard to find. After a top is made from a proton-antiproton collision, a

  17. A Plea for a Child-Centered Approach in Research with Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beers, Henk

    1996-01-01

    Argues that street children's public image does not consider root causes of homelessness or children's perceptions. Notes that the relationship of children to urban life is seldom analyzed, and that references to street girls commonly link them to prostitution. Advocates a more child-centered, participatory approach to research and discusses…

  18. Contributions of Qualitative Research to Understanding Savings for Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherraden, Margaret; Peters, Clark; Wagner, Kristen; Guo, Baorong; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores contributions of qualitative research to saving theory for children, youth, and parents in children's development account (CDAs) programs. It brings together findings from three studies: (1) elementary school age children saving for college, (2) youth transitioning from foster care saving for education and other purposes, and…

  19. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  20. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  1. Children's Graphical Representations and Emergent Writing: Evidence from Children's Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on children's drawing and writing focused on children's drawing and symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding young children's symbolization in drawing with a logo language. This study investigated children's emergent writing by examining qualitatively how children's writing takes place as…

  2. Exploring the Use of Emoji as a Visual Research Method for Eliciting Young Children's Voices in Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fane, Jennifer; MacDougall, Colin; Jovanovic, Jessie; Redmond, Gerry; Gibbs, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Recognition of the need to move from research "on" children to research "with" children has prompted significant theoretical and methodological debate as to how young children can be positioned as active participants in the research process. Visual research methods such as drawing, photography, and videography have received…

  3. Quantitative valuation placed by children and teenagers on participation in two hypothetical research scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Dan; Fertleman, Caroline; Carrey, Liz; Brierley, Joe

    2012-11-01

    For paediatric medicine to advance, research must be conducted specifically with children. Concern about poor recruitment has led to debate about payments to child research participants. Although concerns about undue influence by such 'compensation' have been expressed, it is useful to determine whether children can relate the time and inconvenience associated with participation to the value of payment offered. This study explores children's ability to determine fair remuneration for research participation, and reviews payments to children participating in research. Forty children were interviewed before outpatient visits at two London Hospitals: Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital and the Whittington Hospital District General Hospital. Children were asked to value their involvement in two hypothetical research scenarios - the first an 'additional blood sample', the second also involving daily oral oil capsules taken for a fortnight before further venesection. Background knowledge about familiarity with money, and experience with hospitalisation was assessed. The mean valuation of involvement in the second scenario (£13.18) was higher than in the first (£2.84) (pfair valuation for participation in medical research. The monetary sums are influenced by the time and inconvenience involved in the research, and by the extent of recent experience with hospital procedures. The authors review current ethical thinking regarding payments to child research participants and suggest that a fair wage model might be an ethically acceptable way to increase participation of children in research.

  4. Children as subjects in nutrition research: a retrospective look at their perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Tamar; Economos, Christina; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    To explore children's motivations for and perceived benefits and barriers to nutrition research participation. To explore children's perspectives on how to improve the research experience. Seven focus group sessions were conducted during March 2008 with research participants from a trial that examined the effects of pre-exercise snacks on physical activity and exercise stress in children. The Health Belief Model for Behavior Change served as the framework for understanding perceived benefits and barriers to research participation and cues to action to help children's readiness for future research participation. Indoor sports center in Acton, Massachusetts. Thirty-five children, 15 males and 20 females, aged 7-10 years. Children's participation in nutrition research. Transcripts were reviewed, coded, and sorted according to recurring trends and patterns using NVIVO software. Participants were overwhelmingly motivated to participate in research because of financial incentives. The biggest barrier to participation was anxiety over finger pricks. Children suggested demonstrating different aspects of data collection during recruitment to reduce trepidation and using distraction techniques to improve the experience during anxiety-provoking data collection. Themes for benefits and barriers to research participation were identified. Data also provide a guide to promote readiness and to improve the research experience for children in future nutrition trials. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Children's suggestibility research: Things to know before interviewing a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Courtney Hritz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children's testimony is often the only evidence of alleged abuse. Thus, the importance of conducting forensic interviews that are free from bias and misleading information is immense, as these could lead to false reports. In the current paper, we review unexpected findings in children's suggestibility that illustrate the difficulty in distinguishing between false and accurate reports. We explore situations in which a younger person's memory account may be more accurate than that of an adult, when a single suggestive interview may be as detrimental as multiple interviews, and when children can make inaccurate reports spontaneously. We conclude with recommendations for interviewers to decrease false reporting by both children and adults.

  6. Little Voices and Big Ideas: Lessons Learned from Children about Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Moore BA, M Child&Adol Welf, M Youth Studies

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades social researchers have increasingly engaged children in projects that explore their experiences, views, and understandings. In this paper the authors share the observations of children involved in a project exploring family homelessness, particularly about what they think is important when conducting research with children and ways in which their views were implemented in the design and delivery of the project.

  7. 2015 NIEHS/EPA Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers Annual Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    The meeting will feature the researchers and senior scientists from the Children's Centers, the PEHSUs, scientists from federal agencies and others through interdisciplinary presentations and discussions that explore connections between research findings,

  8. Physical Education and Children with CHARGE Syndrome: Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Haibach, Pamela; Schedlin, Haley

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Children with CHARGE syndrome often experience significantly delayed motor development, which affects their performance in many motor skills and physical activities. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of physical education provided to children with CHARGE syndrome. There were five main areas of focus: (1) physical…

  9. Children and Divorce: An Overview of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford, Ed.

    The effects of divorce on children are the subject of this collection of eight papers by authors from several disciplines. The central theme of Albert Solnit's paper is that divorce means dissolution of the family as well as the marriage. The role of the courts in custody and visitation issues and the effects of conflicts on the children are…

  10. Are parents of children with cochlear implants coping?: research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many variables must be considered during the evaluation and rehabilitation of children for cochlear implantation, one of which is parental influence (for the duration of this report the parents, caregivers and guardians of children with cochlear implants and / or hearing impairments will be referred to as 'parents'). The aim of ...

  11. Children's views on research without prior consent in emergency situations: a UK qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Louise; Sherratt, Frances C; Young, Bridget; McNamara, Paul; Dawson, Angus; Appleton, Richard; Crawley, Esther; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Woolfall, Kerry

    2018-06-09

    We explored children's views on research without prior consent (RWPC) and sought to identify ways of involving children in research discussions. Qualitative interview study. Participants were recruited through a UK children's hospital and online advertising. 16 children aged 7-15 years with a diagnosis of asthma (n=14) or anaphylaxis (n=2) with recent (<12 months) experience of emergency care. Children were keen to be included in medical research and viewed RWPC as acceptable in emergency situations if trial interventions were judged safe. Children trusted that doctors would know about their trial participation and act in their best interests. All felt that children should be informed about the research following their recovery and involved in discussions with a clinician or their parent(s) about the use of data already collected as well as continued participation in the trial (if applicable). Participants suggested methods to inform children about their trial participation including an animation. Children supported, and were keen to be involved in, clinical trials in emergency situations. We present guidance and an animation that practitioners and parents might use to involve children in trial discussions following their recovery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Noise and children's health: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunovic, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Many reviews have documented the adverse effects of noise on children's health, but the international scientific community was previously unfamiliar with noise research in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), South-East Europe (SEE), and Newly Independent States (NIS). The aim of this review was to present studies on the effects of noise on children's health, conducted in aforementioned countries in the second half of the 20 th century, interpret their findings, and criticize their methodology and results wherever possible. This review focused on 30 papers published in national journals in the period from 1965 to 2000. By design, 22 studies were observational and cross-sectional, and eight studies were experimental. The outcomes under the study included auditory changes, stress reactions, sleep disturbances, school performance, upright posture, and vegetative functions. Researchers from CEE, SEE, and NIS were the pioneers in the assessment of noise-induced changes of vegetative functions and blood pressure of children in urban areas, as well as of infants exposed to noise in incubators. Future research should focus on intervention studies and follow-up of children's health in relation to noise exposure.

  13. Ethical perspectives of children's assent for research participation: deontology and on utilitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Is a child's assent to participate in research that does not have the potential to directly benefit the child ethically mandated? Analysis of this particular dilemma of health care research in children using two competing theories results in different answers. Deontology (principle-based ethics) will be contrasted with utilitarianism (consequentialism). Historical cases of research with children will be used as exemplars of these two theoretical positions.

  14. Forty years of research concerning children and youth in Greenland: a mapping review

    OpenAIRE

    Glend?s, Mia; Berliner, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study undertakes a mapping review of mainly concerning children and youth in Greenland in the period 1976?2016 and reflects on how the research has been conducted and knowledge thereby created about children and youth in Greenland, as well as how the research has been developed over time. Design: 16 online databases; five journals; publication lists originating from seven organisations and ten prominent researchers; and local network and references were used in the se...

  15. Symposium: An Overview of the 5-Year Research Agenda for the Research & Training Center for Children's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert M.; Evans, Mary; Morrison-Rodriguez, Barbara; Kutash, Krista; Duchnowski, Al; Hernandez, Mario; Hodges, Sharon; Armstrong, Mary; Pires, Sheila; Stroul, Beth; Greenbaum, Paul; Brown, Eric; Lazear, Katherine

    This paper describes each of eight current interrelated federally funded research projects conducted by the Research and Training Center for Children's Mental Health at the University of South Florida. For each project, information is provided on the project's background, purpose, methodology, and anticipated results. Project titles and principal…

  16. Research on the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC) at the Danish National Centre for Social Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Mai Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research results obtained using the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children born in 1995 (DALSC), which is placed at SFI, the Danish National Centre for Social Research. DALSC aims to gain insight into children’s growing-up conditions in contemporary society. DALSC consists of...

  17. Fotonovela as a Research Tool in Image-Based Participatory Research with Immigrant Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kirova PhD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors explore the effect of word-image relationships on the collection of data and the reporting of research results for a study involving the development of a series of fotonovelas with immigrant children in an inner-city school. The central question explored in this article is Can experiences such as producing visual narratives in the form of fotonovelas stimulate multiple expressions of voice and position and bring awareness of embodied ways of communicating in a culture-rich school context? The processes involved in collaboratively developing the photographic narrative format of the fotonovela combine visual elements and structures and embodied, reflective performance together with written text. As a research method fotonovela does not merely translate verbal into visual representations but constructs a hybrid photo-image-text that opens new spaces for dialogue, resistance, and representation of a new way of knowing that changes the way of seeing and has the potential to change the author's and the reader's self-understanding.

  18. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws...... on an ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have...... impacts on the relation and interaction between parents and children. Parenting in that way reaches far beyond the family and includes taking into account various issues in the other places where the children spend their time. The children's developmental possibilities are shaped by the relations...

  19. Researching family through the everyday lives of children across home and day care in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    on an ethnographically inspired research project with 6 families living in a small town in Denmark. The analysis points to how the children's possibilities of participation are created across their different life contexts and that the social interplay and conflicts between the children in the day-care institution have......The article investigates family as a conflictual community with a specific starting point in exploring children's lives across day-care institution and home. Children's development is theorised in relation to taking part in different communities across different contexts. The article draws...... impacts on the relation and interaction between parents and children. Parenting in that way reaches far beyond the family and includes taking into account various issues in the other places where the children spend their time. The children's developmental possibilities are shaped by the relations...

  20. Involving disabled children and young people as partners in research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S; Boddy, K; Briscoe, S; Morris, C

    2015-07-01

    Children and young people can be valuable partners in research, giving their unique perspectives on what and how research should be done. However, disabled children are less commonly involved in research than their non-disabled peers. This review investigated how disabled children have been involved as research partners; specifically how they have been recruited, the practicalities and challenges of involvement and how these have been overcome, and impacts of involvement for research, and disabled children and young people. The INVOLVE definition of involvement and the Equality and Human Rights Commission definition of disability were used. Relevant bibliographic databases were searched. Websites were searched for grey literature. Included studies had involved disabled children and young people aged 5-25 years in any study design. Reviews, guidelines, reports and other documents from the grey literature were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-two papers were included: seven reviews, eight original research papers, three reports, three guidelines and one webpage. Nine examples of involvement were identified. Recommendations included developing effective communication techniques, using flexible methods that can be adapted to needs and preferences, and ensuring that sufficient support and funding is available for researchers undertaking involvement. Positive impacts of involvement for disabled children included increased confidence, self-esteem and independence. Positive impacts for research were identified. Involving disabled children in research can present challenges; many of these can be overcome with sufficient time, planning and resources. More needs to be done to find ways to involve those with non-verbal communication. Generally, few details were reported about disabled children and young people's involvement in studies, and the quality of evidence was low. Although a range of positive impacts were identified, the majority of these were authors' opinions rather

  1. Tablet-Based eBooks for Young Children: What Does the Research Say?

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, SM; Yau, JC; Warschauer, M

    2016-01-01

    Young children's use of electronic books (eBooks) is increasing as handheld touch screen devices, such as tablets, become increasingly available. Although older children's reading on tablets has been more broadly investigated, less is known about the impacts of digital reading for infant, toddlers, and preschoolers. This review compares the educational affordances of reading on tablets versus print books for young children's learning.A qualitative synthesis of research on tablet-based eReadin...

  2. Attitudes of stakeholders in psychiatry towards the inclusion of children in genomic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundby, Anna; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic sequencing of children in research raises complex ethical issues. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes towards the inclusion of children as research subjects in genomic research and towards the disclosure of pertinent and incidental findings to the parents...... age. Having children does not affect the stakeholder's attitudes towards the inclusion of children as research subjects in genomic research. CONCLUSION: Our findings illustrate that both the child's right to autonomy and the parents' interest to be informed are important factors that are found...... disclosing genetic information. Other important aspects were the child's right to an autonomous choice, the emotional burden of knowing imposed on both the child and the parents, and the possibility of receiving beneficial clinical information regarding the future health of the child. Nevertheless...

  3. CLINICAL RESEARCH ON ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF APHASIS IN AUTISM CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quan-ming; JIN Rui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture therapy for aphasis in autism children. Methods: Thirty cases of autism children were divided into acupuncture group (n=20) and medication group (n=10). Intelligence quotient(IQ) and Social adaptive developmental quotient(ADQ) were used to assess the therapeutic effect. Results: After treatment, IQ values increased slightly in medication group and considerably in acupuncture group (P<0.001), and the difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment of acupuncture group was significantly bigger than that of control group (P<0.01). ADQ of two groups increased at different degrees, and that of acupuncture and the difference between post- and pre-treatment of acupuncture group were significantly bigger than those of control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Acupuncture treatment is effective in improving autism children's speaking ability. raising IQ and ADQ.

  4. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Children's views on their involvement in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuy, Hélène; Doz, François; Blanche, Stéphane; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2008-05-01

    To examine the level of children's understanding of informed consent in clinical trials and factors that may influence these processes. Twenty nine children who were included in clinical trials for treatment of cancer or HIV, were offered the possibility to complete a semidirective interview, with parental permission. Children's understanding was measured by a score of 0-9 including items required to obtain a valid consent according to French and European legislations. Children were 8.5-18 years old (13.6 +/- 2.8 years). The higher percentage of understanding was obtained for the study objectives (n = 18, 62%), the risks (n = 17, 58%), the potential self-benefits (n = 18, 62%) and the potential benefits to other children (n = 17, 58%). The lower percentage of understanding was obtained for the procedures (n = 5, 17%), the possibility of alternative treatments (n = 9, 31%), the duration of participation (n = 6, 21%), their right to withdraw (n = 6, 21%), and the voluntary participation (n = 6, 21%). Sixteen children (55%) thought that the given information was adequate. Understanding was significantly correlated with child's age (r = 0.65; P = 0.0001) and the mean score was higher in patients over 14 years old compared to patients under the age of 14 (4.4 +/- 2.4, n = 14 vs. 2.6 +/- 2.6, n = 15, P consent was sought some time after the diagnosis (>7 days) rather than at the same time (consent forms. Understanding is related to age and timing of informed consent. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Changing children's eating behaviour - A review of experimental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeCosta, Patricia Enebær Irene; Møller, Per; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2017-01-01

    programs, school gardens, sensory education, availability and accessibility, choice architecture and nudging, branding and food packaging, preparation and serving style, and offering a choice. In conclusion, controlling strategies for changing children's eating behaviour in a positive direction appear...... to be counterproductive. Hands-on approaches such as gardening and cooking programs may encourage greater vegetable consumption and may have a larger effect compared to nutrition education. Providing children with free, accessible fruits and vegetables have been experimentally shown to positively affect long-term eating...

  7. "The Tower in Red and Yellow": Using Children's Drawings in Formative Research for "Alam Simsim," an Educational Television Series for Egyptian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Alyaa; Cole, Charlotte; Fuld, Janice

    2002-01-01

    Provides examples from a study of six test segments of the television series "Alam Simsim," the Egyptian "Sesame Street," to illustrate how a systematic analysis of children's artwork can be used with other research tools to gain feedback from children. Shows how formative research is used to bring children into the production…

  8. Privileging Younger Children's Voices in Research: Use of Drawings and a Co-Construction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Tay-Lim PhD Student

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing acknowledgement of the value of listening to children's views and experiences in social research, popularly termed as “listening to their voices,” brings with it methodological consequences. Regarding children as expert informants about their own lives carries with it the simultaneous call for researchers to be experts in developing and employing appropriate strategies that can effectively elicit the insights that children can bring to a research topic. With younger children, the use of participatory methodologies has been foregrounded as the key to unlocking their potential to contribute rich and useful perspectives to inform research into their lives. This article explores the usefulness of employing preschoolers' drawings within the context of a co-construction process to facilitate the children's construction of ideas and reinforce their voices in research. The case is made that the quality of the dialogical engagement is as important as the drawing itself, and both visual images and the verbal exchanges are central to the children's meaning-making process. In the co-construction process, both adult and child are (ideally equal players and the resulting dialogical process plays a major role in the constitution of the phenomena. The role of the researcher as the co-constructor can be a challenging one because it entails engaging and supporting children's views and the expression of these views. The discussion and illustrations from the first author's research projects contribute to the literature base on positioning preschool children as valid social actors in their communities. We operate through an ethos of empowerment of all participants, and aim for participatory research practice which has at its heart an active involvement in promoting the rights of children as citizens with voice and power. (Pascal & Bertram, 2009, p. 249

  9. Children's Decision-Making Involvement About Research Participation: Associations With Perceived Fairness and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Feudtner, Chris; Jawad, Abbas F

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the associations of children's involvement in decisions about research participation with their perceptions of the decision-making process and self-efficacy. Participants were children (ages 8-17) who enrolled in research studies in the prior 2 months. Children completed a questionnaire that yielded three decision-making involvement subscales: Researcher Engages Child, Researcher Supports Autonomy, and Child Participates. Children reported on fairness of the decision-making process and health-related decision self-efficacy. After adjusting for age, higher scores on Researcher Engages Child were associated with greater self-efficacy, and higher scores on Researcher Supports Autonomy were associated with greater perceived fairness. These data underscore the potential importance of researcher-child interactions about research participation when assent is sought, including proactively involving children in the decision by asking for their opinions and communicating their central role in the decision, which are likely to be more meaningful to children than receiving information or signing a form.

  10. Children as respondents in survey research: Cognitive development and response quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, N.; Leeuw, E.D. de; Hox, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Although children are no longer a neglected minority in official statistics and surveys, methodological knowledge on how to survey children is still scarce. Researchers have to rely mainly on ad-hoc knowledge from such diverse fields as child psychiatry and educational testing, or extrapolate

  11. Communication and Language Development of Young Children with Autism: A Review of Research in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Andreou, Georgia

    2018-01-01

    Research demonstrates connections among children's music actions, their engagement abilities, and their language development. Although the link between music and the engagement abilities of young children with autism is well established, there is not enough evidence on the effectiveness of music strategies and music therapy interventions to…

  12. Three Preschool Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta--Interviews with Parents. Handicap Research Group Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Jane; Millde, Kristina

    The report describes three preschool Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bones) and the psychosocial support families require from society. Introductory sections explain the condition, review international research on brittle bones, consider the life situation of children with brittle bones, and examine societal support for…

  13. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  14. Raising Children in Chinese Immigrant Families: Evidence from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Children of Chinese culture are raised differently from children of other cultural groups. There is research evidence which contends that, regardless of where they live, the child-rearing practices within Chinese immigrant families are still influenced by Chinese traditional culture. Some studies also point out that Chinese immigrant parents…

  15. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  16. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  17. Consuming Anomie: Children and Global Commercial Culture. Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    This article locates George Herbert Meads account of self-formation in the context of global consumer capitalism, in which the "generalized other" is constructed as a desiring consumer. It argues for a sociology of consumer childhood that, via Mead, takes children's agency as a given and explores the implications of their interaction with the…

  18. Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Handbook for Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, J. Mark, Ed.; Poehlmann, Julie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    For the nearly 2 million children in the United States whose parents are in prison, caretaking necessary for optimal development is disrupted. These vulnerable youth--a population that has shot up 80 percent in the last 20 years--are more likely to experience learning difficulties, poor health, and substance abuse, and eventually be incarcerated…

  19. Annual research review : conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Bogels, S.M.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the

  20. Annual research review: conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Bögels, S.M.; van der Sluis, C.M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the

  1. Children and Modern Day Slavery | Okpalaobi | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the concept of slavery in these modern times, as it relates to and affects Children, highlighting the very many shades of the debasing scourge. It starts off by tracing its early manifestations from the time of yore, chronicling its evolution and persistence to this day. It decries the varied proliferation of Child ...

  2. Government can regulate food advertising to children because cognitive research shows that it is inherently misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Samantha; Kunkel, Dale; Mermin, Seth E

    2012-02-01

    The childhood obesity crisis has prompted repeated calls for government action to curb the marketing of unhealthy food to children. Food and entertainment industry groups have asserted that the First Amendment prohibits such regulation. However, case law establishes that the First Amendment does not protect "inherently misleading" commercial speech. Cognitive research indicates that young children cannot effectively recognize the persuasive intent of advertising or apply the critical evaluation required to comprehend commercial messages. Given this combination--that government can prohibit "inherently misleading" advertising and that children cannot adequately understand commercial messages--advertising to children younger than age twelve should be considered beyond the scope of constitutional protection.

  3. Community perspectives on research consent involving vulnerable children in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeman, Rachel; Kamaara, Eunice; Kamanda, Allan; Ayuku, David; Nyandiko, Winstone; Atwoli, Lukoye; Ayaya, Samuel; Gisore, Peter; Scanlon, Michael; Braitstein, Paula

    2012-10-01

    Involving vulnerable pediatric populations in international research requires culturally appropriate ethical protections. We sought to use mabaraza, traditional East African community assemblies, to understand how a community in western Kenya viewed participation of children in health research and informed consent and assent processes. Results from 108 participants revealed generally positive attitudes towards involving vulnerable children in research, largely because they assumed children would directly benefit. Consent from parents or guardians was understood as necessary for participation while gaining child assent was not. They felt other caregivers, community leaders, and even community assemblies could participate in the consent process. Community members believed research involving orphans and street children could benefit these vulnerable populations, but would require special processes for consent.

  4. BUSINESS GAMES AS THE FORM OF ENDOWED CHILDREN PREPARATION TO RESEARCH ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Polikhun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern computer business games using IT technologies provide numerous opportunities for improving ecological training of endowed children to research activities, including not only theoretical training but also the acquisition of practical skills.

  5. Parents of children with chronic health problems: programs of nursing research and their relationship to developmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Margaret Shandor

    2003-01-01

    This review identified nurse researchers and research teams that have current programs of research focused on parents and parenting of children with chronic health problems. Researchers were included if they had at least five publications since 1990, with at least three of these articles first-authored. These programs of research were critiqued from a developmental science perspective. Multiple methods were used for the search, including examination of previous review articles, hand search of journals, online computer searches, and review of the curriculum vitae of authors. Seven programs of research were identified. Two programs of research focused on childhood cancer--Ida M. Martinson et al. and Marsha H. Cohen. Three programs of research used a noncategorical approach encompassing a variety of childhood chronic conditions--Katherine A. Knafl and Janet A. Deatrick, Sharon O. Burke, and Ann Garwick. One program focused primarily on parents of children with Down syndrome and disabilities--Marsha Van Riper--and another on parents of infants with a variety of chronic health problems--Margaret S. Miles and Diane Holditch-Davis. Diverse theories and conceptual frameworks were used, and most had some focus on ecological systems that might affect parents and parenting. Many used a family perspective and included fathers. Still broader aspects of the family and community ecology and the health care were not generally included. Few examined the bidirectionality of the relationship between the child and aspects of the child's illness and parental responses. There was variability in the extent to which ethnicity and socioeconomic status were considered. Studies provide important insight into the responses of parents and their parenting of children with chronic health problems. The studies provide a sound base for continuing to build a developmentally sensitive body of knowledge related to parents and parenting of the child with chronic health problems.

  6. Attitudes of stakeholders in psychiatry towards the inclusion of children in genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundby, Anna; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Ullum, Henrik; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Mors, Ole

    2018-03-05

    Genomic sequencing of children in research raises complex ethical issues. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes towards the inclusion of children as research subjects in genomic research and towards the disclosure of pertinent and incidental findings to the parents and the child. Qualitative data were collected from interviews with a wide range of informants: experts engaged in genomic research, clinical geneticists, persons with mental disorders, relatives, and blood donors. Quantitative data were collected from a cross-sectional web-based survey among 1227 parents and 1406 non-parents who were potential stakeholders in psychiatric genomic research. Participants generally expressed positive views on children's participation in genomic research. The informants in the qualitative interviews highlighted the age of the child as a critical aspect when disclosing genetic information. Other important aspects were the child's right to an autonomous choice, the emotional burden of knowing imposed on both the child and the parents, and the possibility of receiving beneficial clinical information regarding the future health of the child. Nevertheless, there was no consensus whether the parent or the child should receive the findings. A majority of survey stakeholders agreed that children should be able to participate in genomic research. The majority agreed that both pertinent and incidental findings should be returned to the parents and to the child when of legal age. Having children does not affect the stakeholder's attitudes towards the inclusion of children as research subjects in genomic research. Our findings illustrate that both the child's right to autonomy and the parents' interest to be informed are important factors that are found valuable by the participants. In future guidelines governing children as subjects in genomic research, it would thus be essential to incorporate the child's right to an open future, including the right to receive

  7. An Observational Study of Children's Involvement in Informed Consent for Exome Sequencing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Victoria A; Werner-Lin, Allison; Walser, Sarah A; Biswas, Sawona; Bernhardt, Barbara A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine children's involvement in consent sessions for exome sequencing research and associations of involvement with provider and parent communication. Participants included 44 children (8-17 years) from five cohorts who were offered participation in an exome sequencing study. The consent sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded. Providers attempted to facilitate the child's involvement in the majority (73%) of sessions, and most (75%) children also verbally participated. Provider facilitation was strongly associated with likelihood of child participation. These findings underscore that strategies such as asking for children's opinions and soliciting their questions show respect for children and may increase the likelihood that they are engaged and involved in decisions about research participation.

