Sample records for previous numerical models

  1. Numerical models

    Unnikrishnan, A; Manoj, N.T.

    Various numerical models used to study the dynamics and horizontal distribution of salinity in Mandovi-Zuari estuaries, Goa, India is discussed in this chapter. Earlier, a one-dimensional network model was developed for representing the complex...

  2. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...

  3. Numerical experiments modelling turbulent flows

    Trefilík Jiří


    Full Text Available The work aims at investigation of the possibilities of modelling transonic flows mainly in external aerodynamics. New results are presented and compared with reference data and previously achieved results. For the turbulent flow simulations two modifications of the basic k – ω model are employed: SST and TNT. The numerical solution was achieved by using the MacCormack scheme on structured non-ortogonal grids. Artificial dissipation was added to improve the numerical stability.

  4. Numerical transducer modelling

    Cutanda, Vicente


    Numerical modelling is of importance for the design, improvement and study of acoustic transducers such as microphones and accelerometers. Techniques like the boundary element method and the finite element method are the most common supplement to the traditional empirical and analytical approaches...... errors and instabilities in the computations of numerical solutions. An investigation to deal with this narrow-gap problem has been carried out....

  5. Numerical Transducer Modeling

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda

    This thesis describes the development of a numerical model of the propagation of sound waves in fluids with viscous and thermal losses, with application to the simulation of acoustic transducers, in particular condenser microphones for measurement. The theoretical basis is presented, numerical...... tools and implementation techniques are described and performance tests are carried out. The equations that govern the motion of fluids with losses and the corresponding boundary conditions are reduced to a form that is tractable for the Boundary Element Method (BEM) by adopting some hypotheses...... that are allowable in this case: linear variations, absence of flow, harmonic time variation, thermodynamical equilibrium and physical dimensions much larger than the molecular mean free path. A formulation of the BEM is also developed with an improvement designed to cope with the numerical difficulty associated...

  6. Numerical models for differential problems

    Quarteroni, Alfio


    In this text, we introduce the basic concepts for the numerical modelling of partial differential equations. We consider the classical elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic linear equations, but also the diffusion, transport, and Navier-Stokes equations, as well as equations representing conservation laws, saddle-point problems and optimal control problems. Furthermore, we provide numerous physical examples which underline such equations. We then analyze numerical solution methods based on finite elements, finite differences, finite volumes, spectral methods and domain decomposition methods, and reduced basis methods. In particular, we discuss the algorithmic and computer implementation aspects and provide a number of easy-to-use programs. The text does not require any previous advanced mathematical knowledge of partial differential equations: the absolutely essential concepts are reported in a preliminary chapter. It is therefore suitable for students of bachelor and master courses in scientific disciplines, an...

  7. Numerical model SMODERP

    Kavka, P.; Jeřábek, J.; Strouhal, L.


    The contribution presents a numerical model SMODERP that is used for calculation and prediction of surface runoff and soil erosion from agricultural land. The physically based model includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff routing (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D version of the model was introduced in last years. The script uses ArcGIS system tools for data preparation. The physical relations are implemented through Python scripts. The main computing part is stand alone in numpy arrays. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm and in multiple flow algorithm. Sheet flow is described by modified kinematic wave equation. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of hundred measurements performed on the laboratory and filed rainfall simulators. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Development of the rills is based on critical shear stress and critical velocity. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Flow in the ditches and streams are also computed. Numerical stability of the model is controled by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamic and depends on the actual discharge. The model is used in the framework of the project "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Main goal of the project is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The methodology will account for

  8. Numerical transducer modelling

    Cutanda, Vicente


    Numerical modelling is of importance for the design, improvement and study of acoustic transducers such as microphones and accelerometers. Techniques like the boundary element method and the finite element method are the most common supplement to the traditional empirical and analytical approaches....... However, there are several difficulties to be addressed that are derived from the size, internal structure and precision requirements that are characteristic of these devices. One of them, the presence of very close surfaces (e.g. the microphone diaphragm and back-electrode), leads to machine precision...

  9. Numerical modeling of economic uncertainty

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans


    Representation and modeling of economic uncertainty is addressed by different modeling methods, namely stochastic variables and probabilities, interval analysis, and fuzzy numbers, in particular triple estimates. Focusing on discounted cash flow analysis numerical results are presented, comparisons...

  10. Numerical Modeling of Shoreline Undulations

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg

    The present thesis considers undulations on sandy shorelines. The aim of the study is to determine the physical mechanisms which govern the morphologic evolution of shoreline undulations, and thereby to be able to predict their shape, dimensions and evolution in time. In order to do so a numerical...... model has been developed which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines. The numerical model is based on a spectral wave model, a depth integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model. First the theoretical...... length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a shoreline stability analysis based on the numerical model. The analysis shows that the length of the undulations in the linear regime depends on the incoming wave conditions and on the coastal profile. For larger waves...

  11. Numerical modeling of economic uncertainty

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans


    Representation and modeling of economic uncertainty is addressed by different modeling methods, namely stochastic variables and probabilities, interval analysis, and fuzzy numbers, in particular triple estimates. Focusing on discounted cash flow analysis numerical results are presented, comparisons...... are made between alternative modeling methods, and characteristics of the methods are discussed....

  12. Numerical modeling of advanced materials

    Meinders, T.; Perdahcioglu, E.S.; Riel, van M.; Wisselink, H.H.


    The finite element (FE) method is widely used to numerically simulate forming processes. The accuracy of an FE analysis strongly depends on the extent to which a material model can represent the real material behavior. The use of new materials requires complex material models which are able to descr

  13. Numerical Modelling of Scramjet Combustor

    M. Deepu


    Full Text Available Numerical modelling of turbulent-reacting flow field of supersonic combustion ramjet(scramjet combustors are presented. The developed numerical procedure is based on the implicittreatment of chemical source terms by preconditioning and solved along with unstedy turbulentNavier-Stokes equations explicitly. Reaction is modelled using an eight-step hydrogen-airchemistry. Code is validated against a standard wall jet experimental data and is successfullyused to model the turbulent-reacting flow field resulting due to the combustion of hydrogeninjected from diamond-shaped strut and also in the wake region of wedge-shaped strut placedin the heated supersonic airstream. The analysis could demonstrate the effect of interaction ofoblique shock wave with a supersonic stream of hydrogen  in its (fuel-air mixing and reactionfor strut-based scramjet combustors.

  14. Numerical Models of Sgr A*

    Moscibrodzka, M; Dolence, J; Shiokawa, H; Leung, P K


    We review results from general relativistic axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations of accretion in Sgr A*. We use general relativistic radiative transfer methods and to produce a broad band (from millimeter to gamma-rays) spectrum. Using a ray tracing scheme we also model images of Sgr A* and compare the size of image to the VLBI observations at 230 GHz. We perform a parameter survey and study radiative properties of the flow models for various black hole spins, ion to electron temperature ratios, and inclinations. We scale our models to reconstruct the flux and the spectral slope around 230 GHz. The combination of Monte Carlo spectral energy distribution calculations and 230 GHz image modeling constrains the parameter space of the numerical models. Our models suggest rather high black hole spin ($a_*\\approx 0.9$), electron temperatures close to the ion temperature ($T_i/T_e \\sim 3$) and high inclination angles ($i \\approx 90 \\deg$).

  15. Numerical modelling of rapid solidification

    Pryds, Nini; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    A mathematical model of the melt spinning process has been developed based on the control-volume finite-difference method. The model avoids some of the limitations of the previous models, for example including the effect of the wheel in the heat how calculations and the temperature dependence...... of the thermophysical parameters of the material. The nucleation temperature was calculated based on the heterogeneous nucleation theory. The effect of various parameters, such as the heat transfer coefficient, the nucleation temperature and the heating and type of the wheel on the rapid solidification behaviour...

  16. Numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling

    Yagi, M.


    The dynamics of burning plasma is very complicated physics, which is dominated by multi-scale and multi-physics phenomena. To understand such phenomena, numerical simulations are indispensable. Fundamentals of numerical methods used in fusion science numerical modeling are briefly discussed in this paper. In addition, the parallelization technique such as open multi processing (OpenMP) and message passing interface (MPI) parallel programing are introduced and the loop-level parallelization is shown as an example.

  17. Numerical models of complex diapirs

    Podladchikov, Yu.; Talbot, C.; Poliakov, A. N. B.


    Numerically modelled diapirs that rise into overburdens with viscous rheology produce a large variety of shapes. This work uses the finite-element method to study the development of diapirs that rise towards a surface on which a diapir-induced topography creeps flat or disperses ("erodes") at different rates. Slow erosion leads to diapirs with "mushroom" shapes, moderate erosion rate to "wine glass" diapirs and fast erosion to "beer glass"- and "column"-shaped diapirs. The introduction of a low-viscosity layer at the top of the overburden causes diapirs to develop into structures resembling a "Napoleon hat". These spread lateral sheets.

  18. Numerical modeling of water waves

    Lin, Pengzhi


    Modelling large-scale wave fields and their interaction with coastal and offshore structures has become much more feasible over the last two decades with increases in computer speeds. Wave modelling can be viewed as an extension of wave theory, a mature and widely published field, applied to practical engineering through the use of computer tools. Information about the various wave models which have been developed is often widely scattered in the literature, and consequently this is one of the first books devoted to wave models and their applications. At the core of the book is an introduction to various types of wave models. For each model, the theoretical assumptions, the application range, and the advantages and limitations are elaborated. The combined use of different wave models from large-scale to local-scale is highlighted with a detailed discussion of the application and matching of boundary conditions. At the same time the book provides a grounding in hydrodynamics, wave theory, and numerical methods...

  19. Numerical Modeling of Microelectrochemical Systems

    Adesokan, Bolaji James

    for the reactants in the bulk electrolyte that are traveling waves. The first paper presents the mathematical model which describes an electrochemical system and simulates an electroanalytical technique called cyclic voltammetry. The model is governed by a system of advection–diffusion equations with a nonlinear...... reaction term at the boundary. We investigate the effect of flow rates, scan rates, and concentration on the cyclic voltammetry. We establish that high flow rates lead to the reduced hysteresis in the cyclic voltammetry curves and increasing scan rates lead to more pronounced current peaks. The final part...... of the paper shows that the response current in a cyclic voltammetry increases proportionally to the electrolyte concentration. In the second paper we present an experiment of an electrochemical system in a microfluidc system and compare the result to the numerical solutions. We investigate how the position...

  20. A numerical model for durotaxis.

    Stefanoni, Filippo; Ventre, Maurizio; Mollica, Francesco; Netti, Paolo A


    Cell migration is a phenomenon that is involved in several physiological processes. In the absence of external guiding factors it shares analogies with Brownian motion. The presence of biochemical or biophysical cues, on the other hand, can influence cell migration transforming it in a biased random movement. Recent studies have shown that different cell types are able to recognise the mechanical properties of the substratum over which they move and that these properties direct the motion through a process called durotaxis. In this work a 2D mathematical model for the description of this phenomenon is presented. The model is based on the Langevin equation that has been modified to take into account the local mechanical properties of the substratum perceived by the cells. Numerical simulations of the model provide individual cell tracks, whose characteristics can be compared with experimental observations directly. The present model is solved for two important cases: an isotropic substratum, to check that random motility is recovered as a subcase, and a biphasic substratum, to investigate durotaxis. The degree of agreement is satisfactory in both cases. The model can be a useful tool for quantifying relevant parameters of cell migration as a function of the substratum mechanical properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Bergstroem, C.


    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  2. Numerical Modeling of Nanoelectronic Devices

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Bowen, R. Chris; Boykin, Timothy


    Nanoelectronic Modeling 3-D (NEMO 3-D) is a computer program for numerical modeling of the electronic structure properties of a semiconductor device that is embodied in a crystal containing as many as 16 million atoms in an arbitrary configuration and that has overall dimensions of the order of tens of nanometers. The underlying mathematical model represents the quantummechanical behavior of the device resolved to the atomistic level of granularity. The system of electrons in the device is represented by a sparse Hamiltonian matrix that contains hundreds of millions of terms. NEMO 3-D solves the matrix equation on a Beowulf-class cluster computer, by use of a parallel-processing matrix vector multiplication algorithm coupled to a Lanczos and/or Rayleigh-Ritz algorithm that solves for eigenvalues. In a recent update of NEMO 3-D, a new strain treatment, parameterized for bulk material properties of GaAs and InAs, was developed for two tight-binding submodels. The utility of the NEMO 3-D was demonstrated in an atomistic analysis of the effects of disorder in alloys and, in particular, in bulk In(x)Ga(l-x)As and in In0.6Ga0.4As quantum dots.

  3. Numerical model of compressible gas flow in soil pollution control


    Based on the theory of fluid dynamics in porous media, a numerical model of gas flow in unsaturated zone is developed with the consideration of gas density change due to variation of air pressure. This model is characterized of its wider range of availability. The accuracy of this numerical model is analyzed through comparison with modeling results by previous model with presumption of little pressure variation and the validity of this numerical model is shown. Thus it provides basis for the designing and management of landfill gas control system or soil vapor ex.action system in soil pollution control.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Supercavitating Flows


    scheme was designed in accordance with the numerical stability analysis of Vada and Nakos (1993). A key result of that analysis was the demonstration...Carderock Division, Carderock, MD. Vada, T., and D.E. Nakos (1993) "Time-Marching Schemes for Ship Motion Simulations," 8 th Int’l Workshop on Water Waves

  5. Numerical modelling approach for mine backfill



    Numerical modelling is broadly used for assessing complex scenarios in underground mines, including mining sequence and blast-induced vibrations from production blasting. Sublevel stoping mining methods with delayed backfill are extensively used to exploit steeply dipping ore bodies by Canadian hard-rockmetal mines. Mine backfill is an important constituent of mining process. Numerical modelling of mine backfill material needs special attention as the numerical model must behave realistically and in accordance with the site conditions. This paper discusses a numerical modelling strategy for modelling mine backfill material. Themodelling strategy is studied using a case study mine from Canadian mining industry. In the end, results of numerical model parametric study are shown and discussed.

  6. Verification of A Numerical Harbour Wave Model


    A numerical model for wave propagation in a harbour is verified by use of physical models. The extended time-dependent mild slope equation is employed as the governing equation, and the model is solved by use of ADI method containing the relaxation factor. Firstly, the reflection coefficient of waves in front of rubble-mound breakwaters under oblique incident waves is determined through physical model tests, and it is regarded as the basis for simulating partial reflection boundaries of the numerical model. Then model tests on refraction, diffraction and reflection of waves in a harbour are performed to measure wave height distribution. Comparative results between physical and numerical model tests show that the present numerical model can satisfactorily simulate the propagation of regular and irregular waves in a harbour with complex topography and boundary conditions.

  7. Numerical modelling of elastic space tethers

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Palmer, P. L.; Roberts, R. M.


    In this paper the importance of the ill-posedness of the classical, non-dissipative massive tether model on an orbiting tether system is studied numerically. The computations document that via the regularisation of bending resistance a more reliable numerical integrator can be produced. Furthermore......, the numerical experiments of an orbiting tether system show that bending may introduce significant forces in some regions of phase space. Finally, numerical evidence for the existence of an almost invariant slow manifold of the singularly perturbed, regularised, non-dissipative massive tether model is provided...

  8. Numerical Modeling of Glaciers in Martian Paleoclimates

    Colaprete, A.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.; Scheaffer, J.


    Numerous geologic features suggest the presence of ice flow on the surface of mars. These features include lobate debris aprons, concentric crater fill, and lineated valley fill. The lateral extent of these features can range from 100 meters to over 20 km. Previous work has demonstrated that these features could not have formed in current Martian conditions. It has long been speculated that changes in Mars orbital properties, namely its obliquity, eccentricity, and argument of perihelion, can result in dramatic changes to climate. Recent climate model studies have shown that at periods of increased obliquity north polar water ice is mobilized southward and deposited at low ad mid latitudes. Mid latitude accumulation of ice would provide the necessary conditions for rock glaciers to form. A time-marching, finite element glacier model is used to demonstrate the ability of ice and ice-rock mixtures to flow under Martian paleoclimate conditions. Input to this model is constrained by the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM).

  9. Survey of numerical electrostimulation models

    Reilly, J. Patrick


    This paper evaluates results of a survey of electrostimulation models of myelinated nerve. Participants were asked to determine thresholds of excitation for 18 cases involving different characteristics of the neuron, the stimulation waveform, and the electrode arrangement. Responses were received from 7 investigators using 10 models. Excitation thresholds differed significantly among these models. For example, with a 2 ms monophasic stimulus pulse and an electrode/fiber distance of 1 cm, thresholds from the least to greatest value differed by a factor of 8.3; with a 5 μs pulse, thresholds differed by the factor 3.8. Significant differences in reported simulations point to the need for experimental validation. Additional efforts are needed to develop computational models for unmyelinated C-fibers, A-delta fibers, CNS neurons, and CNS Synapses.

  10. Numerical tsunami modeling and the bottom relief

    Kulikov, E. A.; Gusiakov, V. K.; Ivanova, A. A.; Baranov, B. V.


    The effect of the quality of bathymetric data on the accuracy of tsunami-wave field calculation is considered. A review of the history of the numerical tsunami modeling development is presented. Particular emphasis is made on the World Ocean bottom models. It is shown that the modern digital bathymetry maps, for example, GEBCO, do not adequately simulate the sea bottom in numerical models of wave propagation, leading to considerable errors in estimating the maximum tsunami run-ups on the coast.

  11. Preliminary 2D numerical modeling of common granular problems

    Wyser, Emmanuel; Jaboyedoff, Michel


    Granular studies received an increasing interest during the last decade. Many scientific investigations were successfully addressed to acknowledge the ubiquitous behavior of granular matter. We investigate liquid impacts onto granular beds, i.e. the influence of the packing and compaction-dilation transition. However, a physically-based model is still lacking to address complex microscopic features of granular bed response during liquid impacts such as compaction-dilation transition or granular bed uplifts (Wyser et al. in review). We present our preliminary 2D numerical modeling based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) using nonlinear contact force law (the Hertz-Mindlin model) for disk shape particles. The algorithm is written in C programming language. Our 2D model provides an analytical tool to address granular problems such as i) granular collapses and ii) static granular assembliy problems. This provides a validation framework of our numerical approach by comparing our numerical results with previous laboratory experiments or numerical works. Inspired by the work of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005), we studied i) the axisymetric collapse of granular columns. We addressed the scaling between the initial aspect ratio and the final runout distance. Our numerical results are in good aggreement with the previous studies of Warnett et al. (2014) and Staron & Hinch (2005). ii) Reproducing static problems for regular and randomly stacked particles provides a valid comparison to results of Egholm (2007). Vertical and horizontal stresses within the assembly are quite identical to stresses obtained by Egholm (2007), thus demonstating the consistency of our 2D numerical model. Our 2D numerical model is able to reproduce common granular case studies such as granular collapses or static problems. However, a sufficient small timestep should be used to ensure a good numerical consistency, resulting in higher computational time. The latter becomes critical

  12. Mathematical and Numerical Modeling in Maritime Geomechanics

    Miguel Martín Stickle


    Full Text Available A theoretical and numerical framework to model the foundation of marine offshore structures is presented. The theoretical model is composed by a system of partial differential equations describing coupling between seabed solid skeleton and pore fluids (water, air, oil,... combined with a system of ordinary differential equations describing the specific constitutive relation of the seabed soil skeleton. Once the theoretical model is described, the finite element numerical procedure to achieve an approximate solution of the overning equations is outlined. In order to validate the proposed theoretical and numerical framework the seaward tilt mechanism induced by the action of breaking waves over a vertical breakwater is numerically reproduced. The results numerically attained are in agreement with the main conclusions drawn from the literature associated with this failure mechanism.

  13. Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames

    Han, Jie


    This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Numerical Modelling of Jets and Plumes

    Larsen, Torben


    An overview on numerical models for prediction of the flow and mixing processes in turbulent jets and plumes is given. The overview is structured to follow an increasing complexity in the physical and numerical principles. The various types of models are briefly mentioned, from the one-dimensiona......An overview on numerical models for prediction of the flow and mixing processes in turbulent jets and plumes is given. The overview is structured to follow an increasing complexity in the physical and numerical principles. The various types of models are briefly mentioned, from the one......-dimensional integral method to the general 3-dimensional solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Also the predictive capabilities of the models are discussed. The presentation takes the perspective of civil engineering and covers issues like sewage outfalls and cooling water discharges to the sea....

  15. A numerical reference model for themomechanical subduction

    Quinquis, Matthieu; Chemia, Zurab; Tosi, Nicola;


    Building an advanced numerical model of subduction requires choosing values for various geometrical parameters and material properties, among others, the initial lithosphere thicknesses, representative lithological types and their mechanical and thermal properties, rheologies, initial temperature...

  16. Numerical modeling of microwave heating

    Shukla A.K.


    Full Text Available The present study compares the temperature distribution within cylindrical samples heated in microwave furnace with those achieved in radiatively-heated (conventional furnace. Using a two-dimensional finite difference approach the thermal profiles were simulated for cylinders of varying radii (0.65, 6.5, and 65 cm and physical properties. The influence of susceptor-assisted microwave heating was also modeled for the same. The simulation results reveal differences in the heating behavior of samples in microwaves. The efficacy of microwave heating depends on the sample size and its thermal conductivity.

  17. Numerical modeling of volcanic arc development

    Gerya, T.; Gorczyk, W.; Nikolaeva, K.


    We have created a new coupled geochemical-petrological-thermomechanical numerical model of subduction associated with volcanic arc development. The model includes spontaneous slab bending, subducted crust dehydration, aqueous fluid transport, mantle wedge melting and melt extraction resulting in crustal growth. Two major volcanic arc settings are modeled so far: active continental margins, and intraoceanic subduction. In case of Pacific-type continental margin two fundamentally different regimes of melt productivity are observed in numerical experiments which are in line with natural observations: (1) During continuous convergence with coupled plates highest amounts of melts are formed immediately after the initiation of subduction and then decrease rapidly with time due to the steepening of the slab inclination angle precluding formation of partially molten mantle wedge plumes; (2) During subduction associated with slab delamination and trench retreat resulting in the formation of a pronounced back arc basin with a spreading center in the middle melt production increases with time due to shallowing/stabilization of slab inclination associated with upward asthenospheric mantle flow toward the extension region facilitating propagation of hydrous partially molten plumes from the slab. In case of spontaneous nucleation of retreating oceanic subduction two scenarios of tecono-magmatic evolution are distinguished: (1) decay and, ultimately, the cessation of subduction and related magmatic activity, (2) increase in subduction rate (to up to ~12 cm/yr) and stabilization of subduction and magmatic arc growth. In the first case the duration of subduction correlates positively with the intensity of melt extraction: the period of continued subduction increases from 15,4 Myrs to 47,6 Myrs with the increase of melt extraction threshold from 1% to 9%. In scenario (1) the magmatic arc crust includes large amounts of rocks formed by melting of subducted crust atop the thermally

  18. Wave Numerical Model for Shallow Water

    徐福敏; 严以新; 张长宽; 宋志尧; 茅丽华


    The history of forecasting wind waves by wave energy conservation equation is briefly described. Several currently used wave numerical models for shallow water based on different wave theories are discussed. Wave energy conservation models for the simulation of shallow water waves are introduced,with emphasis placed on the SWAN model, which takes use of the most advanced wave research achievements and has been applied to several theoretical and field conditions. The characteristics and applicability of the model, the finite difference numerical scheme of the action balance equation and its source terms computing methods are described in detail. The model has been verified with the propagation refraction numerical experiments for waves propagating in following and opposing currents; finally, the model is applied to the Haian Gulf area to simulate the wave height and wave period field there, and the results are compared with observed data.

  19. Mode analysis of numerical geodynamo models

    Schrinner, Martin; Hoyng, Peter


    It has been suggested in Hoyng (2009) that dynamo action can be analysed by expansion of the magnetic field into dynamo modes and statistical evaluation of the mode coefficients. We here validate this method by analysing a numerical geodynamo model and comparing the numerically derived mean mode coefficients with the theoretical predictions. The model belongs to the class of kinematically stable dynamos with a dominating axisymmetric, antisymmetric with respect to the equator and non-periodic fundamental dynamo mode. The analysis requires a number of steps: the computation of the so-called dynamo coefficients, the derivation of the temporally and azimuthally averaged dynamo eigenmodes and the decomposition of the magnetic field of the numerical geodynamo model into the eigenmodes. For the determination of the theoretical mode excitation levels the turbulent velocity field needs to be projected on the dynamo eigenmodes. We compare the theoretically and numerically derived mean mode coefficients and find reason...

  20. Extracting scaling laws from numerical dynamo models

    Stelzer, Z


    Earth's magnetic field is generated by processes in the electrically conducting, liquid outer core, subsumed under the term `geodynamo'. In the last decades, great effort has been put into the numerical simulation of core dynamics following from the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. However, the numerical simulations are far from Earth's core in terms of several control parameters. Different scaling analyses found simple scaling laws for quantities like heat transport, flow velocity, magnetic field strength and magnetic dissipation time. We use an extensive dataset of 116 numerical dynamo models compiled by Christensen and co-workers to analyse these scalings from a rigorous model selection point of view. Our method of choice is leave-one-out cross-validation which rates models according to their predictive abilities. In contrast to earlier results, we find that diffusive processes are not negligible for the flow velocity and magnetic field strength in the numerical dynamos. Also the scaling of the magneti...

  1. Numerical modeling of polar mesocyclones generation mechanisms

    Sergeev, Dennis; Stepanenko, Victor


    Polar mesocyclones, commonly referred to as polar lows, remain of great interest due to their complicated dynamics. These mesoscale vortices are small short-living objects that are formed over the observation-sparse high-latitude oceans, and therefore, their evolution can hardly be observed and predicted numerically. The origin of polar mesoscale cyclones is still a matter of uncertainty, though the recent numerical investigations [3] have exposed a strong dependence of the polar mesocyclone development upon the magnitude of baroclinicity. Nevertheless, most of the previous studies focused on the individual polar low (the so-called case studies), with too many factors affecting it simultaneously. None of the earlier studies suggested a clear picture of polar mesocyclone generation within an idealized experiment, where it is possible to look deeper into each single physical process. The present paper concentrates on the initial triggering mechanism of the polar mesocyclone. As it is reported by many researchers, some mesocyclones are formed by the surface forcing, namely the uneven distribution of heat fluxes. That feature is common on the ice boundaries [2], where intense air stream flows from the cold ice surface to the warm sea surface. Hence, the resulting conditions are shallow baroclinicity and strong surface heat fluxes, which provide an arising polar mesocyclone with potential energy source converting it to the kinetic energy of the vortex. It is shown in this paper that different surface characteristics, including thermal parameters and, for example, the shape of an ice edge, determine an initial phase of a polar low life cycle. Moreover, it is shown what initial atmospheric state is most preferable for the formation of a new polar mesocyclone or in maintaining and reinforcing the existing one. The study is based on idealized high-resolution (~2 km) numerical experiment in which baroclinicity, stratification, initial wind profile and disturbance, surface

  2. Comparing numerically exact and modelled static friction

    Krengel Dominik


    Full Text Available Currently there exists no mechanically consistent “numerically exact” implementation of static and dynamic Coulomb friction for general soft particle simulations with arbitrary contact situations in two or three dimension, but only along one dimension. We outline a differential-algebraic equation approach for a “numerically exact” computation of friction in two dimensions and compare its application to the Cundall-Strack model in some test cases.

  3. Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer

    Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.


    A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.

  4. Numerical methods and modelling for engineering

    Khoury, Richard


    This textbook provides a step-by-step approach to numerical methods in engineering modelling. The authors provide a consistent treatment of the topic, from the ground up, to reinforce for students that numerical methods are a set of mathematical modelling tools which allow engineers to represent real-world systems and compute features of these systems with a predictable error rate. Each method presented addresses a specific type of problem, namely root-finding, optimization, integral, derivative, initial value problem, or boundary value problem, and each one encompasses a set of algorithms to solve the problem given some information and to a known error bound. The authors demonstrate that after developing a proper model and understanding of the engineering situation they are working on, engineers can break down a model into a set of specific mathematical problems, and then implement the appropriate numerical methods to solve these problems. Uses a “building-block” approach, starting with simpler mathemati...

  5. On the Hughes model and numerical aspects

    Gomes, Diogo A.


    We study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [11] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solutions. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two examples.

  6. Numerical 3-D Modelling of Overflows

    Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.;


    The present study uses laboratory experiments to evaluate the reliability of two types of numerical models of sewers systems: - 1-dimensional model based on the extended Saint-Venant equation including the term for curvature of the water surface (the so-called Boussinesq approximation) - 2- and 3...

  7. Advances in numerical modelling of crash dummies

    Verhoeve, R.; Kant, R.; Margerie, L.


    Nowadays virtual testing and prototyping are generally accepted methods in crash safety research and design studies. Validated numerical crash dummy models are necessary tools in these methods. Computer models need to be robust, accurate and CPU efficient, where the balance between accuracy and effi

  8. Advances in numerical modelling of crash dummies

    Verhoeve, R.; Kant, R.; Margerie, L.


    Nowadays virtual testing and prototyping are generally accepted methods in crash safety research and design studies. Validated numerical crash dummy models are necessary tools in these methods. Computer models need to be robust, accurate and CPU efficient, where the balance between accuracy and effi

  9. Amorphous track models: A numerical comparison study

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, L.; Bassler, N.;


    We present an open-source code library for amorphous track modelling which is suppose to faciliate the application and numerical comparability as well as serve as a frame-work for the implementation of new models. We show an example of using the library indicating the choice of submodels has a si...

  10. Numerical FEM modeling in dental implantology

    Roateşi, Iulia; Roateşi, Simona


    This paper is devoted to a numerical approach of the stress and displacement calculation of a system made up of dental implant, ceramic crown and surrounding bone. This is the simulation of a clinical situation involving both biological - the bone tissue, and non-biological - the implant and the crown, materials. On the other hand this problem deals with quite fine technical structure details - the threads, tapers, etc with a great impact in masticatory force transmission. Modeling the contact between the implant and the bone tissue is important to a proper bone-implant interface model and implant design. The authors proposed a three-dimensional numerical model to assess the biomechanical behaviour of this complex structure in order to evaluate its stability by determining the risk zones. A comparison between this numerical analysis and clinical cases is performed and a good agreement is obtained.

  11. Numerical modeling techniques for flood analysis

    Anees, Mohd Talha; Abdullah, K.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Piah, Abd. Rahni Mt.; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Syakir, M. I.; Mohd. Omar, A. K.


    Topographic and climatic changes are the main causes of abrupt flooding in tropical areas. It is the need to find out exact causes and effects of these changes. Numerical modeling techniques plays a vital role for such studies due to their use of hydrological parameters which are strongly linked with topographic changes. In this review, some of the widely used models utilizing hydrological and river modeling parameters and their estimation in data sparse region are discussed. Shortcomings of 1D and 2D numerical models and the possible improvements over these models through 3D modeling are also discussed. It is found that the HEC-RAS and FLO 2D model are best in terms of economical and accurate flood analysis for river and floodplain modeling respectively. Limitations of FLO 2D in floodplain modeling mainly such as floodplain elevation differences and its vertical roughness in grids were found which can be improve through 3D model. Therefore, 3D model was found to be more suitable than 1D and 2D models in terms of vertical accuracy in grid cells. It was also found that 3D models for open channel flows already developed recently but not for floodplain. Hence, it was suggested that a 3D model for floodplain should be developed by considering all hydrological and high resolution topographic parameter's models, discussed in this review, to enhance the findings of causes and effects of flooding.

  12. Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes

    Pryds, Nini; Thorborg, Jesper; Lipinski, Marek;

    Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes comprises a thorough presentation of the basic phenomena that need to be addressed in numerical simulation of casting processes. The main philosophy of the book is to present the topics in view of their physical meaning, whenever possible......, rather than relying strictly on mathematical formalism. The book, aimed both at the researcher and the practicing engineer, as well as the student, is naturally divided into four parts. Part I (Chapters 1-3) introduces the fundamentals of modelling in a 1-dimensional framework. Part II (Chapter 4...

  13. Numerical Modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas

    Giannakis, Iraklis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Pajewski, Lara


    Numerical methods are needed in order to solve Maxwell's equations in complicated and realistic problems. Over the years a number of numerical methods have been developed to do so. Amongst them the most popular are the finite element, finite difference implicit techniques, frequency domain solution of Helmontz equation, the method of moments, transmission line matrix method. However, the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) is considered to be one of the most attractive choice basically because of its simplicity, speed and accuracy. FDTD first introduced in 1966 by Kane Yee. Since then, FDTD has been established and developed to be a very rigorous and well defined numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations. The order characteristics, accuracy and limitations are rigorously and mathematically defined. This makes FDTD reliable and easy to use. Numerical modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a very useful tool which can be used in order to give us insight into the scattering mechanisms and can also be used as an alternative approach to aid data interpretation. Numerical modelling has been used in a wide range of GPR applications including archeology, geophysics, forensic, landmine detection etc. In engineering, some applications of numerical modelling include the estimation of the effectiveness of GPR to detect voids in bridges, to detect metal bars in concrete, to estimate shielding effectiveness etc. The main challenges in numerical modelling of GPR for engineering applications are A) the implementation of the dielectric properties of the media (soils, concrete etc.) in a realistic way, B) the implementation of the geometry of the media (soils inhomogeneities, rough surface, vegetation, concrete features like fractures and rock fragments etc.) and C) the detailed modelling of the antenna units. The main focus of this work (which is part of the COST Action TU1208) is the accurate and realistic implementation of GPR antenna units into the FDTD

  14. Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges

    Buiter, Susanne J. H.; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher


    We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the stable wedge test, showing negligible internal deformation and maintaining the initial surface slope upon horizontal translation over a frictional interface. Eight codes participated in the unstable wedge test that examines the evolution of a wedge by thrust formation from a subcritical state to the critical taper geometry. The critical taper is recovered, but the models show two deformation modes characterised by either mainly forward dipping thrusts or a series of thrust pop-ups. We speculate that the two modes are caused by differences in effective basal boundary friction related to different algorithms for modelling boundary friction. The third experiment examines stacking of forward thrusts that are translated upward along a backward thrust. The results of the seven codes that run this experiment show variability in deformation style, number of thrusts, thrust dip angles and surface slope. Overall, our experiments show that numerical models run with different numerical techniques can successfully simulate laboratory brittle thrust wedge models at the cm-scale. In more detail, however, we find that it is challenging to reproduce sandbox-type setups numerically, because of frictional boundary conditions and velocity discontinuities. We recommend that future numerical-analogue comparisons use simple boundary conditions and that the numerical Earth Science community defines a plasticity test to resolve the variability in model shear zones.

  15. From Numeric Models to Granular System Modeling

    Witold Pedrycz


    To make this study self-contained, we briefly recall the key concepts of granular computing and demonstrate how this conceptual framework and its algorithmic fundamentals give rise to granular models. We discuss several representative formal setups used in describing and processing information granules including fuzzy sets, rough sets, and interval calculus. Key architectures of models dwell upon relationships among information granules. We demonstrate how information granularity and its optimization can be regarded as an important design asset to be exploited in system modeling and giving rise to granular models. With this regard, an important category of rule-based models along with their granular enrichments is studied in detail.

  16. Numerical modelling in non linear fracture mechanics

    Viggo Tvergaard


    Full Text Available Some numerical studies of crack propagation are based on using constitutive models that accountfor damage evolution in the material. When a critical damage value has been reached in a materialpoint, it is natural to assume that this point has no more carrying capacity, as is done numerically in the elementvanish technique. In the present review this procedure is illustrated for micromechanically based materialmodels, such as a ductile failure model that accounts for the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence, and a model for intergranular creep failure with diffusive growth of grain boundary cavities leading to micro-crack formation. The procedure is also illustrated for low cycle fatigue, based on continuum damage mechanics. In addition, the possibility of crack growth predictions for elastic-plastic solids using cohesive zone models to represent the fracture process is discussed.

  17. Numerical modelling in wave energy conversion systems

    El Marjani, A. [Labo. de Turbomachines, Ecole Mohammadia d' Ingenieurs (EMI), Universite Mohammed V Agdal, Av Ibn Sina, B.P. 765 Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Castro Ruiz, F.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Parra Santos, M.T. [Depto. de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    This paper deals with a numerical modelling devoted to predict the flow characteristics in the components of an oscillating water column (OWC) system used for the wave energy capture. In the present paper, the flow behaviour is modelled by using the FLUENT code. Two numerical flow models have been elaborated and tested independently in the geometries of an air chamber and a turbine, which is chosen of a radial impulse type. The flow is assumed to be three-dimensional (3D), viscous, turbulent and unsteady. The FLUENT code is used with a solver of the coupled conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy, with an implicit time scheme and with the adoption of the dynamic mesh and the sliding mesh techniques in areas of moving surfaces. Turbulence is modelled with the k-{epsilon} model. The obtained results indicate that the developed models are well suitable to analyse the air flows both in the air chamber and in the turbine. The performances associated with the energy transfer processes have been well predicted. For the turbine, the numerical results of pressure and torque were compared to the experimental ones. Good agreements between these results have been observed. (author)

  18. Numerical Modeling of Weld Joint Corrosion

    Lu, Yongxin; Jing, Hongyang; Han, Yongdian; Xu, Lianyong


    A numerical model is presented in this work that predicts the corrosion rate of weld joint. The model is able to track moving boundary of the corroding constituent of weld joint. The corrosion rates obtained from the model are compared with those estimated from mixed potential theory and two experimental techniques, namely immersion test and constant potential polarization test. The corrosion rate predicted using the model is within 10% of the estimate from the mixed potential theory, within 20% of that got from the immersion experiment and within 10% of that got from the constant potential polarization experiment for weld joint.

  19. Oscillation threshold of a clarinet model: a numerical continuation approach

    Karkar, Sami; Cochelin, Bruno; 10.1121/1.3651231


    This paper focuses on the oscillation threshold of single reed instruments. Several characteristics such as blowing pressure at threshold, regime selection, and playing frequency are known to change radically when taking into account the reed dynamics and the flow induced by the reed motion. Previous works have shown interesting tendencies, using analytical expressions with simplified models. In the present study, a more elaborated physical model is considered. The influence of several parameters, depending on the reed properties, the design of the instrument or the control operated by the player, are studied. Previous results on the influence of the reed resonance frequency are confirmed. New results concerning the simultaneous influence of two model parameters on oscillation threshold, regime selection and playing frequency are presented and discussed. The authors use a numerical continuation approach. Numerical continuation consists in following a given solution of a set of equations when a parameter varie...

  20. Lattice Boltzmann Model for Numerical Relativity

    Ilseven, E


    In the Bona-Masso formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for Numerical Relativity. Our model is validated with well-established tests, showing good agreement with analytical solutions. Furthermore, we show that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improves. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach a linear scaling law for parallelisation with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  1. Some Experiences with Numerical Modelling of Overflows

    Larsen, Torben; Nielsen, L.; Jensen, B.


    Overflows are commonly applied in storm sewer systems to control flow and water surface level. Therefore overflows play a central role in the control of discharges of pollutants from sewer systems to the environment. The basic hydrodynamic principle of an overflow is the so-called critical flow...... across the edge of the overflow. To ensure critical flow across the edge, the upstream flow must be subcritical whereas the downstream flow is either supercritical or a free jet. Experimentally overflows are well studied. Based on laboratory experiments and Froude number scaling, numerous accurate...... the term for curvature of the water surface (the so-called Boussinesq approximation) 2. 2- and 3-dimensional so-called Volume of Fluid Models (VOF-models) based on the full Navier-Stokes equations (named NS3 and developed by DHI Water & Environment) As a general conclusion, the two numerical models show...

  2. 75 FR 91 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair) Model...


    ... Directives; Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair) Model CL-600-2B16 (CL-604...: Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by Canadair): Docket No. FAA-2009-1227; Directorate... (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Bombardier, Inc. (Type Certificate previously held...

  3. Quantifying Numerical Model Accuracy and Variability

    Montoya, L. H.; Lynett, P. J.


    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami event has changed the logic on how to evaluate tsunami hazard on coastal communities. Numerical models are a key component for methodologies used to estimate tsunami risk. Model predictions are essential for the development of Tsunami Hazard Assessments (THA). By better understanding model bias and uncertainties and if possible minimizing them, a more accurate and reliable THA will result. In this study we compare runup height, inundation lines and flow velocity field measurements between GeoClaw and the Method Of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) predictions in the Sendai plain. Runup elevation and average inundation distance was in general overpredicted by the models. However, both models agree relatively well with each other when predicting maximum sea surface elevation and maximum flow velocities. Furthermore, to explore the variability and uncertainties in numerical models, MOST is used to compare predictions from 4 different grid resolutions (30m, 20m, 15m and 12m). Our work shows that predictions of particular products (runup and inundation lines) do not require the use of high resolution (less than 30m) Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs). When predicting runup heights and inundation lines, numerical convergence was achieved using the 30m resolution grid. On the contrary, poor convergence was found in the flow velocity predictions, particularly the 1 meter depth maximum flow velocities. Also, runup height measurements and elevations from the DEM were used to estimate model bias. The results provided in this presentation will help understand the uncertainties in model predictions and locate possible sources of errors within a model.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Piezoelectric Transducers Using Physical Parameters

    Cappon, H.; Keesman, K.J.


    Design of ultrasonic equipment is frequently facilitated with numerical models. These numerical models, however, need a calibration step, because usually not all characteristics of the materials used are known. Characterization of material properties combined with numerical simulations and experimen

  5. Numerical modelling of corrosion - Theoretical backgrounds -

    Warkus, J.; Raupach, M. [ibac, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Gulikers, J. [Ministry of Transport, Rijkswaterstaat, Bouwdienst, Utrecht (Netherlands)


    During recent years research projects with different approaches have been carried out to develop models which are suitable to assess the metal removal rate in case of reinforcement corrosion. Some of them are based on empirical methods and correlate the corrosion rate to parameters like concrete resistivity, temperature and relative humidity. Another type of model is based on a quantification of the ongoing electrochemical processes. In this paper the theoretical backgrounds and mathematical descriptions of reinforcement corrosion with regard to a numerical modelling are presented and discussed. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Automated Calibration For Numerical Models Of Riverflow

    Fernandez, Betsaida; Kopmann, Rebekka; Oladyshkin, Sergey


    Calibration of numerical models is fundamental since the beginning of all types of hydro system modeling, to approximate the parameters that can mimic the overall system behavior. Thus, an assessment of different deterministic and stochastic optimization methods is undertaken to compare their robustness, computational feasibility, and global search capacity. Also, the uncertainty of the most suitable methods is analyzed. These optimization methods minimize the objective function that comprises synthetic measurements and simulated data. Synthetic measurement data replace the observed data set to guarantee an existing parameter solution. The input data for the objective function derivate from a hydro-morphological dynamics numerical model which represents an 180-degree bend channel. The hydro- morphological numerical model shows a high level of ill-posedness in the mathematical problem. The minimization of the objective function by different candidate methods for optimization indicates a failure in some of the gradient-based methods as Newton Conjugated and BFGS. Others reveal partial convergence, such as Nelder-Mead, Polak und Ribieri, L-BFGS-B, Truncated Newton Conjugated, and Trust-Region Newton Conjugated Gradient. Further ones indicate parameter solutions that range outside the physical limits, such as Levenberg-Marquardt and LeastSquareRoot. Moreover, there is a significant computational demand for genetic optimization methods, such as Differential Evolution and Basin-Hopping, as well as for Brute Force methods. The Deterministic Sequential Least Square Programming and the scholastic Bayes Inference theory methods present the optimal optimization results. keywords: Automated calibration of hydro-morphological dynamic numerical model, Bayesian inference theory, deterministic optimization methods.

  7. Numerical modeling of mantle plume diffusion

    Krupsky, D.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.


    To clarify the influence of the heat diffusion on the mantle plume evolution, we develop a two-dimensional numerical model of the plume diffusion and relevant efficient numerical algorithm and code to compute the model. The numerical approach is based on the finite-difference method and modified splitting algorithm. We consider both von Neumann and Direchlet conditions at the model boundaries. The thermal diffusivity depends on pressure in the model. Our results show that the plume is disappearing from the bottom up - the plume tail at first and its head later - because of the mantle plume geometry (a thin tail and wide head) and higher heat conductivity in the lower mantle. We study also an effect of a lateral mantle flow associated with the plate motion on the distortion of the diffusing mantle plume. A number of mantle plumes recently identified by seismic tomography seem to disappear in the mid-mantle. We explain this disappearance as the effect of heat diffusion on the evolution of mantle plume.

  8. Numerical Modelling Of Pumpkin Balloon Instability

    Wakefield, D.

    Tensys have been involved in the numerical formfinding and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures for 15 years. They have recently broadened this range of activities into the `lighter than air' field with significant involvement in aerostat and heavy-lift hybrid airship design. Since early 2004 they have been investigating pumpkin balloon instability on behalf of the NASA ULDB programme. These studies are undertaken using inTENS, an in-house finite element program suite based upon the Dynamic Relaxation solution method and developed especially for the non-linear analysis and patterning of membrane structures. The paper describes the current state of an investigation that started with a numerical simulation of the lobed cylinder problem first studied by Calladine. The influence of material properties and local geometric deformation on stability is demonstrated. A number of models of complete pumpkin balloons have then been established, including a 64-gore balloon with geometry based upon Julian Nott's Endeavour. This latter clefted dramatically upon initial inflation, a phenomenon that has been reproduced in the numerical model. Ongoing investigations include the introduction of membrane contact modelling into inTENS and correlation studies with the series of large-scale ULDB models currently in preparation.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity.

    Ilseven, E; Mendoza, M


    In the Z4 formulation, Einstein equations are written as a set of flux conservative first-order hyperbolic equations that resemble fluid dynamics equations. Based on this formulation, we construct a lattice Boltzmann model for numerical relativity and validate it with well-established tests, also known as "apples with apples." Furthermore, we find that by increasing the relaxation time, we gain stability at the cost of losing accuracy, and by decreasing the lattice spacings while keeping a constant numerical diffusivity, the accuracy and stability of our simulations improve. Finally, in order to show the potential of our approach, a linear scaling law for parallelization with respect to number of CPU cores is demonstrated. Our model represents the first step in using lattice kinetic theory to solve gravitational problems.

  10. Numerical modeling in materials science and engineering

    Rappaz, Michel; Deville, Michel


    This book introduces the concepts and methodologies related to the modelling of the complex phenomena occurring in materials processing. After a short reminder of conservation laws and constitutive relationships, the authors introduce the main numerical methods: finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements. These techniques are developed in three main chapters of the book that tackle more specific problems: phase transformation, solid mechanics and fluid flow. The two last chapters treat inverse methods to obtain the boundary conditions or the material properties and stochastic methods for microstructural simulation. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and physics and for engineering professionals or researchers who want to get acquainted with numerical simulation to model and compute materials processing.

  11. Avoiding numerical pitfalls in social force models

    Köster, Gerta; Treml, Franz; Gödel, Marion


    The social force model of Helbing and Molnár is one of the best known approaches to simulate pedestrian motion, a collective phenomenon with nonlinear dynamics. It is based on the idea that the Newtonian laws of motion mostly carry over to pedestrian motion so that human trajectories can be computed by solving a set of ordinary differential equations for velocity and acceleration. The beauty and simplicity of this ansatz are strong reasons for its wide spread. However, the numerical implementation is not without pitfalls. Oscillations, collisions, and instabilities occur even for very small step sizes. Classic solution ideas from molecular dynamics do not apply to the problem because the system is not Hamiltonian despite its source of inspiration. Looking at the model through the eyes of a mathematician, however, we realize that the right hand side of the differential equation is nondifferentiable and even discontinuous at critical locations. This produces undesirable behavior in the exact solution and, at best, severe loss of accuracy in efficient numerical schemes even in short range simulations. We suggest a very simple mollified version of the social force model that conserves the desired dynamic properties of the original many-body system but elegantly and cost efficiently resolves several of the issues concerning stability and numerical resolution.

  12. Advanced Numerical Model for Irradiated Concrete

    Giorla, Alain B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    In this report, we establish a numerical model for concrete exposed to irradiation to address these three critical points. The model accounts for creep in the cement paste and its coupling with damage, temperature and relative humidity. The shift in failure mode with the loading rate is also properly represented. The numerical model for creep has been validated and calibrated against different experiments in the literature [Wittmann, 1970, Le Roy, 1995]. Results from a simplified model are shown to showcase the ability of numerical homogenization to simulate irradiation effects in concrete. In future works, the complete model will be applied to the analysis of the irradiation experiments of Elleuch et al. [1972] and Kelly et al. [1969]. This requires a careful examination of the experimental environmental conditions as in both cases certain critical information are missing, including the relative humidity history. A sensitivity analysis will be conducted to provide lower and upper bounds of the concrete expansion under irradiation, and check if the scatter in the simulated results matches the one found in experiments. The numerical and experimental results will be compared in terms of expansion and loss of mechanical stiffness and strength. Both effects should be captured accordingly by the model to validate it. Once the model has been validated on these two experiments, it can be applied to simulate concrete from nuclear power plants. To do so, the materials used in these concrete must be as well characterized as possible. The main parameters required are the mechanical properties of each constituent in the concrete (aggregates, cement paste), namely the elastic modulus, the creep properties, the tensile and compressive strength, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the drying shrinkage. These can be either measured experimentally, estimated from the initial composition in the case of cement paste, or back-calculated from mechanical tests on concrete. If some

  13. Analyses of more than 60,000 exomes questions the role of numerous genes previously associated with dilated cardiomyopathy

    Nouhravesh, Nina; Ahlberg, Gustav; Ghouse, Jonas


    our estimated cut-off. Prediction tools found ExAC variants to be significantly more tolerated when compared to variants not found in ExAC (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: In ExAC, we identified a higher genotype prevalence of variants considered disease-causing than expected. More importantly, we found 13......BACKGROUND: Hundreds of genetic variants have been described as disease causing in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Some of these associations are now being questioned. We aimed to identify the prevalence of previously DCM associated variants in the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), in order...... to identify potentially false-positive DCM variants. METHODS: Variants listed as DCM disease-causing variants in the Human Gene Mutation Database were extracted from ExAC. Pathogenicity predictions for these variants were mined from dbNSFP v 2.9 database. RESULTS: Of the 473 DCM variants listed in HGMD, 148...

  14. Efficient numerical integrators for stochastic models

    De Fabritiis, G; Español, P; Coveney, P V


    The efficient simulation of models defined in terms of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) depends critically on an efficient integration scheme. In this article, we investigate under which conditions the integration schemes for general SDEs can be derived using the Trotter expansion. It follows that, in the stochastic case, some care is required in splitting the stochastic generator. We test the Trotter integrators on an energy-conserving Brownian model and derive a new numerical scheme for dissipative particle dynamics. We find that the stochastic Trotter scheme provides a mathematically correct and easy-to-use method which should find wide applicability.

  15. A comprehensive numerical model of wind-blown sand

    Kok, Jasper F


    Wind-blown sand, or "saltation", ejects dust aerosols into the atmosphere, creates sand dunes, and erodes geological features. We present a comprehensive numerical model of steady-state saltation that, in contrast to most previous studies, can simulate saltation over mixed soils. Our model simulates the motion of saltating particles due to gravity, fluid drag, particle spin, fluid shear, and turbulence. Moreover, the model explicitly accounts for the retardation of the wind due to drag from saltating particles. We also developed a physically-based parameterization of the ejection of surface particles by impacting saltating particles which matches experimental results. Our numerical model is the first to reproduce measurements of the wind shear velocity at the impact threshold (i.e., the lowest shear velocity for which saltation is possible) and of the aerodynamic roughness length in saltation. It also correctly predicts a wide range of other saltation processes, including profiles of the wind speed and partic...

  16. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Obroučka Karel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  17. Numerical modelling of swirling diffusive flames

    Parra-Santos Teresa


    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics has been used to study the mixing and combustion of two confined jets whose setup and operating conditions are those of the benchmark of Roback and Johnson. Numerical model solves 3D transient Navier Stokes for turbulent and reactive flows. Averaged velocity profiles using RNG swirl dominated k-epsilon model have been validated with experimental measurements from other sources for the non reactive case. The combustion model is Probability Density Function. Bearing in mind the annular jet has swirl number over 0.5, a vortex breakdown appears in the axis of the burner. Besides, the sudden expansion with a ratio of 2 in diameter between nozzle exits and the test chamber produces the boundary layer separation with the corresponding torus shape recirculation. Contrasting the mixing and combustion models, the last one produces the reduction of the vortex breakdown.

  18. Constraining Numerical Geodynamo Modeling with Surface Observations

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew


    Numerical dynamo solutions have traditionally been generated entirely by a set of self-consistent differential equations that govern the spatial-temporal variation of the magnetic field, velocity field and other fields related to dynamo processes. In particular, those solutions are obtained with parameters very different from those appropriate for the Earth s core. Geophysical application of the numerical results therefore depends on correct understanding of the differences (errors) between the model outputs and the true states (truth) in the outer core. Part of the truth can be observed at the surface in the form of poloidal magnetic field. To understand these differences, or errors, we generate new initial model state (analysis) by assimilating sequentially the model outputs with the surface geomagnetic observations using an optimal interpolation scheme. The time evolution of the core state is then controlled by our MoSST core dynamics model. The final outputs (forecasts) are then compared with the surface observations as a means to test the success of the assimilation. We use the surface geomagnetic data back to year 1900 for our studies, with 5-year forecast and 20-year analysis periods. We intend to use the result; to understand time variation of the errors with the assimilation sequences, and the impact of the assimilation on other unobservable quantities, such as the toroidal field and the fluid velocity in the core.

  19. Numerical Modelling of Troposferic Ozone in Catalunya

    S. Ortega


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the ability of two different modelling systems to simulate high values of ozone concentration in typical summer episodes which take place in Catalonia, located in the north-east part of Spain. The first model, or forecasting system, is a box model made up of three modules. The first module is a mesoscale model (MASS, which provides the initial condition for the second module, a non-local boundary layer model based on the transilient turbulence scheme. The third module is a photochemical box model (OZIPR, which is applied in Eulerian and Lagrangian modes receiving suitable information from the two previous modules. The model forecast is applied to different areas of Catalonia and evaluated during the springs and summers of 2003 and 2004 against ground base stations. The second model is MM5/UAM-V, a grid model designed to predict the hourly three-dimensional ozone concentration fields. The model is applied during an ozone episode occurred between 21 and 23 June 2001 at only one area, which is characterized by complex topography and a peculiar meteorological condition favouring high ozone concentration values. Evaluation results and model comparison for this specific episode show a good performance of the two modelling systems.

  20. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    Andrzej Skorek


    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall. The observation was made from 1·10-3 to 1·10-2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  1. An improved numerical model of the tube-tubesheet joint rolling process

    Madsen, Søren Bøgelund; Gervang, Bo; Ibsen, Claus Hessler


    The focus of this paper is the numerical modeling of the mechanical tube expansion process, called roller expansion, used in tube to tubesheet joints in heat exchangers. The paper compares a novel finite element based model with previously used models. The numerical models are compared with an ex......The focus of this paper is the numerical modeling of the mechanical tube expansion process, called roller expansion, used in tube to tubesheet joints in heat exchangers. The paper compares a novel finite element based model with previously used models. The numerical models are compared...... in the numerical models. These methods provide enough information about the expanded joint to come to the conclusion that the novel method is superior to the existing models at describing the mechanical rolling process...



    A numerical model capable of predicting flow characteristics in a compound channel was established with the 3-D steady continuity and momentum equations along with the transport equations for turbulence kinetic energy and dissipation rate. Closure was achieved with the aid of algebraic relations for turbulent shear stresses. The above equations were discretized with implicit difference approach and solved with a step method along the flow direction. The computational results showing the lateral distribution of vertical average velocities and the latio of total flow in the compound channel agree well with the available experimental data.

  3. Numerical modeling for dilute and dense sprays

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.; Ziebarth, J. P.; Wang, T. S.


    We have successfully implemented a numerical model for spray-combustion calculations. In this model, the governing gas-phase equations in Eulerian coordinate are solved by a time-marching multiple pressure correction procedure based on the operator-splitting technique. The droplet-phase equations in Lagrangian coordinate are solved by a stochastic discrete particle technique. In order to simplify the calculation procedure for the circulating droplets, the effective conductivity model is utilized. The k-epsilon models are utilized to characterize the time and length scales of the gas phase in conjunction with turbulent modulation by droplets and droplet dispersion by turbulence. This method entails random sampling of instantaneous gas flow properties and the stochastic process requires a large number of computational parcels to produce the satisfactory dispersion distributions even for rather dilute sprays. Two major improvements in spray combustion modelings were made. Firstly, we have developed a probability density function approach in multidimensional space to represent a specific computational particle. Secondly, we incorporate the Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model for handling the dense spray effects. This breakup model is based on the reasonable assumption that atomization and drop breakup are indistinguishable processes within a dense spray near the nozzle exit. Accordingly, atomization is prescribed by injecting drops which have a characteristic size equal to the nozzle exit diameter. Example problems include the nearly homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent particle dispersion, and the non-evaporating, evaporating, and burning dense sprays. Comparison with experimental data will be discussed in detail.

  4. Objective calibration of numerical weather prediction models

    Voudouri, A.; Khain, P.; Carmona, I.; Bellprat, O.; Grazzini, F.; Avgoustoglou, E.; Bettems, J. M.; Kaufmann, P.


    Numerical weather prediction (NWP) and climate models use parameterization schemes for physical processes, which often include free or poorly confined parameters. Model developers normally calibrate the values of these parameters subjectively to improve the agreement of forecasts with available observations, a procedure referred as expert tuning. A practicable objective multi-variate calibration method build on a quadratic meta-model (MM), that has been applied for a regional climate model (RCM) has shown to be at least as good as expert tuning. Based on these results, an approach to implement the methodology to an NWP model is presented in this study. Challenges in transferring the methodology from RCM to NWP are not only restricted to the use of higher resolution and different time scales. The sensitivity of the NWP model quality with respect to the model parameter space has to be clarified, as well as optimize the overall procedure, in terms of required amount of computing resources for the calibration of an NWP model. Three free model parameters affecting mainly turbulence parameterization schemes were originally selected with respect to their influence on the variables associated to daily forecasts such as daily minimum and maximum 2 m temperature as well as 24 h accumulated precipitation. Preliminary results indicate that it is both affordable in terms of computer resources and meaningful in terms of improved forecast quality. In addition, the proposed methodology has the advantage of being a replicable procedure that can be applied when an updated model version is launched and/or customize the same model implementation over different climatological areas.


    Petr Chmátal


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to carry out a hydraulic design of rowing/sculling and paddling simulator. Nowadays there are two main approaches in the simulator design. The first one includes a static water with no artificial movement and counts on specially cut oars to provide the same resistance in the water. The second approach, on the other hand uses pumps or similar devices to force the water to circulate but both of the designs share many problems. Such problems are affecting already built facilities and can be summarized as unrealistic feeling, unwanted turbulent flow and bad velocity profile. Therefore, the goal was to design a new rowing simulator that would provide nature-like conditions for the racers and provide an unmatched experience. In order to accomplish this challenge, it was decided to use in-depth numerical modeling to solve the hydraulic problems. The general measures for the design were taken in accordance with space availability of the simulator ́s housing. The entire research was coordinated with other stages of the construction using BIM. The detailed geometry was designed using a numerical model in Ansys Fluent and parametric auto-optimization tools which led to minimum negative hydraulic phenomena and decreased investment and operational costs due to the decreased hydraulic losses in the system.

  6. Thermoelectrical numerical model of electrosurgical rf cutting

    Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Pearce, John A.


    We developed a 3D thermo-electrical model of RF tissue cutting that takes into account variations in electrical and thermal properties with temperature and water content, dynamics of water evaporation and thermal and electrical processes at the tissue-scalpel interface. The model predicts measurable parameters of the electric circuit (tissue impedance, ESU output RMS voltage and current) and tissue cutting rate. Results of numerical simulations suggest that high circuit impedance during electrosurgical cutting can result not only from tissue dehydration but from the configuration of the electric field as well. It appears that the area of tissue-scalpel electric contact is significantly smaller than the area of the scalpel itself but is large enough to rule out electric sparks as a major mechanism of electrosurgical cutting.

  7. Numerical modeling of materials under extreme conditions

    Brown, Eric


    The book presents twelve state of the art contributions in the field of numerical modeling of materials subjected to large strain, high strain rates, large pressure and high stress triaxialities, organized into two sections. The first part is focused on high strain rate-high pressures such as those occurring in impact dynamics and shock compression related phenomena, dealing with material response identification, advanced modeling incorporating microstructure and damage, stress waves propagation in solids and structures response under impact. The latter part is focused on large strain-low strain rates applications such as those occurring in technological material processing, dealing with microstructure and texture evolution, material response at elevated temperatures, structural behavior under large strain and multi axial state of stress.

  8. Partial Differential Equations Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    Glowinski, Roland


    This book is dedicated to Olivier Pironneau. For more than 250 years partial differential equations have been clearly the most important tool available to mankind in order to understand a large variety of phenomena, natural at first and then those originating from human activity and technological development. Mechanics, physics and their engineering applications were the first to benefit from the impact of partial differential equations on modeling and design, but a little less than a century ago the Schrödinger equation was the key opening the door to the application of partial differential equations to quantum chemistry, for small atomic and molecular systems at first, but then for systems of fast growing complexity. Mathematical modeling methods based on partial differential equations form an important part of contemporary science and are widely used in engineering and scientific applications. In this book several experts in this field present their latest results and discuss trends in the numerical analy...

  9. Numerical simulations of stellar winds polytropic models

    Keppens, R


    We discuss steady-state transonic outflows obtained by direct numerical solution of the hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic equations. We make use of the Versatile Advection Code, a software package for solving systems of (hyperbolic) partial differential equations. We proceed stepwise from a spherically symmetric, isothermal, unmagnetized, non-rotating Parker wind to arrive at axisymmetric, polytropic, magnetized, rotating models. These represent 2D generalisations of the analytical 1D Weber-Davis wind solution, which we obtain in the process. Axisymmetric wind solutions containing both a `wind' and a `dead' zone are presented. Since we are solving for steady-state solutions, we efficiently exploit fully implicit time stepping. The method allows us to model thermally and/or magneto-centrifugally driven stellar outflows. We particularly emphasize the boundary conditions imposed at the stellar surface. For these axisymmetric, steady-state solutions, we can use the knowledge of the flux functions to verify the...

  10. Adaptive Numerical Algorithms in Space Weather Modeling

    Toth, Gabor; vanderHolst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; DeZeeuw, Darren; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Nakib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav


    Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising of several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit numerical

  11. Global Tectonics of Enceladus: Numerical Model

    Czechowski, Leszek


    Introduction: Enceladus, a satellite of Saturn, is the smallest celestial body in the Solar System where volcanic and tectonic activities are observed. Every second, the mass of 200 kg is ejected into space from the South Polar Terrain (SPT) - [1]. The loss of matter from the body's interior should lead to global compression of the crust. Typical effects of compression are: thrust faults, folding and subduction. However, such forms are not dominant on Enceladus. We propose here special tectonic process that could explain this paradox. Our hypotheses states that the mass loss from SPT is the main driving mechanism of the following tectonic processes: subsidence of SPT, flow in the mantle and motion of adjacent tectonic plates. The hypotheses is presented in [2], [3] and[4].We suggest that the loss of the volatiles results in a void, an instability, and motion of solid matter to fill the void. The motion is presented at the Fig.1 and includes:Subsidence of the 'lithosphere' of SPT.Flow of the matter in the mantle.Motion of plates adjacent to SPT towards the active regionMethods and results: The numerical model of processes presented is developed. It is based on the equations of continuous media..If emerging void is being filled by the subsidence of SPT only, then the velocity of subsidence is 0.05 mmyr-1. However, numerical calculations indicate that all three types of motion are usually important. The role of a given motion depends on the viscosity distribution. Generally, for most of the models the subsidence is 0.02 mmyr-1, but mantle flow and plates' motion also play a role in filling the void. The preliminary results of the numerical model indicate also that the velocity of adjacent plates could be 0.02 mmyr-1 for the Newtonian rheology.Note that in our model the reduction of the crust area is not a result of compression but it is a result of the plate sinking. Therefore the compressional surface features do not have to be dominant. The SPT does not have to be

  12. Mathematical models and numerical simulation in electromagnetism

    Bermúdez, Alfredo; Salgado, Pilar


    The book represents a basic support for a master course in electromagnetism oriented to numerical simulation. The main goal of the book is that the reader knows the boundary-value problems of partial differential equations that should be solved in order to perform computer simulation of electromagnetic processes. Moreover it includes a part devoted to electric circuit theory  based on ordinary differential equations. The book is mainly oriented to electric engineering applications, going from the general to the specific, namely, from the full Maxwell’s equations to the particular cases of electrostatics, direct current, magnetostatics and eddy currents models. Apart from standard exercises related to analytical calculus, the book includes some others oriented to real-life applications solved with MaxFEM free simulation software.

  13. Numerical modeling capabilities to predict repository performance


    This report presents a summary of current numerical modeling capabilities that are applicable to the design and performance evaluation of underground repositories for the storage of nuclear waste. The report includes codes that are available in-house, within Golder Associates and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories; as well as those that are generally available within the industry and universities. The first listing of programs are in-house codes in the subject areas of hydrology, solute transport, thermal and mechanical stress analysis, and structural geology. The second listing of programs are divided by subject into the following categories: site selection, structural geology, mine structural design, mine ventilation, hydrology, and mine design/construction/operation. These programs are not specifically designed for use in the design and evaluation of an underground repository for nuclear waste; but several or most of them may be so used.

  14. Numerical modeling of the first star's formation

    Audit, E.; Chièe, J.-P.

    Although our knowledge in cosmology has considerably advanced in recent years, the z ≃5 - z ≃1000 period, or dark age, is largely unknown on the observational point of view, and theoretical as well. It is nevertheless a decisive step, where the first baryonic objects form (Pop III stars). These are likely to be responsible for the reionization of the universe at about z ≅10 and they synthesize the first heavy elements, fundamental for the next generation objects. I will first present the numerical model developed to study their formation. I will discuss the included physics (hydrodynamics of gas and dark matter, out of equilibrium thermochemistry, radiative transfer, convection...). Then I will present results from a cloud collapse to the formation of a proto-star, illustrating the influence of the physics. Finally, I will present the 1D to 3D perspectives of this work.


    ZHANG Jian-tao; SU Xiao-hui


    A set of governing equations for turbulent flows in vegetated area were derived with the assumption that vegetation is of straight and rigid cylinder. The effect of vegetation on flow motion was represented by additional inertial and drag forces. The new model was validated by available experimental data for open channel flows passing through vegetated areas with different vegetation size, density and distribution. Numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, the flow around a supposed isolated vegetated pile was simulated and the effects of vegetation density on the wake flow were discussed. It is found that the presence of vegetation, even at a very low density, has the pronounced influence on the dissipation of flow energy, both inside the vegetation domain and outside it in the wake flow region.

  16. Numerical modeling of partial discharges parameters

    Kartalović Nenad M.


    Full Text Available In recent testing of the partial discharges or the use for the diagnosis of insulation condition of high voltage generators, transformers, cables and high voltage equipment develops rapidly. It is a result of the development of electronics, as well as, the development of knowledge about the processes of partial discharges. The aim of this paper is to contribute the better understanding of this phenomenon of partial discharges by consideration of the relevant physical processes in isolation materials and isolation systems. Prebreakdown considers specific processes, and development processes at the local level and their impact on specific isolation material. This approach to the phenomenon of partial discharges needed to allow better take into account relevant discharge parameters as well as better numerical model of partial discharges.

  17. Modeling Biodegradation and Reactive Transport: Analytical and Numerical Models

    Sun, Y; Glascoe, L


    The computational modeling of the biodegradation of contaminated groundwater systems accounting for biochemical reactions coupled to contaminant transport is a valuable tool for both the field engineer/planner with limited computational resources and the expert computational researcher less constrained by time and computer power. There exists several analytical and numerical computer models that have been and are being developed to cover the practical needs put forth by users to fulfill this spectrum of computational demands. Generally, analytical models provide rapid and convenient screening tools running on very limited computational power, while numerical models can provide more detailed information with consequent requirements of greater computational time and effort. While these analytical and numerical computer models can provide accurate and adequate information to produce defensible remediation strategies, decisions based on inadequate modeling output or on over-analysis can have costly and risky consequences. In this chapter we consider both analytical and numerical modeling approaches to biodegradation and reactive transport. Both approaches are discussed and analyzed in terms of achieving bioremediation goals, recognizing that there is always a tradeoff between computational cost and the resolution of simulated systems.

  18. Numerical Modelling of Flow and Settling in Secondary Settling Tanks

    Dahl, Claus Poulsen

    This thesis discusses the development of a numerical model for the simulation of secondary settling tanks. In the first part, the status on the development of numerical models for settling tanks and a discussion of the current design practice are presented. A study of the existing numerical models...... and design practice proved a demand for further development to include numerical models in the design of settling tanks, thus improving the future settling tanks....

  19. Numerical Modelling of Flow and Settling in Secondary Settling Tanks

    Dahl, Claus Poulsen

    This thesis discusses the development of a numerical model for the simulation of secondary settling tanks. In the first part, the status on the development of numerical models for settling tanks and a discussion of the current design practice are presented. A study of the existing numerical models...... and design practice proved a demand for further development to include numerical models in the design of settling tanks, thus improving the future settling tanks....

  20. Development of a Numerical Model for Secondary Clarifiers

    Dahl, Claus; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, Ole


    A numerical model of flow and sediment in secondary clarifiers is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and coupled hydraulic and sediment phenomena in secondary clarifiers by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended solids....... The numerical model is discussed and compared with full scale measurements. The achieved results should be understood as the first step towards a numerical model for secondary clarifiers and further research will be necessary....

  1. Development of a Numerical Model for Secondary Clarifiers

    Dahl, Claus; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, Ole


    A numerical model of flow and sediment in secondary clarifiers is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and coupled hydraulic and sediment phenomena in secondary clarifiers by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended solids. The numerical model is discussed and compared with full scale measurements. The achieved results should be understood as the first step towards a numerical model for secondary clarifiers and further resea...

  2. Impact of numerical models on fragmentation processes

    Renouf, Mathieu; Gezahengn, Belien; Abbas, Micheline; Bourgeois, Florent


    Simulated fragmentation process in granular assemblies is a challenging problem which date back the beginning of the 90'. If first approaches have focus on the fragmentation on a single particle, with the development of robust, fast numerical method is is possible today to simulated such process in a large collection of particles. But the question of the fragmentation problem is still open: should the fragmentation be done dynamically (one particle becoming two fragments) and according which criterion or should the fragment paths be defined initially and which is the impact of the discretization and the model of fragments? The present contribution proposes to investigate the second aspect i.e. the impact of fragment modeling on the fragmentation processes. First to perform such an analysis, the geometry of fragments (disks/sphere or polygon/polyhedra), their behavior (rigid/deformable) and the law governing their interactions are investigated. Then such model will be used in a grinding application where the evolution of fragments and impact on the behavior of the whole packing are investigate.

  3. Comparison between analytical and numerical solution of mathematical drying model

    Shahari, N.; Rasmani, K.; Jamil, N.


    Drying is often related to the food industry as a process of shifting heat and mass inside food, which helps in preserving food. Previous research using a mass transfer equation showed that the results were mostly concerned with the comparison between the simulation model and the experimental data. In this paper, the finite difference method was used to solve a mass equation during drying using different kinds of boundary condition, which are equilibrium and convective boundary conditions. The results of these two models provide a comparison between the analytical and the numerical solution. The result shows a close match between the two solution curves. It is concluded that the two proposed models produce an accurate solution to describe the moisture distribution content during the drying process. This analysis indicates that we have confidence in the behaviour of moisture in the numerical simulation. This result demonstrated that a combined analytical and numerical approach prove that the system is behaving physically. Based on this assumption, the model of mass transfer was extended to include the temperature transfer, and the result shows a similar trend to those presented in the simpler case.

  4. Numerical modeling of vertical stratification of Lake Shira in summer

    Belolipetsky, P.; Belolipetsky, V.M.; Genova, S.N.; Mooij, W.M.


    A one-dimensional numerical model and a two-dimensional numerical model of the hydrodynamic and thermal structure of Lake Shira during summer have been developed, with several original physical and numerical features. These models are well suited to simulate the formation and dynamics of vertical st

  5. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters

    Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.


    The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

  6. Understanding Etna flank instability through numerical models

    Apuani, Tiziana; Corazzato, Claudia; Merri, Andrea; Tibaldi, Alessandro


    As many active volcanoes, Mount Etna shows clear evidence of flank instability, and different mechanisms were suggested to explain this flank dynamics, based on the recorded deformation pattern and character. Shallow and deep deformations, mainly associated with both eruptive and seismic events, are concentrated along recognised fracture and fault systems, mobilising the eastern and south-eastern flank of the volcano. Several interacting causes were postulated to control the phenomenon, including gravity force, magma ascent along the feeding system, and a very complex local and/or regional tectonic activity. Nevertheless, the complexity of such dynamics is still an open subject of research and being the volcano flanks heavily urbanised, the comprehension of the gravitative dynamics is a major issue for public safety and civil protection. The present research explores the effects of the main geological features (in particular the role of the subetnean clays, interposed between the Apennine-Maghrebian flysch and the volcanic products) and the role of weakness zones, identified by fracture and fault systems, on the slope instability process. The effects of magma intrusions are also investigated. The problem is addressed by integrating field data, laboratory tests and numerical modelling. A bi- and tri-dimensional stress-strain analysis was performed by a finite difference numerical code (FLAC and FLAC3D), mainly aimed at evaluating the relationship among geological features, volcano-tectonic structures and magmatic activity in controlling the deformation processes. The analyses are well supported by dedicated structural-mechanical field surveys, which allowed to estimate the rock mass strength and deformability parameters. To take into account the uncertainties which inevitably occur in a so complicated model, many efforts were done in performing a sensitivity analysis along a WNW-ESE section crossing the volcano summit and the Valle del Bove depression. This was

  7. Large scale experiments as a tool for numerical model development

    Kirkegaard, Jens; Hansen, Erik Asp; Fuchs, Jesper;


    for improvement of the reliability of physical model results. This paper demonstrates by examples that numerical modelling benefits in various ways from experimental studies (in large and small laboratory facilities). The examples range from very general hydrodynamic descriptions of wave phenomena to specific......Experimental modelling is an important tool for study of hydrodynamic phenomena. The applicability of experiments can be expanded by the use of numerical models and experiments are important for documentation of the validity of numerical tools. In other cases numerical tools can be applied...... hydrodynamic interaction with structures. The examples also show that numerical model development benefits from international co-operation and sharing of high quality results....

  8. Handling geophysical flows: Numerical modelling using Graphical Processing Units

    Garcia-Navarro, Pilar; Lacasta, Asier; Juez, Carmelo; Morales-Hernandez, Mario


    Computational tools may help engineers in the assessment of sediment transport during the decision-making processes. The main requirements are that the numerical results have to be accurate and simulation models must be fast. The present work is based on the 2D shallow water equations in combination with the 2D Exner equation [1]. The resulting numerical model accuracy was already discussed in previous work. Regarding the speed of the computation, the Exner equation slows down the already costly 2D shallow water model as the number of variables to solve is increased and the numerical stability is more restrictive. On the other hand, the movement of poorly sorted material over steep areas constitutes a hazardous environmental problem. Computational tools help in the predictions of such landslides [2]. In order to overcome this problem, this work proposes the use of Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) for decreasing significantly the simulation time [3, 4]. The numerical scheme implemented in GPU is based on a finite volume scheme. The mathematical model and the numerical implementation are compared against experimental and field data. In addition, the computational times obtained with the Graphical Hardware technology are compared against Single-Core (sequential) and Multi-Core (parallel) CPU implementations. References [Juez et al.(2014)] Juez, C., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2014) A 2D weakly-coupled and efficient numerical model for transient shallow flow and movable bed. Advances in Water Resources. 71 93-109. [Juez et al.(2013)] Juez, C., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2013) . 2D simulation of granular flow over irregular steep slopes using global and local coordinates. Journal of Computational Physics. 225 166-204. [Lacasta et al.(2014)] Lacasta, A., Morales-Hernndez, M., Murillo, J., & Garca-Navarro, P. (2014) An optimized GPU implementation of a 2D free surface simulation model on unstructured meshes Advances in Engineering Software. 78 1-15. [Lacasta

  9. Numerical modelling of new rockfall interception nets

    von Boetticher, Albrecht; Volkwein, Axel; Wendeler, Corinna


    The design and certification of effective rockfall protection barriers is mainly achieved through 1:1 prototype testing. In order to reduce development costs of a prototype it is recommended that pre-studies using numerical simulations are performed. A large component to modelling rockfall protection systems is the numerical simulation of the nets. To date there exist several approaches to model the different mesh types such as ring nets or diagonal meshes (Nicot 1999, Cazzani et al. 2002, Volkwein 2004). However, the consideration of chain link meshes has not yet been realised. Chain link meshes are normally found as standard fence structures. However, they also exist in setups using high-strength steel and wire bundles. These variants show an enormous capacity to retain loads e.g. rockfalls, and at the same time are very efficient due to their low demand of steel material. The increasing application of chain link mesh in barrier systems requires an accurate model is available to complete prototype studies. A new approach now aims to perform a Finite Element simulation of such chain link meshes. The main challenge herein is to achieve the net deformation behaviour that is observed in field tests also in the simulation. A simulation using simple truss elements would not work since it neglects the out-of-plane-height of the mesh construction providing important reserves for local and global high deformations. Thus addressing this, a specially developed Discrete Element is able to reconstruct the mechanical behaviour of the single chain wire (bundles). As input parameters it utilises typical properties such as longitudinal and transversal mesh widths, and break loads resulting from in-plane-tension tests and steel strength. The single chain elements then can be combined to a complete mesh (e.g. 130 x 65 mm, 3 - 4 mm wire with a strength of 1770 N-mm2). Combining these elements with a supporting structure consisting of posts, ropes and energy absorbers, enables the

  10. Numerical modelling of nearshore wave transformation

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    A software has been developed for numerical refraction study based on finite amplitude wave theories. Wave attenuation due to shoaling, bottom friction, bottom percolation and viscous dissipation has also been incorporated. The software...

  11. Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges

    Buiter, Susanne J H; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/270177493; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher


    We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the

  12. Numerical Modelling of Sediment Transport in Combined Sewer Systems

    Schlütter, Flemming

    A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed.......A conceptual sediment transport model has been developed. Through a case study a comparison with other numerical models is performed....

  13. Numerical modeling of tunneling-induced seismicity

    Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Urpi, Luca


    Removal of rock mass in mining environment has been associated since long-time with seismic event of magnitude 3 and above, with the potential to cause damage to the infrastructures or even loss of human life. Although with similarities with mining, relatively unknown up to now are seismic events induced by tunneling. However with modern mechanized tunneling techniques, making possible to digging deeper and longer underground infrastructure, the risk is not negligible. As an example, the excavation of the 57km long Gotthard Base Tunnel has been associated more than hundred seismic events, with the largest one having magnitude of ML 2.4, damaging the tunnel infrastructures. For future scenario of deep geological storage of nuclear waste, tunneling will constitute the primary activity during site construction. Hence, it will be crucial to understand the risk associated with the underground construction operation that can reactivate seismogenic features nearby the future location of emplacement tunnels. Here we present numerical simulation aimed at understanding the potential for inducing seismicity during tunnel construction. The stress changes and their evolution during the excavation are evaluated with a finite element solver (FLAC3d). A strain-softening friction model is then used to simulate the occurrence of a sudden slip on a fault zone (if critical conditions for reactivation are reached). We also present a sensitivity analysis of the potential for inducing different seismic events by different tunnel sizes at varying distance from a nearby failure plane, with the final purpose of evaluating safety of a potential nuclear repository site on the short- and long-term.

  14. A numerical 4D Collision Risk Model

    Schmitt, Pal; Culloch, Ross; Lieber, Lilian; Kregting, Louise


    With the growing number of marine renewable energy (MRE) devices being installed across the world, some concern has been raised about the possibility of harming mobile, marine fauna by collision. Although physical contact between a MRE device and an organism has not been reported to date, these novel sub-sea structures pose a challenge for accurately estimating collision risks as part of environmental impact assessments. Even if the animal motion is simplified to linear translation, ignoring likely evasive behaviour, the mathematical problem of establishing an impact probability is not trivial. We present a numerical algorithm to obtain such probability distributions using transient, four-dimensional simulations of a novel marine renewable device concept, Deep Green, Minesto's power plant and hereafter referred to as the 'kite' that flies in a figure-of-eight configuration. Simulations were carried out altering several configurations including kite depth, kite speed and kite trajectory while keeping the speed of the moving object constant. Since the kite assembly is defined as two parts in the model, a tether (attached to the seabed) and the kite, collision risk of each part is reported independently. By comparing the number of collisions with the number of collision-free simulations, a probability of impact for each simulated position in the cross- section of the area is considered. Results suggest that close to the bottom, where the tether amplitude is small, the path is always blocked and the impact probability is 100% as expected. However, higher up in the water column, the collision probability is twice as high in the mid line, where the tether passes twice per period than at the extremes of its trajectory. The collision probability distribution is much more complex in the upper end of the water column, where the kite and tether can simultaneously collide with the object. Results demonstrate the viability of such models, which can also incorporate empirical

  15. Numerical modeling of altocumulus cloud layers

    Liu, Shuairen


    Altocumulus (Ac) clouds are predominantly water clouds and typically less than several hundred meters thick. Ac cloud heights are mid-level, from 2 to 8 km. Ac clouds cover large portions of the Earth and play an important role in the Earth's energy budget through their effects on solar and infrared radiation. A two-dimensional cloud resolving model (CRM) and a one-dimensional turbulent closure model (TCM) are used to study Ac clouds with idealized initial conditions. An elevated mixed layer model (MLM) is developed and the results for the MLM are compared with results for CRM. The impacts of large-scale vertical motion, and solar and IR radiation, the utility of the TCM, the mixed layer characteristics and circulation of Ac layers, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget, and effects of relative humidify (RH) above the cloud are studied with a series of numerical simulations using the CRM and TCM. The results show that weak large-scale vertical motion may allow for a long lifetime of Ac clouds. In the nocturnal case, feedbacks between the liquid water path (LWP), IR radiation, and entrainment lead to an Ac layer with a nearly steady structure and circulation. The solar radiation in the diurnal case leads to decreases in the LWP, circulation intensity, and entrainment rate during the day. The comparison of TCM and CRM simulations suggests that TCM simulations can portray the basic characteristics of Ac clouds. The Ac convective layer includes mainly the cloud region and a shallow subcloud layer. In the Ac convective layers, the updrafts are wide and weak, whereas the downdrafts are narrow and strong. The updrafts are associated with regions of large cloud water mixing ratio, and the downdrafts with the regions of small cloud water mixing ratio. In Ac layers, the TKE is as large as in stratocumulus-topped-boundary-layer (STBL). The TKE is produced by buoyancy in the cloud region, dissipated by viscous dissipation, and redistributed upward and downward through

  16. Supersymmetric Theory of Stochastic ABC Model: A Numerical Study

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V; Ensslin, Torsten A; Wang, Kang L


    In this paper, we investigate numerically the stochastic ABC model, a toy model in the theory of astrophysical kinematic dynamos, within the recently proposed supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS). STS characterises stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by the spectrum of the stochastic evolution operator (SEO) on elements of the exterior algebra or differentials forms over the system's phase space, X. STS can thereby classify SDEs as chaotic or non-chaotic by identifying the phenomenon of stochastic chaos with the spontaneously broken topological supersymmetry that all SDEs possess. We demonstrate the following three properties of the SEO, deduced previously analytically and from physical arguments: the SEO spectra for zeroth and top degree forms never break topological supersymmetry, all SDEs possesses pseudo-time-reversal symmetry, and each de Rahm cohomology class provides one supersymmetric eigenstate. Our results also suggests that the SEO spectra for forms of complementary degrees, i.e., k and ...

  17. Automated smoother for the numerical decoupling of dynamics models

    Santos Helena


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structure identification of dynamic models for complex biological systems is the cornerstone of their reverse engineering. Biochemical Systems Theory (BST offers a particularly convenient solution because its parameters are kinetic-order coefficients which directly identify the topology of the underlying network of processes. We have previously proposed a numerical decoupling procedure that allows the identification of multivariate dynamic models of complex biological processes. While described here within the context of BST, this procedure has a general applicability to signal extraction. Our original implementation relied on artificial neural networks (ANN, which caused slight, undesirable bias during the smoothing of the time courses. As an alternative, we propose here an adaptation of the Whittaker's smoother and demonstrate its role within a robust, fully automated structure identification procedure. Results In this report we propose a robust, fully automated solution for signal extraction from time series, which is the prerequisite for the efficient reverse engineering of biological systems models. The Whittaker's smoother is reformulated within the context of information theory and extended by the development of adaptive signal segmentation to account for heterogeneous noise structures. The resulting procedure can be used on arbitrary time series with a nonstationary noise process; it is illustrated here with metabolic profiles obtained from in-vivo NMR experiments. The smoothed solution that is free of parametric bias permits differentiation, which is crucial for the numerical decoupling of systems of differential equations. Conclusion The method is applicable in signal extraction from time series with nonstationary noise structure and can be applied in the numerical decoupling of system of differential equations into algebraic equations, and thus constitutes a rather general tool for the reverse engineering of

  18. Multipath diffusion: A general numerical model

    Lee, J. K. W.; Aldama, A. A.


    The effect of high-diffusivity pathways on bulk diffusion of a solute in a material has been modeled previously for simple geometries such as those in tracer diffusion experiments, but not for the geometries and boundary conditions appropriate for experiments involving bulk exchange. Using a coupled system of equations for simultaneous diffusion of a solute through two families of diffusion pathways with differing diffusivities, a general 1-D finite difference model written in FORTRAN has been developed which can be used to examine the effect of high-diffusivity paths on partial and total concentration profiles within a homogeneous isotropic sphere, infinite cylinder, and infinite slab. The partial differential equations are discretized using the θ-method/central-difference scheme, and an iterative procedure analogous to the Gauss-Seidel method is employed to solve the two systems of coupled equations. Using Fourier convergence analysis, the procedure is shown to be unconditionally convergent. Computer simulations demonstrate that a multipath diffusion mechanism can enhance significantly the bulk diffusivity of a diffusing solute species through a material. The amount of solute escaping from a material is dependent strongly on the exchange coefficients, which govern the transfer of solute from the crystal lattice to the high-diffusivity paths and vice versa. In addition, the exchange coefficients ( ϰ1, and ϰ2) seem to control not only the amount of solute that is lost, but also the shape of the concentration profile. If | K1| < | K2|, concentration profiles generally are non-Fickian in shape, typically having shallow concentration gradients near the center (radius r = 0) and steep gradients towards the outer boundary of the material ( r = R). When | K1| ⩾ | K2| a concentration profile is generated which resembles a Fickian (volume) diffusion profile with an apparent bulk diffusivity between that of the crystal lattice and that of the high-diffusivity pathways

  19. Simplified method for numerical modeling of fiber lasers.

    Shtyrina, O V; Yarutkina, I A; Fedoruk, M P


    A simplified numerical approach to modeling of dissipative dispersion-managed fiber lasers is examined. We present a new numerical iteration algorithm for finding the periodic solutions of the system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the intra-cavity dynamics of the dissipative soliton characteristics in dispersion-managed fiber lasers. We demonstrate that results obtained using simplified model are in good agreement with full numerical modeling based on the corresponding partial differential equations.

  20. Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons

    Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.


    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

  1. Masonry constructions mechanical models and numerical applications

    Lucchesi, Massimiliano; Padovani, Cristina


    Numerical methods for the structural analysis of masonry constructions can be of great value in assessing the safety of artistically important masonry buildings and optimizing potential operations of maintenance and strengthening in terms of their cost-effectiveness, architectural impact and static effectiveness. This monograph firstly provides a detailed description of the constitutive equation of masonry-like materials, clearly setting out its most important features. It then goes on to provide a numerical procedure to solve the equilibrium problem of masonry solids. A large portion of the w

  2. Numerical considerations for Lagrangian stochastic dispersion models: Eliminating rogue trajectories, and the importance of numerical accuracy

    When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behavior in the numerical solution. This paper discusses numerical considerations when solving the Langevin-based particle velo...

  3. Numerical modelling of collapsing volcanic edifices

    Costa, Ana; Marques, Fernando; Kaus, Boris


    The flanks of Oceanic Volcanic Edifice's (OVEs) can occasionally become unstable. If that occurs, they can deform in two different modes: either slowly along localization failure zones (slumps) or catastrophically as debris avalanches. Yet the physics of this process is incompletely understood, and the role of factors such as the OVE's strength (viscosity, cohesion, friction angle), dimensions, geometry, and existence of weak layers remain to be addressed. Here we perform numerical simulations to study the interplay between viscous and plastic deformation on the gravitational collapse of an OVE (diffuse deformation vs. localization of failure along discrete structures). We focus on the contribution of the edifice's strength parameters for the mode of deformation, as well as on the type of basement. Tests were performed for a large OVE (7.5 km high, 200 km long) and either purely viscous (overall volcano edifice viscosities between 1019-1023 Pa.s), or viscoplastic rheology (within a range of cohesion and friction angle values). Results show that (a) for a strong basement (no slip basal boundary condition), the deformation pattern suggests wide/diffuse "listric" deformation within the volcanic edifice, without the development of discrete plastic failure zones; (b) for a weak basement (free slip basal boundary condition), rapid collapse of the edifice through the propagation of plastic failure structures within the edifice occurs. Tests for a smaller OVE (4.5 km by 30 km) show that failure localization along large-scale listric structures occurs more readily for different combinations of cohesion and friction angles. In these tests, high cohesion values combined with small friction angles lead to focusing of deformation along a narrower band. Tests with a weak layer underlying part of the volcanic edifice base show deformation focused along discrete structures mainly dipping towards the distal sector of the volcano. These tests for a small OVE constitute a promising

  4. Numerical

    M. Boumaza


    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  5. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models

    Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas; Jakobsen, K.P.


    A deterministic combination of numerical and physical models for coastal waves is developed. In the combined model, a Boussinesq model MIKE 21 BW is applied for the numerical wave computations. A piston-type 2D or 3D wavemaker and the associated control system with active wave absorption provides...

  6. Benchmarking numerical models of brittle thrust wedges

    Buiter, Susanne J H; Schreurs, Guido; Albertz, Markus; Gerya, Taras V.; Kaus, Boris; Landry, Walter; le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Mishin, Yury; Egholm, David L.; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Thieulot, Cedric; Crook, Tony; May, Dave; Souloumiac, Pauline; Beaumont, Christopher


    We report quantitative results from three brittle thrust wedge experiments, comparing numerical results directly with each other and with corresponding analogue results. We first test whether the participating codes reproduce predictions from analytical critical taper theory. Eleven codes pass the s

  7. Numerical simulations of stellar winds: polytropic models

    Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J. P.


    We discuss steady-state transonic outflows obtained by direct numerical solution of the hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic equations. We make use of the Versatile Advection Code, a software package for solving systems of (hyperbolic) partial differential equations. We proceed stepwise from a spher

  8. Numerical sunspot models - subsurface structure and helioseismic forward modeling (Invited)

    Rempel, M.; Birch, A. C.; Braun, D. C.


    The magnetic and thermal subsurface structure of sunspots has been debated for decades. While local helioseismic inversions allow in principle to constrain the subsurface structure of sunspots, a full inversion is still not possible due to the complicated interaction between waves and magnetic field. As an alternative it is possible to address this problem through forward modeling. Over the past few years numerical MHD models of entire sunspots including radiative transfer and a realistic equation of state have become possible. These simulations include p-modes excited by convection and the full interaction of these modes with the magnetic and thermal structure of the sunspot. In this talk I will present recent progress in MHD modeling of sunspots with special emphasis on the thermal and magnetic structure of numerical sunspot models. It turns out that modeled sunspots so far impose rather shallow perturbations to sound and fast mode speeds in the upper most 2 Mm. Nevertheless the seismic signatures are very similar to observed sunspots.

  9. A methodology for modeling photocatalytic reactors for indoor pollution control using previously estimated kinetic parameters

    Passalia, Claudio; Alfano, Orlando M. [INTEC - Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, CONICET - UNL, Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); FICH - Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Brandi, Rodolfo J., E-mail: [INTEC - Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica, CONICET - UNL, Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); FICH - Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Indoor pollution control via photocatalytic reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaling-up methodology based on previously determined mechanistic kinetics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation interchange model between catalytic walls using configuration factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modeling and experimental validation of a complex geometry photocatalytic reactor. - Abstract: A methodology for modeling photocatalytic reactors for their application in indoor air pollution control is carried out. The methodology implies, firstly, the determination of intrinsic reaction kinetics for the removal of formaldehyde. This is achieved by means of a simple geometry, continuous reactor operating under kinetic control regime and steady state. The kinetic parameters were estimated from experimental data by means of a nonlinear optimization algorithm. The second step was the application of the obtained kinetic parameters to a very different photoreactor configuration. In this case, the reactor is a corrugated wall type using nanosize TiO{sub 2} as catalyst irradiated by UV lamps that provided a spatially uniform radiation field. The radiative transfer within the reactor was modeled through a superficial emission model for the lamps, the ray tracing method and the computation of view factors. The velocity and concentration fields were evaluated by means of a commercial CFD tool (Fluent 12) where the radiation model was introduced externally. The results of the model were compared experimentally in a corrugated wall, bench scale reactor constructed in the laboratory. The overall pollutant conversion showed good agreement between model predictions and experiments, with a root mean square error less than 4%.

  10. Optimization methods and silicon solar cell numerical models

    Girardini, K.


    The goal of this project is the development of an optimization algorithm for use with a solar cell model. It is possible to simultaneously vary design variables such as impurity concentrations, front junction depth, back junctions depth, and cell thickness to maximize the predicted cell efficiency. An optimization algorithm has been developed and interfaced with the Solar Cell Analysis Program in 1 Dimension (SCAPID). SCAPID uses finite difference methods to solve the differential equations which, along with several relations from the physics of semiconductors, describe mathematically the operation of a solar cell. A major obstacle is that the numerical methods used in SCAPID require a significant amount of computer time, and during an optimization the model is called iteratively until the design variables converge to the value associated with the maximum efficiency. This problem has been alleviated by designing an optimization code specifically for use with numerically intensive simulations, to reduce the number of times the efficiency has to be calculated to achieve convergence to the optimal solution. Adapting SCAPID so that it could be called iteratively by the optimization code provided another means of reducing the cpu time required to complete an optimization. Instead of calculating the entire I-V curve, as is usually done in SCAPID, only the efficiency is calculated (maximum power voltage and current) and the solution from previous calculations is used to initiate the next solution.

  11. Numerical models of Plinian eruption columns and pyroclastic flows

    Valentine, Greg A.; Wohletz, Kenneth H.


    Numerical simulations of physical processes governing the large-scale dynamics of Plinian eruption columns reveal conditions contributing to column collapse and emplacement of pyroclastic flows. The simulations are based on numerical solution of the time-dependent, two-phase, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for jets in a gravitational field. This modeling effort is directed toward studying the steady discharge phase of eruptions in contrast to our previous models of the initial, unsteady blast phase. Analysis of 51 eruption models covers a wide range of vent exit pressures, inertial and buoyancy driving forces, and coupling of energy and momentum between gas and pyroclasts. Consideration of three dimensionless groups (Richardson and Rouse numbers and thermogravitational parameter) facilitates this analysis and defines conditions leading to column collapse. For eruptions with similar particle size characteristics, exit pressure ratios are also very important in determining column behavior; column behavior is much more sensitive to exit pressure ratio than to the density ratio between the column and the atmosphere. Model eruption columns with exit pressures exceeding atmospheric pressure have diamond-shaped patterns at their bases with internal dynamics that correspond closely to observations of overpressured jets in laboratory experiments. Collapsing fountains form pyroclastic flows that consist of low-concentration fronts, relatively thick heads, vortex development along the top surfaces, and rising clouds of buoyant ash. The presence of coarse-grained proximal deposits primarily reflects tephra size sorting within the eruption column before collapse, as opposed to that which occurs during lateral transport of the material in pyroclastic flows. The dynamics and particle behavior in the proximal zone around collapsing eruption columns is examined; the modeling indicates that flow within a few kilometers of a vent will be at its highest particle concentration

  12. Whistler emissions in the magnetosphere - satellite observations and numerical modeling

    Chum, J.; Jiricek, F.; Shklyar, D. R.

    The investigation of ionospheric and magnetospheric wave phenomena related to lightning strokes began from classical research by Eckersley (Nature, Lond., 135, 104, 1935) and Storey (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., A246, 908, 113-141, 1953) among others, and it has continued up to the present. VLF spectrograms from the MAGION 4 and MAGION 5 satellites contain most of the known types of VLF emissions, as well as some new ones not discussed previously. A partial list of the observed emissions involving nonducted propagation includes: magnetospherically reflected (MR) whistlers (and their subclass, Nu whistlers) predicted by Kimura (Radio Sci., 1, 3, 269-283, 1966) and then found by Smith and Angerami in the spectrograms of wave data from OGO 1 and 3 (J. Geophys. Res., 73, 1, 1-20, 1968); lower hybrid resonance (LHR) noise bands; LHR whistlers and LHR spherics; and oblique noise bands above the local LHR frequency. Recently, a new line of investigation was initiated by numerical modeling of VLF spectrograms of nonducted emissions caused by lightning. For such emissions, as observed by a satellite in the magnetosphere, the spectrograms depend on several factors: the properties of the source, the geomagnetic field structure and the cold plasma distribution which jointly influence the wave propagation, and the resonant interactions of the waves with energetic particles. Therefore, numerical modeling of spectrograms and comparing them with real ones may serve as an indirect tool for investigating the factors mentioned above and any other processes that affect the spectrograms. This tool is especially effective when the source of the emission is known, in particular with lightning-induced emissions. The main features of our numerical method for modeling spectrograms include: a) representation of the wave field as the sum of wave packets treatable by geometrical optics; b) construction of a frequency-time plot based on the notion of a group front; c) calculation of the

  13. Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank

    Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.


    A numerical model and measurements of flow and settling in activated sludge suspension is presented. The numerical model is an attempt to describe the complex and interrelated hydraulic and sedimentation phenomena by describing the turbulent flow field and the transport/dispersion of suspended sl...

  14. Stochastic Analysis Method of Sea Environment Simulated by Numerical Models

    刘德辅; 焦桂英; 张明霞; 温书勤


    This paper proposes the stochastic analysis method of sea environment simulated by numerical models, such as wave height, current field, design sea levels and longshore sediment transport. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of input and output factors of numerical models, their long-term distribution and confidence intervals are described in this paper.

  15. Numerical Modelling of Electromagnetic Field in a Tornado

    Pavel Fiala


    Full Text Available This study deals with the numerical model of both the physical and the chemical processes in the tornado. Within the paper, a basic theoretical model and a numerical solution are presented. We prepared numerical models based on the combined finite element method (FEM and the finite volume method (FVM. The model joins the magnetic, electric and current fields, the flow field and a chemical nonlinear ion model. The results were obtained by means of the FEM/FVM as a main application in ANSYS software.

  16. Numerical bifurcation analysis of immunological models with time delays

    Luzyanina, Tatyana; Roose, Dirk; Bocharov, Gennady


    In recent years, a large number of mathematical models that are described by delay differential equations (DDEs) have appeared in the life sciences. To analyze the models' dynamics, numerical methods are necessary, since analytical studies can only give limited results. In turn, the availability of efficient numerical methods and software packages encourages the use of time delays in mathematical modelling, which may lead to more realistic models. We outline recently developed numerical methods for bifurcation analysis of DDEs and illustrate the use of these methods in the analysis of a mathematical model of human hepatitis B virus infection.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Shatter Cones Development in Impact Craters

    Baratoux, D.; Melosh, H. J.


    Shatter cones are the characteristic forms of rock fractures in impact structures. They have been used for decades as unequivocal fingerprints of meteoritic impacts on Earth. The abundant data about shapes, apical angles, sizes and distributions of shatter cones for many terrestrial impact structures should provide insights for the determination of impact conditions and characteristics of shock waves produced by high-velocity projectiles in geologic media. However, previously proposed models for the formation of shatter cones do not agree with observations. For example, the widely accepted Johnson-Talbot mechanism requires that the longitudinal stress drops to zero between the arrival of the elastic precursor and the main plastic wave. Unfortunately, observations do not support such a drop. A model has been also proposed to explain the striated features on the surface of shatter cones but can not invoked for their conical shape. The mechanism by which shatter cones form thus remains enigmatic to date. In this paper we present a new model for the formation of shatter cones. Our model has been tested by means of numerical simulations using the hydrocodes SALE 2D enhanced with the Grady-Kipp-Melosh fragmentation model.

  18. Forecast Jointed Rock Mass Compressive Strength Using a Numerical Model

    Protosenya Anatoliy


    Full Text Available The method of forecasting the strength of the jointed rock mass by numerical modeling of finite element method in ABAQUS was described. The paper presents advantages of this method to solve the problem of determining the mechanical characteristics of jointed rock mass and the basic steps of creating a numerical geomechanical model of jointed rock mass and numerical experiment. Numerical simulation was carried out with jointed rock mass in order to obtain the ratio of strain and stress while loading the numerical model, determining parameters of quantitative assessment of the impact of the discontinuities orientation on the value of the compressive strength, compressive strength anisotropy. The results of the numerical experiment are compared with the data of experimental studies investigations. Innovative materials and structures are analyzed in this paper. The results that were obtained by calculation show qualitative agreement with the results of laboratory experiments of jointed rock mass.

  19. A basic mathematical and numerical model for gas injection

    Molenaar, J.


    In this paper we discuss a mathematical model for gas storage processes. In addition we outline an approach for numerical simulations. The focus is on model assumptions and limitations with respect to the software to be developed.

  20. A basic mathematical and numerical model for gas injection

    J. Molenaar (Gijs)


    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a mathematical model for gas storage processes. In addition we outline an approach for numerical simulations. The focus is on model assumptions and limitations with respect to the software to be developed.

  1. Experimental & Numerical Modeling of Non-combusting Model Firebrands' Transport

    Tohidi, Ali; Kaye, Nigel


    Fire spotting is one of the major mechanisms of wildfire spread. Three phases of this phenomenon are firebrand formation and break-off from burning vegetation, lofting and downwind transport of firebrands through the velocity field of the wildfire, and spot fire ignition upon landing. The lofting and downwind transport phase is modeled by conducting large-scale wind tunnel experiments. Non-combusting rod-like model firebrands with different aspect ratios are released within the velocity field of a jet in a boundary layer cross-flow that approximates the wildfire velocity field. Characteristics of the firebrand dispersion are quantified by capturing the full trajectory of the model firebrands using the developed image processing algorithm. The results show that the lofting height has a direct impact on the maximum travel distance of the model firebrands. Also, the experimental results are utilized for validation of a highly scalable coupled stochastic & parametric firebrand flight model that, couples the LES-resolved velocity field of a jet-in-nonuniform-cross-flow (JINCF) with a 3D fully deterministic 6-degrees-of-freedom debris transport model. The validation results show that the developed numerical model is capable of estimating average statistics of the firebrands' flight. Authors would like to thank support of the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1200560. Also, the presenter (Ali Tohid) would like to thank Dr. Michael Gollner from the University of Maryland College Park for the conference participation support.