  8. Current and Past Research on Autistic Children and Their Families. Conducted by Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children). TEACCH Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopler, Eric

    This report summarizes research conducted by, or in collaboration with, the Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren) of the Department of Psychiatry in the University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill. The summaries contain bibliographic citations for published papers…

  9. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children: prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Holubkov, Richard; Browd, Samuel R; Cochrane, D Douglas; Drake, James M; Limbrick, David D; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Simon, Tamara D; Tamber, Mandeep S; Wellons, John C; Whitehead, William E; Kestle, John R W

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is now established as a viable treatment option for a subgroup of children with hydrocephalus. Here, the authors report prospective, multicenter results from the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) to provide the most accurate determination of morbidity, complication incidence, and efficacy of ETV in children and to determine if intraoperative predictors of ETV success add substantially to preoperative predictors. METHODS All children undergoing a first ETV (without choroid plexus cauterization) at 1 of 7 HCRN centers up to June 2013 were included in the study and followed up for a minimum of 18 months. Data, including detailed intraoperative data, were prospectively collected as part of the HCRN's Core Data Project and included details of patient characteristics, ETV failure (need for repeat hydrocephalus surgery), and, in a subset of patients, postoperative complications up to the time of discharge. RESULTS Three hundred thirty-six eligible children underwent initial ETV, 18.8% of whom had undergone shunt placement prior to the ETV. The median age at ETV was 6.9 years (IQR 1.7-12.6), with 15.2% of the study cohort younger than 12 months of age. The most common etiologies were aqueductal stenosis (24.8%) and midbrain or tectal lesions (21.2%). Visible forniceal injury (16.6%) was more common than previously reported, whereas severe bleeding (1.8%), thalamic contusion (1.8%), venous injury (1.5%), hypothalamic contusion (1.5%), and major arterial injury (0.3%) were rare. The most common postoperative complications were CSF leak (4.4%), hyponatremia (3.9%), and pseudomeningocele (3.9%). New neurological deficit occurred in 1.5% cases, with 0.5% being permanent. One hundred forty-one patients had documented failure of their ETV requiring repeat hydrocephalus surgery during follow-up, 117 of them during the first 6 months postprocedure. Kaplan-Meier rates of 30-day, 90-day, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year failure

  10. Respiratory medicines for children: current evidence, unlicensed use and research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smyth, A R; Barbato, A; Beydon, N

    2010-01-01

    deficiency. We hope that this summary of the evidence for respiratory medicines in children, highlighting gaps and research priorities, will be useful for the pharmaceutical industry, the paediatric committee of the European Medicines Agency, academic investigators and the lay public.......This European Respiratory Society task force has reviewed the evidence for paediatric medicines in respiratory disease occurring in adults and children. We describe off-licence use, research priorities and ongoing studies. Off-licence and off-label prescribing in children is widespread...

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ajduković, Marina; Rimac, Ivan; Rajter, Miroslav; Sušac, Nika

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of epidemiological research on the extent of family violence on children in the Republic of Croatia. The research used a two-phase design with a probability sample of children aged 11, 13 and 16 regularly enrolled into Croatian primary and secondary schools (N=3.644). Data was obtained within the international research FP7 project “BECAN – Balkan Epidemiological Study on Child Abuse and Neglect“. The research used the revised version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screen...

  12. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  13. Improving case detection of tuberculosis among children in Bangladesh: lessons learned through an implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaul Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the Bangladesh National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP, the proportion of childhood tuberculosis (TB among all reported cases is only 3%. This is considerably lower compared to other high-burden countries. One of our previous studies identified substantial gaps at the primary care level related to capacity of service providers, supply of required logistics and community awareness about childhood TB. Therefore, we conducted an implementation study with the objectives to address those gaps. Methods This implementation research was designed with pre and post-test evaluation at selected primary care facilities in urban and rural areas. Three interventions were implemented: (1 Training on childhood TB management for all categories of service providers (2 mass awareness campaign among primary and secondary school students and their teachers, mothers of <5y children, religious and community leaders and (3 facilitation of logistics supply at the study facilities. Training was conducted following the national guideline. We developed posters, leaflets, flipcharts and organized folksongs and street dramas as awareness campaign strategy. Quarterly follow up meetings were held with the facility managers of the study clinics. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the baseline and end line alongside review of service statistics to compare the change in community awareness and case detection of childhood TB. Results Awareness regarding childhood TB among all target audience increased significantly showing better understanding of child TB symptoms, transmission, duration and treatment option. Overall proportion of TB case detection among children increased in all three sites compared to baseline as well as NTP estimate with relatively higher proportion in urban site. Majority of the children were suffering from extra-pulmonary TB and there were more female TB cases than male. However, supply and maintenance of necessary

  14. Is a "wage-payment" model for research participation appropriate for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Reynolds, William W; Nelson, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the applicability of a "wage-payment" model to inducements for children to participate in research. We interviewed 42 children and adolescents between the ages of 4 and 16 years who had diabetes, asthma, seizures, or no chronic medical condition. The interview explored hypothetical participation decisions for up to 4 research scenarios. To evaluate factors that would influence children and adolescents' decision-making for research participation, we probed for the impact of monetary and other incentives. The interviews were transcribed and coded for specific themes related to money or other rewards and incentives. Older children, mainly those >9 years of age, showed an appreciation for the role and value of money through (a) an accurate concept of the material value of money in society or (b) asking for a realistic amount of money in exchange for their research participation. Younger children, primarily those payment model for compensating older children (>9 years of age) and adolescents for the time and effort of research participation is appropriate because they generally understand the meaning and value of a wage.

  15. Behavior modification therapy in hyperactive children. Research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, M L

    1979-09-01

    One hundred fifty-seven studies employing behavior modification in the management of hyperactive and disruptive children were reviewed. The studies were analyzed against standards of scientific validity. The review found: (1) behavior modification was effective in alleviating problem behaviors; (2) token programs were the most commonly used; (3) both positive reinforcement and punishment were effective; positive reinforcement, however, had the advantage of improving self-esteem; (4) behavioral problems occurring in the home most likely require a home-based program; (5) behavior modification and stimulant medication can be used simultaneously, often with additive effects; and (6) long-term benefits beyond one year have not been assessed.

  16. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A; Preece, Kathryn A; de Wit, Bianca; Glenn, Katharine; Fieder, Nora; Thie, Johnson; McArthur, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG) system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children. Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under "passive" and "active" listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz) and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz) tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of 'high' (i.e., deviant) tones. Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95) in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74). There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems. Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children's late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3) and their MMN ERP component.

  17. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Jim

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. Methods and design A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Discussion Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and

  18. A community based field research project investigating anaemia amongst young children living in rural Karnataka, India: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasricha, Sant-Rayn; Vijaykumar, Varalaxmi; Prashanth, N S; Sudarshan, H; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Black, Jim; Shet, Arun

    2009-02-17

    Anaemia is an important problem amongst young children living in rural India. However, there has not previously been a detailed study of the biological aetiology of this anaemia, exploring the relative contributions of iron, vitamin B12, folate and Vitamin A deficiency, inflammation, genetic haemoglobinopathy, hookworm and malaria. Nor have studies related these aetiologic biological factors to household food security, standard of living and child feeding practices. Barriers to conducting such work have included perceived reluctance of village communities to permit their children to undergo venipuncture, and logistical issues. We have successfully completed a community based, cross sectional field study exploring in detail the causes of anaemia amongst young children in a rural setting. A cross sectional, community based study. We engaged in extensive community consultation and tailored our study design to the outcomes of these discussions. We utilised local women as field workers, harnessing the capacity of local health workers to assist with the study. We adopted a programmatic approach with a census rather than random sampling strategy in the village, incorporating appropriate case management for children identified to have anaemia. We developed a questionnaire based on existing standard measurement tools for standard of living, food security and nutrition. Specimen processing was conducted at the Primary Health Centre laboratory prior to transport to an urban research laboratory. Adopting this study design, we have recruited 415 of 470 potentially eligible children who were living in the selected villages. We achieved support from the community and cooperation of local health workers. Our results will improve the understanding into anaemia amongst young children in rural India. However, many further studies are required to understand the health problems of the population of rural India, and our study design and technique provide a useful demonstration of a

  19. Risk Factors for Wheezing, Eczema and Rhinoconjunctivitis in the Previous 12 Months among Six-Year-Old Children in Himeji City, Japan: Food Allergy, Older Siblings, Day-Care Attendance and Parental Allergy History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitake Kurosaka

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Among Japanese children, food allergy and parents' history of allergy are risk factors for WP, ES or RS. However, early day-care attendance and presence of older siblings might be protective factors against RS. Infections in early life may affect the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis in six-year-old children.

  20. Split views among parents regarding children's right to decide about participation in research: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartling, U; Helgesson, G; Hansson, M G; Ludvigsson, J

    2009-07-01

    Based on extensive questionnaire data, this paper focuses on parents' views about children's right to decide about participation in research. The data originates from 4000 families participating in a longitudinal prospective screening as 1997. Although current regulations and recommendations underline that children should have influence over their participation, many parents in this study disagree. Most (66%) were positive providing information to the child about relevant aspects of the study. However, responding parents were split about whether or not children should at some point be allowed decisional authority when participating in research: 41.6% of the parents reported being against or unsure. Those who responded positively believed that children should be allowed to decide about blood-sampling procedures (70%), but to a less extent about participation (48.5%), analyses of samples (19.7%) and biological bank storage (15.4%). That as many as possible should remain in the study, and that children do not have the competence to understand the consequences for research was strongly stressed by respondents who do not think children should have a right to decide. When asked what interests they consider most important in paediatric research, child autonomy and decision-making was ranked lowest. We discuss the implications of these findings.

  1. Children and political violence from a social ecological perspective: implications from research on children and families in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Cairns, Ed

    2009-03-01

    The effects on children of political violence are matters of international concern, with many negative effects well-documented. At the same time, relations between war, terrorism, or other forms of political violence and child development do not occur in a vacuum. The impact can be understood as related to changes in the communities, families and other social contexts in which children live, and in the psychological processes engaged by these social ecologies. To advance this process-oriented perspective, a social ecological model for the effects of political violence on children is advanced. This approach is illustrated by findings and methods from an ongoing research project on political violence and children in Northern Ireland. Aims of this project include both greater insight into this particular context for political violence and the provision of a template for study of the impact of children's exposure to violence in other regions of the world. Accordingly, the applicability of this approach is considered for other social contexts, including (a) another area in the world with histories of political violence and (b) a context of community violence in the US.

  2. Research on the Communication Development of Young Children with Deaf-Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael, Ed.

    This booklet collects seven papers drawing on research performed through the Communication Skills Center for Young Children with Deaf Blindness of the Oregon State System of Higher Education and its affiliated sites. Papers include: "Research on Vision Assessment" (Pamela Cress); "Use of Microswitch Technology To Facilitate Social…

  3. Best Practices for Young Children's Music Education: Guidance from Brain Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews best practices for young children's music experiences in light of developments in brain research. The first section reviews research music and brain topics including neuromyths, effect of music on structural brain changes and general intelligence, plasticity, critical and optimal periods, and at-risk student populations. The…

  4. Openings for Researching Environment and Place in Children's Literature: Ecologies, Potentials, Realities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alan; Payne, Phillip G.; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This not quite "final" ending of this special issue of "Environmental Education Research" traces a series of hopeful, if somewhat difficult and at times challenging, openings for researching experiences of environment and place through children's literature. In the first instance, we draw inspiration from the contributors who…

  5. Music research with children and youth with disabilities and typically developing peers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura S; Jellison, Judith A

    2012-01-01

    Systematic reviews of research provide pertinent information to both practitioners and researchers. While there are several recent reviews of music research and children with specific disabilities (primarily autism), there is no current review of music research with children with a wide variety of disabilities. The aim of the current study is to identify and systematically review music research with children and youth published in peer reviewed journals for the years 1999 through 2009. Research questions focused on participant characteristics; research purposes, methodologies, and findings; as well as the presence of ideas from special education policies, and practices. We also asked how results have changed from those from an earlier review (Jellison, 2000). Using computer and hand-searches, we identified 45 articles that met our criteria for inclusion. Once identified, through a process of consensus we analyzed articles based on criteria, categories, and codes used in the earlier review. Additionally we analyzed measurement instruments and effectiveness of interventions as reported by the authors. Primary findings show a large majority of studies were experimental with most reporting effective or partially effective interventions, particularly for social variables. Compared to the earlier review, increases were found for participants with autism and for reports including ideas from special education. Percentages of articles measuring generalization and examining high-incident disability populations (specific learning disabilities) were low. The findings from this review and comparisons to the earlier review reveal important implications for practices with children with autism and preparation of researchers to design and conduct studies in inclusive music settings.

  6. Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental Divorce: A Review of the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on parental divorce and early childhood development, using developmental psychopathology as an organizing framework. Because this review is unique in its focus on divorce-related issues specific to young children, limitations of existing research are noted and directions for future research are suggested. (Contains 63…

  7. Children as Peer Researchers: Reflections on a Journey of Mutual Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppock, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a small-scale study evaluating the work of an emotional literacy project in the North West of England. It focuses on the research process and the challenging experience of involving children as peer researchers. The author draws on theoretical and epistemological insights from feminism and the sociology of childhood to…

  8. Does Research on Children Reared in Father-absent Families Yield Information on Father Influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Frank A.

    1976-01-01

    The most frequently employed research design for studying paternal influences on child development has been to compare children reared in father-absent families to those reared in father-present families. Research should be directed to the study and conceptualization of the more specific components of experience in the father-child and…

  9. Addressing the Educational Needs of Children with Williams Syndrome: A Rather Neglected Area of Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikara, Olympia; Ashworth, Maria; Van Herwegen, Jo

    2018-04-13

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with physical health problems, limitations in cognitive abilities and increased risk of mental health difficulties. This profile of complex needs may make it challenging to support children with WS in schools. Surprisingly, in the current international move for inclusion, limited research exists on the educational provision and academic achievements of children with WS, including the non-existing literature on their voices and the perspectives of key stakeholders. This letter calls for additional research on the risk and protective factors associated with the educational outcomes of these children, the perspectives of the children themselves and the development of the evidence-base about the effectiveness of education intervention programs.

  10. PROBLEM OF RESEARCH OF EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IN FOREIGN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Valentinovna Shipova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The review of psychology and pedagogical researches of the mentally retarded children devoted to studying of a problem of emotional development in foreign science and practice is presented in article. Various approaches to an assessment of the importance of violations of the emotional sphere of the personality at mentally retarded children for all mental development of the child are considered, need of the accounting of emotional frustration of mentally retarded children for their education and education, and also social adaptation and integration into sociocultural and educational space is discussed. Research of emotional development of mentally retarded children in the course of training is important for development of programs of psychology and pedagogical diagnostics and correction of emotional violations at this category of school students, formation of their self-control, development of the emotional relations.

  11. An Overview of Existing Research about Children's Singing and the Implications for Teaching Children to Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the findings of the studies devoted to the child voice, most of which have occurred in the past 25 years, and to present a synthesis of these findings with respect to the pedagogy, or art and science, of teaching children to sing. The data suggest that a philosophical disparity exists about…

  12. Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J B

    2000-08-01

    To review important research of the past decade in divorce, marital conflict, and children's adjustment and to describe newer divorce interventions. Key empirical studies from 1990 to 1999 were surveyed regarding the impact of marital conflict, parental violence, and divorce on the psychological adjustment of children, adolescents, and young adults. Recent studies investigating the impact of divorce on children have found that many of the psychological symptoms seen in children of divorce can be accounted for in the years before divorce. The past decade also has seen a large increase in studies assessing complex variables within the marriage which profoundly affect child and adolescent adjustment, including marital conflict and violence and related parenting behaviors. This newer literature provides provocative and helpful information for forensic and clinical psychiatrists in their work with both married and divorcing families. While children of divorced parents, as a group, have more adjustment problems than do children of never-divorced parents, the view that divorce per se is the major cause of these symptoms must be reconsidered in light of newer research documenting the negative effects of troubled marriages on children.

  13. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A systems perspective on research and treatment with abused and neglected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyman, R B

    2000-01-01

    To discuss two systems-level changes in the organization and financing of mental health and child welfare services that will increasingly affect abused and neglected children: the implementation of managed care processes and the incorporation of accountability mechanisms in the management of mental health and child welfare services, particularly the use of systematic outcomes assessments. A central goal of the paper is to identify critical research questions which will help us to understand the impact of these changes on maltreated children. These two systems-level changes are described, and ways they may affect maltreated children are addressed. Both managed care and the growing focus on managing services by monitoring outcomes may positively or negatively affect maltreated children. Both of these trends are affecting the mental health and child welfare systems. It is likely that they will affect maltreated children's access to and the quality, cost, and outcomes of mental health and child welfare services. Systematic research on the impact of these large-scale changes can increase the likelihood that these changes will benefit maltreated children. A number of critical areas are identified for future research.

  15. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of marital conflict on children: recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T

    2002-01-01

    The effects of marital conflict on children's adjustment are well documented. For the past decade research has increasingly focused on advancing a process-level understanding of these effects, that is, accounting for the particular responses and patterns embedded within specific contexts, histories, and developmental periods that account for children's outcomes over time. As a vehicle for presenting an update, this review follows the framework for process-oriented research initially proposed by Cummings and Cummings (1988), concentrating on recent research developments, and also considering new and emerging themes in this area of research. In this regard, areas of advancement include (a) greater articulation of the effects of specific context/stimulus characteristics of marital conflict, (b) progress in identifying the psychological response processes in children (e.g., cognitive, emotional, social, physiological) that are affected and their possible role in accounting for relations between marital conflict and child outcomes, (c) greater understanding of the role of child characteristics, family history, and other contextual factors, including effects on children due to interrelations between marital conflict and parenting, and (d) advances in the conceptualization of children's outcomes, including that effects may be more productively viewed as dynamic processes of functioning rather than simply clinical diagnoses. Understanding of the impact of marital conflict on children as a function of time-related processes remains a gap in a process-oriented conceptualization of effects. Based on this review, a revised model for a process-oriented approach on the effects of marital discord on children is proposed and suggestions are made for future research directions.

  17. Consent to research by mentally ill children and adolescents: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... permissible in minors be stated in terms of well-defined risk standards. Finally, the ... The assessment of a mentally ill child's or adolescent's capacity to consent to ... 'mental healthcare' may include research; furthermore its repeated ..... Clinical response and risk of reported suicidal ideation and suicide ...

  18. Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: Insights based on participatory research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, N.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among

  19. Children and Modern Day Slavery | Okpalaobi | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load ...

  20. Research on Children's Environmental Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Programmatic initiatives for fathers have grown rapidly in early childhood settings during the past decade. This article reviews the research literature on attitudes about father involvement in programs, patterns of father involvement, studies about program development, outcome studies, and correlates of father involvement in programs.…

  1. Research improves hospitals' approach to children's pain in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... Research that has enabled hospitals in Thailand to better treat ... a night shift, it's pretty hard for them to spend a significant amount of time with one ... great suffering for family members and debilitating stress for nursing staff.

  2. Lego Serious Play as a participatory research method to involve children in action research projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2018-01-01

    as the materialization of students’ tacit knowledge, experience, and feelings. Furthermore, LSP makes use of visual representation, imagination, creativity, and two-way communication to embrace the voice of children. This approach allows participants to assume ownership of the process, to construct a joint narrative...

  3. The Team to Address Bariatric Care in Canadian Children (Team ABC3): Team Grant Research Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    Severe obesity (SO) in Canadian children remains poorly understood. However, based on international data, the prevalence of SO appears to be increasing and is associated with a number of psychosocial, bio-mechanical, and cardiometabolic health risks. The purpose of our national Team to Address Bariatric Care in Canadian Children (Team ABC3) is to develop and lead a series of inter-related studies to enhance the understanding and management of SO in Canadian children and adolescents (0-18 years). From 2015 to 2019, Team ABC3 will conduct a series of projects at the regional, provincial, and national levels using multiple methods and study designs to respond to key knowledge gaps by (i) generating evidence on the prevalence of SO and its impact on health services utilization in children using existing Canadian data sources from primary care settings, (ii) exploring contemporary definitions of SO that link with health outcomes, (iii) comparing and contrasting health risks across the continuum of SO, (iv) understanding potential barriers to and facilitators of treatment success in children with SO, and (v) examining innovative lifestyle and behavioral interventions designed to successfully manage SO in children and their families. Furthermore, to examine the impact of innovative interventions on the management SO, we will (vi) evaluate whether adding a health coach, who provides support via text, email, and/or phone, improves children's ability to adhere to a web-based weight management program and (vii) test the feasibility and impact of a community-based weight management program for pre-school children with SO and their parents that combines group-based parenting sessions with in-home visits. Our research aligns with national priorities in obesity research, brings together leading scientists, clinicians, and stakeholders from across Canada, and will inform health services delivery throughout the country to provide the best care possible for children with SO and

  4. Respiratory medicines for children: current evidence, unlicensed use and research priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smyth, A R; Barbato, A; Beydon, N

    2010-01-01

    deficiency. We hope that this summary of the evidence for respiratory medicines in children, highlighting gaps and research priorities, will be useful for the pharmaceutical industry, the paediatric committee of the European Medicines Agency, academic investigators and the lay public.......This European Respiratory Society task force has reviewed the evidence for paediatric medicines in respiratory disease occurring in adults and children. We describe off-licence use, research priorities and ongoing studies. Off-licence and off-label prescribing in children is widespread...... and potentially harmful. Research areas in asthma include novel formulations and regimens, and individualised prescribing. In cystic fibrosis, future studies will focus on screened infants and robust outcome measures are needed. Other areas include new enzyme and antibiotic formulations and the basic defect...

  5. Nonmedical interventions for children with ASD: recommended guidelines and further research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Margaret A; Gans, Daphna; Das, Lopamudra; Timbie, Justin; Kasari, Connie

    2012-11-01

    To use the findings of a systematic review of scientific evidence to develop consensus guidelines on nonmedical interventions that address cognitive function and core deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and to recommend priorities for future research. The guidelines were developed by a Technical Expert Panel (TEP) consisting of practitioners, researchers, and parents. A systematic overview of research findings was presented to the TEP; guideline statements were drafted, discussed, debated, edited, reassessed, and presented for formal voting. The strength of evidence of efficacy varied by intervention type from insufficient to moderate. There was some evidence that greater intensity of treatment (hours per week) and greater duration (in months) led to better outcomes. The TEP agreed that children with ASD should have access to at least 25 hours per week of comprehensive intervention to address social communication, language, play skills, and maladaptive behavior. They agreed that applied behavioral analysis, integrated behavioral/developmental programs, the Picture Exchange Communication System, and various social skills interventions have shown efficacy. Based on identified gaps, they recommend that future research focus on assessment and monitoring of outcomes, addressing the needs of pre/nonverbal children and adolescents, and identifying the most effective strategies, dose, and duration to improve specific core deficits. The creation of treatment guidelines and recommendations for future research represents an effort by leading experts to improve access to services for children with ASDs while acknowledging that the research evidence has many gaps.

  6. Recommendations for the Return of Research Results to Study Participants and Guardians: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Conrad V.; Ruccione, Kathleen; Wells, Robert J.; Long, Jay B.; Pelletier, Wendy; Hooke, Mary C.; Pentz, Rebecca D.; Noll, Robert B.; Baker, Justin N.; O'Leary, Maura; Reaman, Gregory; Adamson, Peter C.; Joffe, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Children's Oncology Group (COG) strongly supports the widely recognized principle that research participants should be offered a summary of study results. The mechanism by which to do so in a cooperative research group setting has not been previously described. Methods On the basis of a review of the available empirical and theoretic literature and on iterative, multidisciplinary discussion, a COG Return of Results Task Force (RRTF) offered detailed recommendations for the return of results to research study participants. Results The RRTF established guidelines for the notification of research participants and/or their parents/guardians about the availability of research results, a mechanism for and timing of sharing results via registration on the COG public Web site, the scope of the research to be shared, the target audience, and a process for creating and vetting lay summaries of study results. The RRTF recognized the challenges in adequately conveying complex scientific results to audiences with varying levels of health literacy and recommended that particularly sensitive or complex results be returned using direct personal contact. The RRTF also recommended evaluation of the cost, effectiveness, and impact of sharing results. Conclusion These recommendations provide a framework for the offering and returning of results to participants. They can be used by individual investigators, multi-investigator research collaboratives, and large cooperative groups. PMID:23109703

  7. Heuristic decision-making about research participation in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Emily; Dobson, Jennifer A; Solomon, Melinda; Waters, Valerie; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2016-08-01

    Traditional perspectives on informed consent assume that when faced with decisions about whether to participate in research, individuals behave according to principles of classical rationality, taking into account all available information to weigh risks and benefits to come to a decision that is optimal for them. However, theoretical and empirical research in psychology suggests that people may not make decisions in this way. Less is known about decision-making processes as they pertain to participating in biomedical research, particularly when the participants are children. We sought to better understand research decision processes especially in children who tend to participate extensively in research due to chronic illness. To learn more about children's decision-making in this context, we interviewed 19 young patients with cystic fibrosis (male n = 7; female n = 12) aged 8-18 years (M = 13 years) at a children's hospital in Canada between April and August 2013. We found that participants generally had a default approach to participation decisions, which they attributed to their parents' attitudes to research, experiences of having grown up participating in research, trusting the researchers, and wanting to help. Most of our participants made the decision to participate in research based on a heuristic with a baseline to say "yes", subject to change based on aspects of the research or particular preferences. In particular, concerns with the procedure, unwillingness to talk about cystic fibrosis, logistical challenges, and perceptions of risk all influenced the decision, as did the perceived importance or personal relevance of the research. Our study illustrates that rather than conducting risk/benefit analyses, participants tended to adopt a heuristic-like approach, consistent with decision theories that view heuristic decision-making as ecologically rational. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethical and practical issues regarding research in children: The European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Children, like all humans, are exposed to compounds in the environment and sometimes to drugs. The effect of this exposure cannot simply be deducted from studies in adults or animals. Effects might be different and even more dramatic than in adults due to the stage of growth and development of the infant. Around 80% of drugs used in young individuals are not licensed for use in this age group. Almost three new chemical compounds enter the environment each day. Toxicological studies in infants and children therefore are needed and ethically acceptable. However, appropriate safeguards must be taken into account. According to the Good Clinical Practice Directive of the European Parliament (2001/20) not only therapeutic, but also non-therapeutic research in infants and children is allowed, provided the study can only be conducted in children, and the results of the study in children will be of benefit to the group represented and no more than minimal harm and risk is inflicted to the children. Many more toxicological studies are needed in children and infants. Not conducting these studies is detrimental for this age group

  9. Impact of media on children and adolescents: a 10-year review of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, S

    2001-04-01

    To review the research literature published within the past 10 years regarding the impact of media on children and adolescents. Media categories researched with computer technology included television and movies, rock music and music videos, advertising, video games, and computers and the Internet. Research prior to 1990 documented that children learn behaviors and have their value systems shaped by media. Media research since has focused on content and viewing patterns. The primary effects of media exposure are increased violent and aggressive behavior, increased high-risk behaviors, including alcohol and tobacco use, and accelerated onset of sexual activity. The newer forms of media have not been adequately studied, but concern is warranted through the logical extension of earlier research on other media forms and the amount of time the average child spends with increasingly sophisticated media.

  10. Mathematics interventions for children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a research synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, C J; Powell, S R; King, S A; Davidson, K A

    2015-08-01

    Many children and adolescents with Down syndrome fail to achieve proficiency in mathematics. Researchers have suggested that tailoring interventions based on the behavioural phenotype may enhance efficacy. The research questions that guided this review were (1) what types of mathematics interventions have been empirically evaluated with children and adolescents with Down syndrome?; (2) do the studies demonstrate sufficient methodological rigor?; (3) is there evidence of efficacy for the evaluated mathematics interventions?; and (4) to what extent have researchers considered aspects of the behavioural phenotype in selecting, designing and/or implementing mathematics interventions for children and adolescents with Down syndrome? Nine studies published between 1989 and 2012 were identified for inclusion. Interventions predominantly focused on early mathematics skills and reported positive outcomes. However, no study met criteria for methodological rigor. Further, no authors explicitly considered the behavioural phenotype. Additional research using rigorous experimental designs is needed to evaluate the efficacy of mathematics interventions for children and adolescents with Down syndrome. Suggestions for considering the behavioural phenotype in future research are provided. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Tablet-Based eBooks for Young Children: What Does the Research Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Yau, Joanna C; Warschauer, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Young children's use of electronic books (eBooks) is increasing as handheld touch screen devices, such as tablets, become increasingly available. Although older children's reading on tablets has been more broadly investigated, less is known about the impacts of digital reading for infant, toddlers, and preschoolers. This review compares the educational affordances of reading on tablets versus print books for young children's learning. A qualitative synthesis of research on tablet-based eReading and young children's learning from screens was conducted. When eBooks are designed well, preschool-aged children learn equally well and sometimes more than from print books. However, enhanced eBooks with sounds, animations, and games can distract children and reduce learning. When book-sharing with an adult, conversations during eBook reading are often about the platform while print book conversations are more often about the book content. For young children (0-2 yr), there is a paucity of research, but broader studies on learning from screens suggest limited educational benefits of tablet use for this age group. The authors recommend that (1) the selection of eBooks (especially enhanced eBooks) be thoughtful as games or animations that are not related to the story content can be distracting for young children, (2) adults share in the reading experience as discussions of the story, text, and characters have been found to enhance comprehension, language development, and print awareness, and (3) tablet eBook use be restricted for infants and toddlers, as they benefit more from face-to-face interaction with caregivers than from interactive screens alone.

  12. Research of Social Skills of Children Who Attend to Kindergarten According to the Attitudes of Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Eda; Kiran, Binnaz

    2018-01-01

    In this study, 5-6-year-old children who attend to kindergarten were researched if there is a difference in their level of social skills according to their mothers' attitudes, their gender, mother's employment status, the number of the children in the family, and to the caretaker. The study group was formed of 354 children who attend to…

  13. The Strengths of Latina Mothers in Supporting Their Children's Education: "A Cultural Perspective." Research Brief. Publication #2014-29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Manica

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that when parents are engaged in their children's learning and development, their children do better in school. This brief reports on what was learned through recent interviews with Latina immigrant mothers about the techniques they used to support their children's education at the most malleable stage of…

  14. Conducting evaluation research with children exposed to violence: How technological innovations in methodologies and data collection may enhance the process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Michael A; Jenney, Angelique; Walsh, Margaret

    2018-01-20

    Research and program evaluation processes that engage children and youth are becoming much more common due to influences from children's rights and the acknowledgement that children have the capacity to contribute to research, both as participants and co-researchers (Roberts, 2017). Recent technological advances in the form of tablet and internet-based applications have provided researchers with additional methodological tools to better capture the voices and experiences of children and their caregivers (Livingstone & Blum-Ross, 2017). However, little has been written on the ways in which these new technological advances can improve research experiences for children who have been exposed to intimate partner and family violence, as well as other forms of traumatic experiences. This paper provides a review of current literature and a case study example of how one children's mental health agency has implemented tablet-based data collection procedures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Research Paper: Investigation of Acoustic Characteristics of Speech Motor Control in Children Who Stutter and Children Who Do Not Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fakar Gharamaleki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Stuttering is a developmental disorder of speech fluency with unknown causes. One of the proposed theories in this field is deficits in speech motor control that is associated with damaged control, timing, and coordination of the speech muscles. Fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time are the most important acoustic components that are often used for indirect evaluation of physiological functions underlying the mechanisms of speech motor control. The purpose of this investigation was to compare some of the acoustic characteristics of speech motor control in children who stutter and children who do not stutter. Materials & Methods This research is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 25 Azari-Persian bilingual boys who stutter (stutters group and 23 Azari-Persian bilinguals and 21 Persian monolingual boys who do not stutter (non-stutters group in the age range of 6 to 10 years participated in this study. Children participated in /a/ and /i/ vowels prolongation and carrier phrase repetition tasks for the analysis of some of their acoustic characteristics including fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency range, intensity, intensity range, and voice onset time. The PRAAT software was used for acoustic analysis. SPSS software (version 17, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for analyzing the data. Results The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the stutters and non-stutters groups (P>0.05 with respect to the acoustic features of speech motor control . Conclusion No significant group differences were observed in all of the dependent variables reported in this study. Thus, the results of this research do not support the notion of aberrant speech motor control in children who stutter.

  16. Technology for Children With Brain Injury and Motor Disability: Executive Summary From Research Summit IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Jennifer B; Lobo, Michele A; Bjornson, Kristie; Dusing, Stacey C; Field-Fote, Edelle; Gannotti, Mary; Heathcock, Jill C; OʼNeil, Margaret E; Rimmer, James H

    Advances in technology show promise as tools to optimize functional mobility, independence, and participation in infants and children with motor disability due to brain injury. Although technologies are often used in adult rehabilitation, these have not been widely applied to rehabilitation of infants and children. In October 2015, the Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy sponsored Research Summit IV, "Innovations in Technology for Children With Brain Insults: Maximizing Outcomes." The summit included pediatric physical therapist researchers, experts from other scientific fields, funding agencies, and consumers. Participants identified challenges in implementing technology in pediatric rehabilitation including accessibility, affordability, managing large data sets, and identifying relevant data elements. Participants identified 4 key areas for technology development: to determine (1) thresholds for learning, (2) appropriate transfer to independence, (3) optimal measurement of subtle changes, and (4) how to adapt to growth and changing abilities.

  17. Children as ethnobotanists: methods and local impact of a participatory research project with children on wild plant gathering in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2016-10-10

    Ethically sound research in applied ethnobiology should benefit local communities by giving them full access to research processes and results. Participatory research may ensure such access, but there has been little discussion on methodological details of participatory approaches in ethnobiological research. This paper presents and discusses the research processes and methods developed in the course of a three-year research project on wild plant gathering, the involvement of children as co-researchers and the project's indications for local impact. Research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria, between 2008 and 2010 in four research phases. In phase 1, 36 freelist interviews with local people and participant observation was conducted. In phase 2 school workshops were held in 14 primary school classes and their 189 children interviewed 506 family members with structured questionnaires. In phase 3, 27 children and two researchers co-produced participatory videos. In phase 4 indications for the impact of the project were investigated with questionnaires from ten children and with participant observation. Children participated in various ways in the research process and the scientific output and local impact of the project was linked to the phases, degrees and methods of children's involvement. Children were increasingly involved in the project, from non-participation to decision-making. Scientific output was generated from participatory and non-participatory activities whereas local impact - on personal, familial, communal and institutional levels - was mainly generated through the participatory involvement of children as interviewers and as co-producers of videos. Creating scientific outputs from participatory video is little developed in ethnobiology, whereas bearing potential. As ethnobotanists and ethnobiologists, if we are truly concerned about the impact and benefits of our research processes and results to local communities, the

  18. Acquiring Research Access: Perspectives from Gatekeepers and Parents of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tamara Jo-Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the conditions necessary to gain research access to parents of children with anorexia. In this study, I also examined and explored avenues parents have for sharing their story and their experiences of parenting a child with anorexia as well as whether gatekeepers have a role in connecting parents and…

  19. A Systematic Review of the Autism Research with Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sarah; Scott, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The current study is a systematic review on the available evidence on language development, assessment, challenging behavior, and instruction for children dually diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder and deafness. Results indicate a strong need for additional research in these areas, especially in the areas of evidence-based practices.

  20. Afterword: New Directions in Research with Immigrant Families and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Carhill, Avary

    2008-01-01

    Although migration is fundamentally a family affair, the family, as a unit of analysis, has been understudied both by scholars of migration and by developmental psychologists. Researchers have often struggled to conceptualize immigrant children, adolescents, and their families, all too often giving way to pathologizing them, ignoring generational…

  1. Reconciling Divergent Perspectives: Judith Wallerstein, Quantitative Family Research, and Children of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Although Judith Wallerstein's research on children with divorced parents has been influential, many quantitative family scholars have criticized her methods and conclusions. This article provides examples from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study to illustrate the magnitude of divorce effects and concludes with a call for a…

  2. Framework for national and multicultural research on the impact of human rights violations in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Introduction: This framework examines the scope of problems and attempts to achieve a shared approach to research on monitoring, assessment and intervention strategies applicable to children, families and communities. It comprises three main components: 1. monitoring, 2. assessment and diagnosis, 3...

  3. Attuning a mobile simulation game for school children using a design-based research approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Klemke, Roland; Walhout, Jaap; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    We report on a design-based research study that was conducted over nine months. It chronicles the development and implementation of HeartRun, a cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training approach for school children. Comparable to an unexpected emergency, HeartRun consists of authentic activities

  4. Content Analysis of Memory and Memory-Related Research Studies on Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Murat; Hasanoglu, Gülcihan

    2016-01-01

    Memory plays a profound role in explaining language development, academic learning, and learning disabilities. Even though there is a large body of research on language development, literacy skills, other academic skills, and intellectual characteristics of children with hearing loss, there is no holistic study on their memory processes.…

  5. Children's Media Use and Sleep Problems: Issues and Unanswered Questions. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that most children and adolescents do not get enough high-quality sleep, and that their sleep times appear to have declined over the last two decades. Coinciding with this trend has been the rise in popularity of new media forms including the Internet, video games, cell phones and DVDs. Because of the immediacy and interactivity of…

  6. Linking clinical quality indicators to research evidence - a case study in asthma management for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Miew Keen; Tsafnat, Guy; Hibbert, Peter; Runciman, William B; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-07-21

    Clinical quality indicators are used to monitor the performance of healthcare services and should wherever possible be based on research evidence. Little is known however about the extent to which indicators in common use are based on research. The objective of this study is to measure the extent to which clinical quality indicators used in asthma management in children with outcome measurements can be linked to results in randomised controlled clinical trial (RCT) reports. This work is part of a broader research program to trial methods that improve the efficiency and accuracy of indicator development. National-level indicators for asthma management in children were extracted from the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse database and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence quality standards by two independent appraisers. Outcome measures were extracted from all published English language RCT reports for asthma management in children below the age of 12 published between 2005 and 2014. The two sets were then linked by manually mapping both to a common set of Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts. The analysis identified 39 indicators and 562 full text RCTs dealing with asthma management in children. About 95% (37/39) of the indicators could be linked to RCT outcome measures. It is possible to identify relevant RCT reports for the majority of indicators used to assess the quality of asthma management in childhood. The methods reported here could be automated to more generally support assessment of candidate indicators against the research evidence.

  7. Researching Children's Rights in Education: Sociology of Childhood Encountering Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Ann; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore and develop a theoretical approach for children's rights research in education formed through an encounter between the sociology of childhood and John Dewey's educational theory. The interest is mainly methodological, in the sense that the primary ambition of the investigation is to suggest a fruitful and useful…

  8. Prayer Is a Positive Activity for Children--A Report on Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on Australian research investigating the meaning and function of prayer for children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 primary school participants selected from six different schools in Melbourne, reflecting some of the diverse philosophical and religious traditions found in the Australian society. The three…

  9. Research and Reflections on the Spiritual Development of Young Jewish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    This article is about spiritual development for early childhood Jewish education. Findings from a research study defines the spiritual development of young children as an integration of deep connections, basic dispositions (strengthened from experiences of wonderment, awe, joy, inner peace), and complex dispositions (displayed through acts of…

  10. Uniform research case definition criteria differentiate tuberculous and bacterial meningitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Regan S; Wessels, Marie; Visser, Douwe H; Donald, Peter R; Marais, Ben J; Schoeman, Johan F; van Furth, Anne M

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) research is hampered by low numbers of microbiologically confirmed TBM cases and the fact that they may represent a select part of the disease spectrum. A uniform TBM research case definition was developed to address these limitations, but its ability to differentiate TBM from bacterial meningitis has not been evaluated. We assessed all children treated for TBM from 1985 to 2005 at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. For comparative purposes, a group of children with culture-confirmed bacterial meningitis, diagnosed between 2003 and 2009, was identified from the National Health Laboratory Service database. The performance of the proposed case definition was evaluated in culture-confirmed TBM and bacterial meningitis cases. Of 554 children treated for TBM, 66 (11.9%) were classified as "definite TBM," 408 (73.6%) as "probable TBM," and 72 (13.0%) as "possible TBM." "Probable TBM" criteria identified culture-confirmed TBM with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 100%; sensitivity was increased but specificity reduced when using "possible TBM" criteria (sensitivity 100%, specificity 56%). "Probable TBM" criteria accurately differentiated TBM from bacterial meningitis and could be considered for use in clinical trials; reduced sensitivity in children with early TBM (stage 1 disease) remains a concern. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Experiences of Daycare Children of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…

  12. Behind the Headlines: Media Representation of Children and Young People in Northern Ireland:Summary of Research Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Faith; McAlister, Siobhán; Scraton, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council this partnership project between the Childhood, Transition and Social Justice Initiative at Queen’s University and Include Youth focuses on the negative stereotyping of children and young people and the role and responsibilities of the media in the creation and transmission of negative images. Engaging with children, young people, organisations working with children and young people and media representatives, the project uses research evidenc...

  13. Leading multi-professional teams in the children's workforce: an action research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice. A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating? When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research. The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.

  14. Informed consent instead of assent is appropriate in children from the age of twelve: Policy implications of new findings on children's competence to consent to clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Irma M.; de Vries, Martine C.; Troost, Pieter W.; Meynen, Gerben; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2015-01-01

    For many decades, the debate on children's competence to give informed consent in medical settings concentrated on ethical and legal aspects, with little empirical underpinnings. Recently, data from empirical research became available to advance the discussion. It was shown that children's

  15. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  16. Translating child development research into practice: Can teachers foster children's theory of mind in primary school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Federica; Lecce, Serena

    2016-12-01

    Translating research findings into practice should be one of the objectives of developmental psychology. Recently, research demonstrated the existence of individual differences in theory of mind (ToM) during middle childhood that are crucial for children's academic and social adjustment. This study aims to transfer the results of recent experimental studies on ToM interventions into primary-school teachers' practices. It examines whether a ToM training programme, based on conversations about mental states, can be effective under real-world school conditions and if it can be translated in such a way that it becomes suitable for primary-school teachers. Seventy-two 8- to 9-year-old children took part in the study. A total of four classes were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental (34 children, 18 boys) or to the control condition (38 children, 18 boys). The ToM group and the control group were matched at pre-test for age, ToM, socio-economic background, verbal ability, working memory, and planning. Teachers were trained in four teacher-training sessions; the classroom-training programme was delivered by teachers in four sessions (each 50 min long). Children were assessed before the intervention, after the end of the programme, and 2 months later. The ToM group improved ToM skills significantly more than the control group both in the short and in the long term. Teachers can successfully promote their pupils' ToM development during their regular teaching hours. Results are discussed in the light of the importance of ToM promotion for children's school adjustment. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Determinants of Children's Mental Health in War-Torn Settings: Translating Research Into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E; Jordans, Mark J D

    2016-06-01

    Research on the mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of children in conflict-affected settings has undergone a significant paradigm shift in recent years. Earlier studies based on a war exposure model primarily emphasized the effects of direct exposure to armed conflict; this has gradually given way to a broader understanding of the diverse pathways by which organized violence affects children. A robustly supported comprehensive model includes risk factors at multiple points in time (prior war exposure, ongoing daily stressors) and at all levels of the social ecology. In particular, findings suggest that material deprivation and a set of family variables, including harsh parenting, parental distress, and witnessing intimate partner violence, are important mediators of the relationship between armed conflict and children's wellbeing. To date, however, interventions aimed at supporting war-affected children's wellbeing, both preventive and treatment-focused, have focused primarily on direct work with children, while paying only modest attention to ongoing risk factors in their families and broader environments. Possible reasons for the ongoing prioritization of child-focused interventions are considered, and examples are provided of recent evidence-based interventions that have reduced toxic stressors (harsh parenting and the use of violent discipline by teachers) in conflict-affected communities.

  18. Parenting Styles and Practices in Children's Obesogenic Behaviors: Scientific Gaps and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; McSpadden, Kate; Oh, April

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Given the emerging global childhood obesity epidemic and the specter of a generation of children who will have a shorter life expectancy than that of their parents, recent research has focused on factors that influence children's weight status and obesogenic behaviors (i.e., eating, physical activity, and screen media use). Parents act as primary socializing agents for children, and thus growing evidence supports the role of parenting styles and practices in children's obesity-related behaviors and weight. Studying these processes in children and adolescents is important for several reasons. First, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status track from childhood and adolescence into adulthood. Furthermore, diet and physical activity behaviors and weight status confer significant risk for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this article is to describe the scientific gaps that need to be addressed to develop a more informed literature on parenting styles and practices in the domains of weight status and obesogenic behaviors, as identified by an expert panel assembled by the National Cancer Institute. PMID:23944926

  19. Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers Impact Report: Advances in protecting children's health where they live, learn, and play

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1997, EPA and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) partnered to form the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers. This impact report summarizes the history of the program, scientific findings since the program's incept...

  20. Annual Research Review: Mental Health and Resilience in HIV/AIDS-Affected Children--A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Charrow, Alexandra; Hansen, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding…

  1. Using qualitative research to inform development of a diagnostic algorithm for UTI in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salis, Isabel; Whiting, Penny; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Hay, Alastair D

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms can help reduce clinical uncertainty. The selection of candidate symptoms and signs to be measured in case report forms (CRFs) for potential inclusion in diagnostic algorithms needs to be comprehensive, clearly formulated and relevant for end users. To investigate whether qualitative methods could assist in designing CRFs in research developing diagnostic algorithms. Specifically, the study sought to establish whether qualitative methods could have assisted in designing the CRF for the Health Technology Association funded Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY) study, which will develop a diagnostic algorithm to improve recognition of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children aged children in primary care and a Children's Emergency Department. We elicited features that clinicians believed useful in diagnosing UTI and compared these for presence or absence and terminology with the DUTY CRF. Despite much agreement between clinicians' accounts and the DUTY CRFs, we identified a small number of potentially important symptoms and signs not included in the CRF and some included items that could have been reworded to improve understanding and final data analysis. This study uniquely demonstrates the role of qualitative methods in the design and content of CRFs used for developing diagnostic (and prognostic) algorithms. Research groups developing such algorithms should consider using qualitative methods to inform the selection and wording of candidate symptoms and signs.

  2. Auditing of clinical research ethics in a children's and women's academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolussi, Robert; Nicholson, Diann

    2002-06-01

    Canadian and international guidelines for research ethics practices have advocated that research ethics boards (REBs) should implement mechanisms to review and monitor human research. Despite this, few Canadian REBs fulfil this expectation. The objective of this report is to summarize the results of 6 audits of clinical research ethics conducted between 1992 and 2000 in a children's and women's academic hospital in Canada in an effort to guide other academic centres planning a similar process. Research audits were conducted by members of a research audit review committee made up of REB volunteers. With use of random and selective processes, approximately 10% of research protocols were audited through interviews with research investigators and research coordinators and by sampling research records. Predetermined criteria were used to assess evidence of good record keeping, data monitoring, adherence to protocol, consents and the recording of adverse events during the research study. An estimate of time required to undertake an audit was made by recall of participants and records. Thirty-five research studies were reviewed including 16 multicentre clinical trials and 19 single-site clinical studies. Review of record keeping and research practice revealed some deficiencies: researchers failed to maintain original authorization (7%) or renewal documentation (9%); there was 1 instance of improper storage of medication; in 5% of 174 participants for whom consent was reviewed, an outdated consent form had been used, and in 4% the signature of the enrolee was not properly shown. Other deficiencies in consent documentation occurred in less than 2% of cases. Nineteen recommendations were made with respect to deficiencies and process issues. A total of 9 to 20 person-hours are required to review each protocol in a typical audit of this type. Information from research audits has been useful to develop educational programs to correct deficiencies identified through the audits

  3. Important themes in research on and education of young children in day care centres: Finnish viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritta Hännikäinen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to outline important themes, according to Finnish early childhood education researchers, that need to be addressed in researching and educating children under three years of age in Finland. To achieve this aim, the article divides into two parts. First, we present and discuss the results of a small-scale survey, conducted in Finland, on the views of key informants in the early childhood education units of Finnish universities. Second, the views presented in the survey are used as a starting point to introduce two ongoing qualitative case studies on the everyday life of toddlers in Finnish day care centres. In line with the survey findings, these case studies emphasize in particular the importance of the relational, social nature of children, the educational community, and the sensitivity of the adult for children’s wellbeing in day care groups.

  4. Treatment of insomnia in adults and children: a practice-friendly review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Roane, Brandy M

    2010-11-01

    Chronic insomnia affects nearly 16% of adults and up to 25% of children. Many clinicians are unfamiliar with the research and practice of psychological treatments of insomnia and thus do not use them with their patients. The primary goals of this article were to (a) review the research support for psychological treatments of adult and child insomnia, and (b) describe those treatments with the highest level of research support in enough detail to allow practitioners to begin to utilize them with their own patients. The adult psychological treatments with the best research support are stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, and multimodal cognitive-behavioral therapy, followed by multimodal behavioral therapy, sleep restriction, biofeedback, and paradoxical intention. The child psychological treatments with the highest level of research support are preventive parent education, unmodified extinction, and extinction with parental presence, followed by graduated extinction, bedtime fading/positive routines, and scheduled awakenings. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Children new technologies and gender: towards the definition of a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina DUEK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between information and communications technology (ICT and a number of aspects of contem-porary everyday life constitutes a productive field inside cultural studies. The constant enquiries about uses, sociali-zation and representations place ICT in the midst of Social Sciences research in the 21st century. This article aims to compose a research agenda for future research on ICT related to gender, children and play. All those axes have been independently analyzed, but the intersections and articulations we found in our research open new perspectives to question. What do children do with the devices? In which ways, does gender constitute an intervening variable in the dynamics, characters, actions and roles that may (or may not be assumed during games? This article presents a series of dimensions that constitute a possible research agenda organized by the main axes, problems, hypotheses and methodologies on which our actual and future research is projected as a way of contributing to the field in which they are framed.

  6. Development of a Child Abuse Level Management (CALM) Guide for Research with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda C; Schim, Stephanie Myers

    2016-05-01

    Reporting child abuse or neglect is an ethical expectation and a legislated mandate of behavioral and health care professionals in the United States. In particular, researchers who investigate parent-child dyads are responsible for submitting procedures and informed consent documents to institutional review boards that provide for the protection of children. The challenge for researchers is to recognize failing quality of parent-child interaction, prior to any event of maltreatment and to intercede in a deteriorating dynamic. The obligation to report any suspicions of child maltreatment supersedes the responsibility to provide for confidentiality of research data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for the development of a research protocol guide, Child Abuse Level Management (CALM), and address protection of children in research. The CALM is a brief, flexible guide designed for use by researchers to help identify and respond to negative trends in the parent-child interaction during data collection. Suggested intervention scripts are provided that can be modified for specific culture-focused samples. The CALM guide can be used for training of data collectors using simulations prior to initiating any study involving higher-risk dyads. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Perspectives on Children's Digital Opportunities: An Emerging Research and Policy Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia; Lemish, Dafna; Lim, Sun Sun; Bulger, Monica; Cabello, Patricio; Claro, Magdalena; Cabello-Hutt, Tania; Khalil, Joe; Kumpulainen, Kristiina; Nayar, Usha S; Nayar, Priya; Park, Jonghwi; Tan, Maria Melizza; Prinsloo, Jeanne; Wei, Bu

    2017-11-01

    Diverse international perspectives show that children can benefit greatly from digital opportunities. Despite widespread optimism about the potential of digital technologies, especially for information and education, the research reveals an insufficient evidence base to guide policy and practice across all continents of the world, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Beyond revealing pressing and sizeable gaps in knowledge, this cross-national review also reveals the importance of understanding local values and practices regarding the use of technologies. This leads us to stress that future researchers must take into account local contexts and existing inequalities and must share best practices internationally so that children can navigate the balance between risks and opportunities. This article documents the particular irony that while the world's poorer countries look to research to find ways to increase access and accelerate the fair distribution of digital educational resources, the world's wealthier countries look to research for guidance in managing excessive screen time, heavily commercial content, and technologies that intrude on autonomy and privacy. We conclude by recommending that digital divides should be carefully bridged with contextual sensitivity to avoid exacerbating existing disparities; that the provision of technological resources is complemented by a focus on skills enhancement, for teachers as well as students; that a keen eye is needed to ensure the balance of children's protection and participation rights, with protection now including data abuses as well as safety considerations; and that we forge collaborations among all stakeholders in seeking to enhance children's digital opportunities worldwide. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. MARKET RESEARCH OF CARE GOODS FOR NEWBORNS AND FIRST YEAR CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Ovod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative results of marketing research of care goods for newborns and first year children conducted in 2009 and 2014 showed that there were changes in the range of products and consumer preferences. The analysis revealed that the economic situation affected the determinants of choice in this category of goods and the location of purchasing. The findings should be considered by pharmaceutical companies in their procurement in order to improve their competitive position. 