  2. Strategy for a numerical Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. Further development of the theoretical/numerical approach

    Olofsson, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is conducting Preliminary Site Investigations at two different locations in Sweden in order to study the possibility of a Deep Repository for spent fuel. In the frame of these Site Investigations, Site Descriptive Models are achieved. These products are the result of an interaction of several disciplines such as geology, hydrogeology, and meteorology. The Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model constitutes one of these models. Before the start of the Site Investigations a numerical method using Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models and the 2D numerical software UDEC was developed. Numerical simulations were the tool chosen for applying the theoretical approach for characterising the mechanical rock mass properties. Some shortcomings were identified when developing the methodology. Their impacts on the modelling (in term of time and quality assurance of results) were estimated to be so important that the improvement of the methodology with another numerical tool was investigated. The theoretical approach is still based on DFN models but the numerical software used is 3DEC. The main assets of the programme compared to UDEC are an optimised algorithm for the generation of fractures in the model and for the assignment of mechanical fracture properties. Due to some numerical constraints the test conditions were set-up in order to simulate 2D plane strain tests. Numerical simulations were conducted on the same data set as used previously for the UDEC modelling in order to estimate and validate the results from the new methodology. A real 3D simulation was also conducted in order to assess the effect of the '2D' conditions in the 3DEC model. Based on the quality of the results it was decided to update the theoretical model and introduce the new methodology based on DFN models and 3DEC simulations for the establishment of the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. By separating the spatial variability into two

  3. FEM numerical model study of electrosurgical dispersive electrode design parameters.

    Pearce, John A


    Electrosurgical dispersive electrodes must safely carry the surgical current in monopolar procedures, such as those used in cutting, coagulation and radio frequency ablation (RFA). Of these, RFA represents the most stringent design constraint since ablation currents are often more than 1 to 2 Arms (continuous) for several minutes depending on the size of the lesion desired and local heat transfer conditions at the applicator electrode. This stands in contrast to standard surgical activations, which are intermittent, and usually less than 1 Arms, but for several seconds at a time. Dispersive electrode temperature rise is also critically determined by the sub-surface skin anatomy, thicknesses of the subcutaneous and supra-muscular fat, etc. Currently, we lack fundamental engineering design criteria that provide an estimating framework for preliminary designs of these electrodes. The lack of a fundamental design framework means that a large number of experiments must be conducted in order to establish a reasonable design. Previously, an attempt to correlate maximum temperatures in experimental work with the average current density-time product failed to yield a good match. This paper develops and applies a new measure of an electrode stress parameter that correlates well with both the previous experimental data and with numerical models of other electrode shapes. The finite element method (FEM) model work was calibrated against experimental RF lesions in porcine skin to establish the fundamental principle underlying dispersive electrode performance. The results can be used in preliminary electrode design calculations, experiment series design and performance evaluation.

  4. Considering digits in a current model of numerical development.

    Roesch, Stephanie; Moeller, Korbinian


    Numerical cognition has long been considered the perfect example of abstract information processing. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence in recent years suggesting that the representation of number magnitude may not be entirely abstract but may present a specific case of embodied cognition rooted in the sensory and bodily experiences of early finger counting and calculating. However, so far none of the existing models of numerical development considers the influence of finger-based representations. Therefore, we make first suggestions on (i) how finger-based representations may be integrated into a current model of numerical development; and (ii) how they might corroborate the acquisition of basic numerical competencies at different development levels.


    WU Chun-liang


    Sedimentation of particles in inclined and vertical vessels is numerically simulated by the Eulerian two-fluid model. The numerical results show an interesting phenomenon with two circulation vortexes in a vertical vessel but one in the inclined vessel. Sensitivity tests indicate that the boundary layer effect is the key to induce this phenomenon. A numerical method based on 2D unstructured meshes is presented to solve the hard-sphere discrete particle model. Several applications show the numerical method has a good performance to simulate dense particulate flows in irregular domains without regard to element types of the mesh.

  6. Cyclostratigraphy for Chinese red clay sequences: Implications to changing previous age models and paleoclimate interpretations

    Anwar, T.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Zhang, R.


    The Chinese Loess Plateau contains red clay sequence which has continuous alternation of sedimentary cycles with recurrent paleoclimatic fluctuations. Absence of abundant fossils and inability of radiometric dating method made magnetostratigraphy a leading method to build age model for the red clay. Here magnetostratigraphic age model in red clay sequence is tested using cyclostratigraphy as orbital parameters of Earth are known. Milankovitch periodicities recorded in magnetic susceptibility and grain size in the Shilou red clay section are investigated and previously found age of 11 Ma for this section is re-evaluated. Magnetostratigraphy dating based on only visual correlation could potentially lead to erroneous age model. In this study the correlation is executed through the iteration procedure until it is supported by cyclostratigraphy; i.e. Milankovitch cycles are resolved in the best possible manner. Our new approach provides an age of 5.2 Ma for the Shilou profile. Wavelet analysis reveals that a 400 kyr eccentricity cycle is well preserved and the existence of a 100 kyr eccentricity in the red clay sequence on the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau suggests that eccentricity plays a vital role in Pliocene climate evolution. Paleomonsoon evolution is reconstructed and divided into three intervals (5.2-4.5 Ma, 4.5-3.6 Ma and 3.6-2.58 Ma). The earliest stage indicates that summer and winter monsoon cycles may rapidly alter, whereas the middle stage reflects an intensification of winter monsoon and aridification in Asia, and the youngest stage is characterized by relatively intensified summer monsoon. This study demonstrates that cyclostratigraphy can greatly assist magnetostratigraphy in dating the red clay sequences, and implies that many published age models for the red clay sequences should likely be re-assessed where possible. An evaluation of the monsoon system and climate change in eastern Asia might prominently benefit from this approach.

  7. Axisymmetric Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    Morris, Christopher I.


    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred considerable interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models. In recent work by the author, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite rate chemistry CFD model was utilized to study the gasdynamics and performance characteristics of PDREs over a range of blowdown pressure ratios from 1-1000. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and enable first-order parametric studies of the effect of several nozzle and extension geometries on PDRE performance over a wide range of conditions. However, the quasi-one-dimensional approach is limited in that it cannot properly capture the multidimensional blast wave and flow expansion downstream of the PDRE, nor can it resolve nozzle flow separation if present. Moreover, the previous work was limited to single-pulse calculations. In this paper, an axisymmetric finite rate chemistry model is described and utilized to study these issues in greater detail. Example Mach number contour plots showing the multidimensional blast wave and nozzle exhaust plume are shown. The performance results are compared with the quasi-one-dimensional results from the previous paper. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated in order to determine the effect of viscous

  8. A Numerical Model for the Microcirculation in Skeletal Muscle Fascia

    Jacobitz, Frank G.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.


    A numerical model for blood flow in a microvascular network has been developed. The model uses the complete network topology of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia that was reconstructed from microscopic images. The fascia's network is composed of a feeding arterial network, a collecting venous network, and bundles of capillaries. The flow in the network's vessels is characterized by low Reynolds and Womersley numbers. The model consideres that the microvessels are distensible by pressure and that the arterioles are actively contractile. The blood has non-Newtonian apparent viscosity and blood cells are distributed at bifurcations according to the flow rates into the side branches. These properties have previously been determined experimentally. The method of indefinite admittances is used to compute the flow in the network. The apparent viscosity is computed from local values of hematocrit, shear, and vessel diameter. The model provides detailed information about the flow in all of the network's vessels. Statistical properties of the network, such as the overall flowrate through the network or distributions of pressure, shear stress, and hematocrit in the network are determined. Results for the flow in arterial, venous, and capillary vessels are compared.

  9. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke;


    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  10. Numerical model of Ca(OH)

    Koster, T.; Peelen, W.; Larbi, J.; Rooij, M. de; Polder, R.


    A mathematical model is being developed to describe a repair method in concrete, called cathodic protection (CP). The model is in principle also useful to describe electrodeposition in concrete, e.g. the process of re-precipitation of Ca(OH)2 invoked by an electrical current. In CP, the c

  11. Numerical Modelling of Wave Run-Up

    Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke


    Wave loads are important in problems related to offshore structure, such as wave run-up, slamming. The computation of such wave problems are carried out by CFD models. This paper presents one model, NS3, which solve 3D Navier-Stokes equations and use Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to treat the free...

  12. Amorphous track models: a numerical comparison study

    Greilich, Steffen; Grzanka, Leszek; Hahn, Ute;

    Amorphous track models such as Katz' Ion-Gamma-Kill (IGK) approach [1, 2] or the Local Effect Model (LEM) [3, 4] had reasonable success in predicting the response of solid state dosimeters and radiobiological systems. LEM is currently applied in radiotherapy for biological dose optimization in ca...

  13. Treatment with intranasal iloprost reduces disease manifestations in a murine model of previously established COPD.

    Lammi, Matthew R; Ghonim, Mohamed A; Pyakurel, Kusma; Naura, Amarjit S; Ibba, Salome V; Davis, Christian J; Okpechi, Samuel C; Happel, Kyle I; deBoisblanc, Bennett P; Shellito, Judd; Boulares, A Hamid


    Pulmonary endothelial prostacyclin appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The effect of treatment with a prostacyclin analog in animal models of previously established COPD is unknown. We evaluated the short- and long-term effect of iloprost on inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of COPD. Nineteen mice were exposed to LPS/elastase, followed by either three doses of intranasal iloprost or saline. In the long-term treatment experiment, 18 mice were exposed to LPS/elastase and then received 6 wk of iloprost or were left untreated as controls. In the short-term experiment, iloprost did not change AHR but significantly reduced serum IL-5 and IFN-γ. Long-term treatment with iloprost for both 2 and 6 wk significantly improved AHR. After 6 wk of iloprost, there was a reduction in bronchoalveolar lavage (BALF) neutrophils, serum IL-1β (30.0 ± 9.2 vs. 64.8 ± 7.4 pg/ml, P = 0.045), IL-2 (36.5 ± 10.6 vs. 83.8 ± 0.4 pg/ml, P = 0.01), IL-10 (75.7 ± 9.3 vs. 96.5 ± 3.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02), and nitrite (15.1 ± 5.4 vs. 30.5 ± 10.7 μmol, P = 0.01). Smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the lung homogenate was also significantly reduced after iloprost treatment (P = 0.02), and SMA thickness was reduced in the small and medium blood vessels after iloprost (P iloprost significantly reduced systemic inflammation in an LPS/elastase COPD model. Long-term iloprost treatment also reduced AHR, serum nitrite, SMA, and BALF neutrophilia. These data encourage future investigations of prostanoid therapy as a novel treatment for COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. MATLAB-FLUX Coupling for numerical modeling in education

    Pleshivtseva Yulia


    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure of optimization procedure based on a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment MATLAB and FEM software for numerical analysis in Electrical Engineering Higher Education. The procedure presented is developed and used in educational process at Samara State Technical University (SamSTU for optimization of interrelated electromagnetic and temperature fields during induction heating processes. Some study cases are shown for optimization of static induction heating processes based on 2D numerical FLUX model.

  15. Numerical Modelling of Structures with Uncertainties

    Kahsin Maciej


    Full Text Available The nature of environmental interactions, as well as large dimensions and complex structure of marine offshore objects, make designing, building and operation of these objects a great challenge. This is the reason why a vast majority of investment cases of this type include structural analysis, performed using scaled laboratory models and complemented by extended computer simulations. The present paper focuses on FEM modelling of the offshore wind turbine supporting structure. Then problem is studied using the modal analysis, sensitivity analysis, as well as the design of experiment (DOE and response surface model (RSM methods. The results of modal analysis based simulations were used for assessing the quality of the FEM model against the data measured during the experimental modal analysis of the scaled laboratory model for different support conditions. The sensitivity analysis, in turn, has provided opportunities for assessing the effect of individual FEM model parameters on the dynamic response of the examined supporting structure. The DOE and RSM methods allowed to determine the effect of model parameter changes on the supporting structure response.

  16. 3-D numerical modeling of plume-induced subduction initiation

    Baes, Marzieh; Gerya, taras; Sobolev, Stephan


    Investigation of mechanisms involved in formation of a new subduction zone can help us to better understand plate tectonics. Despite numerous previous studies, it is still unclear how and where an old oceanic plate starts to subduct beneath the other plate. One of the proposed scenarios for nucleation of subduction is plume-induced subduction initiation, which was investigated in detail, using 2-D models, by Ueda et al. (2008). Recently. Gerya et al. (2015), using 3D numerical models, proposed that plume-lithosphere interaction in the Archean led to the subduction initiation and onset of plate tectonic. In this study, we aim to pursue work of Ueda et al. (2008) by incorporation of 3-D thermo-mechanical models to investigate conditions leading to oceanic subduction initiation as a result of thermal-chemical mantle plume-lithosphere interaction in the modern earth. Results of our experiments show four different deformation regimes in response to plume-lithosphere interaction, that are a) self-sustaining subduction initiation where subduction becomes self-sustained, b) freezing subduction initiation where subduction stops at shallow depths, c) slab break-off where subducting circular slab breaks off soon after formation and d) plume underplating where plume does not pass through the lithosphere but spreads beneath it (failed subduction initiation). These different regimes depend on several parameters such as plume's size, composition and temperature, lithospheric brittle/plastic strength, age of the oceanic lithosphere and presence/absence of lithospheric heterogeneities. Results show that subduction initiates and becomes self-sustained when lithosphere is older than 10 Myr and non-dimensional ratio of the plume buoyancy force and lithospheric strength above the plume is higher than 2.

  17. Discovery of previously unrecognised local faults in London, UK, using detailed 3D geological modelling

    Aldiss, Don; Haslam, Richard


    In parts of London, faulting introduces lateral heterogeneity to the local ground conditions, especially where construction works intercept the Palaeogene Lambeth Group. This brings difficulties to the compilation of a ground model that is fully consistent with the ground investigation data, and so to the design and construction of engineering works. However, because bedrock in the London area is rather uniform at outcrop, and is widely covered by Quaternary deposits, few faults are shown on the geological maps of the area. This paper discusses a successful resolution of this problem at a site in east central London, where tunnels for a new underground railway station are planned. A 3D geological model was used to provide an understanding of the local geological structure, in faulted Lambeth Group strata, that had not been possible by other commonly-used methods. This model includes seven previously unrecognised faults, with downthrows ranging from about 1 m to about 12 m. The model was constructed in the GSI3D geological modelling software using about 145 borehole records, including many legacy records, in an area of 850 m by 500 m. The basis of a GSI3D 3D geological model is a network of 2D cross-sections drawn by a geologist, generally connecting borehole positions (where the borehole records define the level of the geological units that are present), and outcrop and subcrop lines for those units (where shown by a geological map). When the lines tracing the base of each geological unit within the intersecting cross-sections are complete and mutually consistent, the software is used to generate TIN surfaces between those lines, so creating a 3D geological model. Even where a geological model is constructed as if no faults were present, changes in apparent dip between two data points within a single cross-section can indicate that a fault is present in that segment of the cross-section. If displacements of similar size with the same polarity are found in a series

  18. Modelling asteroid brightness variations. I - Numerical methods

    Karttunen, H.


    A method for generating lightcurves of asteroid models is presented. The effects of the shape of the asteroid and the scattering law of a surface element are distinctly separable, being described by chosen functions that can easily be changed. The shape is specified by means of two functions that yield the length of the radius vector and the normal vector of the surface at a given point. The general shape must be convex, but spherical concavities producing macroscopic shadowing can also be modeled.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Rotary Kiln Productivity Increase


    Rotary kilns are used in many industrial processes ranging from cement manufacturing to waste incineration. The operating conditions vary widely depending on the process. While there are many models available within the literature and industry, the wide range of operating conditions justifies further modeling work to improve the understanding of the processes taking place within the kiln. The kiln being studied in this work produces calcium aluminate cements (CAC). In a first stage of the pro...

  20. Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Flows

    João M. Vedovoto


    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the development and implementation of a computational framework to perform numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent flows over complex geometries. The algorithm under consideration is based on a classical predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equations. The domain decomposition strategy is adopted for distributed computing, displaying very satisfactory levels of speed-up and efficiency. The Immersed Boundary Methodology is used to characterize the presence of a complex geometry. Such method demands two separate grids: An Eulerian, where the transport equations are solved with a Finite Volume, second order discretization and a Lagrangian domain, represented by a non-structured shell grid representing the immersed geometry. The in-house code developed was fully verified by the Method of Manufactured Solu- tions, in both Eulerian and Lagrangian domains. The capabilities of the resulting computational framework are illustrated on four distinct cases: a turbulent jet, the Poiseuille flow, as a matter of validation of the implemented Immersed Boundary methodology, the flow over a sphere covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, and finally, with the intention of demonstrating the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations - LES - in an industrial problem, the turbulent flow inside an industrial fan.

  1. Modelling the Noise-Robustness of Infants' Word Representations: The Impact of Previous Experience.

    Christina Bergmann

    Full Text Available During language acquisition, infants frequently encounter ambient noise. We present a computational model to address whether specific acoustic processing abilities are necessary to detect known words in moderate noise--an ability attested experimentally in infants. The model implements a general purpose speech encoding and word detection procedure. Importantly, the model contains no dedicated processes for removing or cancelling out ambient noise, and it can replicate the patterns of results obtained in several infant experiments. In addition to noise, we also addressed the role of previous experience with particular target words: does the frequency of a word matter, and does it play a role whether that word has been spoken by one or multiple speakers? The simulation results show that both factors affect noise robustness. We also investigated how robust word detection is to changes in speaker identity by comparing words spoken by known versus unknown speakers during the simulated test. This factor interacted with both noise level and past experience, showing that an increase in exposure is only helpful when a familiar speaker provides the test material. Added variability proved helpful only when encountering an unknown speaker. Finally, we addressed whether infants need to recognise specific words, or whether a more parsimonious explanation of infant behaviour, which we refer to as matching, is sufficient. Recognition involves a focus of attention on a specific target word, while matching only requires finding the best correspondence of acoustic input to a known pattern in the memory. Attending to a specific target word proves to be more noise robust, but a general word matching procedure can be sufficient to simulate experimental data stemming from young infants. A change from acoustic matching to targeted recognition provides an explanation of the improvements observed in infants around their first birthday. In summary, we present a

  2. Combining existing numerical models with data assimilation using weighted least-squares finite element methods.

    Rajaraman, Prathish K; Manteuffel, T A; Belohlavek, M; Heys, Jeffrey J


    A new approach has been developed for combining and enhancing the results from an existing computational fluid dynamics model with experimental data using the weighted least-squares finite element method (WLSFEM). Development of the approach was motivated by the existence of both limited experimental blood velocity in the left ventricle and inexact numerical models of the same flow. Limitations of the experimental data include measurement noise and having data only along a two-dimensional plane. Most numerical modeling approaches do not provide the flexibility to assimilate noisy experimental data. We previously developed an approach that could assimilate experimental data into the process of numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations, but the approach was limited because it required the use of specific finite element methods for solving all model equations and did not support alternative numerical approximation methods. The new approach presented here allows virtually any numerical method to be used for approximately solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and then the WLSFEM is used to combine the experimental data with the numerical solution of the model equations in a final step. The approach dynamically adjusts the influence of the experimental data on the numerical solution so that more accurate data are more closely matched by the final solution and less accurate data are not closely matched. The new approach is demonstrated on different test problems and provides significantly reduced computational costs compared with many previous methods for data assimilation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Numerical Considerations for Lagrangian Stochastic Dispersion Models: Eliminating Rogue Trajectories, and the Importance of Numerical Accuracy

    Bailey, Brian N.


    When Lagrangian stochastic models for turbulent dispersion are applied to complex atmospheric flows, some type of ad hoc intervention is almost always necessary to eliminate unphysical behaviour in the numerical solution. Here we discuss numerical strategies for solving the non-linear Langevin-based particle velocity evolution equation that eliminate such unphysical behaviour in both Reynolds-averaged and large-eddy simulation applications. Extremely large or `rogue' particle velocities are caused when the numerical integration scheme becomes unstable. Such instabilities can be eliminated by using a sufficiently small integration timestep, or in cases where the required timestep is unrealistically small, an unconditionally stable implicit integration scheme can be used. When the generalized anisotropic turbulence model is used, it is critical that the input velocity covariance tensor be realizable, otherwise unphysical behaviour can become problematic regardless of the integration scheme or size of the timestep. A method is presented to ensure realizability, and thus eliminate such behaviour. It was also found that the numerical accuracy of the integration scheme determined the degree to which the second law of thermodynamics or `well-mixed condition' was satisfied. Perhaps more importantly, it also determined the degree to which modelled Eulerian particle velocity statistics matched the specified Eulerian distributions (which is the ultimate goal of the numerical solution). It is recommended that future models be verified by not only checking the well-mixed condition, but perhaps more importantly by checking that computed Eulerian statistics match the Eulerian statistics specified as inputs.

  4. Some Numerical Aspects on Crowd Motion - The Hughes Model

    Gomes, Diogo A.


    Here, we study a crowd model proposed by R. Hughes in [5] and we describe a numerical approach to solve it. This model comprises a Fokker-Planck equation coupled with an Eikonal equation with Dirichlet or Neumann data. First, we establish a priori estimates for the solution. Second, we study radial solutions and identify a shock formation mechanism. Third, we illustrate the existence of congestion, the breakdown of the model, and the trend to the equilibrium. Finally, we propose a new numerical method and consider two numerical examples.

  5. Numerical Poisson-Boltzmann Model for Continuum Membrane Systems.

    Botello-Smith, Wesley M; Liu, Xingping; Cai, Qin; Li, Zhilin; Zhao, Hongkai; Luo, Ray


    Membrane protein systems are important computational research topics due to their roles in rational drug design. In this study, we developed a continuum membrane model utilizing a level set formulation under the numerical Poisson-Boltzmann framework within the AMBER molecular mechanics suite for applications such as protein-ligand binding affinity and docking pose predictions. Two numerical solvers were adapted for periodic systems to alleviate possible edge effects. Validation on systems ranging from organic molecules to membrane proteins up to 200 residues, demonstrated good numerical properties. This lays foundations for sophisticated models with variable dielectric treatments and second-order accurate modeling of solvation interactions.

  6. Elements of Constitutive Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Frictional Soils

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    This thesis deals with elements of elasto-plastic constitutive modelling and numerical analysis of frictional soils. The thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports in which central characteristics of soil behaviour and applied numerical techniques are considered. The development...

  7. Mathematical and Numerical Analyses of Peridynamics for Multiscale Materials Modeling

    Gunzburger, Max [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    We have treated the modeling, analysis, numerical analysis, and algorithmic development for nonlocal models of diffusion and mechanics. Variational formulations were developed and finite element methods were developed based on those formulations for both steady state and time dependent problems. Obstacle problems and optimization problems for the nonlocal models were also treated and connections made with fractional derivative models.

  8. Reduction of large-scale numerical ground water flow models

    Vermeulen, P.T.M.; Heemink, A.W.; Testroet, C.B.M.


    Numerical models are often used for simulating ground water flow. Written in state space form, the dimension of these models is of the order of the number of model cells and can be very high (> million). As a result, these models are computationally very demanding, especially if many different scena

  9. A numerical model for ground temperature determination

    Jaszczur, M.; Polepszyc, I.; Biernacka, B.; Sapińska-Śliwa, A.


    The ground surface temperature and the temperature with respect to depth are one of the most important issues for geotechnical and environmental applications as well as for plants and other living organisms. In geothermal systems, temperature is directly related to the energy resources in the ground and it influences the efficiency of the ground source system. The ground temperature depends on a very large number of parameters, but it often needs to be evaluated with good accuracy. In the present work, models for the prediction of the ground temperature with a focus on the surface temperature at which all or selected important ground and environmental phenomena are taken into account have been analysed. It has been found that the simplest models and the most complex model may result in a similar temperature variation, yet at a very low depth and for specific cases only. A detailed analysis shows that taking into account different types of pavement or a greater depth requires more complex and advanced models.



    Jun 30, 2014 ... Modeling is by definition an approximation of reality, so its results are ... The values of lift coefficient were improved after modifications of the .... of static pressure is defined boundary conditions at the origin of the variation of ...

  11. Numerical Modeling of Rotary Kiln Productivity Increase

    Romero-Valle, M.A.; Pisaroni, M.; Van Puyvelde, D.; Lahaye, D.J.P.; Sadi, R.


    Rotary kilns are used in many industrial processes ranging from cement manufacturing to waste incineration. The operating conditions vary widely depending on the process. While there are many models available within the literature and industry, the wide range of operating conditions justifies furthe

  12. A numerical reference model for themomechanical subduction

    Quinquis, Matthieu; Chemia, Zurab; Tosi, Nicola


    . Our reference model represents ocean-ocean convergence and describes initial geometries and lithological stratification for a three-layered subducting slab and overriding plate along with their respective flow laws and chemical composition. It also includes kinematic and thermal boundary conditions...

  13. Numerical modeling of transformer inrush currents

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.


    This paper presents an application of a vector hysteresis model to the prediction of the inrush current due the arbitrary initial excitation of a transformer after a fault. The approach proposed seems promising in order to predict the transient overshoot in current and the optimal time to close the circuit after the fault.

  14. Numerical modeling of transformer inrush currents

    Cardelli, E. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia (Italy); Center for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research (Italy); Faba, A., E-mail: [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia (Italy); Center for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research (Italy)


    This paper presents an application of a vector hysteresis model to the prediction of the inrush current due the arbitrary initial excitation of a transformer after a fault. The approach proposed seems promising in order to predict the transient overshoot in current and the optimal time to close the circuit after the fault.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Subglacial Sediment Deformation

    Damsgaard, Anders


    incompatible with commonly accepted till rheology models. Variation in pore-water pressure proves to cause reorganization in the internal stress network and leads to slow creeping deformation. The rate of creep is non-linearly dependent on the applied stresses. Granular creep can explain slow glacial...

  16. Numerical modeling of oscillating Taylor bubbles

    S. Ambrose


    Full Text Available In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling is used to simulate Taylor bubbles rising in vertical pipes. Experiments indicate that in large diameter (0.29 m pipes for an air–water system, the bubbles can rise in a oscillatory manner, depending on the method of air injection. The CFD models are able to capture this oscillatory behavior because the air phase is modeled as a compressible ideal gas. Insights into the flow field ahead and behind the bubble during contraction and expansion are shown. For a bubble with an initial pressure equal to the hydrostatic pressure at its nose, no oscillations are seen in the bubble as it rises. If the initial pressure in the bubble is set less than or greater than the hydrostatic pressure then the length of the bubble oscillates with an amplitude that depends on the magnitude of the initial bubble pressure relative to the hydrostatic pressure. The frequency of the oscillations is inversely proportional to the square root of the head of water above the bubble and so the frequency increases as the bubble approaches the water surface. The predicted frequency also depends inversely on the square root of the average bubble length, in agreement with experimental observations and an analytical model that is also presented. In this model, a viscous damping term due to the presence of a Stokes boundary layer for the oscillating cases is introduced for the first time and used to assess the effect on the oscillations of increasing the liquid viscosity by several orders of magnitude.

  17. Numerical Modelling of Self Healing Mechanisms

    Remmers, Joris J. C.; de Borst, René

    A number of self healing mechanisms for composite materials have been presented in the previous chapters of this book. These methods vary from the classical concept of micro-encapsulating of healing agents in polymer systems to the autonomous healing of concrete. The key feature of these self healing mechanisms is the transport of material to the damaged zone in order to establish the healing process. Generally, this material is a fluid and its motion is driven by capillary action which enables transportation over relatively large distances requiring little or no work. In the microencapsulated polymers as developed by White et al. [1], this liquid material is a healing agent, which is enclosed in the material by micro-encapsulation. When the capsule is ruptured by a crack, the healing agent will flow into the crack, driven by capillary action. Polymerisation of this healing agent is triggered by contact with catalysts which are inserted in the material and whose position is fixed. The new polymerised material will rebond the crack surfaces.

  18. Numerical modelling of instantaneous plate tectonics

    Minster, J. B.; Haines, E.; Jordan, T. H.; Molnar, P.


    Assuming lithospheric plates to be rigid, 68 spreading rates, 62 fracture zones trends, and 106 earthquake slip vectors are systematically inverted to obtain a self-consistent model of instantaneous relative motions for eleven major plates. The inverse problem is linearized and solved iteratively by a maximum-likelihood procedure. Because the uncertainties in the data are small, Gaussian statistics are shown to be adequate. The use of a linear theory permits (1) the calculation of the uncertainties in the various angular velocity vectors caused by uncertainties in the data, and (2) quantitative examination of the distribution of information within the data set. The existence of a self-consistent model satisfying all the data is strong justification of the rigid plate assumption. Slow movement between North and South America is shown to be resolvable.

  19. Analytical and Numerical Modeling for Flexible Pipes

    WANG Wei; CHEN Geng


    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers,in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties,has been analyzed.Specifically,the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics.The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness.With consideration of the effective elastic moduli,the structure can be properly analyzed.Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated.A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque.Further,the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered.Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed,which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  20. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng


    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  1. Numerical modeling of the debris flows runout

    Federico, Francesco; Cesali, Chiara


    Rapid debris flows are identified among the most dangerous of all landslides. Due to their destructive potential, the runout length has to be predicted to define the hazardous areas and design safeguarding measures. To this purpose, a continuum model to predict the debris flows mobility is developed. It is based on the well known depth-integrated avalanche model proposed by Savage and Hutter (S&H model) to simulate the dry granular materials flows. Conservation of mass and momentum equations, describing the evolving geometry and the depth averaged velocity distribution, are re-written taking into account the effects of the interstitial pressures and the possible variation of mass along the motion due to erosion/deposition processes. Furthermore, the mechanical behaviour of the debris flow is described by a recently developed rheological law, which allows to take into account the dissipative effects of the grain inelastic collisions and friction, simultaneously acting within a `shear layer', typically at the base of the debris flows. The governing PDEs are solved by applying the finite difference method. The analysis of a documented case is finally carried out.

  2. Numerical and physical model study of a vertical slot fishway

    Bombač Martin


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical study of a vertical slot fishway (VSF. A 2-D depth-averaged shallow water numerical model PCFLOW2D coupled with three different turbulent models (constant eddy viscosity, Smagorinsky and k - ε was used. A detailed analysis of numerical parameters needed for a correct simulation of the phenomenon was carried out. Besides the velocity field, attention was paid to important hydraulic parameters such as maximum velocity in the slot region and energy dissipation rate ε in order to evaluate the performance of VSF. A scaled physical hydraulic model was built to ensure reliable experimental data for the validation of the numerical model. Simulations of variant configurations of VSF showed that even small changes in geometry can produce more fishfriendly flow characteristics in pools. The present study indicates that the PCFLOW2D program is an appropriate tool to meet the main demands of the VSF design.

  3. Mathematical and numerical foundations of turbulence models and applications

    Chacón Rebollo, Tomás


    With applications to climate, technology, and industry, the modeling and numerical simulation of turbulent flows are rich with history and modern relevance. The complexity of the problems that arise in the study of turbulence requires tools from various scientific disciplines, including mathematics, physics, engineering, and computer science. Authored by two experts in the area with a long history of collaboration, this monograph provides a current, detailed look at several turbulence models from both the theoretical and numerical perspectives. The k-epsilon, large-eddy simulation, and other models are rigorously derived and their performance is analyzed using benchmark simulations for real-world turbulent flows. Mathematical and Numerical Foundations of Turbulence Models and Applications is an ideal reference for students in applied mathematics and engineering, as well as researchers in mathematical and numerical fluid dynamics. It is also a valuable resource for advanced graduate students in fluid dynamics,...

  4. On numerical modeling of animal swimming and flight

    Deng, Hong-Bin; Xu, Yuan-Qing; Chen, Duan-Duan; Dai, Hu; Wu, Jian; Tian, Fang-Bao


    Aquatic and aerial animals have developed their superior and complete mechanisms of swimming and flight. These mechanisms bring excellent locomotion performances to natural creatures, including high efficiency, long endurance ability, high maneuverability and low noise, and can potentially provide inspiration for the design of the man-made vehicles. As an efficient research approach, numerical modeling becomes more and more important in studying the mechanisms of swimming and flight. This review is focused on assessing the recent progress in numerical techniques of solving animal swimming and flight problems. According to the complexity of the problems considered, numerical studies are classified into five stages, of which the main characteristics and the numerical strategies are described and discussed. In addition, the body-conformal mesh, Cartesian-mesh, overset-grid, and meshfree methods are briefly introduced. Finally, several open issues in numerical modeling in this field are highlighted.

  5. Numerical modeling of 3-D terrain effect on MT field

    徐世浙; 阮百尧; 周辉; 陈乐寿; 徐师文


    Using the boundary element method, the numerical modeling problem of three-dimensional terrain effect on magnetotelluric (MT) field is solved. This modeling technique can be run on PC in the case of adopting special net division. The result of modeling test for 2-D terrain by this modeling technique is basically coincident with that by 2-D modeling technique, but there is a great difference between the results of 3-D and 2-D modeling for 3-D terrain.

  6. Numeric Modeling of Granular Asteroid Growth

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Lazzati, D.


    It is believed that planetesimals and asteroids are created by the constructive collisions of smaller objects, loosely bound under the effect of self-gravity and/or contact forces. However, the internal dynamics of these collisions and whether they trigger growth or fragmentation are poorly understood. Prior research in the topic has established regimes for the results of constructive collisions of particles under contact forces, but neglects gravity, a critical component once particles are no longer touching, and force chains, an uneven distribution of force inherent to granular materials. We run simulations binary collisions of clusters of particles modeled as hard spheres. Our simulations take into account self-gravity, dissipation of energy, friction, and use a potential function for overlapping particles to study force chains. We present here the collision outcome for clusters with variable masses, particle counts, velocities, and impact parameter. We compare our results to other models and simulations, and find that the collisions remain constructive at higher energies than classically predicted.

  7. Terrane accretion: Insights from numerical modelling

    Vogt, Katharina; Gerya, Taras


    The oceanic crust is not homogenous, but contains significantly thicker crust than norm, i.e. extinct arcs, spreading ridges, detached continental fragments, volcanic piles or oceanic swells. These (crustal) fragments may collide with continental crust and form accretionary complexes, contributing to its growth. We analyse this process using a thermo-mechanical computer model (i2vis) of an ocean-continent subduction zone. In this model the oceanic plate can bend spontaneously under the control of visco-plastic rheologies. It moreover incorporates effects such as mineralogical phase changes, fluid release and consumption, partial melting and melt extraction. Based on our 2-D experiments we suggest that the lithospheric buoyancy of the downgoing slab and the rheological strength of crustal material may result in a variety of accretionary processes. In addition to terrane subduction, we are able to identify three distinct modes of terrane accretion: frontal accretion, basal accretion and underplating plateaus. We show that crustal fragments may dock onto continental crust and cease subduction, be scrapped off the downgoing plate, or subduct to greater depth prior to slab break off and subsequent exhumation. Direct consequences of these processes include slab break off, subduction zone transference, structural reworking, formation of high-pressure terranes, partial melting and crustal growth.

  8. 2-dimensional numerical modeling of active magnetic regeneration

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders


    Various aspects of numerical modeling of Active Magnetic Regeneration (AMR) are presented. Using a 2-dimensional numerical model for solving the unsteady heat transfer equations for the AMR system, a range of physical effects on both idealized and non-idealized AMR are investigated. The modeled...... system represents a linear, parallel-plate based AMR. The idealized version of the model is able to predict the theoretical performance of AMR in terms of cooling power and temperature span. This is useful to a certain extent, but a model reproducing experiments to a higher degree is desirable. Therefore...

  9. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano


    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project.......Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  10. Numerical modeling in photonic crystals integrated technology: the COPERNICUS Project

    Malaguti, Stefania; Armaroli, Andrea; Bellanca, Gaetano


    Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project.......Photonic crystals will play a fundamental role in the future of optical communications. The relevance of the numerical modeling for the success of this technology is assessed by using some examples concerning the experience of the COPERNICUS Project....

  11. The Numerical Modeling of Transient Regimes of Diesel Generator Sets

    Cristian Roman


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the numerical modeling of a diesel generator set used as amain energy source in isolated areas and as a back-up energy source in the case ofrenewable energy systems. The numerical models are developed using a Matlab/Simulinksoftware package and they prove to be a powerful tool for the computer aided design ofcomplex hybrid power systems. Several operation regimes of the equipment are studied.The numerical study is completed with experimental measurements on a Kipor type dieselelectricgenerator set.

  12. Numerical Models of Blackbody-Dominated GRBs

    Cuesta-Martínez, Carlos F; Mimica, Petar; Thöne, Christina C; de Ugarte-Postigo, Antonio


    Blackbody-dominated (BBD) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are events characterized by the absence of a typical afterglow, long durations and the presence of a significant thermal component following the prompt gamma-ray emission. GRB 101225A (the `Christmas burst') is a prototype of this class. A plausible progenitor system for it, and for the BBD-GRBs, is the merger of a neutron star (NS) and a helium core of an evolved, massive star. Using relativistic hydrodynamic simulations we model the propagation of an ultrarelativistic jet through the enviroment created by such a merger and we compute the whole radiative signature, both thermal and non-thermal, of the jet dynamical evolution. We find that the thermal emission originates from the interaction between the jet and the hydrogen envelope ejected during the NS/He merger.

  13. Multidimensional numerical modeling of heat exchangers

    Sha, W. T.; Yang, C. I.; Kao, T. T.; Cho, S. M.

    A comprehensive, multidimensional, thermal-hydraulic model is developed for the analysis of shell-and-tube heat exchangers for liquid-metal services. For the shellside fluid, the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for continuum fluids are modified using the concept of porosity, surface permeability and distributed resistance to account for the blockage effects due to the presence of heat-transfer tubes, flow baffles/shrouds, the support plates, etc. On the tubeside, the heat-transfer tubes are connected in parallel between the inlet and outlet plenums, and tubeside flow distribution is calculated based on the plenum-to-plenum pressure difference being equal for all tubes. It is assumed that the fluid remains single-phase on the shell side and may undergo phase-change on the tube side, thereby simulating the conditions of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) and steam generators (SG).

  14. Numerical model for learning concepts of streamflow simulation

    DeLong, L.L.; ,


    Numerical models are useful for demonstrating principles of open-channel flow. Such models can allow experimentation with cause-and-effect relations, testing concepts of physics and numerical techniques. Four PT is a numerical model written primarily as a teaching supplement for a course in one-dimensional stream-flow modeling. Four PT options particularly useful in training include selection of governing equations, boundary-value perturbation, and user-programmable constraint equations. The model can simulate non-trivial concepts such as flow in complex interconnected channel networks, meandering channels with variable effective flow lengths, hydraulic structures defined by unique three-parameter relations, and density-driven flow.The model is coded in FORTRAN 77, and data encapsulation is used extensively to simplify maintenance and modification and to enhance the use of Four PT modules by other programs and programmers.

  15. Stepped spillway optimization through numerical and physical modeling

    Hamed Sarkardeh, Morteza Marosi, Raza Roshan


    Full Text Available The spillway is among the most important structures of a dam. It is importance for the spillway to be designed properly and passes flood flow safely with more energy dissipation. The zone which ogee spillway crest and stepped chute profile are joined with each other is important in design view. In the present study, a physical model as well as a numerical model was employed on a case study of stepped spillway to modify the transitional zone and improve flow pattern over the spillway. Many alternatives were examined and optimized. Finally, the performance of the selected alternative was checked for different flow conditions, air entrainment and energy dissipation. To simulate the turbulence phenomenon, RNG model and for free surface VOF model was selected in the numerical model. Results of the numerical and physical models were compared and good agreement concluded in flow conditions and energy dissipation.

  16. A modular approach to numerical human body modeling

    Forbes, P.A.; Griotto, G.; Rooij, L. van


    The choice of a human body model for a simulated automotive impact scenario must take into account both accurate model response and computational efficiency as key factors. This study presents a "modular numerical human body modeling" approach which allows the creation of a customized human body mod

  17. Numerical solution of stochastic SIR model by Bernstein polynomials

    N. Rahmani


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present numerical method based on Bernstein polynomials for solving the stochastic SIR model. By use of Bernstein operational matrix and its stochastic operational matrix we convert stochastic SIR model to a nonlinear system that can be solved by Newton method. Finally, a test problem of SIR model is presented to illustrate our mathematical findings.

  18. A modular approach to numerical human body modeling

    Forbes, P.A.; Griotto, G.; Rooij, L. van


    The choice of a human body model for a simulated automotive impact scenario must take into account both accurate model response and computational efficiency as key factors. This study presents a "modular numerical human body modeling" approach which allows the creation of a customized human body

  19. A simple numerical model of a geometrically nonlinear Timoshenko beam

    Keijdener, C.; Metrikine, A.


    In the original problem for which this model was developed, onedimensional flexible objects interact through a non-linear contact model. Due to the non-linear nature of the contact model, a numerical time-domain approach was adopted. One of the goals was to see if the coupling between axial and tran

  20. Squeal noise in simple numerical brake models

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.


    Since the early 1920s, automotive disc brake squeal has caused warranty issues and customer dissatisfaction. Despite a good deal of progress achieved, predicting brake squeal propensity is as difficult as ever as not all mechanisms and interactions are known owing to their highly fugitive complex nature. In recent years, research has been focused on the prediction of unstable vibration modes by the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) for the mode-coupling type of instability. There has been very limited consideration given to the calculation of the acoustic radiation properties due to friction contact between a pad and a rotor. Recent analyses using a forced response analysis with harmonic contact pressure excitation indicates negative dissipated energy at some pad eigenfrequencies predicted to be stable by the CEA. A transient nonlinear time domain analysis with no external excitation indicates that squeal could develop at these eigenfrequencies. Here, the acoustic radiation characteristics of those pad modes are determined by analysing the acoustic power levels and radiation efficiencies of simplified brake models in the form of a pad rubbing on a plate or on a disc using the acoustic boundary element method based on velocities extracted from the forced response analysis. Results show that unstable pad modes trigger unstable disc vibrations resulting in instantaneous mode squeal similar to those observed experimentally. Changes in the radiation efficiency with pressure variations are smaller than those with friction coefficient variations and are caused by the phase difference of the velocities out-of-plane vibration between the pad and the disc.

  1. Numerical Models of Alaskan Tectonics: A Review and Looking Ahead to a New Era of Research

    Jadamec, M. A.; Freymueller, J. T.


    The Pacific-North American plate boundary in Alaska is in the current scientific spotlight, as a highlighted tectonic region for integrated scientific investigation. It is timely, therefore, to step back and examine the previous numerical modeling studies of Alaska. Reviewing the numerical models is valuable, as geodynamic modeling can be a predictive tool that can guide and target field studies, both geologic and geophysical. This review presents a comparison of the previous numerical modeling studies of the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, including the mainland and extending into northwestern Canada. By distinguishing between the model set-up, governing equations, and underlying assumptions, non-modelers can more easily understand under what context the modeling predictions can be interpreted. Several key features in the Alaska tectonic setting appear in all the models to have a first order effect on the resulting deformation, such as the plate margin geometry and Denali fault. In addition, there are aspects of the tectonic setting that lead to very different results depending how they are implemented into the models. For example, models which fix the slab velocity to surface plate motions predict lower mantle flow rates than models that allow the slab to steepen. Despite the previous modeling studies, many unanswered questions remain, including the formation of the Wrangell volcanics, the driver for motion in western and interior Alaska, and the timing and nature of slab deformation. A synthesis of this kind will be of value to geologists, geodeticists, seismologists, volcanologists, sedimentologists, geochemists, as well as geodynamicists.

  2. Numerical simulations of a reduced model for blood coagulation

    Pavlova, Jevgenija; Fasano, Antonio; Sequeira, Adélia


    In this work, the three-dimensional numerical resolution of a complex mathematical model for the blood coagulation process is presented. The model was illustrated in Fasano et al. (Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 51:1-14, 2012), Pavlova et al. (Theor Biol 380:367-379, 2015). It incorporates the action of the biochemical and cellular components of blood as well as the effects of the flow. The model is characterized by a reduction in the biochemical network and considers the impact of the blood slip at the vessel wall. Numerical results showing the capacity of the model to predict different perturbations in the hemostatic system are discussed.

  3. Multilayer Numerical Modeling of Flows through Vegetation Using a Mixing-Length Turbulence Model

    Hector Barrios-Piña


    Full Text Available This work focuses on the effects of vegetation on a fluid flow pattern. In this numerical research, we verify the applicability of a simpler turbulence model than the commonly used k-" model to predict the mean flow through vegetation. The novel characteristic of this turbulence model is that the horizontal mixing-length is explicitly calculated and coupled with a multi-layer approach for the vertical mixing-length, within a general three-dimensional eddy-viscosity formulation. This mixing-length turbulence model has been validated in previous works for different kinds of non-vegetated flows. The hydrodynamic numerical model used for simulations is based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations for shallow water flows, where a vegetation shear stress term is considered to reproduce the effects of drag forces on flow. A second-order approximation is used for spatial discretization and a semi-implicit Lagrangian–Eulerian scheme is used for time discretization. In order to validate the numerical results, we compare them against experimental data reported in the literature. The comparisons are carried out for two cases of study: submerged vegetation and submerged and emergent vegetation, both within an open channel flow.

  4. Exploring oceanic impact crater mechanics through numerical models

    Wünnemann, K.; Lange, M. A.


    The mechanics of oceanic impact events differ in several ways from the processes that accompany the strike of an asteroid on land. In order to explore the cratering process on a water-covered target, a series of 2D hydrocode simulations have been carried out. Whereas crater structures on continental targets are the result of a gravity-driven collapse of the transient cavity that is formed immediately after the impact, we show that oceanic impact structures are additionally modified by strong water movements along the ocean-sea floor interface. Water currents directed both inwardly and outwardly from the impact point result in significant structural disturbances of the pelagic sediments. These currents are treated in the numerical models through an analysis of massless tracer particles movement initially placed in the target. In the models it is shown, that the modification of the ocean floor by water currents takes place, regardless of whether or not the residual kinetic energy of the impactor is large enough to penetrate the water column and to form a crater at the ocean floor. This hypothesis verified by an investigation of the so far only known deep sea impact structure, the Eltanin impact structure. Here a zone of chaotically deposited sediments was found but no depression in the ocean floor has been detected. Strong water surges play also an import role in the modification of crater structures at relatively shallow water depth on the continental shelf. This has been observed in the formation of gullies at the Lockne structure in Sweden. Even more surprisingly is the existence of a ringed impact structure in the North Sea, the Silverpit crater, which has a diameter of only 20 km. We explain the formation of a ring structure, which has not previously been thought possible at such a small scale, via numerical modelling by extremely weak strength properties of the target rocks. This kind of strength softening may be due to the fact, that water is involved in the

  5. Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra


    Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.

  6. Considering digits in a current model of numerical development

    Roesch, Stephanie; Moeller, Korbinian


    Numerical cognition has long been considered the perfect example of abstract information processing. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence in recent years suggesting that the representation of number magnitude may not be entirely abstract but may present a specific case of embodied cognition rooted in the sensory and bodily experiences of early finger counting and calculating. However, so far none of the existing models of numerical development considers the influence of finger-based representations. Therefore, we make first suggestions on (i) how finger-based representations may be integrated into a current model of numerical development; and (ii) how they might corroborate the acquisition of basic numerical competencies at different development levels. PMID:25628559

  7. Fast and stable numerical method for neuronal modelling

    Hashemi, Soheil; Abdolali, Ali


    Excitable cell modelling is of a prime interest in predicting and targeting neural activity. Two main limits in solving related equations are speed and stability of numerical method. Since there is a tradeoff between accuracy and speed, most previously presented methods for solving partial differential equations (PDE) are focused on one side. More speed means more accurate simulations and therefore better device designing. By considering the variables in finite differenced equation in proper time and calculating the unknowns in the specific sequence, a fast, stable and accurate method is introduced in this paper for solving neural partial differential equations. Propagation of action potential in giant axon is studied by proposed method and traditional methods. Speed, consistency and stability of the methods are compared and discussed. The proposed method is as fast as forward methods and as stable as backward methods. Forward methods are known as fastest methods and backward methods are stable in any circumstances. Complex structures can be simulated by proposed method due to speed and stability of the method.

  8. Numerical modelling of volatiles in the deep mantle

    Eichheimer, Philipp; Thielmann, Marcel; Golabek, Gregor J.


    The transport and storage of water in the mantle significantly affects several material properties of mantle rocks and thus water plays a key role in a variety of geodynamical processes (tectonics, magmatism etc.). The processes driving transport and circulation of H2O in subduction zones remain a debated topic. Geological and seismological observations suggest different inflow mechanisms of water e.g. slab bending, thermal cracking and serpentinization (Faccenda et al., 2009; Korenaga, 2017), followed by dehydration of the slab. On Earth both shallow and steep subduction can be observed (Li et al., 2011). However most previous models (van Keken et al., 2008; Wilson et al., 2014) did not take different dip angles and subduction velocities of slabs into account. To which extent these parameters and processes influence the inflow of water still remains unclear. We present 2D numerical models simulating the influence of the various water inflow mechanisms on the mantle with changing dip angle and subduction velocity of the slab over time. The results are used to make predictions regarding the rheological behavior of the mantle wedge, dehydration regimes and volcanism at the surface. References: van Keken, P. E., et al. A community benchmark for subduction zone modeling. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 171, 187-197 (2008). Faccenda, M., T.V. Gerya, and L. Burlini. Deep slab hydration induced by bending-related variations in tectonic pressure. Nat. Geosci. 2, 790-793 (2009). Korenaga, J. On the extent of mantle hydration caused by plate bending. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 457, 1-9 (2017). Wilson, C. R., et al. Fluid flow in subduction zones: The role of solid rheology and compaction pressure. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 261-274 (2014). Li, Z. H., Z. Q. Xu, and T. V. Gerya. Flat versus steep subduction: Contrasting modes for the formation and exhumation of high- to ultrahigh-pressure rocks in continental collision zones. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 301, 65-77 (2011).

  9. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    DONG GuoHai; MA XiaoZhou; TENG Bin


    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is nu-merically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the pri-mary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Human Body

    Zuzana Psenakova


    Full Text Available Interactions of electromagnetic field (EMF with environment and with tissue of human beings are still under discussion and many research teams are investigating it. The human simulation models are used for biomedical research in a lot of areas, where it is advantage to replace real human body (tissue by the numerical model. Biological effects of EMF are one of the areas, where numerical models are used with many advantages. On the other side, this research is very specific and it is always quite hard to simulate realistic human tissue. This paper deals with different possibilities of numerical modelling of electromagnetic field effects on the human body (especially calculation of the specific absorption rate (SAR distribution in human body and thermal effect.

  11. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint


    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is numerically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the primary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  12. Hysteresis model of magnetostrictive actuators and its numerical realization

    TANG Zhi-feng; LV Fu-zai; XIANG Zhan-qin


    This paper presents two numerical realization of Preisach model by Density Function Method (DFM) and F Function Method (FFM) for a giant magnetostrictive actuator (GMA). Experiment and simulation showed that FFM is better than DFM for predicting precision of hysteresis loops. Lagrange bilinear interpolation algorithm is used in Preisach numerical realization to enhance prediction performance. A set of hysteresis loops and higher order reversal curves are predicted and experimentally verified. The good agreement between the measured and predicted curves shows that the classical Preisach model is effective for modelling the quasi-static hysteresis of the GMA.

  13. Numerical modeling to investigate slopes and mass flow phenomena

    Heinz Konietzky; Lei NIE; Youhong SUN


    An overview is given about up-to-date techniques for slope stability and deformation analysis as well as mass flow phenomena simulation. The paper concentrates on a few aspects in respect to the use of numerical modeling techniques, especially in relation to the shear strength reduction techniques, discontinuum modeling, probabilistic concepts, the combination of GIS and numerical modeling as well as sophisticated hydro-mechanical coupling with time-dependent material behavior. At present these topics are preferred topics of scientific and technical research.

  14. Two decades of numerical modelling to understand long term fluvial archives: Advances and future perspectives

    Veldkamp, A.; Baartman, J. E. M.; Coulthard, T. J.; Maddy, D.; Schoorl, J. M.; Storms, J. E. A.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; van Balen, R.; van De Wiel, M. J.; van Gorp, W.; Viveen, W.; Westaway, R.; Whittaker, A. C.