  9. The Well-Being of Maryland Parents and Their Children: Differences by Income Status and Family Structure. Research Brief. Publication #2009-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheimer, Richard; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Kahn, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Research studies based on statistics for the United States as a whole have documented differences in child and family well-being between children in low-income families and children in more affluent families and between children in single-parent families and children in two-parent families. However, researchers have not explored differences in…

  10. Farzana's Journey: A Children's Book for Research-based, Educational Outreach in Remote Communities of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C.; Hornberger, G. M.; Machado, M.

    2017-12-01

    Academics are encouraged to integrate their environmental research with education and societal outreach, but the methods of doing so can be transient and insubstantial. Here, we use a children's book to create a sustainable relationship with vulnerable communities in Bangladesh. Farzana's Journey is a children's book based on current multidisciplinary Vanderbilt University research on the coupling and coevolution of the physical and human systems in coastal Bangladesh. Written, illustrated, and freely distributed in the Bengali-language, the book is a place-based tool to teach rural Bangladesh communities about the natural world and disseminate our scientific findings. The narrative follows a young girl, Farzana, who must walk a long distance to fetch her family's water. Her usual journey develops into an adventure as she meets a variety of animal characters, who relay a story about her ever-changing environment and the subsequent human adaptation. After exploring environmental topics, such as geomorphology, water availability, and climate, Farzana appreciates the uniqueness of her local environment and the adaptations of her ancestors and future generations. Through the development and distribution of the book, we encouraged dialogue, collaboration, and public outreach with scientists, artists, and students concerned with enhancing educational and social opportunity in rural communities. We also ensure a tangible tie through the book itself after the culmination of the research project. The book achieves the primary goal of sparking children's curiosity in the local environment, while also demonstrating an effective means for sustainable educational outreach with impoverished, remote communities.

  11. How children can be respected as 'ends' yet still be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R B

    1986-06-01

    The question of whether or not children may be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research projects has generated a great deal of debate and received answers varying from 'no, never' to 'yes, if societal interests are served'. It has been claimed that a Kantian, deontological ethics would necessarily rule out such research, since valid consent would be impossible. The present paper gives a deontological argument for allowing children to be subjects in certain types of research.

  12. How children can be respected as 'ends' yet still be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research.

    OpenAIRE

    Redmon, R B

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether or not children may be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research projects has generated a great deal of debate and received answers varying from 'no, never' to 'yes, if societal interests are served'. It has been claimed that a Kantian, deontological ethics would necessarily rule out such research, since valid consent would be impossible. The present paper gives a deontological argument for allowing children to be subjects in certain types of research.

  13. How children can be respected as 'ends' yet still be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R B

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether or not children may be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research projects has generated a great deal of debate and received answers varying from 'no, never' to 'yes, if societal interests are served'. It has been claimed that a Kantian, deontological ethics would necessarily rule out such research, since valid consent would be impossible. The present paper gives a deontological argument for allowing children to be subjects in certain types of research. PMID:3735361

  14. Research and Psychosocial Intervention With Families of Children and Adolescents With Eating Disorders and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexina Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders and obesity in children and adolescents have been calling researchers and public health institutions’ attention due to severity and increasing incidence in the last decades. Studies on etiological factors of diseases related to alimentation are important to justify more efficient treatment methodologies. The family participation has been suggested by authors of systems theory, motivating us to study this issue from the point of view of individual, family and socio-cultural. This paper aims to present research data to construct a psychosocial attendance methodology to children and adolescents with eating disorders and obesity and their families. The method used is qualitative and includes a family life cycle interview, Multifamily Group, children and adolescents groups and the use of Rorschach test in adolescents. Partial data show that parents’ life history has influence on eating pattern of family; the genitors don’t comprehend the obesity as a multi-factorial syndrome and don’t recognize that their children are obese and have difficulty setting boundaries in general and regarding to food; conjugal and parental conflicts and grandparents interference have negative influence on children dietary and on treatment of obesity and eating disorders; the use of Rorschach test has identified: low self-esteem, anguish and distorted self and body perceptions, self-concept and self-image distortions in adolescents with eating disorders and depressive thoughts, dependency, fear of abandonment and distortion between ideal and real images in obese adolescents. These data are in accordance with bibliographic review regarding to family influence on each member’s health development and on family eating pattern. Parents and adults have a central role as in orientation and education as presenting appropriate models in terms of alimentation.

  15. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-06-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects.

  16. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-01-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. The responses of these parents to the Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values Questionnaire, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Cattell Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire were analysed by computer. There was a marked difference between the psychological profiles of the two groups of parents. Volunteering parents put more value on benevolence while non-volunteering parents were more concerned with power and prestige. The self-esteem of volunteering parents was much lower than that of non-volunteering parents. Finally, volunteering parents were more introverted, exhibited greater anxiety and low supergo, while non-volunteering parents appeared to have greater social confidence and emotional stability. Since an individual's values, self-esteem and personality may be important antecedents of behaviour, these findings suggest that parents who volunteer their children for clinical research are not only socially disadvantaged and emotionally vulnerable, but may also be psychologically predisposed to volunteering. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the existence of a psychosocial 'filter' effect of the informed consent procedure, which may be discouraging the better educated, more privileged and psychologically resilient members of society from participation as research subjects. PMID:1619628

  17. Validation of the Emotiv EPOC EEG system for research quality auditory event-related potentials in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Badcock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous work has demonstrated that a commercial gaming electroencephalography (EEG system, Emotiv EPOC, can be adjusted to provide valid auditory event-related potentials (ERPs in adults that are comparable to ERPs recorded by a research-grade EEG system, Neuroscan. The aim of the current study was to determine if the same was true for children.Method. An adapted Emotiv EPOC system and Neuroscan system were used to make simultaneous EEG recordings in nineteen 6- to 12-year-old children under “passive” and “active” listening conditions. In the passive condition, children were instructed to watch a silent DVD and ignore 566 standard (1,000 Hz and 100 deviant (1,200 Hz tones. In the active condition, they listened to the same stimuli, and were asked to count the number of ‘high’ (i.e., deviant tones.Results. Intraclass correlations (ICCs indicated that the ERP morphology recorded with the two systems was very similar for the P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 ERP peaks (r = .82 to .95 in both passive and active conditions, and less so, though still strong, for mismatch negativity ERP component (MMN; r = .67 to .74. There were few differences between peak amplitude and latency estimates for the two systems.Conclusions. An adapted EPOC EEG system can be used to index children’s late auditory ERP peaks (i.e., P1, N1, P2, N2, P3 and their MMN ERP component.

  18. Toy Library: space research on the play of children in school of infantile education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sommerhalder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the toy library as an area of research on child's play and on the child. In dialogue with psychoanalysis, the article aims to address aspects that characterize the children play in an environment of toy library. The study presents a reflection from the results of six sessions of observation of the ‘house play’ among children of the school of infantile education. The observation of the play activity was accompanied by the daily record in the field of actions and words of the thirteen children participating in the study. The study shows that the child is playing in a subjective space and is a preferred vehicle for achieving symbolic of desires and fantasies, the reality of transformation and creation of new knowledge. Therefore, it emphasizes the importance of valuing the toy library at school as a way of redemption and make of play in school of infantile education and highlights the value of play for learning and development of children in school of infantile education.

  19. Setting priorities for a research agenda to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, B; Nair, D; Ramalingam, S; Perez-Velez, C M; Becerra, M C; Swaminathan, S

    2015-12-21

    Numerous knowledge gaps hamper the prevention and treatment of childhood drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). Identifying research priorities is vital to inform and develop strategies to address this neglected problem. To systematically identify and rank research priorities in childhood drug-resistant TB. Adapting the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology, we compiled 53 research questions in four research areas, then classified the questions into three research types. We invited experts in childhood drug-resistant TB to score these questions through an online survey. A total of 81 respondents participated in the survey. The top-ranked research question was to identify the best combination of existing diagnostic tools for early diagnosis. Highly ranked treatment-related questions centred on the reasons for and interventions to improve treatment outcomes, adverse effects of drugs and optimal treatment duration. The prevalence of drug-resistant TB was the highest-ranked question in the epidemiology area. The development type questions that ranked highest focused on interventions for optimal diagnosis, treatment and modalities for treatment delivery. This is the first effort to identify and rank research priorities for childhood drug-resistant TB. The result is a resource to guide research to improve prevention and treatment of drug-resistant TB in children.

  20. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  1. Experiences of SKYPE Communication in Education and Research--Data Collection Concerning Young Children with Long-Term Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Agneta Simeonsdotter; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Hellström, Anna-Lena; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide knowledge about communication using SKYPE with young children with chronic illness; advantages and barriers are investigated related to education and data issues collection. A qualitative exploratory research method was applied to interviews and notes via SKYPE between children and their web teachers. The…

  2. Community-Involved Learning to Expand Possibilities for Vulnerable Children: A Critical Communicative, Sen's Capability, and Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    2014-01-01

    This research, based on a case study of vulnerable children in Korea, used a mixed methods transformative approach to explore strategies to support and help disadvantaged children. The methodological approach includes three phases: a mixed methods contextual analysis, a qualitative dominant analysis based on Sen's capability approach and critical…

  3. Behaviour-Changing Ingredients in Soft Drinks: An Experiment Developed by School Children in Partnership with a Research Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Sarah; Delgaty, Laura; Broughton, Mark; Dyter, Laura; Grimes, Callum; Metcalf, James; Nicholson, Rose; Pennock, Erin; Jankowski, Karl

    2017-01-01

    A team of six children (13-14 years old) developed and conducted an experiment to assess the behaviour of the planarian flatworm, an invertebrate animal model, before, during and after exposure to chemicals. The aim of the project was to engage children in pharmacology and toxicology research. First, the concept that exposure to chemicals can…

  4. Vocal Production of Young Children with Disabilities during Child-Robot Interactions. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of five children with disabilities (4 with autism, 1 with a sensory processing disorder) were the focus of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes and involved…

  5. Failing the vulnerable: Three new consent norms that will undermine health research with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Strode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Health Act (No. 61 of 2003 provides a legal framework for the regulation of the health system across the country. Within the Act, section 71 introduces a number of legal norms relating to research or experimentation with human subjects, including research on HIV prevention and treatment. These norms have been criticised for the negative impact they will have on research involving children. This article describes three of the new consent requirements in section 71 of the Act. It shows, using a range of case studies, how important HIV-related research will be halted or undermined if the current provisions are implemented. The article argues that the new consent requirements are out of step with other statutory provisions and ethical guidelines, and as a result they will exclude a large population group – children in diverse settings – from much-needed evidence-based healthcare interventions. The article concludes with a clarion call for support of advocacy on this issue with the Minister of Health and the Health Portfolio Committee.

  6. Family Literacy and Second Language Literacy Research: Focus on Language Minority Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Yıldırım

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Countries like the U. S. A. or Canada have citizens from various ethnic backgrounds. Although English is the dominant language in many parts of these countries, immigrants generally prefer speaking their native language when they are in their homes. Whatever the reason for using native language at home is, when we consider the children in these families, we can say that being exposed to different languages at home and at school may be a problem for their language development.Purpose of Study: There are many studies conducted in order to better understand the problems of language minority children. A great deal of literature on language minority students focuses on the ties between these children‟s literacy development and their literacy practices at home. In other words, these studies aim to see how the literacy events these children are exposed to at home affect their literacy learning in the second language.Methods: This paper is an attempt to put together and discuss various theoretical and empirical studies conducted on the literacy development of language minority children in English speaking countries.Findings: Literacy education of language minority students is not an easy task. It is very complicated and difficult to achieve as it requires a complete collaboration among all the responsible parties (teachers, families, researchers, education policy makers, school administrators. Conclusion and Recommendations: Successful collaboration among all the involved parties would bring successful outcomes in terms of children‟s healthy literacy development. The collaboration between teachers and families is the most vital one because these two parties are the ones that have one-to-one interaction with children.

  7. [Psychopathy in children and teenagers: models, theories and the latest research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halty, Lucía; Martínez, Ana; Requena, Carmen; Santos, Juan M; Ortiz, Tomás

    2011-03-01

    Most research about psychopathy have been conducted on adults. It is important to focus on the study of psychopathy in children to better understand the evolution of this disorder. This article focuses on a brief review of the contributions from psychology, where trait callous unemotional is closely related to the presence of antisocial behavior and conduct disorders, therefore, is an important factor in development of psychopathy. Also, we reviewed from the perspective of neuroscience where we found a reduced response of the amygdala in young people with presence of characteristic high scores on callous unemotional and psychopathy. We have also found an abnormal response in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. It is important to note these results because children with these characteristics are very difficult to socialize.

  8. Online gaming addiction in children and adolescents: A review of empirical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2012-03-01

    Research suggests that excessive online gaming may lead to symptoms commonly experienced by substance addicts. Since games are particularly appealing to children and adolescents, these individuals may be more at risk than other groups of developing gaming addiction. Given these potential concerns, a literature review was undertaken in order (i) to present the classification basis of online gaming addiction using official mental disorder frameworks, (ii) to identify empirical studies that assess online gaming addiction in children and adolescents, and (iii) to present and evaluate the findings against the background of related and established mental disorder criteria. Empirical evidence comprising 30 studies indicates that for some adolescents, gaming addiction exists and that as the addiction develops, online gaming addicts spend increasing amounts of time preparing for, organizing, and actually gaming. Evidence suggests that problematic online gaming can be conceptualized as a behavioral addiction rather than a disorder of impulse control.

  9. IMPACTS OF HIPPOTHERAPY ON CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY FROM PARENTS PERSPECTIVE: A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Laiou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippotherapy is a physical treatment strategy with the help of horses and refers to the use of horse’s movement as a treatment tool for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Hippotherapy refers to the incorporation of equine movement by physiotherapists, occupational therapists and speech therapists. The present qualitative study investigated the impacts of hippotherapy on Greek children with Cerebral Palsy from parents’ perspective due to their better understanding of child’s special needs. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 participants. An interview topic guide and introductory closed questions were used to conduct the study. Thematic analysis of the qualitative interview data was carried out. Five themes were revealed from the interview process. Results: The results of this qualitative research provides evidence that hippotherapy is a promising intervention strategy having physical and psychological benefits for children with CP. Hippotherapy improved children’s daily activities, their independence and, in general, a better quality of life has been attained, while no negative impacts has been identified. The impacts of these results were discussed in relationship with relative published research. Additionally, new insights were provided. The professionalism and qualification of clinical specialist in hippotherapy were crucial and they influence positively the results of hippotherapy. This study also provided new insights into the context of the relationship-cooperation between clinical specialist in hippotherapy and child, and the financial factor participating in a hippotherapy programme. Conclusion: Discussion concerning the clinical implications of the present findings and suggestions for future research were provided. Future research should be conducted to provide a clear definition of what hippotherapy is meaning globally.

  10. Understanding Ethical Issues of Research Participation from the Perspective of Participating Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E.

    2017-01-01

    Background The past twenty years have seen distinct shifts in the way the participation of children and adolescents in research is viewed. This has been emphasized by the growing pediatric research enterprise. Additional information on children’s and adolescents’ experiences during research participation is needed to better inform researchers on the ethical conduct of research with this vulnerable population. Aims The objective of this analysis was to examine ethical issues in research with children and adolescents from their perspective as participants, including: assent, parental consent, risk perception, impact of research participation, and incentives. Methods This systematic review was conducted per the Long et al. framework by means of an iterative searching process. Using the key words ‘research ethics’ and ‘child or pediatric or adolescent’, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases were searched to identify articles. Limitations placed on the original searches were: English language, year of publication between 2003–2014, humans, abstract available, and age birth–18 years. Findings Twenty-three empiric studies were identified and formed the sample. Included studies represented a diverse range of areas of research, methods, settings, sample demographics, authors, and journals. Discussion Even young children demonstrated the ability to understand essential elements of research, although there is variability in children’s level of understanding. Trust was a significant contributing factor to children’s and adolescents’ participation in research, and also shaped their assessments of risk. Research participation was mainly beneficial for children and adolescents. Incentives were mainly viewed positively, although concerns of possible undue influence were expressed. Linking Evidence to Action This systematic review highlights the importance of including the perspectives of children and adolescents and provides researchers and nurse clinicians

  11. Cultural Practice of Children's-adult Research Activity in Pre-school Education: Content and Risks (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieva T.I.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of children's "research" activities, discusses the features and examples of its existence in pre-school education. Kinds of activity in which the child shows an educational initiative and curiosity, and also the contents of interests of children of preschool age are discussed. The author shows how everyday life situations, communication with adults and peers become sources of children's "research". In such situations, samples are set and the model of the cultural practices of cognition implemented. The author analyses the elements of technology of children's "research" according to empirical material. This work was supported by Federal Research Centre for Projects Evaluation and Consulting Services (project № 2.48.2016/НМ.

  12. Interview: From anesthesia to global health: a journey in children's pain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, G Allen

    2013-01-01

    G Allen Finley talks to Roshaine Gunawardana, Commissioning Editor: Dr Allen Finley is a pediatric anesthesiologist who has worked for over 20 years in pain research and management. He is Professor of Anesthesia and Psychology at Dalhousie University (NS, Canada), and holds the inaugural Dr Stewart Wenning Chair in Pediatric Pain Management at the IWK Health Centre in Halifax. He has published over 100 papers in peer-reviewed journals and has lectured widely, with more than 230 invited presentations on six continents. He started the PEDIATRIC-PAIN e-mail discussion list in 1993, bringing together pain researchers and clinicians from over 40 countries. His own research and educational projects have recently taken him to Jordan, Thailand, China, Brazil and elsewhere. His main interest is pain service development and advocacy for improved pain care for children around the world, and he is co-leader of the ChildKind International Initiative.

  13. A Review of Research Bearing on the Impact of Television and Motion Pictures on Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loye, David

    Research literature relating to the power of dramatic television or movie entertainment for value, attitude, and behavior change is reviewed. Section 1 of this paper covers the research literature bearing on the effects of mass entertainment on adults, adolescents, and children. Section 2 briefly describes the research needs to be addressed by the…

  14. The Next Level of Research on Electronic Play: Potential Benefits and Contextual Influences for Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy E. Salonius-Pasternak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research on electronic play has focused on its possible negative effects for children and adolescents, and contextual factors such as socioeconomic status (SES and culture are rarely considered. This article considers the potential benefits of electronic play from a psychological perspective, as well as individual and contextual factors that may shape the influence of electronic play for children and adolescents. Demographics of players and the games themselves are presented, and recommendations for research and policy are discussed.

  15. Decision-making by adolescents and parents of children with cancer regarding health research participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Kate; Fernandez, Conrad Vincent; Gao, Jun; Strahlendorf, Caron; Moghrabi, Albert; Pentz, Rebecca Davis; Barfield, Raymond Carlton; Baker, Justin Nathaniel; Santor, Darcy; Weijer, Charles; Kodish, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Low rates of participation of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) in clinical oncology trials may contribute to poorer outcomes. Factors that influence the decision of AYAs to participate in health research and whether these factors are different from those that affect the participation of parents of children with cancer. This is a secondary analysis of data from validated questionnaires provided to adolescents (>12 years old) diagnosed with cancer and parents of children with cancer at 3 sites in Canada (Halifax, Vancouver, and Montreal) and 2 in the United States (Atlanta, GA, and Memphis, TN). Respondents reported their own research participation and cited factors that would influence their own decision to participate in, or to provide parental authorization for their child to participate in health research. Completed questionnaire rates for AYAs and parents were 86 (46.5%) of 185 and 409 (65.2%) of 627, respectively. AYAs (n = 86 [67%]) and parents (n = 409 [85%]) cited that they would participate in research because it would help others. AYAs perceived pressure by their family and friends (16%) and their physician (19%). Having too much to think about at the time of accrual was an impediment to both groups (36% AYAs and 47% parents). The main deterrent for AYAs was that research would take up too much time (45%). Nonwhite parents (7 of 56 [12.5%]) were more apt to decline than white parents (12 of 32 [3.7%]; P < .01). AYAs identified time commitment and having too much to think about as significant impediments to research participation. Addressing these barriers by minimizing time requirements and further supporting decision-making may improve informed consent and impact on enrollment in trials.

  16. Planet Press: an EGU initiative to bring geoscientific research to children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    Planet Press (http://www.egu.eu/education/planet-press/) is an EGU educational project that aims to get children (mainly 7-13 year olds), as well as their parents and educators, interested in and engaged with up-to-date scientific research and news. Planet Press articles are short versions of EGU press releases written in child-friendly language. Because EGU press releases cover research published in the various EGU scientific journals, Planet Press focuses on topics as varied as air pollution, glaciers, climate change, earthquakes, ocean sciences, droughts and floods, or space sciences. The texts are reviewed by both scientists and educators to make sure they are accurate and clear to their target audience. By sharing new and exciting geoscientific research with young kids, we hope to inspire them to develop an interest in the Earth, planetary and space sciences. In this presentation, we describe how the Planet Press idea came about, how the project is run, and the challenges and lessons learnt since the launch of this educational initiative in 2014. Planet Press, which has the support of the EGU Committee on Education, is made possible by the work of volunteer scientists and educators who review and translate the texts. We are grateful for the help of Jane Robb, former EGU Educational Fellow, with launching the project. Planet Press is inspired by Space Scoop (http://www.spacescoop.org/), an initiative by UNAWE, the EU-Universe Awareness organisation, that brings astronomy news to children every week.

  17. Facebook advertisements recruit parents of children with cancer for an online survey of web-based research preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Wray, Sarah; Gilmer, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Studies involving samples of children with life-threatening illnesses and their families face significant challenges, including inadequate sample sizes and limited diversity. Social media recruitment and Web-based research methods may help address such challenges yet have not been explored in pediatric cancer populations. This study examined the feasibility of using Facebook advertisements to recruit parent caregivers of children and teenagers with cancer. We also explored the feasibility of Web-based video recording in pediatric palliative care populations by surveying parents of children with cancer regarding (a) their preferences for research methods and (b) technological capabilities of their computers and phones. Facebook's paid advertising program was used to recruit parent caregivers of children currently living with cancer to complete an electronic survey about research preferences and technological capabilities. The advertising campaign generated 3 897 981 impressions, which resulted in 1050 clicks at a total cost of $1129.88. Of 284 screened individuals, 106 were eligible. Forty-five caregivers of children with cancer completed the entire electronic survey. Parents preferred and had technological capabilities for Web-based and electronic research methods. Participant survey responses are reported. Facebook was a useful, cost-effective method to recruit a diverse sample of parent caregivers of children with cancer. Web-based video recording and data collection may be feasible and desirable in samples of children with cancer and their families. Web-based methods (eg, Facebook, Skype) may enhance communication and access between nurses and pediatric oncology patients and their families.

  18. [Research on the social determinants of malnutrition among children under the age of 5 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, S Lm; Guo, Y

    2016-06-18

    To understand the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants among children under the age of 5 in China, and to provide evidence and useful information to help policy makers develop social policies to improve child nutritional status. Information of 2 434 children aged 0-5 was extracted from year 1991 to 2011 longitudinal survey data in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was extracted for analysis. Child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting were defined using World Health Organization Child Growth Standards for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height. Weight-for-age values, height-for-age values or weight-for-height values below 2 standard deviations were considered as underweight, stunting and wasting. World Health Organization igrowup software was used to calculate the prevalence of child underweight, child stunting, and child wasting. Multivariate Logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between child malnutrition and social determinants (household income, parents' educational level, living regions, and communities' urbanization level). The prevalence of child underweight and child stunting were decreased by 64.8% and 67.8%, respectively from 1991 to 2011, while the prevalence of child wasting had remained at a relatively low level (below 5%). The problem of child underweight and stunting had been significantly resolved in China. Female children had better outcomes than male children on improving nutritional status. Among all the non-socio-economic determinants of child malnutrition, children with low height mother and children had inadequate protein intake were both risk factors of malnutrition. The social determinants significantly associated to child malnutrition included: living in the western regions and central regions, living in low level urbanization communities, with low household incomes, and low maternal educational levels. In order to further decrease the prevalence of child

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  1. Pediatric patient-reported outcome instruments for research to support medical product labeling: report of the ISPOR PRO good research practices for the assessment of children and adolescents task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, Louis S; Patrick, Donald L; Riley, Anne W; Alexander, John J; Rajmil, Luis; Pleil, Andreas M; Bullinger, Monika

    2013-06-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for children and adolescents are often included in clinical trials with the intention of collecting data to support claims in a medical product label. The purpose of the current task force report is to recommend good practices for pediatric PRO research that is conducted to inform regulatory decision making and support claims made in medical product labeling. The recommendations are based on the consensus of an interdisciplinary group of researchers who were assembled for a task force associated with the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). In those areas in which supporting evidence is limited or in which general principles may not apply to every situation, this task force report identifies factors to consider when making decisions about the design and use of pediatric PRO instruments, while highlighting issues that require further research. Five good research practices are discussed: 1) Consider developmental differences and determine age-based criteria for PRO administration: Four age groups are discussed on the basis of previous research (<5 years old, 5-7 years, 8-11 years, and 12-18 years). These age groups are recommended as a starting point when making decisions, but they will not fit all PRO instruments or the developmental stage of every child. Specific age ranges should be determined individually for each population and PRO instrument. 2) Establish content validity of pediatric PRO instruments: This section discusses the advantages of using children as content experts, as well as strategies for concept elicitation and cognitive interviews with children. 3) Determine whether an informant-reported outcome instrument is necessary: The distinction between two types of informant-reported measures (proxy vs. observational) is discussed, and recommendations are provided. 4) Ensure that the instrument is designed and formatted appropriately for the target age group. Factors to

  2. Accuracy of the MacArthur competence assessment tool for clinical research (MacCAT-CR) for measuring children's competence to consent to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Irma M; Troost, Pieter W; Lindeboom, Robert; Benninga, Marc A; Zwaan, C Michel; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2014-12-01

    An objective assessment of children's competence to consent to research participation is currently not possible. Age limits for asking children's consent vary considerably between countries, and, to our knowledge, the correlation between competence and children's age has never been systematically investigated. To test a standardized competence assessment instrument for children by modifying the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), to investigate its reliability and validity, and to examine the correlation of its assessment with age and estimate cutoff ages. This prospective study included children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in the inpatient and outpatient departments of allergology, gastroenterology, oncology, ophthalmology, and pulmonology from January 1, 2012, through January 1, 2014. Participants were eligible for clinical research studies, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials. Competence judgments by experts aware of the 4 relevant criteria-understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and choice-were used to establish the reference standard. The index test was the MacCAT-CR, which used a semistructured interview format. Interrater reliability, validity, and dimensionality of the MacCAT-CR and estimated cutoff ages for competence. Of 209 eligible patients, we included 161 (mean age, 10.6 years; 47.2% male). Good reproducibility of MacCAT-CR total and subscale scores was observed (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.68-0.92). We confirmed unidimensionality of the MacCAT-CR. By the reference standard, we judged 54 children (33.5%) to be incompetent; by the MacCAT-CR, 61 children (37.9%). Criterion-related validity of MacCAT-CR scores was supported by high overall accuracy in correctly classifying children as competent against the reference standard (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.78). Age was a good predictor of competence on the MacCAT-CR (area under the receiver

  3. Closing the research to practice gap in children's mental health: structures, solutions, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter S; Foster, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Failure to apply research on effective interventions spans all areas of medicine, including children's mental health services. This article examines the policy, structural, and economic problems in which this gap originates. We identify four steps to close this gap. First, the field should develop scientific measures of the research-practice gap. Second, payors should link incentives to outcomes-based performance measures. Third, providers and others should develop improved understanding and application of effective dissemination and business models. Fourth, efforts to link EBP to clinical practice should span patient/consumers, providers, practices, plans, and purchasers. The paper discusses each of these in turn and relates them to fundamental problems of service delivery.