    The development and application of numerical models to investigate fluvial sedimentary archives has increased during the last decades resulting in a sustained growth in the number of scientific publications with keywords, 'fluvial models', 'fluvial process models' and 'fluvial numerical models'. In this context we compile and review the current contributions of numerical modelling to the understanding of fluvial archives. In particular, recent advances, current limitations, previous unexpected results and future perspectives are all discussed. Numerical modelling efforts have demonstrated that fluvial systems can display non-linear behaviour with often unexpected dynamics causing significant delay, amplification, attenuation or blurring of externally controlled signals in their simulated record. Numerical simulations have also demonstrated that fluvial records can be generated by intrinsic dynamics without any change in external controls. Many other model applications demonstrate that fluvial archives, specifically of large fluvial systems, can be convincingly simulated as a function of the interplay of (palaeo) landscape properties and extrinsic climate, base level and crustal controls. All discussed models can, after some calibration, produce believable matches with real world systems suggesting that equifinality - where a given end state can be reached through many different pathways starting from different initial conditions and physical assumptions - plays an important role in fluvial records and their modelling. The overall future challenge lies in the development of new methodologies for a more independent validation of system dynamics and research strategies that allow the separation of intrinsic and extrinsic record signals using combined fieldwork and modelling.


    Orlov A. I.


    Full Text Available The statistics of objects of non-numerical nature (statistics of non-numerical objects, non-numerical data statistics, non-numeric statistics is the area of mathematical statistics, devoted to the analysis methods of non-numeric data. Basis of applying the results of mathematical statistics are probabilistic-statistical models of real phenomena and processes, the most important (and often only which are models for obtaining data. The simplest example of a model for obtaining data is the model of the sample as a set of independent identically distributed random variables. In this article we have considered the basic probabilistic models for obtaining non-numeric data. Namely, the models of dichotomous data, results of paired comparisons, binary relations, ranks, the objects of general nature. We have discussed the various options of probabilistic models and their practical use. For example, the basic probabilistic model of dichotomous data - Bernoulli vector (Lucian i.e. final sequence of independent Bernoulli trials, for which the probabilities of success may be different. The mathematical tools of solutions of various statistical problems associated with the Bernoulli vectors are useful for the analysis of random tolerances; random sets with independent elements; in processing the results of independent pairwise comparisons; statistical methods for analyzing the accuracy and stability of technological processes; in the analysis and synthesis of statistical quality control plans (for dichotomous characteristics; the processing of marketing and sociological questionnaires (with closed questions like "yes" - "no"; the processing of socio-psychological and medical data, in particular, the responses to psychological tests such as MMPI (used in particular in the problems of human resource management, and analysis of topographic maps (used for the analysis and prediction of the affected areas for technological disasters, distributing corrosion

  16. Numerical modeling of geochemical variations caused by crustal relamination

    Vogt, Katharina; Castro, Antonio; Gerya, Taras


    Geochemical consequences of composite diapirs formed in subduction zones have been studied using a thermomechanical numerical model of an ocean-continent subduction zone. This model includes dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous fluid transport, partial melting, and melt emplacement. Subduction of

  17. Numerical modelling of erosion and sedimentation around offshore pipelines

    Beek, van F.A.; Wind, H.G.


    In this paper a numerical model is presented for the description of the erosion and sedimentation near pipelines on the sea bottom. The model is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and the equation of motion and continuity of sediment. The results of the simulations have been compared with the res

  18. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.


    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and accura

  19. Numerical modelling of damage evolution in ingot forging

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels Oluf;


    The ingot forging process is numerically simulated applying both the Shima-Oyane porous plasticity model as a coupled damage model and the uncoupled normalized Cockcroft & Latham criterion. Four different cases including two different lower die angles (120º and 180º) and two different sizes of fe...

  20. Application of numerical modelling in SSM automotive brake calliper castings

    Jahajeeah, N


    Full Text Available Numerical modelling has successfully been used as an efficient tool to convert a gravity cast brake calliper to a thixocasting process. The thixo-modue of Procast has been used for the modelling process to obtain optimum processing parameters...

  1. Crustal growth at active continental margins: Numerical modeling

    Vogt, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370618947; Gerya, Taras; Castro, Antonio


    The dynamics and melt sources for crustal growth at active continental margins are analyzed by using a 2D coupled petrological–thermomechanical numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. This model includes spontaneous slab retreat and bending, dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous

  2. Numerical Modeling of Shatter Cones Development in Impact Craters

    Baratoux, D.; Melosh, H. J.


    We present a new model for the formation of shatter cones in impact craters. Our model has been tested by means of numerical simulations. Our results are consistent with the observations of shatter cones in natural impact craters and explosions experiments.

  3. Numerical human model for impact and seating comfort

    Hoof, J.F.A.M. van; Lange, R. de; Verver, M.M.


    This paper presents a detailed numerical model of the human body that can be used to evaluate both safety and comfort aspects of vehicle interiors. The model is based on a combination of rigid body and finite element techniques to provide an optimal combination of computational efficiency and

  4. Numerical equilibrium analysis for structured consumer resource models

    de Roos, A.M.; Diekmann, O.; Getto, P.; Kirkilionis, M.A.


    In this paper, we present methods for a numerical equilibrium and stability analysis for models of a size structured population competing for an unstructured re- source. We concentrate on cases where two model parameters are free, and thus existence boundaries for equilibria and stability boundaries

  5. A Climate System Model, Numerical Simulation and Climate Predictability

    ZENG Qingcun; WANG Huijun; LIN Zhaohui; ZHOU Guangqing; YU Yongqiang


    @@ The implementation of the project has lasted for more than 20 years. As a result, the following key innovative achievements have been obtained, ranging from the basic theory of climate dynamics, numerical model development and its related computational theory to the dynamical climate prediction using the climate system models:

  6. Modeling of ECC materials using numerical formulations based on plasticity

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe


    This paper discusses the considerations for the establishment of a damage model for ECC. Three different length scales are used in the approach for deriving the damage model. On each length scale important phenomena are investigated by use of numerical and analytical calculations. On the micro sc...

  7. NLOS UV Channel Modeling Using Numerical Integration and an Approximate Closed-Form Path Loss Model

    Gupta, Ankit; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté


    In this paper we propose a simulation method using numerical integration, and develop a closed-form link loss model for physical layer channel characterization for non-line of sight (NLOS) ultraviolet (UV) communication systems. The impulse response of the channel is calculated by assuming both uniform and Gaussian profiles for transmitted beams and different geometries. The results are compared with previously published results. The accuracy of the integration approach is compared to the Monte Carlo simulation. Then the path loss using the simulation method and the suggested closed-form expression are presented for different link geometries. The accuracies are evaluated and compared to the results obtained using other methods.

  8. A numerical model for pipelaying on nonlinear soil stiffness seabed

    昝英飞; 韩端锋; 袁利毫; 李志刚


    The J-lay method is regarded as one of the most feasible methods to lay a pipeline in deep water and ultra-deep water. A numerical model that accounts for the nonlinear soil stiffness is developed in this study to evaluate a J-lay pipeline. The pipeline considered in this model is divided into two parts: the part one is suspended in water, and the part two is laid on the seabed. In addition to the boundary conditions at the two end points of the pipeline, a special set of the boundary conditions is required at the touchdown point that connects the two parts of the pipeline. The two parts of the pipeline are solved by a numerical iterative method and the finite difference method, respectively. The proposed numerical model is validated for a special case using a catenary model and a numerical model with linear soil stiffness. A good agreement in the pipeline configuration, the tension force and the bending moment is obtained among these three models. Furthermore, the present model is used to study the importance of the nonlinear soil stiffness. Finally, the parametric study is performed to study the effect of the mudline shear strength, the gradient of the soil shear strength, and the outer diameter of the pipeline on the pipelaying solution.

  9. Numerical stability analysis in respiratory control system models

    Laszlo E. Kollar


    Full Text Available Stability of the unique equilibrium in two mathematical models (based on chemical balance dynamics of human respiration is examined using numerical methods. Due to the transport delays in the respiratory control system these models are governed by delay differential equations. First, a simplified two-state model with one delay is considered, then a five-state model with four delays (where the application of numerical methods is essential is investigated. In particular, software is developed to perform linearized stability analysis and simulations of the model equations. Furthermore, the Matlab package DDE-BIFTOOL v.~2.00 is employed to carry out numerical bifurcation analysis. Our main goal is to study the effects of transport delays on the stability of the model equations. Critical values of the transport delays (i.e., where Hopf bifurcations occur are determined, and stable periodic solutions are found as the delays pass their critical values. The numerical findings are in good agreement with analytic results obtained earlier for the two-state model.

  10. Numerical Models for Sound Propagation in Long Spaces

    Lai, Chenly Yuen Cheung

    Both reverberation time and steady-state sound field are the key elements for assessing the acoustic condition in an enclosed space. They affect the noise propagation, speech intelligibility, clarity index, and definition. Since the sound field in a long space is non diffuse, classical room acoustics theory does not apply in this situation. The ray tracing technique and the image source methods are two common models to fathom both reverberation time and steady-state sound field in long enclosures nowadays. Although both models can give an accurate estimate of reverberation times and steady-state sound field directly or indirectly, they often involve time-consuming calculations. In order to simplify the acoustic consideration, a theoretical formulation has been developed for predicting both steady-state sound fields and reverberation times in street canyons. The prediction model is further developed to predict the steady-state sound field in a long enclosure. Apart from the straight long enclosure, there are other variations such as a cross junction, a long enclosure with a T-intersection, an U-turn long enclosure. In the present study, an theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted to develop formulae for predicting reverberation times and steady-state sound fields in a junction of a street canyon and in a long enclosure with T-intersection. The theoretical models are validated by comparing the numerical predictions with published experimental results. The theoretical results are also compared with precise indoor measurements and large-scale outdoor experimental results. In all of previous acoustical studies related to long enclosure, most of the studies are focused on the monopole sound source. Besides non-directional noise source, many noise sources in long enclosure are dipole like, such as train noise and fan noise. In order to study the characteristics of directional noise sources, a review of available dipole source was conducted. A dipole was

  11. Exercises in 80223 Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    Processing of Materials'. The original copy is kept in the archives of TM on the ground floor of building 425. A copy of the exercise book can be made available by contacting the secretary on the ground floor of building 425. Please give the following number: TM 00.01 (TM = Thermal processing of Materials)......This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally......, guidelines are given on how to write the report which has to be handed in at the end of the course. The exercise book is a updated version of the exercise book from 1999. The exercise book is used in the course 42224 'Numerical Process Modelling' which earlier was called 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal...

  12. Numerical modelling of structural controls on fluid flow and mineralization

    Yanhua Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a set of numerical models focussing on structural controls on hydrothermal mineralization. We first give an overview of natural phenomena of structurally-controlled ore formation and the background theory and mechanisms for such controls. We then provide the results of a group of simple 2D numerical models validated through comparison with Cu-vein structure observed near the Shilu Copper deposit (Yangchun, Guangdong Province, China and finally a case study of 3D numerical modelling applied to the Hodgkinson Province in North Queensland (Australia. Two modelling approaches, discrete deformation modelling and continuum coupled deformation and fluid flow modelling, are involved. The 2D model-derived patterns are remarkably consistent with the Cu-vein structure from the Shilu Copper deposit, and show that both modelling approaches can realistically simulate the mechanical behaviours of shear and dilatant fractures. The continuum coupled deformation and fluid flow model indicates that pattern of the Cu-veins near the Shilu deposit is the result of shear strain localization, development of dilation and fluid focussing into the dilatant fracture segments. The 3D case-study models (with deformation and fluid flow coupling on the Hodgkinson Province generated a number of potential gold mineralization targets.


    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić


    Full Text Available Constitutive relationships of rock materials are an important component of the numerical modelling, it is not possible to find a generally acceptable constitutive law for rock materials, because of their complex nature. In this paper, the applicability of some models within the framework of theory of elasticity are examined. The analyses are carried out using next models: isotropic and transversely isotropic model, and 'equivalent' material approach The parametric study is also made to examine the influence of discontinuities on the parameters of the equivalent materials the comparison of above mentioned models is made through numerical modelling of the direct shear test. The analysis were performed with finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Numerical modelling of steel tubes under oblique crushing forces

    Ismail, A. E.; Rahman, M. Q. Abdul; Nezere, N.; Jamian, S.; Kamarudin, K. A.; Awang, M. K.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ibrahim, M. N.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Arifin, A. M. T.; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad


    This paper presents the numerical assessment of crushing responses of elliptical tubes under crushing forces. Based on the literature survey, tremendous amount of works on the axial crushing behaviour can be found. However, the studies on the oblique crushing responses are rarely found. Therefore, this work investigates numerically the elliptical tubes under compressions. The numerical model of the tubes are developed using ANSYS finite element program. Two important parameters are used such as elliptical ratios and oblique angles. The tubes are compressed quasi-statically and the force-displacement curves are extracted. Then, the area under the curves are calculated and it is represented the performances of energy absorptions. It is found numerically that the introductions of oblique angles during the crushing processes decrease the crushing performances. However, the elliptical-shaped tubes capable to enhance the energy absorption capabilities. On the other hand, the elliptical-shaped tubes produced the enhancement on the energy absorption capabilities.

  15. Modelling the response of stable water isotopes in Greenland precipitation to orbital configurations of the previous interglacial

    Jesper Sjolte


    Full Text Available The relation between δ 18O of precipitation and temperature has been used in numerous studies to reconstruct past temperatures at ice core sites in Greenland and Antarctica. During the past two decades, it has become clear that the slope between δ 18O and temperature varies in both space and time. Here, we use a general circulation model driven by changes in orbital parameters to investigate the Greenland δ 18O–temperature relation for the previous interglacial, the Eemian. In our analysis, we focus on changes in the moisture source regions, and the results underline the importance of taking the seasonality of climate change into account. The orbitally driven experiments show that continental evaporation over North America increases during summer in the warm parts of the Eemian, while marine evaporation decreases. This likely flattens the Greenland δ 18O response to temperature during summer. Since the main climate change in the experiments occurs during summer this adds to a limited response of δ 18O, which is more strongly tied to temperature during winter than during summer. A south–west to north–east gradient in the δ 18O–temperature slope is also evident for Greenland, with low slopes in the south–west and steeper slopes in the north–east. This probably reflects the proportion of continental moisture and Arctic moisture arriving in Greenland, with more continental moisture in the south–west and less in the north–east, and vice versa for the Arctic moisture.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Micro Fluidics of Polymer Melts

    Marin, José Manuel Román; Rasmussen, Henrik K.


    film on a hard substrate. The numerical method is based on a Lagrangian kinematics description of the fluid, where the (Cartesian) coordinate system attached to the particles is discretized by ten-node quadratic tetrahedral elements. The time integral in the K-BKZ model is discretized by a quadratic......A new Galerkin finite element scheme for the numerical simulation of three-dimensional time-dependent flow of K-BKZ fluids has been developed. The scheme was used to model the polymer melt flow in nano imprint lithography (NIL). In NIL a sub micrometer pattern is hot pressed onto a thin polymer...

  17. Analytical & Numerical Modelings of Elliptical Superconducting Filament Magnetization

    Bottura, L; Bouillault, F; Devred, Arnaud


    This paper deals with the two-dimensional computation of magnetization in an elliptic superconducting filament by using numerical and analytical methods. The numerical results are obtained from the finite element method and by using Bean's model. This model is well adapted for Low Tc superconductor studies. We observe the effect of the axis ratio and of the field angle to the magnetic moment per unit length at saturation, and also to the cycle of magnetization. Moreover, the current density and the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in the superconducting filament are also studied.

  18. Numerical models of laser fusion of intestinal tissues.

    Pearce, John A


    Numerical models of continuous wave Tm:YAG thermal fusion in rat intestinal tissues were compared to experiment. Optical and thermal FDM models that included tissue damage based on Arrhenius kinetics were used to predict birefringence loss in collagen as the standard of comparison. The models also predicted collagen shrinkage, jellification and water loss. The inclusion of variable optical and thermal properties is essential to achieve favorable agreement between predicted and measured damage boundaries.

  19. Numerical models for the evaluation of geothermal systems

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.


    We have carried out detailed simulations of various fields in the USA (Bada, New Mexico; Heber, California); Mexico (Cerro Prieto); Iceland (Krafla); and Kenya (Olkaria). These simulation studies have illustrated the usefulness of numerical models for the overall evaluation of geothermal systems. The methodology for modeling the behavior of geothermal systems, different approaches to geothermal reservoir modeling and how they can be applied in comprehensive evaluation work are discussed.

  20. Emotional Belief-Desire-Intention Agent Model: Previous Work And Proposed Architecture

    Mihaela- Alexandra Puica


    Full Text Available Research in affective computing shows that agents cannot be truly intelligent, nor believable or realistic without emotions. In this paper, we present a model of emotional agents that is based on a BDI architecture. We show how we can integrate emotions, resources and personality features into an artificial intelligent agent so as to obtain a human-like behavior of this agent. We place our work in the general context of existing research in emotional agents, with emphasis on BDI emotional models.

  1. Feedbacks Between Numerical and Analytical Models in Hydrogeology

    Zlotnik, V. A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Toundykov, D.; Cohn, S.


    Hydrogeology is a relatively young discipline which combines elements of Earth science and engineering. Mature fundamental disciplines (e.g., physics, chemistry, fluid mechanics) have centuries-long history of mathematical modeling even prior to discovery of Darcy's law. Thus, in hydrogeology, relatively few classic analytical models (such those by Theis, Polubarinova-Kochina, Philip, Toth, Henry, Dagan, Neuman) were developed by the early 1970's. The advent of computers and practical demands refocused mathematical models towards numerical techniques. With more diverse but less mathematically-oriented training, most hydrogeologists shifted from analytical methods to use of standardized computational software. Spatial variability in internal properties and external boundary conditions and geometry, and the added complexity of chemical and biological processes will remain major challenges for analytical modeling. Possibly, analytical techniques will play a subordinate role to numerical approaches in many applications. On the other hand, the rise of analytical element modeling of groundwater flow is a strong alternative to numerical models when data demand and computational efficiency is considered. The hallmark of analytical models - transparency and accuracy - will remain indispensable for scientific exploration of complex phenomena and for benchmarking numerical models. Therefore, there will always be feedbacks and complementarities between numerical and analytical techniques, as well as a certain ideological schism among various views to modeling. We illustrate the idea of feedbacks by reviewing evolution of Joszef Toth's analytical model of gravity driven flow systems. Toth's (1963) approach was to reduce the flow domain to a rectangle which allowed for closed-form solution of the governing equations. Succeeding numerical finite-element models by Freeze and Witherspoon (1966-1968) explored the effects of geometry and heterogeneity on regional groundwater flow

  2. Numerical Simulation and Cold Modeling experiments on Centrifugal Casting

    Keerthiprasad, Kestur Sadashivaiah; Murali, Mysore Seetharam; Mukunda, Pudukottah Gopaliengar; Majumdar, Sekhar


    In a centrifugal casting process, the fluid flow eventually determines the quality and characteristics of the final product. It is difficult to study the fluid behavior here because of the opaque nature of melt and mold. In the current investigation, numerical simulations of the flow field and visualization experiments on cold models have been carried out for a centrifugal casting system using horizontal molds and fluids of different viscosities to study the effect of different process variables on the flow pattern. The effects of the thickness of the cylindrical fluid annulus formed inside the mold and the effects of fluid viscosity, diameter, and rotational speed of the mold on the hollow fluid cylinder formation process have been investigated. The numerical simulation results are compared with corresponding data obtained from the cold modeling experiments. The influence of rotational speed in a real-life centrifugal casting system has also been studied using an aluminum-silicon alloy. Cylinders of different thicknesses are cast at different rotational speeds, and the flow patterns observed visually in the actual castings are found to be similar to those recorded in the corresponding cold modeling experiments. Reasonable agreement is observed between the results of numerical simulation and the results of cold modeling experiments with different fluids. The visualization study on the hollow cylinders produced in an actual centrifugal casting process also confirm the conclusions arrived at from the cold modeling experiments and numerical simulation in a qualitative sense.

  3. Numerical model of Fanuc AM100iB robot

    Cholewa, A.; Świder, J.; Zbilski, A.


    The article presents a numerical model of Fanuc AM 100iB robot, prepared in the form of a block diagram in Simulink software, using the SimMechanics toolbox. The main task of the numerical model of Fanuc AM 100iB robot is to calculate the value of torques putting a load on motor shafts, and to calculate the values of kinematic parameters of the robot's arms in real time and in interactive mode. The values and format of torques putting a load on subsequent joints, and then on the motor shafts, resulted from the effect of the simultaneous action of all torques and the delay, resulting from the implementation of numerical calculations in real time. The numerical model developed is a result of design focused on recreating the effects of simultaneous action of all these factors, which are present in the actual drives and affect the consumption of electricity. A very important criterion, taken into account when designing the model, was also its computational efficiency. In addition, the model was used to visualise the work of the tested machine in three-dimensional space.

  4. Numerical modeling of consolidation processes in hydraulically deposited soils

    Brink, Nicholas Robert

    Hydraulically deposited soils are encountered in many common engineering applications including mine tailing and geotextile tube fills, though the consolidation process for such soils is highly nonlinear and requires the use of advanced numerical techniques to provide accurate predictions. Several commercially available finite element codes poses the ability to model soil consolidation, and it was the goal of this research to assess the ability of two of these codes, ABAQUS and PLAXIS, to model the large-strain, two-dimensional consolidation processes which occur in hydraulically deposited soils. A series of one- and two-dimensionally drained rectangular models were first created to assess the limitations of ABAQUS and PLAXIS when modeling consolidation of highly compressible soils. Then, geotextile tube and TSF models were created to represent actual scenarios which might be encountered in engineering practice. Several limitations were discovered, including the existence of a minimum preconsolidation stress below which numerical solutions become unstable.

  5. Numerical Model of Radical Photopolymerization Based on Interdiffusion

    Shuhei Yoshida


    Full Text Available An accurate reaction model is required to analyze the characteristics of photopolymers. For this purpose, we propose a numerical model for radical photopolymerization. In the proposed model, elementary reactions such as initiation, propagation, and termination are considered, and we assume interdiffusion for each component in the material. We analyzed the diffraction characteristics of a radical photopolymer based on the proposed interdiffusion model with the beam propagation method. Moreover, we also performed hologram-recording experiments and evaluated the diffraction characteristics of the photopolymer medium. By comparing the numerical and experimental results, medium parameters such as reaction rate and diffusion coefficient can be estimated. We confirmed that the interdiffusion model can reproduce the experimental results and showed that the medium parameters affect the diffraction characteristics.

  6. Numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread

    Yan Zhenghua


    Theoretical models have been developed to address several important aspects of numerical modeling of turbulent combustion and flame spread. The developed models include a pyrolysis model for charring and non-charring solid materials, a fast narrow band radiation property evaluation model (FASTNB) and a turbulence model for buoyant flow and flame. In the pyrolysis model, a completely new algorithm has been proposed, where a moving dual mesh concept was developed and implemented. With this new concept, it provides proper spatial resolution for both temperature and density and automatically considers the regression of the surface of the non-charring solid material during its pyrolysis. It is simple, very efficient and applicable to both charring and non-charring materials. FASTNB speeds up significantly the evaluation of narrow band spectral radiation properties and thus provides a potential of applying narrow band model in numerical simulations of practical turbulent combustion. The turbulence model was developed to improve the consideration of buoyancy effect on turbulence and turbulent transport. It was found to be simple, promising and numerically stable. It has been tested against both plane and axisymmetric thermal plumes and an axisymmetric buoyant diffusion flame. When compared with the widely used standard buoyancy-modified {kappa} - {epsilon} model, it gives significant improvement on numerical results. These developed models have been fully incorporated into CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code and coupled with other CFD sub-models, including the DT (Discrete Transfer) radiation model, EDC (Eddy Dissipation Concept) combustion model, flamelet combustion model, various soot models and transpired wall function. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out to study soot formation and oxidation in turbulent buoyant diffusion flames, flame heat transfer and flame spread in fires. The gas temperature and velocity, soot volume fraction, wall

  7. Development, validation and application of numerical space environment models

    Honkonen, Ilja


    Currently the majority of space-based assets are located inside the Earth's magnetosphere where they must endure the effects of the near-Earth space environment, i.e. space weather, which is driven by the supersonic flow of plasma from the Sun. Space weather refers to the day-to-day changes in the temperature, magnetic field and other parameters of the near-Earth space, similarly to ordinary weather which refers to changes in the atmosphere above ground level. Space weather can also cause adverse effects on the ground, for example, by inducing large direct currents in power transmission systems. The performance of computers has been growing exponentially for many decades and as a result the importance of numerical modeling in science has also increased rapidly. Numerical modeling is especially important in space plasma physics because there are no in-situ observations of space plasmas outside of the heliosphere and it is not feasible to study all aspects of space plasmas in a terrestrial laboratory. With the increasing number of computational cores in supercomputers, the parallel performance of numerical models on distributed memory hardware is also becoming crucial. This thesis consists of an introduction, four peer reviewed articles and describes the process of developing numerical space environment/weather models and the use of such models to study the near-Earth space. A complete model development chain is presented starting from initial planning and design to distributed memory parallelization and optimization, and finally testing, verification and validation of numerical models. A grid library that provides good parallel scalability on distributed memory hardware and several novel features, the distributed cartesian cell-refinable grid (DCCRG), is designed and developed. DCCRG is presently used in two numerical space weather models being developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The first global magnetospheric test particle simulation based on the

  8. Frame Design and Reality of Numerical Model for Sculptured Part Machining


    The importance of the numerical model for sculptured part machining based on virtual environment is introduced. Meanwhile, the general frame of the numerical model is proposed, and the techniques of developing the numerical model are discussed in detail.

  9. Shape sensitivity analysis in numerical modelling of solidification

    E. Majchrzak


    Full Text Available The methods of sensitivity analysis constitute a very effective tool on the stage of numerical modelling of casting solidification. It is possible, among others, to rebuilt the basic numerical solution on the solution concerning the others disturbed values of physical and geometrical parameters of the process. In this paper the problem of shape sensitivity analysis is discussed. The non-homogeneous casting-mould domain is considered and the perturbation of the solidification process due to the changes of geometrical dimensions is analyzed. From the mathematical point of view the sensitivity model is rather complex but its solution gives the interesting information concerning the mutual connections between the kinetics of casting solidification and its basic dimensions. In the final part of the paper the example of computations is shown. On the stage of numerical realization the finite difference method has been applied.

  10. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of Czochralski Crystal Growth

    Jaervinen, J.; Nieminen, R. [Center for Scientific Computing, Espoo (Finland)


    A detailed mathematical model and numerical simulation tools based on the SUPG Finite Element Method for the Czochralski crystal growth has been developed. In this presentation the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the melt flow and the temperature distribution in a rotationally symmetric crystal growth environment is investigated. The temperature distribution and the position of the free boundary between the solid and liquid phases are solved by using the Enthalpy method. Heat inside of the Czochralski furnace is transferred by radiation, conduction and convection. The melt flow is governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the enthalpy equation. The melt flow is numerically demonstrated and the temperature distribution in the whole Czochralski furnace. (author)

  11. Numerical modeling and analysis of the active magnetic regenerator

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    expressed as temperature span versus cooling power is mapped as a function of the central parameters. Since regenerators built of several magnetic materials distinguished by their respective magnetic transition temperatures are reported to perform better than single-material AMRs this concept has been......In this thesis the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is analyzed using various numerical tools and experimental devices. A 2-dimensional transient numerical model of the AMR is developed and implemented and it is used to investigate the in uence of a range of parameters on the performance...... investigated using the numerical AMR model. The results show indeed that the performance may be enhanced signicantly and it may thus be concluded that the performance of the AMR is dependent on a vast number of parameters (material composition, magnetic eld source, regenerator geometry, regenerator eciency...

  12. Physical and numerical modeling of Joule-heated melters

    Eyler, L.L.; Skarda, R.J.; Crowder, R.S. III; Trent, D.S.; Reid, C.R.; Lessor, D.L.


    The Joule-heated ceramic-lined melter is an integral part of the high level waste immobilization process under development by the US Department of Energy. Scaleup and design of this waste glass melting furnace requires an understanding of the relationships between melting cavity design parameters and the furnace performance characteristics such as mixing, heat transfer, and electrical requirements. Developing empirical models of these relationships through actual melter testing with numerous designs would be a very costly and time consuming task. Additionally, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been developing numerical models that simulate a Joule-heated melter for analyzing melter performance. This report documents the method used and results of this modeling effort. Numerical modeling results are compared with the more conventional, physical modeling results to validate the approach. Also included are the results of numerically simulating an operating research melter at PNL. Physical Joule-heated melters modeling results used for qualiying the simulation capabilities of the melter code included: (1) a melter with a single pair of electrodes and (2) a melter with a dual pair (two pairs) of electrodes. The physical model of the melter having two electrode pairs utilized a configuration with primary and secondary electrodes. The principal melter parameters (the ratio of power applied to each electrode pair, modeling fluid depth, electrode spacing) were varied in nine tests of the physical model during FY85. Code predictions were made for five of these tests. Voltage drops, temperature field data, and electric field data varied in their agreement with the physical modeling results, but in general were judged acceptable. 14 refs., 79 figs., 17 tabs.

  13. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    Ravinder Singh; Dr. Kevin Lano


    This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM) broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. ...

  14. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    Ravinder Singh


    Full Text Available This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. This also means to create risk, quality, performance, and other management plans to monitor and manage the projects efficiently and effectively.

  15. Third metacarpal condylar fatigue fractures in equine athletes occur within previously modelled subchondral bone.

    Whitton, R Christopher; Trope, Gareth D; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Anderson, Garry A; Parkin, Timothy D H; Mackie, Eleanor J; Seeman, Ego


    Bone modelling and remodelling reduce the risk of fatigue fractures; the former by adapting bone to its loading circumstances, the latter by replacing fatigued bone. Remodelling transiently increases porosity because of the normal delay in onset of the formation phase of the remodelling sequence. Protracted intense loading suppresses remodelling leaving modelling as the only means of maintaining bone strength. We therefore hypothesized that race horses with fatigue fractures of the distal third metacarpal bone (MC3) will have reduced porosity associated with suppressed remodelling while continued adaptive modelling will result in higher volume fraction (BV/TV) at this site. Using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we measured the distal aspect of the MC3 obtained at postmortem from 13 thoroughbred race horses with condylar fractures of the MC3 (cases), 8 horses without fractures (training controls), 14 horses with a fracture at another site (fractured controls) and 9 horses resting from training (resting controls). Porosity of the subchondral bone of MC3 was lower in cases than resting controls (12±1.4% vs. 18±1.6%, P=0.017) although areas of focal porosity were observed adjacent to fractures in 6/13 horses. BV/TV of the distal metacarpal epiphysis tended to be higher in horses with condylar fractures (0.79±0.015) than training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.070), but also higher in controls with a fracture elsewhere (0.79±0.014) than the training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.040). BV/TV was higher in horses over three years of age than those aged two or three years (0.79±0.01 vs. 0.74±0.01, P=0.016). All metacarpal condylar fractures occurred within focal areas of high BV/TV. We infer that intense training in equine athletes suppresses remodelling of third metacarpal subchondral bone limiting damage repair while modelling increases regional bone volume in an attempt to minimise local stresses but may fail to offset bone

  16. Numerical Modeling of Wheat Seeds in Microwave Field

    COMAN Ovidiu


    Full Text Available The main objective of our research was to develop a model using the numerical simulation software - Comsol Multiphysics for the drying process of wheat seeds. A number of simulations were made in order to analyze the increase of temperature calculated in the dielectric material, the electric field intensity and total absorbed power.

  17. Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator

    Melikhov, V.I.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I. [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.

  18. Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling

    P. Dobson


    This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow.

  19. Numerical modelling and experimental assessment of concrete spalling in fire

    Shamalta, M.; Breunese, A.; Peelen, W.; Fellinger, J.


    In this paper, the phenomenon of spalling of concrete in fire has been studied using a numerical model. Spalling is the violent or non-violent breaking off of layers or pieces of concrete when it is exposed to high temperatures as experienced in fires. The types and mechanisms of spalling have been

  20. Numerical modeling of piezoelectric transducers using physical parameters.

    Cappon, Hans; Keesman, Karel J


    Design of ultrasonic equipment is frequently facilitated with numerical models. These numerical models, however, need a calibration step, because usually not all characteristics of the materials used are known. Characterization of material properties combined with numerical simulations and experimental data can be used to acquire valid estimates of the material parameters. In our design application, a finite element (FE) model of an ultrasonic particle separator, driven by an ultrasonic transducer in thickness mode, is required. A limited set of material parameters for the piezoelectric transducer were obtained from the manufacturer, thus preserving prior physical knowledge to a large extent. The remaining unknown parameters were estimated from impedance analysis with a simple experimental setup combined with a numerical optimization routine using 2-D and 3-D FE models. Thus, a full set of physically interpretable material parameters was obtained for our specific purpose. The approach provides adequate accuracy of the estimates of the material parameters, near 1%. These parameter estimates will subsequently be applied in future design simulations, without the need to go through an entire series of characterization experiments. Finally, a sensitivity study showed that small variations of 1% in the main parameters caused changes near 1% in the eigenfrequency, but changes up to 7% in the admittance peak, thus influencing the efficiency of the system. Temperature will already cause these small variations in response; thus, a frequency control unit is required when actually manufacturing an efficient ultrasonic separation system.

  1. Bubbles in inkjet printheads : analytical and numerical models

    Jeurissen, Roger Josef Maria


    The phenomenon of nozzle failure of an inkjet printhead due to entrainment of air bubbles was studies using analytical and numerical models. The studied inkjet printheads consist of many channels in which an acoustic field is generated to eject a droplet. When an air bubble is entrained, it disrupts

  2. Numerical modelling of mine workings: annual update 1999/2000.

    Lightfoot, N


    Full Text Available The SIMRAC project GAP629 has two aspects. Firstly, the production of an updated edition of the guidebook Numerical Modelling of Mine Workings. The original document was launched to the South African mining industry in April 1999. Secondly...

  3. Numerical Tools for the Bayesian Analysis of Stochastic Frontier Models

    Osiewalski, J.; Steel, M.F.J.


    In this paper we describe the use of modern numerical integration methods for making posterior inferences in composed error stochastic frontier models for panel data or individual cross-sections.Two Monte Carlo methods have been used in practical applications.We survey these two methods in some

  4. Numerical modelling and experimental assessment of concrete spalling in fire

    Shamalta, M.; Breunese, A.J.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Fellinger, J.H.H.


    In this paper, the phenomenon of spalling of concrete in fire has been studied using a numerical model. Spalling is the violent or non-violent breaking off of layers or pieces of concrete when it is exposed to high temperatures as experienced in fires. The types and mechanisms of spalling have been

  5. Numerical analysis of time-dependent Boussinesq models

    Houwen, P.J. van der; Mooiman, J.; Wubs, F.W.


    In this paper we analyse numerical models for time-dependent Boussinesq equations. These equations arise when so-called Boussinesq terms are introduced into the shallow water equations. We use the Boussinesq terms proposed by Katapodes and Dingemans. These terms generalize the constant depth terms g

  6. The Finite Element Numerical Modelling of 3D Magnetotelluric

    Ligang Cao


    Full Text Available The ideal numerical simulation of 3D magnetotelluric was restricted by the methodology complexity and the time-consuming calculation. Boundary values, the variation of weighted residual equation, and the hexahedral mesh generation method of finite element are three major causes. A finite element method for 3D magnetotelluric numerical modeling is presented in this paper as a solution for the problem mentioned above. In this algorithm, a hexahedral element coefficient matrix for magnetoelluric finite method is developed, which solves large-scale equations using preconditioned conjugate gradient of the first-type boundary conditions. This algorithm is verified using the homogeneous model, and the positive landform model, as well as the low resistance anomaly model.

  7. Numeral eddy current sensor modelling based on genetic neural network

    Yu A-Long


    This paper presents a method used to the numeral eddy current sensor modelling based on the genetic neural network to settle its nonlinear problem. The principle and algorithms of genetic neural network are introduced. In this method, the nonlinear model parameters of the numeral eddy current sensor are optimized by genetic neural network (GNN) according to measurement data. So the method remains both the global searching ability of genetic algorithm and the good local searching ability of neural network. The nonlinear model has the advantages of strong robustness,on-line modelling and high precision.The maximum nonlinearity error can be reduced to 0.037% by using GNN.However, the maximum nonlinearity error is 0.075% using the least square method.

  8. Numerical modeling of shoreline undulations part 1: Constant wave climate

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    This paper presents a numerical study of the non-linear development of alongshore undulations up to fully developed quasi-steady equilibrium. A numerical model which describes the longshore sediment transport along arbitrarily shaped shorelines is applied, based on a spectral wave model, a depth...... integrated flow model, a wave-phase resolving sediment transport description and a one-line shoreline model.First the length of the shoreline undulations is determined in the linear regime using a stability analysis. Next the further evolution from the linear to the fully non-linear regime is described....... In the fully non-linear regime down-drift spits and migrating shoreline undulations are described.Three different shoreline shapes are found depending on the wave conditions: undulations with no spits, undulations with shore parallel spit and undulations with reconnecting spits. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V....

  9. Assessing Accuracy of Waveform Models against Numerical Relativity Waveforms

    Pürrer, Michael; LVC Collaboration


    We compare currently available phenomenological and effective-one-body inspiral-merger-ringdown models for gravitational waves (GW) emitted from coalescing black hole binaries against a set of numerical relativity waveforms from the SXS collaboration. Simplifications are used in the construction of some waveform models, such as restriction to spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum, no inclusion of higher harmonics in the GW radiation, no modeling of eccentricity and the use of effective parameters to describe spin precession. In contrast, NR waveforms provide us with a high fidelity representation of the ``true'' waveform modulo small numerical errors. To focus on systematics we inject NR waveforms into zero noise for early advanced LIGO detector sensitivity at a moderately optimistic signal-to-noise ratio. We discuss where in the parameter space the above modeling assumptions lead to noticeable biases in recovered parameters.

  10. Numerical simulations of the 2-dimensional Robin-Hood model

    Cwilich, Gabriel; Fox, Perry; Zypman, Fredy; Buldyrev, Sergey


    The Robin Hood, or Zaitsev model [1] has been successfully used to model depinning of interfaces, friction, dislocation motion and flux creep, because it is one of the simplest extremal models for self-organized criticallity Until now, its properties have been well understood theoretically in one dimension and its scaling laws numerically verified. It is important to extend the range of validity of these laws into higher dimensions, to find precise values for the scaling exponents, and to investigate how they depend on the details of the model (like anisotropy). The case of two dimensions is of particular importance when studying surface friction [2]. Here, we numerically evaluate high precision scaling exponents for the avalanche size distribution, the avalanche fractal dimension, and the Levy flight-like distribution of the jumps between extremal active sites. [1] S.I. Zaitsev , Physica A 189, 411 (1992). [2] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E (accepted)

  11. Climate system model, numerical simulation and climate predictability


    @@ Thanks to its work of past more than 20 years,a research team led by Prof.ZENG Qingcun and Prof.WANG Huijun from the CAS Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) has scored innovative achievements in their studies of basic theory of climate dynamics,numerical model development,its related computational theory,and the dynamical climate prediction using the climate system models.Their work received a second prize of the National Award for Natural Sciences in 2005.

  12. Numerical modeling and simulation of flow through porous fabric surface

    Gao, Zheng; Li, Xiaolin

    We designed a numerical scheme to model the permeability of the fabric surface in an incompressible fluid by coupling the projection method with the Ghost Fluid Method in the front tracking framework. The pressure jump condition is obtained by adding a source term to the Poisson's equation in the projection step without modifications on its coefficients. The numerical results suggest that this approach has the ability to reproduce the relationship between pressure drop and relative velocity observed in the experiments. We use this algorithm to study the effects of porosity on the drag force and stability of parachutes during its inflation and deceleration.

  13. Modelling of multidimensional quantum systems by the numerical functional integration

    Lobanov, Yu.Yu.; Zhidkov, E.P. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)); Shahbagian, R.R. (Yerevan Physics Inst., Erevan (USSR))


    The employment of the numerical functional integration for the description of multidimensional systems in quantum and statistical physics is considered. For the multiple functional integrals with respect to Gaussian measures in the full separable metric spaces the new approximation formulas exact on a class of polynomial functionals of a given summary degree are constructed. The use of the formulas is demonstrated on example of computation of the Green function and the ground state energy in multidimensional Calogero model. The comparison of numerical results with the data obtained by the other authors which used the Monte Carlo method combined with iterative algorithms indicates that our formulas provide the higher efficiency of computations.

  14. Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines

    Sidelnikov, O. S.; Sygletos, S.; Ferreira, F.; Fedoruk, M. P.


    The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong coupling regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one.

  15. Numerical and experimental modelling of the radial compressor stage

    Syka, Tomáš; Matas, Richard; LuÅáček, Ondřej


    This article deals with the description of the numerical and experimental model of the new compressor stage designed for process centrifugal compressors. It's the first member of the new stages family developed to achieve the state of the art thermodynamic parameters. This stage (named RTK01) is designed for high flow coefficient with 3D shaped impeller blades. Some interesting findings were gained during its development. The article is focused mainly on some interesting aspects of the development methodology and numerical simulations improvement, not on the specific stage properties. Conditions and experimental equipment, measured results and their comparison with ANSYS CFX and NUMECA FINE/Turbo CFD simulations are described.

  16. Two-phase numerical model for thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer in nanofluids.

    Kondaraju, Sasidhar; Lee, Joon Sang


    Due to the numerous applications of nanofluids, investigating and understanding of thermophysical properties of nanofluids has currently become one of the core issues. Although numerous theoretical and numerical models have been developed by previous researchers to understand the mechanism of enhanced heat transfer in nanofluids; to the best of our knowledge these models were limited to the study of either thermal conductivity or convective heat transfer of nanofluids. We have developed a numerical model which can estimate the enhancement in both the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer in nanofluids. It also aids in understanding the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement. The study reveals that the nanoparticle dispersion in fluid medium and nanoparticle heat transport phenomenon are equally important in enhancement of thermal conductivity. However, the enhancement in convective heat transfer was caused mainly due to the nanoparticle heat transport mechanism. Ability of this model to be able to understand the mechanism of convective heat transfer enhancement distinguishes the model from rest of the available numerical models.

  17. Incorporation of the capillary hysteresis model HYSTR into the numerical code TOUGH

    Niemi, A.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.


    As part of the work performed to model flow in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain Nevada, a capillary hysteresis model has been developed. The computer program HYSTR has been developed to compute the hysteretic capillary pressure -- liquid saturation relationship through interpolation of tabulated data. The code can be easily incorporated into any numerical unsaturated flow simulator. A complete description of HYSTR, including a brief summary of the previous hysteresis literature, detailed description of the program, and instructions for its incorporation into a numerical simulator are given in the HYSTR user`s manual (Niemi and Bodvarsson, 1991a). This report describes the incorporation of HYSTR into the numerical code TOUGH (Transport of Unsaturated Groundwater and Heat; Pruess, 1986). The changes made and procedures for the use of TOUGH for hysteresis modeling are documented.

  18. Mechanical and histological characterization of the abdominal muscle. A previous step to modelling hernia surgery.

    Hernández, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M; Bellón, J M


    The aims of this study are to experimentally characterize the passive elastic behaviour of the rabbit abdominal wall and to develop a mechanical constitutive law which accurately reproduces the obtained experimental results. For this purpose, tissue samples from New Zealand White rabbits 2150±50 (g) were mechanically tested in vitro. Mechanical tests, consisting of uniaxial loading on tissue samples oriented along the craneo-caudal and the perpendicular directions, respectively, revealed the anisotropic non-linear mechanical behaviour of the abdominal tissues. Experiments were performed considering the composite muscle (including external oblique-EO, internal oblique-IO and transverse abdominis-TA muscle layers), as well as separated muscle layers (i.e., external oblique, and the bilayer formed by internal oblique and transverse abdominis). Both the EO muscle layer and the IO-TA bilayer demonstrated a stiffer behaviour along the transversal direction to muscle fibres than along the longitudinal one. The fibre arrangement was measured by means of a histological study which confirmed that collagen fibres are mainly responsible for the passive mechanical strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy of the abdominal composite muscle turned out to be less pronounced than those obtained while studying the EO and IO-TA separately. Moreover, a phenomenological constitutive law was used to capture the measured experimental curves. A Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to fit the model constants to reproduce the experimental curves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of numerical models for flow simulation in labyrinth seals

    Frączek, D.; Wróblewski, W.


    CFD results were compared with the results of experiments for the flow through the labyrinth seal. RANS turbulence models (k-epsilon, k-omega, SST and SST-SAS) were selected for the study. Steady and transient results were analyzed. ANSYS CFX was used for numerical computation. The analysis included flow through sealing section with the honeycomb land. Leakage flows and velocity profiles in the seal were compared. In addition to the comparison of computational models, the divergence of modeling and experimental results has been determined. Tips for modeling these problems were formulated.

  20. Numerical Modelling of Electric Conductance of a thin Sheet

    Mojmir Kollar


    Full Text Available In this paper the numeric modelling of total resistance of a thin sheet, with local conductivity in randomlydistributed grains higher then is that of the basic matrix, is presented. The 2D model is formed by a structure of longitudinaland transversal conductors interconnected in nodes of a square net. In all nodes, using iteration procedure, the potential isdetermined from which the conductance of sheet is computed between two touching electrodes. The described model can beused to imitate the behaviour of heterogeneous thin conducting sheets prepared by different techniques. The model wasverified in some cases where the net resistance is well known from the theory.

  1. Numerical modeling of parallel-plate based AMR

    In this work we present an improved 2-dimensional numerical model of a parallel-plate based AMR. The model includes heat transfer in fluid and magnetocaloric domains respectively. The domains are coupled via inner thermal boundaries. The MCE is modeled either as an instantaneous change between high...... and low field or as a magnetic field profile including the actual physical movement of the regenerator block in and out of field, i.e. as a source term in the thermal equation for the magnetocaloric material (MCM). The model is further developed to include parasitic thermal losses throughout the bed...

  2. The Numerical Scheme Development of a Simplified Frozen Soil Model

    LI Qian; SUN Shufen; DAI Qiudan


    In almost all frozen soil models used currently,three variables of temperature,ice content and moisture content are used as prognostic variables and the rate term,accounting for the contribution of the phase change between water and ice,is shown explicitly in both the energy and mass balance equations.The models must be solved by a numerical method with an iterative process,and the rate term of the phase change needs to be pre-estimated at the beginning in each iteration step.Since the rate term of the phase change in the energy equation is closely related to the release or absorption of the great amount of fusion heat,a small error in the rate term estimation will introduce greater error in the energy balance,which will amplify the error in the temperature calculation and in turn,cause problems for the numerical solution convergence.In this work,in order to first reduce the trouble,the methodology of the variable transformation is applied to a simplified frozen soil model used currently,which leads to new frozen soil scheme used in this work.In the new scheme,the enthalpy and the total water equivalent are used as predictive variables in the governing equations to replace temperature,volumetric soil moisture and ice content used in many current models.By doing so,the rate terms of the phase change are not shown explicitly in both the mass and energy equations and its pre-estimation is avoided.Secondly,in order to solve this new scheme more functionally,the development of the numerical scheme to the new scheme is described and a numerical algorithm appropriate to the numerical scheme is developed.In order to evaluate the new scheme of the frozen soil model and its relevant algorithm,a series of model evaluations are conducted by comparing numerical results from the new model scheme with three observational data sets.The comparisons show that the results from the model are in good agreement with these data sets in both the change trend of variables and their

  3. Liver growth factor treatment reverses emphysema previously established in a cigarette smoke exposure mouse model.

    Pérez-Rial, Sandra; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Girón-Martínez, Alvaro; Terrón-Expósito, Raúl; Díaz-Gil, Juan J; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Peces-Barba, Germán


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disease largely associated with cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and characterized by pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations, including systemic inflammation. Liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex with demonstrated antifibrotic, antioxidant, and antihypertensive actions even at extrahepatic sites. We aimed to determine whether short LGF treatment (1.7 μg/mouse ip; 2 times, 2 wk), once the lung damage was established through the chronic CSE, contributes to improvement of the regeneration of damaged lung tissue, reducing systemic inflammation. We studied AKR/J mice, divided into three groups: control (air-exposed), CSE (chronic CSE), and CSE + LGF (LGF-treated CSE mice). We assessed pulmonary function, morphometric data, and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers to test the LGF regenerative capacity in this system. Our results revealed that the lungs of the CSE animals showed pulmonary emphysema and inflammation, characterized by increased lung compliance, enlargement of alveolar airspaces, systemic inflammation (circulating leukocytes and serum TNF-α level), and in vivo lung matrix metalloproteinase activity. LGF treatment was able to reverse all these parameters, decreasing total cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and T-lymphocyte infiltration in peripheral blood observed in emphysematous mice and reversing the decrease in monocytes observed in chronic CSE mice, and tends to reduce the neutrophil population and serum TNF-α level. In conclusion, LGF treatment normalizes the physiological and morphological parameters and levels of various systemic inflammatory biomarkers in a chronic CSE AKR/J model, which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.

  4. Numerical weather prediction model tuning via ensemble prediction system

    Jarvinen, H.; Laine, M.; Ollinaho, P.; Solonen, A.; Haario, H.


    This paper discusses a novel approach to tune predictive skill of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. NWP models contain tunable parameters which appear in parameterizations schemes of sub-grid scale physical processes. Currently, numerical values of these parameters are specified manually. In a recent dual manuscript (QJRMS, revised) we developed a new concept and method for on-line estimation of the NWP model parameters. The EPPES ("Ensemble prediction and parameter estimation system") method requires only minimal changes to the existing operational ensemble prediction infra-structure and it seems very cost-effective because practically no new computations are introduced. The approach provides an algorithmic decision making tool for model parameter optimization in operational NWP. In EPPES, statistical inference about the NWP model tunable parameters is made by (i) generating each member of the ensemble of predictions using different model parameter values, drawn from a proposal distribution, and (ii) feeding-back the relative merits of the parameter values to the proposal distribution, based on evaluation of a suitable likelihood function against verifying observations. In the presentation, the method is first illustrated in low-order numerical tests using a stochastic version of the Lorenz-95 model which effectively emulates the principal features of ensemble prediction systems. The EPPES method correctly detects the unknown and wrongly specified parameters values, and leads to an improved forecast skill. Second, results with an atmospheric general circulation model based ensemble prediction system show that the NWP model tuning capacity of EPPES scales up to realistic models and ensemble prediction systems. Finally, a global top-end NWP model tuning exercise with preliminary results is published.

  5. Numerical Modeling of ETS in the Cascadia Region - An Application of Nankai Model -

    Matsuzawa, T.; Shibazaki, B.


    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) is found in various subduction zones. We have modeled slip of subducting plate interface including the ETS region in Shikoku, and successfully reproduced the characteristics of the segments and recurrences of ETS (Matsuzawa et al., 2013). However, it is important to examine whether our model can explain the characteristics of ETS in the other region. We have tentatively applied our model to the ETS in Cascadia. In our numerical model, a rate- and state- dependent friction law (RS-law) with a cutoff velocity is adopted, as in our previous studies. Low effective normal stress and a low cutoff velocity are assumed at the depth where ETS occur. Negative and positive (a-b) value in the RS-law is assumed within and outside of the ETS region, respectively. In this study, the ETS region is based on the actual distribution of tremor which is located by the monitoring system of Wech (2010). We assume that frictional parameters have similar depth-dependence to our previous study (Matsuzawa et al., 2013). Subducting plate interface is modeled by 203,064 triangular elements, based on the configuration in McCrory et al. (2004). In our numerical result, SSEs recur at the intervals of about 1 year. In addition, SSEs are relatively active between the south of Vancouver Island and the Olympic Peninsula. These characteristics are similar to observations (e.g. Brudzinski and Allen, 2007). Minor ETS activities at the down-dip portion occur between the major ETS activities both in the up-dip and down-dip portion. This feature is similar to the actual ETS in Cascadia (Wech and Creager, 2011). In addition, long-term SSEs recur between the ETS region and shallow locked region where large earthquakes are expected. These long-term SSEs are frequently found around the region with curved plate interface, and may be characterized by the configuration of the plate as in Shikoku (Matsuzawa et al., 2013).

  6. Partial differential equations modeling, analysis and numerical approximation

    Le Dret, Hervé


    This book is devoted to the study of partial differential equation problems both from the theoretical and numerical points of view. After presenting modeling aspects, it develops the theoretical analysis of partial differential equation problems for the three main classes of partial differential equations: elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic. Several numerical approximation methods adapted to each of these examples are analyzed: finite difference, finite element and finite volumes methods, and they are illustrated using numerical simulation results. Although parts of the book are accessible to Bachelor students in mathematics or engineering, it is primarily aimed at Masters students in applied mathematics or computational engineering. The emphasis is on mathematical detail and rigor for the analysis of both continuous and discrete problems. .

  7. Modeling supersonic combustion using a fully-implicit numerical method

    Maccormack, Robert W.; Wilson, Gregory J.


    A fully-implicit finite-volume algorithm for two-dimensional axisymmetric flows has been coupled to a detailed hydrogen-air reaction mechanism (13 species and 33 reactions) so that supersonic combustion phenomena may be investigated. Numerical computations are compared with ballistic-range shadowgraphs of Lehr (1972) that exhibit two discontinuities caused by a blunt body as it passes through a premixed stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture. The suitability of the numerical procedure for simulating these double-front flows is shown. The requirements for the physical formulation and the numerical modeling of these flowfields are discussed. Finally, the sensitivity of these external flowfields to changes in certain key reaction rate constants is examined.

  8. Evolution of dark-matter halos in numerical models

    Pilipenko, S. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.; Gottlöber, S.


    The properties of gravitationally bound clouds (halos) of dark matter derived via numerical simulations of the distribution of dark matter in the Universe are investigated. The analysis makes use of a catalog of halos obtained in the European “MareNostrum Universe” project, which has achieved a better balance between resolution and representativeness than catalogs used earlier for similar studies. This has made it possible to refine the main tendencies displayed by the evolution of the halo masses and the angular velocities and density profiles of the halos. The results are compared with the newest available observational data and with known results obtained earlier in numerical simulations with lower resolution and using smaller samples of halos, making it possible to trace the influence of these factors on the results obtained. Disagreements between observations and numerical models obtained in earlier studies are confirmed, and possible ways to explain them discussed.



    A computational modeling for the sheet cavitating flows is presented. The cavitation model is implemented in a viscous Navier-Stokes solver. The cavity interface and shape are determined using an iterative procedure matching the cavity surface to a constant pressure boundary. The pressure distribution, as well as its gradient on the wall, is taken into account in updating the cavity shape iteratively. Numerical computations are performed for the sheet cavitating flows at a range of cavitation numbers across the hemispheric headform/cylinder body with different grid numbers. The influence of the relaxation factor in the cavity shape updating scheme for the algorithm accuracy and reliability is conducted through comparison with other two cavity shape updating numerical schemes.The results obtained are reasonable and the iterative procedure of cavity shape updating is quite stable, which demonstrate the superiority of the proposed cavitation model and algorithms.

  10. Forecasts of time averages with a numerical weather prediction model

    Roads, J. O.


    Forecasts of time averages of 1-10 days in duration by an operational numerical weather prediction model are documented for the global 500 mb height field in spectral space. Error growth in very idealized models is described in order to anticipate various features of these forecasts and in order to anticipate what the results might be if forecasts longer than 10 days were carried out by present day numerical weather prediction models. The data set for this study is described, and the equilibrium spectra and error spectra are documented; then, the total error is documented. It is shown how forecasts can immediately be improved by removing the systematic error, by using statistical filters, and by ignoring forecasts beyond about a week. Temporal variations in the error field are also documented.

  11. Numerical modelling of flow and transport in rough fractures

    Scott Briggs; Bryan W. Karney; Brent E. Sleep


    Simulation of flow and transport through rough walled rock fractures is investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and random walk (RW), respectively. The numerical implementation is developed and validated on general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPUs). Both the LBM and RW method are well suited to parallel implementation on GPGPUs because they require only next-neighbour communication and thus can reduce expenses. The LBM model is an order of magnitude faster on GPGPUs than published results for LBM simulations run on modern CPUs. The fluid model is verified for parallel plate flow, backward facing step and single fracture flow;and the RW model is verified for point-source diffusion, Taylor-Aris dispersion and breakthrough behaviour in a single fracture. Both algorithms place limitations on the discrete displacement of fluid or particle transport per time step to minimise the numerical error that must be considered during implementation.

  12. GPU accelerated numerical simulations of viscoelastic phase separation model.

    Yang, Keda; Su, Jiaye; Guo, Hongxia


    We introduce a complete implementation of viscoelastic model for numerical simulations of the phase separation kinetics in dynamic asymmetry systems such as polymer blends and polymer solutions on a graphics processing unit (GPU) by CUDA language and discuss algorithms and optimizations in details. From studies of a polymer solution, we show that the GPU-based implementation can predict correctly the accepted results and provide about 190 times speedup over a single central processing unit (CPU). Further accuracy analysis demonstrates that both the single and the double precision calculations on the GPU are sufficient to produce high-quality results in numerical simulations of viscoelastic model. Therefore, the GPU-based viscoelastic model is very promising for studying many phase separation processes of experimental and theoretical interests that often take place on the large length and time scales and are not easily addressed by a conventional implementation running on a single CPU.

  13. Nonlinear dispersion effects in elastic plates: numerical modelling and validation

    Kijanka, Piotr; Radecki, Rafal; Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.


    Nonlinear features of elastic wave propagation have attracted significant attention recently. The particular interest herein relates to complex wave-structure interactions, which provide potential new opportunities for feature discovery and identification in a variety of applications. Due to significant complexity associated with wave propagation in nonlinear media, numerical modeling and simulations are employed to facilitate design and development of new measurement, monitoring and characterization systems. However, since very high spatio- temporal accuracy of numerical models is required, it is critical to evaluate their spectral properties and tune discretization parameters for compromise between accuracy and calculation time. Moreover, nonlinearities in structures give rise to various effects that are not present in linear systems, e.g. wave-wave interactions, higher harmonics generation, synchronism and | recently reported | shifts to dispersion characteristics. This paper discusses local computational model based on a new HYBRID approach for wave propagation in nonlinear media. The proposed approach combines advantages of the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) and Cellular Automata for Elastodynamics (CAFE). The methods are investigated in the context of their accuracy for predicting nonlinear wavefields, in particular shifts to dispersion characteristics for finite amplitude waves and secondary wavefields. The results are validated against Finite Element (FE) calculations for guided waves in copper plate. Critical modes i.e., modes determining accuracy of a model at given excitation frequency - are identified and guidelines for numerical model parameters are proposed.

  14. Modern perspectives on numerical modeling of cardiac pacemaker cell.

    Maltsev, Victor A; Yaniv, Yael; Maltsev, Anna V; Stern, Michael D; Lakatta, Edward G


    Cardiac pacemaking is a complex phenomenon that is still not completely understood. Together with experimental studies, numerical modeling has been traditionally used to acquire mechanistic insights in this research area. This review summarizes the present state of numerical modeling of the cardiac pacemaker, including approaches to resolve present paradoxes and controversies. Specifically we discuss the requirement for realistic modeling to consider symmetrical importance of both intracellular and cell membrane processes (within a recent "coupled-clock" theory). Promising future developments of the complex pacemaker system models include the introduction of local calcium control, mitochondria function, and biochemical regulation of protein phosphorylation and cAMP production. Modern numerical and theoretical methods such as multi-parameter sensitivity analyses within extended populations of models and bifurcation analyses are also important for the definition of the most realistic parameters that describe a robust, yet simultaneously flexible operation of the coupled-clock pacemaker cell system. The systems approach to exploring cardiac pacemaker function will guide development of new therapies such as biological pacemakers for treating insufficient cardiac pacemaker function that becomes especially prevalent with advancing age.

  15. Modern Perspectives on Numerical Modeling of Cardiac Pacemaker Cell

    Maltsev, Victor A.; Yaniv, Yael; Maltsev, Anna V.; Stern, Michael D.; Lakatta, Edward G.


    Cardiac pacemaking is a complex phenomenon that is still not completely understood. Together with experimental studies, numerical modeling has been traditionally used to acquire mechanistic insights in this research area. This review summarizes the present state of numerical modeling of the cardiac pacemaker, including approaches to resolve present paradoxes and controversies. Specifically we discuss the requirement for realistic modeling to consider symmetrical importance of both intracellular and cell membrane processes (within a recent “coupled-clock” theory). Promising future developments of the complex pacemaker system models include the introduction of local calcium control, mitochondria function, and biochemical regulation of protein phosphorylation and cAMP production. Modern numerical and theoretical methods such as multi-parameter sensitivity analyses within extended populations of models and bifurcation analyses are also important for the definition of the most realistic parameters that describe a robust, yet simultaneously flexible operation of the coupled-clock pacemaker cell system. The systems approach to exploring cardiac pacemaker function will guide development of new therapies, such as biological pacemakers for treating insufficient cardiac pacemaker function that becomes especially prevalent with advancing age. PMID:24748434

  16. Numerical Modeling of Plasmas in which Nanoparticles Nucleate and Grow

    Agarwal, Pulkit

    Dusty plasmas refer to a broad category of plasmas. Plasmas such as argon-silane plasmas in which particles nucleate and grow are widely used in semiconductor processing and nanoparticle manufacturing. In such dusty plasmas, the plasma and the dust particles are strongly coupled to each other. This means that the presence of dust particles significantly affects the plasma properties and vice versa. Therefore such plasmas are highly complex and they involve several interesting phenomena like nucleation, growth, coagulation, charging and transport. Dusty plasma afterglow is equally complex and important. Especially, residual charge on dust particles carries special significance in several industrial and laboratory situations and it has not been well understood. A 1D numerical model was developed of a low-pressure capacitively-coupled plasma in which nanoparticles nucleate and grow. Polydispersity of particle size distributions can be important in such plasmas. Sectional method, which is well known in aerosol literature, was used to model the evolving particle size and charge distribution. The numerical model is transient and one-dimensional and self consistently accounts for nucleation, growth, coagulation, charging and transport of dust particles and their effect on plasma properties. Nucleation and surface growth rates were treated as input parameters. Results were presented in terms of particle size and charge distribution with an emphasis on importance of polydispersity in particle growth and dynamics. Results of numerical model were compared with experimental measurements of light scattering and light emission from plasma. Reasonable qualitative agreement was found with some discrepancies. Pulsed dusty plasma can be important for controlling particle production and/or unwanted particle deposition. In this case, it is important to understand the behavior of the particle cloud during the afterglow following plasma turn-off. Numerical model was modified to self

  17. A Total Generalized Optimal Velocity Model and Its Numerical Tests

    ZHU Wen-xing; LIU Yun-cai


    A car-following model named total generalized optimal velocity model (TGOVM) was developed with a consideration of an arbitrary number of preceding vehicles before current one based on analyzing the previous models such as optimal velocity model (OVM), generalized OVM (GOVM) and improved GOVM (IGOVM). This model describes the physical phenomena of traffic flow more exactly and realistically than previous models. Also the performance of this model was checked out by simulating the acceleration and de- celeration process for a small delay time. On a single circular lane, the evolution of the traffic congestion was studied for a different number of headways and relative velocities of the preceding vehicles being taken into account. The simulation results show that TGOVM is reasonable and correct.

  18. Consistent constitutive modeling of metallic target penetration using empirical, analytical, and numerical penetration models

    John Jack P. RIEGEL III; David DAVISON


    Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1) empirical formulae, (2) analytical formulations, and (3) numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014) to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS) strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN) (Anderson and Walker, 1991) and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical) to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D=10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a baseline with a full

  19. Consistent constitutive modeling of metallic target penetration using empirical, analytical, and numerical penetration models

    John (Jack P. Riegel III


    Full Text Available Historically, there has been little correlation between the material properties used in (1 empirical formulae, (2 analytical formulations, and (3 numerical models. The various regressions and models may each provide excellent agreement for the depth of penetration into semi-infinite targets. But the input parameters for the empirically based procedures may have little in common with either the analytical model or the numerical model. This paper builds on previous work by Riegel and Anderson (2014 to show how the Effective Flow Stress (EFS strength model, based on empirical data, can be used as the average flow stress in the analytical Walker–Anderson Penetration model (WAPEN (Anderson and Walker, 1991 and how the same value may be utilized as an effective von Mises yield strength in numerical hydrocode simulations to predict the depth of penetration for eroding projectiles at impact velocities in the mechanical response regime of the materials. The method has the benefit of allowing the three techniques (empirical, analytical, and numerical to work in tandem. The empirical method can be used for many shot line calculations, but more advanced analytical or numerical models can be employed when necessary to address specific geometries such as edge effects or layering that are not treated by the simpler methods. Developing complete constitutive relationships for a material can be costly. If the only concern is depth of penetration, such a level of detail may not be required. The effective flow stress can be determined from a small set of depth of penetration experiments in many cases, especially for long penetrators such as the L/D = 10 ones considered here, making it a very practical approach. In the process of performing this effort, the authors considered numerical simulations by other researchers based on the same set of experimental data that the authors used for their empirical and analytical assessment. The goals were to establish a

  20. Numerical modeling of microwave switchers with subpicosecond time delay

    Konoplev, B.; Ryndin, E.


    In this article the layout and structure of the microwave switcher based on the managed electron density maximum rearrangement in multi-contacts functionally integrated active region are considered. The basis of the microwave switcher is a normally opened high electron mobility transistor structure (HEMT) with multiple Schottky gates and the corresponding number of switching ohmic contacts. In this research two-dimensional finite-difference physical and topological model of the considered microwave switchers is proposed. The distinctive features of the proposed model are combination of two different sets of variables and explicit first-order upwind discretization scheme for the normalized continuity equation. The obtained results of numerical modeling are discussed.

  1. Numerical modeling of electron-beam welding of dissimilar metals

    Krektuleva, R. A.; Cherepanov, O. I.; Cherepanov, R. O.


    This paper is devoted to numerical modeling of heat transfer processes and estimation of thermal stresses in weld seams created by electron beam welding of heterogeneous metals. The mathematical model is based on a system of equations that includes the Lagrange's variational equation of theory of plasticity and variational equation of M. Biot's principle to simulate the heat transfer processes. The two-dimensional problems (plane strain and plane stress) are considered for estimation of thermal stresses in welds considering differences of mechanical properties of welded materials. The model is developed for simulation of temperature fields and stresses during electron beam welding.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Unsteady Thermofluid Dynamics in Cryogenic Systems

    Majumdar, Alok


    A finite volume based network analysis procedure has been applied to model unsteady flow without and with heat transfer. Liquid has been modeled as compressible fluid where the compressibility factor is computed from the equation of state for a real fluid. The modeling approach recognizes that the pressure oscillation is linked with the variation of the compressibility factor; therefore, the speed of sound does not explicitly appear in the governing equations. The numerical results of chilldown process also suggest that the flow and heat transfer are strongly coupled. This is evident by observing that the mass flow rate during 90-second chilldown process increases by factor of ten.

  3. Numerical analysis and geotechnical assessment of mine scale model

    Khanal Manoj; Adhikary Deepak; Balusu Rao


    Various numerical methods are available to model,simulate,analyse and interpret the results; however a major task is to select a reliable and intended tool to perform a realistic assessment of any problem.For a model to be a representative of the realistic mining scenario,a verified tool must be chosen to perform an assessment of mine roof support requirement and address the geotechnical risks associated with longwall mining.The dependable tools provide a safe working environment,increased production,efficient management of resources and reduce environmental impacts of mining.Although various methods,for example,analytical,experimental and empirical are being adopted in mining,in recent days numerical tools are becoming popular due to the advancement in computer hardware and numerical methods.Empirical rules based on past experiences do provide a general guide,however due to the heterogeneous nature of mine geology (i.e.,none of the mine sites are identical),numerical simulations of mine site specific conditions would lend better insights into some underlying issues.The paper highlights the use of a continuum mechanics based tool in coal mining with a mine scale model.The continuum modelling can provide close to accurate stress fields and deformation.The paper describes the use of existing mine data to calibrate and validate the model parameters,which then are used to assess geotechnical issues related with installing a new high capacity longwall mine at the mine site.A variety of parameters,for example,chock convergences,caveability of overlying sandstones,abutment and vertical stresses have been estimated.

  4. Temperature sensitivity of a numerical pollen forecast model

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Meran, Ingrid; Szabo, Barbara; Gallaun, Heinz; Natali, Stefano; Mantovani, Simone


    Allergic rhinitis has become a global health problem especially affecting children and adolescence. Timely and reliable warning before an increase of the atmospheric pollen concentration means a substantial support for physicians and allergy suffers. Recently developed numerical pollen forecast models have become means to support the pollen forecast service, which however still require refinement. One of the problem areas concerns the correct timing of the beginning and end of the flowering period of the species under consideration, which is identical with the period of possible pollen emission. Both are governed essentially by the temperature accumulated before the entry of flowering and during flowering. Phenological models are sensitive to a bias of the temperature. A mean bias of -1°C of the input temperature can shift the entry date of a phenological phase for about a week into the future. A bias of such an order of magnitude is still possible in case of numerical weather forecast models. If the assimilation of additional temperature information (e.g. ground measurements as well as satellite-retrieved air / surface temperature fields) is able to reduce such systematic temperature deviations, the precision of the timing of phenological entry dates might be enhanced. With a number of sensitivity experiments the effect of a possible temperature bias on the modelled phenology and the pollen concentration in the atmosphere is determined. The actual bias of the ECMWF IFS 2 m temperature will also be calculated and its effect on the numerical pollen forecast procedure presented.

  5. Performance benchmarks for a next generation numerical dynamo model

    Matsui, Hiroaki; Heien, Eric; Aubert, Julien; Aurnou, Jonathan M.; Avery, Margaret; Brown, Ben; Buffett, Bruce A.; Busse, Friedrich; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Davies, Christopher J.; Featherstone, Nicholas; Gastine, Thomas; Glatzmaier, Gary A.; Gubbins, David; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Hollerbach, Rainer; Hwang, Lorraine J.; Jackson, Andrew; Jones, Chris A.; Jiang, Weiyuan; Kellogg, Louise H.; Kuang, Weijia; Landeau, Maylis; Marti, Philippe; Olson, Peter; Ribeiro, Adolfo; Sasaki, Youhei; Schaeffer, Nathanaël.; Simitev, Radostin D.; Sheyko, Andrey; Silva, Luis; Stanley, Sabine; Takahashi, Futoshi; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Wicht, Johannes; Willis, Ashley P.


    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo have successfully represented many observable characteristics of the geomagnetic field, yielding insight into the fundamental processes that generate magnetic fields in the Earth's core. Because of limited spatial resolution, however, the diffusivities in numerical dynamo models are much larger than those in the Earth's core, and consequently, questions remain about how realistic these models are. The typical strategy used to address this issue has been to continue to increase the resolution of these quasi-laminar models with increasing computational resources, thus pushing them toward more realistic parameter regimes. We assess which methods are most promising for the next generation of supercomputers, which will offer access to O(106) processor cores for large problems. Here we report performance and accuracy benchmarks from 15 dynamo codes that employ a range of numerical and parallelization methods. Computational performance is assessed on the basis of weak and strong scaling behavior up to 16,384 processor cores. Extrapolations of our weak-scaling results indicate that dynamo codes that employ two-dimensional or three-dimensional domain decompositions can perform efficiently on up to ˜106 processor cores, paving the way for more realistic simulations in the next model generation.

  6. Numerical Methods for a Kohn-Sham Density Functional Model Based on Optimal Transport.

    Chen, Huajie; Friesecke, Gero; Mendl, Christian B


    In this paper, we study numerical discretizations to solve density functional models in the "strictly correlated electrons" (SCE) framework. Unlike previous studies, our work is not restricted to radially symmetric densities. In the SCE framework, the exchange-correlation functional encodes the effects of the strong correlation regime by minimizing the pairwise Coulomb repulsion, resulting in an optimal transport problem. We give a mathematical derivation of the self-consistent Kohn-Sham-SCE equations, construct an efficient numerical discretization for this type of problem for N = 2 electrons, and apply it to the H2 molecule in its dissociating limit.

  7. Numerical modeling of seasonally freezing ground and permafrost

    Nicolsky, Dmitry J.


    This thesis represents a collection of papers on numerical modeling of permafrost and seasonally freezing ground dynamics. An important problem in numerical modeling of temperature dynamics in permafrost and seasonally freezing ground is related to parametrization of already existing models. In this thesis, a variation data assimilation technique is presented to find soil properties by minimizing the discrepancy between in-situ measured temperatures and those computed by the models. The iterative minimization starts from an initial approximation of the soil properties that are found by solving a sequence of simple subproblems. In order to compute the discrepancy, the temperature dynamics is simulated by a new implementation of the finite element method applied to the heat equation with phase change. Despite simplifications in soil physics, the presented technique was successfully applied to recover soil properties, such as thermal conductivity, soil porosity, and the unfrozen water content, at several sites in Alaska. The recovered properties are used in discussion on soil freezing/thawing and permafrost dynamics in other parts of this thesis. Another part of this thesis concerns development of a numerical thermo-mechanical model of seasonal soil freezing on the lateral scale of several meters. The presented model explains observed differential frost heave occurring in non-sorted circle ecosystems north of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan tundra. The model takes into account conservation principles for energy, linear momentum and mass of three constituents: liquid water, ice and solid particles. The conservation principles are reduced to a computationally convenient system of coupled equations for temperature, liquid water pressure, porosity, and the velocity of soil particles in a three-dimensional domain with cylindrical symmetry. Despite a simplified rheology, the model simulates the ground surface motion, temperature, and water dynamics in soil and explains

  8. A semi-nonlocal numerical approach for modeling of temperature-dependent crack-wave interaction

    Martowicz, Adam; Kijanka, Piotr; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.


    Numerical tools, which are used to simulate complex phenomena for models of complicated shapes suffer from either long computational time or accuracy. Hence, new modeling and simulation tools, which could offer reliable results within reasonable time periods, are highly demanded. Among other approaches, the nonlocal methods have appeared to fulfill these requirements quite efficiently and opened new perspectives for accurate simulations based on crude meshes of the model's degrees of freedom. In the paper, the preliminary results are shown for simulations of the phenomenon of temperature-dependent crack-wave interaction for elastic wave propagation in a model of an aluminum plate. Semi-nonlocal finite differences are considered to solve the problem of thermoelasticity - based on the discretization schemes, which were already proposed by the authors and taken from the previously published work. Numerical modeling is used to examine wave propagation primarily in the vicinity of a notch. Both displacement and temperature fields are sought in the investigated case study.

  9. Numerical prediction of kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose using DAE-QMOM approach

    Jamil, N. M.; Wang, Q.


    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass consists of three fundamental processes; pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. In enzymatic hydrolysis phase, the enzymes break the cellulose chains into sugar in the form of cellobiose or glucose. A currently proposed kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose that uses population balance equation (PBE) mechanism was studied. The complexity of the model due to integrodifferential equations makes it difficult to find the analytical solution. Therefore, we solved the full model of PBE numerically by using DAE-QMOM approach. The computation was carried out using MATLAB software. The numerical results were compared to the asymptotic solution developed in the author's previous paper and the results of Griggs et al. Besides confirming the findings were consistent with those references, some significant characteristics were also captured. The PBE model for enzymatic hydrolysis process can be solved using DAE-QMOM method. Also, an improved understanding of the physical insights of the model was achieved.

  10. Numerical modelling of transdermal delivery from matrix systems: parametric study and experimental validation with silicone matrices.

    Snorradóttir, Bergthóra S; Jónsdóttir, Fjóla; Sigurdsson, Sven Th; Másson, Már


    A model is presented for transdermal drug delivery from single-layered silicone matrix systems. The work is based on our previous results that, in particular, extend the well-known Higuchi model. Recently, we have introduced a numerical transient model describing matrix systems where the drug dissolution can be non-instantaneous. Furthermore, our model can describe complex interactions within a multi-layered matrix and the matrix to skin boundary. The power of the modelling approach presented here is further illustrated by allowing the possibility of a donor solution. The model is validated by a comparison with experimental data, as well as validating the parameter values against each other, using various configurations with donor solution, silicone matrix and skin. Our results show that the model is a good approximation to real multi-layered delivery systems. The model offers the ability of comparing drug release for ibuprofen and diclofenac, which cannot be analysed by the Higuchi model because the dissolution in the latter case turns out to be limited. The experiments and numerical model outlined in this study could also be adjusted to more general formulations, which enhances the utility of the numerical model as a design tool for the development of drug-loaded matrices for trans-membrane and transdermal delivery.

  11. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation of a model of morphogenesis.

    Muñoz, Ana I; Tello, José Ignacio


    We consider a simple mathematical model of distribution of morphogens (signaling molecules responsible for the differentiation of cells and the creation of tissue patterns). The mathematical model is a particular case of the model proposed by Lander, Nie and Wan in 2006 and similar to the model presented in Lander, Nie, Vargas and Wan 2005. The model consists of a system of three equations: a PDE of parabolic type with dynamical boundary conditions modelling the distribution of free morphogens and two ODEs describing the evolution of bound and free receptors. Three biological processes are taken into account: diffusion, degradation and reversible binding. We study the stationary solutions and the evolution problem. Numerical simulations show the behavior of the solution depending on the values of the parameters.

  12. Integrating Numerical Computation into the Modeling Instruction Curriculum

    Caballero, Marcos D; Aiken, John M; Douglas, Scott S; Scanlon, Erin M; Thoms, Brian; Schatz, Michael F


    We describe a way to introduce physics high school students with no background in programming to computational problem-solving experiences. Our approach builds on the great strides made by the Modeling Instruction reform curriculum. This approach emphasizes the practices of "Developing and using models" and "Computational thinking" highlighted by the NRC K-12 science standards framework. We taught 9th-grade students in a Modeling-Instruction-based physics course to construct computational models using the VPython programming environment. Numerical computation within the Modeling Instruction curriculum provides coherence among the curriculum's different force and motion models, links the various representations which the curriculum employs, and extends the curriculum to include real-world problems that are inaccessible to a purely analytic approach.

  13. A numerical shoreline model for shorelines with large curvature

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    This paper presents a new numerical model for shoreline change which can be used to model the evolution of shorelines with large curvature. The model is based on a one-line formulation in terms of coordinates which follow the shape of the shoreline, instead of the more common approach where the two...... orthogonal horizontal directions are used. The volume error in the sediment continuity equation which is thereby introduced is removed through an iterative procedure. The model treats the shoreline changes by computing the sediment transport in a 2D coastal area model, and then integrating the sediment...... transport field across the coastal profile to obtain the longshore sediment transport variation along the shoreline. The model is used to compute the evolution of a shoreline with a 90° change in shoreline orientation; due to this drastic change in orientation a migrating shoreline spit develops...

  14. Numerical models for the phenomenological study of flameless combustion

    Bernardo Argemiro Herrera Múnera


    Full Text Available Flameless combustion is a technique which offers environmental advantages such as lower than 100 ppm NOx and CO emis- sions due to below 200 K temperature gradients. Flameless combustion also supplies higher than 70% energy efficiency. Knowledge of the phenomena in this combustion regime has been facilitated by using numerical simulation. This paper reviewed the specialised literature about the most commonly used turbulence, combustion, heat transfer and NOx formation models in modelling flameless combustion with CFD codes. The review concluded that the k-ε standard model is the most used for turbu- lence. Finite rate/eddy dissipation with modified constants and eddy dissipation concept models are suitable for combustion reac- tions, discrete ordinates and weighted sum gray gas (WSGG models are used for radiation and thermal, prompt and N2O inter- mediate models are used for NOx.

  15. On Numerical Considerations for Modeling Reactive Astrophysical Shocks

    Papatheodore, Thomas L


    Simulating detonations in astrophysical environments is often complicated by numerical approximations to shock structure. A common prescription to ensure correct detonation speeds and associated quantities is to prohibit burning inside the numerically broadened shock (Fryxell et al. 1989). We have performed a series of simulations to verify the efficacy of this approximation and to understand how resolution and dimensionality might affect its use. Our results show that, in one dimension, prohibiting burning in the shock is important wherever the carbon burning length is not resolved, in keeping with the results of Fryxell et al. (1989). In two dimensions, we find that the prohibition of shock burning effectively inhibits the development of cellular structure for all but the most highly-resolved cases. We discuss the possible impacts this outcome may have on sub-grid models and detonation propagation in models of Type Ia supernovae, including potential impacts on observables.

  16. SToRM: A numerical model for environmental surface flows

    Simoes, Francisco J.


    SToRM (System for Transport and River Modeling) is a numerical model developed to simulate free surface flows in complex environmental domains. It is based on the depth-averaged St. Venant equations, which are discretized using unstructured upwind finite volume methods, and contains both steady and unsteady solution techniques. This article provides a brief description of the numerical approach selected to discretize the governing equations in space and time, including important aspects of solving natural environmental flows, such as the wetting and drying algorithm. The presentation is illustrated with several application examples, covering both laboratory and natural river flow cases, which show the model’s ability to solve complex flow phenomena.


    Sona Benesova


    Full Text Available Successful heat treating and carburizing of gear wheels for wind turbine gear boxes requires that plastic deformation in the wheel is minimized. Numerical modeling using the DEFORM software was aimed at exploring the effects of the base, on which the gear wheel rests during heating, on the heating process. Homogeneous heating was assumed. It was found that the base heats up more quickly than the workpiece. It is the consequence of the base's shape and volume. As a result, the base expands and slides against the wheel, predominantly at the first heating stage. Later on, it prevents the gear wheel from expanding, causing plastic deformation in the wheel. The findings were used for designing new heating schedules to minimize these undesirable interactions and to reduce the plastic deformation to a negligible magnitude. In addition, this paper presents an example of a practical use of numerical modeling in the DEFORM software.


    Soňa Benešová


    Full Text Available Successful heat treating and carburizing of gear wheels for wind turbine gear boxes requires that plastic deformation in the wheel is minimized. Numerical modeling using the DEFORM software was aimed at exploring the effects of the base, on which the gear wheel rests during heating, on the heating process. Homogeneous heating was assumed. It was found that the base heats up more quickly than the workpiece. It is the consequence of the base's shape and volume. As a result, the base expands and slides against the wheel, predominantly at the first heating stage. Later on, it prevents the gear wheel from expanding, causing plastic deformation in the wheel. The findings were used for designing new heating schedules to minimize these undesirable interactions and to reduce the plastic deformation to a negligible magnitude. In addition, this paper presents an example of a practical use of numerical modeling in the DEFORM software.

  19. Numerical modeling of transient two-dimensional viscoelastic waves

    Lombard, Bruno


    This paper deals with the numerical modeling of transient mechanical waves in linear viscoelastic solids. Dissipation mechanisms are described using the Zener model. No time convolutions are required thanks to the introduction of memory variables that satisfy local-in-time differential equations. By appropriately choosing the Zener parameters, it is possible to accurately describe a large range of materials, such as solids with constant quality factors. The evolution equations satisfied by the velocity, the stress, and the memory variables are written in the form of a first-order system of PDEs with a source term. This system is solved by splitting it into two parts: the propagative part is discretized explicitly, using a fourth-order ADER scheme on a Cartesian grid, and the diffusive part is then solved exactly. Jump conditions along the interfaces are discretized by applying an immersed interface method. Numerical experiments of wave propagation in viscoelastic and fluid media show the efficiency of this nu...

  20. Numerical Modeling of Table-Top X-Ray Lasers

    Shlyaptsev, V N; Dunn, J; Moon, S; Osterheld, A L; Rocca, J J; Detering, F; Rozmus, W; Matte, J P; Fiedorowicz, H; Bartnik, A; Kanouff, M


    In this work we report numerical modeling results of laser-generated transient inversion and capillary discharge X-ray lasers. We have found the importance of plasma kinetics approaches in transient X-ray lasers physics by expanding the physical model beyond hydrodynamics approximation. Using Particle and Fokker-Planck codes the clear evidence of the Langdon effect was inferred from the recent experimental data obtained with the Ni-like Pd X-ray laser. In the search for more efficient X-ray lasers we looked closely at alternative target designs utilizing low density targets. In conjunction with recent experiments at LLNL the numerical investigations of gas puff targets has been performed.

  1. Wake redirection: comparison of analytical, numerical and experimental models

    Wang, Jiangang; Bottasso, Carlo L.; Campagnolo, Filippo


    This paper focuses on wake redirection techniques for wind farm control. Two control strategies are investigated: yaw misalignment and cyclic pitch control. First, analytical formulas are derived for both techniques, with the goal of providing a simple physical interpretation of the behavior of the two methods. Next, more realistic results are obtained by numerical simulations performed with CFD and by experiments conducted with scaled wind turbine models operating in a boundary layer wind tunnel. Comparing the analytical, numerical and experimental models allows for a cross-validation of the results and a better understanding of the two wake redirection techniques. Results indicate that yaw misalignment is more effective than cyclic pitch control in displacing the wake laterally, although the latter may have positive effects on wake recovery.

  2. Comparative quantification of physically and numerically induced mixing in ocean models

    Burchard, Hans; Rennau, Hannes

    A diagnostic method for calculating physical and numerical mixing of tracers in ocean models is presented. The physical mixing is defined as the turbulent mean tracer variance decay rate. The numerical mixing due to discretisation errors of tracer advection schemes is shown to be the decay rate between the advected square of the tracer variance and the square of the advected tracer and can be easily implemented into any ocean model. The applicability of the method is demonstrated for four test cases: (i) a one-dimensional linear advection equation with periodic boundary conditions, (ii) a two-dimensional flat-bottom lock exchange test case without mixing, (iii) a two-dimensional marginal sea overflow study with mixing and entrainment and (iv) the DOME test case with a dense bottom current propagating down a broad linear slope. The method has a number of advantages over previously introduced estimates for numerical mixing.

  3. Exercises in 80223 Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally...... by contacting the secretary on the ground floor of building 425. Please give the following number: TM 99.05 (TM = Thermal processing of Materials)...

  4. Numerical methods for modeling photonic-crystal VCSELs

    Dems, Maciej; Chung, Il-Sug; Nyakas, Peter


    We show comparison of four different numerical methods for simulating Photonic-Crystal (PC) VCSELs. We present the theoretical basis behind each method and analyze the differences by studying a benchmark VCSEL structure, where the PC structure penetrates all VCSEL layers, the entire top-mirror DBR...... to the effective index method. The simulation results elucidate the strength and weaknesses of the analyzed methods; and outline the limits of applicability of the different models....

  5. Numerical Modelling of Arctic Coastal Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport

    Borgersen, Benedicte T


    Coastal areas are experiencing an increase in human population and activities, both in temperate and in Arctic areas. This change in the coastal areas requires that the areas are safe and reliable in order to not put human lives and economical values in danger. To be about to protect the coastal areas it is important to know the hydrodynamics and sediment transport and their effect on coastal areas. Numerical modeling of coastal hydrodynamics and sediment transport is a normal approach to...

  6. Numerical and Experimental Models of the Thermally Stratified Boundary Layer

    Michalcová Vladimíra


    Full Text Available The article describes a change of selected turbulent variables in the surroundings of a flow around thermally loaded object. The problem is solved numerically in the software Ansys Fluent using a Transition SST model that is able to take into account the difference between high and low turbulence at the interface between the wake behind an obstacle and the free stream. The results are verified with experimental measurements in the wind tunnel.

  7. Numerical Modeling of a Wave Energy Point Absorber

    Hernandez, Lorenzo Banos; Frigaard, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    The present study deals with numerical modelling of the Wave Star Energy WSE device. Hereby, linear potential theory is applied via a BEM code on the wave hydrodynamics exciting the floaters. Time and frequency domain solutions of the floater response are determined for regular and irregular seas....... Furthermore, these results are used to estimate the power and the energy absorbed by a single oscillating floater. Finally, a latching control strategy is analysed in open-loop configuration for energy maximization....


    E. I. Marukovich


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional numerical model for calculation of thermal fields during solidification of continuously casted bronze casting is developed. Coefficients of heat transfer on borders of calculation areas on the basis of the solution of inverse heat transfer conduction problem are determined. The analysis of thermal fields, depending on loop variables of drawing and the sizes of not cooled zone of crystallizer is curried out.

  9. Numerical modeling of flutter in a transonic fan

    Milandre, Olivier


    Flutter is a self-feeding and potentially destructive vibration that can lead to devastating effects such as broken blades. Using accurate numerical models to predict flutter in the conception of an engine is essential to avoid huge waste of money. The software 2, using the elsA CFD package developed by the French Aerospace Lab, ONERA, is used to perform unsteady calculations and predict flutter margin. The current methodology does not systematically manage to reproduce the expected flutter p...

  10. Development of three-dimensional numerical model for combustion-flow in interior ballistics

    Jang, Jin Sung; Oh, Seok Hawn; Roh, Tae Seong [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Interior ballistics analysis is required for the development of the gun system. Interior ballistics is a complex phenomenon containing the propellant combustion and gas flow and is completed in tens of milliseconds during gun firing. Thus, some data cannot be directly measured by experiment. Numerical analysis is therefore traditionally used to understand the complex gun firing phenomena. In previous studies, the two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical method for interior ballistics using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach has been developed. There are some limits in depicting the actual phenomena with two-dimensional models. Therefore, a three-dimensional numerical model has been built in the present study. Unlike the conventional method, the calculation has been conducted by separating the physical phenomena into the combustion part and the flow part for simplicity and efficiency. The internal flow in the gun barrel has been calculated by using the STAR-CCM+ and the source terms produced by the propellant combustion has been computed by utilizing the existing code. The developed numerical model has been compared with the AGARD gun results and the simulation of 40 mm gun firings. The reliability of the developed model has been confirmed because the results of the numerical analysis greatly agree with the simulation results. The basis of the three-dimensional analysis of the interior ballistics has been formed through this study.

  11. Optimization methods and silicon solar cell numerical models

    Girardini, K.; Jacobsen, S. E.


    An optimization algorithm for use with numerical silicon solar cell models was developed. By coupling an optimization algorithm with a solar cell model, it is possible to simultaneously vary design variables such as impurity concentrations, front junction depth, back junction depth, and cell thickness to maximize the predicted cell efficiency. An optimization algorithm was developed and interfaced with the Solar Cell Analysis Program in 1 Dimension (SCAP1D). SCAP1D uses finite difference methods to solve the differential equations which, along with several relations from the physics of semiconductors, describe mathematically the performance of a solar cell. A major obstacle is that the numerical methods used in SCAP1D require a significant amount of computer time, and during an optimization the model is called iteratively until the design variables converge to the values associated with the maximum efficiency. This problem was alleviated by designing an optimization code specifically for use with numerically intensive simulations, to reduce the number of times the efficiency has to be calculated to achieve convergence to the optimal solution.

  12. Numerical bifurcation analysis of the bipedal spring-mass model

    Merker, Andreas; Kaiser, Dieter; Hermann, Martin


    The spring-mass model and its numerous extensions are currently one of the best candidates for templates of human and animal locomotion. However, with increasing complexity, their applications can become very time-consuming. In this paper, we present an approach that is based on the calculation of bifurcations in the bipedal spring-mass model for walking. Since the bifurcations limit the region of stable walking, locomotion can be studied by computing the corresponding boundaries. Originally, the model was implemented as a hybrid dynamical system. Our new approach consists of the transformation of the series of initial value problems on different intervals into a single boundary value problem. Using this technique, discontinuities can be avoided and sophisticated numerical methods for studying parametrized nonlinear boundary value problems can be applied. Thus, appropriate extended systems are used to compute transcritical and period-doubling bifurcation points as well as turning points. We show that the resulting boundary value problems can be solved by the simple shooting method with sufficient accuracy, making the application of the more extensive multiple shooting superfluous. The proposed approach is fast, robust to numerical perturbations and allows determining complete manifolds of periodic solutions of the original problem.

  13. Numerical modeling of bubble dynamics in viscoelastic media with relaxation

    Warnez, M. T.; Johnsen, E.


    Cavitation occurs in a variety of non-Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials. The large-amplitude volumetric oscillations of cavitation bubbles give rise to high temperatures and pressures at collapse, as well as induce large and rapid deformation of the surroundings. In this work, we develop a comprehensive numerical framework for spherical bubble dynamics in isotropic media obeying a wide range of viscoelastic constitutive relationships. Our numerical approach solves the compressible Keller-Miksis equation with full thermal effects (inside and outside the bubble) when coupled to a highly generalized constitutive relationship (which allows Newtonian, Kelvin-Voigt, Zener, linear Maxwell, upper-convected Maxwell, Jeffreys, Oldroyd-B, Giesekus, and Phan-Thien-Tanner models). For the latter two models, partial differential equations (PDEs) must be solved in the surrounding medium; for the remaining models, we show that the PDEs can be reduced to ordinary differential equations. To solve the general constitutive PDEs, we present a Chebyshev spectral collocation method, which is robust even for violent collapse. Combining this numerical approach with theoretical analysis, we simulate bubble dynamics in various viscoelastic media to determine the impact of relaxation time, a constitutive parameter, on the associated physics. Relaxation time is found to increase bubble growth and permit rebounds driven purely by residual stresses in the surroundings. Different regimes of oscillations occur depending on the relaxation time.

  14. Numerical Modeling of Inclusion Behavior in Liquid Metal Processing

    Bellot, Jean-Pierre; Descotes, Vincent; Jardy, Alain


    Thermomechanical performance of metallic alloys is directly related to the metal cleanliness that has always been a challenge for metallurgists. During liquid metal processing, particles can grow or decrease in size either by mass transfer with the liquid phase or by agglomeration/fragmentation mechanisms. As a function of numerical density of inclusions and of the hydrodynamics of the reactor, different numerical modeling approaches are proposed; in the case of an isolated particle, the Lagrangian technique coupled with a dissolution model is applied, whereas in the opposite case of large inclusion phase concentration, the population balance equation must be solved. Three examples of numerical modeling studies achieved at Institut Jean Lamour are discussed. They illustrate the application of the Lagrangian technique (for isolated exogenous inclusion in titanium bath) and the Eulerian technique without or with the aggregation process: for precipitation and growing of inclusions at the solidification front of a Maraging steel, and for endogenous inclusions in the molten steel bath of a gas-stirred ladle, respectively.

  15. Numerical solution of High-kappa model of superconductivity

    Karamikhova, R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)


    We present formulation and finite element approximations of High-kappa model of superconductivity which is valid in the high {kappa}, high magnetic field setting and accounts for applied magnetic field and current. Major part of this work deals with steady-state and dynamic computational experiments which illustrate our theoretical results numerically. In our experiments we use Galerkin discretization in space along with Backward-Euler and Crank-Nicolson schemes in time. We show that for moderate values of {kappa}, steady states of the model system, computed using the High-kappa model, are virtually identical with results computed using the full Ginzburg-Landau (G-L) equations. We illustrate numerically optimal rates of convergence in space and time for the L{sup 2} and H{sup 1} norms of the error in the High-kappa solution. Finally, our numerical approximations demonstrate some well-known experimentally observed properties of high-temperature superconductors, such as appearance of vortices, effects of increasing the applied magnetic field and the sample size, and the effect of applied constant current.

  16. 2-D Composite Model for Numerical Simulations of Nonlinear Waves


    - A composite model, which is the combination of Boussinesq equations and Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, has been developed for 2-D time-domain computations of nonlinear waves in a large region. The whole computational region Ω is divided into two subregions. In the near-field around a structure, Ω2, the flow is governed by 2-D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure model of k-ε equations and numerically solved by the improved VOF method; whereas in the subregion Ω1 (Ω1 = Ω - Ω2) the flow is governed by one-D Boussinesq equations and numerically solved with the predictor-corrector algorithm. The velocity and the wave surface elevation are matched on the common boundary of the two subregions. Numerical tests have been conducted for the case of wave propagation and interaction with a wave barrier. It is shown that the composite model can help perform efficient computation of nonlinear waves in a large region with the complicated flow fields near structures taken into account.

  17. Thermocline Storage Filled with Structured Ceramics. Numerical Consistency of the Developed Numerical Model and First Observations

    Motte, Fabrice; Bugler-Lamb, Samuel L.; Falcoz, Quentin


    The attraction of solar energy is greatly enhanced by the possibility of it being used during times of reduced or non-existent solar flux, such as weather induced intermittences or the darkness of the night. Therefore optimizing thermal storage for use in solar energy plants is crucial for the success of this sustainable energy source. Here we present a study of a structured bed filler dedicated to Thermocline type thermal storage, believed to outweigh the financial and thermal benefits of other systems currently in use such as packed bed Thermocline tanks. Several criterions such as Thermocline thickness and Thermocline centering are defined with the purpose of facilitating the assessment of the efficiency of the tank to complement the standard concepts of power output. A numerical model is developed that reduces to two dimensions the modeling of such a tank. The structure within the tank is designed to be built using simple bricks harboring rectangular channels through which the solar heat transfer and storage fluid will flow. The model is scrutinized and tested for physical robustness, and the results are presented in this paper. The consistency of the model is achieved within particular ranges for each physical variable.


    Chiswell, S.; Buckley, R.


    During the year 2008, the United States National Weather Service (NWS) completed an eight fold increase in sampling capability for weather radars to 250 m resolution. This increase is expected to improve warning lead times by detecting small scale features sooner with increased reliability; however, current NWS operational model domains utilize grid spacing an order of magnitude larger than the radar data resolution, and therefore the added resolution of radar data is not fully exploited. The assimilation of radar reflectivity and velocity data into high resolution numerical weather model forecasts where grid spacing is comparable to the radar data resolution was investigated under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) 'quick hit' grant to determine the impact of improved data resolution on model predictions with specific initial proof of concept application to daily Savannah River Site operations and emergency response. Development of software to process NWS radar reflectivity and radial velocity data was undertaken for assimilation of observations into numerical models. Data values within the radar data volume undergo automated quality control (QC) analysis routines developed in support of this project to eliminate empty/missing data points, decrease anomalous propagation values, and determine error thresholds by utilizing the calculated variances among data values. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) three dimensional variational data assimilation package (WRF-3DVAR) was used to incorporate the QC'ed radar data into input and boundary conditions. The lack of observational data in the vicinity of SRS available to NWS operational models signifies an important data void where radar observations can provide significant input. These observations greatly enhance the knowledge of storm structures and the environmental conditions which influence their development. As the increase in computational power and availability has

  19. Interaction of tide and salinity barrier: Limitation of numerical model

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai1


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of interaction of the tide and the salinity barrier in an estuarine area is usually accomplished vianumerical modeling, due to the speed and convenience of modern computers. However, numerical models provide littleinsight with respect to the fundamental physical mechanisms involved. In this study, it is found that all existing numericalmodels work satisfactorily when the barrier is located at some distance far from upstream and downstream boundary conditions.Results are considerably underestimate reality when the barrier is located near the downstream boundary, usually theriver mouth. Meanwhile, this analytical model provides satisfactory output for all scenarios. The main problem of thenumerical model is that the effects of barrier construction in creation of reflected tide are neglected when specifying thedownstream boundary conditions; the use of the boundary condition before construction of the barrier which are significantlydifferent from those after the barrier construction would result in an error outputs. Future numerical models shouldattempt to account for this deficiency; otherwise, using this analytical model is another choice.

  20. Numerical algorithm of distributed TOPKAPI model and its application

    Deng Peng; Li Zhijia; Liu Zhiyu


    The TOPKAPI (TOPographic Kinematic APproximation and Integration) model is a physically based rainfall-runoff model derived from the integration in space of the kinematic wave model. In the TOPKAPI model, rainfall-runoff and runoff routing processes are described by three nonlinear reservoir differential equations that are structurally similar and describe different hydrological and hydraulic processes. Equations are integrated over grid cells that describe the geometry of the catchment, leading to a cascade of nonlinear reservoir equations. For the sake of improving the model's computation precision, this paper provides the general form of these equations and describes the solution by means of a numerical algorithm, the variable-step fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. For the purpose of assessing the quality of the comprehensive numerical algorithm, this paper presents a case study application to the Buliu River Basin, which has an area of 3 310 km2, using a DEM (digital elevation model) grid with a resolution of 1 km. The results show that the variable-step fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm for nonlinear reservoir equations is a good approximation of subsurface flow in the soil matrix, overland flow over the slopes, and surface flow in the channel network, allowing us to retain the physical properties of the original equations at scales ranging from a few meters to 1 km.

  1. Mathematical and Numerical Analyses of Peridynamics for Multiscale Materials Modeling

    Du, Qiang [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)


    The rational design of materials, the development of accurate and efficient material simulation algorithms, and the determination of the response of materials to environments and loads occurring in practice all require an understanding of mechanics at disparate spatial and temporal scales. The project addresses mathematical and numerical analyses for material problems for which relevant scales range from those usually treated by molecular dynamics all the way up to those most often treated by classical elasticity. The prevalent approach towards developing a multiscale material model couples two or more well known models, e.g., molecular dynamics and classical elasticity, each of which is useful at a different scale, creating a multiscale multi-model. However, the challenges behind such a coupling are formidable and largely arise because the atomistic and continuum models employ nonlocal and local models of force, respectively. The project focuses on a multiscale analysis of the peridynamics materials model. Peridynamics can be used as a transition between molecular dynamics and classical elasticity so that the difficulties encountered when directly coupling those two models are mitigated. In addition, in some situations, peridynamics can be used all by itself as a material model that accurately and efficiently captures the behavior of materials over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Peridynamics is well suited to these purposes because it employs a nonlocal model of force, analogous to that of molecular dynamics; furthermore, at sufficiently large length scales and assuming smooth deformation, peridynamics can be approximated by classical elasticity. The project will extend the emerging mathematical and numerical analysis of peridynamics. One goal is to develop a peridynamics-enabled multiscale multi-model that potentially provides a new and more extensive mathematical basis for coupling classical elasticity and molecular dynamics, thus enabling next

  2. Simple Numerical Model to Simulate Penetration Testing in Unsaturated Soils

    Jarast S. Pegah


    Full Text Available Cone penetration test in unsaturated sand is modelled numerically using Finite Element Method. Simple elastic-perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model is modified with an apparent cohesion to incorporate the effect of suction on cone resistance. The Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE remeshing algorithm is also implemented to avoid mesh distortion problem due to the large deformation in the soil around the cone tip. The simulated models indicate that the cone resistance was increased consistently under higher suction or lower degree of saturation. Sensitivity analysis investigating the effect of input soil parameters on the cone tip resistance shows that unsaturated soil condition can be adequately modelled by incorporating the apparent cohesion concept. However, updating the soil stiffness by including a suction-dependent effective stress formula in Mohr-Coulomb material model does not influence the cone resistance significantly.

  3. A Numerical Model for a Floating TLP Wind Turbine

    Kumari Ramachandran, Gireesh Kumar Vasanta

    A numerical model is developed for a TLP configuration of a floating offshore wind turbine. The platform dynamics and hydrodynamic forces are derived and implemented in an advanced aero-elastic code, Flex5, to compute the hydro-aero-servo-elastic loads and responses on the floater and the wind...... irregular waves. In addition, the effect of wind-wave misalignment is investigated. Further, in the third step, the 3D platform dynamics and wave loading are implemented into Flex5, resulting in a fully coupled hydro-aero-servo-elastic code. The implementation is tested to make the model reliable and robust...

  4. Numerical model of multilayer organic light-emitting devices

    Hu Yue; Rao Hai-Bo


    A numerical model of multilayer organic light-emitting devices is presented in this article.This model is based on the drift-diffusion equations which include charge injection,transport,space charge effects,trapping,heterojunction interface and recombination process.The device structure in the simulation is ITO/CuPc(20 nm)/NPD(40 nm)/Alq3(60 nm)/LiF/Al.There are two heterojunctions which should be dealt with in the simulation.The Ⅰ-Ⅴ characteristics,carrier distribution and recombination rate of a device are calculated.The simulation results and measured data are in good agreement.