  4. Research needs on food marketing to children. Report of the StanMark project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, T

    2013-03-01

    A series of meetings on the topic of children's exposure to the marketing of food and beverages was held between researchers and government officials based in Europe and the Americas during 2010-2011. The meetings resulted in a number of outputs, including observations from policy-makers on the types of evidence they needed to strengthen policy-making. Their observations on the definitions of a child, the specification of foods using nutrient profiling schemes, the types of media carrying marketing messages, and the related policy implementation problems, are summarised in this Short Communication. The paper highlights the need for research which can directly support policy-making and which can evaluate its effectiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental influences on dental caries development in preschool children. An overview with emphasis on recent Norwegian research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove I. Wigen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of Norwegian preschool children with dental caries experience has decreased during the last decades and the caries distribution has become skewed. Some children develop caries in early life, and caries may affect body weight, growth and quality of life in children. The social environment influences child development, including the risk for developing dental caries. The purpose of this paper was to summarize knowledge from the literature regarding parental influence on caries development in preschool children with focus on recent Norwegian research based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. The results from the literature review showed that characteristics of the family and parental oral health behaviours and lifestyle may be associated with caries development in preschool children. These associations were recently confirmed in the Norwegian setting with low caries prevalence in children, high educational level in the population, and comprehensive dental service free of charge for children. In conclusion, the literature establishes associations between parental factors that are known during pregnancy and early parenthood and caries development in early childhood. These risk indicators may be used by health care personnel to identify risk children and target preventive care at children before dental caries has developed.

  6. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Overcoming burdens in the regulation of clinical research in children. Proceedings of a consensus conference, in historical context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many investigators are concerned that the modes of implementation and enforcement of the federal regulations designed to protect children are unduly impeding pediatric clinical research. Objective To assess regulatory impediments to clinical research involving children and to develop recommendations to ameliorate them. Participants The Pediatric Endocrine Society and The Endocrine Society convened a consensus conference involving experts and stakeholders in patient-oriented research involving children and adolescents in 2008. Consensus process Following presentations that reviewed problematic issues around key regulations, participants divided into working groups to develop potential solutions that could be adopted at local and federal levels. Presentations to the full assembly were then debated. A writing committee then drafted a summary of the discussions and main conclusions, placing them in historical context, and submitted it to all participants for comment with the aim of developing consensus. Conclusions Recommendations designed to facilitate the ethical conduct of research involving children addressed the interpretation of ambiguous regulatory terms such as "minimal risk" and "condition" and called for the development by professional societies of best practice primers for common research procedures that would be informative to both investigators and institutional review boards. A call was issued for improved guidance from the Office for Human Research Protections and Food and Drug Administration as well as for the development by professional societies of a process to monitor progress in improving human subject research regulation. Finally, a need for systematic research to define the nature and extent of institutional obstacles to pediatric research was recognized.

  8. Involving Children in the Design and Development of Research Instruments and Data Collection Procedures: A Case Study in Primary Schools in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, Kellie; McElearney, Aisling; Scott, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Children's right to participate as enshrined in Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is increasingly evident in the rhetoric of policy documents as well as in practice and research with children and young people. Children's participation in research is being facilitated in a range of creative ways, including as…

  9. Investigating the Place and Meaning of "Physical Education" to Preschool Children: Methodological Lessons from a Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2015-01-01

    Preschool physical education has not been extensively researched. Furthermore, research in physical activity and physical education rarely seeks young children's perspectives. The current paper focuses on one aspect of a post-structural study concerned with investigating the place and meaning of "physical education" to practitioners and…

  10. Collaborative agency to support integrated care for children, young people and families: an action research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Collaboration was legislated in the delivery of integrated care in the early 2000s in the UK. This research explored how the reality of practice met the rhetoric of collaboration.Theory: The paper is situated against a theoretical framework of structure, agency, identity and empowerment. Collectively and contextually these concepts inform the proposed model of ‘collaborative agency’ to sustain integrated care. The paper brings sociological theory on structure and agency to the dilemma of collaboration.Methods: Participative action research was carried out in collaborative teams that aspired to achieve integrated care for children, young people and families between 2009 and 2013. It was a part time, PhD study in collaborative practice.Results: The research established that people needed to be able to be jointly aware of their context, to make joint decisions, and jointly act in order to deliver integrated services, and proposes a model of collaborative agency derived from practitioner’s experiences and integrated action research and literature on agency. The model reflects the effects of a range of structures in shaping professional identity, empowerment, and agency in a dynamic. The author proposes that the collaborative agency model will support integrated care, although this is, as yet, an untested hypothesis.

  11. Collaborative agency to support integrated care for children, young people and families: an action research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Collaboration was legislated in the delivery of integrated care in the early 2000s in the UK. This research explored how the reality of practice met the rhetoric of collaboration. Theory: The paper is situated against a theoretical framework of structure, agency, identity and empowerment. Collectively and contextually these concepts inform the proposed model of ‘collaborative agency’ to sustain integrated care. The paper brings sociological theory on structure and agency to the dilemma of collaboration. Methods: Participative action research was carried out in collaborative teams that aspired to achieve integrated care for children, young people and families between 2009 and 2013. It was a part time, PhD study in collaborative practice. Results: The research established that people needed to be able to be jointly aware of their context, to make joint decisions, and jointly act in order to deliver integrated services, and proposes a model of collaborative agency derived from practitioner’s experiences and integrated action research and literature on agency. The model reflects the effects of a range of structures in shaping professional identity, empowerment, and agency in a dynamic. The author proposes that the collaborative agency model will support integrated care, although this is, as yet, an untested hypothesis.

  12. Collaborative agency to support integrated care for children, young people and families: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Kaz

    2014-04-01

    Collaboration was legislated in the delivery of integrated care in the early 2000s in the UK. This research explored how the reality of practice met the rhetoric of collaboration. The paper is situated against a theoretical framework of structure, agency, identity and empowerment. Collectively and contextually these concepts inform the proposed model of 'collaborative agency' to sustain integrated care. The paper brings sociological theory on structure and agency to the dilemma of collaboration. Participative action research was carried out in collaborative teams that aspired to achieve integrated care for children, young people and families between 2009 and 2013. It was a part time, PhD study in collaborative practice. The research established that people needed to be able to be jointly aware of their context, to make joint decisions, and jointly act in order to deliver integrated services, and proposes a model of collaborative agency derived from practitioner's experiences and integrated action research and literature on agency. The model reflects the effects of a range of structures in shaping professional identity, empowerment, and agency in a dynamic. The author proposes that the collaborative agency model will support integrated care, although this is, as yet, an untested hypothesis.

  13. Gambian-British and Nigerian-British Children's and Families' Experiences of Migration "Back" to West Africa. Research Briefing No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2013-01-01

    This research looks at the factors motivating Gambian-British and Nigerian-British parents to send their children "back" to West Africa and what this means for parents, children and families on both continents.

  14. Informed consent instead of assent is appropriate in children from the age of twelve: Policy implications of new findings on children's competence to consent to clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, I.M.; de Vries, M.C.; Troost, P.W.; Meynen, G.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Lindauer, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: For many decades, the debate on children's competence to give informed consent in medical settings concentrated on ethical and legal aspects, with little empirical underpinnings. Recently, data from empirical research became available to advance the discussion. It was shown that

  15. Thought-Experiments About Gravity in the History of Science and in Research into Children's Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blown, E. J.; Bryce, T. G. K.

    2013-03-01

    This article examines the main strands of thinking about gravity through the ages and the continuity of thought-experiments, from the early Greeks, through medieval times, to Galileo, Newton and Einstein. The key ideas are used to contextualise an empirical study of 247 children's ideas about falling objects carried out in China and New Zealand, including the use of scenarios involving thrown and dropped items, and objects falling down deep well holes (as in Carroll's Alice in Wonderland). The sample included 68 pre-school pupils, 68 primary school pupils, 56 middle school students, and 55 high school students; with approximately equal numbers in each group and of boys and girls in each group in each culture. The methodology utilised Piagetian interviews with three media (verbal language, drawing, and play-dough), a shadow stick; and everyday items including model people and soft model animals. The data from each group was categorised and analysed with Kolmogorov- Smirnov Two- Sample Tests and Spearman r s coefficients. It was hypothesised and confirmed (at K- S alpha levels .05; r s : p < .001) that cross-age and cross-cultural research and analysis would reveal that (a) an intuitive sense of gravity is present from an early age and develops in association with concepts like Earth shape and motion; (b) the development of concepts of gravity is similar in cultures such as China and New Zealand where teachers hold a scientific world view; and (c) children's concepts of Earth motion, Earth shape, and gravity are coherent rather than fragmented. It was also demonstrated that multi-media interviews together with concrete experiences and thought-experiments afforded children the opportunity to share their emerging concepts of gravity. The findings provide information that teachers might use for lessons at an appropriate level.

  16. The Understanding of Peace among Children and Adolescents: A Critical Review of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Smith

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation Despite the existence in Northern Ireland of an internationally endorsed Peace Process (the 1998 Good Friday or Belfast Agreement, the need for education to play its part in developing a new peace culture and peace consciousness remains as important as ever. In December 1998, the Education Minister established a working group concerned with the promotion of tolerance in schools. The report of this group recommended that there needed to be greater encouragement to regard the development of respect for diversity as a core rather than peripheral element of the school curriculum (DENI 2000. However, earlier research suggested that the received discourses and assumptions about school effectiveness and school improvement were inappropriate to meeting the challenges of improving school effectiveness for peace within a conflicted society (see, Smith 2001 a; 2001 b. This research confirmed that there was a pervasive "culture of silence" within schools with regard to open discussion on the causes and consequences of social division. There were also other silences and gaps in the story forms available to teachers within schools. When, for example, it came to having a say or being allowed to air their views on issues of relevance to school-based community relations policy and practice, the voice of students and parents were mostly silenced, disqualified or subjugated. Consequently, I decided to examine the theme of school improvement for peace from a Narrative psychology perspective. That is, from a perspective which gives a central role to the storied nature of human conduct. This stance is a special case of the wider perspective called social constructionism (Wagner and Watkins, forthcoming. A critical review of relevant extant literatures, including the developmental literature on children's and young peoples' understanding of peace, strengthened my view that new paradigm methodologies and methods were required to investigate and

  17. Translational Research for Occupational Therapy: Using SPRE in Hippotherapy for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rosalie J.; Shotwell, Mary P.

    2017-01-01

    Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2–19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes. Semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE), a single-subject statistical and small data science model, is used to derive a “change point” indicating where the participant adapts to treatment, from which predictions are made. Data analyzed here is from an institutional review board approved pilot study using the Hippotherapy Evaluation and Assessment Tool measure, where outcomes are given separately for each of four measured domains and the total scores of each participant. Analysis with SPRE, using statistical methods to predict a “change point” and data science graphical interpretations of data, shows the translational comparisons between results from larger mean values and the very different results from smaller values for each HEAT domain in terms of relationships and statistical probabilities. PMID:29097962

  18. Translational Research for Occupational Therapy: Using SPRE in Hippotherapy for Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Miller, Deborah; Miller, Rosalie J; Shotwell, Mary P

    2017-01-01

    Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2-19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes. Semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE), a single-subject statistical and small data science model, is used to derive a "change point" indicating where the participant adapts to treatment, from which predictions are made. Data analyzed here is from an institutional review board approved pilot study using the Hippotherapy Evaluation and Assessment Tool measure, where outcomes are given separately for each of four measured domains and the total scores of each participant. Analysis with SPRE, using statistical methods to predict a "change point" and data science graphical interpretations of data, shows the translational comparisons between results from larger mean values and the very different results from smaller values for each HEAT domain in terms of relationships and statistical probabilities.

  19. Translational Research for Occupational Therapy: Using SPRE in Hippotherapy for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Weissman-Miller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is redefined in this paper using a combination of methods in statistics and data science to enhance the understanding of outcomes and practice in occupational therapy. These new methods are applied, using larger data and smaller single-subject data, to a study in hippotherapy for children with developmental disabilities (DD. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates DD affects nearly 10 million children, aged 2–19, where diagnoses may be comorbid. Hippotherapy is defined here as a treatment strategy in occupational therapy using equine movement to achieve functional outcomes. Semiparametric ratio estimator (SPRE, a single-subject statistical and small data science model, is used to derive a “change point” indicating where the participant adapts to treatment, from which predictions are made. Data analyzed here is from an institutional review board approved pilot study using the Hippotherapy Evaluation and Assessment Tool measure, where outcomes are given separately for each of four measured domains and the total scores of each participant. Analysis with SPRE, using statistical methods to predict a “change point” and data science graphical interpretations of data, shows the translational comparisons between results from larger mean values and the very different results from smaller values for each HEAT domain in terms of relationships and statistical probabilities.

  20. In their own words: the value of qualitative research to improve the care of children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison

    2017-09-01

    Patient- and family-centered care is hailed as a hallmark of high-quality pediatric care. This partnership between patients, families and their healthcare providers is central to caring for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), given the long-term and profound impact of the disease and its treatment on the development and quality of life of these children. This paradigm hinges on a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the needs, beliefs and values of children with CKD and their families. However, their perspectives may remain undisclosed during time-limited clinical consultations and because of beliefs that if they did disclose their concerns, their care would be jeopardized. Qualitative research provides an avenue for children and families to articulate their perspectives and experiences and thereby to generate relevant, in-depth and often compelling insights to inform care. Yet, qualitative studies remain sparse in biomedical journals. Increasing both our awareness of the role of qualitative research in improving care and outcomes for children and adolescents with CKD and our understanding of the conduct and rigor of qualitative studies is required. This article will outline how qualitative research can generate relevant evidence to inform practice and policy in children with CKD, provide an overview of qualitative methods and introduce a framework to appraise qualitative research. More evidence derived from qualitative research is needed to inform shared decision-making and the development of interventions and policies that address the preferences and priorities of children with CKD and their families. Ultimately, this strategy may help to improve the outcomes that they regard as critical to their care.

  1. “You child is just wonderful!” : On ethics and access in research with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Eldén

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discuss the consequences of the ambiguous view of children in the ethical guidelines – the ambitions to “give voice” while also “protect” – with a point of departure taken in the Swedish context, and in an actual research process of a project on children and care. It shows how the regulation of informed consent through the parent compromises the ideals of child-centred research; firstly, by limiting the child’s possibility to opt in to research; secondly, by affecting the relationship between researcher, child and parent in the research encounter; and thirdly, by jeopardizing the child’s right to confidentiality. The author argues that we should view not only the child’s but also the adult’s consent as a “continuous negotiation” and discusses strategies for strengthening the child’s right to opt in and participate in research on equal terms.

  2. Obesity and lower urinary tract dysfunction in children and adolescents: Further research into new relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, L G A; Sampaio, A; Boa-Sorte, N; Veiga, M L; Nascimento Martinelli Braga, A A; Barroso, U

    2017-08-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) involves faults in the filling and emptying phases of bladder function in toilet-trained children with no previous infection or any other obvious pathology. Lower urinary tract dysfunction is associated with conditions such as vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent urinary infection, behavioral alterations and decreased quality of life. The literature suggests an association between LUTD and obesity; however, the association between each individual symptom and obesity has yet to be evaluated. To evaluate the association between excess weight and LUTD in children and adolescents in a community-based sample. This cross-sectional study included 423 children and adolescents aged 5-17 years, and randomly selected in public places and schools between May and July 2015. The participants and their mothers completed the Dysfunctional Voiding Scoring System (DVSS) questionnaire, except for the questions on constipation and with the addition of a question on enuresis. They also completed the Rome III questionnaire, in which two positive responses defined the presence of constipation. Participants were classified as being of normal weight, overweight or obese, which was based on the BMI-for-age indicator. Mean age was 9.7 years (SD 2.9), with girls comprising 50.6% of the sample and adolescents 52.5%. The prevalence of LUTD was 7.1%, with 13.5% of participants being overweight and 12.1% obese (Figure). Constipation was present in 5.9% of participants and enuresis in 10.8%. In the multivariate analysis, three factors were independently and significantly associated with a positive DVSS: age <10 years (β = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18), constipation (β = 1.79; 95% CI: 0.88-2.70) and obesity (β = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.25-1.52). Only bladder filling symptoms were associated with obesity. This may be explained by the fact that both obese individuals and those with emptying symptoms were shown to have activation alterations in the same brain regions

  3. [Advances on the research of the environmental risk factors of children autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D N; Jin, Y T

    2017-12-06

    Autism spectrum disorder is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by social interaction and communication impairments, accompanied by repetitive behaviors. Little is known about the causes and contributing factors for autism. It is difficult to prevent and cure, and has become a globe public health problem. With the development in the prevalence of autism, the idea how the environmental factors cause the autism, gains all attentions. Summarizing latest epidemiological studies and experimental evidence, this review is focused on the effect of environmental factors, including air pollutant, heavy metal and pesticides, and discussed the relation between environmental risk factors and autism. The results showed that risks of autism in children may increase following in prenatal exposure to air pollutants, heavy metal and pesticides. It is needed to do the research on the mechanism of environmental risk factor and autism for more prevention, treatment and control suggestions.

  4. ON MIND MAPS: PREVIOUS IDEAS TO A RESEARCH PROPOUSAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Flórez Miranda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Después de un diagnóstico poco alentador sobre las competencias lecto-escritoras de los estudiantes, fenómeno al que llama: ";Síndrome del pensamiento inmaduro";, el autor propone el uso de los llamados ";signos-herramienta"; de la teoría socio-cultural de Vigotsky. Con base en sus ideas, acerca de la posibilidad de utilizar vías de rodeo para superar algunas dificultades cognitivas de los estudiantes, propone la herramienta de los mapas mentales, cuya eficacia ha probado, durante su práctica docente.

  5. AN ACTION RESEARCH IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR CHILDREN WITH USE OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Coelho Chimenti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is based on a field research that aimed to provide educational subsidies for the use of digital technologies in teaching and learning process of English language, in two classes of the fifth grade from the elementary school, at the public school located in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Based on the perspective of childhood pedagogy, which conceives the child as the protagonist and also (reproductive of knowledge, activities were carried with YouTube videos, online games, music, and many other learning objects. Likewise, observations, interviews and questionnaires were made with teachers and students involved in the research. Based on the action research, we analyzed aspects related to the contribution of some digital resources in teaching and learning of English at elementary school and we obtained many elements that allowed us to know the importance of learning a foreign language in the childhood nowadays, mainly English, and how new technologies can make learning more contextualized, meaningful, motivating children for language learning in a context in which they can be (criative.

  6. The Potential of Digital Technologies for Transforming Informed Consent Practices with Children and Young People in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Parsons

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How children and young people understand and exercise their autonomy, engagement and decision-making is fundamental to learning how to become active and engaged citizens, and to be socially included. Digital technologies are increasingly an integral part of children’s everyday lives and, therefore, valuable tools for supporting social inclusion. This paper discusses how digital technologies might positively support autonomy, engagement and decision-making through the lens of informed consent practices within social research. Current research practices are dominated by paper-based methods for obtaining informed consent which could be exclusionary for children and young people generally, and children with additional learning and support needs in particular. Digital technologies (laptops, PCs, tablet devices, smartphones offer the potential to support accessibility and understanding of ideas and activities, as well as engagement with and autonomy in decision-making and participation. This paper explores this potential as well as the challenges that researchers may face in this context.

  7. Designing and recruiting to UK autism spectrum disorder research databases: do they include representative children with valid ASD diagnoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R

    2015-09-04

    (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Dasl(n)e), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2-16 years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals' reports about their children. 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30 months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Dasl(n)e, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. Published by the BMJ

  8. Coordinated Research Project: Relationship between recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, bronchial asthma and gastroesophageal reflux in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, P.; Bernal, P.; Birkenfeld, B.; Boonyaprapa, S.; Chen, S.; Ciofetta, G.; Ellman, A.; Fatima, S.; Kavasakal, L.; Rondain, J.E.; Padhy, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux may cause or contribute to different respiratory problems such as bronchial asthma (BA), recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (rLRTI), among others. There is no clear cut explanation of mechanisms responsible for the respiratory symptoms in children with recurrent GER, and how beneficial GER treatment could be in the management of this children. The aim of this prospective coordinate research project was to evaluated the presence of GER, esophageal transit (ET) abnormalities and lung aspiration (LA) in children with recurrent respiratory symptoms. So far we had evaluated 309 children; 173 boys and 136 girls, between 15 days and 15 years old of age. Under standard and protocolized procedures all children underwent gastroesophageal scintigraphic study. Esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) was performed in 127 and LA scintigraphy in 205. The scintigraphic study was positive for GER in 160/309 (51.8%) of the total group. We found an abnormal ETS in 13.4% and a LA scintigraphy positive for aspiration of gastric content in 3.9% of the studied patients. According to clinical features, 75% of asthmatic children with persistent symptoms had GER and 30.7% of children with rLRTI. Follow-up studies were performed in 85 children after treatment of GER and there was a normalization of the scintigraphic study, associated with clinical improvement in 69.4% of them. These results show that GER prevalence in children with BA and rLRTI is higher than the reported normal prevalence in infancy, specially in the group of asthmatic patients. In our group, we do not find a significant presence of ET abnormalities neither LA of gastric content. The diagnosis and treatment of GER is mandatory in children with rLRTI or persistent BA. In asthmatic patients the recognition of gastric abnormalities is highly relevant for therapeutic problems when GER is in a sub-clinical stage

  9. Research on Relationship Among Internet-Addiction, Personality Traits and Mental Health of Urban Left-Behind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Se, Jun; Zhang, Jingfu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this research, we attempted at exploring the relationships among urban left-behind children’s internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. Methods: In the form of three relevant questionnaires (Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Children’s Edition in Chinese and Mental Health Test), 796 urban left-behind children in China were investigated, concerning internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. Results: (1) The internet-addiction rate of urban left-behind children in China reached10.8%—a relatively high figure, with the rate among males higher than that among females. In terms of internet-addition salience, the figure of urban left-behind children was obviously higher than that of non-left-behind children. (2) In China, the personality deviation rate of the overall left-behind children was 15.36%; while the personality deviation rate of the internet-addicted urban left-behind children was 38.88%, a figure prominently higher than that of the non-addicted urban left-behind children group, with the rate among females higher than that among males. (3) The mental health problem rate of the overall urban left-behind children in China was 8.43%; while the rate of the internet-addicted urban left-behind children was 27.77%, a figure significantly higher than that of the non-addicted urban left-behind children. (4) There were significant relationships among internet-addiction, personality traits and mental health. The total score of internet-addiction and its related dimensions can serve as indicators of personality neuroticism, psychoticism and the total scores of mental health. PMID:25946911

  10. Facebook Ads Recruit Parents of Children with Cancer for an Online Survey of Web-Based Research Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Wray, Sarah; Gilmer, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies involving samples of children with life-threatening illnesses and their families face significant challenges, including inadequate sample sizes and limited diversity. Social media recruitment and web-based research methods may help address such challenges yet have not been explored in pediatric cancer populations. Objective This study examined the feasibility of using Facebook ads to recruit parent caregivers of children and teens with cancer. We also explored the feasibility of web-based video recording in pediatric palliative care populations by surveying parents of children with cancer regarding (a) their preferences for research methods and (b) technological capabilities of their computers and phones. Methods Facebook's paid advertising program was used to recruit parent caregivers of children currently living with cancer to complete an electronic survey about research preferences and technological capabilities. Results The advertising campaign generated 3,897,981 impressions which resulted in 1050 clicks at a total cost of $1129.88. Of 284 screened individuals, 106 were eligible. Forty-five caregivers of children with cancer completed the entire electronic survey. Parents preferred and had technological capabilities for web-based and electronic research methods. Participant survey responses are reported. Conclusion Facebook was a useful, cost-effective method to recruit a diverse sample of parent caregivers of children with cancer. Web-based video recording and data collection may be feasible and desirable in samples of children with cancer and their families. Implications for Practice Web-based methods (e.g., Facebook, Skype) may enhance communication and access between nurses and pediatric oncology patients and their families. PMID:24945264

  11. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families.