  5. Laser modeling a numerical approach with algebra and calculus

    Csele, Mark Steven


    Offering a fresh take on laser engineering, Laser Modeling: A Numerical Approach with Algebra and Calculus presents algebraic models and traditional calculus-based methods in tandem to make concepts easier to digest and apply in the real world. Each technique is introduced alongside a practical, solved example based on a commercial laser. Assuming some knowledge of the nature of light, emission of radiation, and basic atomic physics, the text:Explains how to formulate an accurate gain threshold equation as well as determine small-signal gainDiscusses gain saturation and introduces a novel pass

  6. Modeling of ECC materials using numerical formulations based on plasticity

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe


    This paper discusses the considerations for the establishment of a damage model for ECC. Three different length scales are used in the approach for deriving the damage model. On each length scale important phenomena are investigated by use of numerical and analytical calculations. On the micro...... scale it is shown that the cohesive law for a unidirectional fiber reinforced cementitious composite can be found through superposition of the cohesive law for mortar and the fiber bridging curve. On the meso scale I it is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in ECC...

  7. Standards and Guidelines for Numerical Models for Tsunami Hazard Mitigation

    Titov, V.; Gonzalez, F.; Kanoglu, U.; Yalciner, A.; Synolakis, C. E.


    An increased number of nations around the workd need to develop tsunami mitigation plans which invariably involve inundation maps for warning guidance and evacuation planning. There is the risk that inundation maps may be produced with older or untested methodology, as there are currently no standards for modeling tools. In the aftermath of the 2004 megatsunami, some models were used to model inundation for Cascadia events with results much larger than sediment records and existing state-of-the-art studies suggest leading to confusion among emergency management. Incorrectly assessing tsunami impact is hazardous, as recent events in 2006 in Tonga, Kythira, Greece and Central Java have suggested (Synolakis and Bernard, 2006). To calculate tsunami currents, forces and runup on coastal structures, and inundation of coastlines one must calculate the evolution of the tsunami wave from the deep ocean to its target site, numerically. No matter what the numerical model, validation (the process of ensuring that the model solves the parent equations of motion accurately) and verification (the process of ensuring that the model used represents geophysical reality appropriately) both are an essential. Validation ensures that the model performs well in a wide range of circumstances and is accomplished through comparison with analytical solutions. Verification ensures that the computational code performs well over a range of geophysical problems. A few analytic solutions have been validated themselves with laboratory data. Even fewer existing numerical models have been both validated with the analytical solutions and verified with both laboratory measurements and field measurements, thus establishing a gold standard for numerical codes for inundation mapping. While there is in principle no absolute certainty that a numerical code that has performed well in all the benchmark tests will also produce correct inundation predictions with any given source motions, validated codes

  8. Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens

    Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen


    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity

  9. How to produce flat slabs: insights from numeric modeling

    Constantin Manea, Vlad; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Manea, Marina


    Flat slab subduction occurs at ~10% of the active convergent margins and it is assumed that subduction of oceanic aseismic ridges or seamount chains is the main mechanism to produce very low angle subduction slabs. However, recent numeric and analog modeling showed that ridges alone of moderate dimensions subducted perpendicular to the trench are not sufficient to produce flat-slab geometries. Therefore an alternative mechanism able to produce flat-slabs is required. In this paper we present dynamic numeric modeling results of subduction in the vicinity of thick continental lithosphere, as a craton for example. We tailored our modeling setup for the Chilean margins at ~31° and our models are integrated back in time 30 Myr. Modeling results show that a craton thickness of 200 km or more when approaching the trench is capable of blocking the asthenospheric flow in the mantle wedge and increasing considerably the suction force. We were able to produce a flat slab that fits well the flat slab geometry in Chile (based on seismicity) and stress distribution. We conclude that thick cratons located in the vicinity of subduction zones, are capable to produce very low angle slabs, and probable a combination of buoyant ridge subduction with a neighbor thick craton represent a better mechanism to produce flat slabs.

  10. Numerical modeling of capillary electrophoresis - electrospray mass spectrometry interface design.

    Jarvas, Gabor; Guttman, Andras; Foret, Frantisek


    Capillary electrophoresis hyphenated with electrospray mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) has emerged in the past decade as one of the most powerful bioanalytical techniques. As the sensitivity and efficiency of new CE-ESI-MS interface designs are continuously improving, numerical modeling can play important role during their development. In this review, different aspects of computer modeling and simulation of CE-ESI-MS interfaces are comprehensively discussed. Relevant essentials of hydrodynamics as well as state-of-the-art modeling techniques are critically evaluated. Sheath liquid-, sheathless-, and liquid-junction interfaces are reviewed from the viewpoint of multidisciplinary numerical modeling along with details of single and multiphase models together with electric field mediated flows, electrohydrodynamics, and free fluid-surface methods. Practical examples are given to help non-specialists to understand the basic principles and applications. Finally, alternative approaches like air amplifiers are also included. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 34: 558-569, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Numerical algorithm of distributed TOPKAPI model and its application

    Deng Peng


    Full Text Available The TOPKAPI (TOPographic Kinematic APproximation and Integration model is a physically based rainfall-runoff model derived from the integration in space of the kinematic wave model. In the TOPKAPI model, rainfall-runoff and runoff routing processes are described by three nonlinear reservoir differential equations that are structurally similar and describe different hydrological and hydraulic processes. Equations are integrated over grid cells that describe the geometry of the catchment, leading to a cascade of nonlinear reservoir equations. For the sake of improving the model’s computation precision, this paper provides the general form of these equations and describes the solution by means of a numerical algorithm, the variable-step fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. For the purpose of assessing the quality of the comprehensive numerical algorithm, this paper presents a case study application to the Buliu River Basin, which has an area of 3 310 km2, using a DEM (digital elevation model grid with a resolution of 1 km. The results show that the variable-step fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm for nonlinear reservoir equations is a good approximation of subsurface flow in the soil matrix, overland flow over the slopes, and surface flow in the channel network, allowing us to retain the physical properties of the original equations at scales ranging from a few meters to 1 km.

  12. Numerical investigation for erratic behavior of Kriging surrogate model

    Kwon, Hyun Gil; Yi, Seul Gi [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Im [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg (United States)


    Kriging model is one of popular spatial/temporal interpolation models in engineering field since it could reduce the time resources for the expensive analysis. But generation of the Kriging model is hardly a sinecure because internal semi-variogram structure of the Kriging often reveals numerically unstable or erratic behaviors. In present study, the issues in the maximum likelihood estimation which are the vital-parts of the construction of the Kriging model, is investigated. These issues are divided into two aspects; Issue I is for the erratic response of likelihood function itself, and Issue II is for numerically unstable behaviors in the correlation matrix. For both issues, studies for specific circumstances which might raise the issue, and the reason of that are conducted. Some practical ways further are suggested to cope with them. Furthermore, the issue is studied for practical problem; aerodynamic performance coefficients of two-dimensional airfoil predicted by CFD analysis. Result shows that such erratic behavior of Kriging surrogate model can be effectively resolved by proposed solution. In conclusion, it is expected this paper could be helpful to prevent such an erratic and unstable behavior.

  13. Numerical modelling of the 28 October 2011 Haida Gwaii tsunami

    Fine, I.; Cherniawsky, J. Y.; Thomson, R.


    On October 28, 2012, a strong (Mw=7.7) earthquake occurred offshore of Moresby Island, Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake generated a trans-Pacific tsunami observed from New Zealand to Alaska. We used an updated finite-fault model of the earthquake of Hayes (2013) to estimate the tsunami source. The location of this source was subsequently adjusted using tsunami waveforms recorded by bottom pressure recorders at NOAA DART stations and on the NEPTUNE Canada cabled observatory. The adjusted source was then used in a high-resolution model of tsunami wave propagation towards the bays and inlets of Moresby Island. According to the model, tsunami run-up in some bays would have been higher than 7 m. Subsequent post-surveys at several Moresby Island sites were undertaken in mid-November of 2012 and in June 2013, directed in part by the numerical model results. These surveys showed clear evidence of recent tsunami run-up of more than 8 m above the tide at specific coastal embayments, in good agreement with the numerical model results.

  14. Numerical heat conduction in hydrodynamical models of colliding hypersonic flows

    Parkin, E R


    Hydrodynamical models of colliding hypersonic flows are presented which explore the dependence of the resulting dynamics and the characteristics of the derived X-ray emission on numerical conduction and viscosity. For the purpose of our investigation we present models of colliding flow with plane-parallel and cylindrical divergence. Numerical conduction causes erroneous heating of gas across the contact discontinuity which has implications for the rate at which the gas cools. We find that the dynamics of the shocked gas and the resulting X-ray emission are strongly dependent on the contrast in the density and temperature either side of the contact discontinuity, these effects being strongest where the postshock gas of one flow behaves quasi-adiabatically while the postshock gas of the other flow is strongly radiative. Introducing additional numerical viscosity into the simulations has the effect of damping the growth of instabilities, which in some cases act to increase the volume of shocked gas and can re-he...

  15. Numerical Modelling of Solitary Wave Experiments on Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    Guler, H. G.; Arikawa, T.; Baykal, C.; Yalciner, A. C.


    Performance of a rubble mound breakwater protecting Haydarpasa Port, Turkey, has been tested under tsunami attack by physical model tests conducted at Port and Airport Research Institute (Guler et al, 2015). It is aimed to understand dynamic force of the tsunami by conducting solitary wave tests (Arikawa, 2015). In this study, the main objective is to perform numerical modelling of solitary wave tests in order to verify accuracy of the CFD model IHFOAM, developed in OpenFOAM environment (Higuera et al, 2013), by comparing results of the numerical computations with the experimental results. IHFOAM is the numerical modelling tool which is based on VARANS equations with a k-ω SST turbulence model including realistic wave generation, and active wave absorption. Experiments are performed using a Froude scale of 1/30, measuring surface elevation and flow velocity at several locations in the wave channel, and wave pressure around the crown wall of the breakwater. Solitary wave tests with wave heights of H=7.5 cm and H=10 cm are selected which represent the results of the experiments. The first test (H=7.5 cm) is the case that resulted in no damage whereas the second case (H=10 cm) resulted in total damage due to the sliding of the crown wall. After comparison of the preliminary results of numerical simulations with experimental data for both cases, it is observed that solitary wave experiments could be accurately modeled using IHFOAM focusing water surface elevations, flow velocities, and wave pressures on the crown wall of the breakwater (Figure, result of sim. at t=29.6 sec). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors acknowledge developers of IHFOAM, further extend their acknowledgements for the partial supports from the research projects MarDiM, ASTARTE, RAPSODI, and TUBITAK 213M534. REFERENCESArikawa (2015) "Consideration of Characteristics of Pressure on Seawall by Solitary Waves Based on Hydraulic Experiments", Jour. of Japan. Soc. of Civ. Eng. Ser. B2 (Coast. Eng.), Vol 71, p I

  16. A dynamic spar numerical model for passive shape change

    Calogero, J. P.; Frecker, M. I.; Hasnain, Z.; Hubbard, J. E., Jr.


    A three-dimensional constraint-driven dynamic rigid-link numerical model of a flapping wing structure with compliant joints (CJs) called the dynamic spar numerical model is introduced and implemented. CJs are modeled as spherical joints with distributed mass and spring-dampers with coupled nonlinear spring and damping coefficients, which models compliant mechanisms spatially distributed in the structure while greatly reducing computation time compared to a finite element model. The constraints are established, followed by the formulation of a state model used in conjunction with a forward time integrator, an experiment to verify a rigid-link assumption and determine a flapping angle function, and finally several example runs. Modeling the CJs as coupled bi-linear springs shows the wing is able to flex more during upstroke than downstroke. Coupling the spring stiffnesses allows an angular deformation about one axis to induce an angular deformation about another axis, where the magnitude is proportional to the coupling term. Modeling both the leading edge and diagonal spars shows that the diagonal spar changes the kinematics of the leading edge spar verses only considering the leading edge spar, causing much larger axial rotations in the leading edge spar. The kinematics are very sensitive to CJ location, where moving the CJ toward the wing root causes a stronger response, and adding multiple CJs on the leading edge spar with a CJ on the diagonal spar allows the wing to deform with larger magnitude in all directions. This model lays a framework for a tool which can be used to understand flapping wing flight.

  17. Newest insights from MHD numerical modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.


    Numerical MHD models are considered very successful in accounting for many of the observed properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), especially those concerning the high energy emission morphology and the inner nebula dynamics. Although PWNe are known to be among the most powerful accelerators in nature, producing particles up to PeV energies, the mechanisms responsible of such an efficient acceleration are still a deep mystery. Indeed, these processes take place in one of the most hostile environment for particle acceleration: the relativistic and highly magnetized termination shock of the pulsar wind. The newest results from numerical simulations of the Crab Nebula, the PWN prototype, will be presented, with special attention to the problem of particle acceleration. In particular it will be shown how a multi-wavelengths analysis of the wisps properties can be used to constrain the particle acceleration mechanisms working at the Crab's termination shock, by identifying the particle acceleration site at the shock front.

  18. Induction and direct resistance heating theory and numerical modeling

    Lupi, Sergio; Aliferov, Aleksandr


    This book offers broad, detailed coverage of theoretical developments in induction and direct resistance heating and presents new material on the solution of problems in the application of such heating. The physical basis of induction and conduction heating processes is explained, and electromagnetic phenomena in direct resistance and induction heating of flat workpieces and cylindrical bodies are examined in depth. The calculation of electrical and energetic characteristics of induction and conduction heating systems is then thoroughly reviewed. The final two chapters consider analytical solutions and numerical modeling of problems in the application of induction and direct resistance heating, providing industrial engineers with the knowledge needed in order to use numerical tools in the modern design of installations. Other engineers, scientists, and technologists will find the book to be an invaluable reference that will assist in the efficient utilization of electrical energy.

  19. Mathematical modelling and numerical simulation of oil pollution problems


    Written by outstanding experts in the fields of marine engineering, atmospheric physics and chemistry, fluid dynamics and applied mathematics, the contributions in this book cover a wide range of subjects, from pure mathematics to real-world applications in the oil spill engineering business. Offering a truly interdisciplinary approach, the authors present both mathematical models and state-of-the-art numerical methods for adequately solving the partial differential equations involved, as well as highly practical experiments involving actual cases of ocean oil pollution. It is indispensable that different disciplines of mathematics, like analysis and numerics,  together with physics, biology, fluid dynamics, environmental engineering and marine science, join forces to solve today’s oil pollution problems.   The book will be of great interest to researchers and graduate students in the environmental sciences, mathematics and physics, showing the broad range of techniques needed in order to solve these poll...

  20. Numerical Modeling of Electroacoustic Logging Including Joule Heating

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Nikitin, Anatoly A.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    It is well known that electromagnetic field excites acoustic wave in a porous elastic medium saturated with fluid electrolyte due to electrokinetic conversion effect. Pride's equations describing this process are written in isothermal approximation. Update of these equations, which allows to take influence of Joule heating on acoustic waves propagation into account, is proposed here. This update includes terms describing the initiation of additional acoustic waves excited by thermoelastic stresses and the heat conduction equation with right side defined by Joule heating. Results of numerical modeling of several problems of propagation of acoustic waves excited by an electric field source with and without consideration of Joule heating effect in their statements are presented. From these results, it follows that influence of Joule heating should be taken into account at the numerical simulation of electroacoustic logging and at the interpretation of its log data.

  1. Numerical Methods for the Lévy LIBOR Model

    Papapantoleon, Antonis; Skovmand, David

    are generally slow. We propose an alternative approximation scheme based on Picard iterations. Our approach is similar in accuracy to the full numerical solution, but with the feature that each rate is, unlike the standard method, evolved independently of the other rates in the term structure. This enables......The aim of this work is to provide fast and accurate approximation schemes for the Monte-Carlo pricing of derivatives in the Lévy LIBOR model of Eberlein and Özkan (2005). Standard methods can be applied to solve the stochastic differential equations of the successive LIBOR rates but the methods...... simultaneous calculation of derivative prices of different maturities using parallel computing. We include numerical illustrations of the accuracy and speed of our method pricing caplets....

  2. Numerical computations and mathematical modelling with infinite and infinitesimal numbers

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D


    Traditional computers work with finite numbers. Situations where the usage of infinite or infinitesimal quantities is required are studied mainly theoretically. In this paper, a recently introduced computational methodology (that is not related to the non-standard analysis) is used to work with finite, infinite, and infinitesimal numbers \\textit{numerically}. This can be done on a new kind of a computer - the Infinity Computer - able to work with all these types of numbers. The new computational tools both give possibilities to execute computations of a new type and open new horizons for creating new mathematical models where a computational usage of infinite and/or infinitesimal numbers can be useful. A number of numerical examples showing the potential of the new approach and dealing with divergent series, limits, probability theory, linear algebra, and calculation of volumes of objects consisting of parts of different dimensions are given.

  3. Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines

    Sidelnikov, O S; Fedoruk, M P [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sygletos, S; Ferreira, F [Aston University, England, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)


    The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong coupling regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one. (fibre-optic communication lines)

  4. Numerical modeling of spray combustion with an advanced VOF method

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Liaw, Paul


    This paper summarizes the technical development and validation of a multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical method using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and a Lagrangian tracking model which can be employed to analyze general multiphase flow problems with free surface mechanism. The gas-liquid interface mass, momentum and energy conservation relationships are modeled by continuum surface mechanisms. A new solution method is developed such that the present VOF model can be applied for all-speed flow regimes. The objectives of the present study are to develop and verify the fractional volume-of-fluid cell partitioning approach into a predictor-corrector algorithm and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach by simulating benchmark problems including laminar impinging jets, shear coaxial jet atomization and shear coaxial spray combustion flows.

  5. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling


    This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...

  6. 2D numerical modelling of meandering channel formation

    Y Xiao; G Zhou; F S Yang


    A 2D depth-averaged model for hydrodynamic sediment transport and river morphological adjustment was established. The sediment transport submodel takes into account the influence of non-uniform sediment with bed surface armoring and considers the impact of secondary flow in the direction of bed-loadtransport and transverse slope of the river bed. The bank erosion submodel incorporates a simple simulation method for updating bank geometry during either degradational or aggradational bed evolution. Comparison of the results obtained by the extended model with experimental and field data, and numericalpredictions validate that the proposed model can simulate grain sorting in river bends and duplicate the characteristics of meandering river and its development. The results illustrate that by using its control factors, the improved numerical model can be applied to simulate channel evolution under differentscenarios and improve understanding of patterning processes.

  7. Two-dimensional Numerical Modeling Research on Continent Subduction Dynamics

    WANG Zhimin; XU Bei; ZHOU Yaoqi; XU Hehua; HUANG Shaoying


    Continent subduction is one of the hot research problems in geoscience. New models presented here have been set up and two-dimensional numerical modeling research on the possibility of continental subduction has been made with the finite element software, ANSYS, based on documentary evidence and reasonable assumptions that the subduction of oceanic crust has occurred, the subduction of continental crust can take place and the process can be simplified to a discontinuous plane strain theory model. The modeling results show that it is completely possible for continental crust to be subducted to a depth of 120 km under certain circumstances and conditions. At the same time, the simulations of continental subduction under a single dynamical factor have also been made, including the pull force of the subducted oceanic lithosphere, the drag force connected with mantle convection and the push force of the mid-ocean ridge. These experiments show that the drag force connected with mantle convection is critical for continent subduction.

  8. Heterogeneous individuals' behavioral biases model and numerical simulation

    ZHANG Da-yong; LIANG Guo-wei


    A model of the relationships between individual cognitive biases and individual decision-making based on the analysis of cognitive biases of bonded rationality individual,has been established in this paper by introducing a set of new variables callod overconfidence coefficient and attribution bias coefficient to the sentiment model.The irrational expectation and irrational risk aversion as two inseparable aspects of bonded rationality are expressed in an unified model,and a method of measuring individual cognitive biases is proposed,which overcomes the shortcomings of traditional normative models that can not describe the differences of behaviors among heterogeneous individuals.As a result,numerical simulations show that individual cognitive risk is a positive interaction with overconfidence coefficient,and a negative interaction with attribution bias coefficient.

  9. Numerical simulation and modeling of combustion in scramjets

    Clark, Ryan James

    In the last fifteen years the development of a viable scramjet has quickly approached the following long term goals: responsive sub-orbital space access; long-range, prompt global strike; and high-speed transportation. Nonetheless, there are significant challenges that need to be resolved. These challenges include high skin friction drag and high heat transfer rates, inherent to vehicles in sustained, hypersonic flight. Another challenge is sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation and modeling was performed to provide insight into reducing skin friction drag and sustaining combustion. Numerical simulation was used to investigate boundary layer combustion, which has been shown to reduce skin friction drag. The objective of the numerical simulations was to quantify the effect of fuel injection parameters on boundary layer combustion and ultimately on the change in the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. A qualitative analysis of the results suggest that the reduction in the skin friction coefficient depends on multiple parameters and potentially an interaction between parameters. Sustained combustion can be achieved through a stabilized detonation wave. Additionally, stabilizing a detonation wave will yield rapid combustion. This will allow for a shorter and lighter-weight engine system, resulting in less required combustor cooling. A stabilized detonation wave was numerically modeled for various inlet and geometric cases. The effect of fuel concentration, inlet Mach number, and geometric configuration on the stability of a detonation wave was quantified. Correlations were established between fuel concentration, inlet speed, geometric configuration and parameters characterizing the detonation wave. A linear relationship was quantified between the fuel concentration and the parameters characterizing the detonation wave.

  10. An Integrated Numerical Model of the Spray Forming Process

    Pryds, Nini; Hattel, Jesper; Pedersen, Trine Bjerre;


    In this paper, an integrated approach for modelling the entire spray forming process is presented. The basis for the analysis is a recently developed model which extents previous studies and includes the interaction between an array of droplets and the enveloping gas. The formulation...... is in fact the summation of 'local' droplet size distributions along the r-axis. A key parameter, which determines the yield and the shape of the deposit material, is the sticking efficiency. The sticking phenomenon is therefore incorporated into the deposition model. (C) 2002 Acta Materialia Inc. Published...... of the deposition model is accomplished using a 2D cylindrical heat flow model. This model is now coupled with an atomization model via a log-normal droplet size distribution. The coupling between the atomization and the deposition is accomplished by ensuring that the total droplet size distribution of the spray...

  11. Numerical model for thermal parameters in optical materials

    Sato, Yoichi; Taira, Takunori


    Thermal parameters of optical materials, such as thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, temperature coefficient of refractive index play a decisive role for the thermal design inside laser cavities. Therefore, numerical value of them with temperature dependence is quite important in order to develop the high intense laser oscillator in which optical materials generate excessive heat across mode volumes both of lasing output and optical pumping. We already proposed a novel model of thermal conductivity in various optical materials. Thermal conductivity is a product of isovolumic specific heat and thermal diffusivity, and independent modeling of these two figures should be required from the viewpoint of a clarification of physical meaning. Our numerical model for thermal conductivity requires one material parameter for specific heat and two parameters for thermal diffusivity in the calculation of each optical material. In this work we report thermal conductivities of various optical materials as Y3Al5O12 (YAG), YVO4 (YVO), GdVO4 (GVO), stoichiometric and congruent LiTaO3, synthetic quartz, YAG ceramics and Y2O3 ceramics. The dependence on Nd3+-doping in laser gain media in YAG, YVO and GVO is also studied. This dependence can be described by only additional three parameters. Temperature dependence of thermal expansion and temperature coefficient of refractive index for YAG, YVO, and GVO: these are also included in this work for convenience. We think our numerical model is quite useful for not only thermal analysis in laser cavities or optical waveguides but also the evaluation of physical properties in various transparent materials.

  12. Numerical modeling of hydrodynamic in southwestern Johor, Malaysia

    Jusoh, Wan Hasliza Wan; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Hamid, Mohd. Radzi Abdul


    Tanjung Piai located at the southwest of Johor, Malaysia faces severe erosion since a few decades ago. Considering the condition in this particular area, understanding of its hydrodynamic behaviour should be clearly explained. Thus, a numerical modelling has been applied in this study in order to investigate the hydrodynamic of current flow along the study area. Hydrodynamic study was carried out by applying a numerical modelling of MIKE 21 software based on flexible mesh grids. The model generally described the current flow pattern in the study area corresponding to the several flows from surrounding water regime which are Malacca Strait, Singapore Strait and Java Sea. The interaction of various water flows in the area of Tanjung Piai which is located in the middle part of the meeting of the currents to have a very complicated hydrodynamic conditions. The study area generally experienced two tidal phase in a day as the water flows is greatly influenced by the adjacent water flow from Malacca and Singapore Straits. During first tidal cycle, the most dominant flow is influenced by a single water flow which is Malacca Strait for both ebbing and flooding event. The current velocity was generally higher during this first tidal phase particularly at the tips of Tanjung Piai where severe erosion is spotted. However, the second tidal phase gives different stress to the study area as the flow is relatively dominated by both Malacca and Singapore Straits. During this phase, the meeting of current from both straits can be discovered near to the Tanjung Piai as this occurrence makes relatively slower current velocity around the study area. Basically, the numerical modelling result in this study can be considered as basic information in describing the condition of study area as it would be very useful for extensive study especially the study of sediment transport and morphological processes in the coastal area.



    The beam-particle model is presented for analyzing the progressive failure of particulate composites such as sandstone and concrete. In the model, the medium is schematized as an assembly of particles which are linked through a network of brittle-breaking beam elements. The mechanical behaviour of particle elements is governed by the distinct element method and finite element method. The propagation of the cracking process in particulate composites is mimicked by removing the beam element from the mesh as soon as the stress in the beam exceeds the strength assigned to that particular beam. The new model can be utilized at a meso-scale and in different loading conditions. Two physical experiments are performed to verify the numerical results. The crack patterns and load-displacement response obtained with the proposed numerical model are in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the influence of heterogeneity on crack patterns is also discussed and the correlation existing between the fracture evolution and the loads imposed on the specimen is characterized by fractal dimensions.

  14. Parallelism and optimization of numerical ocean forecasting model

    Xu, Jianliang; Pang, Renbo; Teng, Junhua; Liang, Hongtao; Yang, Dandan


    According to the characteristics of Chinese marginal seas, the Marginal Sea Model of China (MSMC) has been developed independently in China. Because the model requires long simulation time, as a routine forecasting model, the parallelism of MSMC becomes necessary to be introduced to improve the performance of it. However, some methods used in MSMC, such as Successive Over Relaxation (SOR) algorithm, are not suitable for parallelism. In this paper, methods are developedto solve the parallel problem of the SOR algorithm following the steps as below. First, based on a 3D computing grid system, an automatic data partition method is implemented to dynamically divide the computing grid according to computing resources. Next, based on the characteristics of the numerical forecasting model, a parallel method is designed to solve the parallel problem of the SOR algorithm. Lastly, a communication optimization method is provided to avoid the cost of communication. In the communication optimization method, the non-blocking communication of Message Passing Interface (MPI) is used to implement the parallelism of MSMC with complex physical equations, and the process of communication is overlapped with the computations for improving the performance of parallel MSMC. The experiments show that the parallel MSMC runs 97.2 times faster than the serial MSMC, and root mean square error between the parallel MSMC and the serial MSMC is less than 0.01 for a 30-day simulation (172800 time steps), which meets the requirements of timeliness and accuracy for numerical ocean forecasting products.

  15. Enthalpy benchmark experiments for numerical ice sheet models

    T. Kleiner


    Full Text Available We present benchmark experiments to test the implementation of enthalpy and the corresponding boundary conditions in numerical ice sheet models. The first experiment tests particularly the functionality of the boundary condition scheme and the basal melt rate calculation during transient simulations. The second experiment addresses the steady-state enthalpy profile and the resulting position of the cold–temperate transition surface (CTS. For both experiments we assume ice flow in a parallel-sided slab decoupled from the thermal regime. Since we impose several assumptions on the experiment design, analytical solutions can be formulated for the proposed numerical experiments. We compare simulation results achieved by three different ice flow-models with these analytical solutions. The models agree well to the analytical solutions, if the change in conductivity between cold and temperate ice is properly considered in the model. In particular, the enthalpy gradient at the cold side of the CTS vanishes in the limit of vanishing conductivity in the temperate ice part as required from the physical jump conditions at the CTS.

  16. Numerical Analysis and Centrifuge Modeling of Shallow Foundations

    罗强; 栾茂田; 杨蕴明; 王忠涛; 赵守正


    The influence of non-coaxial constitutive model on predictions of dense sand behavior is investigated in this paper. The non-coaxial model with strain softening plasticity is applied into finite-element program ABAQUS, which is first used to predict the stress-strain behavior and the non-coaxial characteristic between the orientations of the principal stress and principal plastic strain rate in simple shear tests. The model is also used to predict load settlement responses and bearing capacity factors of shallow foundations. A series of centrifuge tests for shallow foundations on saturated dense sand are performed under drained conditions and the test results are compared with the corresponding numerical results. Various footing dimensions, depths of embedment, and footing shapes are considered in these tests. In view of the load settlement relationships, the stiffness of the load-displacement curves is significantly affected by the non-coaxial model compared with those predicted by the coaxial model, and a lower value of non-coaxial modulus gives a softer response. Considering the soil behavior at failure, the coaxial model predictions of bearing capacity factors are more advanced than those of centrifuge test results and the non-coaxial model results;besides, the non-coaxial model gives better predictions. The non-coaxial model predictions are closer to those of the centrifuge results when a proper non-coaxial plastic modulus is chosen.

  17. Numerical Comparison of Solutions of Kinetic Model Equations

    A. A. Frolova


    Full Text Available The collision integral approximation by different model equations has created a whole new trend in the theory of rarefied gas. One widely used model is the Shakhov model (S-model obtained by expansion of inverse collisions integral in a series of Hermite polynomials up to the third order. Using the same expansion with another value of free parameters leads to a linearized ellipsoidal statistical model (ESL.Both model equations (S and ESL have the same properties, as they give the correct relaxation of non-equilibrium stress tensor components and heat flux vector, the correct Prandtl number at the transition to the hydrodynamic regime and do not guarantee the positivity of the distribution function.The article presents numerical comparison of solutions of Shakhov equation, ESL- model and full Boltzmann equation in the four Riemann problems for molecules of hard spheres.We have considered the expansion of two gas flows, contact discontinuity, the problem of the gas counter-flows and the problem of the shock wave structure. For the numerical solution of the kinetic equations the method of discrete ordinates is used.The comparison shows that solution has a weak sensitivity to the form of collision operator in the problem of expansions of two gas flows and results obtained by the model and the kinetic Boltzmann equations coincide.In the problem of the contact discontinuity the solution of model equations differs from full kinetic solutions at the point of the initial discontinuity. The non-equilibrium stress tensor has the maximum errors, the error of the heat flux is much smaller, and the ESL - model gives the exact value of the extremum of heat flux.In the problems of gas counter-flows and shock wave structure the model equations give significant distortion profiles of heat flux and non-equilibrium stress tensor components in front of the shock waves. This behavior is due to fact that in the models under consideration there is no dependency of the

  18. Time domain numerical modeling of wave propagation in 2D acoustic / porous media

    Chiavassa, Guillaume


    Numerical methods are developed to simulate the wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous fluid / poroelastic media. Wave propagation is described by the usual acoustics equations (in the fluid medium) and by the low-frequency Biot's equations (in the porous medium). Interface conditions are introduced to model various hydraulic contacts between the two media: open pores, sealed pores, and imperfect pores. Well-possedness of the initial-boundary value problem is proven. Cartesian grid numerical methods previously developed in porous heterogeneous media are adapted to the present context: a fourth-order ADER scheme with Strang splitting for time-marching; a space-time mesh-refinement to capture the slow compressional wave predicted by Biot's theory; and an immersed interface method to discretize the interface conditions and to introduce a subcell resolution. Numerical experiments and comparisons with exact solutions are proposed for the three types of interface conditions, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach...

  19. Numerical modeling of incline plate LiBr absorber

    Karami, Shahram; Farhanieh, Bijan


    Among major components of LiBr-H2O absorption chillers is the absorber, which has a direct effect on the chillier size and whose characteristics have significant effects on the overall efficiency of absorption machines. In this article, heat and mass transfer process in absorption of refrigerant vapor into a lithium bromide solution of water-cooled incline plate absorber in the Reynolds number range of 5 absorption. An analysis for linear distribution of wall temperature condition carries out to investigate the reliability of the present numerical method through comparing with previous investigation. The effect of plate angle on heat and mass transfer parameters is investigated and the results show that absorption mass flux and heat and mass transfer coefficient increase as the angle of the plate increase. The main parameters of absorber design, namely Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, are correlated as a function of Reynolds Number and the plate angle.

  20. Coulomb Collision for Plasma Simulations: Modelling and Numerical Methods

    Geiser, Juergen


    We are motivated to model weakly ionized Plasma applications. The modeling problem is based on an incorporated explicit velocity-dependent small-angle Coulomb collision terms into a Fokker-Planck equation. Such a collision is done with so called test and field particles, which are scattered stochastically based on a Langevin equation. Based on such different model approaches, means the transport part is done with kinetic equations, while the collision part is done via the Langevin equations, we present a splitting of these models. Such a splitting allow us to combine different modeling parts. For the transport part, we can apply particle models and solve them with particle methods, e.g., PIC, while for the collision part, we can apply the explicit Coulomb collision model, e.g., with fast stochastic differential equation solvers. Additional, we also apply multiscale approaches for the different parts of the transport part, e.g., different time-scales of an explicit electric field, and model-order reduction approaches. We present first numerical results for particle simulations with the deterministic-stochastic splitting schemes. Such ideas can be applied to sputtering problems or plasma applications with dominant Coulomb collisions.

  1. Numerical modelling of structure and mechanical properties for medical tools

    L. Jeziorski


    , mechanical properties and work condition of medical tools. For bowl cutter was improve geometrical sharp and distribution of cutting holes. Originality/value: This paper presents conception to obtain new medical tools, after optimizing the basic construction parameters by numerical calculations. The prepared model could be a helpful for engineering decisions used in the designing and producing forceps and bowl cutter.

  2. Numerical model for electrical explosion of copper wires in water

    Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Lee, Kern; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Deok-Kyu


    This paper presents a simple but quite accurate numerical model for analyzing electrical explosion of copper wires in water. The numerical model solves a circuit equation coupled with one-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the help of appropriate wide-range equation of state (EOS) and electrical conductivity for copper. The MHD equations are formulated in a Lagrangian form to identify the interface between the wire and surrounding water clearly. A quotidian EOS (QEOS) that is known as the simplest form of EOS is utilized to build wide-range EOS for copper. In the QEOS, we consider the liquid-vapor phase transition, which is critical in analyzing the wire explosion system. For the electrical conductivity of copper, a semi-empirical set of equations covering from solid state to partially ionized plasma state are employed. Experimental validation has been performed with copper wires of various diameters, which are exploded by a microsecond timescale pulsed capacitive discharge. The simulation results show excellent agreements with the experimental results in terms of temporal motions of a plasma channel boundary and a shock front as well as current and voltage waveforms. It is found that the wire explodes (vaporizes) along the liquid branch of a binodal curve irrespective of wire dimension and operating voltage. After the explosion, the wire becomes a plasma state right away or after the current pause (dwell), depending on the operating conditions. It is worth noting that such a peculiar characteristic of wire explosion, i.e., current pause and restrike, is well simulated with the present numerical model. In particular, it is shown that the wire cools down along the vapor branch of the binodal curve during the current dwell, due to a significant difference of thermodynamic characteristics across the binodal curve. The influence of radiation for studying nonideal plasmas with a wire explosion technique and a physical process for shock wave formation

  3. Cooling nozzles characteristics for numerical models of continuous casting

    R. Pyszko


    Full Text Available Modelling the temperature field of a continuously cast strand is an important tool for the process diagnostics. The main preconditions for numerical simulation of the temperature field of the solidifying strand are correct boundary conditions, especially the surface condition in the secondary zone of the caster. The paper deals with techniques of determining the surface condition under cooling nozzles as well as their approximation and implementation into the model algorithm. Techniques used for laboratory measurements of both cold and hot spraying characteristics of water or water-air cooling nozzles are described. The relationship between the cold and hot characteristics was found. Implementation of such a dependence into the model algorithm reduces the duration and cost of laboratory measurements.

  4. Numerical modeling of Jinlong CJD burner copper flash smelting furnace


    Fluid flow, heat transfer and combustion in Jinlong CJD concentrate burner flash smelting furnace have been investigated by numerical modeling and flow visualization. The modeling is based on the Eulerian approach for the gas flow equations and the Lagrangian approach for the particles. Interaction between the gas phase and particle phase, such as frictional forces, heat and mass transfer, are included by the addition of sources and sinks. The modeling results including the fluid flow field, temperature field, concentration field of gas phase and the trajectories of particles have been obtained. The predicted results are in good agreement with the data obtained from a series of experiments and tests in the Jinlong Copper Smelter and the temperature error is less than 20 K.

  5. Numerical Methods for the Lévy LIBOR model

    Papapantoleon, Antonis; Skovmand, David

    The aim of this work is to provide fast and accurate approximation schemes for the Monte-Carlo pricing of derivatives in the Lévy LIBOR model of Eberlein and Özkan (2005). Standard methods can be applied to solve the stochastic differential equations of the successive LIBOR rates but the methods ...... reduce this growth from exponential to quadratic in an approximation using truncated expansions of the product terms. We include numerical illustrations of the accuracy and speed of our method pricing caplets, swaptions and forward rate agreements........ This enables simultaneous calculation of derivative prices of different maturities using parallel computing. Secondly, the product terms occuring in the drift of a LIBOR Market model driven by a jump process grow exponentially as a function of the number of rates, quickly rendering the model intractable. We...

  6. Numerical models of single- and double-negative metamaterials including viscous and thermal losses

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Sánchez-Dehesa, José


    Negative index acoustic metamaterials are artificial structures made of subwavelength units arranged in a lattice, whose effective acoustic parameters, bulk modulus and mass density, can be negative. In these materials, sound waves propagate inside the periodic structure, assumed rigid, showing...... extraordinary properties. We are interested in two particular cases: a double-negative metamaterial, where both parameters are negative at some frequencies, and a single-negative metamaterial with negative bulk modulus within a broader frequency band. In previous research involving the double......-negative metamaterial, numerical models with viscous and thermal losses were used to explain that the extraordinary behavior, predicted by analytical models and numerical simulations with no losses, disappeared when the metamaterial was measured in physical setups. The improvement of the models is allowing now a more...

  7. Steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system

    Brooks, Lynette E.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Buto, Susan G.


    This report describes the construction, calibration, evaluation, and results of a steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system that was developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Census Initiative to evaluate the nation’s groundwater availability. The study area spans 110,000 square miles across five states. The numerical model uses MODFLOW-2005, and incorporates and tests complex hydrogeologic and hydrologic elements of a conceptual understanding of an interconnected groundwater system throughout the region, including mountains, basins, consolidated rocks, and basin fill. The level of discretization in this model has not been previously available throughout the study area.

  8. Aerospace laser sensing of cloudiness: numerical statistical modeling

    Kargin, A. B.; Kargin, B. A.; Lavrov, M. V.


    In the numerical modeling of laser radiation transfer in optically dense cloudy media it is necessary to take into account multiple scattering effects, which alter the spatiotemporal structure of light pulses. The Monte Carlo method makes it possible to achieve the most complete account of these effects in the solution of direct problems of laser sensing of scattering media. This work considers two problems. The first is connected with construction of an adequate optical model of crystalline clouds which takes account their optical anisotropy. The second touches on questions of Monte Carlo modeling of laser radiation transfer in optically anisotropic media. A number of results of numerical experiments are presented which establish a quantitative connection between some cloud parameters and the magnitude and shape of the time convolution of a non-stationary laser return signal reflected by a single-layer continuous crystalline or liquid-droplet cloud and by two-level continuous cloudiness, when the crystalline cloud is located above the liquid-droplet cloud.

  9. A Computational Model for the Numerical Simulation of FSW Processes

    Agelet de Saracibar, C.; Chiumenti, M.; Santiago, D.; Cervera, M.; Dialami, N.; Lombera, G.


    In this paper a computational model for the numerical simulation of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes is presented. FSW is a new method of welding in solid state in which a shouldered tool with a profile probe is rotated and slowly plunged into the joint line between two pieces of sheet or plate material which are butted together. Once the probe has been completely inserted, it is moved with a small tilt angle in the welding direction. Here a quasi-static, thermal transient, mixed multiscale stabilized Eulerian formulation is used. Norton-Hoff and Sheppard-Wright rigid thermo-viscoplastic material models have been considered. A staggered solution algorithm is defined such that for any time step, the mechanical problem is solved at constant temperature and then the thermal problem is solved keeping constant the mechanical variables. A pressure multiscale stabilized mixed linear velocity/linear pressure finite element interpolation formulation is used to solve the mechanical problem and a convection multiscale stabilized linear temperature interpolation formulation is used to solve the thermal problem. The model has been implemented into the in-house developed FE code COMET. Results obtained in the simulation of FSW process are compared to other numerical results or experimental results, when available.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of solar active phenomena via numerical methods

    Wu, S. T.


    Numerical ideal MHD models for the study of solar active phenomena are summarized. Particular attention is given to the following physical phenomena: (1) local heating of a coronal loop in an isothermal and stratified atmosphere, and (2) the coronal dynamic responses due to magnetic field movement. The results suggest that local heating of a magnetic loop will lead to the enhancement of the density of the neighboring loops through MHD wave compression. It is noted that field lines can be pinched off and may form a self-contained magnetized plasma blob that may move outward into interplanetary space.

  11. Exercises in 80223 Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally...... Processing of Materials'. The original copy is kept in the archives of TM on the ground floor of building 425. A copy of the exercise book can be made available by contacting the secretary on the ground floor of building 425. Please give the following number: TM 00.01 (TM = Thermal processing of Materials)...

  12. Numerical Simulation Model of Laminar Hydrogen/Air Diffusion Flame

    于溯源; 吕雪峰


    A numerical simulation model is developed for a laminar hydrogen/air diffusion flame. Nineteen species and twenty chemical reactions are considered. The chemical kinetics package (CHEMKIN) subroutines are employed to calculate species thermodynamic properties and chemical reaction rate constants. The flow field is calculated by simultaneously solving a continuity equation, an axial momentum equation and an energy equation in a cylindrical coordinate system. Thermal diffusion and Brownian diffusion are considered in the radial direction while they are neglected in the axial direction. The results suggest that the main flame is buoyancy-controlled.

  13. Thrombosis modeling in intracranial aneurysms: a lattice Boltzmann numerical algorithm

    Ouared, R.; Chopard, B.; Stahl, B.; Rüfenacht, D. A.; Yilmaz, H.; Courbebaisse, G.


    The lattice Boltzmann numerical method is applied to model blood flow (plasma and platelets) and clotting in intracranial aneurysms at a mesoscopic level. The dynamics of blood clotting (thrombosis) is governed by mechanical variations of shear stress near wall that influence platelets-wall interactions. Thrombosis starts and grows below a shear rate threshold, and stops above it. Within this assumption, it is possible to account qualitatively well for partial, full or no occlusion of the aneurysm, and to explain why spontaneous thrombosis is more likely to occur in giant aneurysms than in small or medium sized aneurysms.

  14. A computational model for the numerical simulation of FSW processes

    Agelet de Saracibar Bosch, Carlos; Chiumenti, Michèle; Santiago, Diego de; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel; Dialami, Narges; Lombera, Guillermo


    In this paper a computational model for the numerical simulation of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes is presented. FSW is a new method of welding in solid state in which a shouldered tool with a profile probe is rotated and slowly plunged into the joint line between two pieces of sheet or plate material which are butted together. Once the probe has been completely inserted, it is moved with a small tilt angle in the welding direction. Here a quasi-static, thermal transient, mixed mult...

  15. Numerical Modeling of Multi-Material Active Magnetic Regeneration

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden;


    Magnetic refrigeration is a potentially environmentally-friendly alternative to vapour compression technology that is presented in this paper. The magnetocaloric effect in two magnetocaloric compounds in the La(Fe,Co,Si)13 series is presented in terms of their adiabatic temperature change...... and the specific heat as a function of temperature at constant magnetic field. A 2.5-dimensional numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigerator device is presented. The experimental AMR located at Risø DTU has been equipped with a parallel-plate based regenerator made of the two materials...

  16. Numerical modelling of channel migration with application to laboratory rivers

    Jian SUN; Bin-liang LIN; Hong-wei KUANG


    The paper presents the development of a morphological model and its application to experimental model rivers. The model takes into account the key processes of channel migration, including bed deformation, bank failure and wetting and drying. Secondary flows in bends play an important role in lateral sediment transport, which further affects channel migration. A new formula has been derived to predict the near-bed secondary flow speed, in which the magnitude of the speed is linked to the lateral water level gradient. Since only non-cohesive sediment is considered in the current study, the bank failure is modelled based on the concept of submerged angle of repose. The wetting and drying process is modelled using an existing method. Comparisons between the numerical model predictions and experimental observations for various discharges have been made. It is found that the model predicted channel planform and cross-sectional shapes agree generally well with the laboratory observations. A scenario analysis is also carried out to investigate the impact of secondary flow on the channel migration process. It shows that if the effect of secondary flow is ignored, the channel size in the lateral direction will be seriously underestimated.

  17. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    Bin Chen


    Full Text Available Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing process is depicted, and the dynamic model of the deicing process is provided based on the analysis of the deicing mechanism. In the dynamic model, the surface temperature of the deicing fluids and the ice thickness are regarded as the state parameters, while the fluid flow rate, the initial temperature, and the injection time of the deicing fluids are treated as control parameters. Ignoring the heat exchange between the deicing fluids and the environment, the simplified model is obtained. The rationality of the simplified model is verified by the numerical simulation and the impacts of the flow rate, the initial temperature and the injection time on the deicing process are investigated. To verify the model, the semi-physical experiment system is established, consisting of the low-constant temperature test chamber, the ice simulation system, the deicing fluid heating and spraying system, the simulated wing, the test sensors, and the computer measure and control system. The actual test data verify the validity of the dynamic model and the accuracy of the simulation analysis.

  18. Development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code TFC2D for fluid flow with various turbulence models and numerical schemes

    Park, Ju Yeop; In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)


    The development of orthogonal 2-dimensional numerical code is made. The present code contains 9 kinds of turbulence models that are widely used. They include a standard k-{epsilon} model and 8 kinds of low Reynolds number ones. They also include 6 kinds of numerical schemes including 5 kinds of low order schemes and 1 kind of high order scheme such as QUICK. To verify the present numerical code, pipe flow, channel flow and expansion pipe flow are solved by this code with various options of turbulence models and numerical schemes and the calculated outputs are compared to experimental data. Furthermore, the discretization error that originates from the use of standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model with wall function is much more diminished by introducing a new grid system than a conventional one in the present code. 23 refs., 58 figs., 6 tabs. (Author)

  19. An exploratory numerical model of rocky shore profile evolution

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Dickson, Mark E.; Kench, Paul S.


    Rocky shores occur along much of the world's coastline and include a wide range of coastal morphologies, such as intertidal shore platforms. Considerable research effort has been placed on trying to understand developmental processes on rocky shores, but progress has been forestalled because these landscapes develop slowly and preserve little evidence of evolution through time. This paper presents a new exploratory numerical model developed to study long-term shore profile evolution on rock coasts. The model purposely considers only a limited number of processes, each represented in a highly abstracted way. Despite these simplifications, the model exhibits a large range of emergent shore profile shapes. This behavior is enabled both by broader spatial representation of the driving erosion forces and the flexibility provided by a grid discretization scheme. Initial model testing shows the development of varied rocky profile geometries, ranging from steep plunging cliffs, cliffs with narrow benches, and cliffs with a variety of shore platform shapes. Most of the model geometries are similar to those observed in the field, and model behavior is robust and internally consistent across a relatively large parameter space. This paper provides a detailed description of the new model and its subsequent testing. Emphasis is placed on comparison of model results with published field observations in which morphometric relationships are described between shore platform gradient and tidal range, and platform elevation and platform width. The model adequately simulates these morphometric relationships, while retaining its ability to simulate a wide range of profile shapes. The simplicity of process representations, and the limited number of processes implemented, means that model outputs can be interpreted reasonably easily. Hence, an opportunity is now provided, following the testing described in this paper, to use the model to systematically investigate the broader controlling

  20. Unleashed numerical daemons in our pub: Is poor numerical implementation of hydrologic models hurting the Predictions in Ungauged Basins initiative?

    Clark, Martyn; Kavetski, Dmitri


    Much of the research in the PUB initiative is focused on the analysis and interpretation of model results in well instrumented watersheds, in order to inform appropriate model structures and parameter values for use in ungauged basins. However, many of the models used in PUB share a common characteristic: poor numerical implementation. It is likely that many published conclusions, including (i) parameter sensitivity, optima and uncertainty estimates, and, more disconcertingly, (ii) the interpretation of hydrologic model output to gain insights into internal catchment dynamics, including the relative significance and behavior of different processes, may be questionable due to numerical artifacts introduced by unreliable time stepping schemes. Such lack of attention to numerical schemes has almost certainly hindered progress in the PUB initiative. Here, we comprehensively evaluate several classes of time stepping schemes in terms of numerical fidelity, computational efficiency, and impact on model sensitivity analysis, calibration and prediction. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out using 8 distinct time stepping algorithms and 6 different conceptual hydrological models, applied in the densely gauged experimental Mahurangi catchment as well as in 12 MOPEX basins with diverse physical characteristics and hydroclimatic regimes. Results show that numerical errors of uncontrolled time stepping schemes, which remain widely used in hydrology, routinely dwarf the structural errors of the model conceptualization. This has serious implications for model analysis and predictive use, including inconsistent inferences of parameters and internal states even if the calibrated streamflow predictions are similar. Even when numerical errors allow "getting the right result for the wrong reason", they make the model unduly fragile in predictive mode, as evidenced in validation tests. The extensive analyses in this paper indicate that these deformations are not rare isolated

  1. Numerical model for the shear rheology of two-dimensional wet foams with deformable bubbles.

    Kähärä, T; Tallinen, T; Timonen, J


    Shearing of two-dimensional wet foam is simulated using an introduced numerical model, and results are compared to those of experiments. This model features realistically deformable bubbles, which distinguishes it from previously used models for wet foam. The internal bubble dynamics and their contact interactions are also separated in the model, making it possible to investigate the effects of the related microscale properties of the model on the macroscale phenomena. Validity of model assumptions was proved here by agreement between the simulated and measured Herschel-Bulkley rheology, and shear-induced relaxation times. This model also suggests a relationship between the shear stress and normal stress as well as between the average degree of bubble deformation and applied shear stress. It can also be used to analyze suspensions of bubbles and solid particles, an extension not considered in this work.

  2. Method of Numerical Modeling for Constitutive Relations of Clay


    In order to study the method of numerical modeling for constitutive relations of clay, on the basis of the principle of interaction between plastic volumetric strain and plastic generalized shear strain, the two constitutive functionals that include the function of stress path were used as the basic framework of the constitutive model, which are able to demonstrate the dependence of stress path.The two partial differential cross terms appear in the expression of stress-strain increment relation, which are used to demonstrate the interaction between plastic volumetric strain and plastic generalized shear strain.The elasoplastic constitutive models of clay under two kinds of stress paths, CTC and TC, have been constructed using the triaxial test results.The three basic characteristics of deformation of soils, pressure sensitivity, dilatancy, and dependence of stress path, are well explained using these two models.Using visualization, the three-dimensional surfaces of shear and volume strains in the whole stress field under stress paths of CTC and TC are given.In addition, the two families of shear and volumetric yield loci under CTC and TC paths are plotted respectively.By comparing the results of deformation under these two stress paths, it has been found that, there are obvious differences in the strain peaks, the shapes of strain surfaces, and the trends of variation of volumetric yield loci, however both families of shear yield loci are similar.These results demonstrate that the influences of stress path on the constitutive relations of clay are considerably large and not negligible.The numerical modeling method that can sufficiently reflect the dependence of stress path is superior to the traditional one.

  3. Numerical modeling of coanda effect in a novel propulsive system

    S Das


    Full Text Available Coanda effect (adhesion of jet flow over curved surface is fundamental characteristics of jet flow. In the present paper, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate Coanda flow over a curved surface and its application in a newly proposed Propulsive system "A.C.H.E.O.N" (Aerial Coanda High Efficiency Orienting jet Nozzle which supports thrust vectoring. The ACHEON system is presently being proposed for propelling a new V/STOL airplane in European Union. This system is based on cumulative effects of three physical effects such as (1 High speed jet mixing speeds (2 Coanda effect control by electrostatic fields (3 Coanda effect adhesion of an high speed jet to a convex surface. The performance of this nozzle can be enhanced by increasing the jet deflection angle of synthetic jet over the Coanda surface. This newly proposed nozzle has wide range of applications. It can be used in industrial sector such as plasma spray gun and for direct injection in combustion chamber to enhance the efficiency of the combustion chamber. Also, we studied the effect of Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators on A.C.H.E.O.N system. Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD plasma actuators are active control devices for controlling boundary layer and to delay the flow separation over any convex surfaces. Computations were performed under subsonic condition. Two dimensional CFD calculations were carried out using Reynolds averaged Navier stokes equations (RANS. A numerical method based on finite volume formulation (FVM was used. SST k-ω model was considered to model turbulent flow inside nozzle. DBD model was used to model the plasma. Moreover, a body force treatment was devised to model the effect of plasma and its coupling with the fluid. This preliminary result shows that, the presence of plasma near Coanda surface accelerates the flow and delays the separation and enhances the efficiency of the nozzle.

  4. Numerical Modelling of Double-Steel Plate Composite Shear Walls

    Michaela Elmatzoglou


    Full Text Available Double-steel plate concrete composite shear walls are being used for nuclear plants and high-rise buildings. They consist of thick concrete walls, exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement and shear connectors, which guarantee the composite action between the two different materials. Several researchers have used the Finite Element Method to investigate the behaviour of double-steel plate concrete walls. The majority of them model every element explicitly leading to a rather time-consuming solution, which cannot be easily used for design purposes. In the present paper, the main objective is the introduction of a three-dimensional finite element model, which can efficiently predict the overall performance of a double-steel plate concrete wall in terms of accuracy and time saving. At first, empirical formulations and design relations established in current design codes for shear connectors are evaluated. Then, a simplified finite element model is used to investigate the nonlinear response of composite walls. The developed model is validated using results from tests reported in the literature in terms of axial compression and monotonic, cyclic in-plane shear loading. Several finite element modelling issues related to potential convergence problems, loading strategies and computer efficiency are also discussed. The accuracy and simplicity of the proposed model make it suitable for further numerical studies on the shear connection behaviour at the steel-concrete interface.

  5. Implicit numerical integration for a kinematic hardening soil plasticity model

    Rouainia, M.; Muir Wood, D.


    Soil models based on kinematic hardening together with elements of bounding surface plasticity, provide a means of introducing some memory of recent history and stiffness variation in the predicted response of soils. Such models provide an improvement on simple elasto-plastic models in describing soil behaviour under non-monotonic loading. Routine use of such models requires robust numerical integration schemes. Explicit integration of highly non-linear models requires extremely small steps in order to guarantee convergence. Here, a fully implicit scheme is presented for a simple kinematic hardening extension of the Cam clay soil model. The algorithm is based on the operator split methodology and the implicit Euler backward integration scheme is proposed to integrate the rate form of the constitutive relations. This algorithm maintains a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence when used with a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. Various strain-driven axisymmetric triaxial paths are simulated in order to demonstrate the efficiency and good performance of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Numerical modeling of temperature distributions within the neonatal head.

    Van Leeuwen, G M; Hand, J W; Lagendijk, J J; Azzopardi, D V; Edwards, A D


    Introduction of hypothermia therapy as a neuroprotection therapy after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn infants requires appraisal of cooling methods. In this numerical study thermal simulations were performed to test the hypothesis that cooling of the surface of the cranium by the application of a cooling bonnet significantly reduces deep brain temperature and produces a temperature differential between the deep brain and the body core. A realistic three-dimensional (3-D) computer model of infant head anatomy was used, derived from magnetic resonance data from a newborn infant. Temperature distributions were calculated using the Pennes heatsink model. The cooling bonnet was at a constant temperature of 10 degrees C. When modeling head cooling only, a constant body core temperature of 37 degrees C was imposed. The computed result showed no significant cooling of the deep brain regions, only the very superficial regions of the brain are cooled to temperatures of 33-34 degrees C. Poor efficacy of head cooling was still found after a considerable increase in the modeled thermal conductivities of the skin and skull, or after a decrease in perfusion. The results for the heatsink thermal model of the infant head were confirmed by comparison of results computed for a scaled down adult head, using both the heatsink description and a discrete vessel thermal model with both anatomy and vasculature obtained from MR data. The results indicate that significant reduction in brain temperature will only be achieved if the infant's core temperature is lowered.

  7. Numerical Modelling of the Segmental Lining of Underground Structures

    Akbar Salemi


    Full Text Available There are several methods for analysing the behaviour of underground structures under different loading conditions. Most of these methods have many simplifications; therefore, in some cases, the results are too conservative and a very high safety factor, usually of more than 2 is needed. On the other hand, for stability analysis and the designing of support systems, these methods consider segmental lining and its joints as a uniform lining or a lining with pin connections. In this study, numerical modelling of the segmental lining of a tunnel was analysed using a sensitivity analysis of the static modelling. The numerical results were obtained by using a finite difference method (FLAC2D. Using this form of analysis, a new simple methodology was introduced so that more reliable results can be obtained. By comparing the frame analysis results obtained by the SAP2000 software with those obtained by the proposed method, it was concluded that the suggested method can be used as a simple and reasonable approach for the segmental lining of underground structures such as tunnels.

  8. A numerical model of stress driven grain boundary diffusion

    Sethian, J. A.; Wilkening, Jon


    The stress driven grain boundary diffusion problem is a continuum model of mass transport phenomena in microelectronic circuits due to high current densities (electromigration) and gradients in normal stress along grain boundaries. The model involves coupling many different equations and phenomena, and difficulties such as non-locality, stiffness, complex geometry, and singularities in the stress tensor near corners and junctions make the problem difficult to analyze rigorously and simulate numerically. We present a new numerical approach to this problem using techniques from semigroup theory to represent the solution. The generator of this semigroup is the composition of a type of Dirichlet to Neumann map on the grain boundary network with the Laplace operator on the network. To compute the former, we solve the equations of linear elasticity several times, once for each basis function on the grain boundary. We resolve singularities in the stress field near corners and junctions by adjoining special singular basis functions to both finite element spaces (2d for elasticity, 1d for grain boundary functions). We develop data structures to handle jump discontinuities in displacement across grain boundaries, singularities in the stress field, complicated boundary conditions at junctions and interfaces, and the lack of a natural ordering for the nodes on a branching grain boundary network. The method is used to study grain boundary diffusion for several geometries.

  9. Water-vortex stabilized electric arc: I. Numerical model

    Jenista, Jirí


    A numerical model for an electric arc stabilized by a water vortex has been proposed. The two-dimensional axisymmetric model includes the discharge area between the cathode and the orifice of the arc chamber. The production of water plasma, i.e. the rate of evaporation of a water wall, is taken either from experiments or is determined numerically by fitting of the outlet plasma parameters to the experimental ones. The computer results concern thermal, fluid dynamic and electrical characteristics of such arcs for the currents 300, 400, 500 and 600 A. It is found, for example, that the role of thermal diffusion within the discharge increases with current. The power losses from the arc due to radial conduction and radiation represent around 50% of the input power. Rotation of the plasma column due to the induced tangential velocity component has negligible effect on the overall arc performance. The calculated velocities, pressure drops and electrical potentials are in good agreement with experiments carried out on the water plasma torch PAL-160 operating at our Institute.

  10. Pulse shape control in a dual cavity laser: numerical modeling

    Yashkir, Yuri


    We present a numerical model of the laser system for generating a special shape of the pulse: a steep peak at the beginning followed by a long pulse tail. Laser pulses of this nature are required for various applications (laser material processing, optical breakdown spectroscopy, etc.). The laser system consists of two "overlapped" cavities with different round-trip times. The laser crystal, the Q-switching element, the back mirror, and the output coupler are shared. A shorter pulse is generated in a short cavity. A small fraction of this pulse is injected into the long cavity as a seed. It triggers generation of the longer pulse. The output emission from this hybrid laser produces a required pulse shape. Parameters of the laser pulse (ratios of durations and energies of short- and long- pulse components) can be controlled through cavity length and the output coupler reflection. Modelling of the laser system is based on a set of coupled rate equations for dynamic variables of the system: the inverse population in an active laser media and photon densities in coupled cavities. Numerical experiments were provided with typical parameters of a Nd:YAG laser to study the system behaviour for different combinations of parameters.

  11. Exercises in 80223 Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials

    Frandsen, Jens Ole

    This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally, ...... by contacting the secretary on the ground floor of building 425. Please give the following number: TM 99.05 (TM = Thermal processing of Materials)......This exercise book contains exercise instructions for the 7 compulsory exercises (Exercise 1-7) and the final exercise (Exercise 8) in the course 80223 'Numerical Modelling of Thermal Processing of Materials'. The exercise book also contains written program examples in 'C' and 'Pascal'. Finally......, guidelines are given on how to write the report which has to be handed in at the end of the course. The exercise book exists in a newer, updated version from 2000. The original copy is kept in the archives of TM on the ground floor of building 425. A copy of the exercise book can be made available...

  12. Laboratory and Numerical Modeling of Smoke Characteristics for Superfog Formation

    Bartolome, C.; Lu, V.; Tsui, K.; Princevac, M.; Venkatram, A.; Mahalingam, S.; Achtemeier, G.; Weise, D.


    Land management techniques in wildland areas include prescribed fires to promote biodiversity and reduce risk of severe wildfires across the United States. Several fatal car pileups have been associated with smoke-related visibility reduction from prescribed burns. Such events have occurred in year 2000 on the interstate highways I-10 and I-95, 2001 on the I-4, 2006 on the I-95, and 2008 on the I-4 causing numerous fatalities, injuries, and damage to property. In some of the cases visibility reduction caused by smoke and fog combinations traveling over roadways have been reported to be less than 3 meters, defined as superfog. Our research focuses on delineating the conditions that lead to formation of the rare phenomena of superfog and creating a tool to enable land managers to effectively plan prescribed burns and prevent tragic events. It is hypothesized that the water vapor from combustion, live fuels, soil moisture, and ambient air condense onto the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) particles emitted from low intensity smoldering fires. Physical and numerical modeling has been used to investigate these interactions. A physical model in the laboratory has been developed to characterize the properties of smoke resulting from smoldering pine needle litters at the PSW Forest Service in Riverside, CA. Temporal measurements of temperature, relative humidity, sensible heat flux, radiation heat flux, convective heat flux, particulate matter concentrations and visibilities have been measured for specific cases. The size distribution and number concentrations of the fog droplets formed inside the chamber by mixing cool dry and moist warm air masses to produce near superfog visibilities were measured by a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer. Thermodynamic modeling of smoke and ambient air was conducted to estimate liquid water contents (LWC) available to condense into droplets and form significant reductions in visibility. The results show that LWC of less than 2 g m-3 can be

  13. Fifty years of numerical modeling of baroclinic ocean

    Sarkisyan, A. S.


    This paper presents a brief critical analysis of the main historical stages of numerical modeling for the last fifty years. It was a half a century ago that the numerical simulation of an actual baroclinic ocean was initiated by the author and his students [1, 2]. In meteorology, studies on the numerical modeling of a baroclinic atmosphere existed much earlier [21, 22]. Despite this, a similar move in oceanography was met with strong resistance. At that time, there were many studies on the calculation of the total mass transport. The founders of this field, V.B. Shtokman, H. Sverdrup, and W. Munk, were mistaken in believing that they addressed baroclinic models of the ocean. The author preferred works by V. Ekman [12] and I. Sandström and B. Helland-Hansen [19]. A generalization of recent studies made it possible to come to some conclusions on the need to use the level of the free oceanic surface as a basis rather than the function of total mass transport, on the role of the baroclinic β effect (BARBE), on the joint effect of baroclinicity and bottom relief (JEBAR), etc. The author conditionally divides these fifty years into the following three stages. (1) The first stage was 1961-1969, when the author and his students performed almost exclusively diagnostic and adaptation calculations of climatic characteristics. (2) The second stage began with papers by K. Bryan [23] and his students. This is an important and promising stage involving mainly prognostic studies and four-dimensional analysis. The major advances in modeling at this stage (the Gulf Stream separation point [61], the Kuroshio seasonal evolution [63], the formation of the cold intermediate layer in the Black Sea [80], the subsurface countercurrent in the Caspian Sea [25], the realistic four-dimensional analysis of the Kara Sea [60], etc.) were due to high-resolution and/or data assimilation with an adequate period of integration. (3) The third stage began with the activities of international

  14. Monte Carlo Numerical Models for Nuclear Logging Applications

    Fusheng Li


    Full Text Available Nuclear logging is one of most important logging services provided by many oil service companies. The main parameters of interest are formation porosity, bulk density, and natural radiation. Other services are also provided from using complex nuclear logging tools, such as formation lithology/mineralogy, etc. Some parameters can be measured by using neutron logging tools and some can only be measured by using a gamma ray tool. To understand the response of nuclear logging tools, the neutron transport/diffusion theory and photon diffusion theory are needed. Unfortunately, for most cases there are no analytical answers if complex tool geometry is involved. For many years, Monte Carlo numerical models have been used by nuclear scientists in the well logging industry to address these challenges. The models have been widely employed in the optimization of nuclear logging tool design, and the development of interpretation methods for nuclear logs. They have also been used to predict the response of nuclear logging systems for forward simulation problems. In this case, the system parameters including geometry, materials and nuclear sources, etc., are pre-defined and the transportation and interactions of nuclear particles (such as neutrons, photons and/or electrons in the regions of interest are simulated according to detailed nuclear physics theory and their nuclear cross-section data (probability of interacting. Then the deposited energies of particles entering the detectors are recorded and tallied and the tool responses to such a scenario are generated. A general-purpose code named Monte Carlo N– Particle (MCNP has been the industry-standard for some time. In this paper, we briefly introduce the fundamental principles of Monte Carlo numerical modeling and review the physics of MCNP. Some of the latest developments of Monte Carlo Models are also reviewed. A variety of examples are presented to illustrate the uses of Monte Carlo numerical models

  15. Physicochemical and numerical modeling of electrokinetics in inhomogenous matrices

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel

    into porous solid matrices of different kinds. These techniques are typically denoted as electrokinetic treatments. In these kind of electrochemically-induced transport processes, the driving force is related the concentration gradients and the unbalanced in ionic charge produced by the electrochemical...... for the understanding of the involved processes and the development of a theoretical framework able to take into account the complex interactions taking place in any electrokinetic or electrochemicallyinduced process. The mathematical solution, normally by means of computer-aid numerical methods, allows...... involving solid, gaseous and aqueous species and water in both the electrolyte and the solid structure. This coupled reactive-transport model, covering such a number of physical and chemical aspects in the process, is assumed an innovative contribution to the state of the art of modeling of electrokinetics...

  16. A guide to numerical modelling in systems biology

    Deuflhard, Peter


    This book is intended for students of computational systems biology with only a limited background in mathematics. Typical books on systems biology merely mention algorithmic approaches, but without offering a deeper understanding. On the other hand, mathematical books are typically unreadable for computational biologists. The authors of the present book have worked hard to fill this gap. The result is not a book on systems biology, but on computational methods in systems biology. This book originated from courses taught by the authors at Freie Universität Berlin. The guiding idea of the courses was to convey those mathematical insights that are indispensable for systems biology, teaching the necessary mathematical prerequisites by means of many illustrative examples and without any theorems. The three chapters cover the mathematical modelling of biochemical and physiological processes, numerical simulation of the dynamics of biological networks, and identification of model parameters by means of comparisons...

  17. Numerical Verification of the Weak Turbulent Model for Swell Evolution

    Korotkevich, A O; Resio, D; Zakharov, V E


    We performed numerical simulation of an ensemble of nonlinearly interacting free gravity waves (swell) by two different methods: solution of primordial dynamical equations describing potential flow of the ideal fluid with a free surface and, solution of the kinetic Hasselmann equation, describing the wave ensemble in the framework of the theory of weak turbulence. Comparison of the results demonstrates applicability of the weak turbulent approach. In both cases we observed effects predicted by this theory: frequency downshift, angular spreading and formation of Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum $I_{\\omega} \\sim \\omega^{-4}$. One of the results of our article consists in the fact that physical processes in finite size laboratory wave tanks and in the ocean are quite different, and the results of such laboratory experiments can be applied to modeling of the ocean phenomena with extra care. We also present the estimate on the minimum size of the laboratory installation, allowing to model open ocean surface wave dynami...

  18. Numerical modelling of nonlinear full-wave acoustic propagation

    Velasco-Segura, Roberto, E-mail:; Rendón, Pablo L., E-mail: [Grupo de Acústica y Vibraciones, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado Postal 70-186, C.P. 04510, México D.F., México (Mexico)


    The various model equations of nonlinear acoustics are arrived at by making assumptions which permit the observation of the interaction with propagation of either single or joint effects. We present here a form of the conservation equations of fluid dynamics which are deduced using slightly less restrictive hypothesis than those necessary to obtain the well known Westervelt equation. This formulation accounts for full wave diffraction, nonlinearity, and thermoviscous dissipative effects. A two-dimensional, finite-volume method using Roe’s linearisation has been implemented to obtain numerically the solution of the proposed equations. This code, which has been written for parallel execution on a GPU, can be used to describe moderate nonlinear phenomena, at low Mach numbers, in domains as large as 100 wave lengths. Applications range from models of diagnostic and therapeutic HIFU, to parametric acoustic arrays and nonlinear propagation in acoustic waveguides. Examples related to these applications are shown and discussed.

  19. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Magnetohydrodynamic Augmented Propulsion Experiment

    Turner, M. W.; Hawk, C. W.; Litchford, R. J.


    Over the past several years, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has engaged in the design and development of an experimental research facility to investigate the use of diagonalized crossed-field magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accelerators as a possible thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. In support of this effort, a three-dimensional numerical MHD model has been developed for the purpose of analyzing and optimizing accelerator performance and to aid in understanding critical underlying physical processes and nonideal effects. This Technical Memorandum fully summarizes model development efforts and presents the results of pretest performance optimization analyses. These results indicate that the MHD accelerator should utilize a 45deg diagonalization angle with the applied current evenly distributed over the first five inlet electrode pairs. When powered at 100 A, this configuration is expected to yield a 50% global efficiency with an 80% increase in axial velocity and a 50% increase in centerline total pressure.

  20. Numerical modeling and optimization of machining duplex stainless steels

    Rastee D. Koyee


    Full Text Available The shortcomings of the machining analytical and empirical models in combination with the industry demands have to be fulfilled. A three-dimensional finite element modeling (FEM introduces an attractive alternative to bridge the gap between pure empirical and fundamental scientific quantities, and fulfill the industry needs. However, the challenging aspects which hinder the successful adoption of FEM in the machining sector of manufacturing industry have to be solved first. One of the greatest challenges is the identification of the correct set of machining simulation input parameters. This study presents a new methodology to inversely calculate the input parameters when simulating the machining of standard duplex EN 1.4462 and super duplex EN 1.4410 stainless steels. JMatPro software is first used to model elastic–viscoplastic and physical work material behavior. In order to effectively obtain an optimum set of inversely identified friction coefficients, thermal contact conductance, Cockcroft–Latham critical damage value, percentage reduction in flow stress, and Taylor–Quinney coefficient, Taguchi-VIKOR coupled with Firefly Algorithm Neural Network System is applied. The optimization procedure effectively minimizes the overall differences between the experimentally measured performances such as cutting forces, tool nose temperature and chip thickness, and the numerically obtained ones at any specified cutting condition. The optimum set of input parameter is verified and used for the next step of 3D-FEM application. In the next stage of the study, design of experiments, numerical simulations, and fuzzy rule modeling approaches are employed to optimize types of chip breaker, insert shapes, process conditions, cutting parameters, and tool orientation angles based on many important performances. Through this study, not only a new methodology in defining the optimal set of controllable parameters for turning simulations is introduced, but also

  1. Advanced numerical modelling of a fire. Final report

    Heikkilae, L.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland)


    Experience and probabilistic risk assessments show that fires present a major hazard in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The PALOME project (1988-92) improved the quality of numerical simulation of fires to make it a useful tool for fire safety analysis. Some of the most advanced zone model fire simulation codes were acquired. The performance of the codes was studied through literature and personal interviews in earlier studies and BRI2 code from the Japanese Building Research Institute was selected for further use. In PALOME 2 project this work was continued. Information obtained from large-scale fire tests at the German HDR facility allowed reliable prediction of the rate of heat release and was used for code validation. BRI2 code was validated particularly by participation in the CEC standard problem `Prediction of effects caused by a cable fire experiment within the HDR-facility`. Participation in the development of a new field model code SOFIE specifically for fire applications as British-Swedish-Finnish cooperation was one of the goals of the project. SOFIE code was implemented at VTT and the first results of validation simulations were obtained. Well instrumented fire tests on electronic cabinets were carried out to determine source terms for simulation of room fires and to estimate fire spread to adjacent cabinets. The particular aim of this study was to measure the rate of heat release from a fire in an electronic cabinet. From the three tests, differing mainly in the amount of the fire load, data was obtained for source terms in numerical modelling of fires in rooms containing electronic cabinets. On the basis of these tests also a simple natural ventilation model was derived. (19 refs.).

  2. Field singularities at lossless metal-dielectric arbitrary-angle edges and their ramifications to the numerical modeling of gratings.

    Li, Lifeng


    I extend a previous work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 738 (2011)] on field singularities at lossless metal-dielectric right-angle edges and their ramifications to the numerical modeling of gratings to the case of arbitrary metallic wedge angles. Simple criteria are given that allow one knowing the lossless permittivities and the arbitrary wedge angles to determine if the electric field at the edges is nonsingular, can be regularly singular, or can be irregularly singular without calculating the singularity exponent. Furthermore, the knowledge of the singularity type enables one to predict immediately if a numerical method that uses Fourier expansions of the transverse electric field components at the edges will converge or not without making any numerical tests. All conclusions of the previous work about the general relationships between field singularities, Fourier representation of singular fields, and convergence of numerical methods for modeling lossless metal-dielectric gratings have been reconfirmed.

  3. Extended numerical modeling of impurity neoclassical transport in tokamak edge plasmas

    Inoue, H.; Yamoto, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Homma, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan)


    Understanding of impurity transport in tokamaks is an important issue in order to reduce the impurity contamination in fusion core plasmas. Recently, a new kinetic numerical scheme of impurity classical/neoclassical transport has been developed. This numerical scheme makes it possible to include classical self-diffusion (CL SD), classical inward pinch (CL IWP), and classical temperature screening effect (CL TSE) of impurity ions. However, impurity neoclassical transport has been modeled only in the case where background plasmas are in the Pfirsch-Schluter (PS) regime. The purpose of this study is to extend our previous model to wider range of collisionality regimes, i.e., not only the PS regime, but also the plateau regime. As in the previous study, a kinetic model with Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Model (BMC) has been adopted. We focus on the modeling of the neoclassical self-diffusion (NC SD) and the neoclassical inward pinch (NC IWP). In order to simulate the neoclassical transport with the BCM, velocity distribution of background plasma ions has been modeled as a deformed Maxwell distribution which includes plasma density gradient. Some test simulations have been done. As for NC SD of impurity ions, our scheme reproduces the dependence on the collisionality parameter in wide range of collisionality regime. As for NC IWP, in cases where test impurity ions and background ions are in the PS and plateau regimes, parameter dependences have been reproduced. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Mixing height computation from a numerical weather prediction model

    Jericevic, A. [Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service, Zagreb (Croatia); Grisogono, B. [Univ. of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia). Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst., Faculty of Science


    Dispersion models require hourly values of the mixing height, H, that indicates the existence of turbulent mixing. The aim of this study was to investigate a model ability and characteristics in the prediction of H. The ALADIN, limited area numerical weather prediction (NWP) model for short-range 48-hour forecasts was used. The bulk Richardson number (R{sub iB}) method was applied to determine the height of the atmospheric boundary layer at one grid point nearest to Zagreb, Croatia. This specific location was selected because there were available radio soundings and the verification of the model could be done. Critical value of bulk Richardson number R{sub iBc}=0.3 was used. The values of H, modelled and measured, for 219 days at 12 UTC are compared, and the correlation coefficient of 0.62 is obtained. This indicates that ALADIN can be used for the calculation of H in the convective boundary layer. For the stable boundary layer (SBL), the model underestimated H systematically. Results showed that R{sub iBc} evidently increases with the increase of stability. Decoupling from the surface in the very SBL was detected, which is a consequence of the flow ease resulting in R{sub iB} becoming very large. Verification of the practical usage of the R{sub iB} method for H calculations from NWP model was performed. The necessity for including other stability parameters (e.g., surface roughness length) was evidenced. Since ALADIN model is in operational use in many European countries, this study would help the others in pre-processing NWP data for input to dispersion models. (orig.)

  5. Numerical modeling of multiphase flow in rough and propped fractures

    Dabrowski, Marcin; Dzikowski, Michał; Jasinski, Lukasz; Olkiewicz, Piotr


    crystalline rocks. The detailed pattern of flow paths and effective fracture conductivity are largely dependent on the level of confining stresses and fracture wall roughness, which both determine the shape and distribution of fracture apertures and contact areas. The distribution of proppant grains, which are used to maintain apertures of hydraulic fractures, is a key factor governing fracture flow in industrial applications. The flow of multiphase fluids in narrow apertures of rock fractures may substantially differ from the flow of a single-phase fluid. For example, multiphase flow effects play an important role during all stages of unconventional reservoir life cycle. Multiphase flow conditions are also expected to prevail in high temperature geothermal fields and during the transport of non aqueous phase liquid contaminants in groundwaters. We use direct numerical simulations to study single- and multiphase flow in rough and propped fractures. We compute the fluid flow using either the finite element or the lattice Boltzmann method. Body-fitting, unstructured computational meshes are used to improve the numerical accuracy. The fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces are directly resolved and an implicit approach to surface tension is used to alleviate restrictions due to capillary CFL condition. In FEM simulations, the Beltrami-Laplace operator is integrated by parts to avoid interface curvature computation during evaluation of the surface tension term. We derive and validate an upscaled approach to Stokes flow in propped and rough fractures. Our upscaled 2.5D fracture flow model features a Brinkman term and is capable of treating no-slip boundary conditions on the rims of proppant grains and fracture wall contact areas. The Stokes-Brinkman fracture flow model provides an improvement over the Reynolds model, both in terms of the effective fracture permeability and the local flow pattern. We present numerical and analytical models for the propped fracture

  6. Reproduction of hypopnea phenomenon using a physical and numerical model

    Chouly, F; Lagrée, P Y; Pelorson, X; Payan, Y; Chouly, Franz; Hirtum, Annemie Van; Lagr\\'{e}e, Pierre-Yves; Pelorson, Xavier; Payan, Yohan


    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is now considered as a major health care topic. An in-vitro setup which reproduces and simplifies upper airway geometry has been the basis to study the fluid/walls interaction that leads to an apnea. It consists of a rigid pipe (the pharynx) in contact with a deformable latex cylinder filled with water (the tongue). Air flows out of the rigid pipe and induces pressure forces on the cylinder. We present a numerical model of this setup: a finite element model of the latex cylinder is in interaction with a fluid model. Simulation of an hypopnea (partial collapsus of the airway) has been possible and in agreement with observations from the in-vitro setup. The same phenomenon has been simulated on a soft palate model obtained from a patient sagittal radiography. These first results encourage us to improve the model so as it could reproduce the complete apnea phenomenon, and be used for a planification purpose in sleep apnea surgery.

  7. An Improved Car-Following Model for Multiphase Vehicular Traffic Flow and Numerical Tests

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Gong, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Yun-Cai


    This paper attempts to introduce an improved difference model that modifies a car-following model, which takes the next-nearest-neighbor interaction into account. The improvement of this model over the previous one lies in that it performs more realistically in the dynamical motion for small delay time. The traffic behavior of the improved model is investigated with analytic and numerical methods with the finding that the new consideration could further stabilize traffic flow. And some simulation tests verify that the proposed model can demonstrate some complex physical features observed recently in real traffic such as the existence of three phases: free flow, coexisting flow, and jam flow; spontaneous formation of density waves; sudden flow drop in flow-density plane; traffic hysteresis in transition between the free and the coexisting flow. Furthermore, the improved model also predicts that the stable state to relative density in the coexisting flow is insusceptible to noise.

  8. Validation of a Previously Developed Geospatial Model That Predicts the Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in New York State Produce Fields

    Weller, Daniel; Shiwakoti, Suvash; Bergholz, Peter; Grohn, Yrjo; Wiedmann, Martin


    Technological advancements, particularly in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), have made it possible to predict the likelihood of foodborne pathogen contamination in produce production environments using geospatial models. Yet, few studies have examined the validity and robustness of such models. This study was performed to test and refine the rules associated with a previously developed geospatial model that predicts the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in produce farms in New York State (NYS). Produce fields for each of four enrolled produce farms were categorized into areas of high or low predicted L. monocytogenes prevalence using rules based on a field's available water storage (AWS) and its proximity to water, impervious cover, and pastures. Drag swabs (n = 1,056) were collected from plots assigned to each risk category. Logistic regression, which tested the ability of each rule to accurately predict the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, validated the rules based on water and pasture. Samples collected near water (odds ratio [OR], 3.0) and pasture (OR, 2.9) showed a significantly increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation compared to that for samples collected far from water and pasture. Generalized linear mixed models identified additional land cover factors associated with an increased likelihood of L. monocytogenes isolation, such as proximity to wetlands. These findings validated a subset of previously developed rules that predict L. monocytogenes prevalence in produce production environments. This suggests that GIS and geospatial models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes prevalence on farms and can be used prospectively to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination of produce. PMID:26590280

  9. Physical modelling and numerical simulation of the round-to-square forward extrusion

    Gouveia, B.P.P.A.; Rodrigues, J.M.C.; Martins, P.A.F.


    In this paper, three-dimensional forward extrusion of a square section from a round billet through a straight converging die is analysed using both physical modelling and numerical simulation (finite element and upper bound analysis). Theoretical fundamentals for each method are reviewed......, and comparisons are made between the numerical predictions and experimental data obtained through the utilisation of physical modelling. Assessment is made in terms of flow pattern and strain distribution for two different cross-sections corresponding to the axial symmetry planes of the three......-dimensional extrusion part. The experimental distribution of strain is determined from the shape change of quadrilateral grids previously printed on the surface of the axial cross-sections of the undeformed billets by means of large deformation square-grid analysis. Good agreement is obtained between physical...

  10. Laser transmission welding of composites - Part B: Experimental validation of numerical model

    Akué Asséko, André Chateau; Cosson, Benoît; Schmidt, Fabrice; Le Maoult, Yannick; Gilblas, Rémi; Lafranche, Eric


    In this paper, experimental measurements are performed to confirm the global analytical model (refraction and absorption phenomena) presented in the previous work. Initially, an experimental approach to the estimation of the laser beam spread in a semi-transparent composite and at interface (width of the output beam) subjected to an incident heat flux, was presented. This parameter represents a fundamental input data for the global analytical model (refraction and absorption) during the numerical simulation of transmission infrared welding. Then, an experimental setup for the temperature measurement is performed using infrared camera, during infrared transmission welding of materials joints to validate the welding simulation results (a transient numerical model, based both on conduction and radiation mode heat transfer) with the developed analytical model. The commercial FEM software COMSOL Multiphysics® is used to compute temperature distribution by implementing a radiative source term. Numerical simulations are compared with experimental data. The agreement between simulations and experiments is fair, which gives confidence to use the developed model with acceptable accuracy.

  11. Rivers on Titan - numerical modelling of sedimentary structures

    Misiura, Katarzyna; Czechowski, Leszek


    On Titan surface we can expect a few different geomorphological forms, e.g. fluvial valley and river channels. In our research we use numerical model of the river to determine the limits of different fluvial parameters that play important roles in evolution of the rivers on Titan and on Earth. We have found that transport of sediments as suspended load is the main way of transport for Titan [1]. We also determined the range of the river's parameters for which braided river is developed rather than meandering river. Similar, parallel simulations for rivers deltas are presented in [2]. Introduction Titan is a very special body in the Solar System. It is the only moon that has dense atmosphere and flowing liquid on its surface. The Cassini-Huygens mission has found on Titan meandering rivers, and indicated processes of erosion, transport of solid material and its sedimentation. This work is aimed to investigate the similarity and differences between these processes on Titan and the Earth. Numerical model The dynamical analysis of the considered rivers is performed using the package CCHE modified for the specific conditions on Titan. The package is based on the Navier-Stokes equations for depth-integrated two dimensional, turbulent flow and three dimensional convection-diffusion equation of sediment transport. For more information about equations see [1]. Parameters of the model We considered our model for a few different parameters of liquid and material transported by a river. For Titan we consider liquid corresponding to a Titan's rain (75% methane, 25% nitrogen), for Earth, of course, the water. Material transported in rivers on Titan is water ice, for Earth - quartz. Other parameters of our model are: inflow discharge, outflow level, grain size of sediments etc. For every calculation performed for Titan's river similar calculations are performed for terrestrial ones. Results and Conclusions The results of our simulation show the differences in behaviour of the

  12. A numerical strategy for modelling rotating stall in core compressors

    Vahdati, M.


    The paper will focus on one specific core-compressor instability, rotating stall, because of the pressing industrial need to improve current design methods. The determination of the blade response during rotating stall is a difficult problem for which there is no reliable procedure. During rotating stall, the blades encounter the stall cells and the excitation depends on the number, size, exact shape and rotational speed of these cells. The long-term aim is to minimize the forced response due to rotating stall excitation by avoiding potential matches between the vibration modes and the rotating stall pattern characteristics. Accurate numerical simulations of core-compressor rotating stall phenomena require the modelling of a large number of bladerows using grids containing several tens of millions of points. The time-accurate unsteady-flow computations may need to be run for several engine revolutions for rotating stall to get initiated and many more before it is fully developed. The difficulty in rotating stall initiation arises from a lack of representation of the triggering disturbances which are inherently present in aeroengines. Since the numerical model represents a symmetric assembly, the only random mechanism for rotating stall initiation is provided by numerical round-off errors. In this work, rotating stall is initiated by introducing a small amount of geometric mistuning to the rotor blades. Another major obstacle in modelling flows near stall is the specification of appropriate upstream and downstream boundary conditions. Obtaining reliable boundary conditions for such flows can be very difficult. In the present study, the low-pressure compression (LPC) domain is placed upstream of the core compressor. With such an approach, only far field atmospheric boundary conditions are specified which are obtained from aircraft speed and altitude. A chocked variable-area nozzle, placed after the last compressor bladerow in the model, is used to impose boundary

  13. Comparison of Laboratory Experimental Data to XBeach Numerical Model Output

    Demirci, Ebru; Baykal, Cuneyt; Guler, Isikhan; Sogut, Erdinc


    Coastal zones are living and constantly changing environments where both the natural events and the human-interaction results come into picture regarding to the shoreline behavior. Both the nature of the coastal zone and the human activities shape together the resultants of the interaction with oceans and coasts. Natural extreme events may result in the need of human interference, such as building coastal structures in order to prevent from disasters or any man-made structure throughout a coastline may affect the hydrodynamics and morphology in the nearshore. In order to understand and cope with this cycle of cause and effect relationship, the numerical models developed. XBeach is an open-source, 2DH, depth average numerical model including the hydrodynamic processes of short wave transformation (refraction, shoaling and breaking), long wave (infragravity wave) transformation (generation, propagation and dissipation), wave-induced setup and unsteady currents, as well as overwash and inundation and morphodynamic processes of bed load and suspended sediment transport, dune face avalanching, bed update and breaching (Roelvink et al., 2010). Together with XBeach numerical model, it is possible to both verify and visualize the resultant external effects to the initial shorelines in coastal zones. Recently, Baykal et al. (2015) modelled the long term morphology changes with XBeach near Kızılırmak river mouth consisting of one I-shaped and one Y-shaped groins. In order to investigate the nature of the shoreline and near shore hydrodynamic conditions and morphology, the five laboratory experiments are conducted in the Largescale Sediment Transport Facility at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center in order to be used to improve longshore sand transport relationships under the combined influence of waves and currents and the enhancement of predictive numerical models of beach morphology evolution. The first series of the experiments were aimed at

  14. Wall functions for numerical modeling of laminar MHD flows

    Widlund, O


    general wall function treatment is presented for the numerical modeling of laminar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. The wall function expressions are derived analytically from the steady-state momentum and electric potential equations, making use only of local variables of the numerical solution. No assumptions are made regarding the orientation of the magnetic field relative to the wall, nor of the magnitude of the Hartmann number, or the wall conductivity. The wall functions are used for defining implicit boundary conditions for velocity and electric potential, and for computing mass flow and electrical currents in near wall-cells. The wall function treatment was validated in a finite volume formulation, and compared with an analytic solution for a fully developed channel flow in a transverse magnetic field. For the case with insulating walls, a uniform 20 x 20 grid, and Hartmann numbers Ha = [10,30,100], the accuracy of pressure drop and wall shear stress predictions was [1.1%,1.6%,0.5%], respectively. Com...

  15. Numerical modeling of macroscale brittle rock crushing during impacts

    Badr, Salah A.; Abdelhaffez, Gamal S. [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


    Several machines, such as crushers use the physical effect of compression to cause fragmentation 'crushing' of brittle rocks. As a consequence of the complex fragmentation process, crushers are still sized by empirical approaches. This paper present the results of a numerical study to understand some aspects of rock crushing phenomenon in terms of energy consumption. The study uses the discrete element approach of PFC2D code to simulate a stamp mill. The stamp mill has a simple crushing mechanism of a fixed kinetic energy delivered by a rigid ram impact. A single rock fragment crushing process dependent on the number of stamp mill ram blows is numerically examined. Both amount and type of energy generated by a ram blow are monitored besides the type of fractures generated. The model results indicate that the ram impact energy is mainly consumed in form of friction energy (up to 61 %) while strain energy stays at about 5 % of delivered energy. The energy consumed by crushing the rock represents only 32 % to 45 % of stamp mill energy and tends to decrease as the number of impacts increases. The rock fragmented matrix tends to convert into more friction energy with reduced number of new fractures as number of blows increase. The fragmentation caused by tensile is more often compared to those caused by shear, this behaviour increased with increasing number of ram blows. (orig.)

  16. A numerical-physical planetary boundary layer model

    Padro, Jacob


    A numerical-physical model for the planetary boundary layer has been formulated for the purpose of predicting the winds, temperatures and humidities in the lowest 1600 m of the atmosphere. An application of the model to the synoptic situation of 30 August, 1972, demonstrates its ability to produce useful forecasts for a period of 24 h. Results are illustrated in terms of horizontal maps and time-height sections of winds and temperatures. The model is divided in the vertical direction into three layers that are governed, respectively, by different physical formulations. At the lowest level, which is the surface of the earth, forecasts of temperature and humidity are computed from empirical relations. In the first layer, the surface layer, application is made of the similarity theories of Monin-Obukhov, Monin-Kazanski and Businger’s form of the universal functions. The second layer, the Ekman layer, is 1550 m deep and is governed by diagnostic momentum and time-dependent thermodynamic and humidity equations. External input to the model are large-scale pressure gradients and middle-level cloudiness. Cressman’s objective analysis procedure is applied to conventional surface and upper air data over a horizontal region of about 2500 km by 2500 km, centered about Lake Ontario. With a grid distance of 127 km and a time interval of 30 min, the computer time required on Control Data Cyber 76 for a 24 h forecast for the case study is less than two minutes.

  17. Modelling human actions on lightweight structures: experimental and numerical developments

    Živanović S.


    Full Text Available This paper presents recent, numerical and experimental, developments in modelling dynamic loading generated by humans. As modern structures with exposure to human-induced loading, such as footbridges, building floors and grandstands, are becoming ever lighter and more slender, they are increasingly susceptible to vibration under human-induced dynamic excitation, such as walking, jumping, running and bobbing, and their vibration serviceability assessment is often a deciding factor in the design process. While simplified modelling of the human using a harmonic force was sufficient for assessment of vibration performance of more robust structures a few decades ago, the higher fidelity models are required in the contemporary design. These models are expected not only to describe both temporal and spectral features of the force signal more accurately, but also to capture the influence, psychological and physiological, of human-structure and human-human interaction mechanisms on the human kinematics, and consequently on the force generated and the resulting vibration response. Significant advances have been made in both the research studies and design guidance. This paper reports the key developments and identifies the scope for further research.

  18. Numerical modelling of propagation of landslides using SPH

    Montull, Carlos; Pastor, Manuel; Springman, Sarah


    Landslides cause severe economic damage and a large number of casualties every year around the world. Engineers and geologists need to understand and predict their properties, such as velocity, depth and run out distance. In addition to experience gained on similar cases, predictions require the application of mathematical, constitutive/rheological and numerical models. Different models are currently used to simulate long run-out landslides in order to elaborate hazard maps. Among the available alternatives, depth integrated models present a reasonable compromise between computational cost and accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to apply the SPH depth integrated model, together with suitable rheological laws, to analize fast landslides. We will present the results obtained with the code Geoflow_SPH to three selected cases: (i) The Frank avalanche, (ii) the Cougar Hill flowslide and (iii) the Sham Tseng debris flow. The results of the simulations include estimations of fundamental aspects of the problem, such as the path followed by the sliding mass, the shape of the run-out area, the maximum run-out, the depth of the final deposit, the pore pressure evolution and the speed evolution of the landslide.

  19. Numerical studies of the Zaitsev (Robin Hood ) model

    Fox, Perry; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey; Zypman, Fredy


    The Zaitsev[1] model of depinning of interfaces has been widely used to discuss motion of dislocations, low temperature flux creep, and more recently dry friction. The properties of this model have been discussed theoretically in one dimension, and numerically verified with precision in the isotropic case. We are studying here the effect of anisotropy in the distribution of the ``mass'' among the neighbors in the updating of the sites, which is known to modify the critical exponents of the model in one dimension. We have considered the validity of the scaling laws in higher dimensions, which might be relevant for the case of friction [2], by computing several of the exponents of the model for the avalanche size distribution, average avalanche size, avalanche fractal dimension and distribution of jumps between extremal sites of activity. The much richer space of parameters of anisotropy in two dimensions has been explored. [1] S.I. Zaitsev , Physica A189, 411 (1992). [2] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110, (2006)

  20. Numerical Predictions of Cavitating Flow around Model Scale Propellers by CFD and Advanced Model Calibration

    Mitja Morgut


    Full Text Available The numerical predictions of the cavitating flow around two model scale propellers in uniform inflow are presented and discussed. The simulations are carried out using a commercial CFD solver. The homogeneous model is used and the influence of three widespread mass transfer models, on the accuracy of the numerical predictions, is evaluated. The mass transfer models in question share the common feature of employing empirical coefficients to adjust mass transfer rate from water to vapour and back, which can affect the stability and accuracy of the predictions. Thus, for a fair and congruent comparison, the empirical coefficients of the different mass transfer models are first properly calibrated using an optimization strategy. The numerical results obtained, with the three different calibrated mass transfer models, are very similar to each other for two selected model scale propellers. Nevertheless, a tendency to overestimate the cavity extension is observed, and consequently the thrust, in the most severe operational conditions, is not properly predicted.

  1. Numerical modeling of the SNS H- ion source

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.


    Ion source rf antennas that produce H- ions can fail when plasma heating causes ablation of the insulating coating due to small structural defects such as cracks. Reducing antenna failures that reduce the operating capabilities of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator is one of the top priorities of the SNS H- Source Program at ORNL. Numerical modeling of ion sources can provide techniques for optimizing design in order to reduce antenna failures. There are a number of difficulties in developing accurate models of rf inductive plasmas. First, a large range of spatial and temporal scales must be resolved in order to accurately capture the physics of plasma motion, including the Debye length, rf frequencies on the order of tens of MHz, simulation time scales of many hundreds of rf periods, large device sizes on tens of cm, and ion motions that are thousands of times slower than electrons. This results in large simulation domains with many computational cells for solving plasma and electromagnetic equations, short time steps, and long-duration simulations. In order to reduce the computational requirements, one can develop implicit models for both fields and particle motions (e.g. divergence-preserving ADI methods), various electrostatic models, or magnetohydrodynamic models. We have performed simulations using all three of these methods and have found that fluid models have the greatest potential for giving accurate solutions while still being fast enough to perform long timescale simulations in a reasonable amount of time. We have implemented a number of fluid models with electromagnetics using the simulation tool USim and applied them to modeling the SNS H- ion source. We found that a reduced, single-fluid MHD model with an imposed magnetic field due to the rf antenna current and the confining multi-cusp field generated increased bulk plasma velocities of > 200 m/s in the region of the antenna where ablation is often observed in the SNS source. We report

  2. Numerical modeling of a high power terahertz source in Shanghai

    DAI Jin-Hua; DENG Hai-Xiao; DAI Zhi-Min


    On the basis of an energy-recovery linac,a terahertz source with a potential for kilowatts of average power is proposed in Shanghai,which will serve as an effective tool for material and biological sciences,In this paper,the physical design of two free electron laser (FEL) oscillators,in a frequency range of 2-10 THz and 0.5-2 THz respectively,are presented.By using three-dimensional,time-dependent numerical modeling of GENESIS in combination with a paraxial optical propagation code,the THz oscillator performance,the detuning effects,and the tolerance requirements on the electron beam,the undulator field and the cavity alignment are given.

  3. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    V. Mironov


    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  4. Experimental measurements and numerical modelling of a green roof

    Lazzarin, Renato M.; Castellotti, Francesco; Busato, Filippo [Padova Univ., Dept. of Management and Engineering, Vicenza (Italy)


    Green roof utilisation has been known since ancient times both in hot and cold climates. Nowadays, it has been reconsidered at issue of energy saving and pollution reduction. In this paper, some measurement sessions on a green roof installed by the Vicenza Hospital are described. A data logging system with temperature, humidity, rainfall, radiation, etc. sensors surveyed both the parameters related to the green roof and to the rooms underneath. The aim is to evaluate the passive cooling, stressing the evapotranspiration role in summer time. Furthermore, the enhanced insulating properties have been tested during winter time. A predictive numerical model has been developed in a building simulation software (TRNSYS) to calculate thermal and energy performances of a building with a green roof, varying the meteorological dataset for a specific geographic zone. (Author)

  5. Numerical model study of radio frequency vessel sealing thermodynamics

    Pearce, John


    Several clinically successful clinical radio frequency vessel-sealing devices are currently available. The dominant thermodynamic principles at work involve tissue water vaporization processes. It is necessary to thermally denature vessel collagen, elastin and their adherent proteins to achieve a successful fusion. Collagens denature at middle temperatures, between about 60 and 90 C depending on heating time and rate. Elastin, and its adherent proteins, are more thermally robust, and require temperatures in excess of the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure to thermally fuse. Rapid boiling at low apposition pressures leads to steam vacuole formation, brittle tissue remnants and frequently to substantial disruption in the vessel wall, particularly in high elastin-content arteries. High apposition pressures substantially increase the equilibrium boiling point of tissue water and are necessary to ensure a high probability of a successful seal. The FDM numerical models illustrate the beneficial effects of high apposition pressures.

  6. Numerical simulation of EEG forward problem in centrosphere head model

    HE Juan


    Full Text Available At present,EEG has become an important technical means in investigation of the brain function and clinical diagnosis.On the inverse problem of EEG,a lot of calculation of EEG forward problem is essential.In this paper,on the one hand,we develop a computing formula based on weighted residuals BEM; in center spherical head model,we compute the scalp potentials for different dipole position and orientation.On the other hand,we conduct simulation to EEG forward problem,and compare the numerical and analytical solutions of scalp potential.The results show that the weighted residual method has advantages of high computing efficiency and accuracy compared with FEM,DM.So it is widely used in computational mechanics.

  7. Modeling Collisional Cascades In Debris Disks: The Numerical Method

    Gaspar, Andras; Ozel, Feryal; Rieke, George H; Cooney, Alan


    We develop a new numerical algorithm to model collisional cascades in debris disks. Because of the large dynamical range in particle masses, we solve the integro-differential equations describing erosive and catastrophic collisions in a particle-in-a-box approach, while treating the orbital dynamics of the particles in an approximate fashion. We employ a new scheme for describing erosive (cratering) collisions that yields a continuous set of outcomes as a function of colliding masses. We demonstrate the stability and convergence characteristics of our algorithm and compare it with other treatments. We show that incorporating the effects of erosive collisions results in a decay of the particle distribution that is significantly faster than with purely catastrophic collisions.

  8. Numerical modelling of the thermosphere-ionosphere coupling during substorm

    Korenkov, Yu. N.; Bessarab, F. S.; Klimenko, V. V.; Surotkin, V. A.; Smertin, V. M.

    The numerical calculation results of the thermospheric parameters ([O]/[N_2] ratio and Tn) and critical frequencies of F2-region of ionosphere, foF2, in the global scale for the recovery phase of the substorm are presented. The calculations were executed with the use of the Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere (GSM TIP) was constructed in the Kaliningrad Observatory of the IZMIRAN and modified in the Polar Geophysical Institute. The influences of the global distribution of Joule dissipation on the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere parameters are discussed. It is emphasised that the Joule dissipation in the neutral atmosphere is a main cause of the negative disturbance in the F2 region of the ionosphere.


    Gaspar, Andras; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Oezel, Feryal; Rieke, George H.; Cooney, Alan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We develop a new numerical algorithm to model collisional cascades in debris disks. Because of the large dynamical range in particle masses, we solve the integro-differential equations describing erosive and catastrophic collisions in a particle-in-a-box approach, while treating the orbital dynamics of the particles in an approximate fashion. We employ a new scheme for describing erosive (cratering) collisions that yields a continuous set of outcomes as a function of colliding masses. We demonstrate the stability and convergence characteristics of our algorithm and compare it with other treatments. We show that incorporating the effects of erosive collisions results in a decay of the particle distribution that is significantly faster than with purely catastrophic collisions.

  10. Numerical modelling of dynamic sludge blanket behaviour in secondary clarifiers.

    Armbruster, M; Krebs, P; Rodi, W


    New developments in numerical modelling of turbulent and density-affected flow in secondary clarifiers are reported. The sludge blanket is included in the computation domain which allows us to account for sedimentation and resuspension of sludge as well as the growth and diminution of the sludge blanket and at the same time respecting mass conservation. It is shown how strongly the prediction of the sludge-blanket height depends on the approaches to describe the settling behaviour of the sludge and the rheological properties within the sludge blanket. Further, an example of dynamic simulation is presented and discussed. This demonstrates how the sludge blanket behaves during load variation and that instabilities may occur at the interface of sludge blanket and supernatant, potentially resulting in sludge wash-off during transient phases, which is not only during load increase but also during load decrease.

  11. Using a Numerical Weather Model to Improve Geodesy

    Niell, A


    The use of a Numerical Weather Model (NWM) to provide in situ atmosphere information for mapping functions of atmosphere delay has been evaluated using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data spanning eleven years. Parameters required by the IMF mapping functions (Niell 2000, 2001) have been calculated from the NWM of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and incorporated in the CALC/SOLVE VLBI data analysis program. Compared with the use of the NMF mapping functions (Niell 1996) the application of IMF for global solutions demonstrates that the hydrostatic mapping function, IMFh, provides both significant improvement in baseline length repeatability and noticeable reduction in the amplitude of the residual harmonic site position variations at semidiurnal to long-period bands. For baseline length repeatability the reduction in the observed mean square deviations achieves 80 of the maximum that is expected for the change from NMF to IMF. On the other hand, the use of the wet mapping fun...

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of a simplified exhaust model

    Balázs Vehovszky


    Full Text Available A simplified experimental equipment was built to investigate heat radiation and free convection around hot exhaust pipe. Temperatures were measured on the surface of the pipe as like as on heat insulating and -reflecting aluminum shield. Special care was taken to the temperature measuring method: result proved that inappropriate fixing of measuring thermocouples lead to an error of up to 30 % in the temperature-increase values. A detailed 1D numerical model was set up and parametrized so as to the calculation results can be fitted to measured temperature values. In this way thermal properties of the surfaces – as emissivities, absorption coefficients and convective heat transfer coefficients – were determined for temperature sweeps and stationary state cases. The used methods are to be further improved for real automotive parts and higher temperatures.