  12. The impact of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act on the recruitment of children for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharav, Vera Hassner

    2003-01-01

    This article argues that contrary to the claims made by research stakeholders in industry, academia and government, the shift in public policy since the enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) of 1997 and its financial incentives to industry to test drugs on children, has had a deleterious impact on children's dignity, health and welfare. Those lucrative incentives offered an opportunity to accelerate the pace of FDA approval for pediatric drug marketing. FDAMA resulted in a radical shift in federal policy to accommodate an expansion of pediatric trials. Children who are precluded from exercising a human adult's right to informed consent to research are increasingly sought as test subjects even when the trials offer no potential benefit for them. Prior to FDAMA children were protected under federal regulations that prohibited their recruitment for experiments that were not in their best interest. This article discusses eight cases and controversies demonstrating that children have been subjected to experiments that exposed them to pain, discomfort, and serious risks of harm. Babies have died testing a lethal heartburn drug; children have been subjected to "forced dose titration" in antidepressant drug trials that resulted in several suicide attempts. Toddlers are currently being subjected to methylphenidate dose tolerance tests without evidence of any pathological condition. Healthy teenagers are being exposed to antipsychotic drugs known to induce severe pathological side effects in speculative "schizophrenia prevention" experiments.

  13. The psychological profile of parents who volunteer their children for clinical research: a controlled study.

    OpenAIRE

    Harth, S C; Johnstone, R R; Thong, Y H

    1992-01-01

    Three standard psychometric tests were administered to parents who volunteered their children for a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a new asthma drug and to a control group of parents whose children were eligible for the trial but had declined the invitation. The trial took place at a children's hospital in Australia. The subjects comprised 68 parents who had volunteered their children and 42 who had not, a participation rate of 94 per cent and 70 per cent, respectively. ...

  14. A new socioeconomic status measure for vaccine research in children using individual housing data: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Hammer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently developed HOUSES, an individual housing-based socioeconomic status (SES measurement for health disparities research. We assessed whether HOUSES was associated with risk of pertussis and pertussis vaccine up-to-date status in children. Methods The study utilized a previous population-based case-control study cohort assembled during the 2004–2005 pertussis outbreak. We collected data on pertussis vaccine status (up-to-date status at the time of the index date. Using a z-score for housing value, actual square footage, and numbers of bedrooms and bathrooms, HOUSES was formulated in continuous variable and categorized into quartiles. Vaccine up-to-date status was compared among subjects with different SES as measured by HOUSES using a chi-square test and logistic regression models. Results Of the 391 eligible pediatric subjects (median age of 13.1 years with male sex of 55 %, 363 (93 % were successfully geocoded to formulate HOUSES index. HOUSES was not associated with the risk of pertussis (p = 0.82. Pertussis vaccine up-to-date statuses were 79, 86, 83, and 94 % for children in the first (the lowest SES, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HOUSES, respectively (p = 0.03. HOUSES as a continuous variable was associated with pertussis vaccine up-to-date status (adjusted OR: 1.15 per increment of one unit of HOUSES, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27, p = 0.008. Conclusion While HOUSES is not associated with the risk of pertussis, it predicts vaccine up-to-date status among children with different SES. HOUSES may be a useful tool for vaccine delivery research among children.

  15. Children's Gendered Drawings of Play Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseer, Tabasum; Lao, Mary Grace; Bosacki, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    According to child psychologists, vital links exist between children's drawings and their emotional, social, and cognitive development. Previous research has explored the important relations between drawings and play in educational settings. Given the vast research that explores the ambiguous topic of children's play, according to Richer (1990),…

  16. Researching Children's Understanding of Safety: An Auto-Driven Visual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbenyega, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    Safe learning spaces allow children to explore their environment in an open and inquiring way, whereas unsafe spaces constrain, frustrate and disengage children from experiencing the fullness of their learning spaces. This study explores how children make sense of safe and unsafe learning spaces, and how this understanding affects the ways they…

  17. Mentoring Children with Incarcerated Parents: Implications for Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie; Coffino, Brianna; Hanneman, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    We investigated children and families who were participating in a mentoring program targeting children with incarcerated parents. Using multiple methods and informants, we explored the development of the mentoring relationship, challenges and benefits of mentoring children with incarcerated parents, and match termination in 57 mentor-child dyads.…

  18. Preparation and Evaluation of Children's Rights Education Curriculum: An Action Research Regarding on Protection Rights Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçus, Sükran; Dedeoglu, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Children's rights education is to enable children to gain the necessary social behaviors and essential knowledge for creating a democratic society that is based on respecting human rights. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preparation, application and assessment of a curriculum for teaching children's rights in elementary education.…

  19. Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Refractive errors in Primary school children in a rural community in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, no previous vision screening study among primary schools children ...

  20. The pediatric diabetes consortium: improving care of children with type 1 diabetes through collaborative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Although there are some interactions between the major pediatric diabetes programs in the United States, there has been no formal, independent structure for collaboration, the sharing of information, and the development of joint research projects that utilize common outcome measures. To fill this unmet clinical and research need, a consortium of seven pediatric diabetes centers in the United States has formed the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) through an unrestricted grant from Novo Nordisk, Inc. (Princeton, NJ). This article describes the organizational structure of the PDC and the design of a study of important clinical outcomes in children and adolescents with new-onset, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The outcomes study will describe the changes in A1c levels, the frequency of adverse events (diabetic ketoacidosis/severe hypoglycemia), and the frequency and timing of the "honeymoon" phase in newly diagnosed patients with T1DM over the first 12-24 months of the disease and examine the relationship between these clinical outcomes and demographic, socioeconomic, and treatment factors. This project will also allow the Consortium to develop a cohort of youth with T1DM whose clinical course has been well characterized and who wish to participate in future clinical trials and/or contribute to a repository of biological samples.

  1. The Enduring Challenge of Determining Pneumonia Etiology in Children: Considerations for Future Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Hammitt, Laura L; Murdoch, David R; O'Brien, Katherine L; Scott, J Anthony G

    2017-06-15

    Pneumonia kills more children each year worldwide than any other disease. Nonetheless, accurately determining the causes of childhood pneumonia has remained elusive. Over the past century, the focus of pneumonia etiology research has shifted from studies of lung aspirates and postmortem specimens intent on identifying pneumococcal disease to studies of multiple specimen types distant from the lung that are tested for multiple pathogens. Some major challenges facing modern pneumonia etiology studies include the use of nonspecific and variable case definitions, poor access to pathologic lung tissue and to specimens from fatal cases, poor diagnostic accuracy of assays (especially when testing nonpulmonary specimens), and the interpretation of results when multiple pathogens are detected in a given individual. The future of childhood pneumonia etiology research will likely require integrating data from complementary approaches, including applications of advanced molecular diagnostics and vaccine probe studies, as well as a renewed emphasis on lung aspirates from radiologically confirmed pneumonia and postmortem examinations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  2. Children and Political Violence from a Social Ecological Perspective: Implications from Research on Children and Families in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Mark E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The effects on children of political violence are matters of international concern, with many negative effects well-documented. At the same time, relations between war, terrorism, or other forms of political violence and child development do not occur in a vacuum. The impact can be understood as related to changes in the communities, families and…

  3. Patient-centered outcomes research in appendicitis in children: Bridging the knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Danielle B; Ciullo, Sean S; Watson-Smith, Debra; Chun, Thomas H; Kurkchubasche, Arlet G; Luks, Francois I

    2016-01-01

    Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) aims to give patients a better understanding of the treatment options to enable optimal decision-making. As nonoperative alternatives are now being evaluated in children for acute appendicitis, we surveyed patients and their families regarding their knowledge of appendicitis and evaluated whether providing basic medical information would affect their perception of the disease and allow them to more rationally consider the treatment alternatives. Families of children aged 5-18 presenting to the Emergency Department with suspected appendicitis were recruited for a tablet-based interactive educational survey. One hundred subjects (caregivers and patients ≥ 15 years) were questioned before and after an education session about their understanding of appendicitis, including questions on three hypothetical treatment options: urgent appendectomy, antibiotics alone, or initial antibiotics followed by elective appendectomy. Subjects were clearly informed that urgent appendectomy is currently the standard of care. Only 14% of respondents correctly identified the mortality rate of appendicitis (17 deaths/year according to the 2010 US census) when compared with other extremely rare causes of death. Fifty-four and 31% thought it was more common than death from lightning (40/year) and hunting-associated deaths (44/year), respectively. Eighty-two percent of respondents believed it "likely" or "very likely" that the appendix would rupture if operation was at all delayed, and 81% believed that rupture of the appendix would rapidly lead to severe complications and death. In univariate analysis, this perception was significantly more prevalent for mothers (odds ratio, (OR) 5.19, confidence interval (CI) 1.33-21.15), and subjects who knew at least one friend or relative who had a negative experience with appendicitis (OR 5.53, CI 1.40-25.47). Following education, these perceptions changed significantly (53% still believed that immediate

  4. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  5. Research of refraction status in 354 amblyopia children and influence factors for its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the refraction status in 354 amblyopia children and to investigate the related influence factors for the treatment effect. METHODS:Three hundred and fifty-four children diagnosed as ametropia amblyopia from January 2010 to June 2015 in our hospital were selected. The children were divided into groups according to the children's age, refraction types of amblyopia and degree of amblyopia. The clinical treatment effect of different groups was compared. RESULTS:The cure rate for amblyopia children in different groups was significantly different(PPPCONCLUSION:The treatment effect of ametropia amblyopia is correlated with the children's age, types of amblyopia and degree of amblyopia. It has a poor treatment effect for the older children with severe myopia and amblyopia.

  6. Hemolysis research of implantable axial flow pump for two -step heart transplantation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Dmitrieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the main indicators characterizing mechanical circulatory support devices (artificial valve, implantable pumps, etc. is trauma of blood cells. Therefore, while developing new pumps, one of the key studies in vitro is to evaluate blood hemolysis. For an objective hemolysis analysis of pump it is required to create a standardized methodology of hemolysis studies. The object of the study in this paper is implantable axial pump DON for two-step heart transplantation in children.The aim of study is to develop a standardized methodology of hemolysis studies of blood pumps and to conduct research of pediatric axial pump DON.Materials and methods. To conduct hemolysis research we created a mock circulatory system consisting of a reservoir placed in water bath maintaining a constant working fluid (blood temperature, hydrodynamic resistance, connecting tubes, ports for blood sampling and pressure and flow measurement systems, and research pump. Test method is to estimate levels of free hemoglobin pHb obtained by blood samples during pump working in operating mode (for pediatric pump: blood flow 2.5 l/min, pressure difference 80 mmHg. Using the data obtained the standardized indices of hemolysis NIH and MIH are calculated based on pHb values, hematocrit, total hemoglobin, blood flow and working pump time.Results. We developed and realized a standardized methodology of hemolysis research by which we evaluated hemolysis of pediatric axial pump. The results of hemolysis tests allowed us to optimize the design of DON. Obtained values of hemolysis of the latest version of pediatric pump DON-3 have shown that they do conform to the requirements of minimum blood injury and it allows us to proceed to the next step of pediatric pump research – animal experiments.Conclusion. Developed methods and evaluation tools of hemolysis allow us to provide objective information on one of the most important indicators of developing

  7. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  8. Quality Indicators for Single-Case Research on Social Skill Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Yi; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a quality checklist that parents, teachers, clinicians, and policy-makers with basic research skills can use to systematically evaluate the methodological quality of single-case studies on social skill training of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). We provide a rationale for included quality indicators, and…

  9. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  10. Informed Consent and Clinical Research Involving Children and Adolescents: Implications of the Revised APA Ethics Code and HIPAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, 2 new sets of rules and regulations affecting the conduct of clinical research involving children and adolescents went into effect: the revised American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA, 2002; effective June 1, 2003) and the Privacy Rule (45 CFR Part 160 and A and E of Part…

  11. Evaluation of risk factors for severe pneumonia in children: the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonodi, Chizoba B.; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Feikin, Daniel R.; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Driscoll, Amanda J.; Moïsi, Jennifer C.; Johnson, Hope L.; Murdoch, David R.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Levine, Orin S.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Black, Robert E.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Campbell, Harry; Cherian, Thomas; Crook, Derrick W.; de Jong, Menno D.; Dowell, Scott F.; Graham, Stephen M.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Martin, Paul; Nataro, James P.; Piazza, Franco M.; Qazi, Shamim A.; Zar, Heather J.; Baggett, Henry C.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Chipeta, James; Ebruke, Bernard; Endtz, Hubert P.; Groome, Michelle; Hammitt, Laura L.; Howie, Stephen R. C.; Kotloff, Karen; Maloney, Susan A.; Moore, David; Otieno, Juliet; Seidenberg, Phil; Tapia, Milagritos; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Thea, Donald M.; Zaman, Khaleque

    2012-01-01

    As a case-control study of etiology, the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project also provides an opportunity to assess the risk factors for severe pneumonia in hospitalized children at 7 sites. We identified relevant risk factors by literature review and iterative expert

  12. Research of Technical Knowledge and Creativity Development of Children in Pre-Primary Education through Interactive Whiteboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecka, Peter; Cervenanská, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The introduced study represents methodology and results of research focused on utilization of interactive whiteboard as didactic technology mediating information through multimedia worksheets applied in education process in pre-primary education. Its aim was to determine whether it can significantly increase the level of children's acquired…

  13. Ethics in Community-Based Research with Vulnerable Children: Perspectives from Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Betancourt

    Full Text Available A "risk of harm" protocol to identify youth in need of immediate emergency assistance in a study on mental health and HIV in Rwanda among 680 youth ages 10-17 is described. Cases are presented that describe the experience in using this protocol to ensure safety of participants, with ethical and logistical challenges considered. Among the population of the study, 3.2% were deemed "risk of harm." The most prevalent presenting problem was non-fatal suicidal behavior (91% of risk of harm cases, with 36% having a history of a reported previous attempt. Challenges included: acute food insecurity/significant poverty; lack of support/adequate supervision from family members; family violence; alcohol abuse; and HIV-related stigma. Development of a "risk of harm" protocol and collaboration between study staff, community leadership, health authorities, and health workers are critical to ensuring participants' safety in research among vulnerable populations.

  14. Longitudinal active living research to address physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour in children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhajarine, Nazeem; Katapally, Tarun R; Fuller, Daniel; Stanley, Kevin G; Rainham, Daniel

    2015-05-17

    Children can be highly active and highly sedentary on the same day! For instance, a child can spend a couple of hours playing sports, and then spend the rest of the day in front of a screen. A focus on examining both physical activity and sedentary behaviour throughout the day and in all seasons in a year is necessary to generate comprehensive evidence to curb childhood obesity. To achieve this, we need to understand where within a city are children active or sedentary in all seasons. This active living study based in Saskatoon, Canada, aims to understand the role played by modifiable urban built environments in mitigating, or exacerbating, seasonal effects on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour in a population of children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence. Designed as an observational, longitudinal investigation this study will recruit 800 Canadian children 10-14 years of age. Data will be obtained from children representing all socioeconomic categories within all types of neighbourhoods built in a range of urban designs. Built environment characteristics will be measured using previously validated neighbourhood audit and observational tools. Neighbourhood level socioeconomic variables customized to Saskatoon neighbourhoods from 2011 Statistics Canada's National Household Survey will be used to control for neighbourhood social environment. The validated Smart Cities Healthy Kids questionnaire will be administered to capture children's behaviour and perception of a range of factors that influence their activity, household (including family socioeconomic factors), parental, peer and neighbourhood influence on independent mobility. The outcome measures, different intensities of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, will be collected using global positioning system equipped accelerometers in all four seasons. Each accelerometry cycle will be matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Extensive weather data will be

  15. Using a community-based participatory research approach to develop a faith-based obesity intervention for African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Goldmon, Moses V; Coker-Appiah, Dionne S

    2011-11-01

    Childhood obesity is a major epidemic, with African American (AA) children aged 6 to 11 years experiencing increased burden. The AA faith community has numerous assets that point to the need for the intersection of faith and health to address obesity-related racial disparities. The purpose of the Our Bodies, God's Temples (OBGT) study was to examine diet, physical activity, and body image behaviors among AA children aged 6 to 11 years; receptivity to a faith-based obesity intervention among AA children, parents, and church leaders; and strengths and barriers of implementing a faith-based obesity curriculum in the Sunday school setting. A community-based participatory research approach was used to develop an obesity intervention to be integrated into the church Sunday school setting for AA children. A Community Advisory Network worked with researchers to develop a 12-week culturally appropriate faith-based obesity intervention. Future work will test the effectiveness of the newly created curriculum on obesity-related outcomes in AA children.

  16. The integration of psychology in pediatric oncology research and practice: collaboration to improve care and outcomes for children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancers are life-threatening diseases that are universally distressing and potentially traumatic for children and their families at diagnosis, during treatment, and beyond. Dramatic improvements in survival have occurred as a result of increasingly aggressive multimodal therapies delivered in the context of clinical research trials. Nonetheless, cancers remain a leading cause of death in children, and their treatments have short- and long-term impacts on health and well-being. For over 35 years, pediatric psychologists have partnered with pediatric oncology teams to make many contributions to our understanding of the impact of cancer and its treatment on children and families and have played prominent roles in providing an understanding of treatment-related late effects and in improving quality of life. After discussing the incidence of cancer in children, its causes, and the treatment approaches to it in pediatric oncology, we present seven key contributions of psychologists to collaborative and integrated care in pediatric cancer: managing procedural pain, nausea, and other symptoms; understanding and reducing neuropsychological effects; treating children in the context of their families and other systems (social ecology); applying a developmental perspective; identifying competence and vulnerability; integrating psychological knowledge into decision making and other clinical care issues; and facilitating the transition to palliative care and bereavement. We conclude with a discussion of the current status of integrating knowledge from psychological research into practice in pediatric cancer. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Survived so what? Identifying priorities for research with children and families post-paediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Joseph C; Hemingway, Pippa; Redsell, Sarah A

    2018-03-01

    The involvement of patients and the public in the development, implementation and evaluation of health care services and research is recognized to have tangible benefits in relation to effectiveness and credibility. However, despite >96% of children and young people surviving critical illness or injury, there is a paucity of published reports demonstrating their contribution to informing the priorities for aftercare services and outcomes research. We aimed to identify the service and research priorities for Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors with children and young people, their families and other stakeholders. We conducted a face-to-face, multiple-stakeholder consultation event, held in the Midlands (UK), to provide opportunities for experiences, views and priorities to be elicited. Data were gathered using write/draw and tell and focus group approaches. An inductive content analytical approach was used to categorize and conceptualize feedback. A total of 26 individuals attended the consultation exercise, including children and young people who were critical care survivors; their siblings; parents and carers; health professionals; academics; commissioners; and service managers. Consultation findings indicated that future services, interventions and research must be holistic and family-centred. Children and young people advisors reported priorities that focused on longer-term outcomes, whereas adult advisors identified priorities that mapped against the pathways of care. Specific priorities included developing and testing interventions that address unmet communication and information needs. Furthermore, initiatives to optimize the lives and longer-term functional and psycho-social outcomes of Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors were identified. This consultation exercise provides further evidence of the value of meaningful patient and public involvement in identifying the priorities for research and services for Paediatric Intensive Care Unit survivors

  18. Consensus Statement on Research Definitions for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Seddon, James A.; Perez-Velez, Carlos M.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Furin, Jennifer J.; Marais, Ben J.; Tebruegge, Marc; Detjen, Anne; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Shah, Sarita; Adams, Lisa V.; Starke, Jeffrey R.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2013-01-01

    Few children with drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) are identified, diagnosed, and given an appropriate treatment. The few studies that have described this vulnerable population have used inconsistent definitions. TheWorld Health Organization (WHO) definitions used for adults with DR-TB and for children with drug-susceptible TB are not always appropriate for children with DR-TB. The Sentinel Project on Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis was formed in 2011 as a network of experts and st...

  19. Influence of Yoruba beliefs about abnormality on the socialization of deaf children: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togonu-Bickersteth, F; Odebiyi, A I

    1985-07-01

    The study examines patterns of communication modes of guidance and discipline and affectional bonds between 176 Yoruba hearing mothers and their deaf children. Results relating to communication support earlier findings about the frustrations inherent in such endeavour. Contrary to other published reports, the Yoruba mothers studied perceived expressive linguistic abilities of deaf children more negatively than receptive abilities. Communication difficulties affected mothers' guidance and discipline, particularly since the culturally preferred modes of discipline rely very heavily on children's age-related language competence. Mothers' verbal claims of affectional bonds were not supported by evidence from other sources close to and including the deaf children.

  20. Children's knowledge of internal anatomy: conceptual orientation and review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E G; Badger, T A; Moore, I

    1992-08-01

    Children's understanding of health and illness is influenced by their knowledge of internal anatomy and physiological functioning. This article provides a comprehensive review of studies of children's knowledge of internal anatomy, one component of internal body image. Consistencies, controversies, and methodological issues that emerge across the studies are discussed. A conceptual framework for the development of children's internal body image is presented. The framework posits relationships between cognitive development, health status, knowledge of internal body image, and understanding of physiological functioning. Future studies are needed to test and refine the conceptual framework and to develop interventions to facilitate children's internal body image.

  1. Strategy for implementing research in hydrology to promote space science among school children in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Omowumi O.

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes a proposed activity to introduce school children in Nigeria to research in hydrology through the public outreach coordinated by the United Nations affiliated African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E). Over the years, ARCSSTE-E has established a vibrant relationship with Nigerian schools through periodic zonal and national space educational workshops organized for students and teachers. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the brilliant performance in the evaluation tests, indicated that this method of informal education is suitable for stimulating the interest of Nigerian pre-collegiate youths in space science and technology, and also to inspire the young learners and develop their interest in the Sciences, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). Because only few representatives from each school can participate in these public outreach programs, it became expedient for the Centre to inaugurate space clubs in schools as a forum for students and teachers to meet regularly to discuss space related issues. Since the first space club was officially launched in 2007, the Centre has inaugurated over 300 space clubs in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions, strategically distributed over the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The presentation highlights a space club activity designed to introduce the students to precipitation data collection, with locally fabricated rain gauges. The paper also documents the proposed post-data collection activities in which ARCSSTE-E, acting as the coordinating Centre will collaborate with other national and international organizations to standardize and utilize the rainfall data collected by the students for ground validation of satellite data from the Global Precipitation Measurement. Key words: Public Outreach, Space Club, Human Capacity Development, Hydrologic Research, Global Precipitation Measurement.

  2. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on biomarkers of GH action in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, Gudmundur; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Biller, Beverly M K; Boguszewski, Margaret; Casanueva, Felipe F; Chanson, Philippe; Clayton, Peter E; Choong, Catherine S; Clemmons, David; Dattani, Mehul; Frystyk, Jan; Ho, Ken; Hoffman, Andrew R; Horikawa, Reiko; Juul, Anders; Kopchick, John J; Luo, Xiaoping; Neggers, Sebastian; Netchine, Irene; Olsson, Daniel S; Radovick, Sally; Rosenfeld, Ron; Ross, Richard J; Schilbach, Katharina; Solberg, Paulo; Strasburger, Christian; Trainer, Peter; Yuen, Kevin C J; Wickstrom, Kerstin; Jorgensen, Jens O L

    2018-03-01

    The Growth Hormone Research Society (GRS) convened a Workshop in 2017 to evaluate clinical endpoints, surrogate endpoints and biomarkers during GH treatment of children and adults and in patients with acromegaly. GRS invited 34 international experts including clinicians, basic scientists, a regulatory scientist and physicians from the pharmaceutical industry. Current literature was reviewed and expert opinion was utilized to establish the state of the art and identify current gaps and unmet needs. Following plenary presentations, breakout groups discussed questions framed by the planning committee. The attendees re-convened after each breakout session to share the group reports. A writing team compiled the breakout session reports into a document that was subsequently discussed and revised by participants. This was edited further and circulated for final review after the meeting. Participants from pharmaceutical companies were not part of the writing process. The clinical endpoint in paediatric GH treatment is adult height with height velocity as a surrogate endpoint. Increased life expectancy is the ideal but unfeasible clinical endpoint of GH treatment in adult GH-deficient patients (GHDA) and in patients with acromegaly. The pragmatic clinical endpoints in GHDA include normalization of body composition and quality of life, whereas symptom relief and reversal of comorbidities are used in acromegaly. Serum IGF-I is widely used as a biomarker, even though it correlates weakly with clinical endpoints in GH treatment, whereas in acromegaly, normalization of IGF-I may be related to improvement in mortality. There is an unmet need for novel biomarkers that capture the pleiotropic actions of GH in relation to GH treatment and in patients with acromegaly. © 2018 Growth Hormone Research Society.

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... key informant interviews with community leaders and traditional healers were conducted. Results: ... children to participate in vaccine trials is critical. Very few .... A few FGDs and KIs also referred to an incident where children ...

  4. Treating Mental Health Disorders for Children in Child Welfare Care: Evaluating the Outcome Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Shannon L.; Leschied, Alan; den Dunnen, Wendy; Zalmanowitz, Sharla; Baiden, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children involved in the child welfare system (CWS) have a greater need for mental health treatment relative to children in the general population. However, the research on mental health treatment for children in the CWS is sparse with only one known previous review of mental health services with children in the CWS. Objective: This…

  5. Critical issues with clinical research in children: The example of premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Research in pediatrics has led to marked improvements in survival in pediatric patients. In no other age group have these improvements been more dramatic than in neonatology, where antenatal steroid administration to mothers and postnatal utilization of surfactant have led to marked improvements in survival so that infants born at 24 weeks gestation now have a greater than 50% chance of survival. Unfortunately, more than 50% of these patients develop significant complications of prematurity with potential long-term impact on the health of these infants. Therefore, additional research must be done in these patients to prevent these complications or reduce the impact of these complications. There are many practical and some ethical issues that could impede research in the area. Interventional studies have succeeded because literally decades of research defined unequivocally the pathophysiology of diseases such as surfactant deficiency in RDS. Unfortunately, the pathophysiology leading to the complications of prematurity has been extrapolated from old concepts without verification as the population has become smaller and more premature than the previous era. Thus, an extremely important practical issue in pediatric research is whether to design interventions to address the extrapolated pathophysiology risking misinterpretations of the results of such studies. Or should our efforts be focused on defining endpoints associated with the development of diseases and complications which may define pathophysiology more completely but delay the design of interventions to improve the outcomes of patients. Another crucial practical issue in pediatric research is how to power studies so that interventions can be studied adequately. In the US, large neonatal networks have been formed so that large databases can be created and large multi-center trials can be performed. The practical issues associated with these network studies is the center to center variability in patient care

  6. Content Analysis of Qualitative Research on Children and Youth With Autism, 1993-2011: Considerations for Occupational Therapy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinth, Yvonne; Tomlin, George; Luthman, Marge

    2015-01-01

    Through a content analysis of qualitative research published 1993-2011, we sought to determine how qualitative research can inform clinical reasoning among occupational therapy practitioners to support evidence-based, occupation-focused services for children and youth with autism and their families. A qualitative literature search of journals inside and outside occupational therapy, including international journals, yielded 125 articles. We reviewed 110 articles that met inclusion criteria, 79 of which were coded by four occupational therapists with experience working with families with a child or youth with autism. Nineteen content codes were initially derived. Three themes were identified: (1) service challenges for the family, (2) day-to-day experience of autism, and (3) reframing family. This content analysis illustrates how qualitative research may help occupational therapy practitioners make comprehensive, occupation-based intervention decisions by considering the lived experience of children and youth with autism and their families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Bully/Victim Problems among Preschool Children: A Review of Current Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Maria; Andreou, Eleni; Botsoglou, Kafenia; Didaskalou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with negative short- and long-term effects on children's psychosocial adjustment (Smith 1999; Ttofi and Farrington, "Aggressive Behav" 34(4):352-368, 2008). Entering kindergarten is a crucial developmental step in many children's lives mainly because it…

  8. Social Communication as the Means of Preschool Children Education: Research and Development Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antopolskaya, Tatyana A.; Zhuravleva, Svetlana S.; Baybakova, Olga Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article reveals the problem of developing the ability of preschool children to socialize. It covers the theoretical aspects of the issue and draws attention to the association between the social communication of preschool children and their ability to interact and intercommunicate as well as the development of their social and emotional…

  9. Children's Understanding of Night and Day: A Research Report Presented at NCSS, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazee, Bruce M.

    What advanced 4- and 5-year-old children know about night and day in relationship to the earth and sun was studied to test the hypothesis that two teaching activities would help children to understand the cause of the phenomenon. Participants were 21 middle to upper class boys and girls enrolled in a part-time early childhood enrichment program…

  10. Health Education Video Games for Children and Adolescents: Theory, Design, and Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.

    This study examined whether video games could be effective health education and therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents with diabetes. KIDZ Health Software developed a game about diabetes self-management, and tested its effectiveness for children with diabetes. The Packy and Marlon Super Nintendo video game promotes fun,…

  11. Teacher Training and the Education of Black Children: Bringing Color into Difference. Routledge Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Uvanney

    2014-01-01

    This book is designed to challenge dominant educational discourses on the underachievement of Black children and to engender new understandings in initial teacher education (ITE) about Black children's education and achievement. Based in empirical case study work and theoretical insights drawn from Bourdieu, hooks, Freire, and Giroux, Maylor calls…

  12. Imprisoned Fathers and Their Children: A Reflection on Two Decades of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Gwyneth

    2018-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the author co-led an extensive study for the UK Department of Health on the parenting role of imprisoned fathers in England and Wales. Against a background of children's needs and rights, it examined the place of fatherhood in their lives, the meaning of paternal absence to a child, and the particular significance for children of…

  13. Research on atomoxetine in Dutch ASD/ADHD children : The RADAR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harfterkamp, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently present in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In her study Myriam Harfterkamp showed that atomoxetine appears to be a promising treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents with ASD. Atomoxetine was superior to

  14. Vocabulary acquisition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: Research and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Wauters, L.N.; Willemsen, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Marschark, M.; Spencer, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is fundamental to communication, language learning, and acquiring knowledge of the world. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face considerable challenges in acquiring age-appropriate vocabulary knowledge. The enhancement of children's vocabulary knowledge is therefore one

  15. Social Cognition in Children with Down's Syndrome: Challenges to Research and Theory Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, K. R.; Moore, D. G.; Wishart, J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Characterising how socio-cognitive abilities develop has been crucial to understanding the wider development of typically developing children. It is equally central to understanding developmental pathways in children with intellectual disabilities such as Down's syndrome. While the process of acquisition of socio-cognitive abilities in typical…

  16. Digital Games for Young Children Ages Three to Six: From Research to Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra A.; Fisk, Maria Chesley; Biely, Erica

    2009-01-01

    Young children ages 3 to 6 play a wide range of digital games, which are now available on large screens, handheld screens, electronic learning systems, and electronic toys, and their time spent with games is growing. This article examines effects of digital games and how they could be designed to best serve children's needs. A small body of…

  17. Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Their Daily Living. Handicap Research Group Report No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin, Jane

    The study examined aspects of daily living of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta, a mineral deficiency in the skeleton which results in stunted growth and frequent fractures. A questionnaire was administered to 24 families with children under the age of 18 and 3 families were interviewed. The study found the families in great need of…

  18. From "Public Health" to "Safeguarding Children": British Health Visiting in Policy, Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the location of British health visiting in contemporary policy discourses concerned with public health and safeguarding children. It argues that professional identity and orientation can be understood through health visiting's long history of public health work with children and families, which has included an engagement with…

  19. Young Children and E-Reading: Research to Date and Questions for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth B.; Warschauer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The practice of reading is rapidly moving from print to screen. Young children are not immune from this trend; indeed, many children's principal literacy experiences occur using iPads and other handheld digital devices. This transition raises important questions about how the emergence and development of literacy might change in these new…

  20. State of Early Child Development Research, Practice, and Policy for Most Vulnerable Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mary Eming

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to enhance development of children ages 0-6 have profound benefits for children, families, and societies. The benefits are well documented, recognized internationally, and supportive of policies and programs targeting early child development (ECD). Intervening in the early years is a critical first step toward alleviating poverty,…

  1. Literacy, Play and Globalization: Converging Imaginaries in Children's Critical and Cultural Performances. Routledge Research in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carmen L.; Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    This book takes on current perspectives on children's relationships to literacy, media, childhood, markets and transtionalism in converging global worlds. It introduces the idea of multi-sited imaginaries to explain how children's media and literacy performances shape and are shaped by shared visions of communities that we collectively imagine,…

  2. RESULTS OF BONE DENSITY RESEARCH IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA TREATED BY INHALED GLUCOCORTICOSTEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Kiseleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that asthma and its treatment could have negative impact on the bone tissue in adults. In childhood, bone is most sensitive to the influence of adverse factors. In the study 105 children with asthma and 700 healthy children were examined by bone ultrasonometry to reveal the relation of asthma and the treatment of inhaled glucocorticosteroids on bone density. The results of this study are demonstrated that the therapy with inhaled glucocorticosteroids have no adverse effects on the bone density. The reductions of bone density in children with asthma in some age groups are not associated with the severity of illness, age and therapy with inhaled glucocorticosteroids. Reduction of bone density is due to a way of life of children, the level of physical activity and consumption of dairy products. Key words: bone density, asthma, inhaled glucocorticosteroids, bone ultrasonometer, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:42-47

  3. Original Research: Parvovirus B19 infection in children with sickle cell disease in the hydroxyurea era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkert, Rhiannon R; Lavoie, Paul; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2016-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes transient aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD) due to a temporary interruption in the red blood cell production. Toxicity from hydroxyurea includes anemia and reticulocytopenia, both of which also occur during a transient aplastic crisis event. Hydroxyurea inhibits proliferation of hematopoietic cells and may be immunosuppressive. We postulated that hydroxyurea could exacerbate parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis and inhibit the development of specific immune responses in children with SCD. We conducted a retrospective review of parvovirus B19 infection in 330 children with SCD. Altogether there were 120 known cases of aplastic crisis attributed to parvovirus B19 infection, and 12% of children were on hydroxyurea treatment during the episode. We evaluated hematological and immune responses. Children with HbSS or HbSβ0-thalassemia treated with hydroxyurea, when compared with untreated children, required fewer transfusions and had higher Hb concentration nadir during transient aplastic crisis. Duration of hospital stays was no different between hydroxyurea-treated and untreated groups. Children tested within a week following aplastic crisis were positive for parvovirus-specific IgG. Immune responses lasted for the duration of the observation period, up to 13 years after transient aplastic crisis, and there were no repeat aplastic crisis episodes. The frequencies of parvovirus-specific antibodies in all children with SCD increased with age, as expected due to the increased likelihood of a parvovirus exposure, and were comparable to frequencies reported for healthy children. Approximately one-third of children had a positive parvovirus B19-specific IgG test without a documented history of transient aplastic crisis, and 64% of them were treated with hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea may reduce requirements for blood transfusions and may attenuate symptoms during transient aplastic crisis episodes caused by parvovirus B19 infections

  4. Original Research: Parvovirus B19 infection in children with sickle cell disease in the hydroxyurea era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Jane S; Penkert, Rhiannon R; Lavoie, Paul; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2016-04-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes transient aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD) due to a temporary interruption in the red blood cell production. Toxicity from hydroxyurea includes anemia and reticulocytopenia, both of which also occur during a transient aplastic crisis event. Hydroxyurea inhibits proliferation of hematopoietic cells and may be immunosuppressive. We postulated that hydroxyurea could exacerbate parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis and inhibit the development of specific immune responses in children with SCD. We conducted a retrospective review of parvovirus B19 infection in 330 children with SCD. Altogether there were 120 known cases of aplastic crisis attributed to parvovirus B19 infection, and 12% of children were on hydroxyurea treatment during the episode. We evaluated hematological and immune responses. Children with HbSS or HbSβ(0)-thalassemia treated with hydroxyurea, when compared with untreated children, required fewer transfusions and had higher Hb concentration nadir during transient aplastic crisis. Duration of hospital stays was no different between hydroxyurea-treated and untreated groups. Children tested within a week following aplastic crisis were positive for parvovirus-specific IgG. Immune responses lasted for the duration of the observation period, up to 13 years after transient aplastic crisis, and there were no repeat aplastic crisis episodes. The frequencies of parvovirus-specific antibodies in all children with SCD increased with age, as expected due to the increased likelihood of a parvovirus exposure, and were comparable to frequencies reported for healthy children. Approximately one-third of children had a positive parvovirus B19-specific IgG test without a documented history of transient aplastic crisis, and 64% of them were treated with hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea may reduce requirements for blood transfusions and may attenuate symptoms during transient aplastic crisis episodes caused by parvovirus B19 infections

  5. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  6. A Canadian model for building university and community partnerships: centre for research & education on violence against women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter G; Berman, Helene; MacQuarrie, Barb

    2011-09-01

    The importance of Canadian research on violence against women became a national focus after the 1989 murder of 14 women at École Polytechnique in Montreal. This tragedy led to several federal government studies that identified a need to develop centers for applied research and community-university alliances on violence against women. One such center is the Centre for Research & Education on Violence against Women and Children. The Centre was founded in London, Canada in 1992 out of a partnership of a university, a community college, and community services. The centre's history and current activities are summarized as a model for the development and sustainability of similar centers.

  7. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

  8. Narrative in Young Children's Digital Art-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Mona; Connelly, Vince; Wild, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Digital technologies have material and social properties that have the potential to create new opportunities for children's expressive arts practices. The presence and development of oral narratives in young children's visual art-making on paper has been noted in previous research, but little is known about the narratives children create when they…

  9. Formative research to develop a community-based intervention for chronic disease prevention in Guatemalan school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Paola; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Caballero, Benjamin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2014-01-31

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, even in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent trends in health promotion emphasize community-based interventions as an important strategy for improving health outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct formative research regarding the perceptions of NCD risk factors, their influencing factors, and community resources available to aid the development and implementation of a community-based intervention with school-age children. Focus group discussions (n = 18), home visits (n = 30), and individual semi-structured interviews (n = 26) were conducted in three urban communities in Guatemala with school-age children (10-12 years of age), teachers, parents, and local community members (i.e., school principals, school food kiosk vendors, religious leaders, authority representatives). All focus groups and interviews were transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. Children, parents, and teachers have general knowledge about modifiable risk factors. Adults worried more about tobacco use, as compared to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity in children. Participants identified features at the intrapersonal (e.g., negative emotional state), interpersonal (e.g., peers as role models), and organizational and community levels (e.g., high levels of crime) that influence these risk factors in children. School committees, religious leaders, and government programs and activities were among the positive community resources identified. These findings should help researchers in Guatemala and similar LMIC to develop community-based interventions for NCD prevention in school-age children that are effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable.

  10. Key health outcomes for children and young people with neurodisability: qualitative research with young people and parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Amanda; Fellowes, Andrew; Shilling, Valerie; Janssens, Astrid; Beresford, Bryony; Morris, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify key health outcomes, beyond morbidity and mortality, regarded as important in children and young people with neurodisability, and their parents. Design Qualitative research incorporating a thematic analysis of the data supported by the Framework Approach; the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) provided a theoretical foundation. Setting The study was conducted in community settings. Participants Participants were 54 children and young people with neurodisability: 50 participated in focus groups, and 4 in interviews; 53 parents participated: 47 in focus groups and 6 in interviews. Children/young people and parents were recruited through different networks, and were not related. Results Children/young people and parents viewed health outcomes as inter-related. Achievement in some outcomes appeared valued to the extent that it enabled or supported more valued domains of health. Health outcomes prioritised by both young people and parents were: communication, mobility, pain, self-care, temperament, interpersonal relationships and interactions, community and social life, emotional well-being and gaining independence/future aspirations. Parents also highlighted their child's sleep, behaviour and/or safety. Conclusions Those responsible for health services for children/young people with neurodisability should take account of the aspects of health identified by families. The aspects of health identified in this study provide a basis for selecting appropriate health indicators and outcome measures. PMID:24747792

  11. A "Child's Rights Perspective": The "Right" of Children and Young People to Participate in Health Care Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    As all human beings are consumers of health care provision across the life span and in receipt of care delivered by accountable health care professionals, all should have the right to be involved in shaping the future of their own health care. Rights-based participation, when applied successfully, has the potential to inform and influence the delivery of child health care, the child's experience of health care, plus children's nursing education (Coyne & Gallagher, 2011). The "right" of every child and young person to participate in research that relates to their own health care is also sustained by the author's lead position as a Senior Lecturer in Higher Education for pre-registration children's nursing in Northern Ireland and the appreciation of their voice when practicing as a registered children's nurse and ward sister. The report provides an insight into seminal work on human and child rights; the historical context of children in Western society, and the evolution of children's nursing amid the child's right to participate in shaping their own health care.

  12. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  13. Neuropathological research at the "Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Psychiatrie" (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institute). Scientific utilization of children's organs from the "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Children's Special Departments) at Bavarian State Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Florian

    2006-09-01

    During National Socialism, the politically motivated interest in psychiatric genetic research lead to the founding of research departments specialized in pathological-anatomical brain research, the two Kaiser Wilhelm-Institutes (KWI) in Berlin and Munich. The latter was indirectly provided with brain material by Bavarian State Hospitals, to three of which "Kinderfachabteilungen" (Special Pediatric Units) were affiliated. As children became victims of the systematically conducted child "euthanasia" in these Special Pediatric Units, this paper will address the question whether and to which extent the organs from victims of child "euthanasia" were used for (neuro-) pathological research at the KWI in Munich. By means of case studies and medical histories (with focus on the situation in Kaufbeuren-Irsee), I will argue that pediatric departments on a regular base delivered slide preparations, that the child "euthanasia" conduced in these departments systematically contributed to neuropathological research and that slide preparations from victims of child "euthanasia" were used in scientific publications after 1945.

  14. A Research on Causes of Mortality among Children under Age 5 in Istanbul in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Avci

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate: infant and under age five mortality rates in Istanbul in year 2005 and the distribution the “reported” causes of mortality in these children; the relationship between monetary value of the place of residence and the mortality cause and to evaluate the quality of death records. MEDHODS: In the cross-sectional study, data were abstracted from cemetery electronic records, obtained from Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. A total of 4801 deaths under age five was recorded. Mortality causes coded by researchers based on the ICD-10 coding system and quality of the Registry was further evaluated. The relationship between place of residence and distrbibution of mortality causes was studied using Chi-square test. RESULTS: Missing data were detected in all parameters except name, age, burial date and name of cemetery. Causes of death and name of the reporting physician were not recorded in 38.87% and 37.41% of cases, respectively. The death rates (infant mortality rate: 23.8‰ and under age five mortality rate: 25.9‰ calculated in this study are close to the figures (19‰ and 32‰ obtained by the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TNSA for year 2003. According to Turkish Statistics Agency classification, in Istanbul, “other causes of perinatal mortality” 1048 (21.8%, “birth injury, difficult labor, other anoxic and hypoxic conditions” 506 (10.5%, were the most common death causes under age 5 in year 2005. CONCLUSION: Use of ICD-10 coding system in completing death records, adequate training of the personnel, and preparation of a weekly bulletin which provides feedback for mistakes will support the improvement of death recording system. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 301-310

  15. Expanding the conduct of everyday life concept for psychological media research with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The concept conduct of everyday life has lately been discussed with regards to how children are engaged with participating in the manifold practices that constitute their daily living. They coordinate their actions with others (adults and children) in order to increasingly influence the conditions......, the article shows how the concept is fruitful for investigating how kindergarten children use media technologies for conducting their everyday lives in the mutually shared kindergarten practice. Finally, it argues that the concept needs to be expanded in order to comprehensively grasp the intersubjective...... and material mediatedness of an everyday life with media technologies....

  16. Research on the relativity between gene polymorphism and children cardiac insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X-H; Li, C-L; Ling, N; Wang, Q-W; Wang, Z-Z; An, X-J

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the relationship between Mink-S27 gene polymorphism and children with cardiac insufficiency. From April 2013 to April 2015, we enrolled 73 cases of children with cardiac insufficiency for this study, and all 73 were placed in the observation group. 76 normal cases were selected for the control group. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to make polymorphism analysis of the Mink-S27. Our results showed no significant differences in Mink-S27 genotype and allele distribution in both observation and control groups (p>0.05). In lesion samples collected from children with cardiac insufficiency, we detected significant difference in AA, CC genotype frequency and allele frequency between the observation group and the control group (prelatively high. GNAS2 gene polymorphism was associated with the prevalence of cardiac insufficiency in children. And also the patients' condition was correlated to the frequency of different genotypes and alleles.

  17. Reading to deaf children who sign: a response to Williams (2012) and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jean F

    2012-01-01

    A commentary on Williams's (2012) invited article on the use of adapted vocabulary learning interventions focuses on three areas: (a) Vocabulary interventions with storybook reading originally designed for hearing children can be adapted for deaf children. (b) Teachers are invited to reflect on how the read-aloud process in English differs from the read-aloud process in sign. (b) Teachers are asked to consider adding drawing and writing activities to reading lessons to show young deaf readers how reading and writing are reciprocal processes. The emergent literacy theory is used, as it informs and drives instructional vocabulary teaching practices for deaf children in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The emergent literacy theory broadly captures cognitive, social, perceptual, and linguistic understandings of how young signing deaf children acquire both English word recognition abilities and vocabulary knowledge, among other important prereading concepts.

  18. IMPACTS OF HIPPOTHERAPY ON CHILDREN WITH CEREBRAL PALSY FROM PARENTS PERSPECTIVE: A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasia Laiou; Anna Christakou; Vaios Kaminiotis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hippotherapy is a physical treatment strategy with the help of horses and refers to the use of horse’s movement as a treatment tool for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Hippotherapy refers to the incorporation of equine movement by physiotherapists, occupational therapists and speech therapists. The present qualitative study investigated the impacts of hippotherapy on Greek children with Cerebral Palsy from parents’ perspective due to their better understanding of child’s specia...

  19. Qualitative Research on the Uneasiness of Japanese Working Married Women on the Decision of Having Children

    OpenAIRE

    山谷, 真名

    2011-01-01

    Japanese marriage was said to be followed by childbirth right after. Such trend is changing, and that some couples are having longer waiting time before having children. The desire to have children is also said to be on the decline (Sasai 1998 Iwama 2008). Women's difficulty in their work continuation after childbirth is well known and has not changed much (Nagase 1999 Higuchi 2007). The purpose of this paper is to bring forward qualitative reasons why more women are having longer waiting tim...

  20. Participation or pedagogy?: Ambiguities and tensions surrounding the facilitation of children as researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chae-Young

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguities and tensions can arise when children are facilitated to act as ‘primary researchers’ concerning whether this is primarily to support their ‘participation’ in knowledge production and, with the knowledge produced, in relevant decision-making processes or whether it is mainly for any educational benefits. This article considers these ambiguities and tensions theoretically and by using evidence from a study where English primary school children were supported to conduct their own res...

  1. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Simkiss, Doug; Busk, Mary; Morris, Maureen; Allard, Amanda; Denness, Jacob; Janssens, Astrid; Stimson, Anna; Coghill, Joanna; Robinson, Kelly; Fenton, Mark; Cowan, Katherine

    2015-01-28

    To engage young people, parent carers and clinicians in a systematic process to identify and prioritise research questions regarding ways to improve the health and well-being of children and young people with neurodisability. British Academy of Childhood Disability (BACD)-James Lind Alliance research priority setting partnership bringing together patients, carers and clinicians as equal stakeholders. UK health service and community. The BACD Strategic Research Group formed the partnership. A Steering Group was established; charity and professional partner organisations were recruited. Suggestions were gathered in an open survey and from research recommendations for statutory guidance. Items were aggregated to formulate indicative research questions and verified as uncertainties from research evidence. An interim survey was used to rank the questions to shortlist topics. A mixed group of stakeholders discussed the top 25 questions at the final priority setting workshop agreeing a final rank order and the top 10 research priorities. Partner organisations were 13 charities and 8 professional societies. 369 people submitted suggestions (40% non-clinicians). 76 people participated in the interim prioritisation (26 parents, 1 young person, 10 charity representatives, 39 clinicians); 22 took part in the final workshop (3 young people, 7 parents, 3 charity representatives, 9 professionals). The top three research priorities related to (1) establishing the optimal frequency and intensity (dose) for mainstream therapies, (2) means for selecting and encouraging use of communication strategies and (3) ways to improve children's attitudes towards disability. The top 10 included evaluating interventions to promote mobility, self-efficacy, mental health, continence, physical fitness, educational inclusion and reduce impacts of sleep disturbance. The methodology provided a systematic and transparent process to identify research priorities that included stakeholders that have

  2. Demographic profile of healthy children with nasopharyngeal colonisation of Streptococcus pneumoniae: A research paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Raman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is a preventable cause of mortality in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonising the nasopharynx of healthy children can cause invasive diseases and the serotype distribution of colonisation isolates should be an indicator of invasive disease, antibiotic resistance profiles, and potential vaccine coverage. Identifying factors influencing nasopharyngeal colonisation, the serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern can improve rational preventive strategies. Objectives: Identify risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonisation of S.pneumoniae in healthy children between 6 months to 5 years of age. Determine the serotype and antibiotic sensitivity of S. pneumoniae isolated from nasopharynx of healthy children. Methods: This prospective observational included 500 healthy children, 6months to 5 years of age. Demographic features of the study population, the serotypes and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of S.Pneumoniae isolated from cultures of nasopharyngeal swabs were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: S. pneumoniae was isolated in 9% of 450 children. Increased nasopharyngeal carriage rate was associated with overcrowding 48.8% and poor ventilation 35.5%. 6B (n=16 was the most common serotype isolated. 69% were serogroups known to cause invasive disease All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Antimicrobial susceptibility of PCV 7 serotypes were greater than non PCV 7 serotypes for almost all antimicrobials tested. Penicillin resistance was 11 % and MDR 51%

  3. Exergaming with a pediatric exoskeleton: Facilitating rehabilitation and research in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulea, Thomas C; Lerner, Zachary F; Gravunder, Andrew J; Damiano, Diane L

    2017-07-01

    Effective rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires intensive task-specific exercise but many in this population lack the motor capabilities to complete the desired training tasks. Providing robotic assistance is a potential solution yet the effects of this assistance are unclear. We combined a novel exoskeleton and exercise video game (exergame) to create a new rehabilitation paradigm for children with CP. We incorporated high density electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cortical activity. Movement to targets in the game was controlled by knee extension while standing. The distance between targets was the same with and without the exoskeleton to isolate the effect of robotic assistance. Our results show that children with CP maintain or increase knee extensor muscle activity during knee extension in the presence of synergistic robotic assistance. Our EEG findings also demonstrate that participants remained engaged in the exercise with robotic assistance. Interestingly we observed a developmental trajectory of sensorimotor mu rhythm in children with CP similar, though delayed, to those reported in typically developing children. While not the goal here, the exoskeleton significantly increased knee extension in 3/6 participants during use. Future work will focus on utilizing the exoskeleton to enhance volitional knee extension capability and in combination with EMG and EEG to study sensorimotor cortex response to progressive exercise in children with CP.

  4. Involving children and young people in clinical research through the forum of a European Young Persons' Advisory Group: needs and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Segolene; Malik, Salma; Preston, Jenny; Escalera, Begonya Nafria; Dicks, Pamela; Touil, Nathalie; Mardirossian, Sandrine; Claverol-Torres, Joana; Kassaï, Behrouz

    2018-02-19

    Children and young people are seen as fundamental to the design and delivery of clinical research as active and reflective participants. In Europe, involvement of children and young people in clinical research is promoted extensively in order to engage young people in research as partners and to give them a voice to raise their own issues or opinions and for their involvement in planning and decision making in addition to learning research skills. Children and young people can be trained in clinical research through participation in young person advisory groups (YPAGs). Members of YPAGs assist other children and young people to learn about clinical research and share their experience and point of view with researchers, thereby possibly influencing all phases of research including the development and prioritization of research questions, design and methods, recruitment plans, and strategies for results dissemination. In the long term, the expansion of YPAGs in Europe will serve as a driving force for refining pediatric clinical research. It will help in a better definition of research projects according to the patients' needs. Furthermore, direct engagement of children and young people in research will be favorable to both researchers and young people. © 2018 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  5. 90 YEARS OF CHILDREN HEALTH GUARDING (TO THE 90TH ANNIVERSARY OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CHILDREN’S INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic aspects of the activity of the institution established for the benefit of children from the moment of its foundation in 1927. There are noted landmarks in history and the priority scientific research works carried out in different periods of the institution development. Some results of the current history, improvement of its material resources are presented. There are described scientific achievements and the institution discoveries and their social value.

  6. The Vulnerabilities of Orphaned Children Participating in Research: A Critical Review and Factors for Consideration for Participation in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel T.; Meslin, Eric M.; Braitstein, Paula K. A.; Nyandiko, Winstone M.; Ayaya, Samuel O.; Vreeman, Rachel C.