  13. Numerical method of slope failure probability based on Bishop model

    SU Yong-hua; ZHAO Ming-hua; ZHANG Yue-ying


    Based on Bishop's model and by applying the first and second order mean deviations method, an approximative solution method for the first and second order partial derivatives of functional function was deduced according to numerical analysis theory. After complicated multi-independent variables implicit functional function was simplified to be a single independent variable implicit function and rule of calculating derivative for composite function was combined with principle of the mean deviations method, an approximative solution format of implicit functional function was established through Taylor expansion series and iterative solution approach of reliability degree index was given synchronously. An engineering example was analyzed by the method. The result shows its absolute error is only 0.78% as compared with accurate solution.

  14. Characterizing uniform discharge in atmospheric helium by numerical modelling

    Lü Bo; Wang Xin-Xin; Luo Hai-Yun; Liang Zhuo


    One-dimensional fluid model of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in helium at atmospheric pressure was estab-lished and the discharge was numerically simulated. It was found that not only the spatial distributions of the internal parameters such as the electric field, the electron density and ion density are similar to those in a low-pressure glow discharge, but also the visually apparent attribute (light emission) is exactly the same as the observable feature of a low-pressure glow discharge. This confirms that the uniform DBD in atmosphcric helium is a glow type discharge. The fact that the thickness of the cathode fall layer is about 0.5 ram, much longer than that of a normal glow dischargc in helium at atmospheric pressure, indicates the discharge being a sub-normal glow discharge close to normal one. The multipulse phenomenon was reproduced in the simulation and a much less complicated explanation for this phenomenon was given.

  15. Numerical modeling of perovskite solar cells with a planar structure

    Malyukov, S. P.; Sayenko, A. V.; Ivanova, A. V.


    The paper is devoted to the research and development of high-efficiency solar cells with a planar perovskite n-i-p structure. A numerical model of this solar cell in the drift- diffusion approximation based on Poisson equation and continuity equations provided to determine their photoelectric characteristics and design optimization. The author considers the spectral photogeneration, bulk and surface recombination, transport charge carriers in perovskite and their collection by the electron and hole transport layers. As a result of the simulation, it was obtained efficiency dependence on perovskite absorber material thickness and lifetime (diffusion length) of the charge carriers. It is found that in addition to absorption coefficient optimal perovskite thickness is determined largely by the charge carrier diffusion length, and it has the upper limit in thickness of 500-600 nm.

  16. Numerical Modeling of Ground Response during Diaphragm Wall Construction

    DING Yong-chun; WANG Jian-hua


    Construction of diaphragm wall panels may cause considerable stress changes in heavily overconsolidated soil deposits and can induce substantial ground movement. The 3D Lagrangian method was adopted to model the mechanical response of ground, including horizontal normal stress and shear stress, lateral ground displacement and vertical ground surface settlement, during the slurry trenching and concreting of diaphragm wall panels. Numerical results show that slurry trenching leads to horizontal stress relief of ground, reducing the horizontal stress of the ground from initial K0 pressure to hydrostatic betonite pressure. Wet concrete pressure lies between the hydrostatic bentonite pressure and the initial K0 pressure, so it can compensate partially the horizontal stress loss of the ground adjacent to the trench and thus reduce the lateral movement of the trench face as well as the vertical settlement of the ground surface.

  17. Numerical Model based Reliability Estimation of Selective Laser Melting Process

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    Selective laser melting is developing into a standard manufacturing technology with applications in various sectors. However, the process is still far from being at par with conventional processes such as welding and casting, the primary reason of which is the unreliability of the process. While...... of the selective laser melting process. A validated 3D finite-volume alternating-direction-implicit numerical technique is used to model the selective laser melting process, and is calibrated against results from single track formation experiments. Correlation coefficients are determined for process input...... parameters such as laser power, speed, beam profile, etc. Subsequently, uncertainties in the processing parameters are utilized to predict a range for the various outputs, using a Monte Carlo method based uncertainty analysis methodology, and the reliability of the process is established....

  18. Three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of electromagnetically driven multiscale shallow layer flows: Numerical modeling and physical properties

    Lardeau, Sylvain; Ferrari, Simone; Rossi, Lionel


    Three-dimensional (3D) direct numerical simulations of a flow driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing are performed in order to reproduce with maximum accuracy the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) flow generated by the same multiscale forcing in the laboratory. The method presented is based on a 3D description of the flow and the electromagnetic forcing. Very good agreements between our simulations and the experiments are found both on velocity and acceleration field, this last comparison being, to our knowledge, done for the first time. Such agreement requires that both experiments and simulations are carefully performed and, more importantly, that the underlying simplification to model the experiments and the multiscale electromagnetic forcing do not introduce significant errors. The results presented in this paper differ significantly from previous 2D direct numerical simulation in which a classical linear Rayleigh friction modeling term was used to mimic the effect of the wall-normal friction. Indeed, purely 2D simulations are found to underestimate the Reynolds number and, due to the dominance of nonhomogeneous bottom friction, lead to the wrong physical mechanism. For the range of conditions presented in this paper, the Reynolds number, defined by the ratio between acceleration and viscous terms, remains the order of unity, and the Hartmann number, defined by the ratio between electromagnetic force terms and viscous terms, is about 2. The main conclusion is that 3D simulations are required to model the (3D) electromagnetic forces and the wall-normal shear. Indeed, even if the flow is quasi-2D in terms of energy, a full 3D approach is required to simulate these shallow layer flows driven by multiscale electromagnetic forcing. In the range of forcing intensity investigated in this paper, these multiscale flows remain quasi-2D, with negligible energy in the wall-normal velocity component. It is also shown that the driving terms are the electromagnetic forcing and

  19. Numerical Simulation of Permeation from Deposited Droplets: Model Expansion


    A. Luther and J. 0. Wilkes. (1969)," Applied Numerical Methods ," John Wiley & Sons, New York. 21 17. B. Carnahan, H. A. Luther and J. 0. Wilkes...1969)," Applied Numerical Methods ," John Wiley & Sons, New York. 18. D. U. Von Rosenberg (1971), " Methods For The Numerical Solution Of Partial

  20. Numerical investigation and experimental validation of physically based advanced GTN model for DP steels

    Fansi, Joseph, E-mail: [University of Liège, Departement ArGEnCo, Division MS2F, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Balan, Tudor [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); Lemoine, Xavier [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Maire, Eric; Landron, Caroline [INSA de Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Bouaziz, Olivier [ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Matériaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, Evry Cedex 91003 (France); Ben Bettaieb, Mohamed [Ensicaen, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Marie Habraken, Anne [University of Liège, Departement ArGEnCo, Division MS2F, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, Liège 4000 (Belgium)


    This numerical investigation of an advanced Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) model is an extension of the original work of Ben Bettaiebet al. (2011 [18]). The model has been implemented as a user-defined material model subroutine (VUMAT) in the Abaqus/explicit FE code. The current damage model extends the previous version by integrating the three damage mechanisms: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. Physically based void nucleation and growth laws are considered, including an effect of the kinematic hardening. These new contributions are based and validated on experimental results provided by high-resolution X-ray absorption tomography measurements. The current damage model is applied to predict the damage evolution and the stress state in a tensile notched specimen experiment.

  1. An Improved Car-Following Model for Multiphase Vehicular Traffic Flow and Numerical Tests

    LI Zhi-Peng; GONG Xiao-Bo; LIU Yun-Cai


    This paper attempts to introduce an improved difference model that modifies a car-following model, which takes the next-nearest-neighbor interaction into account. The improvement of this modelover the previous one lies in that it performs more realistically in the dynamical motion for small delay time. The traffic behavior of the improved model is investigated with analytic and numerical methods with the finding that the new consideration could further stabilize traffic flow. And some simulation tests verify that the proposed model can demonstrate some complex physical features observed recently in real traffic such as the existence of three phases: free flow, coexisting flow, and jam flow;spontaneous formation of density waves; sudden flow drop in flow-density plane; traffic hysteresis in transition between the free and the coexisting flow. Furthermore, the improved model also predicts that the stable state to relative density in the coexisting flow is insusceptible to noise.

  2. Numerical and physical modelling of oil spreading in broken ice

    Gjoesteen, Janne K. Oekland


    The present work focuses on oil spreading in broken ice and the content of this thesis falls into three categories: 1) The physical and numerical modelling of oil spreading in ice. 2) Ice models and parameters describing the ice cover. 3) Experiments on oil spreading in broken ice. A background study was carried out to investigate existing models for simulating oil in broken ice. Most of them describe motion of oil simply as a function of the ice motion and do not take advantage of the possibilities that recent ice models provide. We decided to choose another direction, starting from scratch with equations describing the flow of oil on top of a water surface. The equations were implemented numerically, including proper boundary conditions to account for the presence of physical restrictions in the form of ice floes in the simulation area. The implementation was designed to be able to apply data on ice motion calculated by an existing dynamic ice model. A first validation of the model was carried out using existing experimental data. As those data were obtained in a different setting, the recorded parameters and set-up of the experiment were not ideal for our purpose. However, we were able to conclude that our model behaviour was reasonable. We have carried out statistical analysis on meteorological data of wind speeds, temperatures, flow sizes and ice thickness to obtain probability distributions describing the parameters. Those data has been collected in the Pechora Sea. Wind and temperature had been recorded for a period of 30-40 years. For this region we also had available Argos satellite data from four buoys drifting in the ice in April-June 1998. The Argos data were carefully analysed to suggest probability distributions and return periods for certain speeds. (Indoor basin tests were carried out to obtain data on spreading of oil in broken ice. A set of 20 tests was conducted, each with different type of oil, ice concentration, slush concentration or ice

  3. A numerical model of coastline deformation for sandy beach at downstream of a jetty

    SUN Linyun; PAN Junning; XING Fu; LIU Jiaju


    A reformed numerical model based on the "one-line theory" for beach deformation is presented. In this model, thechange of beach slope during coastline procession is eonsidered. A wave numerical model combined with wave re-fraction, diffraction and reflection is used to simulate wave climate to increase numerical accuracy. The results showthat the numerical model has a good precision based on the adequate field data. The results can be applied to practical engineering.

  4. Regression modeling of the North East Atlantic Spring Bloom suggests previously unrecognized biological roles for V and Mo

    Nick J Klein


    Full Text Available In order to identify the biogeochemical parameters controlling pCO2, total chlorophyll a, and dimethylsulfide (DMS concentrations during the North East Atlantic Spring Bloom (NASB, we used previously unpublished particulate and dissolved elemental concentrations to construct several linear regression models; first by hypothesis-testing, and then with exhaustive stepwise linear regression followed by leave-one-out cross-validation. The field data was obtained along a latitudinal transect from the Azores Islands to the North Atlantic, and best-fit models (determined by lowest predictive error of up to three variables are presented. Total chlorophyll a is predicted best by biomass (POC, PON parameters and by pigments characteristic of picophytoplankton for the southern section of the sampling transect (from the Azores to the Rockhall-Hatton Plateau and coccolithophores in the northern portion (from the Rockhall-Hatton Plateau to the Denmark Strait. Both the pCO2 and DMS models included variables traditionally associated with the development of the NASB such as mixed-layer depth and with Fe, Si and P-deplete conditions (dissolved Fe, dissolved and biogenic silica, dissolved PO43-. However, the regressions for pCO2 and DMS also include intracellular V and Mo concentrations, respectively. Mo is involved in DMS production as a cofactor in dimethylsulfoxide reductase. No significant biological role for V has yet been determined, although intracellular V is significantly correlated (p-value < 0.05 with biogenic silica (R2 = 0.72 and total chlorophyll a (R2 = 0.49 while the same is not true for its biogeochemical analogue Mo, suggesting active uptake of V by phytoplankton. Our statistical analysis suggests these two lesser-studied metals may play more important roles in bloom dynamics than previously thought, and highlights a need for studies focused on determining their potential biological requirements and cell quotas.

  5. In Marriage of Model and Numerics, Glimpses of the Future

    Nejadmalayeri, Alireza; Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Vezolainen, Alexei


    A newly defined concept of m-refinement (model-refinement), which provides two-way coupling of physical models and numerical methods, is employed to study the Reynolds scaling of SCALES with constant levels of fidelity. Within the context of wavelet-based methods, this new hybrid methodology provides a hierarchical space/time dynamically adaptive automatic smooth transition from resolving the Kolmogorov length-scale (WDNS) to decomposing deterministic-coherent/stochastic-incoherent modes (CVS) to capturing more/less energetic structures (SCALES). This variable fidelity turbulence modeling approach utilizes a unified single solver framework by means of a Lagrangian spatially varying thresholding technique. The fundamental findings of this computational complexity study are summarized as follows: 1) SCALES can achieve the objective of ``controlling the captured flow-physics as desired'' by profoundly small number of spatial modes; 2) Reynolds scaling of constant-dissipation SCALES is the same regardless of fidelity of the simulations; 3) the number of energy containing structures at a fixed level of resolved turbulent kinetic energy scales linearly with Re; and 4) the fractal dimension of coherent energy containing structures is close to unity. This work was supported by NSF under grant No. CBET-0756046.

  6. Numerical models for the circumstellar medium around Betelgeuse

    Mackey, Jonathan; Neilson, Hilding R; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M -A


    The nearby red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse has a complex circumstellar medium out to at least 0.5 parsecs from its surface, shaped by its mass-loss history within the past 0.1 Myr, its environment, and its motion through the interstellar medium (ISM). In principle its mass-loss history can be constrained by comparing hydrodynamic models with observations. Observations and numerical simulations indicate that Betelgeuse has a very young bow shock, hence the star may have only recently become a RSG. To test this possibility we calculated a stellar evolution model for a single star with properties consistent with Betelgeuse. We incorporated the resulting evolving stellar wind into 2D hydrodynamic simulations to model a runaway blue supergiant (BSG) undergoing the transition to a RSG near the end of its life. The collapsing BSG wind bubble induces a bow shock-shaped inner shell which at least superficially resembles Betelgeuse's bow shock, and has a similar mass. Surrounding this is the larger-scale retreating bow...

  7. A Comprehensive Numerical Model for Simulating Fluid Transport in Nanopores

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Wei; Sepehrnoori, Kamy; di, Yuan


    Since a large amount of nanopores exist in tight oil reservoirs, fluid transport in nanopores is complex due to large capillary pressure. Recent studies only focus on the effect of nanopore confinement on single-well performance with simple planar fractures in tight oil reservoirs. Its impacts on multi-well performance with complex fracture geometries have not been reported. In this study, a numerical model was developed to investigate the effect of confined phase behavior on cumulative oil and gas production of four horizontal wells with different fracture geometries. Its pore sizes were divided into five regions based on nanopore size distribution. Then, fluid properties were evaluated under different levels of capillary pressure using Peng-Robinson equation of state. Afterwards, an efficient approach of Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) was applied to explicitly model hydraulic and natural fractures in the reservoirs. Finally, three fracture geometries, i.e. non-planar hydraulic fractures, non-planar hydraulic fractures with one set natural fractures, and non-planar hydraulic fractures with two sets natural fractures, are evaluated. The multi-well performance with confined phase behavior is analyzed with permeabilities of 0.01 md and 0.1 md. This work improves the analysis of capillarity effect on multi-well performance with complex fracture geometries in tight oil reservoirs.

  8. Biotic origin for Mima mounds supported by numerical modeling

    Gabet, Emmanuel J.; Perron, J. Taylor; Johnson, Donald L.


    Mima mounds are ~ 1-m-high hillocks found on every continent except Antarctica. Despite often numbering in the millions within a single field, their origin has been a mystery, with proposed explanations ranging from glacial processes to seismic shaking. One hypothesis proposes that mounds in North America are built by burrowing mammals to provide refuge from seasonally saturated soils. We test this hypothesis with a numerical model, parameterized with measurements of soil transport by gophers from a California mound field, that couples animal behavior with geomorphic processes. The model successfully simulates the development of the mounds as well as key details such as the creation of vernal pools, small intermound basins that provide habitat for endemic species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spatial structure of the modeled mound fields is similar to actual mound fields and provides an example of self-organized topographic features. We conclude that, scaled by body mass, Mima mounds are the largest structures built by nonhuman mammals and may provide a rare example of an evolutionary coupling between landforms and the organisms that create them.

  9. Biotic Origin for Mima Mounds Supported by Numerical Model

    Gabet, E. J.; Perron, J.; Johnson, D. L.


    Mima mounds are ~1-m-high hillocks found on every continent except Antarctica. Despite often numbering in the millions within a single field, their origin has been a mystery, with proposed explanations ranging from glacial processes to seismic shaking. One hypothesis proposes that mounds in North America are built by burrowing mammals to provide refuge from seasonally saturated soils. We test this hypothesis with a numerical model, parameterized with measurements of soil transport by gophers from a California mound field, that couples animal behavior with geomorphic processes. The model successfully simulates the development of the mounds, as well as key details such as the creation of vernal pools, small intermound basins that provide habitat for endemic species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spatial structure of the modeled mound fields is similar to actual mound fields and provides an example of self-organized topographic features. We conclude that, scaled by body mass, Mima mounds are the largest structures built by non-human mammals, and may provide a rare example of an evolutionary coupling between landforms and the organisms that create them.

  10. On numerical modelling of contact lines in fluid flows

    Pelinovsky, Dmitry E


    We study numerically a reduced model proposed by Benilov and Vynnycky (J. Fluid Mech. 718 (2013), 481), who examined the behavior of a contact line with a 180-degree contact angle between liquid and a moving plate, in the context of a two-dimensional Couette flow. The model is given by a linear fourth-order advection-diffusion equation with an unknown velocity, which is to be determined dynamically from an additional boundary condition at the contact line. The main claim of Benilov and Vynnycky is that for any physically relevant initial condition, there is a finite positive time at which the velocity of the contact line tends to negative infinity, whereas the profile of the fluid flow remains regular. Additionally, it is claimed that the velocity behaves as the logarithmic function of time near the blow-up time. We simulate dynamics of this model under different initial conditions and confirm the first claim. However, we also show that the blow-up behavior is better approximated by a power function, compared...

  11. Numerical Simulations of Separated Flows Using Wall-Modeled LES

    Vane, Zachary; Ortega, Jason; Salari, Kambiz


    Calculations using an unstructured, wall-modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) solver are performed for several high Reynolds number test cases of interest. While the equilibrium formulation of this wall-model (Bodart, Larsson & Moin, AIAA 2013-2724) has proven to be accurate for steady, attached boundary layers, its application to non-equilibrium or highly three-dimensional problems has yet to be fully explored. A series of turbulent flows that exhibit boundary layer separation due to the geometries involved in each test case are considered. First, spanwise-periodic simulations for the flow over periodic hills are performed at multiple Reynolds numbers. Next, calculations involving separation caused by three-dimensional bodies are used to generate more complex flow fields and to evaluate the accuracy of the WMLES in the separated wake region downstream. The performance of the WMLES is quantified through comparisons with existing numerical and experimental data sets. The effects of grid resolution and variations in several wall-model parameters are also investigated to determine their influence on the overall calculation.

  12. Numerical modeling of higher order magnetic moments in UXO discrimination

    Sanchez, V.; Yaoguo, L.; Nabighian, M.N.; Wright, D.L.


    The surface magnetic anomaly observed in unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance is mainly dipolar, and consequently, the dipole is the only magnetic moment regularly recovered in UXO discrimination. The dipole moment contains information about the intensity of magnetization but lacks information about the shape of the target. In contrast, higher order moments, such as quadrupole and octupole, encode asymmetry properties of the magnetization distribution within the buried targets. In order to improve our understanding of magnetization distribution within UXO and non-UXO objects and to show its potential utility in UXO clearance, we present a numerical modeling study of UXO and related metallic objects. The tool for the modeling is a nonlinear integral equation describing magnetization within isolated compact objects of high susceptibility. A solution for magnetization distribution then allows us to compute the magnetic multipole moments of the object, analyze their relationships, and provide a depiction of the anomaly produced by different moments within the object. Our modeling results show the presence of significant higher order moments for more asymmetric objects, and the fields of these higher order moments are well above the noise level of magnetic gradient data. The contribution from higher order moments may provide a practical tool for improved UXO discrimination. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  13. Numerical Study of Wind Turbine Wake Modeling Based on a Actuator Surface Model

    Zhou, Huai-yang; Xu, Chang; Han, Xing Xing


    In the Actuator Surface Model (ALM), the turbine blades are represented by porous surfaces of velocity and pressure discontinuities to model the action of lifting surfaces on the flow. The numerical simulation is implemented on FLUENT platform combined with N-S equations. This model is improved...

  14. Experimental validation of a numerical model for subway induced vibrations

    Gupta, S.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.


    This paper presents the experimental validation of a coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model for the prediction of subway induced vibrations. The model fully accounts for the dynamic interaction between the train, the track, the tunnel and the soil. The periodicity or invariance of the tunnel and the soil in the longitudinal direction is exploited using the Floquet transformation, which allows for an efficient formulation in the frequency-wavenumber domain. A general analytical formulation is used to compute the response of three-dimensional invariant or periodic media that are excited by moving loads. The numerical model is validated by means of several experiments that have been performed at a site in Regent's Park on the Bakerloo line of London Underground. Vibration measurements have been performed on the axle boxes of the train, on the rail, the tunnel invert and the tunnel wall, and in the free field, both at the surface and at a depth of 15 m. Prior to these vibration measurements, the dynamic soil characteristics and the track characteristics have been determined. The Bakerloo line tunnel of London Underground has been modelled using the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element approach and free field vibrations due to the passage of a train at different speeds have been predicted and compared to the measurements. The correspondence between the predicted and measured response in the tunnel is reasonably good, although some differences are observed in the free field. The discrepancies are explained on the basis of various uncertainties involved in the problem. The variation in the response with train speed is similar for the measurements as well as the predictions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model to make realistic predictions of the vibrations from underground railways.

  15. Numerical modelling of an oil spill in the northern Adriatic

    Marin Paladin


    Full Text Available Hypothetical cases of oil spills, caused by ship failure in the northern Adriatic, are analysed with the aim of producing three-dimensional models of sea circulation and oil contaminant transport. Sea surface elevations, sea temperature and salinity fields are applied as a forcing argument on the model's open boundaries.The Aladin-HR model with a spatial resolution of 8 km and a time interval of 3 hours is used for atmospheric forcing. River discharges along the coastline in question are introduced as point source terms and are assumed to have zero salinity at their respective locations. The results of the numerical modelling of physical oceanography parameters are validated by measurements carried out in the ‘Adriatic Sea monitoring programme’ in a series of current meter and CTD stations in the period from 1 January 2008 to 15 November 2008.The oil spill model uses the current field obtained from a circulation model.Besides the convective dispersive transport of oil pollution (Lagrangian model of discrete particles, the model takes into account a number of reactive processes such as emulsification, dissolution, evaporation and heat balance between the oil,sea and atmosphere. An actual event took place on 6 February 2008,when the ship `Und Adriyatik' caught fire in the vicinity of the town of Rovinj (Croatia en route from Istanbul (Turkey to Trieste (Italy. At the time the fire broke out, the ship was carrying around 800 tons of oil. Thanks to the rapid intervention of the firedepartment, the fire was extinguished during the following 12 hours,preventing possible catastrophic environmental consequences. Based on this occurrence, five hypothetical scenarios of ship failure with a consequent spill of 800 tons of oil over 12 hours were analysed. The main distinction between the simulated scenarios is the time of the start of the oil spill, corresponding to the times when stronger winds were blowing (>7 m s-1 with a minimum duration of 24 h

  16. Seismicity and fluid injections: numerical modelling of fault activation

    Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G.; Bean, C.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S.


    Injection of fluid into the subsurface is a common technique and is used to optimise returns from hydrocarbon plays (e.g. enhanced oil recovery, hydrofacturing of shales) and geothermal sites as well as for the sequestering carbon dioxide. While it is well understood that stress perturbations caused by fluid injections can induce/trigger earthquakes; the modelling of such hazard is still in its infancy. By combining fluid flow and seismicity simulations we have created a numerical model for investigating induced seismicity over large time periods so that we might examine the role of operational and geological factors in seismogenesis around a sub-surface fluid injection. In our model, fluid injection is simulated using pore fluid movement throughout a permeable layer from a high-pressure point source using a lattice Boltzmann scheme. We can accommodate complicated geological structures in our simulations. Seismicity is modelled using a quasi-dynamic relationship between stress and slip coupled with a rate-and state friction law. By spatially varying the frictional parameters, the model can reproduce both seismic and aseismic slip. Static stress perturbations (due to either to fault cells slipping or fluid injection) are calculated using analytical solutions for slip dislocations/pressure changes in an elastic half space. An adaptive time step is used in order to increase computational efficiency and thus allow us to model hundreds of years of seismicity. As a case study, we investigate the role that relative fault - injection location plays in seismic activity. To do this we created three synthetic catalogues with only the relative location of the fault from the point of injection varying between the models. In our control model there is no injection meaning it contains only tectonically triggered events. In the other two catalogues, the injection site is placed below and adjacent to the fault respectively. The injection itself is into a permeable thin planar layer

  17. Dispersion of conservative properties for SGD effects by numerical modeling

    Gallegos, G.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.


    The submarine groundwater discharges around de coasts of theYucatán Peninsula are very common because of its karstic nature. These discharges of fresh water into the sea can change the thermohaline conditions of the region. There are several studies that demonstrate that point submarine groundwater discharges can change the superficial temperature and haline conditions near the point-SGD. Furthermore, there is evidence that considerable concentrations of nutrients are transported to the sea via SGDs. In order to quantify the area of influence of a point-SGD and the ability of the coastal system to dissipate the ground water, this study presents a numerical simulation of a point-SGD on the north coast of Yucatán, Dzilam Bravo. Teh flow recorded for this SGD is ~1m^3/s and it is located 200m offshore in waters of less than 2m detph.. The numerical simulation was carried out in the model DELFT-3D which has been calibrated with water level and hydrodynamics data for the region with a grid of 486 x 243 nodes that cover an area of 6 km alongshore by 2 km crosshore with a resolution of 14 m. Three ideal numerical scenarios were simulated: only wind forcing, only tidal forcing and wind-tide forcing. The real cases are for two different wind conditions, the first is a southeast wind, and the second is a breeze with an easterly component; the dominant winds in the region are easterly. Seasonal variation was also simulated; the two conditions that exist in the region are the rainy and dry seasons. The extreme events of ENSO and northerly storms locally known as "nortes" were also simulated. The results of the ideal set of scenarios shows wind as the principal forcing for dispersion and it governs the direction of the salinity gradient. The seasonal variations show that the area of influence in terms of salinity is also a function of the contrast between fresh and sea water, and finally the set of extreme condition simulations shows, in case of the northerly storms, that the

  18. Stratified flows with variable density: mathematical modelling and numerical challenges.

    Murillo, Javier; Navas-Montilla, Adrian


    Stratified flows appear in a wide variety of fundamental problems in hydrological and geophysical sciences. They may involve from hyperconcentrated floods carrying sediment causing collapse, landslides and debris flows, to suspended material in turbidity currents where turbulence is a key process. Also, in stratified flows variable horizontal density is present. Depending on the case, density varies according to the volumetric concentration of different components or species that can represent transported or suspended materials or soluble substances. Multilayer approaches based on the shallow water equations provide suitable models but are not free from difficulties when moving to the numerical resolution of the governing equations. Considering the variety of temporal and spatial scales, transfer of mass and energy among layers may strongly differ from one case to another. As a consequence, in order to provide accurate solutions, very high order methods of proved quality are demanded. Under these complex scenarios it is necessary to observe that the numerical solution provides the expected order of accuracy but also converges to the physically based solution, which is not an easy task. To this purpose, this work will focus in the use of Energy balanced augmented solvers, in particular, the Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. References: J. Murillo , P. García-Navarro, Wave Riemann description of friction terms in unsteady shallow flows: Application to water and mud/debris floods. J. Comput. Phys. 231 (2012) 1963-2001. J. Murillo B. Latorre, P. García-Navarro. A Riemann solver for unsteady computation of 2D shallow flows with variable density. J. Comput. Phys.231 (2012) 4775-4807. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Energy balanced numerical schemes with very high order. The Augmented Roe Flux ADER scheme. Application to the shallow water equations, J. Comput. Phys. 290 (2015) 188-218. A. Navas-Montilla, J. Murillo, Asymptotically and exactly energy balanced augmented flux

  19. Numerical Modeling of Tube Forming by HPTR Cold Pilgering Process

    Sornin, D.; Pachón-Rodríguez, E. A.; Vanegas-Márquez, E.; Mocellin, K.; Logé, R.


    For new fast-neutron sodium-cooled Generation IV nuclear reactors, the candidate cladding materials for the very strong burn-up are ferritic and martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened grades. Classically, the cladding tube is cold formed by a sequence of cold pilger milling passes with intermediate heat treatments. This process acts upon the geometry and the microstructure of the tubes. Consequently, crystallographic texture, grain sizes and morphologies, and tube integrity are highly dependent on the pilgering parameters. In order to optimize the resulting mechanical properties of cold-rolled cladding tubes, it is essential to have a thorough understanding of the pilgering process. Finite Element Method (FEM) models are used for the numerical predictions of this task; however, the accuracy of the numerical predictions depends not only on the type of constitutive laws but also on the quality of the material parameters identification. Therefore, a Chaboche-type law which parameters have been identified on experimental observation of the mechanical behavior of the material is used here. As a complete three-dimensional FEM mechanical analysis of the high-precision tube rolling (HPTR) cold pilgering of tubes could be very expensive, only the evolution of geometry and deformation is addressed in this work. The computed geometry is compared to the experimental one. It is shown that the evolution of the geometry and deformation is not homogeneous over the circumference. Moreover, it is exposed that the strain is nonhomogeneous in the radial, tangential, and axial directions. Finally, it is seen that the dominant deformation mode of a material point evolves during HPTR cold pilgering forming.

  20. Physical and numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo


    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a worldwide problem caused, among others factors, by aquifer overexploitation, rising sea levels, and climate changes. To limit the deterioration of both surface water and groundwater quality caused by saline intrusion, in recent years many research studies have been developed to identify possible countermeasures, mainly consisting of underground barriers. In this context, physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of general solutions to contain the salt wedge. This work presents a laboratory experiment where seawater intrusion was reproduced in a specifically designed sand-box. The physical model, built at the University of Padova, represents the terminal part of a coastal aquifer and consists of a flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 49 cm with glass beads characterized by a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10 ≈ 1.5. The resulting porous media is homogeneous, with porosity of about 0.37 and hydraulic conductivity of about 1.3×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank filled by freshwater provides the recharge to the aquifer. The downstream tank simulates the sea and red food dye is added to the saltwater to easily visualize the salt wedge. The volume of the downstream tank is about five times the upstream one, and, due to the small filtration discharge, salt concentration variations (i.e., water density variations) due to the incoming freshwater flow are negligible. The hydraulic gradient during the tests is constant, due to the fixed water level in the two tanks. Water levels and discharged flow rate are continuously monitored. The experiment presented here had a duration of 36 h. For the first 24 h, the saltwater wedge was let to evolve until quasi stationary condition was obtained. In the last 12 h, water withdrawal was carried out at a

  1. Thinning factor distributions viewed through numerical models of continental extension

    Svartman Dias, Anna Eliza; Hayman, Nicholas W.; Lavier, Luc L.


    A long-standing question surrounding rifted margins concerns how the observed fault-restored extension in the upper crust is usually less than that calculated from subsidence models or from crustal thickness estimates, the so-called "extension discrepancy." Here we revisit this issue drawing on recently completed numerical results. We extract thinning profiles from four end-member geodynamic model rifts with varying width and asymmetry and propose tectonic models that best explain those results. We then relate the spatial and temporal evolution of upper to lower crustal thinning, or crustal depth-dependent thinning (DDT), and crustal thinning to mantle thinning, or lithospheric DDT, which are difficult to achieve in natural systems due to the lack of observations that constrain thinning at different stages between prerift extension and lithospheric breakup. Our results support the hypothesis that crustal DDT cannot be the main cause of the extension discrepancy, which may be overestimated because of the difficulty in recognizing distributed deformation, and polyphase and detachment faulting in seismic data. More importantly, the results support that lithospheric DDT is likely to dominate at specific stages of rift evolution because crustal and mantle thinning distributions are not always spatially coincident and at times are not even balanced by an equal magnitude of thinning in two dimensions. Moreover, either pure or simple shear models can apply at various points of time and space depending on the type of rift. Both DDT and pure/simple shear variations across space and time can result in observed complex fault geometries, uplift/subsidence, and thermal histories.

  2. Numerical Study of the Simplest String Bit Model

    Chen, Gaoli


    String bit models provide a possible method to formulate string as a discrete chain of point-like string bits. When the bit number $M$ is large, a chain behaves as a continuous string. We study the simplest case that has only one bosonic bit and one fermionic bit. The creation and annihilation operators are adjoint representations of $U\\left(N\\right)$ color group. We show that the supersymmetry reduces the parameter number of a Hamiltonian from seven to three and, at $N=\\infty$, ensures continuous energy spectrum, which implies the emergence of one spatial dimension. The Hamiltonian $H_{0}$ is constructed so that in large $N$ limit it produces a worldsheet spectrum with one grassmann worldsheet field. We concentrate on numerical study of the model in finite $N$. For the Hamiltonian $H_{0}$, we find that the would-be ground energy states disappear at $N=\\left(M-1\\right)/2$ for odd $M\\leq11$. Such a simple pattern is spoiled if $H$ has an additional term $\\xi\\Delta H$ which does not affect the result of $N=\\inf...

  3. The numerical modelling of a driven nonlinear oscillator

    Shew, C.


    The torsional oscillator in the Earth Sciences Division was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is the only one of its kind. It was developed to study the way rocks damp vibrations. Small rock samples are tested to determine the seismic properties of rocks, but unlike other traditional methods that propagate high frequency waves through small samples, this machine forces the sample to vibrate at low frequencies, which better models real-life properties of large masses. In this particular case, the rock sample is tested with a small crack in its middle. This forces the rock to twist against itself, causing a {open_quotes}stick-slip{close_quotes} friction, known as stiction. A numerical model that simulates the forced torsional osillations of the machine is currently being developed. The computer simulation implements the graphical language LabVIEW, and is looking at the nonlinear spring effects, the frictional forces, and the changes in amplitude and frequency of the forced vibration. Using LabVIEW allows for quick prototyping and greatly reduces the {open_quotes}time to product{close_quotes} factor. LabVIEW`s graphical environment allows scientists and engineers to use familiar terminology and icons (e.g. knobs, switches, graphs, etc.). Unlike other programming systems that use text-based languages, such as C and Basic, LabVIEW uses a graphical programming language to create programs in block diagram form.

  4. A numerical model of localized convection cells of Euglena suspensions

    Iima, Makoto; Shoji, Erika; Yamaguchi, Takayuki


    Suspension of Euglena gracilis shows localized convection cells when it is illuminated form below with strong light intensity. Experiments in an annular container shows that there are two elementary localized structures. One consists of a pair of convection cells and a single region where number density of Euglena is high. The other consists a localized traveling wave. Based on the measurements of the flux of number density, we propose a model of bioconvection incorporating lateral phototaxis effect proportional to the light intensity gradient. Using pseudo spectral method, we performed numerical simulation of this model. We succeed in reproducing one of the localized structures, a convection pair with single region of high number density. Also, when the aspect ratio is large, there are a parameter region where the localized structure and conductive state are both stable, which is suggested by experiments. Spatial distribution of the number density implies that the accumulation of microorganism due to the convective flow causes such bistability. CREST(PJ74100011) and KAKENHI(26400396).

  5. Numerical study on the perception-based network formation model

    Jo, Hang-Hyun


    In order to understand the evolution of social networks in terms of perception-based strategic link formation, we numerically study a perception-based network formation model. Here each individual is assumed to have his/her own perception of the actual network, and use it to decide whether to create a link to other individual. An individual with the least perception accuracy can benefit from updating his/her perception using that of the most accurate individual via a new link. This benefit is compared to the cost of linking in decision making. Once a new link is created, it affects the accuracies of other individuals' perceptions, leading to a further evolution of the actual network. The initial actual network and initial perceptions are modeled by Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi random networks but with different linking probabilities. Then the stable link density of the actual network is found to show discontinuous transitions or jumps according to the cost of linking. The effect of initial conditions on the complexity o...

  6. Numerical modeling of a compressible multiphase flow through a nozzle

    Niedzielska, Urszula; Rabinovitch, Jason; Blanquart, Guillaume


    New thermodynamic cycles developed for more efficient low temperature resource utilization can increase the net power production from geothermal resources and sensible waste heat recovery by 20-40%, compared to the traditional organic Rankine cycle. These improved systems consist of a pump, a liquid heat exchanger, a two-phase turbine, and a condenser. The two-phase turbine is used to extract energy from a high speed multiphase fluid and consists of a nozzle and an axial impulse rotor. In order to model and optimize the fluid flow through this part of the system an analysis of two-phase flow through a specially designed convergent-divergent nozzle has to be conducted. To characterize the flow behavior, a quasi-one-dimensional steady-state model of the multiphase fluid flow through a nozzle has been constructed. A numerical code capturing dense compressible multiphase flow under subsonic and supersonic conditions and the coupling between both liquid and gas phases has been developed. The output of the code delivers data vital for the performance optimization of the two-phase nozzle.

  7. Numerical modeling of seismic waves using frequency-adaptive meshes

    Hu, Jinyin; Jia, Xiaofeng


    An improved modeling algorithm using frequency-adaptive meshes is applied to meet the computational requirements of all seismic frequency components. It automatically adopts coarse meshes for low-frequency computations and fine meshes for high-frequency computations. The grid intervals are adaptively calculated based on a smooth inversely proportional function of grid size with respect to the frequency. In regular grid-based methods, the uniform mesh or non-uniform mesh is used for frequency-domain wave propagators and it is fixed for all frequencies. A too coarse mesh results in inaccurate high-frequency wavefields and unacceptable numerical dispersion; on the other hand, an overly fine mesh may cause storage and computational overburdens as well as invalid propagation angles of low-frequency wavefields. Experiments on the Padé generalized screen propagator indicate that the Adaptive mesh effectively solves these drawbacks of regular fixed-mesh methods, thus accurately computing the wavefield and its propagation angle in a wide frequency band. Several synthetic examples also demonstrate its feasibility for seismic modeling and migration.

  8. Explicit Numerical Modeling of Heat Transfer in Glacial Channels

    Jarosch, A. H.; Zwinger, T.


    Turbulent flow and heat transfer of water in englacial channels is explicitly modelelled and the numerical results are compared to the most commonly used heat transfer parameterization in glaciology, i.e. the Dittus-Boelter equation. The three-dimensional flow is simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations utilizing a variational multiscale method (VMS) turbulence model and the finite-element method (i.e. Elmer-FEM software), which also solves the heat equation. By studying a wide range of key parameters of the system, e.g. channel diameter, Reynolds number, water flux, water temperature and Darcy-Weisbach wall roughness (which is explicitly represented on the wall geometry), it is found that the Dittus-Boelter equation is inadequate for glaciological applications and a new, highly suitable heat transfer parameterization for englacial/subglacial channels will be presented. This new parameterization utilizes a standard combination of dimensionless numbers describing the flow and channel (i.e. Reynolds number, Prandtl number and Darcy-Weisbach roughness) to predict a suitable Nusselt number describing the effective heat transfer and thus can be readily used in existing englacial/subglacial hydrology models.

  9. Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads

    White, M J; Brueck, H D; 10.1063/1.4706965


    Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world, however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. The XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) magnets are operated at 2 K, which makes vapor-cooled current leads impractical due to the sub-atmospheric bath pressure. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal inte...

  10. Thermal numerical modeling of transmission tower foundations in northern Manitoba

    Kurz, D.; Alfaro, M. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Bannister, K. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Geotechnical Engineering Dept.


    Structural foundations in cold climates must extend below depths of expected frost penetration to protect against frost heaving. The Radisson-Churchill transmission line is the most northern line constructed by Manitoba Hydro. The transmission line crosses areas of both discontinuous and continuous permafrost. This study focused on potential permafrost degradation in the foundations of the power transmission towers. The thermal effectiveness of the foundation design was investigated through numerical modeling of the thermal effects of climate on the transmission tower foundations. The study showed that changing ground cover affects the thermal regime and may cause permafrost degradation. This may lead to reduced bearing capacity for structures, lateral spreading of embankments, and large settlements. Manitoba Hydro successfully used synthetic foundations insulated with polystyrene geofoam for the towers in order to reduce permafrost degradation in the foundations in the warmer southern portions of the transmission line. The geofoam was also used to help prevent frost heaving in the colder northern portions. As part of the thermal monitoring program, ground temperatures were monitored from 1987-1990. Recent studies have improved the understanding of the performance of geofoam insulated foundations. The results from this study will be expanded in future studies to include effects of groundwater and settlements in the development of an elastic thermo-plastic model. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  11. Numerical models of trench migration in continental collision zones

    V. Magni


    Full Text Available Continental collision is an intrinsic feature of plate tectonics. The closure of an oceanic basin leads to the onset of subduction of buoyant continental material, which slows down and eventually stops the subduction process. We perform a parametric study of the geometrical and rheological influence on subduction dynamics during the subduction of continental lithosphere. In 2-D numerical models of a free subduction system with temperature and stress-dependent rheology, the trench and the overriding plate move self-consistently as a function of the dynamics of the system (i.e. no external forces are imposed. This setup enables to study how continental subduction influences the trench migration. We found that in all models the trench starts to advance once the continent enters the subduction zone and continues to migrate until few million years after the ultimate slab detachment. Our results support the idea that the trench advancing is favoured and, in part provided by, the intrinsic force balance of continental collision. We suggest that the trench advance is first induced by the locking of the subduction zone and the subsequent steepening of the slab, and next by the sinking of the deepest oceanic part of the slab, during stretching and break-off of the slab. The amount of trench advancing ranges from 40 to 220 km and depends on the dip angle of the slab before the onset of collision.

  12. A numerical model for thermal energy storage systems utilising encapsulated phase change materials

    Jacob, Rhys; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank


    In an effort to reduce the cost of thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power plants, a thermocline storage concept was investigated. Two systems were investigated being a sensible-only and an encapsulated phase change system. Both systems have the potential to reduce the storage tank volume and/or reduce the cost of the filler material, thereby reducing the cost of the system when compared to current two-tank molten salt systems. The objective of the current paper is to create a numerical model capable of designing and simulating the aforementioned thermocline storage concepts in the open source programming language known as Python. The results of the current study are compared to previous numerical results and are found to be in good agreement.


    张洪武; 韩炜; 陈金涛; 段庆林


    Two kinds of variational principles for numerical simulation of heat transfer and contact analyses are respectively presented. A finite element model for numerical simulation of the thermal contact problems is developed with a pressure dependent heat transfer constitutive model across the contact surface. The numerical algorithm for the finite element analysis of the thermomechanical contact problems is thus developed. Numerical examples are computed and the results demonstrate the validity of the model and algorithm developed.

  14. Numerical modeling of manufacturing process of corrugated plate

    Khodos Ol'ga Aleksandrovna


    Full Text Available The rigidity increase of structures consisting of plates and shells is a relevant task. One way to obtain plates with enhanced stiffness performance is the corrugation, i.e. change of its topography elevation. Depending on the method, corrugation provides a plate with additional rigidity in one or several directions without weight gain. The most common way to get corrugated plates is pressure forming. The problem of finding the most energy saving method is very relevant. In this regard, a possible approach is to use buckling of thin cylinder. The idea of this technique comes from the fact that as a result of stability loss of cylindrical shell in compression along its elements, the cylinder walls are deformed periodically. The article considers the problem of corrugated plates manufacturing using smooth sheet metal. The method of manufacture is based on irreversible process of cylindrical buckling of a shell previously obtained from a worksheet. Such a deformation process may be useful if the energy spent on its implementation is smaller than the energy in standard process of forming. The task of defining the stiffness of a corrugated plate is quite difficult because it is difficult to experimentally measure the tension, bending and coupled stiffness. The numerical simulation of three ways to manufacture corrugated cylindrical shell made of smooth sheet by elastic-plastic deformation process are offered: the first way is to deform the cylindrical shell under the action of axial load on the butt end, and the second way is the influence of strutting internal pressure. In the third way the cylindrical shell is made of the leaf using the special techniques. In order to compare the effectiveness of the options presented for each case the internal energy is calculated. It is shown that the energy expenditure in buckling method is the smallest.

  15. Characteristic times in the English Channel from numerical modelling: supporting decision-making

    Perianez, R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 1, Universidad de Sevilla, EUITA, Carretera Utrera km 1, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Miro, C [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    A numerical model that simulates the dispersion of radionuclides in the English Channel has been applied to study the dispersion of conservative and non-conservative radionuclides released from the La Hague nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The model is based upon previous work and now is able to simulate dispersion over long timescales (decades), explicitly including transport by instantaneous tidal currents and variable wind conditions. Wind conditions are obtained from meteorological statistics using a stochastic method. Outputs from the model are treated using time-series analysis techniques. These techniques allow the determination of characteristic times of the system, transport velocities and dispersion factors. This information may be very useful to support the decision-making process after an emergency situation. Thus, we are proposing that time-series analysis can be integrated with numerical modelling for helping decision-making in response to an accident. The model is first validated through its application to actual releases of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}Sb, comparing measured and computed concentrations, and characteristic times for three radionuclides are given next: a perfectly conservative one, a very reactive one ({sup 239,240}Pu) and {sup 137}Cs, which has an intermediate behaviour. Characteristic transport velocities and dispersion factors have been calculated as well. Model results are supported by experimental evidence.

  16. Ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes - insights from numerical modeling

    Burjanek, Jan; Kleinbrod, Ulrike; Fäh, Donat


    The recent events in Nepal (2015 M7.8 Gorkha) and New Zealand (2016 M7.8 Kaikoura) highlighted the importance of earthquake-induced landslides, which caused significant damages. Moreover, landslide created dams present a potential developing hazard. In order to reduce the costly consequences of such events it is important to detect and characterize earthquake susceptible rock slope instabilities before an event, and to take mitigation measures. For the characterisation of instable slopes, acquisition of ambient vibrations might be a new alternative to the already existing methods. We present both observations and 3D numerical simulations of the ambient vibrations of unstable slopes. In particular, models of representative real sites have been developed based on detailed terrain mapping and used for the comparison between synthetics and observations. A finite-difference code has been adopted for the seismic wave propagation in a 3D inhomogeneous visco-elastic media with irregular free surface. It utilizes a curvilinear grid for a precise modeling of curved topography and local mesh refinement to make computational mesh finer near the free surface. Topographic site effects, controlled merely by the shape of the topography, do not explain the observed seismic response. In contrast, steeply-dipping compliant fractures have been found to play a key role in fitting observations. Notably, the synthetized response is controlled by inertial mass of the unstable rock, and by stiffness, depth and network density of the fractures. The developed models fit observed extreme amplification levels (factors of 70!) and show directionality as well. This represents a possibility to characterize slope structure and infer depth or volume of the slope instability from the ambient noise recordings in the future.


    Jens R.VALEUR; Steen LOMHOLT; Christian KNUDSEN


    A fixed link (tunnel and bridge,in total 16 km) was constructed between Sweden and Denmark during 1995-2000.As part of the work,approximately 16 million tonnes of seabed materials (limestone and clay till) were dredged,and about 0.6 million tonnes of these were spilled in the water.Modelling of the spreading and sedimentation of the spilled sediments took place as part of the environmental monitoring of the construction activities.In order to verify the results of the numerical modelling of sediment spreading and sedimentation,a new method with the purpose of distinguishing between the spilled sediments and the naturally occurring sediments was developed.Because the spilled sediments tend to accumulate at the seabed in areas with natural sediments of the same size,it is difficult to separate these based purely on the physical properties.The new method is based on the geo-chemical differences between the natural sediment in the area and the spill.The basic properties used are the higher content of calcium carbonate material in the spill as compared to the natural sediments and the higher Ca/Sr ratio in the spill compared to shell fragments dominating the natural calcium carbonate deposition in the area.The reason for these differences is that carbonate derived from recent shell debris can be discriminated from Danien limestone,which is the material in which the majority of the dredging took place,on the basis of the Ca/Sr ratio being 488 in Danien Limestone and 237 in shell debris.The geochemical recognition of the origin of the sediments proved useful in separating the spilled from the naturally occurring sediments.Without this separation,validation of the modelling of accumulation of spilled sediments would not have been possible.The method has general validity and can be used in many situations where the origin ora given sediment is sought.

  18. Numerical modelling of granular flows: a reality check

    Windows-Yule, C. R. K.; Tunuguntla, D. R.; Parker, D. J.


    Discrete particle simulations provide a powerful tool for the advancement of our understanding of granular media, and the development and refinement of the multitudinous techniques used to handle and process these ubiquitous materials. However, in order to ensure that this tool can be successfully utilised in a meaningful and reliable manner, it is of paramount importance that we fully understand the degree to which numerical models can be trusted to accurately and quantitatively recreate and predict the behaviours of the real-world systems they are designed to emulate. Due to the complexity and diverse variety of physical states and dynamical behaviours exhibited by granular media, a simulation algorithm capable of closely reproducing the behaviours of a given system may be entirely unsuitable for other systems with different physical properties, or even similar systems exposed to differing control parameters. In this paper, we focus on two widely used forms of granular flow, for which discrete particle simulations are shown to provide a full, quantitative replication of the behaviours of real industrial and experimental systems. We identify also situations for which quantitative agreement may fail are identified, but important general, qualitative trends are still recreated, as well as cases for which computational models are entirely unsuitable. By assembling this information into a single document, we hope not only to provide researchers with a useful point of reference when designing and executing future studies, but also to equip those involved in the design of simulation algorithms with a clear picture of the current strengths and shortcomings of contemporary models, and hence an improved knowledge of the most valuable areas on which to focus their work.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis in a Drosophila model identifies previously implicated and novel pathways in the therapeutic mechanism in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Priyanka eSingh


    Full Text Available We have taken advantage of a newly described Drosophila model to gain insights into the potential mechanism of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, a group of drugs that are widely used in the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric conditions besides epilepsy. In the recently described Drosophila model that is inspired by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced kindling epileptogenesis in rodents, chronic PTZ treatment for seven days causes a decreased climbing speed and an altered CNS transcriptome, with the latter mimicking gene expression alterations reported in epileptogenesis. In the model, an increased climbing speed is further observed seven days after withdrawal from chronic PTZ. We used this post-PTZ withdrawal regime to identify potential AED mechanism. In this regime, treatment with each of the five AEDs tested, namely, ethosuximide (ETH, gabapentin (GBP, vigabatrin (VGB, sodium valproate (NaVP and levetiracetam (LEV, resulted in rescuing of the altered climbing behavior. The AEDs also normalized PTZ withdrawal induced transcriptomic perturbation in fly heads; whereas AED untreated flies showed a large number of up- and down-regulated genes which were enriched in several processes including gene expression and cell communication, the AED treated flies showed differential expression of only a small number of genes that did not enrich gene expression and cell communication processes. Gene expression and cell communication related upregulated genes in AED untreated flies overrepresented several pathways - spliceosome, RNA degradation, and ribosome in the former category, and inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signaling, endocytosis and hedgehog signaling in the latter. Transcriptome remodeling effect of AEDs was overall confirmed by microarray clustering that clearly separated the profiles of AED treated and untreated flies. Besides being consistent with previously implicated pathways, our results provide evidence for a role of

  20. Micro-macro models for viscoelastic fluids:modelling,mathematics and numerics

    LE; BRIS; Claude; LELIVRE; Tony


    This paper is an introduction to the modelling of viscoelastic fluids,with an emphasis on micromacro(or multiscale) models.Some elements of mathematical and numerical analysis are provided.These notes closely follow the lectures delivered by the second author at the Chinese Academy of Science during the Workshop "Stress Tensor E?ects on Fluid Mechanics" in January 2010.