    2013-01-01

    Orphans are a subpopulation with a unique set of additional vulnerabilities. Increasing focus on children’s rights, pediatric global health, and pediatric research makes it imperative to recognize and address unique vulnerabilities of orphaned children. This paper describes the unique vulnerabilities of the orphaned pediatric population and offers a structured set of factors that require consideration when including orphans in biomedical research. Pediatric orphans are particularly vulnerable due to decreased economic resources, psychosocial instability, increased risk of abuse, and delayed/decreased access to healthcare. These vulnerabilities are significant. By carefully considering each issue in a population in a culturally specific and study-specific manner, researchers can make valuable contributions to the overall health and well-being of this uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:23086048

  7. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: the importance of mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerig, Simone; van Wesel, Floryt; Evers, Sandra J T M; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigate empathy in inter-relational contexts. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualizations of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results from one classroom that was part of a larger study and included 28 children (m = 13, f = 15). Participants (aged 9-11) were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; in addition an observational study was also conducted over a period of 3 months. Initial results showed how children's expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children's positions within classroom networks. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy.

  8. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... participants' previous participation in government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior... information is designed to be 100 percent automated and digital submission of all data and certifications is... government programs and ensure that the past record is acceptable prior to granting approval to participate...

  9. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  10. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  11. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-02-25

    Feb 25, 2013 ... Refractive error is an optical defect intrinsic to the eye which prevents the light from being brought to a single focus on the retina thus reducing normal vision [1]. Refractive error is a major contributor to visual impairment which is a significant cause of morbidity in children worldwide [2]. Since children do not ...

  13. Children with Usher syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...

  14. Cognitive Biases in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Pain: A Review of Findings and a Call for Developmental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Heathcote, Lauren C; Beale, Sarah; Gray, Suzy; Jacobs, Konrad; Wilkinson, Nick; Crombez, Geert

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive biases that emphasize bodily harm, injury, and illness could play a role in the maintenance of chronic pain by facilitating fear and avoidance. Whereas extensive research has established attention, interpretation, and memory biases in adults with chronic pain, far less is known about these same biases in children and adolescents with pain. Studying cognitive biases in attention, interpretation, and memory in relation to pain occurring in youth is important because youth is a time when pain can first become chronic, and when relationships between cognitive biases and pain outcomes emerge and stabilize. Thus, youth potentially offers a time window for the prevention of chronic pain problems. In this article, we summarize the growing corpus of data that have measured cognitive biases in relation to pediatric pain. We conclude that although biases in attention, interpretation, and memory characterize children and adolescents with varying pain experiences, questions regarding the direction, magnitude, nature, and role of these biases remain. We call for independent extension of cognitive bias research in children and adolescents, using well powered longitudinal studies with wide age ranges and psychometrically sound experimental measures to clarify these findings and any developmental trends in the links between cognitive biases and pain outcomes. This article provides a rationale for the theoretical and practical importance of studying the role of cognitive biases in children and adolescents with chronic pain, which has to date, been relatively understudied. Existing findings are reviewed critically, and recommendations for future research are offered. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Explaining Conflicting Results in Research on the Heterogeneous Effects of Parental Separation on Children's Educational Attainment According to Social Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Fabrizio; Boertien, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in how the effects of parental separation on children's educational attainment vary with social background. On the one hand, parents with more resources might be better able to prevent possible adverse events like separation to affect their children's outcomes. On the other hand, children from higher social backgrounds might have more resources to lose from a parental separation. A wide range of empirical studies on the issue have come to inconsistent conclusions, with support found for both perspectives. The aim of this paper is to monitor the influence of methodological and operational choices on the different results observed across studies. We focus on aspects such as the operationalization of key variables, the measurement of inequality in absolute and relative terms and the different strategies used to address endogeneity. We study the effects of parental separation on educational attainment for a cohort of British children born in 1970 and find that conclusions change depending on whether social background is measured using the mother's or father's characteristics and whether relative or absolute differences between groups are considered. Results are relatively insensitive to the operationalization of dependent variables and the treatment of missing data. When using data from Understanding Society instead of the British Cohort Study, results also did not change. We reflect on how these findings can explain the contradictory results from earlier studies on the topic, and how heterogeneity in the effects of parental separation by socio-economic background should be interpreted.

  16. Racial and gender representations in primary education: researching ‘with’ children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Salazar Guizzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article was to discuss and problematize how certain gender, ethnic and racial representations are constructed and reiterated daily in the school environment and circulate almost as absolute truths. This analysis relies on theories of Cultural Studies in Education and presents data collected on everyday situations at schools and interviews excerpts applied over a year of field work with children from kindergarten in a public school and children elementary school at a private institution, both located in Rio Grande do Sul. Our results indicate that, since childhood, children already incorporate and disseminate ‘stereotypical’ representations regarding gender, ethnic and racial affiliations. In particular, it was observed that the individuals who did not fit in the phenotypic characteristics considered ideal were negatively represented and discriminated. However, this study also showed the importance of pedagogies that question and dislocate the dominant representationsof race and gender, from the perspective of an anti-racist education.

  17. Setting priorities for zinc-related health research to reduce children's disease burden worldwide: an application of the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative's research priority-setting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth H; Hess, Sonja Y; Boy, Erick; Gibson, Rosalind S; Horton, Susan; Osendarp, Saskia J; Sempertegui, Fernando; Shrimpton, Roger; Rudan, Igor

    2009-03-01

    To make the best use of limited resources for supporting health-related research to reduce child mortality, it is necessary to apply a suitable method to rank competing research options. The Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) developed a new methodology for setting health research priorities. To broaden experience with this priority-setting technique, we applied the method to rank possible research priorities concerning the control of Zn deficiency. Although Zn deficiency is not generally recognized as a direct cause of child mortality, recent research indicates that it predisposes children to an increased incidence and severity of several of the major direct causes of morbidity and mortality. Leading experts in the field of Zn research in child health were identified and invited to participate in a technical working group (TWG) to establish research priorities. The individuals were chosen to represent a wide range of expertise in Zn nutrition. The seven TWG members submitted a total of ninety research options, which were then consolidated into a final list of thirty-one research options categorized by the type of resulting intervention. The identified priorities were dominated by research investment options targeting Zn supplementation, and were followed by research on Zn fortification, general aspects of Zn nutrition, dietary modification and other new interventions. In general, research options that aim to improve the efficiency of an already existing intervention strategy received higher priority scores. Challenges identified during the implementation of the methodology and suggestions to modify the priority-setting procedures are discussed.

  18. Methodological aspects of language processing research with adults and children : Reading research and the Visual World Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozijn, Rein

    2012-01-01

    Research on language comprehension has benefited greatly from the use of eye-tracking methodology. However, the technique is not easy to use. In particular, the creation of (auditory and visual) stimuli and the analysis of eye-movement data are difficult and laborious. The presentation will deal

  19. Music's relevance for children with cancer: music therapists' qualitative clinical data-mining research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Dun, Beth; Baron, Annette; Barry, Philippa

    2013-01-01

    Music is central in most children's lives. Understanding its relevance will advance efficacious pediatric supportive cancer care. Qualitative clinical data-mining uncovered four music therapists' perspectives about music and music therapy's relevance for pediatric oncology patients up to 14 years old. Inductive and comparative thematic analysis was performed on focus group transcripts and qualitative interrater reliability integrated. Music can offer children a safe haven for internalizing a healthy self-image alongside patient identity. Music therapy can calm, relieve distress, promote supportive relationships, enable self-care, and inspire playful creativity, associated with "normalcy" and hope. Preferred music and music therapy should be available in pediatric oncology.

  20. Research needed to strengthen science and programs for the control of iron deficiency and its consequences in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight critical research needs for the effective prevention and control of iron deficiency and its consequences in children living in low-income countries. Four types of research are highlighted: The first involves scaling up interventions that we know are effective, namely iron supplementation of pregnant women, delayed cord clamping at delivery, immediate and exclusive breast-feeding, and continued exclusive breast-feeding for approximately 6 mo. The second entails evaluation research of alternative interventions that are likely to work, to find the most cost-effective strategies for a given social, economic, and epidemiological context. This research is especially needed to expand the implementation of appropriate complementary feeding interventions. In this area, research needs to be designed to provide causal evidence, to measure cost-effectiveness, and to measure potential effect modifiers. The third is efficacy research to discover promising practices where we lack proven interventions. Examples include how to detect infants younger than 6 mo who are at high risk of iron deficiency, efficacious and safe interventions for those young high-risk infants, and best protocols for the treatment of severe anemia. The fourth includes basic research to elucidate physiological processes and mechanisms underlying the risks and benefits of supplemental iron for children exposed to infectious diseases, especially malaria. Strategic research in all 4 areas will ensure that interventions to control pediatric iron deficiency are integrated into national programs and global initiatives to make pregnancy safer, reduce newborn deaths, and promote child development, health, and survival.

  1. Integrating Research, Theory-Building, Training, and Practice in CBT Group Therapy for Children and Adolescents with anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastum, Mikael

    This presentation will describe how the model developed in Esben Hougaard's Adult CBT Therapy Program at Aarhus University - which integrates research, theory-building, training, and practice - has beenadapted to work with children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and their parents. The res......This presentation will describe how the model developed in Esben Hougaard's Adult CBT Therapy Program at Aarhus University - which integrates research, theory-building, training, and practice - has beenadapted to work with children and adolescents with anxiety disorders and their parents....... The resulting Youth CBT Therapy Program at Aarhus is organized around a short-term, 10-session, evidence-based, manualized, family-based, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group program, called "Cool Kids" for children and "Chilled Adolescents" for adolescents, and derived from Ronald Rapee's work in Australia....... A distinctive aspect of the work of the Youth CBT Therapy Program is their incorporation of a case-study perspective into a series of group designs, including:(a) a randomized treatment vs. waitlist-control efficacy study (n=120); (b) an open, naturalistic effectiveness study of the program in two mental health...

  2. Large proportions of overweight and obese children, as well as their parents, underestimate children's weight status across Europe. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Androutsos, Odysseas; Chinapaw, Mai; Moreno, Luis A; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Singh, Amika; Brug, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Children's weight and height were objectively measured. Parental anthropometric and sociodemographic data were self-reported. Children and their parents were asked to comment on children's weight status based on five-point Likert-type scales, ranging from 'I am much too thin' to 'I am much too fat' (children) and 'My child's weight is way too little' to 'My child's weight is way too much' (parents). These data were combined with children's actual weight status, in order to assess underestimation of children's weight status by children themselves and by their parents, respectively. Chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the aims of the current study. Eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. A school-based survey among 6113 children aged 10-12 years and their parents. In the total sample, 42·9 % of overweight/obese children and 27·6 % of parents of overweight/obese children underestimated their and their children's weight status, respectively. A higher likelihood for this underestimation of weight status by children and their parents was observed in Eastern and Southern compared with Central/Northern countries. Overweight or obese parents (OR=1·81; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·35 and OR=1·78, 95 % CI 1·22, 2·60), parents of boys (OR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·67) and children from overweight/obese (OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·29, 1·98 and OR=1·76; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·41) or unemployed parents (OR=1·53; 95 % CI 1·22, 1·92) were more likely to underestimate children's weight status. Children of overweight or obese parents, those from Eastern and Southern Europe, boys, younger children and

  3. Effects of a Socially Interactive Robot on the Conversational Turns between Parents and Their Young Children with Autism. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the conversational turns between four young children with autism and their mothers were investigated as part of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes where a practitioner facilitated…

  4. Interactive Read-Alouds--An Avenue for Enhancing Children's Language for Thinking and Understanding: A Review of Recent Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing young children's early literacy achievement is a top priority in many countries. There is a considerable body of research demonstrating young children's language development as a critical factor in reading and later academic success. Implementation of high quality literacy instruction has the potential to improve literacy…

  5. Challenging previous conceptions of vegetarianism and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisak, B; Peterson, R D; Tantleff-Dunn, S; Molnar, J M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand upon previous research that has examined the potential association between vegetarianism and disordered eating. Limitations of previous research studies are addressed, including possible low reliability of measures of eating pathology within vegetarian samples, use of only a few dietary restraint measures, and a paucity of research examining potential differences in body image and food choice motives of vegetarians versus nonvegetarians. Two hundred and fifty-six college students completed a number of measures of eating pathology and body image, and a food choice motives questionnaire. Interestingly, no significant differences were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in measures of eating pathology or body image. However, significant differences in food choice motives were found. Implications for both researchers and clinicians are discussed.

  6. A Comparative Study of the Manneristic Behaviour of Blind and Sighted Children. Research Series No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian National Inst. for the Visually Handicapped, Dehra Dun.

    Examination of the manneristic behavior (stereotyped or repetitive movement) of 542 blind and 365 sighted children was undertaken. Seventeen types of manneristic behavior were investigated, including head movement, eye poking and rubbing, body rocking, kicking, and posture distortion. Comparison of the behaviors observed in sighted and blind Ss…

  7. Thought-Experiments about Gravity in the History of Science and in Research into Children's Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blown, E. J.; Bryce, T. G. K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the main strands of thinking about gravity through the ages and the continuity of thought-experiments, from the early Greeks, through medieval times, to Galileo, Newton and Einstein. The key ideas are used to contextualise an empirical study of 247 children's ideas about falling objects carried out in China and New Zealand,…

  8. A three dimensional children head database for acoustical research and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Most computational-acoustic work within spatial hearing relies on head-related transfer functions from databases of measurements taken on adult humans or dummy heads. We aim to provide a set of 3D digital heads including children, from which head-related transfer functions can be computed instead...

  9. Intersecting Inequalities: Research to Reduce Inequality for Immigrant-Origin Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Tseng, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    As immigration has reached historic numbers in the United States, immigrant children have become an integral part of the national tapestry. While immigration has grown across all post-industrial nations, inequality has risen at a steep rate on a variety of indicators, including income distribution, child poverty, residential segregation, and…

  10. Expressive Vocabulary in Young Children with Down Syndrome: From Research to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Libby; Councill, Cheryl; Goodman, Mina

    1999-01-01

    Expressive vocabulary was studied in 130 children (ages 1 to 5 years) with Down syndrome. Although there was continuous growth in expressive referential vocabulary from birth through 5 years, age 5 was found to be an important developmental marker for multiword combinations and grammatical vocabulary. (Author/CR)

  11. Health-Promoting Changes with Children as Agents: Findings from a Multiple Case Study Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovska, Venka; Carlsson, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the aim of contributing to the evidence base on school-based health promotion, the authors discuss the outcomes and processes of a European intervention project aiming to prevent obesity among children (4-16 years) and promote their health and well-being, titled "Shape Up: a school-community approach to influencing determinants…

  12. Using Parents and Teachers to Monitor Progress among Children with ASD: A Review of Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Sara E.; Nasamran, Amy; Parikh, Purvi J.; Schmitt, Heather A.; Clinton, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing knowledge of the effectiveness of various interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it is never clear whether a particular intervention will be effective for a specific child with ASD. Careful monitoring of an individual child's progress is necessary to know whether an intervention is effective. In this…

  13. Maternal Employment and Children's Achievement in Context: A Meta-Analysis of Four Decades of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Wendy A.; Prause, JoAnn; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel; Himsel, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 68 studies (770 effect sizes) used random effects models to examine whether children's achievement differed depending on whether their mothers were employed. Four achievement outcomes were emphasized: formal tests of achievement and intellectual functioning, grades, and teacher ratings of cognitive competence. When all…

  14. Promoting At-Risk Preschool Children's Comprehension through Research-Based Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea; Squibb, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Young children living in poor urban neighborhoods are often at risk for reading difficulties, in part because developing listening comprehension strategies and vocabulary knowledge may not be a priority in their prekindergarten classrooms, whose curriculums typically focus heavily on phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge. Prereading…

  15. Learning from Children: Mathematics from a Classroom Perspective. ACER Research Monograph No. 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Brian; Lokan, Jan

    This volume has been assembled to show what can be learned about learning from large groups of children's responses to well-constructed assessment questions. The wide range of information gathered through the Basic Skills Testing Program (BSTP) has been divided into chapters that focus either on key aspects of mathematics or the major concerns of…

  16. Toxic stress and protective factors in multi-ethnic school age children: A research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Eileen M; Sadler, Lois S; Mayes, Linda C

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to stressful environments in early childhood can cause a toxic stress response and lead to poor health outcomes, including obesity, cardiac disease, diabetes, and mental illness. In animals and maltreated children, the presence of a nurturing caregiver can buffer against the physiological disruptions associated with a toxic stress response; however, the specific caregiver and parenting characteristics that best promote a protective relationship in humans remain largely unexplored, particularly in families living in high-risk environments. In this study, framed in an ecobiodevelopmental (EBD) model, a cross-sectional design is being used to study 54 multi-ethnic, urban maternal-child dyads with children at early school age (4-9 years). Mothers' past experiences, mental health, and caregiving patterns and children's hair cortisol, C-reactive protein, pro-inflammatory cytokines, blood pressure, BMI, behavior, and school performance are being analyzed to identify maternal characteristics that may protect against children's toxic stress response in families at high risk for exposure to stressors such as poverty, trauma, or exposure to violence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Children of Color and Parental Incarceration: Implications for Research, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James A.; Harris, Yvette R.

    2013-01-01

    Practical information about culturally appropriate interventions with children of incarcerated parents (CIPs) of color and their families is notably sparse. This study uses a cultural-ecological perspective to contextualize individual, family, and legal issues inherent in many intervention programs for CIPs of color. The authors highlight…

  18. History of rotavirus research in children in Malawi: the pursuit of a killer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major health problem among Malawian children. Studies spanning 20 years have described the importance, epidemiology and viral characteristics of rotavirus infections in the country. Despite a wide diversity of circulating rotavirus strains causing severe disease in young infants, a clinical trial ...

  19. The Importance of Communication Skills in Young Children. Research Brief. Summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooden, Caroline; Kearns, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    Learning communication is one of the major developmental tasks in early childhood. Few tasks in early childhood are as important for children as being able to communicate with the people in their world to have their needs met. This also includes gaining skills to understand and express thoughts, feelings and information. Understanding…

  20. Egocentrism in Children: Its Generality and Correlates. Head Start Evaluation and Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantz, Carolyn U.

    The construct of egocentrism within Piaget's theory of intellectual development was evaluated as to its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity within the concrete-operational stage. A total of eighty Negro children drawn from grades one through four in low and middle socioeconomic level schools, were tested individually on a total of…

  1. Involving Children with ADHD and Their Parents in Research in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Mohaned

    2014-01-01

    ADHD is the term that has been afforded to those children who seem to have problems in the areas of Attention and Hyperactivity. This paper offers a number of different considerations surrounding the formation and development of the socio-political context of studies in the Educational domain. This paper also centres on local, national,…

  2. Urban children and nature: a summary of research on camping and outdoor education

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R., Jr. Burch

    1977-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of an extensive bibliographic search that identified studies or urban children in camp and outdoor education programs. These studies were systematically abstracted and classified qualitative or quantitative. Twenty-five percent of the abstracted studies were quantitative. The major findings, techniques of study, and policy...

  3. Problems and challenges in care for children undergoing radiotherapy- A research paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucheusi, L.

    2006-01-01

    for children undergoing radiotherapy and their parents, a paediatric radiographer may be one welcome solution to relieve the anxiety and stress during this difficult time in their lives. given the various factors, no one solution can be deemed ultimate in dealing with this complex situation. thus further efforts are needed to bring about workable solutions to this problem depending on the circumstances and situation

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-03-30

    Mar 30, 2016 ... 1School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2Aga Khan .... “Focus on Opportunity, Ability and Motivation” (FOAM) framework ... children (-28%), before eating (-4%), and after attending to a child.

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-07-28

    Jul 28, 2011 ... We describe the epidemiology of this atopic condition among school children in Tunisia. ... diagnosis of AD was based on the U.K. Working Party diagnostic criteria. .... U.K., northern Europe, Australia, Japan and Hong Kong.

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-19

    May 19, 2014 ... ... Of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Legon, Ghana, 2Ghana Health Service, Ministry of Health, Ghana, 3Department of ..... children have to be educated on personal hygiene of simply washing ... Malaysia:.

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Methods: In this study, we used a qualitative multiple case study design ... For example, immunization should be taken when the child gets sick and a .... unimmunized children across the different regions had the opinion.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Prevalence and risk factors for Active Convulsive Epilepsy in Kintampo, ... In children aged <18 years, risk factors for ACE were: family history of seizures .... manned by psychiatric nurses, is however, in the Kintampo North.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition [1] ... Adherence refers to how patient treatment related behaviors .... Of the 24 children on combination therapy only ..... Epilepsy & Behavior.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-10

    May 10, 2014 ... Key words: Computerized Tomographic Scan, chronic rhinosinusitis, nasal discharge, nasal .... evaluated using bone window (window width 2,000 Hounsfield units ..... paranasal sinuses and chronic sinusitis in children.

  11. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  12. Mediastinal involvement in lymphangiomatosis: a previously unreported MRI sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikas; Shah, Sachit; Barnacle, Alex; McHugh, Kieran [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Brock, Penelope [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Harper, John I. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Department of Dermatology, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare systemic disorder affecting children. Due to its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical, histological and imaging features, establishing the diagnosis of multifocal lymphangiomatosis can be challenging. The purpose of this study was to describe a new imaging sign in this disorder: paraspinal soft tissue and signal abnormality at MRI. We retrospectively reviewed the imaging, clinical and histopathological findings in a cohort of eight children with thoracic involvement from this condition. Evidence of paraspinal chest disease was identified at MRI and CT in all eight of these children. The changes comprise heterogeneous intermediate-to-high signal parallel to the thoracic vertebrae on T2-weighted sequences at MRI, with abnormal paraspinal soft tissue at CT and plain radiography. Multifocal lymphangiomatosis is a rare disorder with a broad range of clinicopathological and imaging features. MRI allows complete evaluation of disease extent without the use of ionising radiation and has allowed us to describe a previously unreported imaging sign in this disorder, namely, heterogeneous hyperintense signal in abnormal paraspinal tissue on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  13. Factors that influence children?s gambling attitudes and consumption intentions: lessons for gambling harm prevention research, policies and advocacy strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt, Hannah; Thomas, Samantha L.; Bestman, Amy; Daube, Mike; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Background Harmful gambling is a public health issue that affects not only adults but also children. With the development of a range of new gambling products, and the marketing for these products, children are potentially exposed to gambling more than ever before. While there have been many calls to develop strategies which protect children from harmful gambling products, very little is known about the factors that may influence children?s attitudes towards these products. This study aimed to...

  14. Review of Occupational Therapy Intervention Research in the Practice Area of Children and Youth 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Huang, Yu Yun; Lim, Yoonjeong

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. We conducted a systematic review examining the extent to which pediatric intervention research recently published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy reflects occupational therapy’s holistic occupation-based tenets. METHOD. We surveyed 10 systematic reviews and analyzed 38 single effectiveness studies for intervention approach, type, level of environmental targeting, level of occupational task and participation practice, and measures used. RESULTS. Of the 38 single effectiveness studies, 12 (32%) explicitly incorporated both environmental targets of intervention and practice of complex or in vivo occupational tasks, with steady increases during the 2009–2013 time frame. CONCLUSION. In the area of children and youth, occupational therapy is making steady gains in reflecting and demonstrating the effectiveness of the profession’s holistic, occupation-based tenets. Occupational therapy researchers must be mindful to ensure that despite the reductionist nature of intervention research, interventions reflect the profession’s holistic understanding of the interplay between the child, environment, and occupations. PMID:24581415

  15. New Clinical and Research Trends in Lower Extremity Management for Ambulatory Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Diane L.; Alter, Katharine E.; Chambers, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Cerebral palsy is the most prevalent physical disability in childhood and includes a group of disorders with varying manifestations and levels of capability in individuals given this diagnosis. This chapter will focus on current and future intervention strategies for improving mobility and participation over the lifespan for ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The provision and integration of physical therapy, medical and orthopedic surgery management focused primarily on the lower extremities will be discussed here. Some of the newer trends are: more intense and task-related exercise strategies, greater precision in tone identification and management, and a shift towards musculoskeletal surgery that focuses more on promoting dynamic bony alignment and less on releasing or lengthening tendons. Advances in basic and clinical science and technology development are changing existing paradigms and offering renewed hope for improved functioning for children with CP who are currently facing a lifelong disability with unique challenges at each stage in life. PMID:19643348

  16. Gross motor skill performance in children with and without visual impairments--research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias O; Haibach, Pamela S; Lieberman, Lauren J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an empirical basis for teaching gross motor skills in children with visual impairments. For this purpose, gross motor skill performance of 23, 6-12 year old, boys and girls who are blind (ICD-10 H54.0) and 28 sighted controls with comparable age and gender characteristics was compared on six locomotor and six object control tasks using the Test of Gross Motor Development-Second Edition. Results indicate that children who are blind perform significantly (pskills, whereby running, leaping, kicking and catching are the most affected skills, and corresponding differences are related to most running, leaping, kicking and catching component. Practical implications are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Joint NIH-ABCC life span study of children born to atomic bomb survivors research plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W J

    1961-02-21

    It is the purpose of this project to undertake comparative studies on the mortality rate of the children of heavily exposed parents and suitable control groups. Details of the program plan are presented. They include the sampling plan which entails: criteria for sampling; method of sample preparation; method of collecting data; and methods of analysis. Organization of study and administrative considerations is also included. 5 references, 4 tables. (DMC)

  18. Family Literacy and Second Language Literacy Research: Focus on Language Minority Children

    OpenAIRE

    Yılıdırım, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Countries like the U. S. A. or Canada have citizens from various ethnic backgrounds. Although English is the dominant language in many parts of these countries, immigrants generally prefer speaking their native language when they are in their homes. Whatever the reason for using native language at home is, when we consider the children in these families, we can say that being exposed to different languages at home and at school may be a problem for their language developmen...

  19. An exploration of factors that influence the regular consumption of water by Irish primary school children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston

    2008-10-01

    Inadequate hydration has been linked to many factors that may impact on children\\'s education and health. Teachers play an important role in the education and behaviour of children. Previous research has demonstrated low water intake amongst children and negative teachers\\' attitudes to water in the classroom. The present study aimed to explore teachers\\' knowledge about water and the perceived barriers to allowing children access to water during lesson time.

  20. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, M.; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, S.; Riess, K.; Martos, F.; Krause, C.; Oberwinkler, F.; Bauer, R.; Redecker, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2011), s. 1-7 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Sebacinales * endophytes * mycorrhiza Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011